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Sample records for cormorant phalacrocorax auritus

  1. Microsatellite DNA mutations in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) associated with exposure to PAH-containing industrial air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L E; de Solla, S R; Small, J M; Sverko, E; Quinn, J S

    2014-10-07

    Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada is one of the most polluted sites on the Great Lakes, and is subject to substantial airborne pollution due to emissions from both heavy industry and intense vehicle traffic. Mutagenic Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present at very high concentrations in the air and sediment of Hamilton Harbour. We used five variable DNA microsatellites to screen for mutations in 97 families of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from three wild colonies, two in Hamilton Harbour and one in cleaner northeastern Lake Erie. Mutations were identified in all five microsatellites at low frequencies, with the majority of mutations found in chicks from the Hamilton Harbour site closest to industrial sources of PAH contamination. Microsatellite mutation rates were 6-fold higher at the Hamilton Harbour site closest to the industrial sources of PAH contamination than the other Hamilton Harbour site, and both were higher than the reference colony. A Phase I metabolite of the PAH benzo[a]pyrene identified by LC-MS/MS in bile and liver from Hamilton Harbour cormorant chicks suggests that these cormorants are exposed to and metabolizing PAHs, highlighting their potential to have caused the observed mutations.

  2. Effect of in ovo exposure to an organochlorine mixture extracted from double crested cormorant eggs (Phalacrocorax auritus) and PCB 126 on immune function of juvenile chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, E.T.; Wiley, F.; Grasman, K.A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Sikarskie, J.G.; Bowerman, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) have been associated with immune modulation in wild fish-eating birds from the Great Lakes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immune function of juvenile chickens after in ovo exposure to PCB 126 or an environmentally relevant OC mixture extracted from eggs of double crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA. Fertile white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) eggs were injected before incubation with 0.55-1.79 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/egg PCB 126 and 1.2-4.9 ng TEQs/egg of cormorant egg extract into the air cell in two separate experiments. After hatching, the immune function was tested using in vivo phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response in 11-day-old chicks, antibody titers to immunization with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in 28-day-old chicks, and, at necropsy, thymus and bursal mass and cellularity. PCB 126 decreased antibody titers at all doses and decreased the thymus and bursa index but not cellularity at 1.79 ng TEQ/egg. The cormorant egg extract caused no significant alterations in immune function even though it has been demonstrated as immunotoxic in chicken embryos. However, twofold to threefold increases in total anti-SRBC titers in 28-day-old chicks exposed to 1.2 or 2.4 ng TEQ/egg of cormorant extract were similar to elevations in anti-SRBC titer observed in Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) chicks from a highly OC-contaminated site in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Posthatch exposure to OC through fish consumption in addition to in ovo OC exposure might be associated with the immune modulation reported in wild birds. Chicks in this study might have begun to compensate for embryonic immunotoxicity by the ages at which we studied them. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  3. A new species of Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from the double-crested cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus (Lesson) (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae)/nin North America

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudlai, O.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pulis, E.E.; Tkach, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2015), s. 221-230 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : neotropical cormorant * birds * trematodes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2015

  4. Weathered MC252 crude oil-induced anemia and abnormal erythroid morphology in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) with light microscopic and ultrastructural description of Heinz bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Kendal E; Cunningham, Fred L; Pritsos, Chris A; Pritsos, Karen L; Muthumalage, Thivanka; Dorr, Brian S; Horak, Katherine E; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C; Dean, Karen M; Cacela, Dave; McFadden, Andrew K; Link, Jane E; Healy, Katherine A; Tuttle, Pete; Bursian, Steven J

    2017-12-01

    Injury assessment of birds following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in 2010 was part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. One reported effect was hemolytic anemia with the presence of Heinz bodies (HB) in birds, however, the role of route and magnitude of exposure to oil is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritis; DCCO) exposed orally and dermally to artificially weathered crude oil would develop hemolytic anemia including HB and reticulocytosis. In the oral experiment, sub-adult, mixed-sex DCCOs were fed control (n = 8) or oil-injected fish with a daily target dose of 5 (n = 9) or 10 (n = 9) ml oil/kg for 21 days. Then, subadult control (n = 12) and treated (n = 13) cormorant groups of similar sex-ratio were dermally treated with approximately 13ml of water or weathered MC252 crude oil, respectively, every 3 days for 6 dosages approximating 20% surface coverage. Collected whole blood samples were analyzed by light (new methylene blue) and transmission electron microscopy. Both oral and dermal treatment with weathered DWH MC252 crude oil induced regenerative, but inadequately compensated, anemia due to hemolysis and hematochezia as indicated by decreased packed cell volume, relative increase in reticulocytes with lack of difference in corrected reticulocyte count, and morphologic evidence of oxidant damage at the ultrastructural level. Hemoglobin precipitation, HB formation, degenerate organelles, and systemic oxidant damage were documented. Heinz bodies were typically <2µm in length and smaller than in mammals. These oblong cytoplasmic inclusions were difficult to see upon routine blood smear evaluation and lacked the classic button appearance found in mammalian red blood cells. They could be found as light, homogeneous blue inclusions upon new methylene blue staining. Ultrastructurally, HB appeared as homogeneous, electron-dense structures within the cytosol and lacked membranous

  5. Three-dimensional foraging habitat use and niche partitioning in two sympatric seabird species, Phalacrocorax auritus and P. penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Richardson, Adam G.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.; Cushing, Daniel A.; Lerczak, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that co-existing, morphologically similar species will partition prey resources when faced with resource limitations. We investigated local movements, foraging dive behavior, and foraging habitat selection by breeding adults of 2 closely related cormorant species, double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and Brandt’s cormorants P. penicillatus. These species nest sympatrically at East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary at the border of Oregon and Washington states, USA. Breeding individuals of each species were tracked using GPS tags with integrated temperature and depth data-loggers. The overall foraging areas and core foraging areas (defined as the 95% and 50% kernel density estimates of dive locations, respectively) of double-crested cormorants were much larger and covered a broader range of riverine, mixed-estuarine, and nearshore marine habitats. Brandt’s cormorant foraging areas were less expansive, were exclusively marine, and mostly overlapped with double-crested cormorant foraging areas. Within these areas of overlap, Brandt’s cormorants tended to dive deeper (median depth = 6.48 m) than double-crested cormorants (median depth = 2.67 m), and selected dive locations where the water was deeper. Brandt’s cormorants also utilized a deeper, more benthic portion of the water column than did double-crested cormorants. Nevertheless, the substantial overlap in foraging habitat between the 2 cormorant species in the Columbia River estuary, particularly for Brandt’s cormorants, suggests that superabundant prey resources allow these 2 large and productive cormorant colonies to coexist on a single island near the mouth of the Columbia River.

  6. Testing auditory sensitivity in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2016-01-01

    Psychoacoustic and electrophysiological methods were used to measure the in-air hearing sensitivity of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis). One individual was used to determine the behavioral thresholds, which was then compared to previously collected data on the auditory brainstem...

  7. Great cormorants ( Phalacrocorax carbo) can detect auditory cues while diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Maxwell, Alyssa; Siebert, Ursula; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-06-01

    In-air hearing in birds has been thoroughly investigated. Sound provides birds with auditory information for species and individual recognition from their complex vocalizations, as well as cues while foraging and for avoiding predators. Some 10% of existing species of birds obtain their food under the water surface. Whether some of these birds make use of acoustic cues while underwater is unknown. An interesting species in this respect is the great cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo), being one of the most effective marine predators and relying on the aquatic environment for food year round. Here, its underwater hearing abilities were investigated using psychophysics, where the bird learned to detect the presence or absence of a tone while submerged. The greatest sensitivity was found at 2 kHz, with an underwater hearing threshold of 71 dB re 1 μPa rms. The great cormorant is better at hearing underwater than expected, and the hearing thresholds are comparable to seals and toothed whales in the frequency band 1-4 kHz. This opens up the possibility of cormorants and other aquatic birds having special adaptations for underwater hearing and making use of underwater acoustic cues from, e.g., conspecifics, their surroundings, as well as prey and predators.

  8. Serosurvey for selected infectious agents in two sympatric species of cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps and Phalacrocorax magellanicus) from coastal Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Luciana; Quintana, Flavio; Uhart, Marcela

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a serologic survey for selected infectious agents on two sympatric cormorants, the Imperial Cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps) and the Rock Shag (Phalacrocorax magellanicus). Blood was collected from 267 Imperial Cormorants and 106 Rock Shags at 17 colonies along the Patagonia Atlantic shore during nine breeding seasons (1994, 1999-2001-2005-2008-2010). Antibodies to four pathogens were common to both species and frequently observed: avian paramyxovirus type 1 (56% of Imperial Cormorants and 56% of Rock Shags); avian adenovirus (67% of Imperial Cormorants and 40% of Rock Shags); infectious bronchitis virus serotypes IBV-41, IBV-46, IBV-99, and IBV-JMK (53% of Imperial Cormorants and 64% of Rock Shags); and Salmonella pullorum (18% of Imperial Cormorants and 7% of Rock Shags). Antibody prevalence for these pathogens varied significantly between species, except for avian paramyxovirus type 1. Exposure to avian paramyxovirus type 1 and all serotypes of infectious bronchitis virus varied significantly among seasons in both species. In contrast, the sporadic occurrence of positive titers suggest that cormorants had occasional exposure to Aspergillus spp. (3% of Rock Shags, only in 2000), avian paramyxovirus type 3 (5% of Rock Shags, only in 2008), Chlamydophila spp. (1% of Imperial Cormorants, only in 2010), and avian reovirus (1% of Rock Shags, only in 1999; 29% of Imperial Cormorants, in 2008 and 2010). Both species were antibody negative for avian encephalomyelitis virus, avian influenza virus, avian laryngotracheitis virus, avian paramyxovirus type 2, and infectious bursal disease virus. We provide the first information on pathogen exposure, indicated by detection of antibody in blood samples, for two sympatric species of South Atlantic cormorants. To determine major causes of morbidity and mortality in these birds future efforts should focus on necropsy surveys in cormorant colonies.

  9. Reproductive performance in three neighbouring Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) colonies in sw Kattegat, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Gregersen, Jens; Hénaux, Viviane

    of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in the old Danish Vorsø colony as it quadrupled in number of breeding pairs and later declined markedly. Some of these parameters were also studied in two neighbouring colonies. We found marked declines in breeding success in the old colony while breeding...

  10. Daily energy expenditure of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering at Lake Chiemsee, Southern Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T.M; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the winters of 1993/94 and 1994/95 the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis was measured using the doubly labelled water technique (DLW). This was the first time the method has been used on a Phalacrocoracid species. DLW trials were carried out on 5

  11. Underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016). Prelim......The underwater hearing threshold of a great cormorant (Phalacrocroax carbo sinensis) was measured at 2 kHz using psychophysical methods. Previous in-air and underwater testing suggests that cormorants have rather poor in-air hearing compared to other birds of similar size (Johansen, 2016...

  12. Airborne and underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) studied with ABR and laser vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huulvej, Tina; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    mapped the hearing abilities of birds in air, but currently there is little or no data, physiological, psychophysical or behavioral, on how diving birds hear or react to sound under water. Therefore, it is unknown whether the ears of diving birds are adapted to hearing under water and to what extent...... anthropogenic noise influences their hearing during a dive. In the present study, we measured the audiogram of cormorants in air and under water and compared the results to biophysical measurements of eardrum vibrations. Methods We obtained audiograms from wild-caught Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo...

  13. Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo predation on pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L. in shallow eutrophic lakes in Poland

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    Traczuk Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the population abundance of the piscivorous great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo has led to conflicts with fisheries. Cormorants are blamed for decreased fish catches in many lakes in Poland. The aim of this paper is to describe to role of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca in the diet of cormorants nesting in a colony on the island in Lake Warnołty. Since the breeding colony is located in the vicinity of Lake OEniardwy, the largest lake in Poland, the cormorants use the resources in this lake. In 2009-2016, 18,432 regurgitated fish were collected, of which 593 were pikeperch. The share of pikeperch among fish collected in 2009-2012 did not exceed 2%, but from 2013 this increased substantially to maximum of 38.2% in 2015. The smallest pikeperch had a standard length of 8.4 cm, and the largest 42.5 cm. Pikeperch mean length differed by year, and the length distribution was close to normal. The sizes of the regurgitated pikeperch indicate that cormorants prey almost exclusively on juvenile specimens. The results of the present study indicate that cormorant predation has a significant impact on pikeperch populations in lakes in the vicinity of the colony, and the great cormorants are possibly a significant factor in the effectiveness of pikeperch management. When planning for the management of fish populations in lakes subjected to cormorant predation pressure, it should be borne in mind that predation by this piscivorous bird species impacts the abundance and size-age structure of fish populations.

  14. In-air and underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sasia; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Hearing thresholds of a great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were measured in air and under water using psychophysics. The lowest thresholds were at 2 kHz (45 dB re 20 μPa root-mean-square [rms] in air and 79 dB re 1 μPa rms in water). Auditory brainstem response measurements on one anesthetized...

  15. The relationship between sea surface temperature and population change of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo breeding near Disko Bay, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, C.R.; Boertmann, David; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Arctic seas have warmed and sea ice has retreated. This has resulted in range contraction and population declines in some species, but it could potentially be a boon for others. Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo have a partially wettable plumage and seem poorly suited to foraging in Arctic wat...

  16. Presence of plastic litter in pellets from Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; Berrow, Simon; Newton, Stephen; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-04-15

    Plastic pollution has been the subject of much research in the last decade. Seabirds can mistake plastic fragments for prey, which can perforate or block the digestive tract and cause ulcers. Most commonly, seabirds accumulate this indigestible matter in their stomachs, obtaining no nutrition and may die from starvation. Certain species of seabirds however, have the ability of regurgitating indigestible matter in the form of pellets. This study aimed to investigate the ingestion of plastics by live seabirds through the examination of regurgitated pellets (n=92) from a Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony and a winter roost in Ireland. Plastic prevalence was consistently 3.2% at both sites. The presence of plastic litter highlights the fact that all species of seabird are susceptible to interact with marine litter regardless of feeding habits, although at different rates. More research is needed to understand the driving factors involved in plastic ingestion among different species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nesting of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo on man-made structures in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sidorenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ukraine the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo Linnaeus, 1758 uses a rather wide range of habitats for nesting: islands, trees and shrubs, reedbeds and a variety of man-made structures. In general, the strategy of nesting on man-made structures is uncommon both in Ukraine and Europe, and Cormorantsdo this only in the absence of other sites suitable for nesting. Special research onCormorant colonies on technogenic constructions was carried out during the field expeditions by the Research Institute of Biodiversity of Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems of Ukraine in 2002–2003 and 2012–2016. Besides this, we used retrospective and current data from the literature and Internet resources. Most of the field work was carried out by making surveys by boat and on foot. As a result, we found 8 Cormorant colonies on technogenic constructions in Ukraine: gas platforms in the Sea of Azov (near the village Strilkove, Henichesk district of Kherson region; sunken ships – targets for bombing training near the Arabat Spit (these are also known as «ship islands»; electricity pylons of the high-voltage Enerhodar Dnipro Power Line where it crosses the Kakhovka Reservoir; the dock in Yahorlyk Bayk, used in the past as a target for bombing training bombing; artificial island-platforms on Lake Chernine (Kinburn Peninsula; an artificial island on the Sasyk Lagoon (Odessa region; artificial islands, made as navigation markers on the Kremenchuk and Kiev reservoirs. The study found that in most cases the accompanying species was the CaspianGull (Larus cachinnans Pallas, 1811, which actively destroys the Cormorants’ nests and eats their eggs and chicks. The number of nests in the colonies varied greatly (5–30 nests on the navigation marker islands and ca. 2 000–2 300 on the «ship-islands» and gas platforms. This is due, primarily, to the area of the breeding territory. The research found that fierce territorial competition was observed in most of the

  18. Breeding biology of the Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger (Pelecaniformes: Phlacrocoracidae in Bangladesh

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    H. Naher

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The breeding biology of the Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger was studied in a nesting colony at Dhonagoda Village in Chandpur District, Bangladesh between 2003 and 2005. The breeding activities of the Little Cormorant commenced in May and continued till October. The major nesting trees of the colony included Albizzia procera, Mangifera indica, Ficus spp., Streblus asper and Cocos nucifera. Both partners took part in nest building (n=33. The nest building period was 8 to 15 days (mean� plus or minus SD 10.85� plus or minus 1.98 and the clutch size (n=20 varied from 2 to 6 (3.75� plus or minus 0.8. The length and diameter of the eggs (n=115 ranged between 4.05 and 4.98 cm (4.5� plus or minus 0.18 and 2.5 and 3.03 cm (3� plus or minus 0.07 respectively. The eggs weighed between 14g and 25g (18.4� plus or minus 0.88. The incubation period was from 14 to 21 days (17.3� plus or minus 2.1 and the weight of the hatchling varied from 4 g to 18.2g (10.45� plus or minus 3.6. The brooding period was from 15 to 20 days (17.3� plus or minus 1.26. The young flew away from the nest at the age of 17 to 29 days (20.85� plus or minus 2.8 after hatching when the weight was 350g to 470g (411.93� plus or minus 28.55. The breeding success was 78.76% in relation to eggs hatched and 68.26% in relation to eggs laid.

  19. Display and Sexual Activities of the Little Cormorant, Phalacrocorax niger (Ciconiformes: Phalacrocoracidae) in Captivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naher, Habibon; Sarker Noor Jahan

    2008-01-01

    Display and sexual activities of the little cormorant (Phalacrocorax niger) was studied on 19 birds from November 2000 to December 2001. The study was conducted in captivity in the Dhaka Zoo, Mirpur. Displaying behavior commenced in mid February. The male took initiative to select the nest site mostly in trees especially in vertical forked branches. The twigs of peacock flower (Caesalpinia pulcherrima) were used as nesting materials. After the response of the female the bisexual displays started. During this time the male and female always sat together and displayed. Within 1 to 2 days of mutual displays the female ate regurgitated foods from the gular pouch of the male. With this the pair formation occurred permanently. Within 2 to 3 days of pair formation mounting took place. At the end of mounting the male flew away and the female jerked her body and ruffed her feathers. Then the male started to collect nesting materials but both of the male and female placed it together on to the nest, giving more or less a circular cup-like shape. The time required in nest building was 14 to 16 days. (author)

  20. APPLICATION OF THE GREAT CORMORANT'S (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis DAILY MEAL IN THE STIMATION OF DAMAGES AT FISHPONDS

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    Anđelko Opačak

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily meal of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, joined with the number of birds and composition of fish in the meal, has high importance in total calculation of damage-costs on fish stock. The weight of fish in daily meal is regarding as the world-wide indicator for the estimation of damages. Various methods are being developed for the reliable estimation of daily fish quantity that Cormorant consummate. Diversity of the applied methods lead to variability of the results. This paper presents the estimation results from 24 studies. Daily meal of the Great Cormorant determined by the stomach content analysis is 359.5 g in average per bird (n=3 study reports; by the pellets analysis 347 g (n=10 is determined, and mean weight values of regurgitated fish was 384 g (n=2. Analyses of the nourished, captured birds (n=4 show 371 g mean value of daily meal while the stomach temperature method show 336 g (n=1 study. The energy requirement methods determined daily meal of 596 g (n=1, a study dealing on the empirical basal metabolism measurements, and 751 g (n=3, studies dealing on daily energetic requirements of the Great Cormorant.

  1. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and flightless cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi) in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

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    Deem, Sharon L; Merkel, Jane; Ballweber, Lora; Vargas, F Hernan; Cruz, Marilyn B; Parker, Patricia G

    2010-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites of humans and warm-blooded animals. Members of the family Felidae are the only definitive hosts of this parasite and, thus, important in the epidemiology of the disease. Previous studies on Pacific islands have found T. gondii infections in a number of avian species where domestic cats (Felis catus) have been introduced. Little is known about T. gondii in the Galapagos Islands, although introduced domestic cats in the archipelago are known to be T. gondii antibody-positive. In this study, we quantified prevalence of antibody to T. gondii in two threatened avian marine species, Galapagos Penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) and Flightless Cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi), and tested the hypothesis that this parasite is more prevalent on Isabela Island (with cats) than on Fernandina Island (without cats). Overall, antibody prevalence was 2.3% in both Galapagos Penguins and Flightless Cormorants from samples collected during 2003-2005, and in 2008. In Galapagos Penguins (n=298), a significantly higher antibody prevalence was found in penguins on Fernandina Island (free of cats) than on Isabela Island (with cats; Fisher's exact test; P=0.02). In Flightless Cormorants (n=258), there was a higher antibody prevalence in cormorants living on Isabela than on Fernandina, although this difference was not statistically significant (Fisher's; P=0.19). This study is the first to show exposure to T. gondii in endemic avian species in the Galapagos Islands, providing evidence for disease-related risks associated with the feral cat population in the archipelago. We provide possible explanations for these findings and recommendations for future studies towards a better understanding of the epidemiology of T. gondii in the Galapagos Islands.

  2. Helminth parasitism in the Neotropical cormorant, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, in southern Brazil: effect of host size, weight, sex, and maturity state.

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    Monteiro, Cassandra M; Amato, José F R; Amato, Suzana B

    2011-09-01

    Forty-seven specimens of Neotropical cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from Lago Guaíba, Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30° 00' S, 51°15' W), were examined for helminth parasites between 1999 and 2003. Twenty species of helminth parasites were found: ten digeneans: Austrodiplostomum mordax, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum sp., Drepanocephalus olivaceus, Drepanocephalus spathans, Hysteromorpha triloba, Ignavia olivacei, Paryphostomum segregatum, Prosthogonimus ovatus, and Ribeiroia ondatrae; one cestode: Paradilepis caballeroi; eight nematodes: Contracaecum rudolphii, Eucoleus contortus, Eustrongylides sp., Ornithocapillaria appendiculata, Syngamus sp., Syncuaria squamata, Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) sp., and one undetermined capillariid (genus and species); and one acanthocephalan: Andracantha tandemtesticulata. The length and weight of male and female birds, as well as their sexual maturity (juvenile or adult), did not show significant difference regarding the helminth fauna; the standard length did not influence the helminth parasite indices. The prevalence of I. olivacei was higher in larger birds while the intensity of infection by this digenean species was higher in females. The abundance of P. caballeroi was higher in male birds. A. mordax and H. triloba showed higher prevalence and abundance in juvenile hosts, while O. appendiculata was more abundant in juveniles. The remaining species did not have their parasite indices influenced by the host parameters studied. The present work records the richest helminth fauna for any bird of the genus Phalacrocorax and is the first study to evaluate the influence of length, weight, sex, and maturity state on parasitism.

  3. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

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    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  4. In-air hearing of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Ortiz, Sara Torres

    2017-01-01

    previously believed and its hearing abilities are comparable to several other species of birds of similar size. This knowledge is important for our understanding of the hearing abilities of other species of sea birds. It can also be used to develop cormorant deterrent devices for fisheries, as well...... as to assess the impact of increasing in-air anthropogenic noise levels on cormorants and other aquatic birds....

  5. Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) as potential vectors for the dispersal of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad-Shitrit, Sivan; Lev-Ari, Tidhar; Katzir, Gadi; Sharaby, Yehonatan; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2017-08-11

    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a devastating epidemic and pandemic disease. Despite its importance, the way of its global dissemination is unknown. V. cholerae is abundant in aquatic habitats and is known to be borne by copepods, chironomids and fishes. Our aim was to determine if fish-eating birds act as vectors in the spread of V. cholerae by consuming infected fish. We determined the existence of V. cholerae in the microbiome of 5/7 wild cormorants' intestine. In three of these V. cholerae-positive wild cormorants, the presence of a gene for cholera toxin (ctxA) was detected. We subsequently tested eight captive, hand-reared cormorants, divided into two equal groups. Prior to the experiment, the feces of the cormorants were V. cholerae-negative. One group was fed exclusively on tilapias, which are naturally infected with V. cholerae, and the other was fed exclusively on goldfish or on koi that were V. cholerae-negative. We detected V. cholerae in the feces of the tilapia-fed, but not in the goldfish/koi-fed, cormorants. Hence, we demonstrate that fish-eating birds can be infected with V. cholerae from their fish prey. The large-scale movements of many fish-eating birds provide a potential mechanism for the global distribution of V. cholerae.

  6. Roosting Colony of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax Carbo Sinensis L. as a Source of Nutrients for the Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Klimaszyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, great cormorants have been observed on the Lake Góreckie (Wielkopolski National Park shoreline. The population of these birds occurring within the lake has gradually increased. In autumn 2008, more than 100 individuals were observed. In the period 2009-2012 the number of birds occupying the island periodically exceeded 250 individuals. So far, there is no breeding colony of great cormorants, but the birds have established a roosting colony on the island. In the period 2009-2012 we conducted research on the impact of the colony of great cormorants on the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements in soils beneath the colony and transfer of chemical elements from the colony to a nearby freshwater ecosystem. Our results show that a relatively small and recent colony of great cormorants can significantly affect the chemistry of soil. Compared to a control, the soil beneath the colony was characterized by statistically higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. A significant accumulation of nutrients was observed in the topsoil zone (to a depth of about 20 cm. Enrichment of soil in chemical elements has resulted in their further transport to a nearby lake. Compared to the control, the groundwater and surface runoff from the colony area revealed several-fold higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The maximum abundance of cormorants in the roosting colony was reflected in the elevated concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the littoral water near the colony. Our study demonstrates that the roosting colony of great cormorants can play a significant role in accelerating the eutrophication of surface waters.

  7. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century, the Great Cormorant was exterminated as a breeding bird in several Baltic countries. The persecution continued until the mid of the 20th century, and in the early 1960s the European breeding population of the continental subspecies sinensis had declined to 4 000 breeding...

  8. Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) can detect auditory cues while diving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Maxwell, Alyssa; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    than expected, and the hearing thresholds are comparable to seals and toothed whales in the frequency band 1–4 kHz. This opens up the possibility of cormorants and other aquatic birds having special adaptations for underwater hearing and making use of underwater acoustic cues from, e.g., conspecifics...

  9. Developing nondestructive techniques for managing conflicts between fisheries and double-crested cormorant colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuko; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen; Collis, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have been identified as the source of significant mortality to juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River Basin. Management plans for reducing the size of a large colony on East Sand Island (OR, USA) in the Columbia River estuary are currently being developed. We evaluated habitat enhancement and social attraction as nondestructive techniques for managing cormorant nesting colonies during 2004–2007. We tested these techniques on unoccupied plots adjacent to the East Sand Island cormorant colony. Cormorants quickly colonized these plots and successfully raised young. Cormorants also were attracted to nest and raised young on similar plots at 2 islands approximately 25 km from East Sand Island; 1 island had a history of successful cormorant nesting whereas the other was a site where cormorants had previously nested unsuccessfully. On a third island with no history of cormorant nesting or nesting attempts, these techniques were unsuccessful at attracting cormorants to nest. Our results suggest that some important factors influencing attraction of nesting cormorants using these techniques include history of cormorant nesting, disturbance, and presence of breeding cormorants nearby. These techniques may be effective in redistributing nesting cormorants away from areas where fish stocks of conservation concern are susceptible to predation, especially if sites with a recent history of cormorant nesting are available within their foraging or dispersal range. Published 2015. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  10. In-air and underwater hearing in the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sasia; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The in-air and underwater hearing abilities of the great cormorant was measured using psychophysical and physiological techniques. The threshold of hearing was established at 3 frequencies in air and 4 frequencies underwater using a go-no go staircase psychophysical paradigm in an outdoor pen...... compared to other similar-sized birds. The hearing abilities in water are better than what would have been expected for a purely in-air adapted ear. [Work funded by the Carlsberg Foundation.]...

  11. Specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Anan, Yasumi; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Okabe, Yuko; Kim, Eun-Young; Subramanian, Annamalai; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    This study is to elucidate the specific accumulation of 20 trace elements in tissues/organs of great cormorants from two different colonies (Lake Biwa and Mie) in Japan. In the body distribution of trace elements, some elements revealed tissue-specific accumulation such as most of the burden of Mo, Ag and Cd in liver, Tl and Cd in kidney, Cu, Rb and Cs in muscle, and V, Sr and Ba in bone. Gender-related variation was not observed in both populations for most of the trace elements, except for higher hepatic Sr in males from Lake Biwa. Hepatic V, muscular Hg and Tl, and Cd in liver, kidney and muscle increased with growth. Comparison of trace element levels in tissues between the two colonies showed that Cr, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba and Tl levels were higher in Lake Biwa than in Mie, whereas Zn, Co and Hg in Mie samples were greater than Lake Biwa. Variations of elemental levels in stomach contents also showed similar patterns, thus, showing that dietary sources tended to be the main factor for these regional variations. Toxic Hg and Cd concentrations in the liver of cormorants from the two colonies were lower than those from other areas, implying relatively low exposure to these metals in the present study sites. Concentrations of V, Co, Ag, Cd, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi in liver remained more or less at the same level between 1993 and 2003, while hepatic Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Ba showed apparent decrease, which might be related to the biological factors. - Dietary sources seemed to be the main reason for variable results

  12. Sex differences in the accumulation of chlorinated dioxins in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo): Implication of hepatic sequestration in the maternal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Akira; Yoneda, Kumiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on gender-specific accumulation features of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in common (great) cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Lake Biwa, Japan. Male cormorants showed a tendency to have higher levels of PCDD/DFs and DL-PCBs than did females. For PCDDs, the male-to-female concentration ratio (M/F ratio) for each congener significantly decreased with the liver-to-muscle concentration ratio (Li/Mu ratio). For PCDFs, there also was a weak negative relationship between Li/Mu ratio and M/F ratio. In contrast, for DL-PCBs, M/F ratios showed no correlation with Li/Mu ratios, but increased with an increase in lipophilicity. These results, together with observations from prior studies, suggest that congener-specific hepatic sequestration may be a factor limiting the maternal transfer of PCDDs and, to a lesser extent, PCDFs. Maternal transfer of DL-PCBs seems to favor more lipophilic congeners in the cormorants. -- Highlights: •Sex-dependent accumulation of chlorinated dioxins in cormorants was revealed. •Sex-difference in PCDD levels is controlled by congener-selective hepatic sequestration. •Sex-difference in DL-PCB levels is accounted for by congener-specific hydrophobicity. •QSARs on the maternal transfer are different among PCDDs, PCDFs and DL-PCBs. -- Sex-difference in accumulation of PCDD/DFs and DL-PCBs was observed in cormorants, most likely due to the congener-specific maternal transfer

  13. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutner, V.; Becker, P.H.; Liordos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g -1 dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g -1 dw), Σ HCHs (47 ng g -1 dw) and HCB (116 ng g -1 dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas Σ PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g -1 dw). β-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and Σ DDTs/ΣPCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g -1 dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g -1 dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: → Mercury, p,p'-DDE, β-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. → More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. → Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). → Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  14. Development of great cormorant population (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis in North-East France – synthesis of long term monitoring (1997–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collas M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the North-east inter-regional delegation of the French National Institute for Water and Aquatic Ecosystems (ONEMA has been running annual networked monitoring of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis population in three French administrative regions: Alsace, Lorraine and Champagne-Ardenne. Changes in the wintering population are assessed by means of four monthly counts. Over the period 1997/2001, the population increased at a steady rate (average annual increase of 16%. Taking the population in January as the reference, the year 2001 shows a peak population of 13 000 birds. Since 2002, gradual decreasing in numbers has taken place (average rate of –4.5%. In January 2008, less than 10 000 birds were recorded. At the same time, nesting of the great cormorant was observed for the first time in Lorraine region in 1986. Then, the bird has been nesting in Champagne-Ardenne region and, since 2003, in all three regions. In 2008, ten nesting colonies were identified, composed of 512 couples (annual increase in population of 30.2% and 1500 births were recorded in Spring. Parallel to nesting, 4605 great cormorants were killed during the winter of 2007/2008 for a population of 10 000 birds. Climatic conditions may cause significant changes in wintering movements of the species, while operations to regulate cormorant numbers do not seem to have significant impact on the level of frequentation in winter. Finally, the using conditions of certain artificial lakes seem to be favourable for the bird during particularly difficult periods.

  15. Opportunistic sampling to quantify plastics in the diet of unfledged Black Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Heidi; Newton, Stephen; O'Connor, Ian

    2017-06-30

    Seabirds can interact with marine litter, mainly by entanglement or ingestion. The ingestion of plastics can lead to starvation or physical damage to the digestive tract. For chicks, it could additionally lead to reduced growth, affecting survival and fledging. This study quantified the ingestion of plastics by seabird chicks via an opportunistic sampling strategy. When ringing is carried out at colonies, birds may spontaneously regurgitate their stomach contents due to the stress or as a defence mechanism. Regurgitates were collected from nestlings of three different species: Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, n=38), Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis, n=14) and Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo, n=28). Plastic was present in all species, with the highest frequency of occurrence (FO) in Northern Fulmar chicks (28.6%), followed by Black-legged Kittiwakes (7.9%) and Great Cormorants (7.1%). The observed load of plastics on chicks, which have not yet left the nest, highlights the pervasive nature of plastic pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organochlorines and mercury in livers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) wintering in northeastern Mediterranean wetlands in relation to area, bird age, and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutner, V., E-mail: vgoutner@bio.auth.gr [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Becker, P.H., E-mail: peter.becker@ifv-vogelwarte.de [Institute of Avian Research ' Vogelwarte Helgoland' , An der Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Liordos, V., E-mail: liordos@yahoo.com [Department of Zoology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Wild birds are exposed to pollutants in their habitats. Top consumers of aquatic environments such as the fish-eating great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) are especially affected due to the bioaccumulation of toxic substances in their tissues. This study analysed the livers of 80 great cormorants from Greece to estimate the concentration of organochlorines and mercury and to examine their possible toxic effects and origin. The results showed that mercury (geometric mean 8089 ng g{sup -1} dw), p,p'-DDE (2628 ng g{sup -1} dw), {Sigma} HCHs (47 ng g{sup -1} dw) and HCB (116 ng g{sup -1} dw) concentrations can be considered high compared with those found in great cormorant livers elsewhere except in highly polluted areas, whereas {Sigma} PCBs occurred in relatively low concentrations (1091 ng g{sup -1} dw). {beta}-HCH was the dominant HCH isomer. Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to area, age and gender. However, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD showed intersite differences, whilst the proportion of PCBs with 8 chlorine atoms were significantly higher in adult than 1st year great cormorants. Pollution did not reflect local patterns but rather these along the Baltic and Black Seas, whilst differences in p,p'-DDE concentration and {Sigma} DDTs/{Sigma}PCBs ratios between Evros, Axios or Amvrakikos, found on common migration route, suggested different bird origins. Most birds had toxic mercury concentrations; 83.7% above 4000 ng g{sup -1} dw and 16% above 17,000 ng g{sup -1} dw. Other pollutant levels were too low to have adverse effects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Mercury, p,p'-DDE, {beta}-HCH and HCB occurred in highest concentrations. {yields} More than 80% of Greek great cormorants might have suffered from mercurial intoxication. {yields} Pollutant levels were generally unrelated to gender, age and area (except DDTs). {yields} Baltic and Black Seas are possible regions of origin and accumulation of Hg and DDTs.

  17. Testing of an oral dosing technique for double-crested cormorants, Phalacocorax auritus, laughing gulls, Leucophaeus atricilla, homing pigeons, Columba livia, and western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, with artificially weather MC252 oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, K M; Cacela, D; Carney, M W; Cunningham, F L; Ellis, C; Gerson, A R; Guglielmo, C G; Hanson-Dorr, K C; Harr, K E; Healy, K A; Horak, K E; Isanhart, J P; Kennedy, L V; Link, J E; Lipton, I; McFadden, A K; Moye, J K; Perez, C R; Pritsos, C A; Pritsos, K L; Muthumalage, T; Shriner, S A; Bursian, S J

    2017-12-01

    Scoping studies were designed to determine if double-crested cormorants (Phalacocorax auritus), laughing gulls (Leucophaues atricilla), homing pigeons (Columba livia) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that were gavaged with a mixture of artificially weathered MC252 oil and food for either a single day or 4-5 consecutive days showed signs of oil toxicity. Where volume allowed, samples were collected for hematology, plasma protein electrophoresis, clinical chemistry and electrolytes, oxidative stress and organ weigh changes. Double-crested cormorants, laughing gulls and western sandpipers all excreted oil within 30min of dose, while pigeons regurgitated within less than one hour of dosing. There were species differences in the effectiveness of the dosing technique, with double-crested cormorants having the greatest number of responsive endpoints at the completion of the trial. Statistically significant changes in packed cell volume, white cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, uric acid, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione, spleen and liver weights were measured in double-crested cormorants. Homing pigeons had statistically significant changes in creatine phosphokinase, total glutathione, glutathione disulfide, reduced glutathione and Trolox equivalents. Laughing gulls exhibited statistically significant decreases in spleen and kidney weight, and no changes were observed in any measurement endpoints tested in western sandpipers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TIME AND ENERGY CONSTRAINTS OF FISHING BEHAVIOR IN BREEDING CORMORANTS PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS AT LAKE IJSSELMEER, THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; VANEERDEN, MR

    1995-01-01

    TWO Cormorant colonies in The Netherlands (Naardermeer and Oostvaardersplassen), exploiting the same water bodies but situated at different distances from them, were compared with respect to daily variations in exact fishing sites and corresponding variations in time budget and fish consumption.

  19. Input of seabird-derived nitrogen into rice-paddy fields near a breeding/roosting colony of the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), and its effects on wild grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Kentaro; Murano, Hirotatsu; Tsuzuki, Kazuhide; Fujii, Hidenori; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Mizota, Chitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems near breeding/roosting colonies of piscivorous seabirds can receive a large amount of marine-derived N in the form of bird feces. It has been well demonstrated that N input from seabirds strongly affects plant communities in forests or coastal grasslands. The effects of nutrient input on plant communities in agricultural ecosystems near seabird colonies, however, have rarely been evaluated. This relationship was examined in rice-paddy fields irrigated by a pond system located near a colony of the Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo in Aichi, central Japan. In the present study, spatial variations in N content (N %) and N stable isotope composition (δ 15 N) of soils and wild grass species together with the growth height of plants in paddy fields in early spring (fallow period) were examined. Soils had a higher N % and δ 15 N values in fields associated with an irrigation pond that had N input from cormorants. The δ 15 N values tended to be higher around the inlet of irrigation waters, relative to the outlet. These results indicate that cormorant-derived N was input into the paddy fields via the irrigation systems. Plants growing in soil with higher δ 15 N had higher δ 15 N in the above-ground part of the plants and had luxurious growth. A positive correlation in plant height and δ 15 N of NO 3 –N was observed in soil plough horizons.

  20. Double-crested Cormorant studies at Little Galloo Island, Lake Ontario in 2013: Diet composition, fish consumption and the efficacy of management activities in reducing fish predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; McCullough, Russ D.; Mazzocchi, Irene

    2014-01-01

    For almost two decades Little Galloo Island (LGI) has supported a large colony of Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. Cormorant nest counts on the island since the early 1990's have averaged 4,297 per year. However, less than 2,000 pairs have nested on the island in three of the past five years. The highest count was reached in 1996 with 8,410 nesting pairs on the island. Johnson et al. (2013) estimated that cormorants from LGI alone have consumed 504 million fish since 1992. The proliferation of cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario coincided with declines in two important recreational fish species, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolemieu) and yellow perch (Perca falvescens). Lantry et al. (2002) and Burnett et al. (2002) provide convincing evidence linking cormorant population increases to declining eastern basin smallmouth bass and yellow perch stocks. Decline of these fish stocks was evident only in the eastern basin, suggesting a localized problem, which is consistent with the halo effect where large piscivorous waterbird colonies may deplete local fish stocks (Birt et al. 1987). The year 2013 marked the twenty second consecutive year of study of the food habits and fish consumption of LGI cormorants and the fifteenth consecutive year evaluating the efficacy of management activities to control the reproductive success of cormorants nesting at LGI. The program consists mainly of spraying cormorant eggs with food grade vegetable oil as well as the culling of adult and immature birds. This paper reports the findings of work carried out in 2013 at LGI.

  1. Data concerning the epidemiological characteristics in the helminth infestations of the Danube Delta’s cormorant populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂILEANU Ştefan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the elucidation of some aspects regarding the endo- and ecoparasite fauna specific for the Danube Delta’s cormorants. The researches on the two species of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo and Phalacrocorax pygmaeus had as main purpose the specification of the helmitofauna’s etiology, epidemiology and micro- ecology present to the 2 studied species.

  2. Cormorant predation overlaps with fish communities and commercial-fishery interest in a Swedish lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovegård, K. M.; Öhman, K.; Mikkelsen, Jørgen Skole

    2017-01-01

    The increase of the fish-eating cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in Europe has resulted in conflicts with fisheries. In Lake Roxen, Sweden, cormorants are blamed for causing a decrease in fishery catches. To study and describe the potential effects that cormorants may have had on fish...

  3. Cormorants as visitors in the Vorsø colony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Vinas, Marta Mas; Gregersen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Like other seabirds Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis are known to prospect in potential breeding colonies during their first years of life before they settle to breed. Based on daily resightings of colour-ringed cormorants in the old Vorsø colony we examined the difference between...

  4. STRATEGI MENCARI MAKAN BURUNG PECUK PADI HITAM (PHALACROCORAX SULDROSTRIS DI SUAKA MARGASATWA PULAU RAMBUT, TELUK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlDA FlTHRI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little black cormorant (Phalacrocorax suldrostris} feeding activity around their breeding area face many problem such as high velocity wind and piracy by frigate birds. P. suldrostris developed six type of flying to overcome high velocity wind and flew in group to avoid frigate attack. As much as 13 fish species were consumed by little black cormorant during this research.

  5. Fish losses to double-crested cormorant predation in Eastern Lake Ontario, 1992-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert M.; Johnson, James H.

    1999-01-01

    We examined 4,848 regurgitated digestive pellets of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) over a 6-year period (1992–97) to estimate annual predation on sport and other fishes in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario. We found more than 51,000 fish of 28 species. Using a model that incorporates annual colony nest counts; fledgling production rates; adult, immature, and young-of-year residence times (seasonal); estimates of mean number of fish per pellet and mean fish size; and a fecal pathway correction factor (4.0 percent), we estimate total annual number of fish consumed by cormorants in the eastern basin of Lake Ontario to range from 37 million to 128 million fish for 1993–97. This fish loss equates to an estimated 0.93 million to 3.21 million kg (mean 2.07 million kg) of fish consumed per year, principally alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus, 42.3 percent) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens, 18.4 percent). Forage fish (alewife, cyprinids, trout-perch [Percopsis omiscomaycus], and other minor components) accounted for 65 percent of the diet, and panfish contributed 34 percent of the diet for the 5-year period. Game fish were minor components of the diet, in view of an average estimated annual consumption of 900,000 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui, 1.1 percent) and 168,000 salmonines (mostly lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, 0.2 percent). Cormorant predation on lake trout fingerlings stocked in May 1993 and June 1994 was estimated through the use of coded wire tag recoveries from pellets collected on Little Galloo Island 1 and 4 days after stocking events. We estimated losses of 13.6 percent and 8.8 percent, respectively, of the fish stocked for the two events, an average of 11.2 percent. Such losses may be reduced through alteration of existing stocking practices.

  6. Status of the breeding population of Great Cormorants in Denmark in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Hansen, Rikke; Therkildsen, Ole Roland

    2013-01-01

    There were 27,237 occupied nests of Great Cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) in the summer of 2012 in Denmark. This is an increase of ca. 1,700 nests compared to 2011. The cormorants had colonies or attempted to found colonies at 64 locations in 2012. This is close to the highest number...

  7. A predictive model to inform adaptive management of double-crested cormorants and fisheries in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Fielder, David G.; Breck, James E.; Luukkonen, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of double-crested cormorants (DCCOs; Phalacrocorax auritus) in North America has raised concerns over their potential negative impacts on game, cultured and forage fishes, island and terrestrial resources, and other colonial water birds, leading to increased public demands to reduce their abundance. By combining fish surplus production and bird functional feeding response models, we developed a deterministic predictive model representing bird–fish interactions to inform an adaptive management process for the control of DCCOs in multiple colonies in Michigan. Comparisons of model predictions with observations of changes in DCCO numbers under management measures implemented from 2004 to 2012 suggested that our relatively simple model was able to accurately reconstruct past DCCO population dynamics. These comparisons helped discriminate among alternative parameterizations of demographic processes that were poorly known, especially site fidelity. Using sensitivity analysis, we also identified remaining critical uncertainties (mainly in the spatial distributions of fish vs. DCCO feeding areas) that can be used to prioritize future research and monitoring needs. Model forecasts suggested that continuation of existing control efforts would be sufficient to achieve long-term DCCO control targets in Michigan and that DCCO control may be necessary to achieve management goals for some DCCO-impacted fisheries in the state. Finally, our model can be extended by accounting for parametric or ecological uncertainty and including more complex assumptions on DCCO–fish interactions as part of the adaptive management process.

  8. Recent population size, trends, and limiting factors for the double-crested Cormorant in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica Y.; Roby, Daniel D.; Lyons, Donald E.; Courtot, Karen N.; Collis, Ken; Carter, Harry R.; Shuford, W. David; Capitolo, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    The status of the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America was last evaluated during 1987–2003. In the interim, concern has grown over the potential impact of predation by double-crested cormorants on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchusspp.), particularly in the Columbia Basin and along the Pacific coast where some salmonids are listed for protection under the United States Endangered Species Act. Recent re-evaluations of double-crested cormorant management at the local, flyway, and federal level warrant further examination of the current population size and trends in western North America. We collected colony size data for the western population (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and the portions of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico west of the Continental Divide) by conducting aircraft-, boat-, or ground-based surveys and by cooperating with government agencies, universities, and non-profit organizations. In 2009, we estimated approximately 31,200 breeding pairs in the western population. We estimated that cormorant numbers in the Pacific Region (British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California) increased 72% from 1987–1992 to circa 2009. Based on the best available data for this period, the average annual growth rate (λ) of the number of breeding birds in the Pacific Region was 1.03, versus 1.07 for the population east of the Continental Divide during recent decades. Most of the increase in the Pacific Region can be attributed to an increase in the size of the nesting colony on East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary, which accounts for about 39% of all breeding pairs in the western population and is the largest known breeding colony for the species (12,087 breeding pairs estimated in 2009). In contrast, numbers of breeding pairs estimated in coastal British Columbia and Washington have declined by approximately 66% during this same period. Disturbance at breeding

  9. The use of coded wire tags to estimate cormorant predation on fish stocks in an estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Klenke, Reinhard; Sonnesen, Per Michael

    2010-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to resolving the conflict between an increasing population of cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, and the fishing industry is the lack of documentation of the effect of the birds’ predation on fish stocks. Tagging and releasing fish with coded wire tags followed...

  10. A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once one of the most numerous seabirds of the Benguela upwelling system, the population of Cape cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis has decreased by 60% in the past three decades and the species is listed as Near Threatened. Declines in prey availability and/or abundance brought about by recent changes in the ...

  11. Ecología molecular de dos especies de cormoranes endémicas de Patagonia (Phalacrocorax magellanicus y P. atriceps)

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Pablo Luciano S.

    2013-01-01

    En la presente tesis se abordarán diversos aspectos de la biología de dos especies hermanas de cormoranes: Phalacrocorax magellanicus (Cormorán cuello negro, CCN) y Phalacrocorax atriceps (Cormorán imperial, CI), utilizándo herramientas moleculares para responder a las preguntas de interés. Estas especies son endémicas de la Patagonia, y comparten muchos de sus requerimientos ecológicos, difiriendo principalmente en lo que respecta a la dispersión post-reproductiva y a los patrones de aliment...

  12. The great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo is widely distributed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    and the freshwater species, the rest either have an es- tuarine phase in their life cycle or occur in estuaries. The fish in the regurgitations varied greatly in size, from the smallest, a Moçambique tilapia of 28 mm standard length (SL), to the largest, a freshwater mullet of 265 mm SL. Three of the four most common prey species ...

  13. The Crozet shag or cormorant Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Island and Marion Island) in the southern Indian Ocean. Together with several other taxa of ... colonies also decreased and was significantly related to the overall number of birds breeding in any given season. The decreases coincided with a ...... Diving behaviour and diet of the blue-eyed shag at South. Georgia. Polar Biol.

  14. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Biología reproductiva de los cormoranes Imperial (Phalacrocorax atriceps) y Cuello Negro (P. magellanicus) en el Golfo San Jorge, Chubut, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Punta, Gabriel; Yorio, Pablo; Herrera, Gonzalo; Saravia, José

    2003-01-01

    Estudiamos la biología reproductiva de los cormoranes Imperial (Phalacrocorax atriceps) y Cuello Negro (Phalacrocorax magellanicus) en el Golfo San Jorge, Argentina, durante las temporadas reproductivas de 1991 y 1993. Los fechas en que fueron observados los primeros huevos variaron entre años, siendo entre mediados de octubre y mediados de noviembre para el Cormorán Imperial, y entre fines de octubre y principio de diciembre para el Cormorán Cuello Negro. Durante 1993, el 87% y el 86% de las...

  16. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  17. Diet shift of double-crested cormorants in eastern Lake Ontario associated with the expansion of the invasive round goby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ross, Robert M.; McCullough, Russell D.; Mathers, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of the invasive round goby (Apollonia melanostoma) in the Great Lakes has caused shifts in the trophic ecology in some areas. We examined the diet of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritas) prior to, and immediately after, round goby population expansion at two colonies, Pigeon and Snake Islands, in eastern Lake Ontario from 1999 to 2007. Cormorant diet was determined from the examination of 10,167 pellets collected over the nine-year period. By the second year round gobies were found in the diet (2002 at Snake Island and 2003 at Pigeon Island) they were the main species consumed by cormorants at each colony. The dominance of round goby in cormorant diets had a significant effect on both daily fish consumption and seasonal trends in fish consumption compared to the pre-goby years. Seasonal differences that were observed during the pre-goby years were lost once gobies became the main diet component of cormorants. The rapid switch to a benthic prey such as round goby, from a largely limnetic fish diet demonstrates the adaptive foraging ability of cormorants. Round goby may act as a buffer for yellow perch and smallmouth bass, two sport fish impacted by cormorant predation in eastern Lake Ontario.

  18. CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Courtney R.; Hooper, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Smelker, Kim D.; Calvin, Caleshia S.; Dean, Karen M.; Bursian, Steve J.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Link, Jane E.; Shriner, Susan A.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, DCCO) were orally exposed to Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 (DWH) oil to investigate oil-induced toxicological impacts. Livers were collected for multiple analyses including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymatic activity and protein expression. CYP1A enzymatic activity was measured by alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (AROD) assays. Activities specific to the O-dealkylation of four resorufin ethers are reported: benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD). CYP1A protein expression was measured by western blot analysis with a CYP1A1 mouse monoclonal antibody. In study 1, hepatic BROD, EROD, and PROD activities were significantly induced in DCCO orally exposed to 20 ml/kg body weight (bw) oil as a single dose or daily for 5 days. Western blot analysis revealed hepatic CYP1A protein induction in both treatment groups. In study 2 (5 ml/kg bw oil or 10 ml/kg bw oil, 21 day exposure), all four hepatic ARODs were significantly induced. Western blots showed an increase in hepatic CYP1A expression in both treatment groups with a significant induction in birds exposed to 10 ml/kg oil. Significant correlations were detected among all 4 AROD activities in both studies and between CYP1A protein expression and both MROD and PROD activities in study 2. EROD activity was highest for both treatment groups in both studies while BROD activity had the greatest fold-induction. While PROD activity values were consistently low, the fold-induction was high, usually 2nd highest to BROD activity. The observed induced AROD profiles detected in the present studies suggest both CYP1A4/1A5 DCCO isoforms are being induced after MC252 oil ingestion. A review of the literature on avian CYP1A AROD activity levels and protein expression after exposure to CYP1A inducers highlights the need for species-specific studies to

  19. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  20. Stennis visits Lake Cormorant school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Alexis Harry, assistant director of Astro Camp at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, talks with students at Lake Cormorant (Miss.) Elementary School during a 'Living and Working in Space' presentation March 30. Stennis hosted the school presentation during a visit to the Oxford area. Harry, who also is a high school biology teacher in Slidell, La., spent time discussing space travel with students and answering questions they had about the experience, including queries about how astronauts eat, sleep and drink in space. The presentation was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis. For more information about NASA education initiatives, visit: http://education.ssc.nasa.gov/.

  1. A genetic signature of the evolution of loss of flight in the Galapagos cormorant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Alejandro; Wang, Weiguang; Ben-David, Eyal; Wolf, Paul C.; Ramey, Andy M.; Verdugo, Claudio; Lyons, Karen; Parker, Patricia G.; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONChanges in the size and proportion of limbs and other structures have played a key role in the evolution of species. One common class of limb modification is recurrent wing reduction and loss of flight in birds. Indeed, Darwin used the occurrence of flightless birds as an argument in favor of his theory of natural selection. Loss of flight has evolved repeatedly and is found among 26 families of birds in 17 different orders. Despite the frequency of these modifications, we have a limited understanding of their underpinnings at the genetic and molecular levels.RATIONALETo better understand the evolution of changes in limb size, we studied a classic case of recent loss of flight in the Galapagos cormorant (Phalacrocorax harrisi). Cormorants are large water birds that live in coastal areas or near lakes, and P. harrisi is the only flightless cormorant among approximately 40 extant species. The entire population is distributed along the coastlines of Isabela and Fernandina islands in the Galapagos archipelago. P. harrisi has a pair of short wings, which are smaller than those of any other cormorant. The extreme reduction of the wings and pectoral skeleton observed in P. harrisi is an attractive model for studying the evolution of loss of flight because it occurred very recently; phylogenetic evidence suggests that P. harrisi diverged from its flighted relatives within the past 2 million years. We developed a comparative and predictive genomics approach that uses the genome sequences of P. harrisi and its flighted relatives to find candidate genetic variants that likely contributed to the evolution of loss of flight.RESULTSWe sequenced and de novo assembled the whole genomes of P. harrisi and three closely related flighted cormorant species. We identified thousands of coding variants exclusive to P. harrisi and classified them according to their probability of altering protein function based on conservation. Variants most likely to alter

  2. Helminth parasites of the lesser great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis from two nesting regions in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, 13 June (2016), č. článku 022. ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA AV ČR IA62211 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Phalacrocoracidae * ecology * fish- eating birds * helminth fauna * morphology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  3. Directionality of nose-emitted echolocation calls from bats without a nose leaf (Plecotus auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Hallam, John; Moss, Cynthia F; Hedenström, Anders

    2018-02-13

    All echolocating bats and whales measured to date emit a directional bio-sonar beam that affords them a number of advantages over an omni-directional beam, i.e. reduced clutter, increased source level and inherent directional information. In this study, we investigated the importance of directional sound emission for navigation through echolocation by measuring the sonar beam of brown long-eared bats, Plecotus auritus Plecotus auritus emits sound through the nostrils but has no external appendages to readily facilitate a directional sound emission as found in most nose emitters. The study shows that P. auritus , despite lacking an external focusing apparatus, emits a directional echolocation beam (directivity index=13 dB) and that the beam is more directional vertically (-6 dB angle at 22 deg) than horizontally (-6 dB angle at 35 deg). Using a simple numerical model, we found that the recorded emission pattern is achievable if P. auritus emits sound through the nostrils as well as the mouth. The study thus supports the hypothesis that a directional echolocation beam is important for perception through echolocation and we propose that animals with similarly non-directional emitter characteristics may facilitate a directional sound emission by emitting sound through both the nostrils and the mouth. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Plumage and ecology of cormorants | Siegfried | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper draws on data attending the etho-ecology of four species of cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae) in support of an hypothesis for the adaptive significance of the predominantly dark plumage of these birds. It is suggested that a dark plumage, primarily by being most receptive to solar radiation, assists cormorants in ...

  5. Egg structural characteristics of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Faris A. Al-Obaidi; Shahrazad M. Al-Shadeedi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine egg morphology characteristics and component of Pygmy Cormorant (Microcarbo pygmaeus) in Iraq. Freshly Pygmy Cormorant eggs without developed embryo were collected from Al- Tarmiya lakes north of Baghdad city to determined egg morphology characteristics including egg shape dimensions: weight, volume, specific gravity, shell, yolk, albumin weight as well as percentage of shell, yolk and albumin. Result...

  6. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  8. Survey of heavy metals in internal tissues of Great cormorant collected from southern wetlands of Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazami, Jaber; KianiMehr, Naser

    2017-12-29

    The level of mercury, iron, copper, and zinc was measured in 18 Great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Anzali and Gomishan wetlands in the south of the Caspian Sea. The mean level of metals in dried tissues of the muscle, liver, and kidney was 2.26, 5.71, 3.79-Hg; 943.54, 379.97, 348.05-Fe; 42.64, 14.78, 60.79-Cu, and 71.97, 134.63, 77.82-Zn, respectively (mg/kg). There was no significant different between genders in terms of accumulation of metals, except for copper in the kidney. The results of Pearson correlation showed a positive and strong relationship between the fat in the liver and mercury (r = 0.95, R 2  = 0.90). Also, there was a significant difference between the values of all metals with the allowable limits presented in EPA, WHO, and CCME, where all of values were above standard levels. Thus, as the muscles of the bird are sometimes eaten by humans, this result is a serious warning. Nevertheless, the relatively high levels of heavy metals accumulated in different tissues of Great cormorant at that time are a result of their high weight and nourishment they have at the terminal days of their migration due to lack of natural physical activity. Regarding to the importance of heavy metals in birds, we suggest the same study to be conducted on the species in other seasons and wetlands.

  9. Directionality of nose-emitted echolocation calls from bats without a nose-leaf (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Hallam, John; Moss, Cynthia F

    2017-01-01

    All echolocating bats and whales measured to date emit a directional bio-sonar beam that affords them a number of advantages over an omni-directional beam, i.e. reduced clutter, increased source level and inherent directional information. In this study we investigated the importance of a directio......All echolocating bats and whales measured to date emit a directional bio-sonar beam that affords them a number of advantages over an omni-directional beam, i.e. reduced clutter, increased source level and inherent directional information. In this study we investigated the importance...... of a directional sound emission for navigation through echolocation by measuring the sonar beam of brown long-eared bats, Plecotus auritusP. auritus emits sound through the nostrils but has no external appendages to readily facility a directional sound emission as found in most nose emitters. The study shows...

  10. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  11. Cormorant predation on PIT-tagged lake fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Jepsen, Niels; Baktoft, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The present study use data from recovered PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tags to explore species-and size-specific annual predation rates by cormorants on three common lacustrine fishes (size range 120-367 mm) in a European lake; roach (Rutilus rutilus), common bream (Abramis brama) and per...

  12. Foraging behaviour and diet of the Guanay cormorant | Zavalaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were interannual differences in diet composition, but generally Peruvian silverside Odonthestes regia regia, Peruvian anchovy Engraulis ringens and mote sculpin Normanichthys crockeri were the main food delivered to cormorant chicks, accounting for 45, 29 and 16% of the overall number of items respectively.

  13. South Africa's coastal-breeding white-breasted cormorants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's coastal-breeding white-breasted cormorants: population trends, breeding season and movements, and diet. RJM Crawford, RM Randall, PA Whittington, L Waller, BM Dyer, DG Allan, C Fox, AP Martin, L Upfold, J Visagie, S Bachoo, M Bowker, CT Downs, R Fox, J Huisamen, AB Makhado, WH Oosthuizen, PG ...

  14. Cape cormorants decrease, move east and adapt foraging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cape cormorants decrease, move east and adapt foraging strategies following eastward displacement of their main prey. RJM Crawford, RM Randall, TR Cook, PG Ryan, BM Dyer, R Fox, D Geldenhuys, J Huisamen, C, McGeorge, MK Smith, L Upfold, J Visagie, LJ Waller, PA Whittington, CG Wilke, AB Makhado ...

  15. Frequency sensitivity and directional hearing in the gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R B; Guppy, A; Anderson, M E; Schlegel, P

    1989-01-01

    1. The neural audiogram of the common long-eared bat, Plecotus auritus was recorded from the inferior colliculus (IC). The most sensitive best frequency (BF) thresholds for single neurones are below 0 dB SPL between 7-20 kHz, reaching a best value of -20 dB SPL between 12-20 kHz. The lower and upper limits of hearing occur at 3 kHz and 63 kHz, respectively, based on BF thresholds at 80 dB SPL. BF threshold sensitivities are about 10 dB SPL between 25-50 kHz, corresponding to the energy band of the sonar pulse (26-78 kHz). The tonotopic organization of the central nucleus of the IC (ICC) reveals that neurones with BFs below 20 kHz are disproportionately represented, occupying about 30% of ICC volume, occurring in the more rostral and lateral regions of the nucleus. 2. The acoustical gain of the external ear reaches a peak of about 20 dB between 8-20 kHz. The gain of the pinna increases rapidly above 4 kHz, to a peak of about 15 dB at 7-12 kHz. The pinna gain curve is similar to that of a simple, finite length acoustic horn; expected horn gain is calculated from the average dimensions of the pinna. 3. The directional properties of the external ear are based on sound diffraction by the pinna mouth, which, to a first approximation, is equivalent to an elliptical opening due to the elongated shape of the pinna. The spatial receptive field properties for IC neurones are related to the directional properties of the pinna. The position of the acoustic axis of the pinna and the best position (BP) of spatial receptive fields are both about 25 degrees from the midline between 8-30 kHz but approach the midline to 8 degrees at 45 kHz. In elevation, the acoustic axis and the BP of receptive fields move upwards by 20 degrees between 9-25 kHz, remaining stationary for frequencies up to 60 kHz. 4. The extremely high auditory sensitivity shown by the audiogram and the directionality of hearing are discussed in terms of the adaptation of the auditory system to low frequencies and the

  16. Consequent effects of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) predation on parasite infection and body condition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondračková, Markéta; Valová, Zdenka; Kortan, J.; Vojtek, L.; Adámek, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2012), s. 1487-1493 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ichthyophthirius multifiliis * Channel catfish * Crowding stress * Arctic charr * Fish * Susceptibility * Monogeneans Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012

  17. Winter diet of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) on the River Vltava: estimate of size and species composition and potential for fish stock losses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, Martin; Vejřík, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2011), 129–142 ISSN 0139-7893. [Czech Ichthyological Conference /XII./. Vodňany, 19.05.2010-20.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1371; GA ČR(CZ) GP206/09/P266; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : diagnostic bones * fish withdrawal * regurgitated pellets * European chub * European perch * grayling * roach * ruffe * Slapy Reservoir * trout spp. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  18. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and shortnose suckers based on recoveries of passive integrated transponder tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allen; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley D.; Collis, Ken; Hewitt, David A.; Roby, Daniel D.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), both listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), from American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) nesting at mixed species colonies on Clear Lake Reservoir, CA and Upper Klamath Lake, OR during 2009-2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags that were implanted in suckers, subsequently consumed by pelicans or cormorants, and deposited on the birds’ nesting colonies. Data from PIT tag recoveries were used to estimate predation rates (proportion of available tagged suckers consumed) by birds to evaluate the relative susceptibility of suckers to avian predation in Upper Klamath Basin. Data on the size of pelican and cormorant colonies (number of breeding adults) at Clear Lake and Upper Klamath Lake were also collected and reported in the context of predation on suckers.

  19. Population genetic structure and gene flow in a gleaning bat, Plecotus auritus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burland, T. M.; Barratt, E. M.; Beaumont, M. A.; Racey, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    During summer the brown long-eared bat Plecotus auritus (Vespertilionidae) forms stable colonies, comprised of both adult females and males and young of the year. A long-term ringing study conducted in north-east Scotland has established that little movement occurs among colonies and that both sexes are recruited into their natal colony. The aim of the present study was to investigate, using microsatellite DNA markers, if genetic structure within the population reflects the spatial structure indicated by ringing. Inter-colony FST estimates obtained for all colony members, and for females and males separately, were low (0.019, 0.026 and 0.011, respectively), but all values differed significantly from zero. These data indicate high gene flow between colonies, although some coancestry among colony members is evident in both sexes. On combining the ringing and genetic data, it is concluded that gene flow occurs via extra-colony copulation, rather than natal dispersal, and that each colony behaves as a distinct subpopulation. Microgeographical genetic isolation by distance was demonstrated for, to our knowledge, the first time in a bat species, and found to be apparent both across the entire study area and along one river valley. The results suggest that extensive macrogeographical population genetic structure may be evident across the species' range.

  20. In-air and underwater hearing of the cormorant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Numerous studies have mapped the hearing abilities of birds in air but currently there is little or no data on how diving birds hear or react to sound under water. Therefore, it is unknown whether the ears and auditory system of diving birds are adapted to underwater hearing. In the present study...... 10 cm under water in a large water filled-tank while being artificially ventilated. ABR-responses to calibrated tone bursts produced by a woofer and an underwater speaker, respectively, were measured at different intensities and frequencies to obtain hearing threshold values in air and under water......Hz) under water. Generally, the cormorant ear was not very sensitive to sound, neither in air nor under water. The hearing abilities in water, however, were better than what would have been expected for a purely in-air adapted ear. (Supported by the Carlsberg Foundation 2009_01_0292 and the Danish Council...

  1. 76 FR 69225 - Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... industry and on natural resources at many locations across North America. Double-crested cormorants have... grounds and during migration to alleviate damage and lessen economic, social, and ecological conflicts...

  2. Een oude vondst op Java van de Groote Aalscholver (Phalacrocorax sulcirostris territori (Math.) in het museum te Buitenzorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, A.

    1947-01-01

    In De Tropische Natuur (jrg. 24, Juni 1935, p. 90/91) maakten wij, bij een goede foto der levende volgels, melding van een groote aalscholver door ons in 1935 waargenomen in de Brantas-delta, die later bleek Phalacrocorax sulcirostris territori te zijn en door ons onder dien naam werd gepubliceerd

  3. Fitness consequences of timing of migration and breeding in cormorants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Gienapp

    Full Text Available In most bird species timing of breeding affects reproductive success whereby early breeding is favoured. In migratory species migration time, especially arrival at the breeding grounds, and breeding time are expected to be correlated. Consequently, migration time should also have fitness consequences. However, in contrast to breeding time, evidence for fitness consequences of migration time is much more limited. Climate change has been shown to negatively affect the synchrony between trophic levels thereby leading to directional selection on timing but again direct evidence in avian migration time is scarce. We here analysed fitness consequences of migration and breeding time in great cormorants and tested whether climate change has led to increased selection on timing using a long-term data set from a breeding colony on the island of Vorsø (Denmark. Reproductive success, measured as number of fledglings, correlated with breeding time and arrival time at the colony and declined during the season. This seasonal decline became steeper during the study period for both migration and breeding time and was positively correlated to winter/spring climate, i.e. selection was stronger after warmer winters/springs. However, the increasing selection pressure on timing seems to be unrelated to climate change as the climatic variables that were related to selection strength did not increase during the study period. There is indirect evidence that phenology or abundances of preferred prey species have changed which could have altered selection on timing of migration and breeding.

  4. Similar but not the same: metal concentrations in hair of three ecologically similar, forest-dwelling bat species (Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, and Plecotus auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Becker, Nina I; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a number of studies demonstrated the suitability of hair analysis to assess metal exposure of bats. As many bat species are endangered, such a non-destructive method is particularly suited for this taxon. The present study analyzed the levels of two non-essential (cadmium and lead) and four essential metals (copper, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) in hairs of three ecologically similar, sympatric bat species, Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii), Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri), and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) from an area in Central Hesse (Germany), as well as metal concentrations in soil samples from the bats' foraging habitats. Applying a previously established protocol, the analyses were performed using microwave-assisted extraction followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Cadmium and lead concentrations in hair did not differ significantly among the three studied species, whereas the following significant differences existed for levels of essential metals in hair. Manganese concentrations in hair were higher in M. bechsteinii and P. auritus than in M. nattereri and Cu concentrations were higher in M. nattereri than in P. auritus. Myotis bechsteinii showed higher Zn concentrations compared to P. auritus and lower Mo concentrations compared to M. nattereri. Reasons for the observed differences among the three studied species could be differential exposure to these metal elements in their foraging areas, related to variation in the species composition of their arthropod diet in combination with different metal levels in the respective prey species, and/or species-specific requirements for essential metals and related variation in physiological regulation of these elements in the bats.

  5. 77 FR 4274 - Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2011-0033; 91200-1231-9BPP] RIN 1018-AX82 Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Request for comments; extension of...

  6. Black spots for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems: impact of a perennial cormorant colony on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaszyk, Piotr; Brzeg, Andrzej; Rzymski, Piotr; Piotrowicz, Ryszard

    2015-06-01

    The global growth of populations of different cormorant species has raised concern on the consequences of their presence in the environment. This study examined the impact of a perennial colony (160 breeding pairs) of great cormorants on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The deposition of bird-originating nutrients within the area of colony, their accumulation in soils and the fluxed of chemical substances to a nearby lake were investigated. The impact of cormorants on terrestrial vegetation and microbial pollution of the lake were also studied. The soils beneath the colony were found to contain extremely high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The overgrowing vegetation was largely limited with nitrophilous and invasive species being more abundant. Increased loads of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus were also found in groundwater and particularly, surface runoff. The colony area delivered significant amounts of nutrients to the lake also when the birds were absent. The lake water near colony was also characterized by increased nutrient content and additionally higher number of faecal bacteria. The present results demonstrate the complexity through which the effect of cormorant colonies can be manifested simultaneously in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Breeding Ecology of the Imperial Shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps), in Deseada Island (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Arrighi, Alejandro C.; Navarro, Joaquín L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the breeding ecology of Imperial Shags (Phalacrocorax atriceps) in Deseada Island (Santa Cruz, Argentina), during the breeding season of 1994-95. The shags arrived to the island in early August, they re-builded their nests and started to lay eggs during late October, with a peak of egg production in the first two weeks of November. The modal clutch size was three eggs. Hatehing started in late November. The maximum mean brood size was observed in mid- Oecember (1.4 chicks). Hatehin...

  8. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  9. Long-term changes in winter distribution of Danish ringed Great Cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Herrmann, Christof; Wendt, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    We describe long-term changes in the distribution of 2123 freshly dead winter recoveries of 86,427 cormorant chicks ringed between 1940 and 2015 in Denmark. The entire wintering range was divided into four major compartments to look for changes in a) migratory distances within three compartments......, and b) the distribution of recoveries among all four compartments. Distances to winter recovery sites declined by more than 500 km (around one third) over ten years in the south-eastern wintering compartment. A gradual decline of similar magnitude occurred in the southern wintering compartment during...... 1976/77 to 2015/16. There were no changes in migration distance among cormorants wintering in the south-western compartment over the time period. From 1991 onwards, recoveries were recorded in increasing proportions in the south-western compartment (from 17% in 1986/87-1990/91 to 71% in 2011...

  10. Dynamic Responses in a Plant-Insect System to Fertilization by Cormorant Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula Kolb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical arguments suggest that increased plant productivity may not only increase consumer densities but also their fluctuations. While increased consumer densities are commonly observed in fertilization experiments, experiments are seldom performed at a spatial and temporal scale where effects on population fluctuations may be observed. In this study we used a natural gradient in soil fertility caused by cormorant nesting. Cormorants feed on fish but defecate on their nesting islands. On these islands we studied soil nutrient availability, plant nutrient content and the density of Galerucella beetles, main herbivores feeding on Lythrum salicaria. In a common garden experiment, we followed larval development on fertilized plants and estimated larval stoichiometry. Soil nutrient availability varied among islands, and several cormorant islands had very high N and P soil content. Plant nutrient content, however, did not vary among islands, and there was no correlation between soil and plant nutrient contents. Beetle densities increased with plant nutrient content in the field study. However, there was either no effect on temporal fluctuations in beetle density or that temporal fluctuations decreased (at high P. In the common garden experiment, we found limited responses in either larval survival or pupal weights to fertilization. A possible mechanism for the limited effect of fertilization on density fluctuations may be that the distribution of L. salicaria on nesting islands was restricted to sites with a lower N and P content, presumably because high N loads are toxic.

  11. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balčiauskas, Linas, E-mail: linasbal@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Skipitytė, Raminta, E-mail: raminta.skipityte@ftmc.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Jasiulionis, Marius, E-mail: mjasiulionis@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Trakimas, Giedrius, E-mail: giedrius.trakimas@gf.vu.lt [Center for Ecology and Environmental Research, Vilnius University, Vilnius (Lithuania); Institute of Life Sciences and Technology, Daugavpils University, Parades Str. 1a, Daugavpils, LV-5401 (Latvia); Balčiauskienė, Laima, E-mail: laiba@ekoi.lt [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Remeikis, Vidmantas, E-mail: vidrem@fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanorių 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ{sup 15}N (16.31 ± 3.01‰ and 17.86 ± 2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ{sup 15}N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ{sup 13}C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ{sup 15}N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. - Highlights: • Cormorants transport nutrients from water to land ecosystems and pollute biogenically. • We studied stable isotope composition of small mammal hair in 3 cormorant colonies. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N were measured using elemental analyzer–isotope ratio mass spectrometer. • δ{sup 13}C and

  12. Cormoranes de la costa patagónica: estado poblacional, ecología y conservación

    OpenAIRE

    Frere, Esteban; Quintana, Flavio; Gandini, Patricia Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    lo largo de la costa de Argentina nidifican cinco especies de cormoranes: el Cormorán Imperial (Phalacrocorax atriceps), el Cormorán Cuello Negro (Phalacrocorax magellanicus), el Cormorán Gris (Phalacrocorax gaimardi), el Biguá (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) y el Guanay (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii). En este trabajo se resume el estado del conocimiento actual, incluyendo información inédita, sobre los principales aspectos de la biología, la ecología, la abundancia y la distribución de las poblacio...

  13. Predation on seabirds by red foxes at Shaiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two Red Foxes (Vulpes fulva) that invaded Shaiak Island before the 1976 nesting season had a marked impact on the nesting success of five of seven species of seabirds breeding on the island that year. Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Common Murres (Uria aalge), that nest in areas accessible to foxes, did not raise any young to fledging. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were only slightly more successful; 13 (4.3%) of 300 pairs raised one or more young to fledging. Evidence suggested that 21 (35.6%) of 62 pairs of Tufted Puffins (Lunda cirrhata) lost eggs or chicks to foxes, and foxes killed at least 13 (8.3%) of 156 adult puffins on ten sample plots. Conversely, Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), which nested primarily on cliffs inaccessible to foxes, lost very few nests. There was no apparent change in general nest site selections by seabirds the following year, when foxes were no longer present. Any avoidance by birds of areas vulnerable to fox predation would probably be discernible only after several years of continuous predation.

  14. Ecological stoichiometry and density responses of plant-arthropod communities on cormorant nesting islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundula S Kolb

    Full Text Available Seabirds deposit large amounts of nutrient rich guano on their nesting islands. The increased nutrient availability strongly affects plants and consumers. Consumer response differs among taxonomic groups, but mechanisms causing these differences are poorly understood. Ecological stoichiometry might provide tools to understand these mechanisms. ES suggests that nutrient rich taxa are more likely to be nutrient limited than nutrient poorer taxa and are more favored under nutrient enrichment. Here, we quantified differences in the elemental composition of soil, plants, and consumers between islands with and without nesting cormorant colonies and tested predictions made based on ES by relating the elemental composition and the eventual mismatch between consumer and resource stoichiometry to observed density differences among the island categories. We found that nesting cormorants radically changed the soil nutrient content and thereby indirectly plant nutrient content and resource quality to herbivores. In contrast, consumers showed only small differences in their elemental composition among the island categories. While we cannot evaluate the cause of the apparent homeostasis of invertebrates without additional data, we can conclude that from the perspective of the next trophic level, there is no difference in diet quality (in terms of N and P content between island categories. Thus, bottom-up effects seemed mainly be mediated via changes in resource quantity not quality. Despite a large potential trophic mismatch we were unable to observe any relation between the invertebrate stoichiometry and their density response to nesting cormorant colonies. We conclude that in our system stoichiometry is not a useful predictor of arthropod responses to variation in resource nutrient content. Furthermore, we found no strong evidence that resource quality was a prime determinant of invertebrate densities. Other factors like resource quantity, habitat structure

  15. Ecological stoichiometry and density responses of plant-arthropod communities on cormorant nesting islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Gundula S; Palmborg, Cecilia; Hambäck, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds deposit large amounts of nutrient rich guano on their nesting islands. The increased nutrient availability strongly affects plants and consumers. Consumer response differs among taxonomic groups, but mechanisms causing these differences are poorly understood. Ecological stoichiometry might provide tools to understand these mechanisms. ES suggests that nutrient rich taxa are more likely to be nutrient limited than nutrient poorer taxa and are more favored under nutrient enrichment. Here, we quantified differences in the elemental composition of soil, plants, and consumers between islands with and without nesting cormorant colonies and tested predictions made based on ES by relating the elemental composition and the eventual mismatch between consumer and resource stoichiometry to observed density differences among the island categories. We found that nesting cormorants radically changed the soil nutrient content and thereby indirectly plant nutrient content and resource quality to herbivores. In contrast, consumers showed only small differences in their elemental composition among the island categories. While we cannot evaluate the cause of the apparent homeostasis of invertebrates without additional data, we can conclude that from the perspective of the next trophic level, there is no difference in diet quality (in terms of N and P content) between island categories. Thus, bottom-up effects seemed mainly be mediated via changes in resource quantity not quality. Despite a large potential trophic mismatch we were unable to observe any relation between the invertebrate stoichiometry and their density response to nesting cormorant colonies. We conclude that in our system stoichiometry is not a useful predictor of arthropod responses to variation in resource nutrient content. Furthermore, we found no strong evidence that resource quality was a prime determinant of invertebrate densities. Other factors like resource quantity, habitat structure and species

  16. The Imperial Shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps) in the Nahuel Huapi Lake (northwestern Patagonia, Argentina): distribution, abundance, and potential threats from scavenging birds.

    OpenAIRE

    Frixione, Martín G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the distribution and breeding abundance of the Imperial Shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps) in the northern portion of the Nahuel Huapi Lake (northwestern Patagonia, Argentina) during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 reproductive seasons. We recorded low population numbers and null breeding success in both seasons. Attacks from several scavenging birds were recorded, and breeding activities were interrupted abruptly. Future studies should consider the potential threats from scavenging birds,...

  17. Can underwater refuges protect fish populations against cormorant predation? Evidence from a large-scale multiple pond experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, P.; De Meester, L.; Declerck, S.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial structures can protect fish against predation by cormorants (Phalacocorax spp.). However, their effectiveness in larger water bodies with different fish communities in the presence of natural vegetation still needs to be explored. Using a large-scale field experiment with 24 ponds stocked

  18. The impact of Great Cormorants on biogenic pollution of land ecosystems: Stable isotope signatures in small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiauskas, Linas; Skipitytė, Raminta; Jasiulionis, Marius; Trakimas, Giedrius; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2016-09-15

    Studying the isotopic composition of the hair of two rodent species trapped in the territories of Great Cormorant colonies, we aimed to show that Great Cormorants transfer biogens from aquatic ecosystems to terrestrial ecosystems, and that these substances reach small mammals through the trophic cascade, thus influencing the nutrient balance in the terrestrial ecosystem. Analysis of δ(13)C and δ(15)N was performed on two dominant species of small mammals, Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of the colonies. For both species, the values of δ(13)C and δ(15)N were higher in the animals trapped in the territories of the colonies than those in control territories. In the hair of A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, the highest values of δ(15)N (16.31±3.01‰ and 17.86±2.76‰, respectively) were determined in those animals trapped in the biggest Great Cormorant colony. δ(15)N values were age dependent, highest in adult A. flavicollis and M. glareolus and lowest in juvenile animals. For δ(13)C values, age-dependent differences were not registered. δ(15)N values in both small mammal species from the biggest Great Cormorant colony show direct dependence on the intensity of influence. Biogenic pollution is at its strongest in the territories of the colonies with nests, significantly diminishing in the ecotones of the colonies and further in the control zones, where the influence of birds is negligible. Thus, Great Cormorant colonies alter ecosystem functioning by enrichment with biogens, with stable isotope values in small mammals significantly higher in the affected territories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gut content analysis of Lake Michigan waterbirds in years with avian botulism type E mortality, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essian, David A.; Chipault, Jennifer G.; Lafrancois, Brenda M.; Leonard, Jill B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird die-offs caused by Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E) have occurred sporadically in the Great Lakes since the late 1960s, with a recent pulse starting in the late 1990s. In recent die-offs, round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) have been implicated as vectors for the transfer of BoNT/E to fish-eating birds due to the round goby invasion history and their importance as prey. Dreissenid mussels (Dreissena spp.) are also potentially involved in BoNT/E transmission to birds and round gobies. We examined gut contents of waterbirds collected in Lake Michigan during die-offs in 2010–2012, and the gut contents of culled, presumably BoNT/E-free double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). Round gobies were found in 86% of the BoNT/E-positive individuals, 84% of the BoNT/E-negative birds, and 94% of the BoNT/E-free cormorants examined. Double-crested cormorants, ring-billed gulls (Larus delewarensis), and common loons (Gavia immer) consumed larger-sized round gobies than horned and red-necked grebes (Podiceps auritus and Podiceps grisegena), white-winged scoters (Melanitta deglandi), and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hymealis). Other common prey included dreissenid mussels, terrestrial insects, and alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus). Our data emphasize the importance of round gobies and mussels in diets of Lake Michigan waterbirds and suggest they may play a role in the transfer of BoNT/E to waterbirds; however, round gobies and mussels were found in BoNT/E-positive, -negative, and -free individuals, suggesting that other factors, such as alternative trophic pathways for toxin transfer, bird migratory timing and feeding locations, prey behavior, and individual physiological differences across birds may affect the likelihood that a bird will succumb to BoNT/E intoxication.

  20. Variación inter e intraespecí­fica del ciclo respiratorio durante las inmersiones en tres especies de cormoranes patagónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Retana, M. Valeria; Quintana, Flavio

    2009-01-01

    En tres sitios de nidificación ubicados en la costa patagónica de Argentina (Punta Loma, Caleta Malaspina y Puerto Deseado) se estudió en forma comparada la variación inter e intraespecífica de la relación entre la duración de los buceos y los intervalos de recuperación en superficie de tres especies de cormoranes: el Cormorán Imperial (Phalacrocorax atriceps), el Cormorán Cuello Negro (Phalacrocorax magellanicus) y el Cormorán Gris (Phalacrocorax gaimardi). El Cormorán Imperial presentó la m...

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in cormorant, darter, egret, and ibis eggs from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Henk; Polder, Anuschka; Venter, Belinda; Skaare, Janneche U

    2008-03-01

    During the last 15 years, no research has been published on the levels of pesticides in bird eggs from South Africa, despite the high levels found previously. We analysed eggs from African darter, cattle egret, reed cormorant, African sacred ibis, as well as single eggs from some other species, and found HCB, DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at detectable levels. The presence of mirex in all species was unexpected, since this compound was never registered in South Africa. It also seemed as if terrestrial feeding birds had higher DDE:PCB ratios when compared with aquatic feeding birds. Except for chlordane, the African darter eggs had the highest levels of all other compounds (mean 370 and 300 ng g(-1) ww Sigma pesticides and Sigma PCBs, respectively). Multivariate analysis clearly distinguished the aquatic and terrestrially feeding birds on pollution profile. The African darter (aquatic feeding) and the cattle egret (terrestrial feeding) would be good indicator candidates. Eggshell thinning was detected in the African darter, and was associated with most of the compounds, including DDE and PCBs. We raise a concern that generally longer living birds in warmer climates, laying fewer eggs per clutch, might be at increased risk when compared with trophically similar birds exposed to equivalent levels of pollution in colder climates. Given the scarcity of water and the high biodiversity in Southern Africa, climate change will exert strong pressure, and any additional anthropogenic contamination at levels that can cause subtle behavioural, developmental and reproductive changes, can have serious effects.

  2. Organohalogenated contaminants in eggs of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) and imperial shags (Phalacrocorax atriceps) from the Falkland Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Steen, Evi; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Pinxten, Rianne; van Noordwijk, Hendrika J; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2011-06-15

    In this study, we evaluated the use of seabird eggs of two common bird species from the Falkland Islands as bioindicators of contamination with organohalogenated contaminants (OHCs). We compared contamination levels and profiles of different OHCs between eggs of the rockhopper penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) and the imperial shag (Phalacrocorax atriceps). In addition, laying order effects on OHC concentrations and profiles were also investigated in both species. For polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), concentrations were significantly lower in eggs of rockhopper penguins (27.6±0.70 ng/g lw, 56.5±1.33 ng/g lw and 0.98±0.04 ng/g lw, respectively) compared to the imperial shags (140±5.54 ng/g lw, 316±11.53 ng/g lw, 1.92±0.15 ng/g lw, respectively). On the other hand, 2'MeO-BDE 68 and 6MeO-BDE 47, two brominated compounds of reported natural origin, were significantly higher in the penguin eggs (0.55±0.05 ng/g lw and 7.01±0.64 ng/g lw, respectively) compared to the shag eggs (0.17±0.03 ng/g lw and 0.50±0.06 ng/g lw, respectively). In addition, PCB, OCP and PBDE contamination profiles differed markedly between the two species. Various factors, such as diet, feeding behaviour, migratory behaviour and species-specific metabolism, may be responsible for the observed results. For both rockhopper penguins and imperial shags, PCB, OCP and PBDE concentrations and profiles did not significantly change in relation to the laying order. This suggests that, for both species, any egg of a clutch is useful as a biomonitoring tool for OHCs. Although our results showed that OHCs have also reached the Falkland Islands, concentrations were relatively low compared to other studies. However, future monitoring may be warranted to assess temporal trends of different OHCs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic structure in the European endemic seabird, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, shaped by a complex interaction of historical and contemporary, physical and nonphysical drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanou, Evanthia; Sponza, Stefano; Nelson, Emily J; Perry, Annika; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Cavers, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Geographically separated populations tend to be less connected by gene flow, as a result of physical or nonphysical barriers preventing dispersal, and this can lead to genetic structure. In this context, highly mobile organisms such as seabirds are interesting because the small effect of physical barriers means nonphysical ones may be relatively more important. Here, we use microsatellite and mitochondrial data to explore the genetic structure and phylogeography of Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of a European endemic seabird, the European shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis, and identify the primary drivers of their diversification. Analyses of mitochondrial markers revealed three phylogenetic lineages grouping the North Atlantic, Spanish/Corsican and eastern Mediterranean populations, apparently arising from fragmentation during the Pleistocene followed by range expansion. These traces of historical fragmentation were also evident in the genetic structure estimated by microsatellite markers, despite significant contemporary gene flow among adjacent populations. Stronger genetic structure, probably promoted by landscape, philopatry and local adaptation, was found among distant populations and those separated by physical and ecological barriers. This study highlights the enduring effect of Pleistocene climatic changes on shag populations, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, and suggests a role for cryptic northern refugia, as well as known southern refugia, on the genetic structure of European seabirds. Finally, it outlines how contemporary ecological barriers and behavioural traits may maintain population divergence, despite long-distance dispersal triggered by extreme environmental conditions (e.g. population crashes). © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage basin, North Carolina and Virginia; trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers, 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, P.M.; Smith, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, trace elements in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) livers were analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of trace element contaminants in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. All but 3 of the 22 trace elements that were analyzed were detected. Although all 10 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants were detected in the tissues sampled, they were present in relatively low concentrations. Concentrations of U.S. EPA priority pollutants in Asiatic clams collected in the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin are similar to concentrations observed in other NAWQA study units in the southeastern United States. Mercury (a U.S. EPA priority pollutant) was widely detected, being present in 29 of 30 tissue samples, but concentrations did not exceed the FDA action level for mercury of a risk-based screening value for the general public. Mercury concentrations in Asiatic clams were similar to concentrations in other NAWQA study areas in the Southeast.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Albemarle-Pamlico Drainage Basin, North Carolina and Virginia; organochlorine compounds in Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbrest sunfish (Lepomis auritus) 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.E.; Ruhl, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of potential contaminants in biological tissues is an important part of many water-quality assessment programs, including the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Tissue analyses often are used to provide information about (1) direct threats to ecosystem integrity, and (2) the occurrence and distribution of potential contaminants in the environment. During 1992-93, Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) soft tissues and whole redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) samples were collected and analyzed to obtain information about the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage Basin of North Carolina and Virginia. The investigation was conducted as part of the NAWQA Program. Relatively few organochlorine compounds were detected and of the compounds detected, all were detected in relatively low concentrations. The organochlorine compounds detected were p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, dieldrin, trans-nonachlor, PCB's, and toxaphene. Multiple compounds were detected at 16 of 19 sites sampled. Compared to Asiatic clams, redbreast sunfish appear to be better bioindicators of organochlorine contamination in aquatic systems. Except for one detection of toxaphene, pesticide concentrations are well below the National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Engineering (NAS/NAE) guidelines for the protection of fish-eating wildlife.

  6. Nests of Anhinga novaehollandiae as nuclei for the breeding of Phalacrocoracidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1998-01-01

    In the years 1992/1998, in Busselton, W Australia, nesting of two species of cormorant, Phalacrocorax melanoleucos and P. sulcirostris, always took place in close proximity to inhabited nests of Anhinga novaehollandiae. Evidently, nests of the latter strongly attracted cormorants about to start

  7. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Of the 19 species of seabirds nesting off the coast of. Peru, the guanay cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian booby Sula variegata and the Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus, hereafter referred to as guano birds, have been the most abundant (Duffy et al. 1984). From historical times the guanay cormorant.

  8. Tracking overwintering areas of fish-eating birds to identify mercury exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Raphael A; Kyser, T Kurt; Friesen, Vicki L; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-01-20

    Migration patterns are believed to greatly influence concentrations of contaminants in birds due to accumulation in spatially and temporally distinct ecosystems. Two species of fish-eating birds, the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) and the Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne caspia) breeding in Lake Ontario were chosen to measure the impact of overwintering location on mercury concentrations ([Hg]). We characterized (1) overwintering areas using stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ(2)H) and band recoveries, and (2) overwintering habitats by combining information from stable isotopes of sulfur (δ(34)S), carbon (δ(13)C), nitrogen (δ(15)N), and δ(2)H in feathers grown during the winter. Overall, overwintering location had a significant effect on [Hg]. Both species showed high [Hg] in (13)C-rich habitats. In situ production of Hg (e.g., through sulfate reducing bacteria in sediments) and allochthonous import could explain high [Hg] in birds visiting (13)C-rich habitats. Higher [Hg] were found in birds with high δ(2)H, suggesting that Hg is more bioavailable in southern overwintering locations. Hotspot maps informed that higher [Hg] in birds were found at the limit of their southeastern overwintering range. Mercury concentrations in winter feathers were positively related to predicted spatial pattern of [Hg] in fish using the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF) based on bird spatial assignment (using δ(2)H). This study indicates that the overwintering location greatly influences [Hg].

  9. A comparison of the teratogenicity of methylmercury and selenomethionine injected into bird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Gary H.; Hoffman, David J.; Klimstra, Jon D.; Stebbins, Katherine R.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride and seleno-L-methionine were injected separately or in combinations into the fertile eggs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), chickens (Gallus gallus), and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and the incidence and types of teratogenic effects were recorded. For all three species,selenomethionine alone caused more deformities than did methylmercury alone. When mallard eggs were injected with the lowest dose of selenium (Se) alone (0.1 μg/g), 28 of 44 embryos and hatchlings were deformed, whereas when eggs were injected with the lowest dose of mercury (Hg) alone (0.2 μg/g), only 1 of 56 embryos or hatchlings was deformed. Mallard embryos seemed to be more sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than chicken embryos:0 of 15 chicken embryos or hatchlings from eggs injected with 0.1 μg/g Se exhibited deformities. Sample sizes were small with double-crested cormorant eggs, but they also seemed to be less sensitive to the teratogenic effects of Se than mallard eggs. There were no obvious differences among species regarding Hg-induced deformities. Overall, few interactions were apparent between methylmercury and selenomethionine with respect to the types of deformities observed. However, the deformities spina bifida and craniorachischisis were observed only when Hg and Se were injected in combination. One paradoxical finding was that some doses of methylmercury seemed to counteract the negative effect selenomethionine had on hatching of eggs while at the same time enhancing the negative effect selenomethionine had on creating deformities. When either methylmercury or selenomethionine is injected into avian eggs, deformities start to occur at much lower concentrations than when the Hg or Se is deposited naturally in the egg by the mother.

  10. Local and interannual variations in mercury and cadmium in eggs of eight seabird species of the Sinaloa coast, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyca, Juan P; Castillo-Guerrero, J Alfredo; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Fernández, Guillermo; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in eggs of 8 seabird species inhabiting 5 coastal ecosystems in Sinaloa, México were determined during 2 breeding seasons (2012 and 2013): blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), brown booby (Sula leucogaster), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), royal tern (Thalasseus maximus), laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla), and Heermann's gull (Larus heermanni). The interspecific differences found in the concentrations of both metals were attributed to the diet and foraging ecology of the species. The highest Hg concentrations were detected in piscivorous species (brown pelican, 0.42 µg/g; brown booby, 0.31 µg/g; blue-footed booby, 0.26 µg/g; and double-crested cormorant, 0.23 µg/g); whereas species with more varied diets presented the highest Cd concentrations (Heermann's gull, 0.31 µg/g; laughing gull, 0.27 µg/g; and magnificent frigatebird, 0.27 µg/g). Cadmium concentrations were significantly greater in 2013 than 2012 for most species, and brown pelican and laughing gull also had higher Hg concentrations in 2013 in Santa María Bay, suggesting a relationship as a result of the changes either in oceanographic conditions or in continental runoff. Mercury concentrations in brown pelican and Cd concentrations in Heermann's gull and laughing gull were above threshold levels for adverse effects on reproduction and survival. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2330-2338. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Colonial waterbird predation on Lost River and Shortnose suckers in the Upper Klamath Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Allen F.; Hewitt, David A.; Payton, Quinn; Cramer, Bradley M.; Collis, Ken; Roby, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated predation on Lost River Suckers Deltistes luxatus and Shortnose Suckers Chasmistes brevirostris by American white pelicans Pelecanus erythrorhynchos and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus nesting at mixed-species colonies in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California during 2009–2014. Predation was evaluated by recovering (detecting) PIT tags from tagged fish on bird colonies and calculating minimum predation rates, as the percentage of available suckers consumed, adjusted for PIT tag detection probabilities but not deposition probabilities (i.e., probability an egested tag was deposited on- or off-colony). Results indicate that impacts of avian predation varied by sucker species, age-class (adult, juvenile), bird colony location, and year, demonstrating dynamic predator–prey interactions. Tagged suckers ranging in size from 72 to 730 mm were susceptible to cormorant or pelican predation; all but the largest Lost River Suckers were susceptible to bird predation. Minimum predation rate estimates ranged annually from of the available PIT-tagged Lost River Suckers and from of the available Shortnose Suckers, and predation rates were consistently higher on suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, than on suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. There was evidence that bird predation on juvenile suckers (species unknown) in Upper Klamath Lake was higher than on adult suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, where minimum predation rates ranged annually from 5.7% to 8.4% of available juveniles. Results suggest that avian predation is a factor limiting the recovery of populations of Lost River and Shortnose suckers, particularly juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake and adult suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir. Additional research is needed to measure predator-specific PIT tag deposition probabilities (which, based on other published studies, could increase predation rates presented herein by a factor of roughly 2.0) and to better understand

  12. Fish community dynamics in northeastern Lake Ontario with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake Ontario with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P  0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).

  13. Wildlife, urban inputs, and landscape configuration are responsible for degraded swimming water quality at an embayed beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Nevers, Meredith; Whitman, Richard L.; Ge, Zhongfu; Shively, Dawn A.; Spoljaric, Ashley; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Jeorse Park Beach, on southern Lake Michigan, experiences frequent closures due to high Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels since regular monitoring was implemented in 2005. During the summer of 2010, contaminant source tracking techniques, such as the conventional microbial and physical surveys and hydrodynamic models, were used to determine the reasons for poor water quality at Jeorse Park. Fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci) were high throughout the season, with densities ranging from 12–2419 (culturable E. coli) and 1–2550 and < 1–5831 (culturable and qPCR enterococci, respectively). Genetic markers for human (Bacteroides HF183) and gull (Catellicoccus marimammalium) fecal contamination were found in 15% and 37% of the samples indicating multiple sources contributing to poor water quality. Nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) have steadily increased since 2005, coinciding with high E. colilevels. A hydrodynamic model indicated that limited circulation allows bacteria entering the embayed area to be retained in nearshore areas; and bacterial resuspension from sand and stranded beach wrack during storm events compounds the problem. The integration of hydrodynamics, expanded use of chemical and biological markers, as well as more complex statistical multivariate techniques can improve microbial source tracking, informing management actions to improve recreational water quality. Alterations to embayed structures to improve circulation and reduce nuisance algae as well as growing native plants to retain sand to improve beach morphometry are among some of the restoration strategies under consideration in ongoing multi-agency collaborations.

  14. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2006 Final Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-06-18

    This study investigates predation by piscivorous waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River Basin. During 2006, study objectives in the Columbia River estuary, work funded by the Bonneville Power Administration, were to (1) monitor and evaluate previous management initiatives to reduce Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) predation on juvenile salmonids (smolts); (2) measure the impact of double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) predation on smolt survival, and assess potential management options to reduce cormorant predation; and (3) monitor large colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds in the estuary (i.e., glaucous-winged/western gulls [Larus glaucescens/occidentalis]) to determine the potential impacts on smolt survival. Study objectives on the mid-Columbia River, work funded by the Walla Walla District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, were to (1) measure the impact of predation by Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants on smolt survival; and (2) monitor large nesting colonies of other piscivorous waterbirds (i.e., California gulls [L. californicus], ring-billed gulls [L. delawarensis], American white pelicans [Pelecanus erythrorhynchos]) on the mid-Columbia River to determine the potential for significant impacts on smolt survival. Our efforts to evaluate system-wide losses of juvenile salmonids to avian predation indicated that Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants were responsible for the vast majority of smolt losses to avian predators in the Columbia Basin, with most losses occurring in the Columbia River estuary. In 2006, East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary supported the largest known breeding colonies of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants in the world. The Caspian tern colony on East Sand Island consisted of about 9,200 breeding pairs in 2006, up slightly (but not significantly so) from the estimate of colony size in 2005 (8,820 pairs). There has not been a

  15. New species of haematozoa in Phalacrocoracidae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New species of haematozoa, namely Leucocytozoon ugwidi sp. nov. from the Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and Haemoproteus skuae sp. nov. from the Subantarctic Skua Catharacta antarctica, are described. These are the first species to be recorded from the families Phalacrocoracidae and Stercorariidae, ...

  16. Comparison of trends in abundance of guano-producing seabirds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundant guano-producing seabirds in Peru and southern Africa feed mainly on the large populations of anchovy Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops sagax supported by the Humboldt and Benguela upwelling systems. Numbers of guanay cormorants Phalacrocorax bougainvillii in Peru and the breeding population ...

  17. ACCOUNTING FOR FOOD REQUIREMENTS OF SEABIRDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, four of the seabirds that feed mainly on sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus have an unfavourable conservation status or a small population: African penguin Spheniscus demersus, Cape gannet Morus capensis, Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and swift tern Sterna bergii.

  18. accounting for food requirements of seabirds in fisheries management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, four of the seabirds that feed mainly on sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus have an unfavourable conservation status or a small population: African penguin Spheniscus demersus, Cape gannet Morus capensis, Cape cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and swift tern Sterna bergii.

  19. Pilot assessment of mercury exposure in selected biota from the lowlands of Nicaragua [Evaluacion piloto de exposicion al mercurio en biota selecta de las tierras bajas de Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.P. Lane; W.J. Arendt; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin, can damage health of humans and wildlife. In 2012, we collected 73 blood and feather samples from birds among diverse foraging guilds to assess mercury exposure in wetland habitats associated with Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Blood levels (0.72 parts per million) in a piscivorous Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus from...

  20. Birds as major predators of fishes in the East Kleinemonde Estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The above 1995/96 figures, together with an estimate of fish predation by the dominant piscivorous fish Lichia amia of 696 kg suggests that birds are probably the single most important natural predator of fishes within this estuary. An unusual mass invasion by marine Cape Cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis during July ...

  1. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  2. Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation of Avian Predation on Salmonid Smolts in the Lower and Mid-Columbia River, 2008 Draft Season Summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roby, Daniel D. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University; Collis, Ken [Real Time Research, Inc.; Lyons, Donald E. [USGS - Oregon Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Oregon State University

    2009-07-08

    This report describes investigations into predation by piscivorous colonial waterbirds on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) from throughout the Columbia River basin during 2008. East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary again supported the largest known breeding colony of Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) in the world (approximately 10,700 breeding pairs) and the largest breeding colony of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in western North America (approximately 10,950 breeding pairs). The Caspian tern colony increased from 2007, but not significantly so, while the double-crested cormorant colony experienced a significant decline (20%) from 2007. Average cormorant nesting success in 2008, however, was down only slightly from 2007, suggesting that food supply during the 2008 nesting season was not the principal cause of the decline in cormorant colony size. Total consumption of juvenile salmonids by East Sand Island Caspian terns in 2008 was approximately 6.7 million smolts (95% c.i. = 5.8-7.5 million). Caspian terns nesting on East Sand Island continued to rely primarily on marine forage fishes as a food supply. Based on smolt PIT tag recoveries on the East Sand Island Caspian tern colony, predation rates were highest on steelhead in 2008; minimum predation rates on steelhead smolts detected passing Bonneville Dam averaged 8.3% for wild smolts and 10.7% for hatchery-raised smolts. In 2007, total smolt consumption by East Sand Island double-crested cormorants was about 9.2 million juvenile salmonids (95% c.i. = 4.4-14.0 million), similar to or greater than that of East Sand Island Caspian terns during that year (5.5 million juvenile salmonids; 95% c.i. = 4.8-6.2 million). The numbers of smolt PIT tags recovered on the cormorant colony in 2008 were roughly proportional to the relative availability of PIT-tagged salmonids released in the Basin, suggesting that cormorant predation on salmonid smolts in the estuary was less selective than tern

  3. Some observations on Seabirds breeding in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1980 and 1981 more than 50 pairs of kelp gulls Lams dominicanus, 70 of Cape cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis and 20 of whitebreasted cormorants P. carbo nested in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Kelp gulls were breeding in the Park in the mid 1960's but no records could be found of breeding by Cape cormorants prior to 1980. The earliest record for nesting by whitebreasted cormorants was 1971 and the population apparently increased in the late 1970's. Small numbers of African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini nested in the park in 1980 and 1981. Brown mussels Perna perna and limpets Patella spp. dominated their hardshelled diet. Whereas oystercatchers at St Croix Island fed mainly on organisms from the mid intertidal region, those at Tsitsikamma appear to have favoured molluscs from the lower tidal range.

  4. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XIII; Appraisal of System-Wide Survival Estimation of Snake River Yearling Chinook Salmon Released in 1997 and 1988, Using PIT-Tags Recovered from Caspian Tern and Double-Crested Cormorant Breeding Colonies on Rice Island, 1997-1998 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalski, John R.; Perez-Comas, Jose A. (University of Washington, School of Fisheries, Seattle, WA)

    2000-05-01

    PIT-tags recovered from tern and cormorant breeding colonies at Rice Island and observations from the interrogation systems at John Day and Bonneville Dams were incorporated into survival analyses. Whether the estimates for the upper reaches of the system, between Lower Granite and McNary Dams were as expected (with weighted averages S{sub LGR-LGS} = 0.996, S{sub LGS-LMN} = 0.837, and S{sub LMN-McN} = 0.941), those for the lower reaches, between John Day and Bonneville Dams, appeared positively biased with survival estimates typically greater than 1. Their weighted averages were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.707 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.792 for 1997 releases. For the 1998 releases, they were S{sub McN-JDA} = 0.795 and S{sub JDA-BON} = 1.312. If the estimates for the lower reaches were biased, the estimates for the whole project would also be biased (S{sub LGR-BON} = 0.819). We determined that bias could have arisen if the terns and cormorants of Rice Island fished for salmon yearlings in waters of the BON-Rice reach at low rates (M{sub BON-Rice} {le} 0.2), and the rates of tag-deposition and tag-detection were low (R{sub D} x R{sub R} {le} 0.4). Moreover, unknown levels of uncensored post-detection mortality and scavenging of previously dead salmon yearlings may have also added to the bias.

  5. Species integrity enhanced by a predation cost to hybrids in the wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P. A.; Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.

    2017-01-01

    Species integrity can be challenged, and even eroded, if closely related species can hybridize and produce fertile offspring of comparable fitness to that of parental species. The maintenance of newly diverged or closely related species therefore hinges on the establishment and effectiveness of pre...... barrier to gene flow in the wild. Cyprinid fishes commonly produce fertile, viable hybrid offspring and therefore make excellent study organisms to investigate ecological costs to hybrids. We electronically tagged two freshwater cyprinid fish species (roach Rutilus rutilus and bream Abramis brama......) and their hybrids in 2005. Tagged fish were returned to their lake of origin, exposing them to natural predation risk from apex avian predators (great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo). Scanning for regurgitated tags under cormorant roosts 3-4 years later identified cormorant-killed individual fish and allowed us...

  6. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iashkulov, K B; Shchelkanov, M Iu; L'vov, S S; Dzhambinov, S D; Galkina, I V; Fediakina, I T; Bushkieva, B Ts; Morozova, T N; Kireev, D E; Akanina, D S; Litvin, K E; Usachev, E V; Prilipov, A G; Grebennikova, T V; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Iamnikova, S S; Zaberezhnyĭ, A D; L'vov, D K

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the 2003 and 2006 environmental virological monitoring surveys on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island where a large breeding colony of sea gull (Laridae) is located. In the past several years, expansion of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) has enhanced the intensity of populational interactions. The investigators isolated 13 strains of influenza A virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, Avulavirus) from cormorants. RT-PCR revealed influenza A virus subtype H5 in 3.1% of the cloacal lavages from cormorants. Neutralization test indicated that sera from cormorants contained specific antibodies against West Nile (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) (15.0%), Sindbis (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) (5.0%), Dhori (10.0%), and Tahini (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) (5.0%); sera from herring gulls had antibodies against Dhori virus (16.7%); there were no specific antibodies to Inco (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) virus.

  7. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis and morphological data reveal a new species composition of the genus Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasites of fish-eating birds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cruz, E; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G; García-Varela, M

    2017-10-04

    Members of the genus Drepanocephalus are endoparasites of fish-eating birds of the families Phalacrocoracidae and Sulidae distributed across the Americas. Currently, Drepanocephalus contains three species, i.e. D. spathans (type species), D. olivaceus and D. auritus. Two additional species, D. parvicephalus and D. mexicanus were transferred to the genus Petasiger. In the current study, available DNA sequences of D. spathans, D. auritus and Drepanocephalus sp., were aligned with newly generated sequences of D. spathans and Petasiger mexicanus. Phylogenetic analyses inferred with three nuclear (LSU, SSU and ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) molecular markers showed that the sequences of D. spathans and D. auritus are nested together in a single clade with very low genetic divergence, with Petasiger mexicanus as its sister species. Additionally, P. mexicanus was not a close relative of other members of the genus Petasiger, showing that P. mexicanus actually belongs to the genus Drepanocephalus, suggesting the need to re-allocate Petasiger mexicanus back into the genus Drepanocephalus, as D. mexicanus. Morphological observations of the newly sampled individuals of D. spathans showed that the position of the testes is variable and testes might be contiguous or widely separated, which is one of the main diagnostic traits for D. auritus. Our results suggest that D. auritus might be considered a synonym of D. spathans and, as a result, the latter represents a species with a wide geographic range across the Americas, parasitizing both the Neotropical and the double-crested cormorant in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, USA and Canada.

  8. A comparative study of Plecotus auritus and P. austriacus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) inhabiting one roost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stebbings, R.E.

    1970-01-01

    This study began in November, 1960 and involved studies of all bats living within one large and complex roof. Furzebrook House, built in 1885, was of brick with hollow walls and a black slate roof. The roof consisted of 9 distinct sections comprising some 385 m³ of which 60 % was accessible for

  9. Efecto de actividades turísticas sobre el comportamiento de fauna representativa de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez,Fernanda; Cubero-Pardo,Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Fueron consideradas clave para actividades turísticas en 16 sitios de las Islas Galápagos: la raya sartén marmoleada (Taeniura meyeri), raya águila (Aetobatus narinari), tiburón de aleta blanca (Triaenodon obesus), tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas), cormorán no volador (Phalacrocorax harrisi) y lobo marino de Galápagos (Zalophus califórnianus), con el objetivo de analizar reacciones a corto plazo ante actividades de buceo apnea o "snorkeling", buceo autónomo o "scuba", paseos en bote o "panga-ri...

  10. Migration confers survival benefits against avian predators for partially migratory freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Chapman, Ben B.; Baktoft, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    in a freshwater fish (roach, Rutilus rutilus) that commonly migrates from lakes to streams during winter confers a significant survival benefit with respect to bird (cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo spp.) predation. We tagged over 2000 individual fish in two Scandinavian lakes over 4 years and monitored migratory......The importance of predation risk in shaping patterns of animal migration is not well studied, mostly owing to difficulties in accurately quantifying predation risk for migratory versus resident individuals. Here, we present data from an extensive field study, which shows that migration...... behaviour using passive telemetry. Next, we calculated the predation vulnerability of fish with differing migration strategies, by recovering data from passive integrated transponder tags of fish eaten by cormorants at communal roosts close to the lakes. We show that fish can reduce their predation risk...

  11. Species differences in the sensitivity of avian embryos to methylmercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    We injected doses of methylmercury into the air cells of eggs of 26 species of birds and examined the dose-response curves of embryo survival. For 23 species we had adequate data to calculate the median lethal concentration (LC50). Based on the dose-response curves and LC50s, we ranked species according to their sensitivity to injected methylmercury. Although the previously published embryotoxic threshold of mercury in game farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) has been used as a default value to protect wild species of birds, we found that, relative to other species, mallard embryos are not very sensitive to injected methylmercury; their LC50 was 1.79 ug/g mercury on a wet-weight basis. Other species we categorized as also exhibiting relatively low sensitivity to injected methylmercury (their LC50s were 1 ug/g mercury or higher) were the hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), lesser scaup (Aythya affinis), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and laughing gull (Larus atricilla). Species we categorized as having medium sensitivity (their LC50s were greater than 0.25 ug/g mercury but less than 1 ug/g mercury) were the clapper rail (Rallus longirostris), sandhill crane (Grus canadensis), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), chicken (Gallus gallus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), herring gull (Larus argentatus), common tern (S terna hirundo), royal tern (Sterna maxima), Caspian tern (Sterna caspia), great egret (Ardea alba), brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis), and anhinga (Anhinga anhinga). Species we categorized as exhibiting high sensitivity (their LC50s were less than 0.25 ug/g mercury) were the American kestrel (Falco sparverius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), white ibis (Eudocimus albus), snowy egret (Egretta thula), and tri-colored heron (Egretta tricolor). For mallards, chickens, and ring-necked pheasants (all species for which we could compare the toxicity of our

  12. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  13. Long necks enhance and constrain foraging capacity in aquatic vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rory P; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Sala, Juan-Emilio; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Holton, Mark D; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-11-29

    Highly specialized diving birds display substantial dichotomy in neck length with, for example, cormorants and anhingas having extreme necks, while penguins and auks have minimized necks. We attached acceleration loggers to Imperial cormorants Phalacrocorax atriceps and Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus , both foraging in waters over the Patagonian Shelf, to examine the difference in movement between their respective heads and bodies in an attempt to explain this dichotomy. The penguins had head and body attitudes and movements that broadly concurred throughout all phases of their dives. By contrast, although the cormorants followed this pattern during the descent and ascent phases of dives, during the bottom (foraging) phase of the dive, the head angle differed widely from that of the body and its dynamism (measured using vectorial dynamic acceleration) was over four times greater. A simple model indicated that having the head on an extended neck would allow these cormorants to half the energy expenditure that they would expend if their body moved in the way their heads did. This apparently energy-saving solution is likely to lead to greater heat loss though and would seem tenable in slow-swimming species because the loss of streamlining that it engenders would make it detrimental for fast-swimming taxa such as penguins. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Seabird Community Responses in the Northern California Current to the 2014-2015 NE Pacific Warm Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladics, A.; Suryan, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    Previous warm temperature anomalies in the NE Pacific, including the 1997-1998 El Niño, had profound impacts on seabird communities in the northern California Current. Both physical forcing and biotic interactions impact seabirds from top-down effects of seabird predators to interactions between seabirds and their prey. We report on changes in diving seabird (common murre, Uria aalge, and pelagic and Brandt's cormorants, Phalacrocorax spp.) breeding population sizes, reproductive success, phenology, and diets at breeding colonies (1998-2015) and at-sea seabird distribution and abundance (2013-2015) along the Oregon coast. Breeding seabird responses varied by species and breeding site. In 2014, reproductive success was mostly consistent with recent prior years for all species. In 2015, however, common murres and pelagic cormorants suffered colony-wide reproductive failures, while Brandt's cormorants had the highest breeding success during our 8-yr time series. Breeding phenology in cormorants was delayed by 14 days in 2015 and the number of breeding pairs reduced compared to 2014. At-sea surveys revealed greater species diversity in 2015 compared to previous years, with sub-tropical and unusual migrant species observed in greater numbers. Overall, seabirds off Oregon appeared to suffer greater impacts from the 2014-2015 Pacific Ocean Anomalies during the 2015 breeding season.

  15. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    anatomy. Wild-caught fledglings were anesthetized and their auditory brainstem response (ABR) to clicks and tone bursts was measured, first in an anechoic box in air and then in a large water-filled tank with their head and neck submerged 10 cm below the surface. The overall shape of air audiograms...... piston, which is reminiscent of the turtle ear....

  16. Double-crested Cormorant Range - CWHR [ds602

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. PLUMAGE AND ECOLOGY OF CORMORANTS In a recent review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at food resources. 3. Selection/or hunting camouflage. Evolution of intermediate plumage with dark and light areas promoting 'hunting camou- flage' through countershading. ... This 'trade-off' arrangement forms the basis of the ... menting metabolic heat, and consequently conservation of energy, has been appreciated only.

  18. Pelagic cormorant at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  19. Brandt's cormorant at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuary Program (ONMS) updates and revisees the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  20. Double-crested cormorant at-sea density off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP) updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the public,...

  1. The influence of trophic level and feeding location of the levels of organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs as revealed by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, K. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Jarman, W.M.; Bott, J.A.; Bacon, C.E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (Canada). Inst. of Marine Sciences; Sydeman, W. [Point Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Seabird eggs have been used extensively to assay contaminants in marine food webs, but links to trophic level or feeding location have remained poorly understood due to limitations inherent in conventional dietary studies. Stable-isotope analysis of bird eggs may be used to infer trophic position and feeding location of adult seabirds and can be readily correlated with measurements of egg contaminant levels. The authors measured stable-carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C) and nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) isotope abundance, and organochlorine contaminants (DDTs, PCBs, chlordanes, etc.) in eggs from Cassin`s Auklet (Ptychoramphus aleutica), Common Murre (Uria aalge), Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba). Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Brandt`s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), and Western Gull (Larus) from Southeast Farallon Island together with rockfish (Sebastes spp.), anchovy (Engraulis spp.), and euphausiid prey from the Gulf of the Farallones. Consistent with its planktivorous diet and pelagic feeding habits, Cassin`s Auklet showed the lowest mean {delta}{sup 15}N value and the least enriched {delta}{sup 13}C values. Measures of trophic level and foraging location were constructed for all other seabirds relative to these isotopic endpoints. Contaminant levels in the eggs and fish will be interpreted in light of the stable-isotope results.

  2. Defining ecologically relevant scales for spatial protection with long-term data on an endangered seabird and local prey availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Richard B; Botha, Philna; Underhill, Les G; Ryan, Peter G; van Zyl, Danie; Cockcroft, Andrew C; Crawford, Robert J M; Dyer, Bruce M; Cook, Timothée R

    2017-12-01

    Human activities are important drivers of marine ecosystem functioning. However, separating the synergistic effects of fishing and environmental variability on the prey base of nontarget predators is difficult, often because prey availability estimates on appropriate scales are lacking. Understanding how prey abundance at different spatial scales links to population change can help integrate the needs of nontarget predators into fisheries management by defining ecologically relevant areas for spatial protection. We investigated the local population response (number of breeders) of the Bank Cormorant (Phalacrocorax neglectus), a range-restricted endangered seabird, to the availability of its prey, the heavily fished west coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii). Using Bayesian state-space modeled cormorant counts at 3 colonies, 22 years of fisheries-independent data on local lobster abundance, and generalized additive modeling, we determined the spatial scale pertinent to these relationships in areas with different lobster availability. Cormorant numbers responded positively to lobster availability in the regions with intermediate and high abundance but not where regime shifts and fishing pressure had depleted lobster stocks. The relationships were strongest when lobsters 20-30 km offshore of the colony were considered, a distance greater than the Bank Cormorant's foraging range when breeding, and may have been influenced by prey availability for nonbreeding birds, prey switching, or prey ecology. Our results highlight the importance of considering the scale of ecological relationships in marine spatial planning and suggest that designing spatial protection around focal species can benefit marine predators across their full life cycle. We propose the precautionary implementation of small-scale marine protected areas, followed by robust assessment and adaptive-management, to confirm population-level benefits for the cormorants, their prey, and the wider ecosystem, without

  3. First record of Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda : Anisakidae in fish-eating birds from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Endoparasites of fish-eating birds, Phalacrocorax africanus, P. carbo, Anhinga melanogaster and Ardea cinerea collected from Lake Chivero near Harare, Zimbabwe, were investigated. Adult Contracaecum spp. were found in the gastrointestinal tract (prevalence 100% in P. africanus, P. carbo and A. melanogaster; 25 % in A. cinerea. Parasite intensity was 11-24 (mean 19 in P. africanus, 4-10 (mean 7 in P. carbo, 4-56 (mean 30 in A. melanogaster and 2 (mean 0.5 in A. cinerea. The cormorants fed mainly on cichlid fishes and carp; the darters and the grey herons on cichlids. All these fishes are intermediate hosts of Contracaecum spp. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Contracaecum rudolphii infected both cormorant species and darters; C. carlislei infected only the cormorants while C. tricuspis and C. microcephalum infected only the darters. Parasites from the grey heron were not identified to species because they were still developing larvae. These parasites are recorded in Zimbabwe for the first time.

  4. Seabird guano fertilizes Baltic Sea littoral food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Gagnon

    Full Text Available Nutrient enrichment in coastal marine systems can have profound impacts on trophic networks. In the Baltic Sea, the population of Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis has increased nearly exponentially since the mid-1990 s, and colonies of these seabirds can be important sources of nitrogen enrichment for nearby benthic communities due to guano runoff. In this study we used stable isotope analyses and diet mixing models to determine the extent of nitrogen enrichment from cormorant colonies, as well as to examine any possible changes in herbivore diet preferences due to enrichment. We found significantly higher levels of δ(15N in samples from colony islands than control islands for producers (the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus, filamentous algae, and periphyton and herbivores, as well as a positive correlation between enrichment and nest density in colony sites. We also found that enrichment increased over the breeding season of the cormorants, with higher enrichment in late summer than early summer. While the amount of total nitrogen did not differ between colony and control sites, the amount of guano-based nitrogen in algae was >50% in most sites, indicating high nitrogen enrichment from colonies. Herbivores (the isopod Idotea balthica and the gastropod Theodoxus fluviatilis preferred feeding upon the dominant macroalga Fucus vesiculosus rather than on filamentous algae or periphyton in both control and colony, and there was a significant increase in periphyton consumption near colony sites. Overall, guano from cormorant colonies seems to have effects on both producers and herbivores, as well as the potential to modify algae-herbivore interactions.

  5. New data on avifauna of the Ustyurt plateau in the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, A E; Kosintsev, P A; Samashev, Z; Ongar, A; Loshakova, T N; Bolshakov, V N

    2016-07-01

    Bone remains of birds from a location of the middle Subboreal period and from three locations of the early Subatlantic period were studied on the Ustyurt plateau (Kazakhstan). Three out of 17 avian species that have been identified (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, Falco peregrinus, and Nyctea scandiaca) proved to be absent in the modern fauna of the region. Our data on the bird fauna of the Ustyurt Plateau in the second half of the Middle Holocene and at the beginning of the Late Holocene indicate that, in that time, the migration routes of the little cormorant, peregrine, and snowy owl passed across the Ustyurt territory and the wintering sites of peregrine and snowy owl were more extensive and were also situated in Ustyurt. In the second half of the Late Holocene, the number of wintering sites of these species diminished and their migration routes have been altered.

  6. Environ: E00513 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ecotus auritus [TAX:61862], Rhinolophus ferrumequinum [TAX:59479] ... Vespertilionidae Vespertilio superans, Plecotus auritus, Rhinolophidae Rhinolophus ferrumequinum feces (dried) ...

  7. Rezultati januarskega štetja vodnih ptic leta 2014 v Sloveniji / Results of the January 2014 waterbird census in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božič Luka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the International Waterbird Census (IWC was carried out in Slovenia on 18 and 19 Jan. Waterbirds were counted on all larger rivers, along the entire Slovenian Coastland and on most of the major standing waters in the country. During the census, in which 268 observers took part, 413 sections of the rivers and coastal sea with a total length of 1395.1 km and 226 other localities (178 standing waters and 48 streams were surveyed. Altogether, 45,346 waterbirds of 62 species were counted. This is the lowest number of waterbirds recorded after the 1997 and 1998 censuses. The greatest numbers of waterbirds were counted in the Drava count area, i.e. 20,217 individuals (44.6% of all waterbirds in Slovenia. By far the most numerous species was Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (43.0% of all waterbirds, followed by Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (10.1% of all waterbirds, Coot Fulica atra (7.9% of all waterbirds, Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis (6.0% of all waterbirds and Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (4.6% of all waterbirds. The number of 1,000 counted individuals was also surpassed by Mute Swan Cygnus olor, Pochard Aythya ferina, Tufted Duck Ay. fuligula and Teal An. crecca. Among the rarer recorded species, the Black Stork Ciconia nigra (registered for the first time during the January Waterbird Censuses; only the second winter record in Slovenia, Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis and Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus (both registered only for the second time during the IWC should be given a special mention. Numbers of the following species were the highest so far recorded during the IWC: Shelduck Tadorna tadorna, Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata, Shoveler An. clypeata, Redthroated Loon Gavia stellata and Pygmy Cormorant Phalacrocorax pygmeus. Also, the total number of C and E category species/taxa was the highest to date, although still quite low with 70 individuals. Numbers of the following species were the lowest so far recorded during the IWC

  8. Assessing the effects of the Prestige oil spill on the European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis): Trace elements and stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carola; Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Rocio; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2008-01-01

    The Prestige oil spill resulted in the mortality of several seabird species on the Atlantic NW coast of Spain. Shag casualties were particularly relevant, since populations are resident in the area the whole year round and because of several features which make them highly vulnerable to environmental hazards. Ecological catastrophes give us the opportunity of collecting samples which, otherwise, would be difficult to obtain. We examine the potential of shag corpses as bioindicators of inorganic pollution and the possible factors of variability, such as biological traits (sex, age) or nutrition status. We determined trace elements (Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, Zn and Cu) and isotopic signatures ( 15 N, 13 C) in soft tissues (muscle, liver) and in primary feathers formed at different times (before and after the Prestige) in individuals of known sex and age, collected at the time of the Prestige disaster. These were compared with data from another group of shags trapped accidentally in fishing gear in 2005. Our results did not seem to be affected by sex or age on any of the analysed variables. The higher nitrogen isotopic signatures in the soft tissues of the Prestige shags may be related to the nutrition stress caused by a poorer body condition, which is also reflected in increasing levels of some metals in the liver. This isotopic enrichment was also observed in newly forming feathers when compared to the old ones. On the other hand, the lower δ 15 N and Hg values in shag feathers from 2005 point to a shift in feeding resources to prey of lower trophic levels. We found that feather features (being an inert tissue and having a conservative composition), if combined with careful dating and chemical analysis, offer a very useful tool to evaluate temporal and spatial changes in seabird ecology in relation to pollution events

  9. 50 CFR 21.48 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants to protect public resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and State Directors of the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and... oiling must use 100 percent corn oil, a substance exempted from regulation by the U.S. Environmental... affected. (iii) If adverse effects are anticipated from the control activities in a geographical area where...

  10. 77 FR 40374 - Proposed Information Collection; Depredation Orders for Double-Crested Cormorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... unlawful to take, possess, import, export, transport, sell, purchase, barter, or offer for sale, purchase... efforts to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, we invite the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on this IC. This IC is scheduled to expire on January 31, 2013...

  11. Great cormorants reveal overlooked secondary dispersal of plants and invertebrates by piscivorous waterbirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, C.H.A.; Lovas-Kiss, A.; Ovegård, M.; Green, Andy J.

    2017-01-01

    In wetland ecosystems, birds and fish are important dispersal vectors for plants and invertebrates, but the consequences of their interactions as vectors are unknown. Darwin suggested that piscivorous birds carry out secondary dispersal of seeds and invertebrates via predation on fish. We tested

  12. 50 CFR 21.47 - Depredation order for double-crested cormorants at aquaculture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of... control, provided these individuals act under the conditions of the order. (d) What are the terms and..., taped calls, or other devices to lure within gun range birds committing or about to commit depredations...

  13. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using....... We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains...... into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than...

  14. Characterization and expression analysis of AH receptors in aquatic mammals and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Young [Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Matsuyama (Japan); Yasui, Tomoko; Hisato, Iwata; Shinsuke, Tanabe [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The magnitude of the risk that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) pose to the health of aquatic birds and mammals is uncertain, because of the lack of direct information on the sensitivity and toxicity to these chemicals. Exposure to PHAHs is speculated to produce toxicity through changes in the expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. These changes are initiated by the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor. The AHR and its dimerization partner ARNT belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcriptional regulation proteins. The bHLH domain was involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions, and the PAS domain forms a secondary dimerization surface for heteromeric interactions between AHR and ARNT. Although the presence and basic function of AHR are known to be conserved in most vertebrates, only a limited number of studies on the structure and functional diversity of AHR in aquatic mammals and birds have been reported, in spite of their high exposure to dioxins and other related chemicals. To understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to dioxin exposure and toxic effects that PHAHs pose in wild animals, we investigated the molecular and functional characterization of AHRs from aquatic mammals and birds. Initially, the AHR cDNAs from the livers of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica), black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) and common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were cloned and sequenced. We also clarified the tissue-specific expression pattern of AHR mRNA and the relationships among PHAHs, AHR and CYP expression levels in the liver of Baikal seals and common cormorants.

  15. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  16. Radionuclides in Tissues of Marine Birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.; Matishov, D.

    2004-01-01

    The birds are higher links of trophic nets of marine ecosystems and are capable to store in organs and tissues radionuclides. We can inspect radionuclides contents in marine ecosystems on a their contents of in birds. Objects of our research were marine birds, including seagull (the Herring gull Larus aregentatus, the Great Blackback Larus marinus), the Black guillemot Cepphus grylle, the Eider Somateria mollissima, the Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo and the Arctic Stercorarius parasiticus. Researches were conducted in August 2000 and 2001 near to the biological station of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in a point Dalnije Zelentsy on the cost of the Sea Barents. Contents of plutonium-239, 240, cesium-137 and strontium-90 in bones, skin and fatherless and muscles of birds were researched. The contents of cesium - 137 varied from 0,99 Bq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Herring gull up to 177 Bq/kg in muscles of the Great Blackback, the contents strontium-90 varied from 25 mBq/kg in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant up to 7140 mBq/kg in bones the Eider. The contents of plutonium-239,240 varied from 1,8 mBq/kg in muscles of the Eider up to 23 mBq/kg in skeleton of the Great Blackback. The content of this radionuclide was higher for adult, i.e. was enlarged with age. Higher concentrations in tissues are founded for the Eider and the Great Blackback. So, the average concentrations of cesium - 137 in muscles the Eider have constituted 1,5 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback -73,5 Bq/kg, the Black guillemot -16 Bq/kg, the Arctic scua - 1,3 Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 8,7 Bq/kg. Average concentrations of cesium - 137 in bones of the Eider were1,6 Bq/kg, the Great Blackback - 19,8Bq/kg, the Herring gull - 2,2 Bq/kg. The average concentrations strontium-90 in a skin and feathers of the Cormorant were 20 mBq/kg, the Great Blackback - 1288 mBq/kg, the Herring gull - 690 mBq/kg. It is founded that distribution the contents of strontium-90 in bones significantly varies from species

  17. Avian Hemosporidian Parasite Lineages in Four Species of Free-ranging Migratory Waterbirds from Mongolia, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A; Gilbert, Martin; Neabore, Scott; Hollinger, Charlotte; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Newton, Alisa; Chang, Tylis; McAloose, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Avian hemosporidian parasites have been detected in Asia, but little information is known about the hemosporidian parasite lineages that circulate in waterbirds that migrate along the East Asian and Central Asian migratory flyways to breed in Mongolia. To gather baseline data on hemosporidian parasite presence in Mongolian waterbirds, 151 blood-spot samples (81 hatch year [HY] and 70 after hatch year [AHY]) from Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Great Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo ), and Mongolian Gull (Larus mongolicus) were screened for three genera of apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, using nested PCR. Of these, 17 samples (11%, 95% confidence interval: 7.1-17.4%), representing all four species, were positive. We identified 10 species (six Plasmodium, one Haemoproteus, and three Leucocytozoon) through mitochondrial DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene and BLAST analysis. One lineage shared 100% nucleotide identity to a hemosporidian parasite lineage that has been previously identified as Plasmodium relictum (SGS1). Six lineages were found in AHY birds and five in HY birds, the latter confirming that infection with some of the identified hemosporidian parasites occurred on the breeding grounds. Our data provide important baseline information on hemosporidian parasite lineages found in AHY waterbirds that breed and migrate through Mongolia as well as in HY offspring.

  18. Herpesviruses and Newcastle disease viruses in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Kummerfeld, N

    1983-01-01

    Three herpesviruses were isolated from white storks (Ciconia ciconia). All isolates reacted in cross-neutralisation tests with homologous antisera and with sera prepared against a herpesvirus from a black stork (Ciconia nigra). These data indicate serologic relatedness of the herpesviruses from both stork species. Antisera prepared against herpesviruses from the domestic chicken (viruses of Marek's disease and infectious laryngotracheitis), turkey, duck and pigeon as well as from the blue-fronted amazon (Amazona aestiva), prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Lake Victoria cormorant (Phalacrocorax melanoleucos), bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and desmoiselle crane (Anthropoides virgo) did not react with the stork herpesviruses. Neutralising antibodies against stork herpesvirus were detected in the majority of 72 blood samples from white and black storks. In addition, three Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) could be isolated from white storks. One isolate was highly virulent the two others were avirulent for the chicken. Haemagglutination inhibition tests have shown that some storks have antibodies against Paramyxovirus- (PMV)-1 (NDV), PMV-2 and PMV-3. No antibodies could be detected in stork sera against PMV-4, -6 and -7.

  19. Efecto de actividades turísticas sobre el comportamiento de fauna representativa de las Islas Galápagos, Ecuador Short-term effects of tourism activities on the behavior of representative fauna on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda González-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron consideradas clave para actividades turísticas en 16 sitios de las Islas Galápagos: la raya sartén marmoleada (Taeniura meyeri, raya águila (Aetobatus narinari, tiburón de aleta blanca (Triaenodon obesus, tortuga verde (Chelonia mydas, cormorán no volador (Phalacrocorax harrisi y lobo marino de Galápagos (Zalophus califórnianus, con el objetivo de analizar reacciones a corto plazo ante actividades de buceo apnea o "snorkeling", buceo autónomo o "scuba", paseos en bote o "panga-ride" y caminatas. Para cada especie se documentó su comportamiento al momento del encuentro con los turistas y su reacción ante dicha situación. El uso del Análisis de Correspondencias reveló que el tipo de reacción de las especies depende significativamente de la actividad turística, a excepción de las rayas sartén marmoleada y águila. Asimismo, los análisis indican que, a nivel de especie, cada actividad turística estuvo asociada significativamente con reacciones animales particulares. Esto sugiere que las especies analizadas son sensibles ante determinadas actividades turísticas, por lo que se deberían implementar recomendaciones de manejo a fin de garantizar la sustentabilidad del ecoturismo.This study focused on the short-term reactions of six key species (Taeniura meyeri, Aetobatus narinari, Triaendon obesus, Chelonia mydas, Phalacrocorax harrisi, and Zalophus califórnianus during tourism activities (SCUBA diving, panga-ride, snorkeling, and hiking at 16 tourist sites on the islands. For each species we recorded its behavior when first encountering tourists and its reaction following this encounter. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that the type of reaction of the species depended significantly on the type of touristic activity, with the exception of the black spotted and eagle rays. Moreover, the analysis showed that, for each species, the different tourist activities were significantly associated with particular animal activities

  20. Human exploitation of seabirds in coastal southern Chile during the mid-Holocene Explotación humana de aves marinas durante el Holoceno medio en la costa del sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed a collection of 738 bird bones, representing a minimum of 71 individuals, found in a settlement of hunter-gatherers from the mid-Holocene, 5,000 years BP, in the coastal locality of Chan Chan, southern Chile. The camp was inhabited for over ca. 500 years, during which time a steady hunting pressure on the local marine resources was exerted, particularly on seabirds. The most abundant taxon (bones/number of individuals was the red-legged cormorant Phalacrocorax gaimardi (551/44 which was also the prey which provided the highest edible proportion of body mass. Albatrosses Thalassarche cf. melanophris (103/12 and shearwaters Puffinus cf. griseus (20/5 were secondary prey. Cormorants were presumably hunted at their breeding colonies (which are still present in the area so it is probable that egging also occurred. Because they are pelagic, albatrosses could have been hunted at sea, but the adequate technology for this (boats, hooks is not apparent in the archaeological record. The bird assemblage obtained in the sample does not qualitatively differ from that of the present, indicating a reasonable stability in species richness from the considered period until the present. The high diversity of coastal resources in Chan Chan was likely important in leading to the, at least seasonal, occupation of these areas by hunter-gatherers and also may have encouraged the development of the adequate technology for the exploitation of these resourcesSe analizaron 738 restos óseos de aves, correspondientes a un mínimo de 71 individuos, encontrados en un asentamiento de cazadores-recolectores del Holoceno medio, 5.000 años AP, en la localidad costera de Chan Chan, sur de Chile. El campamento fue habitado durante al menos 500 años, tiempo durante el cual se ejerció una presión de caza persistente sobre los recursos marinos locales, particularmente las aves marinas. El taxón más numeroso (restos/ número de individuos fue el lile Phalacrocorax

  1. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  2. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Genotypic Characteristic of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Free-Living Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Woźniak-Biel, Anna; Bednarski, Michał; Wieliczko, Alina

    2017-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most commonly reported, bacterial cause of human foodborne infection worldwide. Commercial poultry and free-living birds are natural reservoirs of three particular species: Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari. The aim of this study was to determine the genotypic characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 43 Campylobacter strains, obtained from free-living birds, in Poland. In total, 700 birds were examined. The strains were isolated from 43 birds (6.14%) from the feces of 7 wild bird species: Mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos (29 positive/121 tested), great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo (5/77), velvet scoters Melanitta fusca (4/30), tawny owls Strix aluco (2/5), common buzzard Buteo buteo (1/3), rook Corvus frugilegus (1/6), and Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus (1/30). Thirty-eight (88.37%) of obtained strains belonged to C. jejuni and five (11.63%) to C. coli. Other 428 examined birds from different bird species were Campylobacter negative. The antimicrobial susceptibility to nine antimicrobials was also studied in investigated isolates of Campylobacter spp. Sixteen of the examined strains (37.21% of all positive samples) showed susceptibility to all of the nine antimicrobials. Moreover, the prevalence of selected virulence genes, such as flaA, cadF, ceuE, virB11, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC were all analyzed. The virulence gene that was found most frequently in total number of Campylobacter strains was ceuE (72.10%) and other genes, such as flaA, cadF, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC, were found in over 60% of all examined strains. Variable antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of different virulence genes of examined strains, isolated from free-living birds, suggest that special attention should be given to wild birds and any potential approaches to the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter should be discussed.

  3. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  4. Natural, social, economical and political influences on fisheries: a review of the transitional area of the Polish waters of the Vistula Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psuty, Iwona

    2010-01-01

    A 60 year (1948-2007) dataset gathered by Polish researchers working on the Vistula Lagoon fish assemblages and fisheries has shown this stressed transitional environment to be always been dominated by a few highly abundant fish species. During this period, the surrounding countries Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) were transformed from centrally-planned economies with fixed prices to free market systems. The organization of the fishery evolved from one in which the majority of the fishing effort was expended by cooperatives, to one which was characterized by individual economic activity. The fishing gear deployed also evolved from cotton to monofilament, as well as from large sailing vessels with small-sized pair trawls to fyke nets targeting eel (Anguilla anguilla) and pound nets targeting herring (Clupea harengus). Small-sized gillnets targeting perch (Perca fluviatilis) grew in popularity as eel and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) catches decreased. Cooperation between Polish and Russian fishery managers began in 1952 with the aim of implementing joint agreements to establish protection guidelines. The substantial nutrient loads into the lagoon in 1970 and 1980 put very large pressure on the environment, and contributed to the loss of macrophytes as well as the development of non-commercial fish populations. One of the consequences of these changes was the rapid growth of a black cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) breeding colony. These multi-faceted changes are considered to be the factors that have influenced the exploitation of fish assemblages in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. The most evident change in the fish assemblage structure during the study period was the permanent decrease in the basin's top predators--pike (Esox lucius) and pikeperch. Eel stocking was initiated in 1970 following a crucial decline in yield from natural recruitment, and stocking was successful in increasing eel abundance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of Babesia peircei and Babesia ugwidiensis provides insight into the evolution and host specificity of avian piroplasmids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Yabsley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are 16 recognized species of avian-infecting Babesia spp. (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae. While the classification of piroplasmids has been historically based on morphological differences, geographic isolation and presumed host and/or vector specificities, recent studies employing gene sequence analysis have provided insight into their phylogenetic relationships and host distribution and specificity. In this study, we analyzed the sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of two Babesia species from South African seabirds: Babesia peircei from African penguins (Spheniscus demersus and Babesia ugwidiensis from Bank and Cape cormorants (Phalacrocorax neglectus and P. capensis, respectively. Our results show that avian Babesia spp. are not monophyletic, with at least three distinct phylogenetic groups. B. peircei and B. ugwidiensis are closely related, and fall within the same phylogenetic group as B. ardeae (from herons Ardea cinerea, B. poelea (from boobies Sula spp. and B. uriae (from murres Uria aalge. The validity of B. peircei and B. ugwidiensis as separate species is corroborated by both morphological and genetic evidence. On the other hand, our results indicate that B. poelea might be a synonym of B. peircei, which in turn would be a host generalist that infects seabirds from multiple orders. Further studies combining morphological and molecular methods are warranted to clarify the taxonomy, phylogeny and host distribution of avian piroplasmids. Keywords: Africa, Babesia, Piroplasmida, Phalacrocoracidae, Spheniscidae, Tick-borne pathogen

  6. Patterns of GPS tracks suggest nocturnal foraging by incubating Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B Zavalaga

    Full Text Available Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus, the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13 were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes, birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii, which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy.

  7. Patterns of GPS tracks suggest nocturnal foraging by incubating Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavalaga, Carlos B; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Becciu, Paolo; Yoda, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus), the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13) were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes), birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata) and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii), which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy.

  8. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  9. Evidence of cormorant-induced mortality, disparate migration strategies and repeatable circadian rhythm in the endangered North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus ): A telemetry study mapping the postspawning migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lasse Fast; Rognon, Paul; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    mortality and migration behaviour of the North Sea houting (Coregonus oxyrinchus), an anadromous salmonid endemic to the Wadden Sea. We used acoustic telemetry to map the migration of the only remaining indigenous population by applying stationary hydrophones combined with manual tracking. Data suggested...

  10. Jūras kraukļu Phalacrocorax carbo kolonijas ietekme uz augsnes bruņērcēm (Acari: Oribatida) Rušona ezera Bērzu salā

    OpenAIRE

    Atmata, Līga

    2014-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot jūras kraukļu ligzdošanas vietas ietekmi uz augsnes bruņērcēm Rušona ezera Bērzu salā. Lai noskaidrotu ietekmi, salā ierīkotas trīs paralēlas transektas, kuras šķērso jūras kraukļu aktīvo koloniju, pamestās kolonijas vietu un neietekmēto vietu, tādējādi ļaujot novērtēt jūras kraukļu ietekmi atkarībā no ligzdošanas intensitātes. Jūras kraukļi rada negatīvu ietekmi uz lielāko daļu augsnes bruņērču taksonomisko sastāvu un blīvumu augsnē, ligzdošanas vietās izmain...

  11. Assessment of the Anthropometric Accommodation Requirements of Non-Pilot Aircrew in the CC-150 Polaris, CP-140 Aurora, CH-149 Cormorant and CC-130 Hercules Aircraft (Exigences Anthropometriques Pour le Personnel Navigant dans le CC-150 Polaris, CP-140 Aurora, CH-149 Cormorant et CC-130 Hercules)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Take-off and landing FE need to operate the throttles on take-off. This requires pushing the levers forward as the aircraft accelerates. The...the success or failure of individuals during screening. While the initial intent was to delve into this type of biomechanical assessment, it...the parachute door is one of the critical aspects of the LM’s job and one that has an anthropometric as well as a biomechanical component. From the

  12. The occurrence of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae in an estuarine area in southern Brazil Ocorrência de Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & d'Orbigny (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae em uma região estuarina no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta J. Cremer

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The toninha, or franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, is an endemic species of cetacean of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. There is little information on the occurrence of this species in its natural environment due to the great difficulty in sighting it. Systematized and non-systematized observations of franciscanas were made from December 1996 through November 2001 at Babitonga Bay, on the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. The observations were made from small motorboats. A total of 79 observations were made, totaling 561 individuals. Up to 59.5% of the groups consisted of over four individuals and the average group size was seven. Calves were present in 30.4% of the observations. The species was found throughout the year within the bay and preferential areas were identified. Calves were registered during all seasons. Data are presented on the behavior (feeding, traveling, aerial behavior and behavior relating to the boats and on inter-specific interactions with terns, cormorants [Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789] and brown boobies [Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783]. The species is sympatric with the estuarine dolphin Sotalia guianensis (P. J. Van Bénéden, 1864 in the bay, but there was no record of interaction between them. The area of the bay represents an important refuge for the franciscana species.A toninha, ou franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D'Orbigny, 1844, é uma espécie endêmica de cetáceos que ocorre no Oceano Atlântico sul ocidental. Existem poucas informações sobre a ocorrência da espécie em seu ambiente natural em função da grande dificuldade em avistá-la. Observações sistematizadas e não-sistematizadas de franciscanas foram realizadas no período entre dezembro de 1996 e novembro de 2001 na Baía da Babitonga, no litoral norte do estado de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. As observações foram realizadas a partir de pequenas embarcações a

  13. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  14. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in several organisms including humans from Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsolini, S. [Siena Univ. (Italy); Kannan, K. [New York State Univ., Albany, NY (United States)

    2004-09-15

    this study, concentrations of PFOS, FOSA (or PFOSA), PFHxS, and PFOA in marine mammals including bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), common dolphins (Delphinus delphi), fin whales (Balenoptera physalus), long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas); in fishes such as northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius); and in common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in blood of the general population from Italy are reported.

  15. Predictive modelling of habitat selection by marine predators with respect to the abundance and depth distribution of pelagic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Charlotte; Castillo, Ramiro; Hunt, George L; Punt, André E; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the ecological processes that underpin species distribution patterns is a fundamental goal in spatial ecology. However, developing predictive models of habitat use is challenging for species that forage in marine environments, as both predators and prey are often highly mobile and difficult to monitor. Consequently, few studies have developed resource selection functions for marine predators based directly on the abundance and distribution of their prey. We analysed contemporaneous data on the diving locations of two seabird species, the shallow-diving Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) and deeper diving Guanay Cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum), and the abundance and depth distribution of their main prey, Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens). Based on this unique data set, we developed resource selection functions to test the hypothesis that the probability of seabird diving behaviour at a given location is a function of the relative abundance of prey in the upper water column. For both species, we show that the probability of diving behaviour is mostly explained by the distribution of prey at shallow depths. While the probability of diving behaviour increases sharply with prey abundance at relatively low levels of abundance, support for including abundance in addition to the depth distribution of prey is weak, suggesting that prey abundance was not a major factor determining the location of diving behaviour during the study period. The study thus highlights the importance of the depth distribution of prey for two species of seabird with different diving capabilities. The results complement previous research that points towards the importance of oceanographic processes that enhance the accessibility of prey to seabirds. The implications are that locations where prey is predictably found at accessible depths may be more important for surface foragers, such as seabirds, than locations where prey is predictably abundant. Analysis of the relative

  16. The demographic impact of extreme events: stochastic weather drives survival and population dynamics in a long-lived seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, M; Daunt, F; Harris, M P; Wanless, S

    2008-09-01

    1. Most scenarios for future climate change predict increased variability and thus increased frequency of extreme weather events. To predict impacts of climate change on wild populations, we need to understand whether this translates into increased variability in demographic parameters, which would lead to reduced population growth rates even without a change in mean parameter values. This requires robust estimates of temporal process variance, for example in survival, and identification of weather covariates linked to interannual variability. 2. The European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis (L.) shows unusually large variability in population size, and large-scale mortality events have been linked to winter gales. We estimated first-year, second-year and adult survival based on 43 years of ringing and dead recovery data from the Isle of May, Scotland, using recent methods to quantify temporal process variance and identify aspects of winter weather linked to survival. 3. Survival was highly variable for all age groups, and for second-year and adult birds process variance declined strongly when the most extreme year was excluded. Survival in these age groups was low in winters with strong onshore winds and high rainfall. Variation in first-year survival was not related to winter weather, and process variance, although high, was less affected by extreme years. A stochastic population model showed that increasing process variance in survival would lead to reduced population growth rate and increasing probability of extinction. 4. As in other cormorants, shag plumage is only partially waterproof, presumably an adaptation to highly efficient underwater foraging. We speculate that this adaptation may make individuals vulnerable to rough winter weather, leading to boom-and-bust dynamics, where rapid population growth under favourable conditions allows recovery from periodic large-scale weather-related mortality. 5. Given that extreme weather events are predicted to become

  17. Rezultati januarskega štetja vodnih ptic leta 2015 v Sloveniji/ Results of the January 2015 waterbird census in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božič Luka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the International Waterbird Census (IWC was carried out in Slovenia on 17 and 18 Jan. Waterbirds were counted on all larger rivers, along the entire Slovenian Coastland and on most of the major standing waters in the country. During the census, in which 276 observers took part, 409 sections of the rivers and coastal sea with a total length of 1385.8 km and 224 other localities (172 standing waters and 52 streams were surveyed. Altogether, 46,425 waterbirds of 57 species were counted. This is one of the lowest numbers of waterbirds recorded during the 19 years of IWC in Slovenia. The highest numbers of waterbirds were counted in the Drava count area, i.e. 17,014 individuals (36.7% of all waterbirds in Slovenia. By far the most numerous species was Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (45.9% of all waterbirds, followed by Coot Fulica atra (8.4% of all waterbirds, Blackheaded Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (7.5% of all waterbirds, Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (5.7% of all waterbirds and Mute Swan Cygnus olor (4.6% of all waterbirds. The number of 1000 counted individuals was also surpassed by Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula, Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis and Teal An. crecca. Among the rarer recorded species, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis (registered only for the third time during the IWC and Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus (registered only for the fourth time during the IWC deserve special mention. Also, Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea was recorded for the fourth time during the IWC, but the individual observed was classified to category E (introduced species without self-sustaining populations, escapees from captivity. Numbers of the following species were the highest so far recorded during the IWC: Greylag Goose Anser anser, Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata, Shoveler An. clypeata, Goosander Mergus merganser and Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos. The number of Redbreasted Mergansers M. serrator was the lowest so far recorded during the

  18. Discussing implications of fast depleting rural ponds on the globally threatened wetland winter migratory bird in Haryana: a Case Study of Nigdu village pond in Karnal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtash Chand Gupta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nigdu-Sarovar is located in Nilokheri block in Karnal district in Haryana (29°50′N 76°55′E. The duration of observations span over seven years (September, 2005 to March, 2012. The recording of wetland winter visitor birds during 2005-08 in winter season included atleast 58 species of birds belonging to 10 orders and 18 families. It is important to mention that 29 species of wetland birds were winter migratory, 17 residents, 9 local migratory and three species of wetland birds like Lesser-whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica, Pheasant-tailed Jacana Hydrophasianus chirurgus and Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops persicus were summer migratory. The special features of 2005-06 winter was the huge populations of birds like Northern Shoveller Anas clypeata, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Common Teal Anas crecca, Spot-billed Duck Anas poecilorhynchus, Common Pochard Aythya ferina, Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, Greylag Goose Anser anser, Gadwall Anas strepera, Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Common Redshank Tringa totanus etc.In successive years, the scenario was more or less a substantial one depicting stability with respect to diversity of birds, number of birds upto the year of 2008. The popular birds included Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala, Openbill Stork Anastomus oscitans, White-necked Stork Ciconia episcopus, Black-necked Stork Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus, Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia, Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer and Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines. The sharp decline in winter migratory birds at “Nigdu-Sarovar” started in the year of 2008 when the pond was leased out for FISH-FARMING as per the policies of Govt. of Haryana. Fish Farming based deepening of the pond by excavation of bottom resulting in total decimation of rooted, floating, submerged and ejecting plants along with its subsidiary fauna, Zooplanktons, phytoplankton etc. The age old structural regime of the pond

  19. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  20. The CORMAN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Platform in order to disseminate information. The project has also engaged with key European stakeholder groups and formed a Stakeholders Liaison Group to support information exchange and discuss relevant issues. The project is carried out on behalf of DG Environment under the European Commission.......The CORMAN project (‘Sustainable Management of Cormorant Populations’) is now in its final year. The main goals have been (1) to collaborate with the CRG in order to assess the number and distribution of Cormorants in Europe during breeding and wintertime, and (2) to create the EU Cormorant...

  1. Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some temporary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity and relative abundance of fishes in some temporary and perennial water bodies of the Baro basin, Gambella, Ethiopia. ... Brycinus macrolepidotus, Siluradon auritus, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus stigmatopygus and Polypterus senegalus were each found in four sites, and thus, were considered the most dominant.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 309 ... Vol 11, No 1 (2007), Rodents and Herpetofauna (Reptiles and Amphibians) as household pests in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana, Abstract PDF ... feeding ecology of two juvenile marine fishes, Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Sciaenidae) and Brachydeuterus auritus (Haemulidae) off Cape Coast, Ghana ...

  3. Observations on the reproductive biology and recruitment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the reproductive biology and recruitment pattern of the bigeye grunt, Brachydeuterus auritus (Valenciennes, 1831), are presented in this paper. Data were collected on monthly samples obtained from the artisanal commercial fishery occurring off Cape Coast, Ghana, between November 1993 and October 1995.

  4. Risk of heavy metal ingestion from the consumption of two commercially valuable species of fish from the fresh and coastal waters of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur-Yartel, Anna; Bondzie, Josephine A.; Dorleku, Winfred-Peck; Dadzie, Stephen; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Ewool, Julliet; Billah, Maxwell K.; Lamptey, Angela M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The need to evaluate the human health safety of fishery resources remain urgent in the mist of the ever-increasing fear of heavy metal toxicity from the consumption of Ghana’s fisheries resource, as a consequence of pollution from several anthropogenic activities including artisanal gold mining. Nevertheless, the bigeye grunt (Brachydeuterus auritus) and Bagrid catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) remain commercially valuable fish species in West Africa and continue to attract high patronage. Method Forty-five specimens each of C. nigrodigitatus and B. auritus collected from the Weija Dam and the Tema Fishing Habour in Ghana, between June and September 2016, were analysed for seven heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Result Lead and Cadmium were below detection in all samples while Cu was not detected in B. auritus. Levels of the remaining metals (mg kg-1) were below FAO/WHO maximum permissible limits in fish and occurred in the rank order Se (3.5) > Zn (2.34) > Cu (0.59) > As (0.37) > Hg (0.19) in C. nigrodigitatus and Se (2.97) > Zn (2.28) > Hg (0.31) > As (0.21) in B. auritus. Only As in C. nigrodigitatus recorded Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) greater than FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI). Also, As in C. nigrodigitatus and Hg in B. auritus had Targeted Hazard Quotient (THQ) greater than 1 for individuals consuming the fishes on daily basis and therefore, raising concerns. However, for both species of fish, cancer risk of As was 1 in 10,000,000,000 and modified Health Benefits values of Se (HBVSe) were positive indicating the health risks that might accompany Hg exposure would be negated. Since toxicity depends on the concentration and quantity of a pollutant consumed, safe maximum consumption rate of C. nigrodigitatus based on As concentrations was 0.21 mg per day and that of B. auritus was 0.058 mg per day for Hg. With an average of 0.227 kg fish per meal of an adult human, these translated into not more than 24 C

  5. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newbold, Lindsay K; Burthe, Sarah J; Oliver, Anna E

    2017-01-01

    physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host. Forty live adults from the same colony were sampled. Endoscopy was employed...

  6. Vurdering af effekten af en vindmøllepark ved Overgaard på forekomsten af fugle i EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområde nr. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.; Larsen, J. K.

    forekomsten af en række arter der enten yngler eller raster inden for EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområdet, og er omfattet af EF-fuglebeskyttelsesdirektivets bilag I. Det drejer sig om arterne skarv Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, blå kærhøg Circus cyaneus, hjejle Pluvialis apricaria, brushane Philomachus pugnax, klyde...

  7. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua and Crozet shags Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis breeding annually at Marion Island, one of South Africa's Prince Edward Islands in the South-West Indian Ocean, were strongly correlated over 19 split-years from 1994/1995 to 2012/2013. Both species decreased ...

  8. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may...... mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared (Plecotus auritus) and one small-eared (Glossophaga soricina), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher...... than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from...

  9. Cultural Resources Investigations at the Lake Traverse-Bois de Sioux Project, Roberts County, South Dakota, Traverse County, Minnesota,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    crowned Kinglet - Bombycilla garrulus Bohemian Waxwing S- Carduelis pinus Pine Siskin Pica pica Black-billed Magpie * Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe Anas...Inkpaduta and his small band of Wahpekute for the murders of over 30 people in 1857 in the Lake Okoboji area of Iowa and the government’s subsequent...area? 17. P. 54 para 1: "Two shorter northerly routes and righteously outraged Indains with murderous impulses near Lake Traverse undoubtedly hurt the

  10. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance and Literature Search of Cultural Resources within the Pembina River Project, Pembina and Cavalier Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Pine Siskin Pica pica Black-billed Magpie -23- UV Lie 1 J 4*J. ~ .. * ~ . Bucephala clangula Common Goldeneye Podiceps auritus Horned Grebe Falco...Sioux Indians murdered three metis men. Good, et al. (1980:45) summarized a contemporary account of the event by early settler Ernestine Mager. She...34 1969:30). Company "F," with Capt. John S. McNaught in command, was sent out immediately in pursuit of those responsible for the murder . When they

  11. Influence of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds on soil nutrient contents in a temperate humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Ehlers-Koch, Camilla; Gregersen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    , but the bird’s influence on the soil conditions has only in few cases been studied in detail. In this study the influence of perennial colonies of piscivorous birds on soil nutrient contents and accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a humid climate has been determined by measuring pH, electric......, especially in the top horizons, and the magnitude of increase in nutrient content varied with the bird-dropping density and the age of the colony. In addition, soil influenced by cormorants had a higher electric conductivity compared to the control reference and can be classified as saline soils. Under...... conductivity and content of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and potassium in a reference area and in two cormorant sub-colonies. In general, the soils exposed to cormorant guano had lower pH and higher contents of plant available phosphorus, calcium and potassium compared to the control reference soil...

  12. First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of ‘Gnathochromis’ and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikol Kmentová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monogenea is one of the most species-rich groups of parasitic flatworms worldwide, with many species described only recently, which is particularly true for African monogeneans. For example, Cichlidogyrus, a genus mostly occurring on African cichlids, comprises more than 100 nominal species. Twenty-two of these have been described from Lake Tanganyika, a famous biodiversity hotspot in which many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa, including monogeneans, underwent unique and spectacular radiations. Given their often high degrees of host specificity, parasitic monogeneans were also used as a potential tool to uncover host species relationships. This study presents the first investigation of the monogenean fauna occurring on the gills of endemic ‘Gnathochromis’ species along the Burundese coastline of Lake Tanganyika. We test whether their monogenean fauna reflects the different phylogenetic position and ecological niche of ‘Gnathochromis’ pfefferi and Gnathochromis permaxillaris. Worms collected from specimens of Limnochromis auritus, a cichlid belonging to the same cichlid tribe as G. permaxillaris, were used for comparison. Morphological as well as genetic characterisation was used for parasite identification. In total, all 73 Cichlidogyrus individuals collected from ‘G.’ pfefferi were identified as C. irenae. This is the only representative of Cichlidogyrus previously described from ‘G.’ pfefferi, its type host. Gnathochromis permaxillaris is infected by a species of Cichlidogyrus morphologically very similar to C. gillardinae. The monogenean species collected from L. auritus is considered as new for science, but sample size was insufficient for a formal description. Our results confirm previous suggestions that ‘G.’ pfefferi as a good disperser is infected by a single monogenean species across the entire Lake Tanganyika. Although G. permaxillaris and L. auritus are placed in the same tribe, Cichlidogyrus sp. occurring on G

  13. Pesca associada entre golfinhos e aves marinhas Feeding associations between dolphin and sea birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro-Filho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Along ten years of study of a common dolphin from the brazilian coast, Sotalia brasiliensis Van Beneden, 1874, I could see some occasions of feeding associations of this dolphin with five species of birds, Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783, Fregata magnificens Mathews, 1914, Sterna hirundinacea Lesson, 1831, Larus dominicanus Lichtenstein, 1823 and Phalacrocorax olivaceus Humboldt, 1895. The commonest association observed was between the dolphin and S. leucogaster, and in all the associations was characterized the commensalism, with advantaged to the birds.

  14. Documenting Presence and Movements of Piscivorous Birds along the Illinois River and within the Chicago Area Waterway System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    and 95% home range size among genders were also performed using a T-Test procedure. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS Enterprise...the sex of all captured cormorants (Guilfoyle et al. 2017). This permitted the team to examine seasonal differences among the genders for daily

  15. Comparison of assemblages and some life-history traits of seabirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each system has an endemic penguin, sulid, cormorant and tern that feed mainly on anchovy Engraulis spp., sardine Sardinops sagax or both these fish. The Peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus also feeds primarily on these prey items. A plentiful availability of food has resulted in many of these seabirds attaining high levels ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 1038 ... Vol 20 (1998), A GIS for the management of fisheries in West Africa: Preliminary application to the octopus stock in Senegal, Abstract PDF. E Foucher, M Thiam, M Barry. Vol 34, No 2 (2012), A hard-knock life: the foraging ecology of Cape cormorants amidst shifting prey resources and industrial fishing ...

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...

  18. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 4-2008 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 4-2008 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 4-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krbavac

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bespilotna letelica Cormorant; Sistem za zaštitu velikih aviona MANTA DIRCM; Protivtenkovske vođene rakete za turski helikopter T-129; Turski sistem PVO sa ruskim raketama Igla; Elektromagnetni šinski top; Španija testira artiljerijska poboljšanja

  19. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breasted cormorants: population trends, breeding season and movements, and diet. Abstract. ISSN: 1814-232X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  20. Initial impact of the treasure oil spill on seabirds off western South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science ... However, resources were severely extended and mortality would probably have been considerably higher had large numbers of birds not been removed from the area affected by the oil. ... Of 53 grown birds of four species of cormorant that were oiled and caught, only 17 survived.

  1. Babesia ugwidiensis, a new species of Avian piroplasm from Phalacrocoracidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirce M.A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of haematozoa, Babesia ugwidiensis sp. nov. from a cormorant is described. This is the first species of piroplasm to be recorded from the Phalacrocoracidae and the relationship of this parasite to other Babesia spp. from marine hosts is discussed.

  2. Worldwide, where anchovies Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1995a), has led to its classification as “vulnera- ble” (Brooke 1984). This term is applied to a taxon that is not immediately endangered, but is facing a high risk ..... ass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Cormorant 10(2): p. 120. BROOKE, R. K. 1984 — South African red data book – birds. Rep. S. Afr. natn. scient. Progms 97: vii ...

  3. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Phylogeography and genetic structure of two Patagonian shag species (Aves: Phalacrocoracidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Luciano; Quintana, Flavio; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Lougheed, Stephen C; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2014-03-01

    We compared the phylogeographic and genetic structure of two sympatric shag species, Phalacrocorax magellanicus (rock shag) and Phalacrocorax atriceps (imperial shag), from Patagonia (southern South America). We used multilocus genotypes of nuclear DNA (microsatellite loci) from 324 individuals and mitochondrial DNA sequences (ATPase) from 177 individuals, to evaluate hypotheses related to the effect of physical and non-physical barriers on seabird evolution. Despite sharing many ecological traits, the focal species strongly differ in two key aspects: P. magellanicus has a strong tendency to remain at/near their breeding colonies during foraging trips and the non-breeding season, while P. atriceps exhibits the converse pattern. Both species showed similar mtDNA genetic structure, where colonies from the Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast and Fuegian region were genetically divergent. We also found similarities in the results of Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellites, with both species having four clusters. However population differentiation (e.g. Fst, Φst) was higher in P. magellanicus compared to P. atriceps, and average membership probabilities of individuals to specific clusters (Q-values) were also higher in the former. Phalacrocorax magellanicus has strong phylogeographic structure, consistent with the impact of Pleistocene glaciations, with diagnostic haplotypes associated with each of the three mentioned regions. The same pattern was not as evident for P. atriceps. Migration rate estimators were higher for P. atriceps than for P. magellanicus; however both species followed an n-island-like model of gene flow, this implies that dispersal occurs across the continental land mass that separates Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our results supported the hypothesis that non-physical barriers are important drivers of the genetic and phylogeographic structure in seabirds, and also that physical barriers constitute effective but not absolute impediments to gene flow

  5. Salida de campo por Francia el 1 de mayo de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo por algún lugar de Francia, probablemente cerca de la reserva natural de La Camarga, en el delta del río Ródano (Provenza), el 1 de mayo de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre el reptil Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), y las siguientes aves: Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Ardea purpurea (Garza imperial), Egretta garzetta (Garceta común), Larus argentatus (Gaviota argéntea), Larus ridibundus (Gaviota reidora), Phalacrocorax ...

  6. Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar Vessel Maintenance and Repair. Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    recognizable of all the cetaceans. They have a striking black-and- white color pattern, and the adult male has a tall, erect dorsal fin (3.3 to 5.9 feet in...height). The white oval eye patch and variably-shaped saddle patch, in conjunction with the shape and notches in the dorsal fin, help in identifying...guillemot, common loon, harlequin duck, rhinoceros auklet, cormorants, scoters, and grebes. (National Wildlife Federation, 2010) Port Gardner Bay

  7. Anglers' catches as an indicator of fish population status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusk, Stanislav; Lusková, Věra; Halačka, Karel; Smutný, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2003), s. 113-119 ISSN 1642-3593. [International Symposium on the Ecology of Fluvial Fishes /8./. Lodz, 04.06.2001-07.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093105; GA AV ČR IAA6087704; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish community * cormorant * statistics of catches Subject RIV: GL - Fishing

  8. Social contagion of risk perceptions in environmental management networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Riley, Shawn J

    2013-08-01

    An important requisite for improving risk communication practice related to contentious environmental issues is having a better theoretical understanding of how risk perceptions function in real-world social systems. Our study applied Scherer and Cho's social network contagion theory of risk perception (SNCTRP) to cormorant management (a contentious environmental management issue) in the Great Lakes Basin to: (1) assess contagion effects on cormorant-related risk perceptions and individual factors believed to influence those perceptions and (2) explore the extent of social contagion in a full network (consisting of interactions between and among experts and laypeople) and three "isolated" models separating different types of interactions from the full network (i.e., expert-to-expert, layperson-to-layperson, and expert-to-layperson). We conducted interviews and administered questionnaires with experts (e.g., natural resource professionals) and laypeople (e.g., recreational and commercial anglers, business owners, bird enthusiasts) engaged in cormorant management in northern Lake Huron (n = 115). Our findings generally support the SNCTRP; however, the scope and scale of social contagion varied considerably based on the variables (e.g., individual risk perception factors), actors (i.e., experts or laypeople), and interactions of interest. Contagion effects were identified more frequently, and were stronger, in the models containing interactions between experts and laypeople than in those models containing only interactions among experts or laypeople. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Model estimation of energy flow in Oregon coastal seabird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J.A.; Scott, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    A computer simulation model was used to explore the patterns and magnitudes of population density changes and population energy demands in Oregon populations of Sooty Shear-waters, Leach?s Storm-Petrels, Brandt?s Cormorants, and Common Murres. The species differ in seasonal distribution and abundance, with shearwaters attaining high densities during their migratory movements through Oregon waters, and murres exhibiting the greatest seasonal stability in population numbers. On a unit area basis, annual energy flow is greatest through murre and cormorant populations. However, because shearwaters occupy a larger area during their transit, they dominate the total energy flow through the four-species seabird ?community.?.....Consumption of various prey types is estimated by coupling model output of energy demands with information on dietary habits. This analysis suggests that murres annually consume nearly twice as many herring as any other prey and consume approximately equal quantities of anchovy, smelt, cod, and rockfish. Cormorants consume a relatively small quantity of bottom-dwelling fish, while stormpetrels take roughly equal quantities of euphausiids and hydrozoans. Anchovies account for 43% of the 62,506 metric tons of prey the four species are estimated to consume annually; 86% of this anchovy consumption is by shearwaters. The consumption of pelagic fishes by these four populations within the neritic zone may represent as much as 22% of the annual production of these fish.

  10. High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razgour, Orly; Clare, Elizabeth L.; Zeale, Matt R. K.

    2011-01-01

    of the cryptic bats, 60% of which were assigned to a likely species or genus. The findings from the molecular study supported the results of microscopic analyses in showing that the diets of both species were dominated by lepidopterans. However, HTS provided a sufficiently high resolution of prey identification...... to determine fine-scale differences in resource use. Although both bat species appeared to have a generalist diet, eared-moths from the family Noctuidae were the main prey consumed. Interspecific niche overlap was greater than expected by chance (O(jk) = 0.72, P ... of the more common prey species. Yet, habitat associations of nongeneralist prey species found in the diets corresponded to those of their respective bat predator (grasslands for P. austriacus, and woodland for P. auritus). Overlap in common dietary resource use combined with differential specialist prey...

  11. A freshwater species wintering in a brackish environment: Habitat selection and diet of Slavonian grebes in the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Nicole; Garthe, Stefan; Adler, Sven

    2009-09-01

    After the breeding season, Slavonian grebes ( Podiceps auritus) leave their freshwater breeding habitats and migrate to wintering grounds in marine or brackish waters. The most important wintering area in northwestern Europe is located in the southern Baltic Sea, with the largest concentrations in the offshore area of the Pommeranian Bight. Analysis of ship-based surveys revealed that the habitat selection of Slavonian grebes in this brackish area is significantly influenced by water depth and bottom sediment type. The grebes prefer shallow waters of 4-14 m depth and occur only over sandy sediments. While the diving depths of endothermic animals is limited due to energetic constraints and thermoregulation, sediment type is regarded to be a proxy for food choice. The diet of Slavonian grebes in the Pomeranian Bight consists mainly of demersal gobies (Gobiidae) that frequently occur over sandy bottom substrates.

  12. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  13. Gastrointestinal digeneans (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda of horseshoe and vesper bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Ž.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the digenean fauna of bats were conducted for the first time in Serbia. The sample comprised of 118 individuals of 12 bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Myotis mystacinus, M. alcathoe, M. brandtii, M. oxygnathus, M. myotis, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. nathusii, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus and Nyctalus noctula collected from 15 sites throughout Serbia. Six digenean species were identified: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Plagiorchis sp., Prosthodendrium longiforme, P. chilostomum, P. parvouterus and Mesotretes peregrinus. The helminths were recorded from 35 individual hosts (29.7 %. The species Lecithodendrium linstowi infected the highest percentage of hosts (19.5 %, with a mean abundance of 4.6. GLM analysis of exploratory factors showed that host species and host sex had a significant influence on parasite load, while locality and host age did not influence parasite abundance. No evidence of zoonotic species was found.

  14. Insectivorous bats digest chitin in the stomach using acidic mammalian chitinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strobel

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet.

  15. Insectivorous Bats Digest Chitin in the Stomach Using Acidic Mammalian Chitinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Sara; Roswag, Anna; Becker, Nina I.; Trenczek, Tina E.; Encarnação, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of animals is adapted to their primary source of food to optimize resource use and energy intake. Temperate bat species mainly feed on arthropods. These contain the energy-rich carbohydrate chitin, which is indigestible for the endogenous enzymes of a typical mammalian gastrointestinal tract. However, the gastrointestinal tract of bat species should be adapted to their diet and be able to digest chitin. We hypothesized that (i) European vespertilionid bat species have the digestive enzyme chitinase and that (ii) the chitinolytic activity is located in the intestine, as has been found for North American bat species. The gastrointestinal tracts of seven bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Plecotus auritus, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri, Myotis daubentonii, Myotis myotis, and Nyctalus leisleri) were tested for chitinolytic activity by diffusion assay. Gastrointestinal tracts of P. pipistrellus, P. auritus, M. nattereri, M. myotis, and N. leisleri were examined for acidic mammalian chitinase by western blot analysis. Tissue sections of the gastrointestinal tract of P. pipistrellus were immunohistochemically analyzed to locate the acidic mammalian chitinase. Chitinolytic activity was detected in the stomachs of all bat species. Western blot analysis confirmed the acidic mammalian chitinase in stomach samples. Immunohistochemistry of the P. pipistrellus gastrointestinal tract indicated that acidic mammalian chitinase is located in the stomach chief cells at the base of the gastric glands. In conclusion, European vespertilionid bat species have acidic mammalian chitinase that is produced in the gastric glands of the stomach. Therefore, the gastrointestinal tracts of insectivorous bat species evolved an enzymatic adaptation to their diet. PMID:24019876

  16. Contribution to Ecology of Brandts Bat, Myotis Brandtii (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae, in the North-Eastern Ukraine: Comparison of Local Summer and Winter Bat Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaschenko A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brandt’s Bat (Myotis brandtii Eversmann, 1845 is one of the rarest bat species in Ukraine. There are only a few known locations of this species in summer and less known hibernacula in the whole country. Moreover, for territory of the north-eastern Ukraine are known only two underground bat hibernation sites with aggregation more than several tens of individuals. We undertook population surveys of winter aggregations in newly discovered and dug up abandoned sandstone mines in the Chuguev district of the Kharkiv Region (49°54′ N, 36°43′ E from 2007 through 2015. We also surveyed summer bat assemblages in the forests surrounding these mines in 2012. The mines’ microclimate conditions were as follows: temperature +6 °C - +10 °C and humidity 60-80 %. M. brandtii, M. daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817 and Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 hibernate in the mines; the first species is most abundant by number of individuals. In midsummer 9 bat species were recorded including the three previously mentioned. M. daubentonii and P. auritus breed in surrounding forest, but M. brandtii does not. One recaptured individual of M. brandtii was minimum 6 years old, providing us the first recorded information on longevity of this species for Ukraine. The total number of bats hibernating in these mines is estimated to be up to 100 individuals; a hibernaculum with several tens of M. brandtii could be classified as more numerous for this species in Ukraine. For this reason, the system of mines in the Kharkiv region needs species protection status and an action plan for monitoring and management.

  17. Sigmodontinos (Mammalia, Rodentia pleistocenicos del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina: aspectos sistematicos, paleozoogeograficos y paleoambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deschamps, C.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Severa1 sigmodontine remains from Ensenadan sediments (Early-Middle Pleistocene of Bajo San José (southwestern Buenos Aires province are described. The oldest records of Lundomys (Tribe Oryzomyini, Oxymycterus (Tribe Akodontini and Phyllotis (Tribe Phyllotini were recovered, together with Akodon cf. A. iniscatus, Akodon cf. A. azarae, Akodon sp., Reithrodon auritus, and Calomys cf. C. laucha-C. musculinus. Paleoenvironmental and paleozoogeographic data provided by these sigmodontines, together with those of &he remaining vertebrate fauna, prove a mixture of Brazilian and Patagonian species. The generic-specific composition characteristic of the modern cricetid associations of the Pampean Region was settled during the Ensenadan Age.Se describen nuevos restos de sigmodontinos provenientes de la localidad Bajo San José (sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, de Edad Ensenadense (Pleistoceno temprano-medio. En este yacimiento se registran los restos más antiguos conocidos para los géneros Lundomys (Tribu Oryzomyini, Oxymycterus (Tribu Akodontini y Phyllotis (Tribu Phyllotini. Acompañan a estos taxones: Akodon cf. A. iniscatus, Akodon cf. A. azarae, Akodon sp. Reithrodon auritus y Calomys cf. C. laucha-C. musculinus. Los datos paleoambientales y paleozoogeográficos aportados por los sigmodontinos, sumados a los provistos por el resto de la fauna, evidencian una mezcla de especies de abolengo brasílico y patagónico, caracterizando un agregado «no análogo». Durante el Ensenadense se fija la composición genérico-específica de los sigmodontinos que caracterizan las asociaciones actuales de la región pampeana.

  18. Breeding distribution and abundance of seabirds on islands off north-central Chile Distribución reproductiva y abundancia de aves marinas en islas del norte y centro de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRO SIMEONE

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1999 and 2003 we collected information on the breeding distribution and abundance of 12 seabird species occurring on nine islands off the coasts of north and central Chile (27°-33°S. The Peruvian booby Sula variegata was the most abundant seabird with a breeding population of ca. 18,000 pairs concentrated in two islands, followed by the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti with ca. 9,000 pairs, the largest colony being at Chañaral Island with ca. 7,000 pairs. Kelp gulls Larus dominicanus bred at all the surveyed sites in colonies of variable size, ranging from 40 to 2,000 pairs. Peruvian diving-petrels Pelecanoides garnotii and Peruvian pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis bred at restricted sites, but generally in large colonies. Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus, wedge-rumped storm-petrels Oceanodroma tethys, Neotropical cormorants Hypoleucos brasiliensis, guanay cormorants Leucocarbo bougainvillii, red-legged cormorants Stictocarbo gairmardi, band-tailed gulls Larus belcheri and Inca terns Larosterna inca nested at few sites forming small colonies (from a few to 150 pairs. Two new breeding sites are reported for the Peruvian diving-petrel and nesting of the wedge-rumped storm-petrel is confirmed on the Chilean coast for the first time. Despite protective status, most of the islands showed human disturbance, derived mainly from guano harvesting, egging and tourism. On at least five of these islands we were able to confirm introduced mammals including rats, rabbits and cats. These factors are likely to be detrimental to seabirds and thus demand detailed assessment. Further comprehensive ornithological surveys in other areas are needed so as to improve the scarce knowledge that we currently have on the seabird populations along the Chilean coast

  19. Status of waterbirds at Hathnikund Barrage wetland, Yamunanagar District, Haryana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Tak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We surveyed the waterbirds of Hathnikund barrage wetland in Haryana for two successive winters between October and March during 2007-08 and 2008-09. Twelve field visits were made at monthly intervals. In total, 31 species including five new additions to the waterbirds of the wetland were recorded. Of these 31, five species (16.2% were very common, six (19.3% common, another six uncommon and 14 (45.1% less common. The waterbird assemblages were dominated by species like Brahminy Shelduck, Northern Pintail, Gadwall, Common Pochard, and Great Cormorant. The maximum species diversity was represented by the family Anatidae, followed by Ardeidae and Scolopacidae.

  20. Helminth burden and ecological factors associated with alterations in wild host gastrointestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newbold, Lindsay K.; Burthe, Sarah J.; Oliver, Anna E.

    2017-01-01

    Infection by gastrointestinal helminths of humans, livestock and wild animals is common, but the impact of such endoparasites on wild hosts and their gut microbiota represents an important overlooked component of population dynamics. Wild host gut microbiota and endoparasites occupy the same phys...... in the proventriculus, diverting host immune responses away from themselves. This study, within live wild animals, provides a vital foundation to better understand the mechanisms that underpin the three-way relationship between helminths, microbiota and hosts....... physical niche spaces with both affecting host nutrition and health. However, associations between the two are poorly understood. Here we used the commonly parasitized European shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) as a model wild host. Forty live adults from the same colony were sampled. Endoscopy was employed...

  1. Ornithological aspects on the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GACHE Carmen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This ornithological notice present information on the avifauna recorded in the swamp Herghelie – Mangalia beginning with the 1998’s summer. We identified 132 species of birds. The reedbeds cover about 35% of the swamp’s surface, offering good conditions for the breeding season (Ixobrychus minutus, Botaurus stellaris, Cygnus olor, Himantopus himantopus, Recurvirostra avosetta and Sterna hirundo but also for migration period. The breeding population is low due the high level of the human pressure. Due the presence of sulphurous sources and peat bed, the water is not freezing during the winter, transforming this territory in an important wintering site in the southeastern Dobroudja. Interesting is also the presence in this area during the winter of some summer visitors’ species for Romania like: Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Botaurus stellaris and Rallus aquaticus.

  2. Uso de hábitat y estado de conservación de las aves en el humedal El Paraíso, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra S. Quiñonez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Las aves son el grupo taxonómico más representativo de los humedales. En la costa central peruana muchos de estos ecosistemas se encuentran seriamente afectados por actividades antropogénicas. Con el objetivo de brindar información que contribuya a la implementación de planes de manejo y conservación de la avifauna del humedal El Paraíso se evaluó las preferencias y usos de los dos hábitats acuáticos presentes en el humedal, la laguna salobre y la zona cenagosa. Se llevaron a cabo evaluaciones mensuales desde mayo del 2009 a marzo del 2010 utilizando el método de puntos de conteo. Se observaron 68 especies que hicieron uso directo de los hábitats de estudio. Las familias más abundantes fueron Anatidae (19.2%, Laridae (18.0%, Phalacrocoracidae (16.8% y Rallidae (16.1%. La especie más abundante fue Phalacrocorax brasilianus (16.7%, seguida de la Fulica ardesiaca (13.0%. Se encontró marcada diferencias en la composición de aves entre los dos hábitats evaluados debido, principalmente, a la  presencia de especies migratorias boreales quienes prefieren el hábitat cenagoso. Por otro lado, fueron identificados los sitios de anidamiento de especies representativas del humedal tales como Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Tachuris rubrigastra, Phleocryptes melanops, Charadrius nivosus. La actividad frecuentemente registrada fue el descanso (73.9%, seguido de la alimentación (23.4% y la reproducción (2.73%. Constituyen las principales amenazas para el humedal; la caza deportiva, quema de totorales y juncales, tránsito de vehículos por la orilla marina y desechos de residuos sólidos dejados por los bañistas.

  3. The paleoecology of Pleistocene birds from Middle Bed II, at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and the environmental context of the Oldowan-Acheulean transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassack, Kari A; Pante, Michael C; Njau, Jackson K; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2018-02-16

    Fossil bird data (community composition and taphonomic profiles) are used here to infer the environmental context of the Oldowan-Acheulean transitional period at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. This is the first comprehensive report on the Middle Bed II avifauna and includes fossils excavated by the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology Project (OGAP) and recently rediscovered fossils collected by Mary Leakey. Crane, ibis, darter, owl, raptor, crow, and vulture are reported from Bed II for the first time. The presence of these taxa, absent earlier in this Bed, point to a general opening and drying of the landscape with grassland and open woodland expansion. Taxa associated with dense, emergent wetland vegetation, such as dabbling ducks and rails, are uncommon and less diverse than earlier in Bed II. This suggests more mature wetlands with clearer waters. Cormorants continue to be common, but are less diverse. Cormorants and other roosting taxa provide evidence of trees in the area. Compared to lowermost Bed II, the Middle to Upper Bed II landscape is interpreted here as more open and drier (but not necessarily more arid), with matured wetlands, scattered trees, and a greater expansion of grasslands. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Toxic Identification and Evaluation of Androgen Receptor Antagonistic Activities in Acid-Treated Liver Extracts of High-Trophic Level Wild Animals from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Kentaro; Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Someya, Masayuki; Takigami, Hidetaka; Tajima, Yuko; Yamada, Tadasu K; Amano, Masao; Isobe, Tomohiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-10-06

    Sulfuric acid-treated liver extracts of representative high-trophic level Japanese animals were analyzed by toxic identification and evaluation (TIE) with chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) and chemical analysis to elucidate androgen receptor (AR) antagonistic activities and potential contributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The activities were detected in striped dolphins (n = 5), Stejneger's beaked whales (n = 6), golden eagle (n = 1), and Steller's sea eagle (n = 1) with CALUX-flutamide equivalents (FluEQs) as follow: 38 (20-52), 47 (21-96), 5.0, and 80 μg FluEQ/g-lipid, respectively. The AR antagonism was detected in limited number of specimens at lower levels for finless porpoise, raccoon dog, and common cormorant. Theoretical activities (Theo-FluEQs) were calculated using the concentration of OCPs and PCBs and their IC25-based relative potency (REP) values. These total contribution to CALUX-FluEQ was 126%, 84%, 53%, 55%, and 44% for striped dolphin, Steller's sea eagle, Stejneger's beaked whale, finless porpoise, and golden eagle, respectively, and the main contributor was p,p'-DDE. However, most of the activities for raccoon dog (7.6%) and common cormorant (17%) could not be explained by OCPs and PCBs. This suggests other unknown compounds could function as AR antagonists in these terrestrial species.

  5. Isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading euryhaline consortia from crude oil and mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedad Díaz, M; Grigson, S J; Peppiatt, C J; Burgess, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater (35 g/L NaCl) and synthetic media containing 0 to 100 g/L NaCl (1.7 M). Salinities over twice that of normal seawater decreased the biodegradation rates. However, even at the highest salinity biodegradation was significant. Ratios of nC17 to pristane and nC18 to phytane were significantly lowered across the range of salinity. The lowest values were at 0 and 20 g/L (0.34 M). Phytane was degraded in preference to pristane. The degradation of these compounds was constant over the salinity range, with evidence of a slight increase for consortium MPD-M with increasing salinity. In general, the consortium isolated from mangrove root sediments was more efficient in metabolizing North Sea crude oil than the consortium isolated from Cormorant crude oil. The 5 strains that comprise MPD-M have been tentatively identified as species of the genera Marinobacter, Bacillus, and Erwinia. This is the first report of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia isolated from crude oil and mangrove sediments that are capable of treating oily wastes over such a wide range of salinity.

  6. Mercury Distribution Along the Food Chain of a Wetland Ecosystem at Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilong, Ma; Qiang, Wang; Zhongsheng, Zhang; Xuehong, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in a wetland food chain were determined at Majuan Island of the Sanjiang Plain in China. Four tissues (muscle, liver, kidney and brain) of three waterbird species (great cormorant, grey heron and great egret), muscle tissues of fish (grass carp, crucian carp and longnose gudgeon), insects (predacious diving beetle), aquatic plants (ditch reed) and soil were analyzed. The mean concentrations of T-Hg were 0.392 ± 0.237 mg/kg for tissues of all juveniles, 1.999 ± 2.053 mg/kg for great cormorant adults, and 0.029 ± 0.019 mg/kg for fish muscle, respectively. While the relative contents of T-Hg of insects, plants and sediments were 0.012 ± 0.002, 0.006 ± 0.001 and 0.020 ± 0.002 mg/kg, respectively. Bioaccumulation of Hg along the wetland food chain may be able to show the current situation of Hg contamination in remote regions of East Asia.

  7. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  8. Assessing the toxicity to fish embryos of surface water from the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, L.J.; Niemela, S.L.; McCracken, M.K.; Greeley, M.S. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Successful reproduction of fish populations requires the successful development of offspring into new reproductive cohorts. In order to evaluate the ability of fish offspring to survive and develop properly in the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system downstream of the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge, TN, a series of fish embryo-larval toxicity tests were conducted on surface water samples from Poplar Creek and the Clinch River adjacent to the Oak Ridge Reservation. Quarterly tests were conducted over an eighteen-month interval with embryos from laboratory stocks of the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Eggs obtained from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus) collected from reference sites during their respective breeding seasons were fertilized in vitro for additional embryo-larval tests utilizing fish species indigenous to the Watts Bar/Clinch River system. Average survival of medaka embryos decreased significantly in water from Poplar Creek sites within the Oak Ridge Reservation, coincident with an increase in the prevalence of certain developmental abnormalities. Similar but less pronounced results were also obtained with redbreast sunfish embryos. Development of largemouth bass eggs was not adversely affected by any of the tested water samples. These findings suggest that the development of fish eggs and fry in certain reaches of the Watts Bar Lake/Clinch River system may be negatively impacted by activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation.

  9. Rehabilitation of birds oiled on two mid-Atlantic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.; Ferrigno, Fred; Settle, Fairfax H.

    1978-01-01

    An estimated 52,500 birds died as a result of 7 major oil spills on 2 mid-Atlantic estuaries between 1973-78. Ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) constituted 98% of 12,500 birds known to have died from 5 spills on the Delaware River. Seventy-six percent of 40,000 dead birds from 2 Chesapeake Bay spills were horned grebes (Podiceps auritus) and oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis). Oiled waterfowl that were captured alive (6% of the estimated mortality) were cleaned with a variety of cleaning agents and techniques. High mortality occurred during and shortly after cleaning, and was apparently due to hypothermia and to toxicity of solvent cleaning agents. Eighty-two percent of the 3,113 birds that were cleaned died prior to or at time of release. The fate of the remaining 18% is unknown. Petroleum solvents used as cleaning agents were toxic to the birds. Most detergents left a surfactant (wetting agent) on the feathers which resulted in subsequent wetting of released birds. Although rehabilitation techniques have improved in recent years, high bird mortality can be expected following future oil spills.

  10. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukal, Jan; Bandouchova, Hana; Bartonicka, Tomas; Berkova, Hana; Brack, Virgil; Brichta, Jiri; Dolinay, Matej; Jaron, Kamil S; Kovacova, Veronika; Kovarik, Miroslav; Martínková, Natália; Ondracek, Karel; Rehak, Zdenek; Turner, Gregory G; Pikula, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS), in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  11. LATEGLACIAL BATS FROM THE “M” LAYERS OF THE ARENE CANDIDE CAVE (LIGURIA, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO SALARI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arene Candide Cave (Finale Ligure, Northern Italy is considered one of the most important prehistoric site in Italy. The archaeological excavations conducted by the “Istituto Italiano di Paleontologia Umana” of Rome revealed 3 different horizons: an upper horizon with Holocene human presence dated from the Neolithic to the Byzantine period, and two underlying Pleistocene horizons with Gravettian and Epigravettian lithic artefacts. The stratigraphical sequence of the upper Palaeolithic is divided in two groups of strata separated by a depositional gap: the “P” complex, divided in 13 layers, dated from 25,620 to 18,560 years BP, and the 5 “M” layers dated between 11,750 and 9,980 years BP (14C non-calibrated dating.In this paper the fossil bone remains of bats from “M” layers are described. Fifteen taxa, divided into 3 families and 6 genera have been identified: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. mehelyi, R. euryale, R. hipposideros, Myotis myotis, M. blythii, M. capaccinii, M. emarginatus, M. mystacinus s.l., Myotis sp. (small sized, Plecotus auritus s.l., Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. noctula, Barbastella barbastellus and Miniopterus schreibersii. Comments for each of these taxa on current ecological and geographical distributions are presented, together with some osteometric measures and recent data referred to Late Pleistocene fossils bats in Italy. Finally, the value of this bat tanathocoenoses as a microclimatic, environmental, and human activity indicators is discussed. SHORT NOTE

  12. Morpholoical Study of the Brandt’s Hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas (Eulipotyphla, Erinaceidae, Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi N.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and histological structure of two adult Brandt’s hedgehog, Paraechinus hypomelas, (Brandt, 1836 tongue were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. On the dorsal surface of the tongue, three types of papillae were observed: filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae. Apex and corpus of the tongue as well as the lateral surface of the corpus were covered with numerous filiform papillae with bifurcated tip, while the epithelium lining the ventral lingual surface was free from papillae. Discoid shape fungiform papillae were scattered over the entire surface of the lingual apex, corpus and lateral surface uniformly between the filiform ones without regional variation in number and size. Three elliptical or oval vallate papillae in an inverted triangle form were found on the root of the tongue. Each papilla had a lobulated and very irregular dorsal surface. Both fungiform and vallate papillae contain taste buds. The foliate papillae was absent. Overall, the present findings reveal that despite some similarities, the lingual papillae of the Brandt’s hedgehog as an omnivore animal has spices-specific characteristics compare to the Erinaceous auritus as an insectivore species. This finding provides a set of basic data about the morphology of tongue and its lingual papillae in Brandt’s hedgehog.

  13. White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zukal

    Full Text Available Host traits and phylogeny can determine infection risk by driving pathogen transmission and its ability to infect new hosts. Predicting such risks is critical when designing disease mitigation strategies, and especially as regards wildlife, where intensive management is often advocated or prevented by economic and/or practical reasons. We investigated Pseudogymnoascus [Geomyces] destructans infection, the cause of white-nose syndrome (WNS, in relation to chiropteran ecology, behaviour and phylogenetics. While this fungus has caused devastating declines in North American bat populations, there have been no apparent population changes attributable to the disease in Europe. We screened 276 bats of 15 species from hibernacula in the Czech Republic over 2012 and 2013, and provided histopathological evidence for 11 European species positive for WNS. With the exception of Myotis myotis, the other ten species are all new reports for WNS in Europe. Of these, M. emarginatus, Eptesicus nilssonii, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Barbastella barbastellus and Plecotus auritus are new to the list of P. destructans-infected bat species. While the infected species are all statistically phylogenetically related, WNS affects bats from two suborders. These are ecologically diverse and adopt a wide range of hibernating strategies. Occurrence of WNS in distantly related bat species with diverse ecology suggests that the pathogen may be a generalist and that all bats hibernating within the distribution range of P. destructans may be at risk of infection.

  14. Stage of pregnancy dictates heterothermy in temperate forest-dwelling bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Matthias S; Becker, Nina I; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2015-01-01

    Bats face high energetic requirements, as powered flight is costly and they have a disadvantageous surface-to-volume-ratio. To deal with those requirements energy saving mechanisms, such as heterothermy (torpor), have evolved. Torpor during pregnancy, however, reduces rates of foetal development and consequently prolongs pregnancy. Therefore, heterothermy has a great effect on reproduction, as an unhindered parturition can only be assured by high body temperatures. Regardless of these adverse affects of torpor the energetic requirements of bats during reproduction urge for energy savings and bats are known to enter torpor during pregnancy. The species in the current study differ in their torpor patterns and thus their heterothermic strategy. However, we hypothesized, that species-specific heterothermic behaviour should be revoked at the end of pregnancy. We analyzed skin temperatures of Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis nattereri and Plecotus auritus during pregnancy and found no differences in torpor depth between species during the last phase of pregnancy. Furthermore, we could show that individuals entered torpor frequently during pregnancy and only minimized torpor during the last stage of pregnancy. This suggests that close to the end of pregnancy, heterothermy is restricted but not species-specific and the required energy is allocated otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quirópteros do Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Bats from Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.

  16. Coastal waterbirds of El Chorro and Majahuas, Jalisco, México, during the non-breeding season, 1995-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Hernández-Vázquez

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied how waterbirds used two small estuaries during the non-breeding season of 1995-1996. These estuaries, El Chorro and Majahuas, were located in the middle of a large span of non-wetland habitat along the Pacific coast of México. Whereas El Chorro was basically a large and open waterbody, Majahuas was a long and narrow corridor flanked by mangroves. The two estuaries had 77 species throughout our study, but shared only 58, due to differences in their habitat. Seabirds comprised 66% of all the birds; grebes, ducks and rails 16%; shorebirds 12% and herons and egrets 5%. During late winter and early spring a very reduced number of migratory species accounted for the dominance of seabirds. Sterna hirundo and Phalacrocorax brasilianus accounted for 40 and 33%, respectively, of all the seabirds. Opening or closure of the estuary mouth at El Chorro affected the bird communities at both sites, by exposing or inundating a large mudflat in that estuary. Overall, however, time of the year was more important in the composition of the bird assemblages. Both estuaries should be considered as a single unit.Durante la estación no reproductiva de 1995-1996 estudiamos las aves acuáticas de los estuarios El Chorro y Majahuas, Jalisco, México. El Chorro es un cuerpo de agua más abierto, mientras que Majahuas está formado por canales rodeados por manglares. Registramos 77 especies de aves. Las aves marinas comprendieron el 66%, los patos y similares el 16%, las aves playeras el 12% y las garzas el 5%. Sterna hirundo y Phalacrocorax brasilianus representaron el 40 y 33%, respectivamente, del total de aves marinas. El que la bocabarra de El Chorro estuviera abierta o cerrada influyó en la concentración de aves en los dos esteros, debido a la exposición o inundación de áreas lodosas y arenosas. A pesar de las diferencias entre los dos estuarios, la época del año fue más importante en la composición de las comunidades de aves. Ambos esteros deben

  17. Estimating exposure of piscivorous birds and sport fish to mercury in California lakes using prey fish monitoring: a predictive tool for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Davison, Jay; Ichikawa, Gary; Bonnema, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous water bodies in California are listed under the Clean Water Act as being impaired due to mercury (Hg) contamination. The Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP), via the Bioaccumulation Oversight Group (BOG), has recently completed statewide surveys of contaminants in sport fish tissue from more than 250 lakes and rivers in California and throughout coastal waters. This effort focused on human health issues but did not include beneficial uses by wildlife. Many piscivorous birds such as grebes, terns, cormorants, and mergansers eat fish smaller than those that were sampled by BOG, and sport fish Hg concentrations are not always indicative of wildlife exposure to Hg; therefore, the BOG surveys could not address whether wildlife were at risk due to Hg-induced reproductive impairment in these lakes.

  18. Heart rate regulation and extreme bradycardia in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Stockard, Torre K; Williams, Cassondra L; Ponganis, Katherine V; Ponganis, Paul J

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the diving heart rate (f(H)) response of the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), the consummate avian diver, birds diving at an isolated dive hole in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica were outfitted with digital electrocardiogram recorders, two-axis accelerometers and time depth recorders (TDRs). In contrast to any other freely diving bird, a true bradycardia (f(H) significantly emperor penguins. Maximum instantaneous surface interval f(H) in this study is the highest ever recorded for emperor penguins (256 beats min(-1)), equivalent to f(H) at V(O(2)) max., presumably facilitating oxygen loading and post-dive metabolism. The classic Scholander-Irving dive response in these emperor penguins contrasts with the absence of true bradycardia in diving ducks, cormorants, and other penguin species.

  19. Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California's Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Braje, Todd J; Casperson, Molly; Culleton, Brendan; Fulfrost, Brian; Garcia, Tracy; Guthrie, Daniel A; Jew, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J; Moss, Madonna L; Reeder, Leslie; Skinner, Craig; Watts, Jack; Willis, Lauren

    2011-03-04

    Three archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands show that Paleoindians relied heavily on marine resources. The Paleocoastal sites, dated between ~12,200 and 11,200 years ago, contain numerous stemmed projectile points and crescents associated with a variety of marine and aquatic faunal remains. At site CA-SRI-512 on Santa Rosa Island, Paleocoastal peoples used such tools to capture geese, cormorants, and other birds, along with marine mammals and finfish. At Cardwell Bluffs on San Miguel Island, Paleocoastal peoples collected local chert cobbles, worked them into bifaces and projectile points, and discarded thousands of marine shells. With bifacial technologies similar to those seen in Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition assemblages of western North America, the sites provide evidence for seafaring and island colonization by Paleoindians with a diversified maritime economy.

  20. Sandhill crane with baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A Sandhill Crane searches for food with its still-fuzzy fledgling by its side. The two, along with another adult crane, have been seen wandering the grassy areas in the KSC Launch Complex 39 area. Sandhill cranes range from Siberia, Alaska and Arctic islands to Michigan, Minnesota and California; from Florida to Texas. They prefer large freshwater marshes, prairie ponds and marshy tundra. KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Parasites of South African freshwater fish. I. Some nematodes of the catfish [Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)] from the Hartbeespoort Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J

    1982-03-01

    A seasonal study of the parasites of fish in the Hartbeespoort Dam was undertaken in 1979. This paper deals with 4 nematode species recovered from catfish, namely, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx (Baylis, 1923), Procamallanus laeviconchus (Wedl, 1862), Contracaecum sp. and Skrjabinocara sp. Total numbers of parasites recovered are tabulated and their seasonal variation illustrated diagrammatically. Paracamallanus cyathopharynx was recovered from 23 out of 43 catfish examined and Procamallanus laeviconchus from 13, while Contracaecum sp. larvae were present in all the catfish. Skrjabinocara sp. was recovered from 1 catfish only, but it is not regarded as being parasitic in fish, as it was also recovered from 1 out of 4 cormorant examined. Paracamallanus cyathopharynx and Procamallanus laeviconchus are illustrated and the measurements of the Hartbeespoort Dam material compared with those given by various authors who recovered the same parasites from other fish species elsewhere in Africa.

  2. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  3. Particle tracks in supralinear nuclear research emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.; Pinkerton, F.E.; Katz, R.; Benton, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    The tracks of isolated particles in the grain-count regime in emulsion are described by a theory extended from l-hit detectors to c-or-more hit detectors, for study of the tracks of 12 C, 16 O, and 20 Ne ions in a series of desensitized Ilford K-minus emulsions, as processed in a wet hot-stage (Bristol formula) developer. These emulsions represent a class of many-hit nuclear track detectors able to discriminate against low LET radiations, with a threshold that can be varied by processing, and which are able to mimic some of the aspects of the response of biological cells to radiations of different quality

  4. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...... conservation concern are the populations of great cormorant, Iceland gull, great black-backed gull and little auk. Following species of European conservation concern (Tucker & Heath 1994) breed in western Greenland: lesser black-backed gull, great black-backed gull, razorbill, black guillemot and atlantic...

  5. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  6. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in San Francisco Bay wildlife: Temporal trends, exposure pathways, and notable presence of precursor compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Margaret D; Benskin, Jonathan P; Wong, Adam; Grace, Richard; Greig, Denise J

    2017-10-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in San Francisco Bay (SF Bay) wildlife have historically been among the highest reported globally. To track continuing exposures to PFASs and assess the impact of the 2002 phase-out of production of PFOS and related chemicals in the US, nine perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C4-C12), three perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4, C6, C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, a PFOS precursor) were measured in SF Bay cormorant eggs in 2012 and harbor seal serum sampled between 2009 and 2014. PFOS remained the dominant perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) in both cormorant eggs (36.1-466 ng/g) and seals (12.6-796 ng/g) from 2012 and 2014, respectively. Concentrations in seal and bird eggs from the South Bay have declined approximately 70% in both matrices. To elucidate potential pathways of exposure, prey fish, sediments and wastewater effluent were analyzed for PFASs, and in the case of sediment and effluent, a suite of PFAA precursors. PFOS was the dominant PFAA in prey fish and sediment. In effluent, different mixtures of PFAAs were measured, with PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA detected in the highest concentrations. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (PFCA-precursors) were observed at concentrations over an order of magnitude higher than PFCAs in sediment, highlighting their importance as a potential, on-going source of PFCAs to SF Bay wildlife. These findings suggest that the PFOS phase-out has resulted in reduced burdens to wildlife in SF Bay, but that exposure to diverse and incompletely characterized PFASs continues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two late-Glacial avifaunas from eastern North Island, New Zealand : Te Aute Swamp and Wheturau Quarry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Late-Glacial faunas from Wheturau Quarry near Gisborne and Te Aute, near Napier, North Island, New Zealand, are described and radiocarbon dates presented. These faunas suggest that the eastern North Island was covered in open shrubland until 10,500 years BP. There were significant changes in the fauna of the eastern North Island during the Early Holocene, when the dominant moa species was replaced; the key species Cnemiornis gracilis disappeared from the fauna; and others, such as Euryanas finschi became scarce. The Wheturau fauna includes the largest collection of Cnemiornis gracilis bones yet found, and a storm petrel that may be Oceanites maorianus, named from three skins collected last century off Banks Peninsula. The Te Aute site is notable for the large number of moa bones preserved, especially Euryapteryx curtus and Dinonnis giganteus. It is also the type locality for Diornis gazella Oliver, Cnermiornis gracilis Forbes, Circus teauteensis Forbes, Circus hamiltoni Forbes, and Phalacrocorax novaezealandiae var. major Forbes. The record of Harpagornis moorei from Te Aute is shown to have been an error in identification by Hamilton, and Harpagornis is therefore unknown in the North Island. (author). 41 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Pushed for time or saving on fuel: fine-scale energy budgets shed light on currencies in a diving bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Wilson, Rory P; Quintana, Flavio; Laich, Agustina Gómez; Forman, Dan W

    2009-09-07

    Animals may forage using different currencies depending on whether time minimization or energy maximization is more pertinent at the time. Assessment of net energy acquisition requires detailed information on instantaneous activity-specific power use, which varies according to animal performance, being influenced, for example, by speed and prey loading, and which has not been measured before in wild animals. We used a new proxy for instantaneous energy expenditure (overall dynamic body acceleration), to quantify foraging effort in a model species, the imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps, during diving. Power costs varied nonlinearly with depth exploited owing to depth-related buoyancy. Consequently, solutions for maximizing the gross rate of gain and energetic efficiency differed for dives to any given depth. Dive effort in free-ranging imperial shags measured during the breeding season was consistent with a strategy to maximize the gross rate of energy gain. We suggest that the divergence of time and energy costs with dive depth has implications for the measurement of dive efficiency across diverse diving taxa.

  9. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  10. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Reed

    Full Text Available Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  11. Impacts of parasites in early life: contrasting effects on juvenile growth for different family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas E; Daunt, Francis; Kiploks, Adam J; Burthe, Sarah J; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna M V; Takahashi, Emi A; Newell, Mark; Wanless, Sarah; Cunningham, Emma J A

    2012-01-01

    Parasitism experienced early in ontogeny can have a major impact on host growth, development and future fitness, but whether siblings are affected equally by parasitism is poorly understood. In birds, hatching asynchrony induced by hormonal or behavioural mechanisms largely under parental control might predispose young to respond to infection in different ways. Here we show that parasites can have different consequences for offspring depending on their position in the family hierarchy. We experimentally treated European Shag (Phalacrocorax aristoteli) nestlings with the broad-spectrum anti-parasite drug ivermectin and compared their growth rates with nestlings from control broods. Average growth rates measured over the period of linear growth (10 days to 30 days of age) and survival did not differ for nestlings from treated and control broods. However, when considering individuals within broods, parasite treatment reversed the patterns of growth for individual family members: last-hatched nestlings grew significantly slower than their siblings in control nests but grew faster in treated nests. This was at the expense of their earlier-hatched brood-mates, who showed an overall growth rate reduction relative to last-hatched nestlings in treated nests. These results highlight the importance of exploring individual variation in the costs of infection and suggest that parasites could be a key factor modulating within-family dynamics, sibling competition and developmental trajectories from an early age.

  12. Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 (Trematoda: Strigeidae) from New Zealand: linking and characterising life cycle stages with morphology and molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Poulin, Robert; Presswell, Bronwen

    2016-01-01

    Species of Apatemon Szidat, 1928 and Australapatemon Sudarikov, 1959 are reported from New Zealand for the first time, and their life cycles are resolved using molecular sequence data (28S and ITS rDNA regions and mitochondrial COI). The metacercaria of Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' ex Gobiomorphus cotidianus and its cercaria ex Potamopyrgus antipodarum are described in detail. Its adult, found in Anas platyrhynchos and Phalacrocorax punctatus, is identified by molecular sequence data. Apatemon sp. 'jamiesoni' uses a different species of snail host, exhibits consistent differences in the genetic markers examined and its single described adult differs from known species so as to be considered distinct, but its formal description awaits additional adult specimens. Australapatemon niewiadomski n. sp. is described from Anas platyrhynchos. It is distinguished morphologically by the absence of a ringnapf and its overall smaller size compared to most other Australapatemon spp. except Au. magnacetabulum and Au. minor, which are smaller in nearly all features than the new species. Au. niewiadomski n. sp. metacercaria and its intermediate host (Barbronia weberi) are identified via matching of molecular sequence data. The status of Apatemon and Australapatemon as distinct genera is confirmed based on their respective monophyly, and genetic divergence between them is comparable to other well-established genera in the Strigeidae. The diagnosis of Australapatemon is emended. Life history data, accurate patterns of host specialisation and distribution, alongside concurrent molecular and morphological evidence would be useful for an integrative taxonomical approach towards the elucidation of species diversity in this group.

  13. Thirty-eighth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Burt L.; Banks, Richard C.; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Howell, Thomas R.; Johnson, Ned K.; Ouellet, Henri; Remsen, J.V.; Storer, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    This fourth supplement after the 6th edition (1983) of the AOU "Check-list of North American Birds" consists of changes adopted by the Committee on Classification and Nomenclature between 1 March 1989 and 1 March 1991. The changes fall into eight categories: (1) five species (Ixobrychus sinensis, Porphyrula flavirostris, Sterna bergii, Streptopelia orientalis, and Ficedula narcissina) are added to the main list because of new distributional information; (2) six species (Pterodroma cervicalis, Ortalis wagleri, Lophornis brachylopha, Corvus sinaloae, Cinclocerthia gutturalis, and Loxops caeruleirostris) are added to the list because of the splitting of species previously in the list; (3) one extinct species (Dysmorodrepanis munroi) is added to the list because of re-identification of the unique type; (4) one scientific name (Speotyto cunicularia) is changed because of generic splitting; (5) one scientific name (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is changed for nomenclature reasons, accompanied by a change in English name; (6) the spelling of one scientific name (Neocrex colombianus) is corrected; (7) to other English names are changed or corrected; and (8) one sequencing change is made. No new distributional information is included except as noted above (i.e. minor changes of distribution of distributional records within North America are not included). The twelve additions bring the number of species recognized as occurring within the Check-list area (main list) to 1957.

  14. ORNITHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE VÂLCELE BASIN DURING FEBRUARY 2013 – JANUARY 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Mestecăneanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are showed the results of the researches performed during February 2013 – January 2014 on the avifauna from the Vâlcele Basin. The 65 observed species belong to 13 orders, Passeriformes being the richest (33 species. Anseriformes and Charadriiformes (each with 7 species were the best represented among the wetland birds. 5 species (Podiceps cristatus, Phalacrocorax carbo, Anas platyrhynchos, Fulica atra, and Larus argentatus cachinnans/michahellis were euconstant and 2 species (Anas platyrhynchos and Fulica atra were eudominant. Anas platyrhynchos counted most individuals in a month in December; in July were no individuals. Fulica atra had the most number in September; it was absent in May. For the Vâlcele Basin avicoenose, Anseriformes and Gruiformes were the overdominat orders and, inside the Anseriformes order, Anas platyrhynchos was overdominant species. 7 species (Egretta alba, Nycticorax nycticorax, Ciconia ciconia, Chlidonias hybridus, Alcedo atthis, Picus canus, and Lanius collurio are in the Annex I of the Birds Directive.

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of two new species of Andracantha (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) from New Zealand shags (Phalacrocoracidae) and penguins (Spheniscidae) with a key to the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, B; García-Varela, M; Smales, L R

    2017-11-16

    Two new species of Andracantha (Polymorphidae) are described from the intestine of the shags Leucocarbo chalconotus (Gray) and Phalacrocorax punctatus (Sparrman), and the penguin Eudyptula minor (Forster) from southern South Island, New Zealand. Andracantha leucocarboi n. sp. is distinguished from its congeners by having no genital or ventral trunk spines, but possessing a scattering of small spines between the anterior fields of spines. This is the first record of a species of Andracantha from a penguin. Circumbursal papillae are illustrated in a scanning electron micrograph for the first time in the polymorphids. Andracantha sigma n. sp. is distinguished by the sigmoid shape of its largest proboscis hook, hook VIII, and having the ventral field separated from the posterior disc field by an aspinous gap. A Maximum Likelihood tree from cox1 and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) data shows A. leucocarboi n. sp. to be more closely related to A. gravida than A. sigma n. sp. and the genus Andracantha as sister to Corynosoma spp. Genetic distances between species of Andracantha are comparatively large. A key to the species of Andracantha is provided.

  16. Combined bio-logging and stable isotopes reveal individual specialisations in a benthic coastal seabird, the Kerguelen shag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie C M Camprasse

    Full Text Available Individual specialisations, which involve the repetition of specific behaviours or dietary choices over time, have been suggested to benefit animals by avoiding competition with conspecifics and increasing individual foraging efficiency. Among seabirds, resident and benthic species are thought to be good models to study inter-individual variation as they repetitively exploit the same environment. We investigated foraging behaviour, isotopic niche and diet in the Kerguelen shag Phalacrocorax verrucosus during both the incubation and chick-rearing periods for the same individuals to determine the effect of sex, breeding stage, body mass and morphometrics on mean foraging metrics and their consistency. There were large differences between individuals in foraging behaviour and consistency, with strong individual specialisations in dive depths and heading from the colony. Stable isotopes revealed specialisations in feeding strategies, across multiple temporal scales. Specifically, individuals showed medium term specialisations in feeding strategies during the breeding season, as well as long-term consistency. A clustering analysis revealed 4 different foraging strategies displaying significantly different δ15N values and body masses. There were no sex or stage biases to clusters and individuals in different clusters did not differ in their morphology. Importantly, the results suggest that the different strategies emphasized were related to individual prey preferences rather than intrinsic characteristics.

  17. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  18. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelio Roberto dos Reis

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.

  19. Chave de identificação e diagnose dos Histeridae (Insecta: Coleoptera de interesse forense do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália G. R. Celli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO As espécies de Histeridae são quase que exclusivamente predadoras e podem ser encontradas em uma grande diversidade de ambientes. Dentre os grupos associados a carcaças, alguns são citados como relevantes na entomologia forense médico-legal. Entretanto, há pouca informação taxonômica para a família, principalmente na Região Neotropical. Desta forma, os objetivos do trabalho foram elaborar uma chave de identificação e caracterizar as espécies de Histeridae de interesse médico-legal no Brasil. Além disso, são apresentadas informações de distribuição geográfica e aspectos biológicos das espécies. As seguintes espécies são registradas como relevantes na entomologia forense no Brasil: Aeletes nicolasi Leivas, 2012; Euspilotus azureus (Sahlberg, 1823; Hister cavifronsMarseul, 1854; Omalodes bifoveolatus Marseul, 1853;Omalodes foveola Erichson, 1834; Omalodes lucidus Erichson, 1834, Operclipygus subterraneusCaterino & Tishechkin, 2013; Phelister sanguinipennisMarseul, 1853; e Scapomegas auritus Marseul, 1855. Esta contribuição representa a primeira ferramenta para uma melhor identificação dos Histeridae associados a carcaças no Brasil e pode servir como referência e aplicação na entomologia médico-legal.

  20. Predicting Species Distributions Using Record Centre Data: Multi-Scale Modelling of Habitat Suitability for Bat Roosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Chloe; Altringham, John

    2015-01-01

    Conservation increasingly operates at the landscape scale. For this to be effective, we need landscape scale information on species distributions and the environmental factors that underpin them. Species records are becoming increasingly available via data centres and online portals, but they are often patchy and biased. We demonstrate how such data can yield useful habitat suitability models, using bat roost records as an example. We analysed the effects of environmental variables at eight spatial scales (500 m - 6 km) on roost selection by eight bat species (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, Nyctalus noctula, Myotis mystacinus, M. brandtii, M. nattereri, M. daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) using the presence-only modelling software MaxEnt. Modelling was carried out on a selection of 418 data centre roost records from the Lake District National Park, UK. Target group pseudoabsences were selected to reduce the impact of sampling bias. Multi-scale models, combining variables measured at their best performing spatial scales, were used to predict roosting habitat suitability, yielding models with useful predictive abilities. Small areas of deciduous woodland consistently increased roosting habitat suitability, but other habitat associations varied between species and scales. Pipistrellus were positively related to built environments at small scales, and depended on large-scale woodland availability. The other, more specialist, species were highly sensitive to human-altered landscapes, avoiding even small rural towns. The strength of many relationships at large scales suggests that bats are sensitive to habitat modifications far from the roost itself. The fine resolution, large extent maps will aid targeted decision-making by conservationists and planners. We have made available an ArcGIS toolbox that automates the production of multi-scale variables, to facilitate the application of our methods to other taxa and locations. Habitat suitability modelling has the

  1. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  2. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  3. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  4. Enhanced passive bat rabies surveillance in indigenous bat species from Germany--a retrospective study.

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    Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.

  5. Enhanced Passive Bat Rabies Surveillance in Indigenous Bat Species from Germany - A Retrospective Study

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    Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117

  6. Pseudogymnoascus destructans: evidence of virulent skin invasion for bats under natural conditions, Europe.

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    Bandouchova, H; Bartonicka, T; Berkova, H; Brichta, J; Cerny, J; Kovacova, V; Kolarik, M; Köllner, B; Kulich, P; Martínková, N; Rehak, Z; Turner, G G; Zukal, J; Pikula, J

    2015-02-01

    While Pseudogymnoascus destructans has been responsible for mass bat mortalities from white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America, its virulence in Europe has been questioned. To shed the light on the issue of host-pathogen interaction between European bats and P. destructans, we examined seventeen bats emerging from the fungus-positive underground hibernacula in the Czech Republic during early spring 2013. Dual wing-membrane biopsies were taken from Barbastella barbastellus (1), Myotis daubentonii (1), Myotis emarginatus (1), Myotis myotis (11), Myotis nattereri (1) and Plecotus auritus (2) for standard histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. Non-lethal collection of suspected WNS lesions was guided by trans-illumination of the wing membranes with ultraviolet light. All bats selected for the present study were PCR-positive for P. destructans and showed microscopic findings consistent with the histopathological criteria for WNS diagnosis. Ultramicroscopy revealed oedema of the connective tissue and derangement of the fibroblasts and elastic fibres associated with skin invasion by P. destructans. Extensive fungal infection induced a marked inflammatory infiltration by neutrophils at the interface between the damaged part of the wing membrane replaced by the fungus and membrane tissue not yet invaded by the pathogen. There was no sign of keratinolytic activity in the stratum corneum. Here, we show that lesions pathognomonic for WNS are common in European bats and may also include overwhelming full-thickness fungal growth through the wing membrane equal in severity to reports from North America. Inter-continental differences in the outcome of WNS in bats in terms of morbidity/mortality may therefore not be due to differences in the pathogen itself. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Age of enlightenment: long-term effects of outdoor aesthetic lights on bats in churches.

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    Rydell, Jens; Eklöf, Johan; Sánchez-Navarro, Sonia

    2017-08-01

    We surveyed 110 country churches in south-western Sweden for presence of brown long-eared bats Plecotus auritus in summer 2016 by visual inspection and/or evening emergence counts. Each church was also classified according to the presence and amount of aesthetic directional lights (flood-lights) aimed on its walls and tower from the outside. Sixty-one of the churches had previously been surveyed by one of us (J.R.) between 1980 and 1990, before lights were installed on Swedish churches, using the same methods. Churches with bat colonies had decreased significantly in frequency from 61% in 1980s to 38% by 2016. All abandoned churches had been fitted with flood-lights in the period between the two surveys. The loss of bat colonies from lit churches was highly significant and most obvious when lights were applied from all directions, leaving no dark corridor for the bats to leave and return to the roost. In contrast, in churches that were not lit, all of 13 bat colonies remained after 25+ years between the surveys. Lighting of churches and other historical buildings is a serious threat to the long-term survival and reproduction of light-averse bats such as Plecotus spp. and other slow-flying species. Bat roosts are strictly protected according to the EU Habitats Directive and the EUROBATS agreement. Lighting of buildings for aesthetic purposes is becoming a serious environmental issue, because important bat roosts are destroyed in large numbers, and the problem should be handled accordingly. As a start, installation of flood-lights on historical buildings should at least require an environmental impact assessment (EIA).

  8. Differences in the stable isotope signatures of seabird egg membrane and albumen--implications for non-invasive studies.

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    Quillfeldt, Petra; McGill, Rona A R; Masello, Juan F; Poisbleau, Maud; van Noordwijk, Hendrika; Demongin, Laurent; Furness, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    In many bird species, egg membranes can be obtained non-invasively after the chicks have hatched, and stable isotope analysis of egg membranes can be used to study the diet and foraging distribution of these birds during egg formation. It has been suggested that the enrichment factors of albumen and egg membranes differ for 13C, but are similar for 15N. In this study, we compared carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of the membranes and albumen of individual eggs of three wild seabird species, the Southern Rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome, the Imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer, and the Thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri. We also included chicken eggs for comparison. Egg membranes were generally enriched in 13C, compared with albumen. The difference varied between species, with 2.1 per thousand in Rockhopper penguins, 1.6 per thousand in Imperial shags, but only 0.5 per thousand in Thin-billed prions and 0.4 per thousand in chicken eggs. Egg membranes were slightly enriched in 15N in Imperial shags (0.9 per thousand) and chickens (0.5 per thousand), compared with albumen, while there was no difference for Thin-billed prions and Rockhopper penguins. The isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen were correlated between albumen and egg membranes of individual eggs, suggesting that egg membranes can be used reliably to investigate trophic differences between individuals, seasons or colonies. Species-specific mathematical corrections could be used to compare results across studies that use different egg components. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Validating accelerometry estimates of energy expenditure across behaviours using heart rate data in a free-living seabird.

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    Hicks, Olivia; Burthe, Sarah; Daunt, Francis; Butler, Adam; Bishop, Charles; Green, Jonathan A

    2017-05-15

    Two main techniques have dominated the field of ecological energetics: the heart rate and doubly labelled water methods. Although well established, they are not without their weaknesses, namely expense, intrusiveness and lack of temporal resolution. A new technique has been developed using accelerometers; it uses the overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) of an animal as a calibrated proxy for energy expenditure. This method provides high-resolution data without the need for surgery. Significant relationships exist between the rate of oxygen consumption ( V̇ O 2 ) and ODBA in controlled conditions across a number of taxa; however, it is not known whether ODBA represents a robust proxy for energy expenditure consistently in all natural behaviours and there have been specific questions over its validity during diving, in diving endotherms. Here, we simultaneously deployed accelerometers and heart rate loggers in a wild population of European shags ( Phalacrocorax aristotelis ). Existing calibration relationships were then used to make behaviour-specific estimates of energy expenditure for each of these two techniques. Compared with heart rate-derived estimates, the ODBA method predicts energy expenditure well during flight and diving behaviour, but overestimates the cost of resting behaviour. We then combined these two datasets to generate a new calibration relationship between ODBA and V̇ O 2  that accounts for this by being informed by heart rate-derived estimates. Across behaviours we found a good relationship between ODBA and V̇ O 2 Within individual behaviours, we found useable relationships between ODBA and V̇ O 2  for flight and resting, and a poor relationship during diving. The error associated with these new calibration relationships mostly originates from the previous heart rate calibration rather than the error associated with the ODBA method. The equations provide tools for understanding how energy constrains ecology across the complex behaviour

  10. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

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    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  11. Can ethograms be automatically generated using body acceleration data from free-ranging birds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Q Sakamoto

    Full Text Available An ethogram is a catalogue of discrete behaviors typically employed by a species. Traditionally animal behavior has been recorded by observing study individuals directly. However, this approach is difficult, often impossible, in the case of behaviors which occur in remote areas and/or at great depth or altitude. The recent development of increasingly sophisticated, animal-borne data loggers, has started to overcome this problem. Accelerometers are particularly useful in this respect because they can record the dynamic motion of a body in e.g. flight, walking, or swimming. However, classifying behavior using body acceleration characteristics typically requires prior knowledge of the behavior of free-ranging animals. Here, we demonstrate an automated procedure to categorize behavior from body acceleration, together with the release of a user-friendly computer application, "Ethographer". We evaluated its performance using longitudinal acceleration data collected from a foot-propelled diving seabird, the European shag, Phalacrocorax aristotelis. The time series data were converted into a spectrum by continuous wavelet transformation. Then, each second of the spectrum was categorized into one of 20 behavior groups by unsupervised cluster analysis, using k-means methods. The typical behaviors extracted were characterized by the periodicities of body acceleration. Each categorized behavior was assumed to correspond to when the bird was on land, in flight, on the sea surface, diving and so on. The behaviors classified by the procedures accorded well with those independently defined from depth profiles. Because our approach is performed by unsupervised computation of the data, it has the potential to detect previously unknown types of behavior and unknown sequences of some behaviors.

  12. European shags optimize their flight behavior according to wind conditions.

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    Kogure, Yukihisa; Sato, Katsufumi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Wanless, Sarah; Daunt, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Aerodynamics results in two characteristic speeds of flying birds: the minimum power speed and the maximum range speed. The minimum power speed requires the lowest rate of energy expenditure per unit time to stay airborne and the maximum range speed maximizes air distance traveled per unit of energy consumed. Therefore, if birds aim to minimize the cost of transport under a range of wind conditions, they are predicted to fly at the maximum range speed. Furthermore, take-off is predicted to be strongly affected by wind speed and direction. To investigate the effect of wind conditions on take-off and cruising flight behavior, we equipped 14 European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis with a back-mounted GPS logger to measure position and hence ground speed, and a neck-mounted accelerometer to record wing beat frequency and strength. Local wind conditions were recorded during the deployment period. Shags always took off into the wind regardless of their intended destination and take-off duration was correlated negatively with wind speed. We combined ground speed and direction during the cruising phase with wind speed and direction to estimate air speed and direction. Whilst ground speed was highly variable, air speed was comparatively stable, although it increased significantly during strong head winds, because of stronger wing beats. The increased air speeds in head winds suggest that birds fly at the maximum range speed, not at the minimum power speed. Our study demonstrates that European shags actively adjust their flight behavior to utilize wind power to minimize the costs of take-off and cruising flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark.

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    Christensen, J P; Dietz, H H; Bisgaard, M

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily eiders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and HhaI and phenotypic characterization. This observation indicated spread by migratory birds. It was shown that the outbreak clone was closely related to isolates of Pasteurella multocida ssp. multocida obtained from back-yard poultry in Denmark, including chickens, pheasants, turkeys and ducks. The only detectable difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp. multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry. The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back-yard poultry. Ribotyping, using the same enzymes, resulted in 12 and 10 different profile types, respectively. The outbreak isolates did not harbour any plasmids, while six out of the 30 strains originating from back-yard poultry (20%) carried a cryptic plasmid of approximately 3.4 kb.

  14. Widespread Detection of Antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile, St. Louis Encephalitis, and Turlock Viruses in Various Species of Wild Birds from Across the United States

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    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R.; Wang, Eryu; Eastwood, Gillian; Weaver, Scott C.; Goldstein, Samuel M.; Sinnett, David R.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Wild birds serve as amplifying hosts for many arboviruses, and are thought to be responsible for introducing these viruses into new areas during migration as well as reintroducing them to places where winter temperatures disrupt mosquito-borne transmission. To learn more about four mosquito-borne arboviruses of concern to human or animal health, we tested sera from 997 wild birds of 54 species and 17 families across 44 states of the United States collected from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2013. Samples were tested for antibody against eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis, West Nile, and Turlock viruses using plaque reduction neutralization tests with an endpoint of 80% or greater. Of the 333 (33.4%) birds that tested positive for antibody to at least one arbovirus, 29.7% were exposed to two or more arboviruses. Exposure to all four arboviruses was detected in Canada geese, double-crested cormorants, mallards, mute swans, laughing gulls, and American coots. Our results suggest that exposure to arboviruses is widespread in the United States across a diversity of wild bird species. PMID:27162269

  15. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

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    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  16. Epidemiological study of Newcastle disease in backyard poultry and wild bird populations in Switzerland.

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    Schelling, E; Thur, B; Griot, C; Audige, L

    1999-06-01

    Blood samples and cloacal swabs from poultry were collected in 107 small chicken flocks and 62 pure-bred poultry flocks to determine their status regarding Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection. A questionnaire emphasizing potential contacts of poultry with wild birds and management practices associated with NDV infection was completed for each flock. Additionally, 1576 wild bird carcasses of 115 different bird species were collected from hunters and taxidermists. Poultry sera and tissue fluids of wild birds were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking ELISA. Cloacal swabs were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for NDV genome detection. In-herd NDV seroprevalences between 5 and 29% were found in one small chicken flock, as well as in four pure-bred poultry flocks. NDV antibody positive wild birds were found in 10.2% of all wild birds examined. Highest proportions (i.e. 15%) of positive birds per species were found among sparrowhawks, kites, tawny owls, eagle owls, barn owls, cuckoos, swifts, cormorants and grebes. No NDV genome was detected in cloacal swabs. This study suggests that buying eggs or poultry abroad and exchanging poultry within the country were factors, more important than wild birds, to explain the higher NDV seropositivity in pure-bred poultry flocks.

  17. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA

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    Chen Da, E-mail: chen@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Hale, Robert C. [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Watts, Bryan D. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States); La Guardia, Mark J.; Harvey, Ellen [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mojica, Elizabeth K. [Center for Conservation Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SIGMAPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. - Birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay (USA) exhibited species-specific PBDE accumulation patterns.

  18. Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Hale, Robert C; Watts, Bryan D; La Guardia, Mark J; Harvey, Ellen; Mojica, Elizabeth K

    2010-05-01

    Compared to organochlorines, little is known about polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) contamination of birds of prey breeding in the Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the U.S. This study examined and compared PBDE contamination in eggs of osprey, double-crested cormorant, brown pelican and peregrine falcon from this area. Several legacy persistent organic pollutants such as PCBs and DDE were also investigated. The level of urbanization of the landscape appeared to influence the level of PBDE exposure. PBDE congener distribution patterns varied between piscivorous and terrestrial-feeding birds. This suggests individual congeners may be subject to differences in bioaccumulation, biomagnification or metabolism in the aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Biomagnification of PBDEs was studied in the Bay aquatic food chains for the first time. A biomagnification factor of 25.1 was estimated for SigmaPBDEs for the fish - osprey egg food chain. Hazard quotients, applied as a preliminary evaluation, indicated that PBDEs may pose a moderate hazard to ospreys and peregrine falcons through impairment of reproductive performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatio-temporal distributions of piscivorous birds in a subarctic sound during the nonbreeding season

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    Stocking, Jessica; Bishop, Mary Anne; Arab, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Understanding bird distributions outside of the breeding season may help to identify important criteria for winter refuge. We surveyed marine birds in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA over nine winters from 2007 to 2016. Our objectives were twofold: to examine the seasonal patterns of piscivorous species overwintering in Prince William Sound, and to explore the relationships between spatial covariates and bird distributions, accounting for inherent spatial structure. We used hurdle models to examine nine species groups of piscivorous seabirds: loons, grebes, cormorants, mergansers, large gulls, small gulls, kittiwakes, Brachyramphus murrelets, and murres. Seven groups showed pronounced seasonal patterns. The models with the most support identified water depth and distance to shore as key environmental covariates, while habitat type, wave exposure, sea surface temperature and seafloor slope had less support. Environmental associations are consistent with the available knowledge of forage fish distribution during this time, but studies that address habitat associations of prey fish in winter could strengthen our understanding of processes in Prince William Sound.

  20. Using heronry birds to monitor urbanization impacts: a case study of painted stork Mycteria leucocephala nesting in the Delhi Zoo, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2010-03-01

    Although urbanization is a frequently cited cause of biodiversity loss (Czech and Krausman 1997) our understanding about urban ecology is severely limited (Marzluff et al. 2001). Birds are popular bio-indicators of environmental change because they are ecologically versatile, their populations as well as select fitness parameters can be conveniently monitored, often with the voluntary involvement of local nature enthusiasts across large geographical scales, and their presence/absence in a particular area is consequential (Bibby et al. 1992; Urfi 2004). In India, while several studies have focused on changes in bird populations and distributions in natural habitats (Urfi et al. 2005), very few have actually attempted to study either the impacts of urbanization on birds or how different species have adjusted to environmental change. However, many Indian cities offer foraging and nesting habitat for birds, especially colonial waterbirds such as stork, ibis, spoonbill, heron, egret, cormorant, and spoonbill. Some notable examples in this regard are Piele Gardens in Bhavnagar city (Parasharya and Naik 1990), Karanji Tank in Mysore (Jamgaonkar et al. 1994) and the National Zoological Park (hence forth Delhi Zoo) in India's capital city New Delhi (Urfi 1997). In this article, I focus on the opportunities for meaningful ecological research offered by the wild waterbirds nesting in the Delhi Zoo premises and discuss the significance for initiating novel, long term conservation monitoring programs, involving volunteers and bird watchers, to create data bases that will be useful for understanding urbanization and climate change impacts on biodiversity.

  1. Global phenological insensitivity to shifting ocean temperatures among seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogan, Katharine; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Phillips, Richard A.; Walling, Craig A.; Agnew, Philippa; Ainley, David G.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Ballard, Grant; Barrett, Robert T.; Barton, Kerry J.; Bech, Claus; Becker, Peter; Berglund, Per-Arvid; Bollache, Loïc; Bond, Alexander L.; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell W.; Burr, Zofia M.; Camphuysen, Kees; Catry, Paulo; Chiaradia, Andre; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Cuthbert, Richard; Dehnhard, Nina; Descamps, Sébastien; Diamond, Tony; Divoky, George; Drummond, Hugh; Dugger, Katie M.; Dunn, Michael J.; Emmerson, Louise; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Fort, Jérôme; Fraser, William; Genovart, Meritxell; Gilg, Olivier; González-Solís, Jacob; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Grémillet, David; Hansen, Jannik; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Harris, Mike; Hedd, April; Hinke, Jefferson; Igual, José Manuel; Jahncke, Jaime; Jones, Ian; Kappes, Peter J.; Lang, Johannes; Langset, Magdalene; Lescroël, Amélie; Lorentsen, Svein-Hâkon; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Mallory, Mark; Moe, Børge; Montevecchi, William A.; Monticelli, David; Mostello, Carolyn; Newell, Mark; Nicholson, Lisa; Nisbet, Ian; Olsson, Olof; Oro, Daniel; Pattison, Vivian; Poisbleau, Maud; Pyk, Tanya; Quintana, Flavio; Ramos, Jaime A.; Ramos, Raül; Reiertsen, Tone Kirstin; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ryan, Peter; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Schmidt, Niels M.; Shannon, Paula; Sittler, Benoit; Southwell, Colin; Surman, Christopher; Svagelj, Walter S.; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Warzybok, Pete; Watanuki, Yutaka; Weimerskirch, Henri; Wilson, Peter R.; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillimore, Albert B.; Lewis, Sue

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity1, and is often sensitive to climatic conditions2. Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between the resource requirements of predators and their prey3. This is of particular concern for higher-trophic-level organisms, whose longer generation times confer a lower rate of evolutionary rescue than primary producers or consumers4. However, the disconnection between studies of ecological change in marine systems makes it difficult to detect general changes in the timing of reproduction5. Here, we use a comprehensive meta-analysis of 209 phenological time series from 145 breeding populations to show that, on average, seabird populations worldwide have not adjusted their breeding seasons over time (-0.020 days yr-1) or in response to sea surface temperature (SST) (-0.272 days °C-1) between 1952 and 2015. However, marked between-year variation in timing observed in resident species and some Pelecaniformes and Suliformes (cormorants, gannets and boobies) may imply that timing, in some cases, is affected by unmeasured environmental conditions. This limited temperature-mediated plasticity of reproductive timing in seabirds potentially makes these top predators highly vulnerable to future mismatch with lower-trophic-level resources2.

  2. PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF GERAI POND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dimache

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gerai Pond is one of the last natural wetlands along the Danube, being connected to natural flooding regime of the Danube and is situated at the confluence of the Danube River, between Gârcov and Islaz localities, in Olt County. Aquatic vegetation characteristic is a favorable habitat for two species of conservation concern that nest along the Danube: red duck and pygmy cormorant. During 1961-1970, Gerai Pond has changed radically due to impoundment and draining under the program of drainage and flood meadow regulate of the Danube. These works of land reclamation for decreasing surface lakes and wetlands and water stagnation period, had reduced the breeding areas of the two species mentioned above. Ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond project was conducted by Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest in collaboration with E.P.A. Olt and W.W.F.-Romania. The project was based on a hydrological study (which included a component related to flooding for the area analyzed, study in which were highlighted the areas which have water access to and from the Pond, surfaces and volumes of water corresponding to different rates, the optimal level of water for restoration of the nesting area. Based on this study were identified the areas of artificial feed-water discharge to and from the Danube. This paper presents the possible solutions for ecological reconstruction of Gerai Pond, identified in the project.

  3. Forecast on the application of Japanese universal service fund to remote diagnosis for frozen section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Isao

    2010-12-01

    Due to the socioeconomic reason in Japan, some cancer patient is sometimes operated at a rural hospital where only several surgeons perform and no pathologist checks its malignancy. Therefore, the system of the remote diagnosis for frozen section has been standing up in this country for 7 years. In Japan, the USF has started from February 2007 to support only telecommunications operator's hardware (NTT's equipment such as digital switch board) in high cost areas, not for the reimbursement of the tariff of the public users, such as telepathology. To solve such social cormorant equality, when the USF and PAs were supported in the present quick frozen intraoperative telepathology diagnosis, the quality of the cancer treatment in rural area will be improved. Based on the past data of the Japanese telepathology with beta distribution function, it can be estimated that user terminals becomes five times more than present users with support of USF and PAs. Moreover, using VPN on the B'FLETS, the effect of other teleconsultations will spread to the nationwide.

  4. Adaptation, isolation by distance and human-mediated transport determine patterns of gene flow among populations of the disease vector Aedes taeniorhynchus in the Galapagos Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeño, Virna; Goodman, Simon J

    2011-12-01

    The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only native mosquito in the Galapagos Islands and potentially a major disease vector for Galapagos wildlife. Little is known about its population structure, or how its dynamics may be influenced by human presence in the archipelago. We used microsatellite data to assess the structure and patterns of A. taeniorhynchus gene flow among and within islands, to identify potential barriers to mosquito dispersal, and to investigate human-aided transport of mosquitoes across the archipelago. Our results show that inter-island migration of A. taeniorhynchus occurs frequently on an isolation by distance basis. High levels of inter-island migration were detected amongst the major ports of the archipelago, strongly suggesting the occurrence of human-aided transport of mosquitoes among islands, underlining the need for strict control measures to avoid the transport of disease vectors between islands. The prevalence of filarial nematode infection in Galapagos flightless cormorants is correlated with the population structure and migration patterns of A. taeniorhynchus, suggesting that A. taeniorhynchus is an important vector of this arthropod-borne parasite in the Galapagos Islands. Therefore mosquito population structure in Galapagos may have the potential to influence mosquito-borne parasite population dynamics, and the subsequent impacts of such pathogens on their host species in the islands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Avian predation on juvenile salmonids in the Lower Columbia River; 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-01-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results

  6. Bald eagles view their territory from high tower at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A pair of Florida bald eagles take advantage of a tower to rest and view the landscape near the intersection of the NASA Causeway and Kennedy Parkway North at Kennedy Space Center. This pair of eagles nests near Kennedy Parkway and is seen frequently by KSC commuters and visitors. The Southern Bald Eagle ranges throughout Florida and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and the south Atlantic states. Bald Eagles are listed as endangered in the U.S., except in five states where they are listed as threatened. The number of nesting pairs of the southern race once numbered several thousand; recent estimates are only 350-375. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. . Kennedy Space Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  7. Bald eagles view their territory atop a utility pole at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This pair of bald eagles appear unhappy as the focus of the camera while they perch together on the top of a utility pole at Kennedy Space Center. The Center counts more than half a dozen bald eagles among the denizens of its site, especially since KSC shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. The Southern bald eagle is no stranger to Florida as it ranges throughout the state and along the coasts of California, Texas, Louisiana and south Atlantic states. Most southern Florida eagles nesting at KSC arrive during late summer and leave for the north in late spring. They move to nest sites in October and November and lay one to three eggs. The young fledge from February to April. The Refuge encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  8. The Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board, 41st annual report for the year ended March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A report is presented of the year's activities of the corporation responsible for supplying electric power to Manitoba. The corporation serves all areas of the province except central Winnipeg, and it operates 12 hydraulic generating stations, 2 thermal generating stations and 12 diesel sites. Combined generation and imports totalled 25 billion kWh, of which 23.6 kWh was produced from hydraulic stations. The various sections of the report present information on customer services; electricity generated, purchased, and exported; system development, including construction of new power plants; research and development; environmental services; personnel policies; and water management. Financial statements are also provided. Highlights of the year include: a net income of $17.7 million for the year ending 31 March 1992; the official opening of the Limestone generating station; the shutdown of the Grand Rapids generating station due to headcover failure; official launch of the Power Smart program; targeted reduction in load growth of 285 million MW; and conclusion of settlements with the Pas indian band, the community of Cormorant and the Grand Rapids First Nation. 8 figs

  9. Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.c [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Zenker, Armin [University of Applied Sciences (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Rapp, Maja [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich), Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 15, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 mug/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 mug/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. - Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.

  10. Avian Predation on Juvenile Salmonids in the Lower Columbia River: 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Ken; Adamany, Stephanie; Roby, Daniel D.; Craig, David P.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2000-04-01

    The authors initiated a field study in 1997 to assess the impacts of fish-eating colonial waterbirds (i.e., terns, cormorants, and gulls) on the survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Columbia River. Here the authors present results from the 1998 breeding season, the second field season of work on this project. The research objectives in 1998 were to: (1) determine the location, size, nesting chronology, nesting success, and population trajectories of breeding colonies of fish-eating birds in the lower Columbia River; (2) determine diet composition of fish-eating birds, including taxonomic composition and energy content of various prey types; (3) estimate forage fish consumption rates, with special emphasis on juvenile salmonids, by breeding adults and their young; (4) determine the relative vulnerability of different groups of juvenile salmonids to bird predation; (5) identify foraging range, foraging strategies, and habitat utilization by piscivorous waterbirds; and (6) test the feasibility of various alternative methods for managing avian predation on juvenile salmonids and develop recommendations to reduce avian predation, if warranted by the results.

  11. Analysis of capture-recapture data

    CERN Document Server

    McCrea, Rachel S

    2014-01-01

    An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...

  12. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may

  13. Distribución y estado de conservación de los quirópteros en Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, J. T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2004-2006 a sampling of bats took place in Aragón. Traps were set in 47 forests and 67 potential shelters were inspected. Mist nets, harp traps, ultrasound detectors and video cameras were used. A total of 1197 specimens, belonging to 24 species, were captured; 529 records were obtained and the presence of at least 120 breeding colonies was identified (32 of them the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, 110 records and 30 breeding colonies, Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii, 63 records and 11 colonies and Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 48 records and 13 colonies. Reproduction data have been found for all species except for Myotis capaccinii, Myotis cf. nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, Nyctalus leisleri and Eptesicus serotinus. The species found can be divided into four large groups: one of general and continuous distribution (P. pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, H. savii, E. serotinus and P. austriacus, another of general but discontinuous distribution (R. ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale, M. myotis, M. blythii, M. escalerae, M. emarginatus, M. daubentonii, P. pygmaeus, M. schreibersii and T. teniotis, a third of forest species, which were found only in some of the extensive wooded areas (Pyrenees, Moncayo and the south of Teruel: M. mystacinus, M. cf. nattereri, P. auritus, B. barbastellus, N. lasiopterus and N. leisleri and finally two very rare species in the region (M. capaccinii and P. macrobullaris. The distribution of these species in Aragon is shown and their status in relation to data obtained and the bibliography is reviewed.

    En el período 2004-2006 se ha realizado un muestreo de los quirópteros de Aragón. Se ha trampeado en 47 bosques y se han inspeccionado 67 refugios potenciales. Para ello se han utilizado redes finas, trampas de arpa, detectores de ultrasonidos, focos y cámaras de grabaci

  14. ASOCIACIONES ENTRE AVES MARINAS Y SOTALIA GUIANENSIS EN EL SUR DEL GOLFO DE VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍNIVE ESPINOZA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las asociaciones entre aves marinas y mamíferos marinos es un evento común en todos los mares y océanos del mundo. Muchos autores han denominado estas asociaciones como relaciones comensalistas, oportunistas o parasitarias, según el efecto que dicha interacción resulte sobre una o ambas especies relacionadas. Con la finalidad de describir la existencia de agrupaciones entre Sotalia guianensis y aves marinas en la porción sur del Golfo de Venezuela, desde junio 2011 a junio 2012 se realizaron observaciones en plataformas móviles de grupos de este cetáceo y aves marinas, utilizando el protocolo "group-follow" bajo la metodología de "Ad libitum sampling". Todos los avistamientos fueron georreferenciados, realizándose anotaciones de la ocurrencia o no-asociación con aves marinas, de igual forma, se registró la especie y el número de aves presentes al momento de la interacción. Se realizaron 721 avistamientos, de los cuales en 197 eventos se registró asociación entre aves marinas y Sotalia guianensis. Las especies de aves marinas residentes que presentaron mayor frecuencia en eventos de asociación con S. guianensis fueron: Fregata magnificens (49%; n=98, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (29,5%; n=59 y Pelecanus occidentalis (22,5%; n=45; siendo Thalasseus maxima (71%; n=142 la única especie migratoria. Durante las observaciones realizadas en el período de muestreo se notó la presencia de una especie de golondrina (Riparia riparia en un solo evento de agrupación con Sotalia guianensis. Dichas asociaciones aves-delfines, sólo fueron observadas cuando notables congregaciones de peces fueron registrados, donde el o los grupos de delfines realizaban alguna actividad con grandes movimientos de agua, lo que pudiese permitir a las aves realizar un menor gasto energético en la ubicación y la captura de la presa.

  15. Approche expérimentale de l'impact des oiseaux piscivores sur une pisciculture extensive littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENARD M.

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Une étude quantitative de la prédation par des oiseaux piscivores, le Héron Cendré (Ardea cinerea et le Grand Cormoran (Phalacrocorax carbo a été réalisée dans un bassin (2 ha situé dans un vaste ensemble de réservoirs à poissons (140 ha en eau saumâtre du littoral atlantique. Deux enclos, l'un protégé de la prédation par des filets et des fils (0,3 ha, l'autre accessible aux oiseaux (0,9 ha, ont été empoissonnés avec des Mulets (Chelon labrosus et Liza ramada. L'observation régulière des oiseaux a permis de constater dans les jours suivant l'empoissonnement une concentration spectaculaire mais brève des prédateurs, hérons et cormorans se partageant respectivement les zones peu profondes et profondes de l'enclos non protégé. Le dénombrement des poissons après trois semaines d'expérimentation a montré un épuisement total du stock de poissons. Les caractéristiques essentielles de la prédation sont la rapidité d'intervention des piscivores et la faible part des prélèvements par le héron (3 % du stock initial, malgré un taux de succès élevé (nombre de prises/nombre d'attaques. La prédation par le cormoran n'a pu être dissociée de la mortalité indirectement due aux prédateurs. Cependant, il est vraisemblable que ce prédateur soit à l'origine d'une grande part de la mortalité correspondante, évaluée entre 64 et 97 % du stock initial. L'importance de cette prédation s'explique par la fréquentation et l'intensité de la pêche (nombre d'attaques par minute plus élevées que chez le héron.

  16. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864) and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C O; Oshima, J E F; Pacífico, E S; Silva, E

    2010-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE) (25 degrees 01' S and 47 degrees 55' W) from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) (25 degrees 24' S and 48 degrees 24' W) from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7%) involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2%) involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (chi2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p < 0.05), while in the PEC no differences were reported when comparing seabird species (chi2 = 5.78; d.f.=3, p = 0.1223). In the CE, feeding associations were significantly more frequent in inner waters (subset A0; chi2 = 9.52; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05), and in winter (chi2 = 12.46; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05). Within these events, 44.7% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Seasonality in feeding associations was also observed in the PEC (chi2 = 4.76; d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), with same patterns observed in the CE. Interactions were more frequent in inner waters of the Laranjeiras bay, PEC (chi2 = 11.65; d.f. = 2, p < 0.05). Within these events, 74.2% of the association groups were composed by more than one seabird species. Water transparency, prey and seabird

  17. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  18. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D; Nielsen, Sven N

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  19. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Protocol for collecting and banking seabird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-York, Geoff; Porter, Barbara J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.; Becker, Paul R.; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Archiving biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis is a major component of systematic environmental monitoring. The long-term storage of carefully selected, representative samples in an environmental specimen bank is an important complement to the real-time monitoring of the environment. These archived samples permit:The use of subsequently developed innovative analytical technology that was not available at the time the samples were archived, for clear state-of-art identification an~ quantification of analytes of interest,The identification and quantification of analytes that are of subsequent interest but that were not of interest at the time the samples were archived, andThe comparison of present and past analytical techniques and values, providing continued credibility of past analytical values, and allowing flexibility in environmental monitoring programs.Seabirds, including albatrosses, pelicans, cormorants, terns, kittiwakes, murres, guillemots, and puffins spend most of their lives at sea and have special adaptations for feeding in the marine environment, including the ability to excrete the excess salt obtained from ingesting seawater. Many species nest in dense groups (colonies) on steep, precipitous sea-cliffs and headlands.Seabirds are long-lived and slow to mature. They occupy high positions in the marine food web and are considered sensitive indicators for the marine environment (prey includes krill, small fish, and squid). Breeding success, timing of nesting, diets, and survival rates may provide early indications of changing environmental conditions (e.g., see Hatch et aI., 1993). Chemical analysis of seabird tissues, including egg contents, can be particularly useful in determining whether contaminants (and potential biological effects) associated with human industrial activities, such as offshore petroleum and mineral exploration and development, are accumulating in marine environments. The collection and archival of seabird

  20. Environmental conditions and biological community of the Penzhina and Talovka hypertidal estuary (northwest Kamchatka) in the ice-free season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, M. V.; Gorin, S. L.; Romanenko, F. A.; Lepskaya, E. V.; Polyakova, A. A.; Galyamov, R. A.; Esin, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    New data on the abiotic conditions; species composition; abundance, distribution, and migrations of fauna; and feeding interactions in an estuary ecosystem were obtained during expeditions in the mouths of Penzhina and Talovka rivers (northwest Kamchatka). It is revealed that in the ice-free season, the hydrological regime of the estuary is determined by seasonal fluctuations of river runoff, as well as fortnightly and daily variation of tides. The estuary is characterized by hypertidal fluctuations (up to 10-12 m); strong reverse flows (up to 1.0-1.5 m/s), considerable tidal variations in salinity (from 0 to 6-9‰ at the river boundary and from 6-8 to 14-16‰ at the offshore boundary), and high water turbidity (up to 1 000 NTU or more). Based on the spatial structure of the community, three ecological zones with mobile boundaries are distinguished: freshwater (salinity 0-0.1‰), estuarine (0-12.3‰), and neritic (11.2-18.9‰). High turbidity prevents the development of phytoplankton in the estuarine zone (EZ), and the local benthic community is significantly depleted due to the desalination and wide spread of aleuritic silts. Neritic copepods and nektobenthic brackish- water crustaceans generate the maximum abundance and biomass here. The species that have adapted to the local extreme hydrologic conditions dominate and form the basis of the estuarine food chain. Dominant among the EZ vertebrates are such groups as anadromous fishes (smelts, pacific salmons, charrs, and sticklebacks); waterfowl (terns, kittiwakes, cormorants, fulmars, puffins, guillemots, auklets, and wadepipers); and predatory marine mammals (larga, ringed seal, bearded seal, and white whale). The total abundance and biomass of these animals are much higher in the pelagic EZ in comparison to neighboring zones.

  1. Composition and Dynamics of Migratory and Resident Avian Population in Wintering Wetlands from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve wetlands occurring in four different ecozones in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India, were selected for studying the winter composition and dynamics of avian populations. Wetland information was collected from office records of the UP Forest department. Bird populations were estimated by transect method and block-in-flock-in-sector method for woodland and aquatic birds, respectively. Across the twelve selected wetlands a total of 486,182 individuals belonging to 161 species of birds on 15,592 ha were recorded during the winter of 2010-11. The data were analyzed to assess the relationship between wetland characteristics and avian populations. Aquatic vegetation, surrounding vegetation, water availability and climate were found as important factors related to avian populations. January was found to be the peak of bird assemblage, while winter times before and after January were the waxing and waning period, respectively. Species richness and species diversity of aquatic birds varied between 18-58 and 1.90-3.20, respectively, and of all bird species between 23-109, and 1.73-3.81, respectively. The density of aquatic birds ranged between 17-384 ha-1. The most common migratory birds in wetlands were Northern Pintail, Common Teal and Greylag Goose. Common resident birds included Asian Openbill, Darter, Little Egret, Common Coot, Little Cormorant, Grey Heron, Purple Heron, Indian Pond Heron, Common Moorhen, Purple Swamphen, Cattle Egret, Indian Sarus Crane and White-throated Kingfisher. For improved conservation of aquatic avian fauna, management prescriptions are suggested for wetlands under current management which could also be extended to other wetlands, whereas conservation of avian fauna to be the emphasis.

  2. Temporal, geographic, and host distribution of avian paramyxovirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Qiu, Xueting; Bahl, Justin; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is caused by virulent forms of avian paramyxovirus of serotype 1 (APMV-1) and has global economic importance. The disease reached panzootic proportions within two decades after first being identified in 1926 in the United Kingdom and Indonesia and still remains endemic in many countries across the world. Here we review information on the host, temporal, and geographic distribution of APMV-1 genetic diversity based on the evolutionary systematics of the complete coding region of the fusion gene. Strains of APMV-1 are phylogenetically separated into two classes (class I and class II) and further classified into genotypes based on genetic differences. Class I viruses are genetically less diverse, generally present in wild waterfowl, and are of low virulence. Class II viruses are genetically and phenotypically more diverse, frequently isolated from poultry with occasional spillovers into wild birds, and exhibit a wider range of virulence. Waterfowl, cormorants, and pigeons are natural reservoirs of all APMV-1 pathotypes, except viscerotropic velogenic viruses for which natural reservoirs have not been identified. Genotypes I and II within class II include isolates of high and low virulence, the latter often being used as vaccines. Viruses of genotypes III and IX that emerged decades ago are now isolated rarely, but may be found in domestic and wild birds in China. Containing only virulent viruses and responsible for the majority of recent outbreaks in poultry and wild birds, viruses from genotypes V, VI, and VII, are highly mobile and have been isolated on different continents. Conversely, virulent viruses of genotypes XI (Madagascar), XIII (mainly Southwest Asia), XVI (North America) and XIV, XVII and XVIII (Africa) appear to have a more limited geographic distribution and have been isolated predominantly from poultry.

  3. Biodiversity assessment at Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) campus, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahir Hussain, K.; Satpathy, K.K.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Ramesh, T.; Selvanayagam, M.

    2008-01-01

    A rapid assessment of biodiversity in the DAE campus, Kalpakkam was carried out. The entire DAE campus of 3000 acres, at Kalpakkam was divided into four representative plots comprising of different landscapes namely (1) undisturbed area with dense vegetation, (2) building area, (3) water bodies with riparian cover and (4) sandy area with meager vegetation for inventorying of charismatic terrestrial/semi-aquatic fauna viz., Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians and Butterflies. For birds, early morning surveys were made whereas for mammals evening and night surveys were followed. Midday sampling was followed for butterflies and other animals. Each plot was surveyed twice in a week over a period of one year (April 07' to March 08'). Totally 128 species of animals were identified during the survey and it has highlighted the potential of biodiversity in the campus. The diversity of butterflies is remarkable. Twenty-two butterfly species were encountered. Frogs, toads, lizards and snakes are also diverse. Five species of frogs and one species of toad were recorded. Lizards are more diverse than snakes. Nine species of lizards were encountered. Calotus versicolor is abundant followed by common skink. Totally five species of snakes were recorded. Among them Common bronzedback and Green Vine Snake were predominant. Seventy species of birds were recorded during the survey period. Black crowned night heron, Common house crow, Great cormorant, Oriental white ibis, Painted stork, Cattle egret, Common mynah are more common. Sixteen species of mammals were encountered during the survey. Wild cattle, Jackal, Jungle cat, Toddy cat, Crested porcupine and Indian civet are the major wildlife found. Indian civet and Crested porcupine are elusive animals that are diminishing from wild and their presence at this campus is an indication of less human intervention. (author)

  4. Strategy and scenario for wetland conservation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are the most important ecosystems for the organisms in Animal Kingdom (including human beings and Plant Kingdom. There are about hundred species of flora in and around Indian Wetlands. They include Sagittaria montividensis, Cryptocoryne ciliata, Cyperus spp., Acrostichum aureum, Ipomoea aquatica, etc. They are also the habitats of several mammals like the marsh mongoose, small Indian mongoose, palm civet and the small Indian civet. Endangered species like the Indian mud turtle have also been found in the wetlands. Certain species of birds also visit the wetlands. Prominent ones are grebe, coot, darter, shag, cormorant, teals, egrets, jacanas, snipes, tern, eagle, sand piper, gulls, rails and kingfishers. The wetlands are important for production of foods and human safety. The East Kolkata wetlands with their garbage farms and fishponds have provided the city with three facilities, i.e., food, sanitation and livelihood. They also provide ecological security to the city of Kolkata. Over the past few years, wetlands have come under severe threat. With the population explosion, some of the largest fish farms have been converted from pisiculture to paddy cultivation. Industries also empty their wastewater effluent without treatment to the channels flowing eastward and these ultimately land up in the wetlands. This has caused substantial amount of deposits of metal in the canal sludge and made the wastewater incapable for the consumption by the fishes and the plants grown in the wetland. Nevertheless, due to urbanization or human interference, the wetland and its unique ecosystem biodiversity are in danger. After Ramsar Convention, 1971, different acts have been passed in India for conservation of wetlands, along with conducting general awareness program for the local people by the government, conducting different programs, management of wetlands, and research by the government, NGOs and other institutions.

  5. Bone laminarity in the avian forelimb skeleton and its relationship to flight mode: testing functional interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Erin L R; O'connor, Patrick M

    2012-03-01

    Wing bone histology in three species of birds was characterized in order to test hypotheses related to the relationship between skeletal microstructure and inferred wing loading during flight. Data on the degree of laminarity (the proportion of circular vascular canals) and the occurrence of secondary osteons were obtained from three species that utilize different primary flight modes: the Double-crested cormorant, a continuous flapper; the Brown pelican, a static soarer; and the Laysan albatross, a dynamic soarer. Laminarity indices were calculated for four quadrants for each of the three main wing elements. Ulnae and carpometacarpi were predicted to exhibit quadrant specific patterns of laminarity due to hypothesized differences in locally applied loads related to the attachment of flight feathers. However, few differences among the quadrants were identified. No significant differences were identified among the three elements, which is notable as different bones are likely experiencing different loading conditions. These results do not support the concept of bone functional adaptation in the primary structure of the wing elements. Significant differences in laminarity were found among the three primary flight modes. The dynamic soaring birds exhibited significantly lower laminarity than the flapping and static soaring birds. These results support the proposed hypothesis that laminarity is an adaptation for resisting torsional loading. This may be explained by overall wing shape: whereas dynamic soaring birds have long slender wings, flappers and static soaring birds have broader wings with a larger wing chord that would necessarily impart a higher torsional moment on the feather-bearing bones. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparing habitat preferences of a set of waterbird species wintering in coastal wetlands of North Africa: implication for management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elafri Ali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year, the Coastal wetlands of North Africa support an important wintering waterbird population of many Palearctic and sub-Saharan species of various contrasting habitat requirements. In this study, we describe the habitat use by24 water-obligate species wintering in a coastal wetland of the Northeastern Algeria (the wetland of Lake Tonga, highlighting thereby the ecological mechanisms that support their coexistence and their resources partitioning. The analysis of resource exploitation (Relative frequency, Feinsinger niche breadth, Pianka niche overlap and Ivlev’s electivity indexes showed that waterbird species inhabiting the lake wetland have several similarities in using the different habitat categories, which lead us to cluster them into 5 guilds (G1: one rails, two grebes and eight ducks; G2: five wading species and one gull; G3: three herons; G4: cormorants, mallards, and on gull; finally, G5: only one species Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis.Almost all the species were specialists in resource utilization patterns (narrow niche breadths, both under 0.3 and therefore, vulnerable to fluctuations in resources, particularly the feeding habitats. Mean niche overlaps for all the pairs of species ranged from 0.05 to 0.68. The overall pattern in the community was higher niche overlaps between the species of a particular guild than those between other species. According to Ivlev’s electivity index, we found that only three microhabitats from seven were the most important for the discussed species, open water body was the most attractive, followed by meadows, muddy areas and floating- leafed vegetation. Similarities on habitat requirements derived from our region can provide important and optimal wetland management at multi-species assemblage level for this wetland and similar area around the African coast.

  7. Aquatic bird disease and mortality as an indicator of changing ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Scott H.; Chmura, Aleksei; Converse, Kathy; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Patel, Nikkita; Lammers, Emily; Daszak, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed data from pathologic investigations in the United States, collected by the USGS National Wildlife Health Center between 1971 and 2005, into aquatic bird mortality events. A total of 3619 mortality events was documented for aquatic birds, involving at least 633 708 dead birds from 158 species belonging to 23 families. Environmental causes accounted for the largest proportion of mortality events (1737 or 48%) and dead birds (437 258 or 69%); these numbers increased between 1971 and 2000, with biotoxin mortalities due to botulinum intoxication (Types C and E) being the leading cause of death. Infectious diseases were the second leading cause of mortality events (20%) and dead birds (20%), with both viral diseases, including duck plague (Herpes virus), paramyxovirus of cormorants (Paramyxovirus PMV1) and West Nile virus (Flavivirus), and bacterial diseases, including avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida), chlamydiosis (Chalmydia psittici), and salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.), contributing. Pelagic, coastal marine birds and species that use marine and freshwater habitats were impacted most frequently by environmental causes of death, with biotoxin exposure, primarily botulinum toxin, resulting in mortalities of both coastal and freshwater species. Pelagic birds were impacted most severely by emaciation and starvation, which may reflect increased anthropogenic pressure on the marine habitat from over-fishing, pollution, and other factors. Our study provides important information on broad trends in aquatic bird mortality and highlights how long-term wildlife disease studies can be used to identify anthropogenic threats to wildlife conservation and ecosystem health. In particular, mortality data for the past 30 yr suggest that biotoxins, viral, and bacterial diseases could have impacted >5 million aquatic birds.

  8. The Importance of Shorebirds to Energy Fluxes in a Food Web of a South European Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisco

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the diets and energetic needs of shorebird populations in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal). The average biomass removed by the bird populations during 1 year was estimated as 1755 kg ash-free dry weight day -1, equivalent to a predation pressure of 103 kJ m -2year -1. Gulls ingested more than half of this total, with waders and ducks ingesting 15-20% each. Cormorants, egrets and flamingos each took less than 7% of the total ingested biomass, thus constituting secondary groups for energy transfers in the food web. Assuming an invertebrate production estimate of 853 kJ m -2year -1, the consumption efficiency of birds on the invertebrate populations was 12%. Twelve bird species took 90% of the total biomass ingested during winter by the bird populations, each specializing on one or two preferred prey species that constituted more than 75% of their ingested biomass. During winter, the Tagus bird community is characterized by its great dependence on one prey species, the bivalve Scrobicularia plana. This prey, taken either in the form of siphons or intact individuals, represented a significant percentage of the biomass taken by the bird populations (45%), and it is important for three reasons. Firstly, other bivalves taken by birds in North European estuaries are absent or occur in low densities in the Tagus. Secondly, Scrobiculariadensities in the Tagus are high compared with values observed further north. Thirdly, although high densities also occur in Northern Europe, these density peaks are occasional as there is a trend for the occurrence of irregular recruitment, whereas further south, there is regular recruitment. Gulls and waders took significant percentages of bivalve siphons. This is an interesting finding, as the predation of siphons is a form of grazing with important ecological implications for energy fluxes across the estuarine ecosystem and for the prey population.

  9. Can foraging ecology drive the evolution of body size in a diving endotherm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available Within a single animal species, different morphs can allow for differential exploitation of foraging niches between populations, while sexual size dimorphism can provide each sex with access to different resources. Despite being potentially important agents of evolution, resource polymorphisms, and the way they operate in wild populations, remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine how trophic factors can select for different body sizes between populations and sexes in a diving endotherm. Dive depth and duration are positively related to body size in diving birds and mammals, a relationship explained by a lower mass-specific metabolic rate and greater oxygen stores in larger individuals. Based on this allometry, we predict that selection for exploiting resources situated at different depths can drive the evolution of body size in species of diving endotherms at the population and sexual level. To test this prediction, we studied the foraging ecology of Blue-eyed Shags, a group of cormorants with male-biased sexual size dimorphism from across the Southern Ocean. We found that mean body mass and relative difference in body mass between sexes varied by up to 77% and 107% between neighbouring colonies, respectively. Birds from colonies with larger individuals dived deeper than birds from colonies with smaller individuals, when accounting for sex. In parallel, males dived further offshore and deeper than females and the sexual difference in dive depth reflected the level of sexual size dimorphism at each colony. We argue that body size in this group of birds is under intense selection for diving to depths of profitable benthic prey patches and that, locally, sexual niche divergence selection can exaggerate the sexual size dimorphism of Blue-eyed Shags initially set up by sexual selection. Our findings suggest that trophic resources can select for important geographic micro-variability in body size between populations and sexes.

  10. Feeding associations between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 and seabirds in the Lagamar estuary, Brazil Associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza (Sotalia guianensis (Van Bénèden, 1864 e aves marinhas no estuário do Lagamar, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCO. Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to describe the characteristics regarding interactions between Guiana dolphins, Sotalia guianensis and seabirds in feeding associations in two distinct areas of the Lagamar estuary, Brazil. Boat-based surveys directed towards photo-identification studies of S. guianensis were conducted in the Cananéia Estuary (CE (25° 01' S and 47° 55' W from July 2004 to March 2008, as well as in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC (25° 24' S and 48° 24' W from April 2006 to February 2008. On all occasions when seabirds were observed engaging in multi-species feeding associations with S. guianensis, data on species involved and their numbers were gathered. From 435 observed groups of S. guianensis in the CE, 38 (8.7% involved interactions with seabirds. In the PEC, from the 286 observed groups, 32 (11.2% involved the mentioned interactions. The following seabirds were observed in feeding associations with S. guianensis: Fregata magnificens, Sula leucogaster, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, and Sterna sp. In the CE, S. leucogaster was more commonly observed in feeding associations with Guiana dolphins (χ2 = 22.84; d.f. = 3, p O objetivo principal do presente estudo foi de descrever as características a respeito das associações de alimentação entre o boto-cinza, Sotalia guianensis, e aves marinhas em duas áreas distintas do estuário do Lagamar, Brasil. Investigações efetuadas a partir de embarcação e direcionadas a estudos de foto-identificação de S. guianensis foram conduzidas no Estuário de Cananéia (EC (25° 01' S e 47° 55' O entre julho de 2004 e março de 2008, bem como no Complexo Estuarino de Paranaguá (CEP (25° 24' S e 48° 24' O entre abril de 2006 e fevereiro de 2008. Em todas as ocasiões em que aves marinhas foram observadas em associações de alimentação multiespecífica com S. guianensis, dados sobre as espécies envolvidas e seus números foram obtidos. Dos 435 grupos de S

  11. Evidence that grey seals (Halichoerus grypus use above-water vision to locate baited buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Fjälling

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing gear in the Baltic is often raided by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. The seals remove the fish and damage the nets, or entangle themselves and drown. In order to develop ways of mitigating the seals-fisheries conflict, it is important to know exactly how the seals locate the fishing gear. A field experiment was conducted in order to clarify whether seals use their vision above water to do this. Bait (herring; Clupea harengus was attached to the anchor lines of buoys of the type that is commonly used to mark the position of fishing gear. In all, 643 buoys were set. Some of the buoys (210 were also fitted with camera traps. Weather data were collected from official weather stations nearby. Bait loss (mean 18% was significantly correlated with buoy size (P = 0.002 and wind speed (P = 0.04. There was a significant association between bait loss and seal observations near the buoys (P = 0.05. Five photos of grey seals were obtained from the camera traps. No fish-eating birds, such as cormorants or mergansers, were ever observed near the buoys or caught on camera. It was concluded that a main cause of missing bait was scavenging by grey seals, and that they did use above-water vision to locate the buoys. It was also concluded that wind strength (i.e. wave action contributed tothe bait loss. The camera trap buoys had a somewhat lower bait loss than the other buoys (P = 0.054, which was attributed to a scaring effect. Neither the number of seal observations nor the bait loss differed significantly between the 2 study areas in the experiment (P = 0.43 and P = 0.83, respectively. Bait loss was not affected by the buoy colour (red, white, or grey; P = 0.87. We suggest that the findings of this experiment could be put into practice in a seal-disturbed area by deploying a number of decoy buoys, or by hiding live buoys below the surface of the water. This would increase the cost of foraging for the seals, and hence discourage them from exploiting

  12. PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and marker PCBs in eggs of peregrine falcons from Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, R.; Baum, F. [CVUA, Freiburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Adverse effects of persistent organochlorine pesticides (POPs) on wildlife have been widely documented in the literature. For birds, the reproductive cycle is negatively influenced. Therefore, bird's eggs are frequently used to monitor the contamination of the environment with xenobiotic substances. A high content of PCBs and p,p'-DDE (as main metabolite of p,p'-DDT) was found in eggs of peregrine falcons collected between 1988 and 1993 in the German ''Bundesland'' Baden- Wuerttemberg. Many other publications presented results for organochlorine pesticides, indicator PCBs or organobromine compounds in various bird's eggs. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs were determined in eggs of California peregrine falcons, of cormorants in Japan, of predatory birds in Spain, of common terns in Michigan, USA, of peregrine falcons in Spain (vii) and of different sorts of hawks in Germany. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty signed now by 55 parties to take action against certain POPs, among them PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. After ratification by France as the 50th Party, the Convention entered into force on 17 May 2004. The effectiveness should be evaluated four years after the date of entry into force and periodically thereafter at intervals. Therefore, a Global POPs Monitoring Programme was developed. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) organized a workshop to provide a scientific basis for this programme. One of the conclusions was to select the following matrices: air; bivalves; wildlife species (fish, bird's eggs, marine mammals) and human milk. The main reason for inclusion wildlife including bird's eggs was to gain information on temporal trends on, at the least, a regional basis, in animals, which represent either top predators or important species within aquatic or terrestrial food chains. For falcons, a high accumulation of POPs was observed. Regarding the migration habits it is known that older peregrine falcons

  13. Quantification of feather structure, wettability and resistance to liquid penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Siddarth; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Guardado, Jesus O.; Park, Kyoo-Chul; Parker, Andrew R.; Rubner, Michael F.; McKinley, Gareth H.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Birds in the cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae) family dive tens of metres into water to prey on fish while entraining a thin layer of air (a plastron film) within the microstructures of their feathers. In addition, many species within the family spread their wings for long periods of time upon emerging from water. To investigate whether wetting and wing-spreading are related to feather structure, microscopy and photographic studies have previously been used to extract structural parameters for barbs and barbules. In this work, we describe a systematic methodology to characterize the quasi-hierarchical topography of bird feathers that is based on contact angle measurements using a set of polar and non-polar probing liquids. Contact angle measurements on dip-coated feathers of six aquatic bird species (including three from the Phalacrocoracidae family) are used to extract two distinguishing structural parameters, a dimensionless spacing ratio of the barbule (D*) and a characteristic length scale corresponding to the spacing of defect sites. The dimensionless spacing parameter can be used in conjunction with a model for the surface topography to enable us to predict a priori the apparent contact angles of water droplets on feathers as well as the water breakthrough pressure required for the disruption of the plastron on the feather barbules. The predicted values of breakthrough depths in water (1–4 m) are towards the lower end of typical diving depths for the aquatic bird species examined here, and therefore a representative feather is expected to be fully wetted in a typical deep dive. However, thermodynamic surface energy analysis based on a simple one-dimensional cylindrical model of the feathers using parameters extracted from the goniometric analysis reveals that for water droplets on feathers of all six species under consideration, the non-wetting ‘Cassie–Baxter’ composite state represents the global energy minimum of the system. By contrast, for other

  14. The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem of the Galapagos Marine Reserve: Energy flow structure and role of keystone groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Diego J.; Wolff, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    The Bolivar Channel Ecosystem (BCE) is among the most productive zones in the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). It is exposed to relatively cool, nutrient-rich waters of the Cromwell current, which are brought to the photic zone through topographic upwelling. The BCE is characterized by a heterogeneous rocky reef habitat covered by dense algae beds and inhabited by numerous invertebrate and fish species, which represent the food for higher predators including seals and sharks and exploited fish species. In addition, plankton and detritus based food chains channel large amounts of energy through the complex food web. Important emblematic species of the Galapagos archipelagos reside in this area such as the flightless cormorant, the Galapagos penguin and the marine iguanas. A trophic model of BCE was constructed for the habitats < 30 m depth that fringe the west coast of Isabela and east coast of Fernandina islands covering 14% of the total BCE area (44 km 2). The model integrates data sets from sub tidal ecological monitoring and marine vertebrate population monitoring (2004 to 2008) programs of the Charles Darwin Foundation and consists of 30 compartments, which are trophically linked through a diet matrix. Results reveal that the BCE is a large system in terms of flows (38 695 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) comparable to Peruvian Bay Systems of the Humboldt upwelling system. A very large proportion of energy flows from the primary producers (phytoplankton and macro-algae) to the second level and to the detritus pool. Catches are high (54.3 t km - 2 yr - 1 ) and are mainly derived from the second and third trophic levels (mean TL of catch = 2.45) making the fisheries gross efficiency high (0.3%). The system's degree of development seems rather low as indicated by a P/R ratio of 4.19, a low ascendency (37.4%) and a very low Finn's cycling index (1.29%). This is explained by the system's exposure to irregular changes in oceanographic conditions as related to the EL Niño Southern

  15. On the use of certified reference materials for assuring the quality of results for the determination of mercury in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulska, Ewa; Krata, Agnieszka; Kałabun, Mateusz; Wojciechowski, Marcin

    2017-03-01

    This work focused on the development and validation of methodologies for the accurate determination of mercury in environmental samples and its further application for the preparation and certification of new reference materials (RMs). Two certified RMs ERM-CC580 (inorganic matrix) and ERM-CE464 (organic matrix) were used for the evaluation of digestion conditions assuring the quantitative recovery of mercury. These conditions were then used for the digestion of new candidates for the environmental RMs: bottom sediment (M_2 BotSed), herring tissue (M_3 HerTis), cormorant tissue (M_4 CormTis), and codfish muscle (M_5 CodTis). Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) were used for the measurement of mercury concentration in all RMs. In order to validate and assure the accuracy of results, isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) was applied as a primary method of measurement, assuring the traceability of obtained values to the SI units: the mole, the kilogram, and the second. Results obtained by IDMS using n( 200 Hg)/n( 202 Hg) ratio, with estimated combined uncertainty, were as follows: (916 ± 41)/[4.5 %] ng g -1 (M_2 BotSed), (236 ± 14)/[5.9 %] ng g -1 (M_3 HerTis), (2252 ± 54)/[2.4 %] ng g -1 (M_4 CormTis), and (303 ± 15)/[4.9 %] ng g -1 (M_CodTis), respectively. Different types of detection techniques and quantification (external calibration, standard addition, isotope dilution) were applied in order to improve the quality of the analytical results. The good agreement (within less than 2.5 %) between obtained results and those derived from the Inter-laboratory Comparison, executed by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) on the same sample matrices, further validated the analytical procedures developed in this study, as well as the concentration of mercury in all four new RMs. Although the developed protocol enabling the metrological

  16. Molecular identification and larval morphological description of Contracaecum pelagicum (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from the anchovy Engraulis anchoita (Engraulidae) and fish-eating birds from the Argentine North Patagonian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Lucas E; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Diaz, Julia I; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Navone, Graciela T

    2013-06-01

    Anisakids use invertebrates as paratenic and/or intermediate hosts as a basic feature of larval transmission. The third-stage larva usually develops in invertebrates which are prey items of finfish paratenic hosts. Contracaecum larvae molt twice inside the egg and hatch as free third-stage larvae ensheathed in the second-stage larval cuticle. Copepods act as paratenic or obligatory hosts, usually ingesting these free L3 larvae, and fish act as intermediate/paratenic or metaparatenic hosts preying on infected copepods. Fish-eating birds acquire L3 larvae by ingesting infected fish where they develop into the fourth-stage larvae and adults. Objectives of this work were to establish the specific correspondence between Contracaecum pelagicum L3 larvae parasitizing the anchovy Engraulis anchoita, and the adults parasitizing the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus and the Imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps through the use of molecular markers; and, to evaluate the anisakid L3 larval recruitment and infection caused by ingestion of anchovy by S. magellanicus. Sixteen specimens of Contracaecum L3 larvae were analyzed from E. anchoita from Bahía Engaño, Chubut, eight adult nematodes from S. magellanicus and six adult specimens from P. atriceps both from the Valdés Peninsula, Chubut. All nematodes were sequenced for three genes: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 2 (mtDNA cox2), mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rrnS), and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA region. Phylogenetic analyses were performed by using Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis by PAUP. In addition, studies under SEM and LM were carried out on L3 larvae. All L3 individuals from E. anchoita, adults from S. magellanicus, and P. atriceps clustered in the same clade, well supported in the MP tree inferred from the mtDNA cox2, and rrnS gene sequences analyses. Further, the sequence alignments of L3 larvae and adults of C. pelagicum here obtained at the ITS-1 and ITS

  17. COMMERCIAL FISH HARVEST IN INLAND WATER BODIES OF GERMANY (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Didenko

    2016-10-01

    practice not only the traditional methods of artificial stocking of some valuable fish species, but also shooting of cormorants. Originality. The review describes and summarizes organizational aspects, regulation, catch amounts and species compositions of commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany and some aspects are compared to those practiced in Ukraine. Practical value. The obtained objective information on the organization of inland fishery in Germany shows the importance of commercial fishery in inland waters as a real sector of economy, which allows creating new working places in rural and touristic regions, contributing to food security and providing the population with high-quality fresh fish products. German experience adapted to Ukrainian conditions may substantially contribute to the real economy sector of Ukraine that is necessary in modern conditions. This can ensure a steady improvement in economic performance and long-term fishery exploitation of inland water bodies. On the contrary, prohibition of commercial fishing in inland waters can result in an increase in the size of shadow economy, reduction in budget revenues and loss of working places that will have quite a negative impact on the welfare of Ukraine. Therefore, a decision on the ban of commercial fishing should be taken based on scientific justification and best international practices and not by intuitive impulses.

  18. Integrated Science Investigations of the Salton Sea, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Salton Sea is the latest waterbody to be formed by Colorado River floodwaters within the Salton Trough. Over the past 100 years, floodwaters have been replaced by agricultural drainage water and municipal discharges so that today, most of the water reaching the Salton Sea is agricultural drainwater flowing down the New, Alamo and Whitewater Rivers. An evaporation of about 6 feet per year and inputs of more than 4 million tons of salt per year have increased salinity of the waters of the Salton Sea. The current salinity level of approximately 46 parts per thousand is about 25% more saline than ocean water. Diverting water from the Imperial Valley agricultural lands to urban Southern California, and anticipated loss of inflows from Mexico and increasing water conservation activities will result in less water flowing into the Salton Sea. A Restoration Program is being conducted to evaluate the effects of diminished inflows on the Salton Sea Ecosystem and recommend alternatives to avoid or minimize those effects. The Salton Sea has become increasingly important as habitat for migratory birds because of wetland losses. California has lost approximately 91% of interior wetland acreage from pre-settlement until the mid-1980's. The Salton Sea provides critical habitat linking distant wetlands of Pacific and Central Flyways to wintering habitats in Mexico and Central and South America. More than 400 species of birds have been observed in the Salton Sea Ecosystem. Large percentages of the populations for several bird species such as the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail, the Eared Grebe, Snowy Plover and American White Pelican utilize the Salton Sea. Approximately 20 species of conservation concern utilize the Salton Sea ecosystem. Fish-eating birds such as Great Blue Herons, California Brown Pelicans, Double-crested Cormorants and several species of egrets are highly dependent upon the fishery of the Salton Sea. The Salton Sea fishery is now primarily comprised of tilapia

  19. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    . Metabolic changes of PCBs have been suggested by environmental observations of different isomeric patterns in animals of different trophic levels. Quantitative differences also are pronounced, with magnifications of hundreds to thousands of times. Laboratory studies have shown no metabolic changes of PCBs by crabs and shrimps, minimal changes by fish, and pronounced changes by birds. PCBs induce microsomal enzyme activity in birds. Exposure to PCBs increased the susceptibility of mallard ducklings to duck hepatitis virus. Offspring of pheasants whose parents received high dosages of PCBs made poor choices in visual cliff tests. Egg production and hatching after pipping also were affected. Migratory restlessness was increased in English robins exposed to PCBs. Long-term studies of the reproductive effects of Aroclor 1254 on mallards and bobwhite quail and of Aroclor 1254 plus DDE on quail showed no significant differences from controls. In studies of chickens, however, egg production and hatchability were impaired by high doses of Aroclor 1254 and by low doses of Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning eggshells of brown pelicans showed that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCBs, confirming observations with cormorants and white pelicans.

  20. Marine wind farms and seabirds. Updated national screening of potential conflict areas; Offshore vindenergianlegg og sjoefugl. Oppdatert screening av potensielle konfliktomraader paa nasjonal skala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Lorentsen, Svein-Haakon; Hanssen, Frank; Systad, Geir Helge

    2011-07-01

    Einevarden, Klovningen and Veststeinen got a higher vulnerability score in the Nort Sea region in the present assessment. For the overwintering period the coast of Vestfold got a higher vulnerability score due to the presence of marine ducks, and the Oestfold and Jaeren and Boknafjord area got a higher score due to the presence of Great cormorants and Shags. For the Norwegian Sea there were quite big discrepancies between the previous analysis (Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. 2010) and the present one. This was especially pronounced along the Helgeland coast due to the large numbers of breeding great cormorants and Shags. In addition, the seabird colony at Roest got a lower vulnerability score in the present analysis, probably due to the increased vulnerability in other areas.The Barents Sea area was not treated in Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010). From a general knowledge of the occurrence of seabirds in the area it is clear that the regional division of the Norwegian coast give very different results compared to what a national assessment would have done. On a national scale the large number of seabirds in the Barents Sea would have masked many of the important areas in southern Norway. For seabirds at sea the results from the present analysis is comparable with those in Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010). In our study, the analysis of vulnerability is done for separate areas in relation to the presence of birds. However, in the case of extensive development of large numbers of wind farms in close proximity to one another, different and stronger responses can be expected from both individuals and populations of birds than what has until now been documented for smaller offshore wind power plants. During the future development of wind power plants, both off- and on shore, it will be important to not only consider each wind power plant in isolation, but to focus on what their total or cumulative environmental effects will be. It should be noted that our analysis is for

  1. Effects of flood control alternatives on fish and wildlife resources of the Malheur-Harney lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David B.; Auble, Gregor T.; Ellison, Richard A.; Roelle, James E.

    1985-01-01

    , and surface area, as well as changes in water quality, that result from the proposed water management projects (upstream storage, upstream diversions, drainage canals) and the no action alternative. The Vegetation submodel determines associated changes in the areal extent of wetland and upland vegetation communities. Finally, the Wildlife submodel calculates indices of abundance or habitat suitability for colonial nesting birds (great egret, double-crested cormorant, white-faced ibis), greater sandhill crane, diving ducks, tundra swan, dabbling ducks, and Canada goose based on hydrologic and vegetation conditions. The model represents the Malheur-Harney Lakes Basin, but provides water quantity and quality indicators associated with additional flows that might occur in the Malheur River Basin. Several management scenarios, representing various flood control alternatives and assumptions concerning future runoff, were run to analyze model behavior. Scenario results are not intended as an analysis of all potential management actions or assumptions concerning future runoff. Rather, they demonstrate the type of analysis that could be conducted if the model was sufficiently refined and tested. Early in a model development project, the process of building the model is usually of greater benefit than the model itself. The model building process stimulates interaction among agencies, assists in integrating existing information, and helps identify research needs. These benefits usually accrue even in the absence of real predictive power in the resulting model. This workshop initiated interaction among the primary State and Federal resource and development agencies in a nonadversarial forum. The exchange of information and expertise among agencies provided the FWS with the best information currently available for use in the Planning Aid Letter it will develop at the Reconnaissance state of the COE study. If the COE subsequently initiates a Feasability Study, this information will

  2. Mercury in the atmospheric and coastal environments of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelas-Inzunza, Jorge; Delgado-Alvarez, Carolina; Frías-Espericueta, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2013-01-01

    ), extremely elevated Hg levels were found during the decade of the 1970s. Low to moderate levels of Hg were measured in waters from the Alvarado lagoon (SE Mexico); those concentrations appear to be associated with river waters that became enriched with organic matter and suspended solids inthe brackish mixing zone.Regarding the Hg content in invertebrates, the use of bivalves (oysters and mussels)as biomonitors must be established along the coastal zones of Mexico, because some coastal lagoons have not been previously monitored. In addition, more research is needed to investigate shrimp farms that are associated with agricultural basins and receive effluents from several anthropogenic sources (e.g., mining activity and urban discharges). Hg residues in several vertebrate groups collected in Mexico have been studied.These include mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. In elasmobranch species, the highest Hg concentration (27.2 flg g-1 dry wt) was found in the muscle of the smooth hammer head shark (Sphyrna zygaena). Teleost fish are the vertebrate group that has been most studied, with regard to Hg residue content; the highest value (5.67 11g g-1dry wt) was detected in the striped marlin (T. audax). Among reptiles, only marine turtles were studied; Hg levels found ranged from 0.795 in the liver to 0.0006flg g-1dry wt in the blood of L. olivacea. In birds, the highest Hg concentration (5.08 flg g-1dry wt) detected was in the liver of the olivaceous cormorant (P. olivaceous).Specimens from stranded marine mammals were also analyzed; levels of Hg ranged from 70.35 flg g-1 dry wt in the liver of stranded spinner dolphin (S. longirostris ), to0.145 flg g-1 dry wt in the muscle of gray whale (E. robustus). The presence of Hgin these marine animals is not thought to have caused the stranding of the animals.Other organisms like macroalgae and vestimentiferan tube worms were used to monitor the occurrence of Hg in the aquatic environment; levels were comparable to data reported on