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Sample records for coriorretinitis por toxoplasma

  1. Anticuerpos IgG anti-toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con síntomas atribuíbles a toxoplasmosis

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    Jorge E. Collazo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 6.520 pacientes con síntomas atribuíbles a toxoplasmosis por la presencia de anticuerpos IgG anti - Toxoplasma gondii mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. El 51,27% de los evaluados resultaron positivos.El 60,85% de los pacientes con trastornos oculares son seropositivos a IgG anti - T. gondii; seguidos del 56,25 y 48,10% para aquellos con trastornos generales y gineco-obstétricos. Los síntomas o manifestaciones que evidenciaron mayor porcentaje de positividad fueron: astenia, coriorretinitis, trastornos menstruales, cefaleas y uveítis.

  2. Mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma contra la infección por Toxoplasma gondii

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    Jorge Enrique Gómez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondiies un protozoario parásito de desarrollo intracelular. La enfermedad humana producida por T: gondii es una causa importante de morbilidad y mortalidad neonatal y en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. En esta reseña, se revisan los conocimientos actuales sobre los mecanismos efectores del interferón gamma (IFN y, la principal citocina protectora contra Igondii, incluyendo los resultados que hemos obtenido en un modelo de infección in vifro de células humanas monocitarias (THPI. El IFN y protege las células humanas contra T gondii por mecanismos diferentes a aquéllos con los que protege las células de ratón. En el modelo de infección de célulasTHP1, el IFN y protege por dos mecanismos independientes. Un primer efecto es la reducción del porcentaje de células parasitadas, el cual está ligado a una disminución de la actividad PLA, parasitaria y celular. Se trata de un nuevo mecanismo efector del IFN y contra la infección toxoplásmica, diferente a los mecanismos parasiticidas y parasitostáticos previamente descritos. Un segundo efecto ocurre por interrupción del crecimiento parasitario intracelular a través de la activación de la enzima indoleamina-oxigenasa que degrada el triptófano, lo que constituye un efecto parasitostático. Contrariamente a lo que ocurre en el modelo de infección de células monocitarias de ratón, la producción de óxido nítrico (NO no juega un papel determinante en los monocitos humanos.

  3. Pesquisa de anticorpos IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio de técnica imunoenzimática reversa

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    José Roberto Mineo

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Um teste imunoenzimático reverso foi padronizado utilizando-se como fase sólida, microplacas de polivinil sensibilizadas com anticorpos anti-IgM.7 Estas foram incubadas seqüencialmente com alíquotas de soros de pacientes com suspeita de toxoplasmose aguda, antígeno solúvel de Toxoplasma gondii, conjugado peroxidase F (ab'2 anti-toxoplasma e substrato enzimático. A atividade enzimática foi determinada por leitura espectrofotométrica, considerando-se como títulos dos soros a máxima diluição fornecendo valores de absorbância maiores que os obtidos com a menor diluição do soro padrão não-reativo. Em 69 amostras de soros de pacientes com toxoplasmose aguda, a média geométrica dos títulos no teste ELISA-Reverso IgM foi superior à de todos os outros testes para anticorpos IgM, não se observando resultados negativos falsos devidos a altos títulos de IgG específica. Não foi encontrada, também, reatividade cruzada em nenhuma das 104 amostras de soros de pacientes com outras patologias, inclusive em amostras contendo fator reumatóide IgM.

  4. Efeitos da infecção crônica por Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede intestinal de gatos domésticos The effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall

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    Juliana Maria da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos da infecção causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre a parede do duodeno de gatos. Foram utilizados seis gatos (Felis catus, com cerca de três meses de vida, distribuídos aleatoriamente em Grupo controle (G1; n = 3 e Grupo infectado (G2; n = 3. Os animais do G2 receberam, por via oral, 200 cistos teciduais da cepa ME49 (tipo II do T. gondii. Após 40 dias, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia, laparotomia e retirada do duodeno, que foi fixado em solução de Bouin e submetido à rotina histológica para obtenção de cortes transversais de 3 µm. Os cortes foram corados com Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE, Azan, Ácido Periódico de Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue e Tricrômio de Mallory. Realizou-se uma avaliação qualitativa da parede intestinal e medidas comparativas entre os dois grupos, com relação: à espessura da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular, parede total, altura dos vilos, profundidade das criptas e altura dos enterócitos e seus núcleos. As células caliciformes, os linfócitos intraepiteliais e as células de Paneth foram quantificados. Os resultados mostraram que a infecção levou à atrofia da túnica mucosa, túnica muscular e parede intestinal do duodeno de gatos do G2 (p This paper analyzes the effects of the infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on the cat duodenal wall. Six cats (Felis catus with 3-month-old were randomly divided into Control Group (G1; n = 3 and Infected Group (G2; n = 3. The animals from G2 received orarilly 200 T. gondii tissye cysts of ME49-strain (type II. After 40 days, the animals were submitted to euthanasia, laparotomy and had their duodenum removed, fixed in Bouin solution and submitted to histological routine obtaining 3 µm transverse cuts. The cuts were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE, Azan, Periodic acid - Schiff (PAS, Alcian-Blue, and Mallory trichrome. Qualitative assessment of the intestine wall as well as comparative measurements with respect

  5. The roles of cats and dogs in the transmission of Toxoplasma infection in Kuna and Embera children in eastern Panama El papel de los perros y gatos en la transmisión de la infección por Toxoplasma en niños kunas y emberas del este de Panamá

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    Gina D. Etheredge

    2004-09-01

    as well as before eating.OBJETIVO: Examinar la relación entre la presencia o ausencia de anticuerpos y los diversos factores de riesgo hipotéticos asociados con la infección por Toxoplasma gondii en dos poblaciones amerindias diferentes del este de Panamá. Como secuela a una investigación preliminar, en este trabajo se explora el papel de los perros en la transmisión natural de Toxoplasma y en la facilitación de la transmisión, así como el efecto interactivo de los perros y gatos y el acceso de los niños a materiales infecciosos. MÉTODOS: En 1991, 10 estudiantes de medicina panameños llevaron a cabo entrevistas y les tomaron muestras de sangre a 760 niños kunas y emberas de 2 a 12 años de edad en la cuenca superior del río Bayano y en las islas de San Blas. Se hicieron pruebas serológicas mediante aglutinación directa. Todos los datos, menos los de los perros, se estudiaron mediante análisis unifactorial, bifactorial y multifactorial. En 2003 se efectuaron nuevos análisis bifactoriales y multifactoriales para examinar la contribución de los perros. RESULTADOS: En comunidades con una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos contra Toxoplasma en niños, la regresión logística indicó que los siguientes factores tenían valor pronóstico en relación con la presencia de anticuerpos: pisos de tierra compacta en las chozas (P = 0,001, tener perro (P = 0,038, y que el investigador hubiera visto un gato dentro de la vivienda (P = 0,049. Según nuestros resultados, los perros de los habitantes de las aldeas desempeñan un papel importante en la facilitación de la transmisión de Toxoplasma gondii a los seres humanos, la mayor parte de las veces en presencia de gatos dentro de la vivienda y solamente en comunidades con una alta seroprevalencia de Toxoplasma en niños. CONCLUSIONES: Los perros pueden ser vectores mecánicos debido a su hábito de revolcarse en sustancias fétidas y de comer heces. En zonas donde la prevalencia de Toxoplasma en niños es alta y

  6. Occurrence and risk factors associated with infection by Toxoplasma gondii in goats in the State of Alagoas, Brazil Ocorrência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado de Alagoas

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    Giulliano Aires Anderlini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Goats are considered very susceptible to infection by Toxoplasma gondii and when this occurs during pregnancy, it may cause fetal death with subsequent fetal resorption, abortion, mummification, stillborn or the birth of weak goats. The objective of this work was to determine the occurrence of and identify risk factors for T. gondii infection in goats in different mesoregions in the State of Alagoas. METHODS: The research was conducted on 24 goat breeding farms in 10 municipalities. A total of 454 blood samples were examined for anti-T. gondii antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. To evaluate the risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats, questionnaires were applied analyzing the farm's production system and nutritional, reproductive and sanitary management. RESULTS: Disease occurrence was 39% with 95.8% of farms presenting seropositive animals. Significant associations were observed for mesoregion (OR = 0.23; 95%CI = 0.09 - 0.57, age (OR = 0.36; 95%CI = 0.20 - 0.64, semi-intensive herd management (OR = 8.70; 95%CI = 1.87 - 40.43, access of cats to water provided for goats (OR = 3.38; 95%CI = 1.89-6.02 and cats feeding on placental remnants (OR = 2.73; 95%CI = 1.38 - 5.40. CONCLUSIONS: Toxoplasma gondii infection is disseminated in the State of Alagoas and the adoption of a program that monitors infection foci is required to reduce the risk factors identified in the present study.INTRODUÇÃO: Caprinos são considerados susceptíveis à infecção por Toxoplasma gondii que quando ocorre durante a gestação pode causar morte fetal com subsequente reabsorção, aborto, mumificação, natimortos ou nascimento de cabritos fracos. Objetivou-se com este estudo determinar a ocorrência e identificar os fatores de risco associados à infecção por T. gondii em caprinos nas diferentes mesorregiões do Estado de Alagoas. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em 10 municípios, sendo analisadas 24 propriedades de produ

  7. Quantitative toxoplasma gondii oocyst detection by a modified Kato Katz test using Kinyoun staining (KKK in ME49 strain experimentally infected cats Detecção quantitativa de oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii, por um teste modificado de Kato Katz usando coloração de Kinyoun (KKK, em gatos infectados experimentalmente com a cepa ME49

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    Luciana Regina Meireles

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We detected Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in feces of experimentally infected cats, using a Kato Katz approach with subsequent Kinyoun staining. Animals serologically negative to T. gondii were infected orally with 5x10² mice brain cysts of ME49 strain. Feces were collected daily from the 3rd to the 30th day after challenge. Oocysts were detected by qualitative sugar flotation and the quantitative modified Kato Katz stained by Kinyoun (KKK. In the experimentally infected cats, oocysts were detected from the 7th to 15th day through sugar flotation technique, but oocysts were found in KKK from the 6th to 16th day, being sensitive for a larger period, with permanent documentation. The peak of oocysts excretion occurred between the 8th to 11th days after challenge, before any serological positive result. KKK could be used in the screening and quantification of oocysts excretion in feces of suspected animals, with reduced handling of infective material, decreasing the possibility of environmental and operator contamination.Detectamos oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii em fezes de gatos experimentalmente infectados, usando a abordagem de Kato Katz, com subseqüente coloração pelo método de Kinyoun. Animais sorologicamente negativos ao T. gondii foram infectados por via oral com 5x10² cistos da cepa ME49 de cérebros de camundongos. Fezes foram colhidas diariamente a partir do 3º até o 30º dia pós-infecção. Oocistos foram detectados por centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose qualitativa e pelo método quantitativo de Kato Katz modificado corado pela técnica de Kinyoun (KKK. Em gatos experimentalmente infectados, oocistos foram detectados do 7º ao 15º dia pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em sacarose, mas oocistos foram detectados do 6º ao 16º dia pelo KKK, sendo sensível por um período maior, com documentação permanente. O pico da excreção de oocistos ocorreu entre 8º a 11º dia pós-infecção, antes de resultado sorológico positivo

  8. Toxoplasma gondii myelitis in a patient with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma Mielite por Toxoplasma gondii em um paciente com leucemia-linfoma de células T do adulto

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    ELVES MACIEL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL caused by HTLV-I may be associated with severe immunosupression and several opportunistic infections. Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a common central nervous system opportunistic infection in severely immunosupressed patients, however spinal cord involvement by this parasite is rare. In this paper, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in a patient with ATL.Leucemia de células T do adulto (ATL, causada pelo HTLV-I, pode estar associada com imunossupressão severa e muitas infecções oportunistas. Encefalite por toxoplasmose é uma infecção oportunista do sistema nervoso central em pacientes imunossuprimidos, no entanto o envolvimento da medula espinal por este parasita é raro. Neste artigo, apresentamos um caso de mielite em um paciente com ATL.

  9. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

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    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplas...ma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  11. Pregnancy and Toxoplasma Infection

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    Cihan Cetin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by a protozoa named Toxoplasma gondii. It is a very important disease because it is related to fetal anomalies and poor perinatal outcomes like abortus and stillbirth. It spreads via uncooked meat and contaminated food. Timely and appropriate treatment and management of this infection prenatally reduces the risk of serious neurological sequelae. Therefore it is crucial that clinician who takes care of pregnant women know this infection deeply. In this review we aimed to summarize the prenatal diagnosis, complications and treatment of toxoplasma infection. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 457-466

  12. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia

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    Mokhtari Mohammadreza; Mokhtari Mojgan

    2006-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. In animals, infection with Toxoplasma gondii can alter behavior and neurotransmitter function. In humans, acute infection with T. gondii can produce psychotic symptoms similar to those displayed by persons with schizophrenia. Since 1953, a total of 19 studies of T. gondii antibodies in persons with schizophrenia and other severe psychiatric disorders and in controls have been reported; ...

  13. Mecanismos de proteção induzidos pela imunização com TgHSP70 e de controle da inflamação pelo tratamento com STAg na infecção por Toxoplasma gondii

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    Barenco, Paulo Victor Czarnewski

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii é um parasita intracelular obrigatório que apresenta diversos antígenos capazes de modular a resposta imune. Neste trabalho, visamos estudar dois antígenos imunomoduladores através do pré-tratamento para fase aguda e de imunização para fase crônica da infecção. O primeiro objetivo foi estudar o papel do antígeno solúvel de taquizoítas (STAg) nas células epiteliais para controle da inflamação intestinal durante a infecção aguda por T. gondii. Foi demonstrado que o tratamento ...

  14. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

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    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Parasites - Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & ...

  15. Crioconservación de toxoplasma gondii

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    Sofía Duque Beltrán

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii fue crioconservado en nitrógeno líquido usando como preservativo glicerol al 10% con el fin de mantener el protozoo por un largo período de tiempo. El descongelamiento de T. gondii se llevó a cabo, cuando los parásitos fueron requeridos para uso como antígeno, a los 10, 40 y 270 días siguientes a su crioconservación. La viabilidad y patogenicidad del parásito fue confirmada in vivo. La crioconservación de T. gondii disminuyó los costos de mantenimiento in vivo y de recursos humanos tanto en el bioterio como en el laboratorio.

  16. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected non-human primates by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and indirect ELISA Detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio das técnicas de Imunofluorescência Indireta e ELISA Indireto em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados

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    Andréa Bouer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and the indirect ELISA were comparatively used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally and naturally infected primates. In the experimentally infected group, antibodies of diagnostic value were detected at day 9 post-infection (PI with the IFA (IgG and IgM and with IgG-ELISA. IgM-ELISA detected antibodies for T. gondii starting at day 3 PI until the end of the experiment (102 days PI. Of the 209 naturally infected sera tested, from many zoos of State of Sao Paulo, 64.59 and 67.94% were positive in the IgG-IFA test and IgG-ELISA respectively. IgM-ELISA test detected seropositivity in 52.63% of the sera although IgM-IFA test detected it in only in 0.96% of the samples. The differential toxoplasmosis diagnosis was accomplished with Neospora caninum by IFA, observing 61 (29.2% seropositive animals for this parasite and 149 (70.8% negative. Sixty animals were positive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. Pneumonia, splenomegaly, and intestinal ulcers were macroscopically observed. Unremarkable interstitial pneumonia, enteritis, colitis, splenitis, and glomerulitis were microscopically observed. The immunohistochemical stain could not detect the presence of T. gondii in the tissues of the animals infected experimentally.Detectou-se anticorpos das classes IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se como técnicas comparativas a RIFI e o ELISA-teste. No grupo dos primatas experimentalmente infectados, anticorpos de valor diagnóstico foram detectados a partir do 9º dia de infecção tanto na RIFI (IgG e IgM como no ELISA-IgG. O ELISA IgM detectou anticorpos a partir do 3º dia de infecção até o final do experimento (102 dias pós-infecção. Dos 209 soros dos primatas naturalmente infectados, de diversos zoológicos do Estado de São Paulo, 64,59 e 67,94% mostraram-se positivos na RIFI-IgG e no ELISA-IgG, respectivamente. O

  17. Toxoplasma gondii and Epilepsy.

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    Ayaz, Erol; Türkoğlu, Şule Aydın; Orallar, Hayriye

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite can be seen in all the vital organ; in the acute phase, it can be found in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, semen, tears, saliva, urine, and in almost all body fluids. Transplasental infection can lead to fetal damage and miscarriage. Its last hosts are felines and intermediate hosts are all mammals, including humans. People infected by the ingestion of meat containing cysts in undercooked or raw, are thrown oocysts with cat felines By taking in water and food, from mother to fetus transplacental way, the infected organ transplantation, blood transfusion, laboratory accidents and kaprofaj transmitted by mechanical vectors of the invertebrates. Suppression of the immune system is being transformed to the shape and texture of the cysts with bradyzoite. The parasite settles in the cells of the tissue cysts and causes change in the cellular mechanisms, such as cytokinin task. Depending on changes and type of neurotransmitter (GABA, glutamate, serotonin, dopamine) levels in CSF in ions (Ca, K, Cl, Mg), it is believed that there is a change in their concentration. In this review, literature about the relationship between T. gondii and epilepsy and epileptiform activity the importance of parasites, which settle in the brain, will be highlighted.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents.

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    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3780 Toxoplasma... (immunofluorescent reagents) used to identify Toxoplasma gondii from clinical specimens. The identification aids in...

  19. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma.

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    Denkers, Eric Y; Butcher, Barbara A; Del Rio, Laura; Bennouna, Soumaya

    2004-03-09

    Toxoplasma gondii rapidly elicits strong Type 1 cytokine-based immunity. The necessity for this response is well illustrated by the example of IFN-gamma and IL-12 gene knockout mice that rapidly succumb to the effects of acute infection. The parasite itself is skilled at sparking complex interactions in the innate immune system that lead to protective immunity. Neutrophils are one of the first cell types to arrive at the site of infection, and the cells release several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to Toxoplasma. Dendritic cells are an important source of IL-12 during infection with T. gondii and other microbial pathogens, and they are also specialized for high-level antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. Tachyzoites express at least two types of molecules that trigger innate immune cell cytokine production. One of these involves Toll-like receptor/MyD88 pathways common to many microbial pathogens. The second pathway is less conventional and involves molecular mimicry between a parasite cyclophilin and host CC chemokine receptor 5-binding ligands. Neutrophils, dendritic cells and Toxoplasma work together to elicit the immune response required for host survival. Cytokine and chemokine cross-talk between parasite-triggered neutrophils and dendritic cells results in recruitment, maturation and activation of the latter. Neutrophil-empowered dendritic cells possess properties expected of highly potent antigen presenting cells that drive T helper 1 generation.

  20. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii by PCR and mouse bioassay in commercial cuts of pork from experimentally infected pigs Detecção do Toxoplasma gondii por PCR e bioensaio em camundongo em cortes comerciais de carnes de suínos infectados experimentalmente

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    V.S. Tsutsui

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of T. gondii in commercial cuts of pork (ham, tenderloin, spareribs and arm picnic by PCR and bioassay from experimentally infected pigs, was evaluated. Eighteen mixed breed pigs were divided into two groups (G. The G1 animals (n=10 were infected with 4 x10(4 oocysts of the T. gondii VEG strain and the G2 animals (n=8 were used as control. Pigs of both groups were slaughtered at 59th day after infection, and meat samples were collected for bioassay and PCR. All animals from G1 were positive by at least one or both tests, and all control animals were negative. T. gondii was identified in pork by mouse bioassay and PCR in 27/40 (67.5% and in 9/40 (22.5% of the evaluated samples, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the distribution of tissue cysts from commercial cuts of pork by bioassay (P>0.05. However, statistical differences were observed when mouse bioassay and PCR were compared (PAvaliou-se a presença de T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne suína (pernil, lombo, costela e paleta, por meio do bioensaio e PCR, em animais experimentalmente inoculados. Dois grupos (G foram formados. Os animais do G1 (n=10 foram inoculados com 4 x10(4 oocistos da cepa VEG e os do G2 (n=8 permaneceram como grupo-controle, não inoculado. Todos os animais foram abatidos no dia 59 após a infecção, quando foram colhidas as amostras de carne para a realização das provas de bioensaio e da PCR. Todos os suínos do G1 apresentaram-se positivos a pelo menos um dos testes de diagnóstico ou a ambos, e os do grupo-controle permaneceram negativos. Não houve diferenças significativas em relação aos tipos de cortes comerciais e à presença do parasita no bioensaio (P>0,05. O bioensaio foi capaz de detectar T. gondii em 27/40 (67,5% amostras e a PCR em 9/40 (22,5%. O estudo mostrou diferença entre o bioensaio e a PCR (P<0,01.

  1. The transcriptome of Toxoplasma gondii

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    Roos David S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic disease and leads to a lifetime risk of recrudescence in individuals whose immune system becomes compromised. Given the importance of tissue cyst formation, there has been intensive focus on the development of methods to study bradyzoite differentiation, although the molecular basis for the developmental switch is still largely unknown. Results We have used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE to define the Toxoplasma gondii transcriptome of the intermediate-host life cycle that leads to the formation of the bradyzoite/tissue cyst. A broad view of gene expression is provided by >4-fold coverage from nine distinct libraries (~300,000 SAGE tags representing key developmental transitions in primary parasite populations and in laboratory strains representing the three canonical genotypes. SAGE tags, and their corresponding mRNAs, were analyzed with respect to abundance, uniqueness, and antisense/sense polarity and chromosome distribution and developmental specificity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that phenotypic transitions during parasite development were marked by unique stage-specific mRNAs that accounted for 18% of the total SAGE tags and varied from 1–5% of the tags in each developmental stage. We have also found that Toxoplasma mRNA pools have a unique parasite-specific composition with 1 in 5 transcripts encoding Apicomplexa-specific genes functioning in parasite invasion and transmission. Developmentally co-regulated genes were dispersed across all Toxoplasma chromosomes, as were tags representing each abundance class, and a variety of biochemical pathways indicating that trans-acting mechanisms likely control gene expression in this parasite. We observed distinct similarities in the specificity and

  2. Estudo epidemiológico e avaliação de fatores de risco da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii e achados clinico-patológicos da infecção aguda em cães admitidos em um Hospital Escola Veterinário

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    Angelita D. Strital

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Esse trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a prevalência e respectivos fatores de risco para infecção do Toxoplasma gondii em cães provenientes de uma população hospitalar. Além disso, avaliou-se as taxas de ocorrência e as repercussões clínico-patológicas da infecção aguda pelo T. gondii nesses animais. Anticorpos foram detectados em 7% (26/386 da população estudada, composta de 386 cães de ambos os sexos e diferentes raças e idades. Somente as variáveis, ingestão de vísceras, origem rural e contato com bovinos apresentaram valores significativos com p<0.05. Adicionalmente os cães de origem rural apresentaram maiores risco (OD=7.00 de infecção do que aqueles de origem urbana. Em 6,5% (25/386 foram detectados títulos de contato (entre 16 e 256; esses títulos não significam necessariamente infecção aguda e sim apenas exposição prévia. É de fundamental importância o reconhecimento da infecção prévia por T. gondii nesses pacientes hospitalares. Dependendo da causa da admissão, mesmo não sendo a toxoplasmose a responsável, o paciente deve receber o tratamento anti-protozoário profilaticamente ou ser monitorado para posterior tratamento em caso de reagudização da enfermidade por recrudescência dos bradizoítos encistados. Apenas um animal (3.44%, 1/386 foi admitido com titulação elevada, o qual pode ser sugestivo de infecção aguda (titulo de 4096. Embora o animal com infecção aguda tenha sido apresentado com sinais neurológicos, cautela é necessária para não extrapolar uma falsa interpretação que a toxoplasmose é a grande responsável por quadros neurológico, uma vez que inúmeros outros casos incluídos nesse estudo tinham manifestações neurológicas e não tinham títulos de infecção aguda, nem mesmo título de contato prévio. A toxoplasmose aguda não foi uma afecção clínica expressiva nessa ambiência hospitalar, no entanto diagnóstico diferencial deve ser feito nos pacientes

  3. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... Expressd protein was purified by affinity chromatography and confirmed by western blot ... Key words: Toxoplasma gondii, cloning, recombinant P22. INTRODUCTION. Toxoplasma gondii ..... an ELISA Assay. Iran. J. Immunol.

  4. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  5. Toxoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect all warm blooded animals ranging from: humans, pets, livestock, to marine aquatic animals. The definitive host is the feline species (both domestic and wild cats), where the sexual stage of the life cycle o...

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease, recognized as a serious public health problem worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii infection has become a major public health concern in recent years due to the ravaging HIV/AIDS pandemic. A serological survey was carried out in Tanga district of north-eastern Tanzania to assess T. gondii ...

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from two Argentinean provinces raised under different management conditions. A total of 2922 serum samples from adult goats of Córdoba (n=2187) and Buenos Aires provinces (n= 735), Argentina, were ...

  8. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  9. Toxoplasma-safe meat: close to reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the centennial of the discovery of Toxoplasma gondii was celebrated. However, toxoplasmosis is still seen as a neglected and underreported disease, despite having a disease burden similar to that of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis. Human vaccines are not available and current

  10. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  11. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  12. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease/infection of medical and veterinary importance. The causative agent; Toxoplasma gondii, can infect warm blooded animals, birds as well as humans. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered pigs in Makurdi, Nigeria.

  14. Cloning and expression of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite P22 protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delay in diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women who have been infected during the first trimester of gestation can lead to death of her fetus. Serological tests based on recombinant proteins are the main diagnosis methods for the detection of anti Toxoplasma antibody in serum samples. The aim of this ...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potential risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is important in pigs and humans may get infected through the consumption of undercooked infected pork. This study conducted in Oyo state, Nigeria for 15 months (between February, 2012 and April, 2013) investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs reared on farms ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are protozoans infecting a wide range of mammals; the etiologic agents of Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis respectively, This study investigated the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dogs from southwestern Nigeria. Materials ...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those Romania.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii, Mental Health and Shizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Protecting and promoting of mental health is one of the major application areas of public health. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii, which is a protozoal zoonosis common in Turkey, it is closely related to veterinary public health. In recent years, T.gondii can induce behavioral changes, may play a role in schizophrenia as an etiologic factor. Results of the recently performed studies shows that T.gondii may be a potential factor for some neuropathological changes in brain and suicide attemption. The purpose of this review is to present the data on recent epidemiology of T.gondii, mental health effects (changes in behavior, suicide, etc., the relationship between T.gondii and schizophrenia and offer some recommendations for protecting of public health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 199-208

  20. Lankesterella alencari n. sp., a toxoplasma-like organism in the central nervous system of Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa Lankesterella alencari n. sp., um toxoplasma-like no sistema nervoso central de Amphibia (Protozoa, Sporozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Celso Gonçalves da Costa

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Lankesterella alencari n. sp. a Sporozoa that occur in the blood and CNS of the South American frog Leptodactylus acellatus is described. Since the tissue forms of this parasite have been previously reported as belonging to the genus Toxoplasma, we attempted in fection of 2 species of amphibia (Bufo marinus an dLeptodactylus ocellatus with a Toxoplasma strain of human origen; inoculation was by intraperitoneal injection of parasite-containing ascitic fluid from infected mice. Attempt of experimental inoculation of the parasite found in the CNS of L. ocellatus in a highly susceptible host (mice was unsuccessful. These results suggest that Toxoplasma does not occur naturally in the amphibia; be related to Toxoplasma is excluded. The following genera of haematozoa found in brazilian amphibia have been considered briedfly: Haemobartonella, Cytamoeba, Dactylosoma, Hepatozoon and Trypanosoma.Os autores descrevem uma espécie do gênero Lankesterella considerada nova para a ciência, que ocorre com certa freqüência parasitando a rã Leptodactylus ocellatus no Brasil. Como os cistos dêste parasito, encontrados no SNC, foram anteriormente relacionados ao gênero Toxoplasma por outro autor, realizamos uma série de inoculações experimentais para eliminar a hipótese. Tanto as inoculações com amostra de Toxoplasma gondii de origem humana em anfíbios, como as de mascerados de SNC de rã contendo cistos em camundongos, foram negativas. As inoculações de T. gondii em anfíbios foram realizadas em temperatura ambiente que no Rio de Janeiro, na época era 30º-39ºC. Não encontramos, por outro lado, cistos no SNC de anfíbios do gênero Bufo, fato assinalado por outros autores. Realizamos algumas técnicas citoquímicas para melhor caracterização do parasito. Tendo em vista o grande número de hemoparasitos encontrados nas rãs brasileiras e as infecções múltiplas ocorrerem com freqüência, apresentamos também a incidência dêstes parasitos

  1. Acidification of the parasitophorous vacuole containing Toxoplasma gondii in the presence of hydroxyurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    possível acidificação do vacúolo parasitóforo contendo Toxoplasma gondii na presença de hidroxiuréia. Células Vero infectadas com taquizoítos foram tratadas com hidroxiuréia por 12, 24 ou 48 horas. Fluorescência indicativa de acidificação foi observada no vacúolo parasitóforo quando as culturas foram incubadas na presença de laranja de acridina. Lyso Tracker red foi usado para determinar se os lisossomos estavam envolvidos no processo de acidificação. Uma fluorescência intensa foi observada depoisde 12 e 24 horas de incubação com hidroxiuréia, alcançando uma intensidade maior após 48 horas de tratamento. Citoquímica ultraestrutural para localização da enzima fosfatase ácida lisossomal foi realizada. As culturas infectadas e tratadas apresentaram produto de reação em vesículas se fundindo com o vacúolo ou associado com parasitas intravacuolares. Estes resultados sugerem que a fusão com lisossomos e acidificação do vacúoloparasitóforo causa a destruição dos parasitos na presença de hidroxiuréia.

  2. Usefulness of the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens in AIDS patients Utilidad de la detección de antígenos de Toxoplasma gondii en pacientes con SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fachado

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE is a mayor cause of central nervous system infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in 56 of 79 patients with AIDS (71%, in the present study. Fourteen out of 57 seropositive patients developed TF (25% and had Toxoplasma gondii antigen detected in their urine. For this, most of them received an effective therapy, with the subsequent disappearance of the symptoms and discontinuity of excretion of the T. gondii antigens. Our results suggest that the monitoring of T. gondii antigen in the urine of AIDS patients may be useful to decide on the proper time for therapy, as well as to avoid the beginning of neurologic signs in these patients.La Encefalitis Toxoplásmica (ET es la más importante complicación infecciosa del Sistema Nervioso Central en pacientes de SIDA. Anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii fueron detectados en 57 de 79 pacientes de SIDA (71%. De estos seropositivos, desarrollaron la enfermedad (ET 14 (25%, en los que coincidentemente se detectó la presencia de antígeno del parásito en orina y por tanto fueron objeto de una terapia efectiva, con la subsecuente desaparición de los sintomas y de los antígenos excretados. Por los resultados del presente trabajo, consideramos lo útil de monitorear en estos pacientes la presencia de antígenos de T. gondii con el objetivo de aplicar oportunamente métodos quimoprofilácticos que eviten el surgimiento de manifestaciones neurológicas en estos pacientes.

  3. Myenteric neuronal plasticity induced by Toxoplasma gondii (genotype III on the duodenum of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Papazian-Cabanas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute and chronic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii on duodenal myenteric neurons were analyzed. Eighteen rats were assigned into four groups: Acute Control Group (ACG, n=4; Acute Experimental Group (AEG, n=4; Chronic Control Group (CCG, n=5; and Chronic Experimental Group (CEG, n=5. Rats from the AEG and CEG were inoculated orally with 105 genotype III (BTU-II strain tachyzoites of T. gondii isolated from a dog with neurological signs. Acute groups were killed after 24 hours after the inoculation and the chronic groups after 30 days. Whole-mount from the duodenum were stained with Giemsa. The population density of myenteric neurons, as well the body cell, nuclear and cytoplasmic area were analyzed. Both acute and chronic toxoplasmic infection did not provoke neuronal loss. On the other hand, plastic alterations were observed: decreasing of the nuclear and cytoplasmic area during the acute phase and neuronal hypertrophy during the chronic phase.Foram analisados os efeitos da infecção aguda e crônica provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii sobre os neurônios mientéricos do duodeno. Dezoito ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Agudo (GCA, n= 4, Grupo Experimental Agudo (GEA, n=4, Grupo Controle Crônico (GCC, n=5 e Grupo Experimental Crônico (GEC, n=5. Os animais do GEA e GEC receberam por via oral 10 5 taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii da cepa BTUII (genótipo III isolada de um cão com sintomatologia neurológica. Os grupos agudos foram submetidos à eutanásia após 24 horas e os crônicos após 30 dias da inoculação. Preparados totais do duodeno foram corados com Giemsa. A densidade populacional dos neurônios mientéricos, bem como a área do corpo celular, núcleo e citoplasma foram analisados. Ambas, as infecções toxoplásmicas aguda e crônica não provocaram a perda neuronal. Por outro lado, alterações plásticas foram observadas: diminuição da área nuclear e citoplasmática durante a fase

  4. Possible role of Toxoplasma gondii in brain cancer through modulation of host microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanam Sivasakthivel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and incidences of brain cancer have led to the notion that Toxoplasma infections increase the risk of brain cancer. However, molecular events involved in Toxoplasma induced brain cancers are not well understood. Presentation of the hypothesis Toxoplasma gains control of host cell functions including proliferation and apoptosis by channelizing parasite proteins into the cell cytoplasm and some of the proteins are targeted to the host nucleus. Recent studies have shown that Toxoplasma is capable of manipulating host micro RNAs (miRNAs, which play a central role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesize that Toxoplasma promotes brain carcinogenesis by altering the host miRNAome using parasitic proteins and/or miRNAs. Testing the hypothesis The miRNA expression profiles of brain cancer specimens obtained from patients infected with Toxoplasma could be analyzed and compared with that of normal tissues as well as brain cancer tissues from Toxoplasma uninfected individuals to identify dysregulated miRNAs in Toxoplasma-driven brain cancer cells. Identified miRNAs will be further confirmed by studying cancer related miRNA profiles of the different types of brain cells before and after Toxoplasma infection using cell lines and experimental animals. Expected outcome The miRNAs specifically associated with brain cancers that are caused by Toxoplasma infection will be identified. Implications of the hypothesis Toxoplasma infection may promote initiation and progression of cancer by modifying the miRNAome in brain cells. If this hypothesis is true, the outcome of this research would lead to the development of novel biomarkers and

  5. Proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de León, Carmen T; Díaz Martín, Rubén Darío; Mendoza Hernández, Guillermo; González Pozos, Sirenia; Ambrosio, Javier R; Mondragón Flores, Ricardo

    2014-12-05

    Toxoplasma, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in animals and humans, has a subpellicular cytoskeleton that is involved in motility, cell shape and invasion. Knowledge of components of the cytoskeleton is necessary to understand the invasion mechanisms as well as for the identification of possible therapeutic targets. To date, most cytoskeletal components of Toxoplasma remain unidentified due mainly to the lack of reproducible methods for their isolation. Based on the successful isolation of the cytoskeleton, it was possible to report for the first time, the proteomic characterization of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma formed by 95 cytoskeletal proteins through proteomic analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of one dimension SDS PAGE. By bioinformatic analysis of the data, proteins were classified as: 18 conventional cytoskeletal proteins; 10 inner membrane complex proteins, including 7 with alveolin repeats; 5 new proteins with alveolin like repeats; 37 proteins associated with other organelles and 25 novel proteins of unknown function. One of the alveolin like proteins not previously described in Toxoplasma named TgArticulin was partially characterized with a specific monoclonal antibody. Presence of TgArticulin was exclusively associated with the cytoskeleton fraction with a cortical distribution. Functions for the several molecules identified are proposed. This manuscript describes, for the first time, the proteome of the subpellicular cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma gondii. The importance of this study is related to the role of the cytoskeleton in the highly invasive capability of a parasite that causes abortion, blindness, and death by encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Proteomic characterization of the cytoskeleton of T. gondii tachyzoites was possible by the development of a successful procedure for the isolation of the subpellicular cytoskeleton. Knowledge of the composition of the cytoskeleton of Toxoplasma is fundamental for the

  6. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Nasiri, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite. DNA was extracted and Nested-PCR method was carried out with two of pairs of primers to detect the 344 bp fragment of T. gondii GRA6 gene. Five positive nested-PCR products were directly sequenced in the forward and reverse directions by Sequetech Company (Mountain View, CA). T. gondii GRA6 gene were detected from 55 (80.88%) of 68 snakes brains. Sequencing of the GRA6 gene revealed 98-100% of similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. To our knowledge, this is the first study of molecular detection of T. gondii in snakes and our findings show a higher frequency of this organism among them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii in small neotropical wild felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, studies on wildlife worldwide have discovered key epidemiological aspects of the sylvatic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. However, despite the known role of wild felines as definitive hosts in the transmission and maintenance of this parasite, few studies have focused on the involvement of these animals. Brazil exhibits the largest number of wild felid species in the Americas, all of which have a critical conservation status. However, serological detections, epidemiological studies and some molecular characterizations of T. gondii have primarily used Neotropical felid populations that are maintained in captivity, which does not reflect the disease behavior in free-living conditions. A systematic review of the worldwide scientific literature was conducted focusing on toxoplasmosis in small Neotropical felids. This review covered a number of aspects, including the state of scientific research, parasite transmission in the wild, the genetic characteristics of isolates, the relationship between these genetic characteristics and the pathogenicity of the parasite, and the risk factors linked to conflicts with humans. The present review shows the relevance of studying these felid populations based on their frequent interactions with humans in peri-urban areas and the need for further comprehensive studies to establish the real significance of T. gondii in public and animal health in tropical and temperate regions.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii gamma irradiation using Co-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    1996-01-01

    The use of nuclear power through radiation for the destruction of microorganisms which cause food deterioration, infections and toxicosis, is specifically for peaceful purposes. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa responsible for illnesses in humans and animals. One of the most common ways of transmission is through raw or poorly cooked meat. There is little information on the resistance of T. gondii to radiation. The objective of this research is to determine the Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of gamma radiation for those microorganisms. Suspensions of T. gondii containing approximately one million taquizoites/ml were irradiated with doses between up 0,01 up to 0,15 kGy (Kilogray) and inoculated to mice. The surviving T. gondii were re-irradiated with 0,01 up to 0,16 kGy. The irradiated protozoa were totally destroyed with a 0,15 kGy dose (MLD). Taquizoites issued from live protozoa of 0,14 kGy also were completely destroyed with dose of 0,15 kGy. No increase in resistance was observed regarding the non irradiated protozoa. (author)

  9. Antiretroviral activity of protease inhibitors against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a marked reduction in the occurrence and severity of parasitic infections, including the toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE. These changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity. This study was developed to examine the activity of six antiretroviral protease inhibitors (API on Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. The six API showed anti-Toxoplasma activity, with IC50 value between 1.4 and 6.6 µg/mL. Further studies at the molecular level should be performed to clarify if the use of API could be beneficial or not for AIDS patients with TE.

  10. SPORULATION AND SURVIVAL OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII OOCYSTS IN SEA WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1992, we have been collaborating in studies on southern sea otters (Enhdyra lutris nereis) as part of a program to define factors which may be responsible for limiting the growth of the southern sea otter population. We previously demonstrated Toxoplasma gondii in sea otter...

  11. Anti- toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from Balsamocitrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation, characterization and anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity of constituents from the CH2Cl2/MeOH (1/1) extract of the roots of the cameroonian plant Balsamocitrus camerunensis L. were investigated in this study. Four known coumarins derivatives were isolated, namely, marmin (1), imperatorin (2), xanthoxyletin (3), ...

  12. A biocoagulant slow sand filtration for disinfection of Toxoplasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An integrated low-tech biocoagulant-sand filter drum for disinfection of oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii targeted for developing countries was evaluated. Dirty and turbid water (130.3 NTU) from Mezam River and leachates from dump sites and stagnant water in Bamenda, Cameroon, was analyzed microscopically after ...

  13. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in Backyard and Roaming Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasma gondii, the etiologic agent of Toxoplasmosis, can be transmitted to pigs through the ingestion of oocysts, and to humans through consumption of pork containing viable cysts causing neonatal deaths and abortion in animals, and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised humans. The objective of this ...

  14. On the determination of Toxoplasma gondii virulence in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful pathogens on earth, capable of infecting mammals and birds. Numerous papers and reports are published on isolation of T .gondii from various natural sources worldwide. The house mouse (Mus musculus) has been used as the laboratory animal model to deter...

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  16. Toxoplasma gondii decreases the reproductive fitness in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková-Hortová, K.; Šídlová, A.; Děd, Lukáš; Hladovcová, D.; Vieweg, M.; Weidner, W.; Steger, K.; Stopka, P.; Paradowska-Dogan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), s. 1-11 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Toxoplasma gondii * reproductive fitness * DNA methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  17. Increased apoptosis skull of pups born to Toxoplasma gondii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular obligate protozoan parasite that infects most warm-blooded animals including humans. It can cause congenital infection with clinical symptoms ranging from mild to severe including microcephaly. At the cellular level, infection T. gondii causes apoptosis in some tissues and ...

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokelainen, Pikka; Tagel, Maarja; Motus, Kerli

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012–2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 w...

  19. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in breeding pigs in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kärt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Esto...

  20. Sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristina Grønbech; Vorslund-Kiær, Mia; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the World Health Organisation rated toxoplasmosis as one of the most important food borne zoonotic diseases in the world. In addition, recent studies have associated Toxoplasma gondii sero-positivity with severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Intake of raw or insufficiently cooked...

  1. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral alterations in its hosts including phenotypes increasing the likelihood of its transmission in rodents and reports of psychobehavioral alterations in humans. We have found that elevated levels of dopamine are associated with the encysted stage...

  2. Toxoplasma gondii impairs memory in infected seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    Almost 30% of humans present a Toxoplasma gondii positive antibody status and its prevalence increases with age. The central nervous system is the main target. However, little is known about the influence of asymptomatic i.e. latent Toxoplasmosis on cognitive functions in humans. To investigate neurocognitive dysfunctions in asymptomatic older adults with T. gondii positive antibody status a double-blinded neuropsychological study was conducted. The participants were classified from a population-based sample (N=131) of healthy participants with an age of 65 years and older into two groups with 42 individuals each: Toxoplasmosis positive (T-pos; IgG>50 IU/ml) and Toxoplasmosis negative (T-neg; IgG=0 IU/ml). The outcome measures were a computer-based working-memory test (2-back) and several standardized psychometric tests of memory and executive cognitive functions. T-pos seniors showed an impairment of different aspects of memory. The rate of correctly detected target symbols in a 2-back task was decreased by nearly 9% (P=0.020), corresponding to a performance reduction of about 35% in working memory relative to the T-neg group. Moreover, T-pos seniors had a lower performance in a verbal memory test, both regarding immediate recall (10% reduction; P=0.022), delayed recognition (6%; P=0.037) and recall from long-term memory assessed by the word fluency tests (12%; P=0.029). In contrast, executive functions were not affected. The effects remained mostly unchanged after controlling for medication. The impairment of memory functions in T-pos seniors was accompanied by a decreased self-reported quality of life. Because of the high prevalence of asymptomatic Toxoplasmosis and an increasing population of older adults this finding is of high relevance for public health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seroprevalensi Toxoplasma gondii pada Kambing dan Bioassay Patogenitasnya pada Kucing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Yunik Novita Dewi Dewi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The study aimed to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in goats sloughtered at Kampung Jawa, Denpasar, Bali and to evaluate their pathogenicities through bioassay in cats.One hundred serums and meats of goats were collected. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody was determined using Indirect Haemaglutination (IHA test. The pathogenicity bioassay of Toxoplasma gondii was carried out through inoculating the meats of goats which had seropositive of Toxoplasma gondii to the cats. The pathogenicity was evaluated using the intensity of oocyte sheding from the cats. The result showed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis was 46%. There was not significant difference between pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in cat inoculated with meat of goat which had a high and low titer of antibody against Toxoplasma gondii. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:justify; line-height:150%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;}

  4. TOXOPLASMA AND VIRAL ANTIBODIES AMONG HIV PATIENTS AND INMATES IN CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Raharjo, Irvan; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung

    2015-11-01

    In Indonesia, Toxoplasma and its associations with blood-borne viruses have been poorly studied. In order to study the association between anti-Toxoplasma antibodies and blood-borne viral antibodies, blood samples from 497 participants (375 inmates from four prisons in Central Java, Indonesia and 122 HIV patients at a Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinic in Surakarta, Indonesia) were tested for serological markers of Toxoplasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-1/2). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM positivity rates were 41.6% and 3.6%, respectively. One point two percent of participants was positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Sixteen point five percent, 11.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% of participants were positive for anti- Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HCV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Toxoplasma IgM combined with anti-HIV antibodes and anti-Toxoplasma IgG combined with both anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was associated with anti-HIV (aOR = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.112-16.204, p = 0.034). Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were associated with anti-HCV (aOR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.749-4.538, p < 0.001) and history of injection drug use (aOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.905-5.093, p < 0.001). In conclusion, we recommend patients with HIV, HCV infection and injection drug users should be screened for Toxoplasma infection in Indonesia.

  5. Sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Rodriguez, Joana D'Ark; Souza, Fernando A; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; dos Santos, Ricardo Silva; Rosanese, Walter Matheus; Lopes, Werik Renato Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2013-07-01

    Male sheep of reproductive age were distributed into three groups: GI, a sheep inoculated (oral) with 2.0×10(5) oocysts of the P strain of Toxoplasma gondii; GII, a sheep infected (subcutaneous) with 1.0×10(6) tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii; and GIII, a sheep kept as a control (not infected). After the inoculation of the males, 12 breeding ewes, which were not pregnant and which were serologically negative for reproductive diseases (particularly toxoplasmosis), were distributed into three groups, synchronized, and subsequently exposed to natural mating with previously inoculated males. The distribution was as follows: five ewes that underwent natural mating with the GI male, five ewes that were exposed to natural mating with the GII male, and two ewes that were mated with the non-infected male (control). Serum samples of all the ewes were collected on days -30, -14, -7, -1, and 0 (days before natural mating) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 14, and weekly until birth; the presence of serum antibodies against T. gondii was assessed by IFAT. Using a bioassay and PCR, T. gondii was isolated from the semen of the infected reproducing sheep before mating. Following natural mating, 5 of the 12 females displayed antibodies specific for T. gondii; of these animals, two of the ewes underwent natural mating with the male inoculated with oocysts (GI) and three with the male infected with tachyzoites (GII). One of the females that displayed antibodies specific to this coccidian and that underwent natural mating with the GII sheep had a macerated fetus on the 70th day following coverage. Using a bioassay after the birth, it was possible to isolate T. gondii from samples of the "pool" of tissues from the five females that seroconverted after natural mating and from their respective lambs. Using PCR, the DNA of T. gondii was isolated from the "pool" of tissues from one and two females exposed to natural mating with the reproductive males infected with the oocysts and

  6. Aborto espontâneo e toxoplasmose ocular em um casal infectado com Toxoplasma gondii = Spontaneous abortion and ocular toxoplasmosis in a couple infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Carla Zangari de

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relatar os casos de um casal, em que a esposa apresentou toxoplasmose na gestação e o esposo, após 15 anos, foi diagnosticado com toxoplasmose ocular. Relato dos casos: Gestante, grávida de gêmeos, residente de um estado na região Sul do Brasil. No primeiro mês de gestação apresentou sorologia não reagente para IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii. Na sétima semana de gestação houve soroconversão (IgM e IgG anti-T. gondii reagentes e aborto natural. O esposo, após 15 anos desde o episódio da esposa, queixou-se de visão embaçada/irritada. O exame de fundoscopia revelou lesões típicas de coriorretinite recidivante por toxoplasmose no olho direito. Os exames sorológicos foram IgG anti-T. gondii reagente e IgM anti-T. gondii não reagente. Conclusões: Este relato, de um casal com desfechos clínicos importantes de toxoplasmose, em diferentes formas, enfatiza a relevância do problema da toxoplasmose, que nas suas diversas manifestações, pode trazer graves consequências para a vida de uma família

  7. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  8. Toxoplasma and Africa: One Parasite, Two Opposite Population Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Lokman; Ajzenberg, Daniel; Hamidović, Azra; Durieux, Marie-Fleur; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Mercier, Aurélien

    2018-02-01

    Exploring the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii is essential for an understanding of its worldwide distribution and the determinants of its evolution. Africa remains one of the least studied areas of the world regarding T. gondii genetic diversity. This review has compiled published data on T. gondii strains from Africa to generate a comprehensive map of their continent-wide geographical distribution. The emerging picture about T. gondii strain distribution in Africa suggests a geographical separation of the parasite populations across the continent. We discuss the potential role of a number of factors in shaping this structure. We finally suggest the next steps towards a better understanding of Toxoplasma epidemiology in Africa in light of the strains circulating on this continent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. J. Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys in Mousl, Iraq. Fifty two sera (9 males and 43 females were examined by Latex agglutination test, Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test and Indirect ELISA test (Indirect IgG ELISA. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in native donkeys was 46.15 %. Acute cases 8.33% and chronic cases 91.67 % when differentiated by Modified latex agglutination test with 2- mercaptoethanol test. The percentages of female and male infections were 51.16% (22/43 and 22.22% (2/9, respectively by using latex agglutination test, and the titeration of antibodies ranged between 1:20 - 1:1280 and for Indirect IgG ELISA it was 22.72% positive cases.

  10. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kohat District, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Gul Naila; Zareen Shehzad; Ur Rehman Faiz; Ur Rehman Hameed; Qayyum Sumbel; Khan Sumiya; Khan Feroz; Ali Khan Munsif; Saeed Kausar; Ayub Abid; Hayat Azam; Ateeq Muhammad; Ahmad Waqar

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is the causative agent for toxoplasmosis in human and completes its life cycle in separate hosts. Considering the significance of the infection, the current study was designed to asses to various risk factors for the parasite transmission to human in Kohat District, Pakistan. A total of 122 suspected individuals were asked to fill pre-designed questionnaire. A total of 44 (36.07%) individuals were found to be infected wit...

  11. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors.

  12. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in Kohat District, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Naila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is the causative agent for toxoplasmosis in human and completes its life cycle in separate hosts. Considering the significance of the infection, the current study was designed to asses to various risk factors for the parasite transmission to human in Kohat District, Pakistan. A total of 122 suspected individuals were asked to fill pre-designed questionnaire. A total of 44 (36.07% individuals were found to be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Handling pets and birds, untreated water, unpasteurized milk and undercooked meat were found to be associated with infection. Raw vegetables and blood transfusion were not found to be associated with infection in our study. Thus, it can be concluded that Toxoplasma gondiiis is a prevalent zoonotic agent in Kohat, Pakistan and various prophylactic measures like hand washing, cooking meat properly, wearing gloves while contacting pets and birds, treating water and pasteurizing milk will be very helpful to reduce disease burden in the study area.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Njunda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.

  14. Toxoplasma depends on lysosomal consumption of autophagosomes for persistent infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cristina, Manlio; Dou, Zhicheng; Lunghi, Matteo; Kannan, Geetha; Huynh, My-Hang; McGovern, Olivia L; Schultz, Tracey L; Schultz, Aric J; Miller, Alyssa J; Hayes, Beth M; van der Linden, Wouter; Emiliani, Carla; Bogyo, Matthew; Besteiro, Sébastien; Coppens, Isabelle; Carruthers, Vern B

    2017-06-19

    Globally, nearly 2 billion people are infected with the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii 1 . This persistent infection can cause severe disease in immunocompromised people and is epidemiologically linked to major mental illnesses 2 and cognitive impairment 3 . There are currently no options for curing this infection. The lack of effective therapeutics is due partly to a poor understanding of the essential pathways that maintain long-term infection. Although it is known that Toxoplasma replicates slowly within intracellular cysts demarcated with a cyst wall, precisely how it sustains itself and remodels organelles in this niche is unknown. Here, we identify a key role for proteolysis within the parasite lysosomal organelle (the vacuolar compartment or VAC) in turnover of autophagosomes and persistence during neural infection. We found that disrupting a VAC-localized cysteine protease compromised VAC digestive function and markedly reduced chronic infection. Death of parasites lacking the VAC protease was preceded by accumulation of undigested autophagosomes in the parasite cytoplasm. These findings suggest an unanticipated function for parasite lysosomal degradation in chronic infection, and identify an intrinsic role for autophagy in the T. gondii parasite and its close relatives. This work also identifies a key element of Toxoplasma persistence and suggests that VAC proteolysis is a prospective target for pharmacological development.

  15. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p Syrian refugees was statistically higher (p Syrian refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIV/AIDS patients attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite that gradually evolved to be the most opportunistic parasite that complicates the course of HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in HIVinfected patients ...

  17. Detecção de anticorpos para Toxoplasma gondii em soro de suínos criados e abatidos em frigoríficos da região da grande Porto Alegre-RS, Brasil Detection of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in sera from swine bred and slaughtered in the great Porto Alegre-RS abbattoirs, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Germani Fialho

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, objetivou-se contribuir com dados sobre a freqüência de sororeagentes para Toxoplasma gondii em suínos criados e abatidos na Região da Grande Porto Alegre e fornecer subsídios sobre a importância da transmissão deste protozoário, por suínos. Foram coletadas amostras de 240 suínos em frigoríficos da região. A freqüência de anticorpos anti- Toxoplasma gondii, determinada através da técnica de hemaglutinação indireta, foi de 20 % de soros iguais ou superiores a diluição 1:64. Na técnica de imunofluorescência indireta, foram encontrados 33,75% de soro com diluição iguais a 1:16 ou superiores.This report objectived to contribuite with data about the antibodies occurence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine bred and slaughtered in the area of Great Porto Alegre- RS, Brazil. The data should supply with subsidies on the importance of this protozoan transmission through swines. Samples were taken from 240 swines at slaughterhouses in that region. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, determinanet through the indirect hemagglutination technic was of 20% of serum equal or superior to 1:64 dilution. In the indirect immunofluorescence technic was found 33.75% in serum with a diluition equal to 1:16 or superior.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected Bos taurus and Bos indicus semen and tissues Toxoplasma gondii em semen e tecidos de Bos taurus and Bos indicus experimentalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Scarpelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen young steers were inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii and randomly distributed into three groups of six animals each: GI, 2.5x10(5 "P" strain oocysts, GII, 5.0x10(6 "RH" strain tachyzoites, and GIII (Control. Clinical, serological and parasitemia exams were realized. Parasite investigation by bioassay and PCR was realized on semen and fragments of skeletal musculature, lymph nodes, brain, retina, spleen, liver, lung, testicle, epididymis and seminal vesicle. Blood and semen samples were collected on days -2, -1, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and weekly thereafter, up to postinfection day (PID 84. The inoculated steers (GI and GII presented hyperthermia from PID 3 to 16. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected through the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT on PID 5 (1:16 in both inoculated groups (oocysts and tachyzoites, reaching peaks of 1:4096 on PID 7. Parasitemia outbursts occurred in all infected bovines, principally from PID 7 to 28, independent of the strain and inoculate used. Bioassays revealed the presence of parasites in semen samples of animals infected with oocysts (GI and tachyzoites (GII on several experimental days between PID 7 and 84. Tissue parasitism by T. gondii was diagnosed by bioassay and the PCR technique in several organ and tissue fragments. These findings suggest the possibility of sexual transmission of T. gondii in the bovine species.Dezoito bovinos foram inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii e distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis bovinos cada: GI (2,5x10(5 oocistos da cepa "P", GII (5,0x10(6 taquizoítos da cepa "RH" e GIII (controle. Exames clínicos, sorológicos e parasitêmicos foram realizados. Pesquisas do parasito, por meio da bioprova e pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR, foram realizadas no sêmen e em fragmentos de musculatura esquelética, linfonodos, cérebro, retina, baço, fígado, pulmão, testículo, epidídimo e vesícula seminal. Amostras de sangue e sêmen foram

  19. Susceptibility of pregnant women to toxoplasma infection--potential benefits for newborn screening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, W

    2008-08-20

    Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) arises as a result of new acquisition of Toxoplasma infection by a susceptible woman during pregnancy. Early detection of CT through neonatal screening programmes could optimize management and improve infant outcome. This study sought to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma susceptibility in pregnant women. As detection of Toxoplasma antibodies in neonatal blood reflects maternal exposure history, maternal antibody seroprevalence was determined using anonymized residual blood from newborn screening cards. A total of 20,252 cards were tested in 1 year. 4,991 (24.6%) cards tested positive for Toxoplasma antibody. Results were stratified by county. Toxoplasma antibody seroprevalence rates of 25% indicated that Toxoplasma infection is common in Ireland and that up to 75% of women remain susceptible to primary infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to a) determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibody in pregnant women, and hence b) estimate the risk for acquisition of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in order to support an application to fund a pilot newborn screening programme.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the white stork Ciconia ciconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, Izabela; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Zduniak, Piotr; Dolata, Pawel T; Ptaszyk, Jerzy; Cwiertnia, Piotr

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in chicks of wild birds and captive individuals was studied in the Poznań environs and in the Poznań Zoological Garden in the years 2002-2003. Bird blood was tested for T. gondii antibodies by an indirect fluorescent antibody test. T. gondii antibodies were detected from 5.8% of 205 analysed white stork chicks and 13.6% of 44 analysed adult storks in the zoo. Because toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses worldwide, we briefly discuss the potential epidemiological importance of stork toxoplasmosis to humans.

  1. Antibody reaction of human anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative sera with Neospora caninum antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Kang, Seung-Won; Choi, Won-Young

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Neospora caninum antibody was detected in anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative human sera by ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Twelve cases out of 172 (6.7%) Toxoplasma-positive sera cross-reacted with both T. gondii and N. caninum antigens, and one out of 110 Toxoplasma-negative sera reacted with N. caninum antigen by ELISA. By western blot, all 12 sera reacted with T. gondii antigens with various banding patterns but specifically at 30 kDa (SAG1) and 22 kD...

  2. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia: a review of published RCTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Sam D

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia. There are currently four published randomized controlled trials evaluating antiparasitic drugs, specifically azithromycin, trimethoprim, artemisinin, and artemether, in patients with schizophrenia. No trials have demonstrated a change in psychopathology with adjunctive treatment. Published trials have either selected drugs without evidence against chronic infection or used them at doses too low to reduce brain cyst burden. Furthermore, trials have failed to achieve sufficient power or account for confounders such as previous antipsychotic treatment, sex, age, or rhesus status on antiparasitic effect. There are currently no ongoing trials of anti-Toxoplasma therapy in schizophrenia despite ample evidence to justify further testing.

  3. Molecular analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigen 1 (SAG1) gene cloned from Toxoplasma gondii DNA isolated from Javanese acute toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryati, Sri; Agung Prasetyo, Afiono; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben

    2018-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigen 1 (SAG1) is often used as a diagnostic tool due to its immunodominant-specific as antigen. However, data of the Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 protein from Indonesian isolate is limited. To study the protein, genomic DNA was isolated from a Javanese acute toxoplasmosis blood samples patient. A complete coding sequence of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 was cloned and inserted into an Escherichia coli expression plasmid and sequenced. The sequencing results were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 complete coding sequences were successfully cloned. Physicochemical analysis revealed the 336 aa of SAG1 had 34.7 kDa of weight. The isoelectric point and aliphatic index were 8.4 and 78.4, respectively. The N-terminal methionine half-life in Escherichia coli was more than 10 hours. The antigenicity, secondary structure, and identification of the HLA binding motifs also had been discussed. The results of this study would contribute information about Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 and benefits for further works willing to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against the parasite.

  4. Prevalência de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Angelucci Contente

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose cosmopolita causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii, podendo acometer mamíferos e aves. O presente estudo teve como objetivo estimar a prevalência do Toxoplasma gondii em avestruzes (Struthio camelus de criatórios comerciais do estado de São Paulo, como forma de auxiliar no conhecimento do comportamento e importância do parasito nesta espécie animal. Foram colhidas 195 amostras de soro de avestruzes, provenientes de Sorocaba, Campinas, São Carlos, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Vale do Ribeira, Botucatu e São José do Rio Preto, estado de São Paulo. As amostras foram analisadas pela Técnica de Aglutinação Direta Modificada (MAT, para a pesquisa de anticorpos anti - Toxoplasma gondii. Os exames sorológicos revelaram 14,36% de animais sororreagentes ao T. gondii. A titulação mínima considerada foi a diluição maior ou igual a 1:16, e a maior diluição encontrada foi 1:16384. Não foi constatada diferença significativa entre os sexos. Apenas duas regiões (São Paulo e São José do Rio Preto não apresentaram animais sororreagentes. Esses resultados salientam a importância de um estudo mais aprofundado sobre a infecção em avestruzes, e também sobre as práticas de manejo que venham a minimizar o risco de transmissão da toxoplasmose para essas aves e, por conseqüência, para o consumidor final.

  5. Environmental Exposures Are Important Risk Factors for Infection Toxoplasma gondii and Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An estimated 70% of Americans suffer chronic infections. Helicobacter pylori and Toxoplasma gondii affect an estimated 35% and 15% of Americans, respectively. Despite their heavy burden, environmental transmission of these infections is not well understood. Object...

  6. 97 original article toxoplasma gondii infection in hiv/aids: prevalence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii , IgG, Seroprevalence, HIV positive, CD4 cells. ... with immunosuppressive cancer and transplant ... due to active parasitaemia during pregnancy can .... especially in the night where they look for leftover.

  7. Literature Reference for Toxoplasma gondii (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2004. 70(7): 4035–4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  8. Infection rate of toxoplasma gondii and age distribution in female patients with sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhong; Dai Pei; Cui Liming; Zong Shan; Zuo Wenjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the relationship between the infection of Toxoplasma gondii and female sterility. Methods: Toxoplasma gondii serum antibody were determined in 882 women with sterility (experimental group) and 107 normal bearing women (control group) by using ELISA. At the same time the differences of the infection with Toxoplasma gondii between the ages of the sterility women were analyzed. Results: The positive rate in experimental group was 15.87% (140/882), the positive rate in control group was 5.61% (6/107), remarkable difference was found between two groups (P<0.01). The infection rate in the different age groups (20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39 and ≥40) is 5.63%, 15.24%, 17.91%, 19.44% and 15.38%. Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii infection may be one of the factors which can cause sterility, and the infection rates at different ages have no instinct differences. (authors)

  9. Behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus coinfected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisa Leite de Queiroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Using an elevated plus maze apparatus and an activity cage, behavioral changes in Rattus norvegicus concomitantly infected by Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii were studied, during a period of 120 days. Rats infected by Toxocara canis or Toxoplasma gondii showed significant behavioral changes; however, in the group coinfected by both parasites a behavioral pattern similar to that found in the group not infected was observed thirty days after infection, suggesting the occurrence of modulation in the behavioral response.

  10. Detection of soluble antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by a four-layer modification of an enzyme immunoassay.

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, H J

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive four-layer modification of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of soluble antigens of Toxoplasma gondii is described. Microtiter plates were sensitized with rabbit anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulins (6 micrograms/ml) used as the primary antibodies; guinea pig anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulins (6 micrograms/ml) were used as the secondary trapping antibodies. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-guinea pig immunoglobulins were used as the indicator antibodies. The specificity of th...

  11. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick K House

    Full Text Available Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  12. Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Cirelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded species. Rats vary in their susceptibility to this parasite. The Toxo1 locus conferring Toxoplasma resistance in rats was previously mapped to a region of chromosome 10 containing Nlrp1. This gene encodes an inflammasome sensor controlling macrophage sensitivity to anthrax lethal toxin (LT induced rapid cell death (pyroptosis. We show here that rat strain differences in Toxoplasma infected macrophage sensitivity to pyroptosis, IL-1β/IL-18 processing, and inhibition of parasite proliferation are perfectly correlated with NLRP1 sequence, while inversely correlated with sensitivity to anthrax LT-induced cell death. Using recombinant inbred rats, SNP analyses and whole transcriptome gene expression studies, we narrowed the candidate genes for control of Toxoplasma-mediated rat macrophage pyroptosis to four genes, one of which was Nlrp1. Knockdown of Nlrp1 in pyroptosis-sensitive macrophages resulted in higher parasite replication and protection from cell death. Reciprocally, overexpression of the NLRP1 variant from Toxoplasma-sensitive macrophages in pyroptosis-resistant cells led to sensitization of these resistant macrophages. Our findings reveal Toxoplasma as a novel activator of the NLRP1 inflammasome in rat macrophages.

  13. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats from Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de infecção anti-Toxoplasma gondii em gatos domésticos de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marúcia de Andrade Cruz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii which infects all warm-blood vertebrates. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a population of domestic cats seen at a major cat-only veterinary clinic in Curitiba, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. Serum samples were processed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA for the detection of IgG. Antibody titers were found in 16.3% (46/282 of sera analyzed, with titers to T. gondii of 16 in eight cats, 64 in 23 cats, 256 in 14 cats and 1024 in one cat. Statistical differences were not found regarding the association with age, gender and different areas of the city (p > 0.05. No significant differences were found in any variable when comparing seropositivity with potential risk factors. The seroprevalence was relatively lower when compared to other Brazilian regions, probably due to the fact that the cats studied were owned, domiciled with restricted dietary habits based on processed foods, restricted access to the street and no prey access. In conclusion, low feline toxoplasmosis seroprevalence may be associated to owned cats due to adequate dietary care and restricted outdoor access, as well as low local environmental exposure.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose de distribuição mundial, causada pelo protozoário Toxoplasma gondii que infecta os vertebrados de sangue quente. Este estudo objetiva estabelecer a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e o estudo de associação em uma população de gatos domésticos atendidos em uma clínica veterinária exclusiva de gatos localizada em Curitiba, estado do Paraná, Brasil. As amostras de soro foram obtidas e processadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta IgG. Títulos de anticorpos foram encontrados em 46/282 (16,3% das amostras analisadas, com título de 16 em oito gatos, 64 em 23, 256 em 14 e 1024 em um gato. Diferenças estatísticas não foram

  15. Lifelong Persistence of Toxoplasma Cysts: A Questionable Dogma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Solène; Montoya, Jose G; Peyron, François

    2017-02-01

    It is believed that infection by Toxoplasma gondii triggers a lifelong protective immunity due to the persistence of parasitic cysts which induce immunoprotection against reinfection. A review of the scientific literature since the 1950s did not yield any definitive data regarding the duration of cysts in the host or the presence of lifelong protective immunity, which led us to question this dogma. We put forward the hypothesis that sustained immunity to T. gondii requires repeated antigenic stimulations. The decline of seroprevalence recently observed in many countries might contribute to explain the loss of immunity. We address the potential consequences of this phenomenon, should it persist and worsen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng; Liu, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda. © H. Ma et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  17. Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant panda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii can infect nearly all warm-blooded animals. We report an acute fatal T. gondii infection in the endangered giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca in a zoo in China, characterized by acute gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. T. gondii infection was confirmed by immunological and molecular methods. Multilocus nested PCR-RFLP revealed clonal type I at the SAG1 and c29-2 loci, clonal type II at the SAG2, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, and L358 loci, and clonal type III at the alternative SAG2 and SAG3 loci, thus, a potential new genotype of T. gondii in the giant panda. Other possible pathogens were not detected. To our knowledge, this is the first report of clinical toxoplasmosis in a giant panda.

  18. Outbreak of caprine abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Bravim Caldeira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of abortion by Toxoplasma gondii in goats on a farm in the Brazilian Midwest is reported. Gross lesions were not observed in seven aborted fetuses submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Mato Grosso, for necropsy investigation. The main histologic lesions were mononuclear cell pneumonia and necrotizing encephalitis in varying degrees of intensity. PCR for Brucella abortus and Neospora caninum and aerobic cultures were negative in all cases. Antibody titles against T. gondii varying from 1:1024 to 1:32.768 were detected in serum samples from four aborted goats. Nested-PCR assay for T. gondii were positive in brain samples of all cases submitted. These findings indicate that T. gondii infection should be considered in the diagnosis of abortion in goats in Midwest Brazil.

  19. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  20. Serological study for antibodies to toxoplasma gondii in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandahusada, S

    1978-09-01

    A total of 280 sera from medical students, laboratory personnel from the University of Indonesia and other persons living in Jakarta were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the indirect hemagglutination test. Antibody titers equal to or greater than 1:256 were considered positive and were detected in 35 or 12.5% of the persons tested. The sero-positivity rates were not significant between 178 males (13.5%) and 102 females (10.8%) but were significantly different between persons of Indonesian ancestry (14.3%) and those of Chinese ancestry (2.3%). No correlation could be found between ownership of domestic cats and eating habits and positive titers.

  1. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...... changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination...... of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain...

  2. The crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii pyruvate kinase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bakszt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PK, which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population.We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers.We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two α-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  3. The crystal structure of Toxoplasma gondii pyruvate kinase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakszt, Rebecca; Wernimont, Amy; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Mok, Man Wai; Hills, Tanya; Hui, Raymond; Pizarro, Juan C

    2010-09-14

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two α-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii Actively Inhibits Neuronal Function in Chronically Infected Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroon, Fahad; Händel, Ulrike; Angenstein, Frank; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Kreutzmann, Peter; Lison, Holger; Fischer, Klaus-Dieter; Scheich, Henning; Wetzel, Wolfram; Schlüter, Dirk; Budinger, Eike

    2012-01-01

    Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii–infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca2+) imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host. PMID:22530040

  5. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii actively inhibits neuronal function in chronically infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad Haroon

    Full Text Available Upon infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, fast replicating tachyzoites infect a broad spectrum of host cells including neurons. Under the pressure of the immune response, tachyzoites convert into slow-replicating bradyzoites, which persist as cysts in neurons. Currently, it is unclear whether T. gondii alters the functional activity of neurons, which may contribute to altered behaviour of T. gondii-infected mice and men. In the present study we demonstrate that upon oral infection with T. gondii cysts, chronically infected BALB/c mice lost over time their natural fear against cat urine which was paralleled by the persistence of the parasite in brain regions affecting behaviour and odor perception. Detailed immunohistochemistry showed that in infected neurons not only parasitic cysts but also the host cell cytoplasm and some axons stained positive for Toxoplasma antigen suggesting that parasitic proteins might directly interfere with neuronal function. In fact, in vitro live cell calcium (Ca(2+ imaging studies revealed that tachyzoites actively manipulated Ca(2+ signalling upon glutamate stimulation leading either to hyper- or hypo-responsive neurons. Experiments with the endoplasmatic reticulum Ca(2+ uptake inhibitor thapsigargin indicate that tachyzoites deplete Ca(2+ stores in the endoplasmatic reticulum. Furthermore in vivo studies revealed that the activity-dependent uptake of the potassium analogue thallium was reduced in cyst harbouring neurons indicating their functional impairment. The percentage of non-functional neurons increased over time In conclusion, both bradyzoites and tachyzoites functionally silence infected neurons, which may significantly contribute to the altered behaviour of the host.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, PR, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco para a infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii em granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificados ou não da microregião de Toledo, PR, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piassa Franciele Rossandra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infection has been diagnosed in pigs all over the world. Economical losses are generally related to reproductive disorders. Toxoplasma infection is also a matter of public health because tissue cysts of the parasite may remain in pork and pork products, and become sources of human infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection in certified and non-certified pig breeding farms in the Toledo microregion, in the State of Paraná, Brazil which includes the cities of Toledo, Nova Santa Rosa, Sao José das Palmeiras and Sao Pedro do Iguaçu. Relative frequency of infection was 13.4%, independently of the type of farm. Logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were associated with infection: absence of workers exclusive for each area of the farm, access of other animals to feeders and drinkers, lack of lids in drinkers, lack of rodent control measures, mean piglet number and weight at weaning per female.A infecção pelo Toxoplasma gondii tem sido diagnosticada em suínos em todo o mundo. Perdas econômicas geralmente estão relacionadas a distúrbios reprodutivos. A infecção pelo Toxoplasma tem também importância em saúde pública, já que cistos teciduais do parasito podem persistir na carne e subprodutos oriundos de suínos, que servirão de fontes de infecção para o ser humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a frequência e os fatores de risco associados à infecção pelo Toxoplasma em granjas de reprodutores suídeos certificados ou não da microrregião de Toledo, no Paraná, que inclui os municípios de Toledo, Nova Santa Rosa, São José das Palmeiras e São Pedro do Iguaçú. A frequência relativa de infecção foi 13,4%, sem diferença com o tipo de granja. A análise de regressão logística demonstrou os seguintes fatores associados à infecção: não utilização de funcionários separados por área da

  8. Avaliação do antígeno SAG2a recombinante de Toxoplasma gondii como um potencial marcador diagnóstico para Toxoplasmose humana aguda

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    Béla, Samantha Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Proteínas recombinantes têm sido utilizadas para o diagnóstico sorológico da infecção por Toxoplasma gondii para diferenciar entre as fases aguda e crônica da toxoplasmose. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a reatividade de anticorpos IgG e IgG1 através de imunoensaios em soros de pacientes com toxoplasmose aguda e crônica dirigidos contra dois antígenos recombinantes clonados e expressos em E. coli, SAG2A (molécula recombinante total) e SAG2A(DELTA) (molécula recombinante deletada do...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii infection specifically increases the levels of key host microRNAs.

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    Gusti M Zeiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in virtually any nucleated cell in many species of warm-blooded animals; thus, it has evolved the ability to exploit well-conserved biological processes common to its diverse hosts. Here we have investigated whether Toxoplasma modulates the levels of host microRNAs (miRNAs during infection.Using microarray profiling and a combination of conventional molecular approaches we report that Toxoplasma specifically modulates the expression of important host microRNAs during infection. We show that both the primary transcripts for miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 and the pivotal miRNAs that are derived from miR-17 approximately 92 display increased abundance in Toxoplasma-infected primary human cells; a Toxoplasma-dependent up-regulation of the miR-17 approximately 92 promoter is at least partly responsible for this increase. The abundance of mature miR-17 family members, which are derived from these two miRNA clusters, remains unchanged in host cells infected with the closely related apicomplexan Neospora caninum; thus, the Toxoplasma-induced increase in their abundance is a highly directed process rather than a general host response to infection.Altered levels of miR-17 approximately 92 and miR-106b approximately 25 are known to play crucial roles in mammalian cell regulation and have been implicated in numerous hyperproliferative diseases although the mechanisms driving their altered expression are unknown. Hence, in addition to the implications of these findings on the host-pathogen interaction, Toxoplasma may represent a powerful probe for understanding the normal mechanisms that regulate the levels of key host miRNAs.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables: a case control seroprevalence study

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    Alvarado-Esquivel Cosme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through a case control seroprevalence study, we sought to determine the association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with occupational exposure to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables. Methods Subjects, numbering 200, who worked growing or selling fruits and vegetables, and 400 control subjects matched by age, gender, and residence were examined by enzyme immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. Results Of the 200 fruit and vegetable workers, 15 (7.5% of whom, and 31 (7.8% of the 400 controls were positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (P = 0.96. Anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies were found in 2 (1% of the fruit workers and in 11 (2.8% of the control subjects (P = 0.23. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies increased with age (P = 0.0004. In addition, seropositivity to Toxoplasma was associated with ill status (P = 0.04, chronic tonsillitis (P = 0.03, and reflex impairment (P = 0.03. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxoplasma infection was associated with consumption of raw meat (OR = 5.77; 95% CI: 1.15-28.79; P = 0.03, unwashed raw fruits (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.11-5.63; P = 0.02, and living in a house with soil floors (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.22-7.88; P = 0.01, whereas Toxoplasma infection was negatively associated with traveling abroad (OR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67; P = 0.005. Conclusions This is the first report of seroprevalence and contributing factors for Toxoplasma infection in workers occupationally exposed to unwashed raw fruits and vegetables, and the results may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Toxoplasma infection especially in female workers at reproductive age.

  12. A novel multifunctional oligonucleotide microarray for Toxoplasma gondii

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    Chen Feng

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are invaluable tools for genome interrogation, SNP detection, and expression analysis, among other applications. Such broad capabilities would be of value to many pathogen research communities, although the development and use of genome-scale microarrays is often a costly undertaking. Therefore, effective methods for reducing unnecessary probes while maintaining or expanding functionality would be relevant to many investigators. Results Taking advantage of available genome sequences and annotation for Toxoplasma gondii (a pathogenic parasite responsible for illness in immunocompromised individuals and Plasmodium falciparum (a related parasite responsible for severe human malaria, we designed a single oligonucleotide microarray capable of supporting a wide range of applications at relatively low cost, including genome-wide expression profiling for Toxoplasma, and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping of both T. gondii and P. falciparum. Expression profiling of the three clonotypic lineages dominating T. gondii populations in North America and Europe provides a first comprehensive view of the parasite transcriptome, revealing that ~49% of all annotated genes are expressed in parasite tachyzoites (the acutely lytic stage responsible for pathogenesis and 26% of genes are differentially expressed among strains. A novel design utilizing few probes provided high confidence genotyping, used here to resolve recombination points in the clonal progeny of sexual crosses. Recent sequencing of additional T. gondii isolates identifies >620 K new SNPs, including ~11 K that intersect with expression profiling probes, yielding additional markers for genotyping studies, and further validating the utility of a combined expression profiling/genotyping array design. Additional applications facilitating SNP and transcript discovery, alternative statistical methods for quantifying gene expression, etc. are also pursued at

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces predator aversion in rats through epigenetic modulation in the host medial amygdala.

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    Hari Dass, Shantala Arundhati; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-12-01

    Male rats (Rattus novergicus) infected with protozoan Toxoplasma gondii relinquish their innate aversion to the cat odours. This behavioural change is postulated to increase transmission of the parasite to its definitive felid hosts. Here, we show that the Toxoplasma gondii infection institutes an epigenetic change in the DNA methylation of the arginine vasopressin promoter in the medial amygdala of male rats. Infected animals exhibit hypomethylation of arginine vasopressin promoter, leading to greater expression of this nonapeptide. The infection also results in the greater activation of the vasopressinergic neurons after exposure to the cat odour. Furthermore, we show that loss of fear in the infected animals can be rescued by the systemic hypermethylation and recapitulated by directed hypomethylation in the medial amygdala. These results demonstrate an epigenetic proximate mechanism underlying the extended phenotype in the Rattus novergicus-Toxoplasma gondii association. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  15. Drug Repurposing Screening Identifies Novel Compounds That Effectively Inhibit Toxoplasma gondii Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Ashley J.; Drozda, Allison A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The urgent need to develop new antimicrobial therapies has spawned the development of repurposing screens in which well-studied drugs and other types of compounds are tested for potential off-label uses. As a proof-of-principle screen to identify compounds effective against Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a collection of 1,120 compounds for the ability to significantly reduce Toxoplasma replication. A total of 94 compounds blocked parasite replication with 50% inhibitory concentrations of parasite invasion and replication but did so independently of inhibition of dopamine or other neurotransmitter receptor signaling. Tamoxifen, which is an established inhibitor of the estrogen receptor, also reduced parasite invasion and replication. Even though Toxoplasma can activate the estrogen receptor, tamoxifen inhibits parasite growth independently of this transcription factor. Tamoxifen is also a potent inducer of autophagy, and we find that the drug stimulates recruitment of the autophagy marker light chain 3-green fluorescent protein onto the membrane of the vacuolar compartment in which the parasite resides and replicates. In contrast to other antiparasitic drugs, including pimozide, tamoxifen treatment of infected cells leads to a time-dependent elimination of intracellular parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that tamoxifen restricts Toxoplasma growth by inducing xenophagy or autophagic destruction of this obligate intracellular parasite. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need to develop new therapies to treat microbial infections, and the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as one approach to achieving this goal. Using the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, we screened a library of 1,120 compounds and identified several compounds with significant antiparasitic activities. Among these were pimozide and tamoxifen, which are well-characterized drugs prescribed to treat patients with psychiatric disorders and breast cancer

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  17. Global Analysis of Palmitoylated Proteins in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foe, Ian T; Child, Matthew A; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Krishnamurthy, Shruthi; van der Linden, Wouter A; Ward, Gary E; Martin, Brent R; Bogyo, Matthew

    2015-10-14

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as palmitoylation are critical for the lytic cycle of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. While palmitoylation is involved in invasion, motility, and cell morphology, the proteins that utilize this PTM remain largely unknown. Using a chemical proteomic approach, we report a comprehensive analysis of palmitoylated proteins in T. gondii, identifying a total of 282 proteins, including cytosolic, membrane-associated, and transmembrane proteins. From this large set of palmitoylated targets, we validate palmitoylation of proteins involved in motility (myosin light chain 1, myosin A), cell morphology (PhIL1), and host cell invasion (apical membrane antigen 1, AMA1). Further studies reveal that blocking AMA1 palmitoylation enhances the release of AMA1 and other invasion-related proteins from apical secretory organelles, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for AMA1. These findings suggest that palmitoylation is ubiquitous throughout the T. gondii proteome and reveal insights into the biology of this important human pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Meat juice serology for Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens

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    Alice Vismarra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne zoonosis. Free-range chickens are at particularly high risk of infection and are also excellent indicators of soil contamination by oocysts. In the present study, hearts of 77 freerange chickens were collected at slaughter. T. gondii meat juice enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with a commercial kit, following validation with positive controls, from experimentally infected chickens, and negative ones. Out of 77 samples, only 66 gave sufficient meat juice for serology. Of these, 24 (36.4% were positive for T. gondii considering the 5*standard deviation values (calculated on the optical density of negative controls, while all the samples were negative considering sample/positive% values. Parasite-specific polymerase chain reaction was carried out on all samples obtained from heart tissue and none were positive for the presence of T. gondii DNA. Results would suggest that further study on the use of meat juice with a validated serological test to detect T. gondii in chickens could lead to widespread epidemiological studies in this important intermediate host. However, sample collection and test specificity require further evaluation.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

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    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  20. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in Brazilian oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L A; Santos, L K N S S; Brito, P A; Maciel, B M; Da Silva, A V; Albuquerque, G R

    2015-05-04

    The aim of this study was to detect evidence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) obtained from the southern coastal region of Bahia, Brazil. A total of 624 oysters were collected, and the gills and digestive glands were dissected. Each tissue sample was separated into pools containing tissues (of the same type) from three animals, leading to a total of 416 experimental samples for analysis (208 samples each from the gills and digestive glands). Molecular analysis using PCR-based detection of the T. gondii AF 146527 repetitive fragment yielded negative results for all samples. However, when nested-PCR was used for detection of the T. gondii SAG-1 gene, 17 samples were positive, with the gills being the tissue with maximal detection of the parasite. These positive results were confirmed by sample sequencing. It is therefore suggested that C. rhizophorae oysters are capable of filtering and retaining T. gondii oocysts in their tissue. This represents a risk to public health because they are traditionally ingested in natura.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii: II. Tachyzoite antigenic characterization of eigth strains

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    Regina Mitsuka

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Toxoplasma gondii strains were analyzed using ELISA and Western blot techniques, in order to demonstrate possible immunological differences. The analyzed strains were: LIV IV, LIV V and S 11 isolated from swine, RH and VPS from a human being, AS 28 from a wild mouse, HV III from a dog and CN from a cat. With the ELISA assay the eight strains showed similar reactivity with homologous and heterologous sera. The antigenic suspension, consisting of total cellular extract of tachyzoites, was effective in the indirect ELISA assay, with the positive sera reacting strongly and the negative not reacting with the antigens. The Western blot analysis showed that the T. gondii strains have similar antigenic profiles with a few variations. Three bands were observed in all strains: one of about 33 kDa (p33, another of 54 kDa (p54 and a third one of 66 kDa (p66. The HV III strain, isolated from a dog, did not show three antigens (50, 70 and 75 kDa that were present in the others. However, this difference was not detected by the ELISA assay. Only two antigens (62 kDa of the CN and 67 kDa of the LIV IV were strain-specific antigens.

  2. A unique dual activity amino acid hydroxylase in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Elizabeth A Gaskell

    Full Text Available The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces L-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to L-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s of these bi-functional enzymes during host infection are discussed.

  3. Cancer in the parasitic protozoans Trypanosoma brucei and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lai, De-Hua; Wen, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Shen, Ji-Long; Yang, Ting-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Qu, Liang-Hu; Hide, Geoff; Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-07-21

    Cancer is a general name for more than 100 malignant diseases. It is postulated that all cancers start from a single abnormal cell that grows out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious consequences and deaths. Great progress has been made in cancer research that has significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the disease, but the origins of cancer are far from being well understood due to the limitations of suitable model systems and to the complexities of the disease. In view of the fact that cancers are found in various species of vertebrates and other metazoa, here, we suggest that cancer also occurs in parasitic protozoans such as Trypanosoma brucei, a blood parasite, and Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular pathogen. Without treatment, these protozoan cancers may cause severe disease and death in mammals, including humans. The simpler genomes of these single-cell organisms, in combination with their complex life cycles and fascinating life cycle differentiation processes, may help us to better understand the origins of cancers and, in particular, leukemias.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii in wild and domestic animals from New Caledonia

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    Roqueplo C.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples (serum or meat juice collected from 205 animals in New Caledonia in April 2009 were tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA using the multi-species ID Screen® Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDVET, Montpellier. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 2% (1/49 of the pigs, in 3.3% (1/30 of the cattle, in 13.8% (4/29 of Rusa deers, in 16% (4/25 of the horses, in 32.8% (21/64 of the dogs, and in 50% (4/8 of cats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed between T. gondii seroprevalence and age or sex. No survey on the prevalence of T. gondii in animals has ever been conducted in New Caledonia and this is the first serological evidence of T. gondii in Rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa. These results indicate an important circulation of T. gondii exists in the animal populations of New Caledonia. In view of humans being exposed, it is advisable to insist on sanitary education and on respect for good hygienic and food practice.

  5. Current Treatment of Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Meredith Harrell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To perform an evidence-based review of treatments for Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC. Methods. A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database and the key phrase “ocular toxoplasmosis treatment” and the filter for “controlled clinical trial” and “randomized clinical trial” as well as OVID medline (1946 to May week 2 2014 using the keyword ‘‘ocular toxoplasmosis’’. The included studies were used to evaluate the various treatment modalities of TRC. Results. The electronic search yielded a total of 974 publications of which 44 reported on the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. There were 9 randomized controlled studies and an additional 3 comparative studies on the treatment of acute TRC with systemic or intravitreous antibiotics or on reducing the recurrences of TRC. Endpoints of studies included visual acuity improvement, inflammatory response, lesion size changes, recurrences of lesions, and adverse effects of medications. Conclusions. There was conflicting evidence as to the effectiveness of systemic antibiotics for TRC. There is no evidence to support that one antibiotic regimen is superior to another so choice needs to be informed by the safety profile. Intravitreous clindamycin with dexamethasone seems to be as effective as systemic treatments. There is currently level I evidence that intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrence of the disease.

  6. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Ethiopian feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Tilahun, G; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Zou, X; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies indicate greater genetic variability among isolates of Toxoplasma gondii worldwide than previously thought. However, there is no information on genetic diversity of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. In the present study, genotyping was performed on viable T. gondii isolates by bioassays in mice from tissues and feces of 27 cats from Ethiopia. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 26 cats, feces alone of 1 cat, and feces and tissues of 6 cats; in total there were 33 isolates. Genotyping was performed on DNA from cell-cultured derived T. gondii tachyzoites and by using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Four genotypes were recognized, including ToxoDB #1 (Type II clonal, nine isolates), ToxoDB #2 (Type III, five isolates), Toxo DB #3 (Type II variant, ten isolates), and ToxoDB #20 (nine isolates). Of interest is the isolation of different genotypes from tissues and feces of two cats, suggesting re-infection or mixed strain T. gondii infection. These findings are of epidemiological significance with respect to shedding of oocysts by cats. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    2017-01-18

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii as they can shed the environmentally resistant oocysts after acquiring infection. Human populations living in cities with high densities of feral cats are therefore likely to be at risk of infection. The current study is the first to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the feral cat population in Qatar. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 495 adult cats from urban and suburban districts in Qatar. Using results from the Modified Agglutination Test, we fitted statistical models with host sex, area and season as explanatory factors and seropositivity as the outcome. The analysis revealed an overall seroprevalence of 82%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the summer season (P = 0.006). No significant difference was detected (P > 0.05) between seroprevalence in female and male cats and in cats from urban and suburban districts of Qatar. Despite the seasonal difference, the observed seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests high environmental contamination throughout the year, with some female cats generating more intense responses compared to males. Both findings merit further investigations.

  8. Structure of Toxoplasma gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Lauren E.; Bosch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The structure of T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, a glycolytic enzyme and structural component of the invasion machinery, was determined to a resolution of 2.0 Å. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii must invade host cells to continue its lifecycle. It invades different cell types using an actomyosin motor that is connected to extracellular adhesins via the bridging protein fructose-1,6-@@bisphosphate aldolase. During invasion, aldolase serves in the role of a structural bridging protein, as opposed to its normal enzymatic role in the glycolysis pathway. Crystal structures of the homologous Plasmodium falciparum fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase have been described previously. Here, T. gondii fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase has been crystallized in space group P22 1 2 1 , with the biologically relevant tetramer in the asymmetric unit, and the structure has been determined via molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.0 Å. An analysis of the quality of the model and of the differences between the four chains in the asymmetric unit and a comparison between the T. gondii and P. falciparum aldolase structures is presented

  9. Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Peter Rohloff

    Full Text Available Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca(2+/H(+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles.

  10. The neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii increases dopamine metabolism.

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    Emese Prandovszky

    Full Text Available The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its host's behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasite's life cycle. The mechanism(s responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number of infected cells and the quantity of dopamine released. Immunostaining brain sections of infected mice with dopamine antibody showed intense staining of encysted parasites. Based on these analyses, T. gondii orchestrates a significant increase in dopamine metabolism in neural cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was also found in intracellular tissue cysts in brain tissue with antibodies specific for the parasite-encoded tyrosine hydroxylase. These observations provide a mechanism for parasite-induced behavioral changes. The observed effects on dopamine metabolism could also be relevant in interpreting reports of psychobehavioral changes in toxoplasmosis-infected humans.

  11. Latent Toxoplasma gondii infection leads to improved action control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Heintschel von Heinegg, Evelyn; Köhling, Hedda-Luise; Beste, Christian

    2014-03-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been found to manipulate the behavior of its secondary hosts to increase its own dissemination which is commonly believed to be to the detriment of the host (manipulation hypothesis). The manipulation correlates with an up-regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In humans, different pathologies have been associated with T. gondii infections but most latently infected humans do not seem to display overt impairments. Since a dopamine plus does not necessarily bear exclusively negative consequences in humans, we investigated potential positive consequences of latent toxoplasmosis (and the presumed boosting of dopaminergic neurotransmission) on human cognition and behavior. For this purpose, we focused on action cascading which has been shown to be modulated by dopamine. Based on behavioral and neurophysiological (EEG) data obtained by means of a stop-change paradigm, we were able to demonstrate that healthy young humans can actually benefit from latent T. gondii infection as regards their performance in this task (as indicated by faster response times and a smaller P3 component). The data shows that a latent infection which is assumed to affect the dopaminergic system can lead to paradoxical improvements of cognitive control processes in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection and chronic schizophrenia: is there any association?

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    Salvina Maria de Campos-Carli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection has been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Objectives: Herein, we sought to evaluate the association between T. gondii infection and clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 48 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 40 controls. Peripheral blood was drawn, and IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies were evaluated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Depressive, positive and negative symptoms were assessed, respectively, by the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Cognitive performance was assessed in patients by the Brazilian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS-BR. Quality of life was assessed by the Brazilian version of the Quality of Life in Schizophrenia scale (QLS-BR. Results: The prevalence and titers of T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies did not differ between patients and controls. The positive serology for T. gondii IgG antibodies was not associated with illness symptoms, cognitive performance, depressive symptoms or quality of life. Discussion: Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis infection is not associated with severity of symptoms, quality of life, cognitive or depressive symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  13. The Ultrastructural Effects of Sulfachloropyrazine on Toxoplasma Gondii Tachyzoites

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    YB Zeng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other mammals. This study was aimed to understand the mechanism of action of veterinary medicine-sulfachlo­ropyrazine (SPZ, 99.97% against Toxoplasma gondii.Methods: T. gondii tachyzoites were soaked in PBS (as a control or SPZ (250 mg/mL for 2 h at 37 °C. After being processed, any ultrastructural changes of the tachyzoites that had occurred were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM.Results: The tachyzoites from control groups with a uniform size had a smooth surface and intact cell or nuclear membranes. In addition, an oval-shaped nucleus, conoids and micronemes were also observed. By contrast, many parasites from the SPZ-treated groups were detrimentally affected by the treatment. Some appeared to be of the vacuolization in their cytoplasm, with the substantial reduc­tion in the number of dense granules and the blur of some organelles.Conclusion: The morphology and ultrastructure of tachyzoites can be affected significantly by SPZ, which might kill the parasite by inhibiting its energy metabolism, inducing apoptosis and damaging its structure. The study provides an experimental basis for further study on the mechanism of SPZ against T. gondii.

  14. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and typing of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan; Wang, Ze-Dong; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-05-28

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is an important zoonosis with medical and veterinary importance worldwide. The disease is mainly contracted by ingesting undercooked or raw meat containing viable tissue cysts, or by ingesting food or water contaminated with oocysts. The diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection is crucial for the surveillance, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Traditional approaches for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include etiological, immunological and imaging techniques. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis has been improved by the emergence of molecular technologies to amplify parasite nucleic acids. Among these, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular techniques have been useful for the genetic characterization of T. gondii. Serotyping methods based on polymorphic polypeptides have the potential to become the choice for typing T. gondii in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize conventional non-DNA-based diagnostic methods, and the DNA-based molecular techniques for the diagnosis and genetic characterization of T. gondii. These techniques have provided foundations for further development of more effective and accurate detection of T. gondii infection. These advances will contribute to an improved understanding of the epidemiology, prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

  15. Isolation and Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazilian Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jamille Rodrigues; Maciel, Bianca Mendes; de Santana Souza Santos, Luana Karla Nogueira; Carvalho, Fábio Santos; de Santana Rocha, Daniele; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; Albuquerque, George Rêgo

    2017-06-01

    Strains of Toxoplasma gondii in Brazil are highly genetically diverse compared to strains from North America and Europe. Dogs are epidemiologically important because they act as sentinels for T. gondii infections in humans and are good indicators of environmental contamination. The aim of this study was to isolate and genetically characterize T. gondii strains from tissues of naturally infected Brazilian dogs. For this study, 21 blood samples were collected from dogs at the Zoonosis Control Centers of Ilhéus and Itabuna cities, Bahia, Brazil. The sera were examined for T. gondii antibodies using the indirect hemagglutination test. Brains and hearts of seropositive dogs were bioassayed in mice to isolate and characterize T. gondii parasites by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, newSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2, GRA6, PK1, APICO, and L358). However, T. gondii was isolated from only 4 (57.1%) dogs, designated TgDgBr6, 13, 17, and 21. All strains were virulent, causing clinical changes (rough hair coat, lethargy, and abdominal distention) and the death of all mice within 8-20 days after inoculation. Genetic analysis of these 4 T. gondii isolates revealed 4 distinct genotypes with different clonal lineage combinations (types I, II, and III) and 2 atypical alleles. Using PCR-RFLP with several markers, this study contributes to evaluations of the genetic diversity of strains circulating in Brazil.

  16. Comparative genomics of the Apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Adam James; Vermont, Sarah J.; Cotton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Coccidian parasites have a major impact on human and animal health world-wide and are among the most successful and widespread parasitic protozoa. They include Neospora caninum which is a leading cause of abortion in cattle and one of its nearest relatives, Toxoplasma gondii. Despite its close...... almost exclusively on molecules which control the interaction of the parasite with the host cell. We show that some secreted invasion-related proteins and surface genes which are known to control virulence and host cell interactions in Toxoplasma are dramatically altered in their expression...... and functionality in Neospora and propose that evolution of these genes may underpin the ecological niches inhabited by coccidian parasites....

  17. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Pennsylvania black bears, Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, N; Humphreys, J G; Dubey, J P

    1993-10-01

    Serum samples from 665 hunter-killed black bears killed in 1989 to 1992 throughout Pennsylvania (USA) were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the agglutination test in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 535 of 665 (80%) bears. Considering the highest dilutions at which antibodies were detected, prevalences were 10% at 1:25, 37% at 1:50 and 33% at 1:500. No significant difference in antibody prevalence was found between males (79%) and females (80%), but a significant difference was found between juvenile (65%) and adult (83%) bears.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Danish farmed mink (Mustela vison S.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P; Dietz, H. H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five mink sera randomly selected from 17 Danish mink farms were evaluated for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the latex agglutination test. Six (3%) sera contained T. gondii antibodies in titres of 1:64 or more. The estimated 3% prevalence means that 300 000...... mink out of a total mink population of ten million might be infected with Toxoplasma gondii. This large number of possible sero-positive mink in Denmark indicates that there exists a potential risk of acquiring toxoplasmosis by pelting mink....

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in small mammals from the Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Lemoine, Mélissa; Villena, Isabelle; Aubert, Dominique; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2007-11-01

    Serum samples from 218 small mammals trapped in forest and grassland in the Ardennes region (North-eastern France) were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Using the modified agglutination test, positive results were found in 4/92 Apodemus sp., 3/64 Clethrionomys glareolus, 0/26 Microtus agrestis, 0/4 Micromys minutus, 3/5 Sorex sp., 2/9 Arvicola terrestris, and 7/18 Talpa europaea. Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from the heart of seropositive individuals after bioassay in mice. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in large fossorial mammals living in grassland than in small forest mammals, probably related to ecological factors.

  20. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in cattle and pigs slaughtered, State of Rio de Janeiro Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em bovinos e suínos abatidos, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martins Luciano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by means of the Indirect Immunufluorescent Antibody Assay (IFAT in cattle and pigs from slaughterhouses in two municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro. IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was found in 1.96% (9/459 of the cattle and 7.64% (31/406 of the pigs, without any positive association (p > 0.05 with risk factors for transmission and seropositivity. Taking the cutoff point of IFAT ³ 1:64, titers of 64 and 256 were detected, suggesting chronic infection. Despite the low prevalence rates found for cattle and pigs, these indicated environmental contamination in the municipalities investigated, biosafety failures at the technified pig farm evaluated and the possibility of human and animal infection through eating raw or undercooked meat from these animals.Este trabalho objetivou estimar a ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio da Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI em bovinos e suínos de abatedouros de dois municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Anticorpos IgG anti-T. gondii foram encontrados em 1,96% (9/459 dos bovinos e em 7,64% (31/406 dos suínos, sem associação positiva (p > 0,05 em relação aos fatores de risco de transmissão e a soropositividade. Considerando-se o ponto de corte (RIFI ³ 1:64, foram detectados os títulos de 64 e 256, sugestivos de infecção crônica. Apesar de baixas, as prevalências encontradas para bovinos e suínos indicaram contaminação ambiental nos municípios avaliados, falhas na biossegurança da granja tecnificada de suínos e a possibilidade de infecção humana e animal pela ingestão da carne crua ou mal passada desses animais.

  1. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in goats in the State of Paraíba, Brazil Fatores de risco associados à soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil

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    Carolina de Sousa Américo Batista Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study based on planned sampling was carried out to determine flock-level risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in dairy goat flocks in a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 975 adult dairy goats from 110 flocks were examined by indirect immonufluorescent antibody test (IFAT, using cut-off point at 1:64 dilution. From the 110 flocks, 77 presented at least one seropositive animal, corresponding to a prevalence of 70% (95% CI: 60.5-78.4%. Out of the 975 animals, 177 (18.1%; 95% CI = 15.8-20.7% tested positive. The presence of toxic plants (OR = 5.11; P = 0.045 and the fact that goat breeding is not the main activity on the farm (OR = 3.34; P = 0.014 were identified as risk factors. The results of the present study showed evidence of the presence of T. gondii infection in dairy goats from a semiarid region of northeastern Brazil using planned sampling. Further studies are needed to elucidate the importance of the identified risk factors in the epidemiology of the infection.Foi conduzido um estudo transversal baseado em amostragem planejada com o objetivo de determinar fatores de risco associados com a prevalência de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii, em rebanhos de caprinos leiteiros, em uma região semiárida do Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras de soro de 975 caprinos leiteiros adultos, procedentes de 110 propriedades, foram examinadas pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, utilizando-se como ponto de corte a diluição 1:64. Das 110 propriedades, 77 apresentaram pelo menos um animal soropositivo, correspondendo a uma prevalência de 70% (IC 95%: 60,5-78,4%. Dos 975 animais, 177 (18,1%; IC 95% = 15,8-20,7% foram positivos. Apesar da presença de plantas tóxicas (OR = 5,11; P = 0,045 e da caprinocultura não ser a principal atividade na propriedade (OR = 3,34; P = 0,014, foram identificados como fatores de risco. Os resultados do presente estudo mostraram uma evid

  2. Meningoencefalites toxoplásmica e chagásica em pacientes com infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana: diagnóstico diferencial anatomopatológico e tomográfico Meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with HIV infection. Diferencial diagnosis of pathologic and tomographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier E. Lazo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Em 22 pacientes com sorologia positiva para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, com ou sem síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, dos quais 7 com meningoencefalite toxoplásmica e 15 com meningoencefalite chagásica associadas, procuraram-se dados diferenciais, entre as duas encefalopatias, tanto à anatomia patológica quanto à tomografia computadorizada do crânio. Os resultados observados e os dados da literatura nos permitiram concluir que enquanto na meningoencefalite necrosante focal por Toxoplasma gondii o acometimento dos núcleos da base é freqüente, na meningoencefalite necrosante focal causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, lesões dessas estruturas parecem não ocorrer ou ser excepcionais. De outro lado, o acometimento da substância branca parece nitidamente maior na meningoencefalite chagásica que na meningoencefalite toxoplásmica, ao passo que o parasitismo e a hemorragia do tecido nervoso, bem como as lesões das bainhas de mielina são mais freqüentes e intensos na meningoencefalite causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi que naquela por Toxoplasma.Twenty-two HIV+ patients with encephalitis were studied. Of these, 7 had meningoencephalitis due to Toxoplasma gondii (MT and 15 due to Trypanosoma cruzi (MC. Pathologic and computerized axial tomography (CAT changes were compared. We found that focal necrotizing encephalitis due to Toxoplasma involved the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia, whereas lesions due to Trypanosoma cruzi were centered in the white matter, sometimes extending into the cortex. Hemorrhages, myelin lesions and organisms were more pronounced in chagasic than in toxoplasmic encephalitis. These findings are consistent with the literature reviewed.

  3. [The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in women from Sanliurfa, a province with a high raw meatball consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekay, Fikret; Ozbek, Erdal

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that can infect all kind of birds and all mammals including humans and is common throughout the world. The prevalence varies according to social and cultural habits, pet cats in homes and geographic factors. Domestic cats are considered to be an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection. From January to June 2006, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis was retrospectively monitored from blood samples that had been sent to our laboratory in order to determine the levels of IgM and IgG. All the subjects were women and 2,586 blood samples were investigated with the chemiluminescence immunoassay method. The rates of Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found to be 3.0% (78/2,586) and that of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, 69.5% (1.798/2,586). The total rate of positivity of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was 69.6% (1,801/2,586) and the negativity, 30.4% (785/2,586). The highest positive rates have been reported in the southeastern region of Turkey and the 69.6% detected in our study seems to be the highest rate. Raw meatball consumption is common in our region and raw meat has a high risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection by direct ingestion of tissue cysts. As a result we consider that the high frequency of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in this region is due to raw meatball consumption.

  4. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii infection: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaotang; Zhou, Hui; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Dan; Wang, Zhiling; Ren, Haitao

    2018-02-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis has been recognized as the most frequent autoimmune encephalitis in children. Several infectious agents have been implicated in anti-NMDA encephalitis. A previously healthy immunocompetent 9-year-old girl first presented with seizures, headaches and vomiting. Cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. After one week onset, the patient gradually developed unexplained personality and behavior changes, accompanied by fever and seizures again. Repeated CSF analysis revealed a slightly lymphocytic predominant pleocytosis and positive anti-NMDAR antibody. A variety of pathogenic examinations were negative, except for positive toxoplasma IgM and IgG. The patient was diagnoses for anti-NMDA encephalitis associated with acute acquired toxoplasma gondii infection. The patient received 10 days azithromycin for treatment of acquired toxoplasma infection. The parents refuse immunotherapy because substantial recovery from clinical symptoms. The patient was substantially recovered with residual mild agitation after therapy for acquired toxoplasma gondii infection. Two months later, the patient was completely devoid of symptoms, and the levels of serum IgM and IgG of toxoplasma gondii were decreased. Acquired toxoplasma gondii infection may trigger anti-NMDAR encephalitis in children, which has not been reported previously. Clinicians should assess the possibility of toxoplasma gondii infection when evaluating a patient with anti-NMDA encephalitis.

  5. Diagnosis and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Brazilian slaughterhouses Diagnóstico e isolamento de Toxoplasma gondii em equídeos de frigoríficos brasileiros

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    Fernanda Evers

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and to isolate the parasite from the brains of horses processed at slaughterhouses in Brazil. We collected brain and blood samples from 398 horses of various ages, from six Brazilian states. Serum samples were evaluated by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT cut-off titre ≥ 1:64, and brains were submitted to mouse bioassay. Among the 398 horses, positivity for T. gondii was identified in 46 (11.6% by IFAT and in 14 (3.5% by mouse bioassay. In 12 of those 14 bioassays, mice were positive only by IFAT (cut-off titre ≥ 1:16, T. gondii being isolated in the remaining two. Using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis of 18S rDNA to differentiate among T. gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis neurona, we found that two of the 14 brains were positive for T. gondii only. For genotyping of the two isolates and the PCR-positive brain, we performed PCR-RFLP based on 13 markers, and SAG2 all samples were Toxoplasma gondii type I. Collectively, IFAT of horse sera and mouse bioassay identified positivity in 60 (15% of the samples. Our results show that some horses sent to slaughter in Brazil have been exposed to T. gondii.O objetivo do estudo foi investigar anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii e isolar o parasita do cérebro de equídeos abatidos em matadouros-frigoríficos no Brasil. Colheram-se amostras de 398 cérebros e sangue de equídeos machos e fêmeas de idades variadas, provenientes de seis estados brasileiros. As amostras de soro foram avaliadas pelo teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI para T. gondii (ponto de corte ≥ 64, e os fragmentos de cérebros foram submetidos ao bioensaio em camundongos. Por meio da IFI, 46 (11,6% equídeos foram soropositivos. Pelo bioensaio em camundongos, 14 (3,5% cérebros de equídeos testados foram positivos. Em doze dos bioensaios, os camundongos foram positivos somente pela IFI (ponto

  6. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

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    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  7. Sequence variation in TgROP7 gene among Toxoplasma gondii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide range of hosts including mammals and birds, causing toxoplasmosis which is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses worldwide. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry 7 (ROP7) gene among different T. gondii isolates from different hosts and ...

  8. Sporulation and survival of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in different types of commercial cat litters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii oocysts are environmentally resistant and can survive outdoors for months in the dry and cold climates. In the present study, sporulation and survival of T. gondii oocysts was studied in different types of cat litters commercially available in the US. Oocysts sporulated within 2-...

  9. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: First report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a v...

  10. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known concerning the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dogs in Mexico. Here, we investigated antibodies to T. gondii and associated risk factors in 101 dogs from an animal shelter in Veracruz State, Mexico. Canine sera were assayed for T. gondii IgG antibodies by using the modif...

  11. A quantitative microbial risk assessment for meatborne Toxoplasma gondii infection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Prickaerts, S.; Frankena, K.; Evers, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important foodborne pathogen, and the cause of a high disease burden due to congenital toxoplasmosis in The Netherlands. The aim of this study was to quantify the relative contribution of sheep, beef and pork products to human T. gondii infections by Quantitative Microbial

  12. Design of a Risk based Control System for Toxoplasma gondii in a pork supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heres, L.; Swanenburg, M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Boender, G.J.; Oorburg, D.; Urlings, B.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is recognized as one of the major foodborne pathogens. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that T. gondii is one of the public health hazards in pigs to be covered within a modern meat inspection and advised to include serological testing of pigs and audits of pig

  13. Uptake and transmission of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts by migratory filter-feeding fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous parasitic protozoan known to cause disease and death in warm-blooded animals. Bottlenose dolphins, walruses, sea otters, and other marine animals worldwide have died from toxoplasmosis, but the source of this parasite in the marine environment h...

  14. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the

  15. Toxoplasma gondii in stranded marine mammals from the North Sea and Eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van de Norbert; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Leopold, Mardik; Begeman, Lineke; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; IJzer, Jooske; Brownlow, Andrew; Davison, Nicholas; Haelters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in marine mammals remains a poorly understood phenomenon. In this study, samples from 589 marine mammal species and 34 European otters (Lutra lutra), stranded on the coasts of Scotland, Belgium, France, The Netherlands and

  16. Serological Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in five species of bats in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect almost all warm-blooded animals and humans with a worldwide distribution. Bats are reservoirs for an increasing number of emerging zoonotic viruses, such as henipaviruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) c...

  17. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  18. Inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii on blueberries using low dose irradiation without affecting quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common protozoan parasite, whose environmentally-resistant stage, the oocyst, can contaminate irrigation water and fresh edible produce. Current washing steps in produce processing may not be effective for eliminating T. gondii from at-risk varieties of produce. The objective ...

  19. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in a pig from a local abattoir in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of pepsin digested muscle (mixed heart and diaphragm) from a slaughter pig into six Balb C mice resulted in the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii which proved to be pathogenic to mice. These infected mice were retarded in growth when compared to the two uninoculated control animals. Mouse No.3 and Mouse ...

  20. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Leroy, Valériane; Gilbert, Ruth; Chêne, Geneviève; Wallon, Martine

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a bibliographic literature search using MEDLINE to review the effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnant women. We pre-selected studies that used comparative study designs (randomized clinical trial, quasi-experimental design or historical control), that were conducted among pregnant women, and which employed specific, Toxoplasma-related outcome measures: knowledge, behaviour, or Toxoplasma infection rate. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. All had serious methodological flaws. A Belgian study reported a significant decrease in the incidence of Toxoplasma seroconversion after the introduction of intensive counselling for pregnant women about toxoplasmosis. In Poland, a significant increase in knowledge was observed after a multi-pronged, public health educational program was launched. In Canada, an increase in knowledge and prevention behaviours was reported in the intervention group receiving counselling by trained facilitators compared with the control group. In France, no significant changes in risk behaviour were observed following a physician-delivered intervention. This review highlights the weakness of the literature in the area and the lack of studies measuring actual seroconversion. There is suggestive evidence that health education approaches may help reduce risk of congenital toxoplasmosis but this problem requires further study using more rigorous research design and methodology.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  3. Kennel dogs as sentinels of Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Majorca Island, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel dogs can serve as sentinels and/or reservoirs of diseases of veterinary and zoonotic interest because they have often roamed free and lived outdoors, being exposed to pathogens. We tested for evidence of infection with three protozoans, Leishmania infantum, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora cani...

  4. Behavioural and biochemical profiles in rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii or lipopolysaccharide: animal models of schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejkalová, H.; Kodym, P.; Kačer, P.; Klaschka, Jan; Horáček, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, e-Suppl. 1 (2013), e22 ISSN 0955-8810. [Biennal meeting of the EBPS /15./. 06.09.2013-09.09.2013, La Rochelle] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : animal models * schizophrenia * behaviour * LPS * Toxoplasma gondii Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. The first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from horses in Serbia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Villena, Isabelle; Mercier, Aurélien; Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Opsteegh, Marieke; Aubert, Dominique; Blaga, Radu; van der Giessen, Joke; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T. gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of

  6. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensusiati, A D; Priya, T K S; Dachlan, Y P

    2017-01-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively. (paper)

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  8. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii, molecular characterization, and seroprevalence in elk (Cervus canadensis) in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. The ingestion of uncooked/undercooked meat and consumption of water contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts excreted by felids are the main modes of transmission of this parasite. Thousands of wild cervids are hunted or killed in traffic accidents yearly bu...

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  10. Use of filter papers to determine seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among hunted ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, and it is found worldwide. To determine whether ungulates are reservoirs of T. gondii in an isolated and remote region of the northeastern Peruvian Amazon, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 5 species of ungulates by the...

  11. Cats and Goat Whey Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Riel, van J.W.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Kijlstra, A.; Mul, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    In organic livestock production systems, farm-management factors are thought to play an important role in the on-farm prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii. Serological results and the results of an HACCP analysis were combined to determine important risk factors for the prevalence of this protozoan

  12. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular obligate parasite. Its transmission is usually attributed to ingestion of undercooked or raw meat. The aim of this study was the detection and genotyping of T. gondii in meat products using the molecular method in East Azerbaijan. DNA was ...

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Sousa, Susana; Dubey, Jp; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Silvestre, Ricardo; Cotovio, Mário; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Cardoso, Luís; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (4.0%) horses were

  14. Serotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis domesticus) Reveals Predominance of Type II Infections in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cats are definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii and play an essential role in the epidemiology of this parasite. The study aims at clarifying whether cats are able to develop specific antibodies against different clonal types of T. gondii and to determine by serotyping the T. gondii clona...

  15. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic agents of importance to public health, with domestic cats as potential reservoirs for both protozoal infections. The present study aimed at assessing for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population l...

  16. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  17. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and domestic animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The oocyst and sporocyst walls are multilayered polymeric structures that protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious physical and chemic...

  18. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM and associated risk factors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Vhembe district of South Africa. ... shown a high prevalence of T. gondii (IgG) among patients attending different HIV clinics in the Vhembe district with no current infections among pregnant women.

  19. Transplacental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in minipigs infected with strains of different virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jensen, Lene Bai

    2001-01-01

    Infections with the Zoonotic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can result in severe fetal infections. To investigate the use of pigs as animal models for congenital toxoplasmosis, tachyzoites of 5 T. gondii strains, with low to intermediate virulence in mice, were intravenously...... animal models fur studies of transplacental transmission and pathogenesis of congenital toxoplasmosis....

  20. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) hunted for human consumption in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remes, Noora; Kärssin, Age; Must, Kärt

    2018-01-01

    In Estonia, northeastern Europe, antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii are common in many host species, including wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Our nationwide study aimed to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence and its geographical distribution, and to evaluate plausible risk factors for se...

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, M.; Haveman, R.; Swart, A.; Mensink-Beerepoot, M.E.; Hofhuis, A.; Langelaar, M.F.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was

  2. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.; Takumi, K.; Teunis, P.F.M.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Malik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Results: Out of a total of 441 subjects included in the study, 417 (94.6% had a BOH and 24 (5.4% subjects had infertility. Toxoplasma was found to be more common in females with two or more abortions 52 (76.5%. Similarly in patients with infertility due to Toxoplasma, secondary infertility (66.7% was more common than primary infertility. About 40.3% patients with BOH and 20% patients with infertility had healthy live issues after treatment with spiramycin. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is thus, an easily treatable cause of abortions and infertility. All antenatal females and females with infertility should be screened for toxoplasmosis.

  4. Seroprevalence and isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from raptors in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptors are good indicators of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment because they prey on small mammals and birds. These prey species are a major source of infection in felids, which shed the environmentally resistant oocysts. We assessed T. gondii infection in 281 opportunistically...

  5. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats from Luanda, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Granada, Sara; Rodrigues, Filipa T.; Papadopoulos, Elias; Schallig, Henk; Dubey, Jitender P.; Cardoso, Luís

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. are zoonotic protozoa of importance to animal and public health. The present study aimed to assess for the first time the seroprevalence of these zoonotic parasites in a domestic feline population living in Luanda, Angola. One hundred and two cats were sampled

  6. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  7. Serology and genetics of Toxoplasma gondii in endangered Hawaiian (Nene) geese (Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is parasite transmitted by feral cats that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. A recent study revealed that this parasite accounts for ca. 4% of causes of mortality in native Hawaiian geese (nene-Branta sandvicensis). To know how widespread exposure to the...

  8. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domiciled cats from rio branco Municipality, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Figueiredo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 89 cats to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and the possible risk factors associated with feline Toxoplasma gondii infection. An epidemiological questionnaire was developed and implemented for owners of domestic cats domiciled in Rio Branco, Acre. The results were statistically evaluated with the odds ratio and chi-square tests, considering the significance level of 5%. Of 89 animals’ samples, 22 had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Among the 22 reactive animals, 15 (68.19% were female, 15 (68.19% were less than one year old and 20 (90% were cross breed. Concerning risk factors, there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the variables evaluated by the chi-square test. Moreover, 16 (72% cats were fed a mixed diet, 20 (90% of the cats had hunting habits, 18 (81% had contact with animals of another species, 11 (50% had access to the street, and 22 (95% lived in homes that had areas of grass or dirt. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats was 22.7%, and there were no significant risk factors for feline toxoplasmosis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre.

  9. Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (pneurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.

  10. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  11. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adenosine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii: potential targets for chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Kouni, Mahmoud H

    2007-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasitic protozoan that infects approximately a billion people worldwide. Infection with T. gondii represents a major health problem for immunocompromised individuals, such as AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, and the unborn children of infected mothers. Currently available drugs usually do not eradicate infection and as many as 50% of the patients do not respond to this therapy. Furthermore, they are ineffective against T. gondii tissue cysts. In addition, prolonged exposure to these drugs induces serious host toxicity forcing the discontinuation of the therapy. Finally, there is no effective vaccine currently available for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new and effective drugs for the treatment and management of toxoplasmosis. The rational design of a drug depends on the exploitation of fundamental biochemical or physiological differences between pathogens and their host. Some of the most striking differences between T. gondii and their mammalian host are found in purine metabolism. T. gondii, like most parasites studied, lack the ability to synthesize purines do novo and depend on the salvage of purines from their host to satisfy their requirements of purines. In this respect, the salvage of adenosine is the major source of purines in T. gondii. Therefore, interference with adenosine uptake and metabolism in T. gondii can be selectively detrimental to the parasite. The host cells, on the other hand, can still obtain their purine requirements by their de novo pathways. This review will focus on the broad aspects of the adenosine transport and the enzyme adenosine kinase (EC 2.7.1.20) which are the two primary routes for adenosine utilization in T. gondii, in an attempt to illustrate their potentials as targets for chemotherapy against this parasite.

  13. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  14. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence in Alaska wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieve, Erica; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Kania, Stephen A; Widner, Amanda; Patton, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    Free-ranging caribou and moose populations in some regions of Alaska undergo periodic declines in numbers. Caribou and moose are managed by the state as valuable resources for not only sustenance and subsistence, but also for cultural heritage. Incidence and prevalence of diseases that may impact herd health and recruitment from year to year are relevant to management decisions aimed to protect the long-term viability of these herds. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are two apicomplexan parasites that can cause neurologic disease and abortions in their intermediate hosts and less frequently cause disease in their definitive hosts. The definitive hosts of N. caninum and T. gondii are canids and felids, respectively, and prevalence in the environment is in part dependent on maintenance of the life cycle through the definitive hosts. Serum samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus, n=453), wolf (Canis lupus, n=324), moose (Alces alces, n=201), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n=55), coyote (Canis latrans, n=12), and fox (Vulpes vulpes, n=9) collected in Alaska were assayed for N. caninum- and T. gondii-reactive antibodies with an immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and a modified agglutination test (MAT), respectively. Seroprevalence of N. caninum was greater in caribou (11.5%) than in wolves (9.0%), moose (0.5%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii was greater in wolves (17.8%) than in caribou (0.4%), moose (0%), or black-tailed deer (0%). Seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii were 16.7% and 0.0% in coyotes and 0.0% and 12.5% in fox, but small sample sizes prevented further analysis. Antibodies to N. caninum in young caribou compared to adult caribou suggest that vertical transmission may be an important component of new infections in Alaskan caribou. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive individuals across Alaska may reflect differences in frequency of definitive hosts and alteration of predation patterns among regions.

  15. Differential Roles for Inner Membrane Complex Proteins across Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rashmi; Harrison, Brooke; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Bandini, Giulia; Cheng, Katherine; Kosber, Aziz; Agop-Nersesian, Carolina; Howe, Daniel K; Samuelson, John; Ferguson, David J P; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2017-01-01

    The inner membrane complex (IMC) of apicomplexan parasites contains a network of intermediate filament-like proteins. The 14 alveolin domain-containing IMC proteins in Toxoplasma gondii fall into different groups defined by their distinct spatiotemporal dynamics during the internal budding process of tachyzoites. Here, we analyzed representatives of different IMC protein groups across all stages of the Toxoplasma life cycle and during Sarcocystis neurona asexual development. We found that across asexually dividing Toxoplasma stages, IMC7 is present exclusively in the mother's cytoskeleton, whereas IMC1 and IMC3 are both present in mother and daughter cytoskeletons (IMC3 is strongly enriched in daughter buds). In developing macro- and microgametocytes, IMC1 and -3 are absent, whereas IMC7 is lost in early microgametocytes but retained in macrogametocytes until late in their development. We found no roles for IMC proteins during meiosis and sporoblast formation. However, we observed that IMC1 and IMC3, but not IMC7, are present in sporozoites. Although the spatiotemporal pattern of IMC15 and IMC3 suggests orthologous functions in Sarcocystis , IMC7 may have functionally diverged in Sarcocystis merozoites. To functionally characterize IMC proteins, we knocked out IMC7, -12, -14, and -15 in Toxoplasma . IMC14 and -15 appear to be involved in switching between endodyogeny and endopolygeny. In addition, IMC7, -12, and -14, which are all recruited to the cytoskeleton outside cytokinesis, are critical for the structural integrity of extracellular tachyzoites. Altogether, stage- and development-specific roles for IMC proteins can be discerned, suggesting different niches for each IMC protein across the entire life cycle. IMPORTANCE The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a defining feature of apicomplexan parasites key to both their motility and unique cell division. To provide further insights into the IMC, we analyzed the dynamics and functions of representative alveolin

  16. High prevalence of anti-toxoplasma antibodies and absence of Toxoplasma gondii infection risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal care in two Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woyneshet Gelaye

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is higher than that reported from other countries. Efforts to describe risk factors for toxoplasma infection among Ethiopians should focus in children.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and risk factors for seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sævik, Bente Kristin; Krontveit, Randi Ingebjørg; Eggen, Kristine P; Malmberg, Nina; Thoresen, Stein I; Prestrud, Kristin W

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in pet cats in Norway and to evaluate risk factors for seropositivity. Additionally, serum biochemistry and haematological variables for T gondii seropositive and seronegative cats were compared. A convenience sample of surplus sera submitted to the Central Laboratory, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, was collected. The samples were from healthy cats and cats with a variety of diseases. Analyses for IgG antibodies to T gondii were performed with a commercial direct agglutination test, with 1:40 as the threshold value. For risk factor analysis a logistic regression model of the relationship between predictors and the outcome was applied. One hundred and ninety-six of 478 cats were seropositive for T gondii, and the estimated seroprevalence in the study sample was 41.0% (95% confidence interval 36.6-45.4). Compared with domestic cats, pedigree cats had reduced risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity (odds ratio [OR] 0.42). Males had increased risk (OR 1.63) compared with females. The effect of age was highly significant, and an increase in the cats' age across the interquartile range (IQR; 52-160 months/4-13 years of age) doubled the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity (OR 2.11). The risk for Toxoplasma seropositivity among cats living in Oslo was significantly reduced (OR 0.51) when compared with the rest of Norway. Pet cats in Norway appear to be commonly exposed to T gondii. Signalment and geographical region influenced the odds of Toxoplasma seropositivity, whereas health status did not. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  18. Determination of Antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Cancer

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    M Pedram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma in malignant patients in order to refer the patients on time to the physician for treatment.Methods: This study was carried out on 252 malignant patients and 252 healthy normal subjects (as control obtained from Shafa Hospital and Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Iran-Zamin, in Ahwaz city. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Serum samples of patients were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA technique using Trinity kits. Results: The results of this study revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in 114 (45.2% cases of patients who were positive for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, and 26 (10.3% cases were confirmed to be positive for Toxoplasma IgM antibodies and also 17 (6.7% of cases had both IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In control group 92 (36.5% cases and 15 (6% cases revealed seropositive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex, close contact with cat, living region, chemotherapy, and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis in patients. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the age of 51 years or higher, and their rates had tendency to increase with age in both groups. No seropositivity significant relationship was found between patients and control group.Conclusion: According to the prevalence of positive cases in these patients, it is necessary to examine the patients for toxoplasmosis before, during and after chemotherapy.

  19. THE ROLE OF HORMONES ON Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

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    María De La Luz Galván-Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world’s population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: a congenital transmission, b parasite reproduction, c strain virulence, d levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection and e participation of hormone receptors in Toxoplasma gondii infection.Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection?A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley and Google Scholar dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: 30 studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin and 17-ß estradiol. Type I (RH and BK and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49,T45, P78 and T38 were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding Toxoplasma gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate Toxoplasma gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the Toxoplasma gondii infectious process.

  20. Eficiencia de cultivo in vitro de Toxoplasma gondii en las líneas celulares THP1 y Vero

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    Jorge Andrés Cuellar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El cultivo in vitro es un método importante para la obtención de Toxoplasma gondii confines de diagnóstico clínico o biotecnológico. Objetivo. Determinar el porcentaje de invasión y producción de T. gondii en las líneas celulares THP1y Vero. Materiales y métodos. Se determinó la curva de crecimiento para las células Vero y THP1 por conteoen hemocitómetro. Posteriormente, se identificó el porcentaje de invasión de T. gondii en células THP1y Vero por citometría de flujo, en diferentes proporciones célula/taquizoíto de 1/5, 1/20, 1/50. Por otrolado, se calculó el índice de rendimiento de T. gondii, cepa RH, y del aislamiento CIBM1 en célulasTHP1. Resultados. Las células Vero crecen más rápidamente que las células THP1, con un crecimientoexponencial en un periodo de siete días. El aislamiento CIBM1 infecta las células THP1 en las tresproporciones diferentes de 1/5,1/20 y 1/50 con porcentajes de invasión de 57,1 %, 15,5 % y 12,2 %, yen células Vero, de 25,3 %, 17,8 % y 8,8 %. La cepa RH de T. gondii mostró porcentajes de invasiónmás bajos, de 32,6 %, 14,8 % y 8,1 % en células THP1 y de 22,3 %, 14,1 % y 3,4 % en células Vero. Conclusiones. El aislamiento CIBM1 presentó mayor rendimiento con respecto a la cepa RH de T.gondii en células THP1, siendo estas células una buena línea para estudiar el proceso de invasión yprobar candidatos farmacológicos para reducir la infección por T. gondii.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i3.485

  1. Fundamental Roles of the Golgi-Associated Toxoplasma Aspartyl Protease, ASP5, at the Host-Parasite Interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hammoudi, P.-M.; Jacot, D.; Mueller, C.; Di Cristina, M.; Dogga, S.K.; Marq, J.-B.; Romano, J.; Tosetti, N.; Dubrot, J.; Emre, Y.; Lunghi, M.; Coppens, I.; Yamamoto, M.; Sojka, Daniel; Pino, P.; Soldati-Favre, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2015), e1005211 E-ISSN 1553-7374 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Toxoplasma gondii * Plasmodium proteins * ASP5 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  2. Molecular Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Oocytes in the Soil from the Public Parks of the Arak City, Iran

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    Hadis Solymane

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: This study showed soils of public parks in the Arak city were contaminated to oocyst of Toxoplasma. Also molecular method for the detection of parasites in the soil was more suitable than staining method.

  3. Infecção per os de gatos com formas vegetativas de Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 sem produção de oocistos Oral infections of domestic cats with vegetative forms of Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 without oocyst production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Nery-Guimarães

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro grupos de 6 gatos (24 gatos recém-nascidos e desmamados receberam "per os", respectivamente, suspensões de toxoplasmas de camundongos com 3-4 dias de infecção, de 4 amostras de T. gondii. Cada grupo teve um gato testemunha. Nenhum dos gatos de experiência eliminou oocistos atribuíveis a T. gondii, em períodos de observação de 6 a 20 dias; e suas fezes, conservadas 2-4 dais em bicromato de potássio a 2,5% e ministradas "per os" a camundongos, não induziram toxoplasmose nesses roedores. Com exceção dos que eram portadores de Isospora, os gatos não mostraram formas evolutivas de coccídios no epitélio intestinal. Em todos os grupos a infecção toxoplásmica foi comprovada pela positividade da reação de Sabin & Feldman (1:16 a 1:1024; e pelo isolamento de toxoplasmas pela inoculação de triturados dos seus principais órgãos em camundongos indicadores. De um modo geral, os gatos mais crescidos não mostraram sinais de doença, porém os outros, e principalmente os recém-nascidos adoeceram e vários morreram de toxoplasmose sistêmica: esplenite, hepatite, enterite, penumonia e, mais raramente, miocardite e encefalite. Os toxoplasmas foram encontrados em todos esses órgãos e, tamém, nos rins e supra-renais.Vegetative forms of 4 strains of Toxoplasma from peritoneal fluid of mice with 3-4 days of acute infection were orally administered to 4 groups of 6 newborn and wealing kittens respectivelly. Each group had a control kitten. All kittens were observed for eriods of 6-20 days ans never passed in their faeces oocysts attributabel to T. gondii. On the other hand, their faces after 2-4 days in potassium dichromate at 2.5% inoculated orally in mice didn't produce Toxoplasma infection in these animals; and with exception of the cats that have had spontaneous isosporosis (I. felis and/or I. rivolta we didn´t see evolutive forms of Coccidia in the intestinal wall of the cats. In all cat groups the toxoplasmic infection was

  4. Epidemiology and Molecular Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle Slaughtered in Zahedan and Zabol Districts, South East of Iran

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    Davood ANVARI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular parasite which causes the toxoplasmosis in humans and warm-blooded animals. Red meat is an important source for transmission of the infection to humans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported and indigenous cattle in the Sistan region.Methods: One hundred samples from slaughtered cattle were collected from two abattoirs of Zabol and Zahedan, South East of Iran in 2015. Each sample was a mixture of three muscle, including tongue, cardiac, and triceps. Additional data of each cattle, including sex, breed, age, indigenous or imported, location of slaughter, management practices, and feeding system were obtained through observations and interviews. Infection by T. gondii was determined by PCR method.Results: The prevalence of Toxoplasma in indigenous cattle was 6% and in imported cattle was 26%, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Moreover, the prevalence of Toxoplasma was statistically associated with management practices (P=0.01 and feeding system (P=0.001. However, relationship between the prevalence of Toxoplasma with age, breed, sex, and location of slaughter was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Since the prevalence of Toxoplasma among imported cattle is higher than indigenous cattle, so strict supervision for importing livestock from neighboring countries is necessary.

  5. Introduction of caveolae structural proteins into the protozoan Toxoplasma results in the formation of heterologous caveolae but not caveolar endocytosis.

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    Bao Lige

    Full Text Available Present on the plasma membrane of most metazoans, caveolae are specialized microdomains implicated in several endocytic and trafficking mechanisms. Caveolins and the more recently discovered cavins are the major protein components of caveolae. Previous studies reported that caveolar invaginations can be induced de novo on the surface of caveolae-negative mammalian cells upon heterologous expression of caveolin-1. However, it remains undocumented whether other components in the transfected cells participate in caveolae formation. To address this issue, we have exploited the protozoan Toxoplasma as a heterologous expression system to provide insights into the minimal requirements for caveogenesis and caveolar endocytosis. Upon expression of caveolin-1, Toxoplasma accumulates prototypical exocytic caveolae 'precursors' in the cytoplasm. Toxoplasma expressing caveolin-1 alone, or in conjunction with cavin-1, neither develops surface-located caveolae nor internalizes caveolar ligands. These data suggest that the formation of functional caveolae at the plasma membrane in Toxoplasma and, by inference in all non-mammalian cells, requires effectors other than caveolin-1 and cavin-1. Interestingly, Toxoplasma co-expressing caveolin-1 and cavin-1 displays an impressive spiraled network of membranes containing the two proteins, in the cytoplasm. This suggests a synergistic activity of caveolin-1 and cavin-1 in the morphogenesis and remodeling of membranes, as illustrated for Toxoplasma.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii infection

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris extract against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in experimentally infected mice. Methods: Sixty mice were divided into six groups (Group I–Group VI. Group I was normal control (non-infected, non-treated; Group II was non-infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg; Group III was T. gondii infected-non-immunosuppressed control; Group IV consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice; Group V was infected and treated with T. vulgaris extract; Group VI consisted of infected immunosuppressed mice treated with T. vulgaris extract. Hepatoprotective effect of T. vulgaris extract was evaluated by histopathological examination of tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, determination of liver function parameters (alanine aminotransaminase, aspartate aminotransaminase and alkaline phosphates, total bilirubin, total protein concentrations and assessment of hepatocytes genotoxicity by comet assay.Antigenotoxic effect of T. vulgaris was assessed by several comet assay parameters that were provided by the image analysis software, including % tailed cells, % of DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment. Results: Treatment with T. vulgaris in both Groups V and VI improved T. gondii induced pathological lesions in the infected liver that regressed to near the normal picture especially in Group V. Also, it restored the altered values of liver function parameters near to the normal levels significantly (P < 0.05 compared with Groups III and IV respectively. Regarding comet assay parameters, all of them were significantly increased (P < 0.05 after T. gondii infection (Group III and reached the greatest values in infected immunosuppressed group (Group IV compared to the normal controls (Group I. With treatment by T. vulgaris in Groups V and VI, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in all values compared to Groups III and V respectively. The

  7. Electrocardiografo por computadora

    OpenAIRE

    Tinoco Hernandez, Rosanna; Paredes Bejarano, Margarita; Romero Chaglia, Norman; Yapur Auad, Miguel Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo trata sobrees el diseño y la implementación de un graficador de señales cardiacas por computadora, para lo cual diseñamos un circuito electrónico capaz de recibir la senal analógica proveniente de la actividad electrica del corazón , amplificarla, y luego convertirla en una señal digital para ser procesada por software y finalmente ser graficada, siendo posible así observar la señal cardiaca en el monitor de un computador como un tren de pulsos. Cabe destacar que par...

  8. Indice por Materias

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    Montoya H Luz Marina

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Un índice es una lista de palabras o frases indicadores asociados que permite la ubicación de material al interior de un libro o una publicación, en este caso será por el nombre de la materia.

  9. Producción de anticuerpos policlonales IgG contra una proteína con actividad de óxido nítrico sintetasa de Toxoplasma gondii recombinante (NOS-Tg-r y marcación inmunológica en taquizoítoso Production of Polyclonal Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant protein with Nitric Oxide Synthase activity and immunologic marking in Tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Mauricio Padilla-Londoño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La enzima óxido nítrico sintetasa ha sido estudiada en mamíferos; en los últimos años se ha descrito que existe también en protozoos, pero se desconocen aspectos importantes de su función. Se logró producir anticuerpos policlonales contra la proteína recombinante con actividad de óxido nítrico sintetasa (NOS-Tg-r de Toxoplasma gondii y realizar marcación inmunológica en taquizoítos. Se usaron dos conejos Nueva Zelanda (Oryctolagus cuniculusque se inmunizaron por vía intramuscular con NOS-Tg-r, y dos tipos de adyuvantes, hidróxido de aluminio y adyuvante de Freund. Se comprobó la presencia de anticuerpos policlonales con la técnica de ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que a NOS-Tg-r con adyuvante de Freund indujo mayor respuesta inmune que la de la NOS-Tg-r con hidróxido aluminio p 0,005. Para verificar si había reacción cruzada, se realizó una prueba ELISA utilizando como antígenos: metaloproteasa de T. gondii recombinante, cisteína proteasa 5 de Entamoeba histolytica recombinante, albúmina al 2%, hidróxido de aluminio y adyuvante de Freund. Los valores obtenidos con sueros preinmunes y contra proteínas alternas no superaron el punto de corte (0,069, lo cual indica que los anticuerpos policlonales obtenidos son específicos para NOS-Tg-r. Se realizó marcación inmunológica en taquizoítos de Toxoplasma gondii con inmunofluorescencia indirecta que mostró una marcación difusa a nivel de citoplasma y confirmó la presencia de esta proteína en los taquizoítos.The nitric oxide synthase (NOSis an enzyme well described on mammals but little is known about the role of these enzymes on pathogenic parasites. We produced polyclonal antibodies against a recombinant NOS enzyme from Toxoplasma gondii nd e lso er formed n mmunol locali zation of the enzyme on tachyzoites. We used two New Zealand rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus to perform intramuscular immunization and we used two types of

  10. Clinical Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia heydorni, and Sarcocystis spp. infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Ross, A D; Fritz, D

    2003-12-01

    Concurrent infections with coccidians Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and a Hammondia heydorni-like parasite were identified in tissues of three littermate pups on a Kelpie dog breeding farm in Australia. In total, 20 pups in four litters had died following vaccination with an attenuated distemper virus vaccine. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were identified immunohistochemically in tissues of two dogs. Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts were seen in the intestinal lamina propria of two dogs. Asexual and sexual stages of H. heydorni-like parasite were found in enterocytes of the small intestine of two dogs. Ultrastructural development of schizonts and gamonts of this parasite is described. None of the protozoa in these dogs reacted with antibodies to Neospora caninum. Feeding of uncooked tissue of sheep was considered to be the likely source of infection for these coccidians in dogs.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii coinfection with diseases and parasites in wild rabbits in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sam; Dubey, J P; Smith, Judith E; Boag, Brian

    2015-09-01

    In wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) on an estate in Perthshire, central Scotland, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was 18/548 (3·3%). The wild rabbit could be a T. gondii reservoir and it has potential value as a sentinel of T. gondii in environmental substrates. Toxoplasma gondii was associated with female sex (P myxomatosis caused by the virus Myxomatosis cuniculi, the intensity of roundworm eggs, the year or season, rabbit age or distance from farm buildings. Coinfections could have been affected by gestational down regulation of type 1 T helper cells. A sudden influx or release of T. gondii oocysts might have occurred. This is the first report of T. gondii in any wild herbivore in Scotland and also the first report of lapine T. gondii as a coinfection with E. stiedae, M. cuniculi and helminths.

  12. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

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    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  13. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae.

  14. Brains and Brawn: Toxoplasma Infections of the Central Nervous System and Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfert, Elizabeth A; Blader, Ira J; Wilson, Emma H

    2017-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasitic pathogen that infects over a third of the world's population. Following an acute infection, the parasite can persist within its mammalian host as intraneuronal or intramuscular cysts. Cysts will occasionally reactivate, and - depending on the host's immune status and site of reactivation - encephalitis or myositis can develop. Because these diseases have high levels of morbidity and can be lethal, it is important to understand how Toxoplasma traffics to these tissues, how the immune response controls parasite burden and contributes to tissue damage, and what mechanisms underlie neurological and muscular pathologies that toxoplasmosis patients present with. This review aims to summarize recent important developments addressing these critical topics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of white mice to inoculation of irradiated organisms of the Toxoplasma strain RH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas Bakal, P.; Veld, N. in't

    1979-01-01

    Chemoterapeutic agents available for use against toxoplasmosis are usually not suitable for prophylatic purposes because of their toxicity. The observed increasing number of activated latent infections with Toxoplasma, especially in immune suppressed patients, requires that safe techniques are available for use during the patients' regression period. Pretreatment of mice with Toxoplasma killed by irradiation appeared to induce resistance to challenge with virulent organisms. Survival times of six months have been observed to date. Increasing effectiveness was seen after more than one administration. Further investigation into the duration of effective resistance is needed; the question of at which intervals subsequent inoculations should be performed in order to acquire a booster effect, if any, has still to be solved before application to man can be recommended. (orig.) [de

  16. HLA-DQBl*0402 alleles polymorphisms detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Yulia; Haryati, Sri; Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Hartono, Adnan, Zainal Arifin

    2017-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 gene polymorphisms may associated with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients. The HLA-DQB1*0402 in HIV-1-positive patients could be considered risk factors for developing neurological opportunistic infections, mainly Toxoplasma encephalitis. However, the HLA-DQB1*0402 gene polymorphisms status in the Javanese HIV patients is unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of HLA-DQB*0402 alleles polymorphisms in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status. Since 2009 our research group performing a molecular epidemiology of blood borne viruses in Central Java Indonesia, by collecting the epidemiological and clinical data from the high risk communities. All blood samples were screened for blood borne pathogens by serological and molecular assays including for HIV and Toxoplasma gondii. The genomic DNA was isolated from the whole blood samples. Genetic polymorphisms of HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected with polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSPs) technique. The genotypes were defined according to generated fragment patterns in the agarose gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products. All of the samples were tested at least in duplicate. HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles were detected in 20.8% (16/77) patients and not detected in all HIV positive samples with negative anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM status (n= 200). The HLA-DQB1*0402 alleles polymorphisms were detected in Javanese HIV patients with positive anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM. The polymorphisms found may have association with the infection risk of Toxoplasma gondii in HIV patients.

  17. Comparison of Eight Cell-Free Media for Maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed KALANI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is considered as one of the most common infectious diseases caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Tachyzoite is the main form of Toxoplasma and continuously is maintained in cell culture or injected into the mice peritoneal cavity. This study was designed to evaluate the survival rate of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites in different cell free, nutrient and biological media at different temperatures.Methods: This experimental study was performed at the Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, in 2010. One ml of each solution including hypotonic saline (0.3%, normal saline (0.85%, RPMI-1640 (RPMI, RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, RPMI with 20% FBS, ovine hydatid cyst fluid, pasteurized milk of cow, and phosphate buffered saline (PBS along with 4×104 T. gondii tachyzoites were added to plate wells and incubated in 4 °C, 22 °C, 37 °C, and 37 °C under 5% CO2. The survival rate and viability as­sessment of parasites were performed daily and the results were analyzed using Univariate tests.Result: Tachyzoites survival rate in PBS (4 °C and normal saline (4 °C were con­siderably high, compared to other solutions in different conditions (P<0.001. The best temperature for Toxoplasma maintenance was 4 °C (P<0.001.Conclusion: This study introduces two available and economical solutions, PBS (4 °C and normal saline (4 °C media, for maintenance of Toxoplasma tachyzoites as appropriate choice media for a noticeable period of time (11 days in vitro.

  18. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Castro, M.; Noh-Pech, H.; Puerto-Hern?ndez, R.; Reyes-Hern?ndez, B.; Panti-May, A.; Hern?ndez-Betancourt, S.; Yeh-Gorocica, A.; Gonz?lez-Herrera, L.; Zavala-Castro, J.; Puerto, F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplic...

  19. Evaluating Recombinant Antigen ROP1 Efficacy in Diagnosis of Toxoplasma Gondii Infection

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    F Keshavarzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous obligate intracellular parasite with a relatively broad host range infecting both mammals and birds. Toxoplasma proteins are strong antigens that can begin strong immune reactions, among which Rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1 can be named discharging from rhoptry cell-organ. ROP1 is regarded as a competitor for recombinant vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate the cloning and expression of ROP1 Toxoplasma gondii in a cloning vector as well as to create this recombinant antigen in order to be applied for later uses. Methods:Genomic DNA of Toxoplasma gondii was removed and reproduced by PCR, then the PCR product was cloned into the EcoR1 and BamH1 sites of cloning vector, pUET1, and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 plysS strain. Moreover, pcROP1 was sub-cloned into the HindIII and EcoRI sites of the pcDNA3 in order to produce recombining eukaryotic declaration vector. The cloned ROP1 was verified by PCR, limitation enzymes (HindIII and BglΙ digestion and nucleotide sequencing. Then, this recombinant antigen was covered applying IgM and ELISAIgG. Results:The study results demonstrated that a fragment of 757 bp was separated. In addition, nucleotide sequence analysis of the ROP1 cloned in pUET1vector revealed high homology (96% with RH strain Gene Bank Accession (No. M71274. Conclusion:The recombinant ROP1 antigen in an IgM Rec-ELISA test can be replaced with the tachyzoite antigen in IgG and IgM serologic tests.

  20. Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson-Bremer, D; Colegrove, KM; Gulland, FMD; Conrad, PA; Mazet, JAK; Johnson, CK

    2015-01-01

    © Wildlife Disease Association 2015. The coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and warm-blooded animals worldwide. The ecology of this parasite in marine systems is poorly understood, although many marine mammals are infected and susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. We summarized the lesions associated with T. gondii infection in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population and investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with T. gondii exposure, a...

  1. Low titer of antibody against Toxoplasma gondii may be related to resistant to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Sharafi Seyedeh; Salehi Nahid; Mortazavi Nahid; Danesh Pour Shima; Yousefi Morteza; Yousofi Darani Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Context: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a world-wide distribution. However, the majority of infected cases remain symptomless. There are raising scientific evidences indicating that parasitic infections induce antitumor activity against certain types of cancers. The inhibitory effect of T. gondii on cancer growth has also been shown in cell culture and mouse model. Aims: Considering the anti-tumor effect of this parasite, in this study the relationship between low titer of ...

  2. Datation de l'infection a Toxoplasma gondii chez 128 femmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de ce test dans les laboratoires de biologie médicale au Togo pourrait contribuer à améliorer la prise charge adéquate des femmes enceintes au Togo. Mots clés: Toxoplasmose, sérologie, test d'avidité, femmes enceintes, Togo. English Title: Datation of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in a ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUU, Aya; YOKOTA, Shin-ichi; ITO, Keiko; MASATANI, Tatsunori

    2017-01-01

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalen...

  4. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-Null Heterozygous Mice Exacerbates Elevated Open Field Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eells, Jeffrey B.; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X.; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M.; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open fie...

  5. Toxoplasma Infection in Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study with Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, A; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Tehranidoost, M; Abdi Masoleh, F; Keshavarz, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disor­der. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) fac­tors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that character­ize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection between schizo­phrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals as control group.Methods: A case-control study was designed i...

  6. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Qing-Ming; Lu, Shao-Hong; Tong, Qun-Bo; Lou, Di; Chen, Rui; Zheng, Bin; Kumagai, Takashi; Wen, Li-Yong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a widespread zoonotic parasitic disease that occurs in both animals and humans. Traditional molecular assays are often difficult to perform, especially for the early diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Here, we established a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting the 529 bp repeat element (529 bp-LAMP) to detect T. gondii DNA in blood samples of experimental mice infected with tachyzoites of the RH strain. Findings The assay was perf...

  7. ELISA-seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in draught horses in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; Shoukry, Nahla M; Hassan, Aly Awad; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the important zoonotic parasites of worldwide. In this paper the seroprevalence of T. gondii in draught horses (3-15 years) including 90 males and 10 females in the first half of the year 2009 was studied. The result showed that the overall ELISA-T. gondii antibodies were 25% of the horses in Greater Cairo, 50% (females) and 22.2% (males).

  8. The Effect of Toxoplasma gondii on Animal Behavior: Playing Cat and Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Joanne P.

    2007-01-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection. Such behavioral alterations appear to be the product of strong selective pressures for the parasite to enhance transmission from its intermediate host reservoir, primarily rodent, to its feline definitive host, wherein sexual reproduction can occur and the life cycle completed. This ar...

  9. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Background The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Findings Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. T...

  10. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in different water resources by Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas-Lindemann, Carmen; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-02-01

    Human toxoplasmosis is potentially contracted due to consumption of contaminated drinking water and represents an increasing public health risk worldwide. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts can be resistant to standard disinfection processes, including UV radiation. Increased awareness of the risk of waterborne toxoplasmosis outbreaks has led to an increase in research interest in the detection of oocysts in environmental water systems. Ninety-five environmental water samples from the Lower Rhine area in Germany have been included in the study and examined for the presence of Toxoplasma. Water samples were filtered or flocculated by aluminum sulfate and purified by sucrose density gradient. DNA was then extracted, and the DNA samples were then examined by LAMP analysis. T. gondii DNA was detected in eight out of 83 (9.6%) influent and effluent samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants. All samples (n=12) from the surface, ground, raw and tap waters tested negative. The purpose of this work was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Toxoplasma oocysts on the Lower Rhine in Germany. Our study provides evidence that the assay is a sensitive, specific, rapid and cost effective method for the detection of T. gondii and is useful for both the investigations of cases of waterborne outbreaks and for identifying the source of contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe the characteristics of a novel protein that localizes to the APR of Toxoplasma gondii which we have named ring-1 (RNG1). There are related RNG1 proteins in Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona but no obvious homologs in Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp. or Babesia spp. RNG1 is a small, low-complexity, detergent-insoluble protein that assembles at the APR very late in the process of daughter parasite replication. We were unable to knock-out the RNG1 gene, suggesting that its gene product is essential. Tagged RNG1 lines have also allowed us to visualize the APR during growth of Toxoplasma in the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. Oryzalin inhibits nuclear division and cytokinesis although Toxoplasma growth continues, and similar to earlier observations of unchecked centriole duplication in oryzalin-treated parasites, the APR continues to duplicate during aberrant parasite growth. PMID:20658557

  12. Optimization of dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L for improved Toxoplasma gondii selectivity and CNS permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Jeffery D; Diaz, Nicolas A; Guerra, Alfredo J; Kirchhoff, Paul D; Wen, Bo; Sun, Duxin; Carruthers, Vern B; Larsen, Scott D

    2018-06-01

    The neurotropic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the second leading cause of death due to foodborne illness in the US, and has been designated as one of five neglected parasitic infections by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Currently, no treatment options exist for the chronic dormant-phase Toxoplasma infection in the central nervous system (CNS). T. gondii cathepsin L (TgCPL) has recently been implicated as a novel viable target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. In this study, we report the first body of SAR work aimed at developing potent inhibitors of TgCPL with selectivity vs the human cathepsin L. Starting from a known inhibitor of human cathepsin L, and guided by structure-based design, we were able to modulate the selectivity for Toxoplasma vs human CPL by nearly 50-fold while modifying physiochemical properties to be more favorable for metabolic stability and CNS penetrance. The overall potency of our inhibitors towards TgCPL was improved from 2 μM to as low as 110 nM and we successfully demonstrated that an optimized analog 18b is capable of crossing the BBB (0.5 brain/plasma). This work is an important first step toward development of a CNS-penetrant probe to validate TgCPL as a feasible target for the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in FYR of Macedonia. Retrospective analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 235 pregnant women from Macedonia, tested for Toxoplasma infection between January 2004 and December 2005, showed an overall prevalence of infection of 20.4 %. Exposure to transmission factors significantly increased the risk of infection (RR = 1.989, 95 % CI = 1.041-3.800, p = 0.037. The single infection transmission factor that was a predictor of infection in the whole series was exposure to soil (RR = 1.946, 95 % CI = 1.026-3.692, p = 0.041. Based on prevalence and the established risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Macedonia, the health education programme as a sustainable measure for the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis should focus on educating women of generative age to avoid contact with soil (farming, gardening, and/to adhere to strict hygienic practices afterwards.

  14. Portugal and Angola: similarities and differences in Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence and risk factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, M L; Patrocinio, G; Sevivas, T; DE Sousa, B; Matos, O

    2017-01-01

    In this study we determined the presence of IgM/IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in sera of 155 and 300 pregnant women from Lisbon (Portugal) and Luanda (Angola), respectively, and evaluated the potential risk factors associated with this infection. DNA detection was performed by PCR assays targeting T. gondii regions (RE/B1). Overall, 21·9% (10·9% IgG, 10·9% IgG/IgM) of the Lisbon women and 27·3% (23·7%, IgG, 2% IgM, 1·7% IgG/IgM) of the Luanda women had antibodies to T. gondii. Single variable and binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Based on the latter, contacts with cats (family/friends), and having more than two births were identified as risk factors for Toxoplasma infection in Lisbon women. In Luanda, the risk factors for T. gondii infection suggested by the single variable analysis (outdoor contact with cats and consumption of pasteurized milk/dairy products) were not confirmed by binary logistic regression. This study shows original data from Angola, and updated data from Portugal in the study of infection by T. gondii in pregnant women, indicating that the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies is high enough to alert the government health authorities and implement appropriate measures to control this infection.

  15. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz MUÑOZ URRIBARRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis por esta patología. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:58-60.

  16. Avaliação sorológica para Toxoplasma gondii pela imunofluorescência indireta e detecção do vírus da imunodeficiência felina pela nested PCR em felinos selvagens Serological evaluation for Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence and detection of feline immunodeficiency virus by nested PCR in wild felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rivetti Jr.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen sera and blood samples from wild feline kept in captivity were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibody and presence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV DNA, respectively. Eighteen (94.7% of the them were seropositive for toxoplasma. However, the only negative animal, a Leopardus pardalis, was the only FIV positve. These results suggest that the infection by FIV may have compromised its immune system and interfered with antibody production for toxoplasma.

  17. Cell Death of Gamma Interferon-Stimulated Human Fibroblasts upon Toxoplasma gondii Infection Induces Early Parasite Egress and Limits Parasite Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedelman, Wendy; Sprokholt, Joris K.; Clough, Barbara; Frickel, Eva-Maria; Saeij, Jeroen P. J.

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major food-borne illness and opportunistic infection for the immunosuppressed. Resistance to Toxoplasma is dependent on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) activation of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Although IFN-γ-induced innate

  18. Cell death of gamma interferon-stimulated human fibroblasts upon toxoplasma gondii infection induces early parasite egress and limits parasite replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedelman, W.; Sprokholt, J.K.; Clough, B.; Frickel, E.; Saeij, J.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a major food-borne illness and opportunistic infection for the immunosuppressed. Resistance to Toxoplasma is dependent on gamma interferon (IFN-¿) activation of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Although IFN-¿-induced innate

  19. Usefulness of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1) in an immunoglobulin G avidity test for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietkiewicz, H; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, E; Kur, J

    2007-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of an acute and recent Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women and the newborn child is important before treatment. This study describes a new Toxoplasma gondii IgG avidity test based on a combination of recombinant GRA1, GRA7 and SAG1 antigens and shows that this test is use...

  20. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF TOXOPLASMA, RUBELLA, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS -2 IN WOMEN WITH BAD OBSTETRIC HISTORY. PART I: TOXOPLASMA AND RUBELLA INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bad obstetric history (BOH is associated with social and psychological impacts on society worldwide. The causes of BOH may be genetic, hormonal, abnormal maternal immune response, and maternal infection. In women with bad obstetric history (BOH, Toxoplasma (T IgG high rate has been reported for Nepal (55.2%, while high (42.5% and lowest (6.97% active toxoplasma infections has been reported for India. In Arab countries, IgG and IgM higher and lowest seroprevalence rates were for Iraq. The higher susceptibility rates for Rubella in Arab countries excluding Iraq were reported in Morocco (83.4%, Sudan (34.7%, Qatar (25.1%, and Tunisia (20.3%. The lowest susceptibility was reported for Saudi Arabia (6.7%. In Iraq, studies indicate a high susceptibility rates in Thi Qar (98.05%, Kirkuk (91%, Baghdad (79%, and Waset (45.7%. The lowest susceptibility rates were reported for Diyala (0% in women with previous abortion, and 3.9% in pregnant women without history of BOH.

  1. The current status of Toxoplasma gondii infection among Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain a relationship between Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection and rheumatoid arthritis (RA disease among Egyptian patients. Methods: One hundred RA patients and 50 healthy subjects participated in this study. The patients were classified into three groups, namely GI, G2 and G3. Patients in G1 were recently diagnosed with RA with the disease duration of less than one year (prior treatment; G2 included RA patients receiving anti-tumor necrosis factor agents and RA patients in G3 received disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (methotrexate, antimalarial, corticosteroids. Serum samples of all participants were examined for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies and positive samples were further analyzed for antiToxoplasma IgM antibodies to detect the possibility of reactivation of latent toxoplasmosis. Also, the association between Toxoplasma seropositivity and clinical, laboratory and radiological features of these patients were determined. Results: There was a significantly higher percentage of T. gondii IgG positivity in RA patients (54% than in the controls (32%. At the same time, 20.40% of T. gondii IgG positive patients had anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies with a statistically significant difference as comparing to T. gondii IgG positive controls. Out of T. gondii seropositive patients, 20.37% had a lower IgG level with a mean titer of (65.3 ± 17.7 IU/mL, 46.29% had moderate level with a mean titer of (184.2 ± 60.0 IU/mL and 33.33% had higher level with a mean titer of (404.3 ± 50.0 IU/ mL. A positive correlation was found between disease activity and Toxoplasma seropositivity. T. gondii seropositive RA patients had longer disease duration, longer time morning stiffness, higher numbers of tender and swollen joints and also increase in disease severity markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, disease activity score 28, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide anti

  2. Screening of Pregnant Women for Anti-Toxoplasma Antibodies and their Newborn for Vertical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Yasmeen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a world-wide protozoan-zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii. Primary infections during pregnancy may result in miscarriages, still births, and congenital malformations in the new born. Studies on vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis from India are lacking. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. gondii among pregnant women from the rural population of Kolar and to document vertical transmissions, if any. Materials and Methods: Anti-Toxoplasma IgG levels were estimated among 251 women admitted for labour at a tertiary care hospital in Kolar, Karnataka, between December 2014 and October 2016, by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Demographic, socio-economic, and obstetrical data along with exposure to risk factors among the participants were recorded. Two hundred and fifty one cord blood samples of the newborns of the above mothers were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies by µ capture ELISA. The validity of an IgM positive reaction was evaluated. The differences in proportions were analysed by the Chi-square test and the differences in means were analysed by the unpaired t-test. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: IgG antibodies to T. gondii could be detected in 53 (21.1% of the mothers tested; the titres ranged between 35 IU/ml – 350 IU/ml. Mothers from lower socio-economic strata had significantly higher prevalence as compared to mothers from middle classes. The seropositivity was not significantly associated with gravid status, literacy, occupation, exposure to cats, consumption of raw meat, salad, or drinking untreated water, gestational age, previous history of abortion or the mode of delivery. Cord blood samples from 5 (2 % of the newborns gave positive IgM reactions, but they were interpreted as false positives as there was no evidence of infection in their respective mothers or the baby lacked antibodies on follow up. Conclusion: About one fifth of

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cunha N.C., Cordeiro M.D., Bravo S.A.C., Matos P.C.M., Almosny N.R.P. & da Fonseca A.H. [Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in the State of Rio de Janeiro.] Soroepidemiologia de Toxoplasma gondii em cães no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 38(supl. 3: 114-121, 2016. Departamento de Saúde Coletiva Veterinária e Saúde Pública, Faculdade de Veterinária. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. E-mail: nathaliecunha@id.uff.br Toxoplasmosis is a serious public health problem worldwide as it can cause prenatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in humans. Although dogs are not definitive hosts of T. gondii, they play an important role in the mechanical dissemination of oocysts. This study aimed to carry out a seroepidemiological investigation of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic dogs from seven municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A crosssectional epidemiological study was carried out to evaluate the profile of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in dogs from canine sera from different municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The municipalities studied were Cachoeiras de Macacu, Guapimirim, Itaboraí, Magé, Resende, Seropédica and Silva Jardim. The detection of antibodies of the IgG class anti-Toxoplasma gondii was performed using the indirect enzyme immunoadsorption (ELISA assay and the statistical analyzes used were the chi-square test and the prevalence ratio. Of the 651 samples tested, 300 were reactive for T. gondii, representing a relative frequency of 46.08% of seroreactive dogs. It was concluded that dogs are good sentinels for evaluations of risk for occurrence of T. gondii, emphasizing those coming from rural areas and that there was no difference in the occurrence of serorreative dogs in front of different municipalities studies of the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  4. Detection of soluble antigens of Toxoplasma gondii by a four-layer modification of an enzyme immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, H J

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive four-layer modification of an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of soluble antigens of Toxoplasma gondii is described. Microtiter plates were sensitized with rabbit anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulins (6 micrograms/ml) used as the primary antibodies; guinea pig anti-toxoplasma immunoglobulins (6 micrograms/ml) were used as the secondary trapping antibodies. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugated anti-guinea pig immunoglobulins were used as the indicator antibodies. The specificity of the antigen assay was confirmed by using guinea pig immunoglobulins from preimmunization sera. The sensitivity of the antigen assay was found to be at least 10 ng of antigen protein per ml. The suitability of the method for detecting antigens of T. gondii in different specimens was studied by experimental toxoplasma infection in mice. Antigenic components of T. gondii could be detected in different tissue specimens from infected animals from the first day after infection onwards. Toxoplasma antigen in serum and urine samples from infected mice reached detectable levels on day 2 after infection followed by a linear increase in antigen concentration in succeeding samples. This method might offer a valuable aid for a rapid etiological diagnosis also in human cases of acute toxoplasmosis. PMID:6345574

  5. Presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in humans and their cats in the urban zone of Guadalajara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galván Ramírez María de la Luz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cats are the definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii. Infected cats excrete oocysts in their feces, infecting humans and other animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in cat owners and their pets, and determine if there was a relationship between Toxoplasma infection and humans who live with infected cats. IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies in sera of 59 cat owners were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, in 24 sera from their cats, IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies were found using Burney's ELISA. Thirty-eight (64% of 59 cat owners were positive to IgG anti-Toxoplasma. Seropositivity for cats was 70.8% IgG, 8.3% IgM, and 62.5% IgA. Cohabitation with cats infected by T. gondii, feeding with leftovers or raw viscera, and lack of control over how their feces were handled are risk factors conducive for humans to become infected by T. gondii.

  6. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water: proposition of a strategy and evaluation in Champagne-Ardenne Region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aubert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is a vehicle for disseminating human and veterinary toxoplasmosis due to oocyst contamination. Several outbreaks of toxoplasmosis throughout the world have been related to contaminated drinking water. We have developed a method for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water and we propose a strategy for the detection of multiple waterborne parasites, including Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia. Water samples were filtered to recover Toxoplasma oocysts and, after the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts by immunofluorescence, as recommended by French norm procedure NF T 90-455, the samples were purified on a sucrose density gradient. Detection of Toxoplasma was based on PCR amplification and mouse inoculation to determine the presence and infectivity of recovered oocysts. After experimental seeding assays, we determined that the PCR assay was more sensitive than the bioassay. This strategy was then applied to 482 environmental water samples collected since 2001. We detected Toxoplasma DNA in 37 environmental samples (7.7%, including public drinking water; however, none of them were positive by bioassay. This strategy efficiently detects Toxoplasma oocysts in water and may be suitable as a public health sentinel method. Alternative methods can be used in conjunction with this one to determine the infectivity of parasites that were detected by molecular methods.

  7. Patrón de immunoblotting y niveles de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii en suero y humor acuoso de pacientes con lesiones de toxoplasmosis ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morella Bouchard Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar en muestras de suero y humor acuoso los niveles de anticuerpos anti-toxoplasma a través del Coeficiente de Goldmann y Witmer (CGW y el patrón de reconocimiento antigénico a través del immunoblotting (IB, en pacientes con serología positiva con y sin lesiones de toxoplasmosis ocular. Se recogieron simultáneamente muestras de suero y humor acuoso de 26 pacientes: un grupo de casos que poseían lesiones retinales de toxoplasmosis ocular en fase activa e inactiva (n=17 y un grupo control que requería cirugía ocular por presencia de cataratas (n=9. Las determinación de IgM e IgG específicas se realizó por ELISA de inmunocaptura e indirecto, respectivamente. Se utilizó la inmunodifusión radial para la cuantificación de la IgG total. El CGW resultó >2, indicativo de producción local de anticuerpos específicos en 12/17 de los casos, mientras que en los controles no se observó, esto evidenció una sensibilidad del 71% y una especificidad de 100%. En IB, la aparición de bandas diferentes en humor acuoso, indicativo de producción local de anticuerpos específicos se observaron en 11/17 de los casos y 1/9 de los controles, reflejando una sensibilidad de 65% y una especificidad de 89%. Al considerar las dos pruebas la sensibilidad se incrementó a un 73%, pero la especificidad disminuyó a 89%. En conclusión el IB es útil como prueba confirmatoria para diagnóstico de toxoplasmosis ocular, pero sólo como un complemento del coeficiente de GW especialmente en pacientes con lesiones atípicas donde el diagnóstico clínico es difícil. Aqueous humor and serum immunoblotting profiles and anti–toxoplasma gondii antibodies in patients with toxoplasmosis-induced retinal lesions Abstract The purpose of this study was to analize the anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies levels in serum and aqueous humor samples in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis by using Goldman and Witmer Coefficient (GWC and the

  8. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    MUÑOZ URRIBARRI, Ana Beatriz; CHAPARRO DAMMERT, Eduardo; FERRUFINO LLACH, Juan Carlos; VASQUEZ FLORES, Luciola

    2012-01-01

    La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis p...

  9. Meningitis por Streptococcus suis

    OpenAIRE

    Geffner Sclarsky, D. E.; Moreno Muñoz, R.; Campillo Alpera, Mª.S.; Pardo Serrano, F.J.; Gómez Gómez, A.; Martínez-Lozano, Mª.D.

    2001-01-01

    La infección humana por Streptococcus suis (S. suis) es una zoonosis, con un riesgo ocupacional conocido y que suele presentarse como meningitis purulenta, que tiene baja mortalidad y frecuentes secuelas de hipoacusia y ataxia. Se han publicado menos de 150 casos humanos desde el informe original de hace 30 años. Hay una reconocida distribución geográfica viviendo la mayoría de los afectados en el norte de Europa y el sudeste Asiático. En España se han comunicado dos pacientes con enfermedad ...

  10. Por mil devaluados pesos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  11. Efecto inmunosupresor de la infección por Trypanosoma musculi (Mastigophora: Trypanosomatidae en la toxoplasmosis experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Piccolo-Johanning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de infecciones por Toxoplasma gondii en el ser humano es de 5-90% según la zona geográfica; en Costa Rica por ejemplo, la seroprevalencia es de un 58%, por lo que es importante comprender algunos procesos inmunológicos, propios en estas afectaciones parasitarias. Con el objeto de determinar si el Trypanosoma musculi ejerce procesos de inmunosupresión sobre Toxoplasma gondii se realizó un experimento en el que se inocularon ratones Swiss con T. musculi cuatro, cinco, seis y siete días previos a la infección con T. gondii, ocurriendo la inmunosupresión cuando la inoculación con T. musculi fue hecha cuatro días antes. Además, la cantidad de tripomastigotos inoculados no influyó en el proceso. Se probaron tres cepas de T. gondii aisladas de las heces de un gato casero (TFC, de un Leopardus pardalis (TLP, de un Leopardus wiedii y de la carne de un Bos taurus (TBT. La cepa TLP resultó ser muy patógena, matando a los animales en un tiempo corto, independientemente de la inoculación con T. musculi; para las otras cepas se mantuvo el patrón de inmunosupresión en los ratones. Se reporta entonces un modelo experimental de inmunosupresión, aspecto muy en boga en este momento, por su relación con enfermedades que inducen esta condición en el ser humano, especialmente a enfermedades como el cáncer y el SIDA. Este modelo es más fácil de aplicar experimentalmente que el correspondiente con T. lewisi previamente descrito, el cual usa ratas blancas de más difícil manejo que los ratones usados en este estudio.

  12. Persistent Low Toxoplasma IgG Avidity Is Common in Pregnancy: Experience from Antenatal Testing in Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Findal

    Full Text Available The parasite Toxoplasma gondii might harm the fetus if a woman is infected during pregnancy. IgG seroconversion and significant increase in IgG antibody amount in pregnancy indicates maternal infection. Presence of toxoplasma immunoglobulin M (IgM, immunoglobulin G (IgG and low IgG avidity in a single serum sample indicates possible maternal infection, but positive toxoplasma IgM and low IgG avidity may persist for months and even years. We aimed to evaluate avidity development during pregnancy in a retrospective study. Serial blood samples from 176 pregnant women admitted to Oslo University Hospital 1993-2013 for amniocentesis because of suspected toxoplasma infection were included. Data were obtained from journals and laboratory records. The avidity method used was based on Platelia Toxo IgG assay. Mean maternal age at first serology was 29.9 years (SD 5.2, range 18-42. In 37 (21% women only the avidity increased from low to high in < 3 months. In 139 (79% the IgG avidity remained below the high threshold ≥ 3 months and within this group 74 (42% women had stable low IgG avidity during the observation period. Median gestational age at first test was 10.6 weeks (range 4.6-28.7. Fetal infection was detected in four children, but none among children whose mother had stable low IgG avidity. The first antenatal toxoplasma serology should ideally be collected in early pregnancy and if stable values of toxoplasma IgM and low IgG-avidity are detected in a second sample after three to four weeks, the need for amniocentesis can be questioned.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal....... Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper...

  14. Toxoplasma gondii as a Risk Factor for Early-Onset Schizophrenia: Analysis of Filter Paper Blood Samples Obtained at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Preben Bo; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections during fetal life or neonatal period, including infections with Toxoplasma gondii, may be associated with a risk for schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The objectives of this study were to study the association between serological markers for maternal and neonatal....... Patients included persons born in Denmark in 1981 or later followed up through 1999 with respect to inpatient or outpatient treatment for schizophrenia or related disorders (ICD-10 F2) or affective disorders (ICD-10 F3). RESULTS: Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels corresponding to the upper...

  15. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

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    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  16. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.; Keller, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  17. Seroprevalance Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in children and adolescents with tourette syndrome/chronic motor or vocal tic disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, İsmail; Kara, Tayfun; Sertan Kara, Soner; Ayaydın, Hamza

    2018-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection may be associated with psychiatric disorders due to its neurological effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between tic disorders in children and adolescents and Anti-Toxoplasma IgG. 43 children diagnosed with Tourette's syndrome(TS) and 87 with chronic motor or vocal tic disorder(CMVTD), and 130 healthy volunteers, all aged 7-18, were enrolled. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody levels obtained from blood specimens were investigated. Toxoplasma IgG positivity was determined in 16(37.2%) of the patients with TS, in 27(31%) of those with CMVTD and in 12(9.2%) members of the control group. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody positivity was 5.827-fold higher in subjects with TS and 4.425-fold higher in subjects with CMVTD compared to the control group. Correlation was determined between a diagnosis of TS or CMVTD and Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. We think that it will be useful for the neuropsychiatric process associated with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies to be clarified. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertug, Sema; Okyay, Pinar; Turkmen, Munevver; Yuksel, Hasan

    2005-06-15

    The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. The mean age of 389 (92.9%) of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001) and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042). No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water) supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkmen Munevver

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women at first trimester of their pregnancy and to follow up the seroconversion for next two trimesters, and to identify the risk factors and possible contamination routes in Aydin province, Turkey. Method The sample size was calculated as 423 on a prevalence of 50%, d=0.05 at a confidence level of 95% with 10% addition. It was a cross-sectional study with multistage sampling. After a questionnaire applied to the pregnant women, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were studied with ELISA and IFA, values in conflict with DA test, where IgM antibodies were studied with ELISA and for borderline or positive values of IgM avidity test was used. Results The mean age of 389 (92.9% of pregnant women in the study was 24.28+/-4.56 years, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis was 30.1%. Seroprevalence was increased with age (p=0.001 and with drinking water consumption other than bottled water (p=0.042. No significant relations were observed between anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and education level, being native or migrant, abortion history, consumption of meat, vegetable and milk/milk products, personal or kitchen hygiene habits, cat owning at home of the pregnant women. No IgM antibody was detected. Conclusion One of every three pregnant women in Aydin was at risk of toxoplasmosis at the first trimester of their pregnancy. Increased seroprevalance with age was a predictable result because of increasing time of exposure. Increased seroprevalence with consumption of municipal and uncontrolled water (well/spring water supplies was similar with latest epidemiological findings.

  20. Accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction for Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Martine; Franck, Jacqueline; Thulliez, Philippe; Huissoud, Cyril; Peyron, François; Garcia-Meric, Patricia; Kieffer, François

    2010-04-01

    To provide clinicians with information about the accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of amniotic fluid for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital Toxoplasma infection. This was a prospective cohort study of women with Toxoplasma infection identified by prenatal screening in three centers routinely carrying out real-time PCR for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid. The data available were gestational age at maternal infection, types and dates of maternal treatment, results of amniocentesis and neonatal work-up and definitive infectious status of the child. We estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values both overall and per trimester of pregnancy at the time of maternal infection. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out on amniotic fluid for 261 of the 377 patients included (69%). It was accurate with the exception of four negative results in children who were infected. Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value were 92.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81-98%) and 98.1% (95% CI 95-99.5%), respectively. There was no significant association with the trimester of pregnancy during which maternal infection occurred. Specificity and positive predictive values of 100% were obtained for all trimesters. Real-time PCR analysis significantly improves the detection of T. gondii on amniotic fluid. It provides an accurate tool to predict fetal infection and to decide on appropriate treatment and surveillance. However, postnatal follow-up remains necessary in the first year of life to fully exclude infection in children for whom PCR results were negative. III.

  1. Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption

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    Wanderley M. de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Almdeida W., Miranda Z.B., Flausino W., Coelho C.D., Fonseca A.B.M. & Lopes C.W.G. [Seropositive pigs to Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae sent to slaughter and destined for human consumption.] Suínos sororreagentes a Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: Toxoplasmatinae enviados para abate e destinados ao consumo humano. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:397-400, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária - Higiene Veterinária e Processamento Tecnológico de Produtos de Origem Animal, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: wanderleyma@yahoo.com.br This study aimed to determine the frequency of pigs seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay with cutoff 1:16. Of blood samples collected at slaughter, 250 of them were from animals raised in the State of Minas Gerais; while 181 were from the State of Rio de Janeiro with a total of 431 examined samples. Of these, 19/250 (4.41% of MG and 39/181 (9.04% of RJ, determining a total of 13.45% seropositive animals. Regardless of slaughter be under the control of the inspection service, the precedence of the animals was highly significant (p = 0.0001 in the number of seropositive animals. Although the percentage of seropositive animals to T. gondii from both regions studied in this work, and from the point of view of a public health problem, pork and its frescal type products may continue to be considered as a source of infection of this coccidia for humans, if they are consumed as raw or undercooked.

  2. Frequency of IgG antibodies against-Toxoplasma gondii in sera of stray dogs in the city of Salvador-Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Fróes Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O Toxoplasma gondii é um coccídio intestinal intracelular obrigatório dos felídeos, de distribuição cosmopolita, descoberto em 1908 por Nicolle & Manceaux. O primeiro relato na espécie canina ocorreu em 1910, na Itália e, no Brasil em 1911. Objetivando-se avaliar a freqüência deste parasito, na população de cães errantes da cidade de Salvador-Ba, foram coletadas 225 amostras de sangue, de animais provenientes de 10 distritos sanitários. Os soros foram submetidos a reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI para detecção de anticorpos IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii, utilizando-se a cepa AS28. Foram detectados 143 amostras positivas, representando uma freqüência de 63,55.00%. As freqüências nos distritos sanitários foram as seguintes: Itapagipe 33,33%; São Caetano/Valéria 46,15.00%; Brotas 42,11%; Barra/Rio Vermelho 64,28%; Boca do Rio 80,00%; Itapuã 65,38%; Cabula/Beiru 80,64%; Pau da Lima 73,91%; Cajazeiras 64,70% e Subúrbio Ferroviário 73,33%. Os títulos encontrados variaram de 1:16 à 1:16384, sendo 1:16 (28,67%, 1:64 (44,76%, 1:256 (21,68%, 1:1024 (4,20% e 1:16384 (0,70%. Dos 123 machos e 102 fêmeas, 67,48% e 58,82% foram sororeagentes, respectivamente. Com relação à idade, dos 198 adultos e 27 jovens, 70,20% e 14,80% apresentaram-se soropositivos, respectivamente. As variáveis idade e distrito sanitário apresentaram associação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05.

  3. Prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies according to age with comments on the risk of prenatal infection.

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, J.; Polak, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    Sera from 1661 persons in 12 age groups from 0 to 79 years were titrated for toxoplasma antibodies in the indirect immunofluorescence test. The sera were collected from patients with symptoms suggestive of acute, mainly respiratory, viral infections. After the first year of life, the prevalence of antibodies started to rise, reaching 59% between 40 and 79 years of age. From the prevalence of antibodies in different age groups the annual infection risk, i.e, the risk of a non-immune person acq...

  4. Serosurvey of Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in rats captured from two zoos in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Maysa; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Joaquim, Sâmea Fernandes; Ferreira, Fernando; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.

  5. Detection of infection with toxoplasma Gondii in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the peruvian amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews Delgado, Patrick; Sanchez Perea, Nofre; Mathews Delgado, John Paul; Biffi Garcia, Claudia; Malheiros, Antonio Francisco; Garcia Davila, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The Amazonian manatee (trichechus inunguis) is an aquatic mammal that inhabits freshwater environments and is endemic to the amazon basin. The presence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies was investigated in 19 manatees in one rescue unit in the northern region of Peru. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 12 (63.2 %) of 19 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25), and no association between sex and age of the animals and the presence of T. gondii antibodies was observed (p < 0.05). the results suggest a contamination by T. gondii oocysts in the aquatic environment where these animals live.

  6. Evidence for glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchoring of Toxoplasma gondii major surface antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomavo, S.; Schwarz, R.T.; Dubremetz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The four major surface antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites (P43, P35, P30, and P22) were made water soluble by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). These antigens were biosynthetically labeled with 3 H-fatty acids, [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and [ 3 H]carbohydrates. Treatment of 3 H-fatty-acid-labeled parasite lysates with PI-PLC removed the radioactive label from these antigens. A cross-reacting determinant was exposed on these antigens after PI-PLC treatment

  7. Alterações cognitivas em ratos infectados com Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Raquel da Silveira

    2012-01-01

    O Toxoplasma gondii é um protozoário parasito que induz alterações comportamentais em roedores. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infecção pelo T.gondii durante a fase crônica na memória operacional e na impulsividade de roedores, bem como o efeito de antipsicóticos em reverter as eventuais alterações comportamentais decorrentes da infecção. Ratos wistar fêmeas (n=40) foram infectadas com 25 cistos da cepa ME-49 do T. gondii, após 4 meses os animais foram submetidos aos te...

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in North Carolina black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, F B; Levine, J F; Stoskopf, M K; Gamble, H R; Dubey, J P

    1998-10-01

    Serum samples from 143 hunter-killed black bears were collected during the 1996 and 1997 black bear hunting seasons in eastern North Carolina. All samples were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test. Antibodies to T. gondii were present in 120 of 143 (84%) bears. Females had significantly higher titers than males (Wilcoxon rank sums test, P = 0.045), and titers increased with age (Jonckheere test, P = 0.01). Samples collected during 1996 (n = 79) were tested for antibodies to Trichinella spiralis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No samples were positive for antibodies to T. spiralis.

  9. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons

  10. Probable neuroimmunological link between Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus infections and personality changes in the human host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roubalová Kateřina

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a negative association between Toxoplasma-infection and novelty seeking was reported. The authors suggested that changes of personality trait were caused by manipulation activity of the parasite, aimed at increasing the probability of transmission of the parasite from an intermediate to a definitive host. They also suggested that low novelty seeking indicated an increased level of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain of infected subjects, a phenomenon already observed in experimentally infected rodents. However, the changes in personality can also be just a byproduct of any neurotropic infection. Moreover, the association between a personality trait and the toxoplasmosis can even be caused by an independent correlation of both the probability of Toxoplasma-infection and the personality trait with the third factor, namely with the size of living place of a subject. To test these two alternative hypotheses, we studied the influence of another neurotropic pathogen, the cytomegalovirus, on the personality of infected subjects, and reanalyzed the original data after the effect of the potential confounder, the size of living place, was controlled. Methods In the case-control study, 533 conscripts were tested for toxoplasmosis and presence of anti-cytomegalovirus antibodies and their novelty seeking was examined with Cloninger's TCI questionnaire. Possible association between the two infections and TCI dimensions was analyzed. Results The decrease of novelty seeking is associated also with cytomegalovirus infection. After the size of living place was controlled, the effect of toxoplasmosis on novelty seeking increased. Significant difference in novelty seeking was observed only in the largest city, Prague. Conclusion Toxoplasma and cytomegalovirus probably induce a decrease of novelty seeking. As the cytomegalovirus spreads in population by direct contact (not by predation as with Toxoplasma, the observed changes are

  11. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers living in poverty in Durango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Campillo-Ruiz, Federico; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2013-04-20

    Migrant agricultural workers are a group of people living in poverty with poor housing, sanitary conditions and hygiene practices. Little is known about the epidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in migrant agricultural workers. We investigated the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in 173 migrant workers hired for seasonal agricultural work in Durango State in northern Mexico using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 173 migrant workers (mean age 34.82 ± 14.01 years), 50 (28.9%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and 36 (20.8%) had anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence was not influenced by gender, age, birth place, or educational level. In contrast, seroprevalence was significantly higher in workers residing in rural areas than those in urban or suburban areas. Migrant workers suffering from memory impairment, dizziness, or syncope had significantly higher seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than those without such clinical features. Logistic regression analysis showed that T. gondii exposure was positively associated with consumption of unwashed raw vegetables (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.06-5.35; P = 0.03) and low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 3.87; 95% CI: 1.43-10.42; P = 0.007), and negatively associated with national trips (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.65; P = 0.003) and consumption of raw milk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.18-0.87; P = 0.02). Other behavioral characteristics including consumption of meat or untreated water were not associated with T. gondii infection. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in internal migrant agricultural workers living in poverty. Results deserve further investigation of causal relations between clinical symptoms and infection, and may be useful for optimal planning of preventive measures.

  12. The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on animal behavior: playing cat and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joanne P

    2007-05-01

    A convincing body of evidence now exists to indicate that the ubiquitous protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can cause permanent behavioral changes in its host, even as a consequence of adult-acquired latent infection. Such behavioral alterations appear to be the product of strong selective pressures for the parasite to enhance transmission from its intermediate host reservoir, primarily rodent, to its feline definitive host, wherein sexual reproduction can occur and the life cycle completed. This article reviews evidence of behavioral alterations in animal hosts and considers what these may elucidate about the potential mechanisms involved and what implications such alterations could have on animal and human health.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection

  14. Carne de consumo e risco de transmissão de Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado, Joana de Carvalho Serra

    2009-01-01

    O consumo de carne de suíno (Sus domesticus) é considerado o maior factor de risco para a transmissão da toxoplasmose aos humanos. No entanto, apesar dos suínos serem muito usados na gastronomia portuguesa, tanto pelo consumo de carne, como pelo de enchidos, pouco se sabe sobre a prevalência e caracterização genética de Toxoplasma gondii nestes produtos alimentares, no país. Neste trabalho, pretendeu-se determinar a seroprevalência de anticorpos IgG anti-T. gondii em suínos de ...

  15. Control Multivariable por Desacoplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Morilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La interacción entre variables es una característica inherente de los procesos multivariables, que dificulta su operación y el diseño de sus sistemas de control. Bajo el paradigma de Control por desacoplo se agrupan un conjunto de metodologías, que tradicionalmente han estado orientadas a eliminar o reducir la interacción, y que recientemente algunos investigadores han reorientado con objetivos de solucionar un problema tan complejo como es el control multivariable. Parte del material descrito en este artículo es bien conocido en el campo del control de procesos, pero la mayor parte de él son resultados de varios años de investigación de los autores en los que han primado la generalización del problema, la búsqueda de soluciones de fácil implementación y la combinación de bloques elementales de control PID. Esta conjunción de intereses provoca que no siempre se pueda conseguir un desacoplo perfecto, pero que sí se pueda conseguir una considerable reducción de la interacción en el nivel básico de la pirámide de control, en beneficio de otros sistemas de control que ocupan niveles jerárquicos superiores. El artículo resume todos los aspectos básicos del Control por desacoplo y su aplicación a dos procesos representativos: una planta experimental de cuatro tanques acoplados y un modelo 4×4 de un sistema experimental de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado. Abstract: The interaction between variables is inherent in multivariable processes and this fact may complicate their operation and control system design. Under the paradigm of decoupling control, several methodologies that traditionally have been addressed to cancel or reduce the interactions are gathered. Recently, this approach has been reoriented by several researchers with the aim to solve such a complex problem as the multivariable control. Parts of the material in this work are well known in the process control field; however, most of them are

  16. Viability and infectivity analysis of Toxoplasma gondii under axenic conditions = Análise da viabilidade e infectividade de taquizoítas de Toxoplasma gondii em condições axênicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira-da-Silva, Marialice Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: nossos dados abrem novas perspectivas para o estudo de diferentes aspectos da biologia do Toxoplasma gondii, incluindo mecanismos de nutrição, ensaios experimentais de drogas in vitro, ou estudos da biologia celular e molecular diretamente sobre o parasito

  17. Detection and dissemination of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected calves, a single test does not tell the whole story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burrells, Alison; Taroda, Alessandra; Opsteegh, Marieke; Schares, Gereon; Benavides, Julio; Dam-Deisz, Cecile; Bartley, Paul M; Chianini, Francesca; Villena, Isabella; van der Giessen, Joke; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Although the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in bovine tissues is rare, beef might be an important source of human infection. The use of molecular techniques, such as magnetic capture qPCR (MC-qPCR), in combination with the gold standard method for isolating the parasite (mouse bioassay), may

  18. Latitudinal variability in the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in non-migrant and Arctic migratory geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Cecilia A. M.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Hoye, Bethany J.; Prop, Jouke; van der Jeugd, Henk; Voslamber, Berend; Madsen, Jesper; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular coccidian parasite found worldwide and is known to infect virtually all warm-blooded animals. It requires a cat (family Felidae) to complete its full life cycle. Despite the absence of wild felids on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, T. gondii has been found

  19. GLT-1-Dependent Disruption of CNS Glutamate Homeostasis and Neuronal Function by the Protozoan Parasite Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Clément N David

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune privileged nature of the CNS can make it vulnerable to chronic and latent infections. Little is known about the effects of lifelong brain infections, and thus inflammation, on the neurological health of the host. Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can infect any mammalian nucleated cell with average worldwide seroprevalence rates of 30%. Infection by Toxoplasma is characterized by the lifelong presence of parasitic cysts within neurons in the brain, requiring a competent immune system to prevent parasite reactivation and encephalitis. In the immunocompetent individual, Toxoplasma infection is largely asymptomatic, however many recent studies suggest a strong correlation with certain neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Here, we demonstrate a significant reduction in the primary astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT-1, following infection with Toxoplasma. Using microdialysis of the murine frontal cortex over the course of infection, a significant increase in extracellular concentrations of glutamate is observed. Consistent with glutamate dysregulation, analysis of neurons reveal changes in morphology including a reduction in dendritic spines, VGlut1 and NeuN immunoreactivity. Furthermore, behavioral testing and EEG recordings point to significant changes in neuronal output. Finally, these changes in neuronal connectivity are dependent on infection-induced downregulation of GLT-1 as treatment with the ß-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone, rescues extracellular glutamate concentrations, neuronal pathology and function. Altogether, these data demonstrate that following an infection with T. gondii, the delicate regulation of glutamate by astrocytes is disrupted and accounts for a range of deficits observed in chronic infection.

  20. Qualitative assessment for Toxoplasma gondii exposure risk associated with consumption of meat products in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms after postnatally-acquired infection, severe illness does occur in immunocompromised individuals. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that c...

  1. Comparative genomic sequence variation of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most abundant parasites world-wide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. We undertook...

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals local genomic admixture drives concerted expansion and diversification of secreted pathogenesis determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To un...

  3. Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in brain tissue of feral rodents and insectivores caught on farms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Craeye, de S.; Dierick, K.; Kijlstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of both Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in 250 brain tissue samples from 9 species of feral rodents and insectivores caught on 10 organic farms in the Netherlands in 2004. Collected samples were conserved in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and analysed by real-time

  4. Characterization of IgG monoclonal antibody targeted to both tissue cyst and sporocyst walls of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects approximately one third of the human population and animals habiting terrestrial and aquatic environments. Its environmentally resistant oocysts are excreted by felids, and the stage encysted in tissues (tissue cysts), are important in the horizontal transmission of T. gon...

  5. Survey of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat juice of wild boar (Sus scrofa in several districts of the Czech Republic

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    Karol Račka

    2015-05-01

    The obtained results indicate that consumption of raw or undercooked meat from wild boars can carry an important risk of toxoplasma infection. Post mortem detection of antibodies in meat juice samples using ELISA is a useful alternative to blood serum examination. In addition, a diaphragm sample has been well-proven as a matrix sample for the contemporaneous diagnostics of trichinellosis and toxoplasmosis.

  6. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  7. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) and domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). II. Early immune reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, K.; Wattrang, E.; Fossum, C.

    1997-01-01

    As already reported, the mountain hare is much more susceptible than the domestic rabbit to oral inoculation with Toxoplasma gondii, as judged by pathological changes and dissemination of parasites within the body. In the present paper, further interspecies variations are reported. Concentrations...

  8. Isolation and characterization of new genetic types of toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of trichinella murrelli from black bear (Ursus americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black bears (Ursus americanus) are hosts for two important zoonotic parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. and bears are hunted for human consumption in the USA. Little is known of the genetic diversity of T. gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii we...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurtrey, Curtis; Trolle, Thomas; Sansom, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    HLA class I presentation of pathogen-derived peptide ligands is essential for CD8+ T cell recognition of Toxoplasma gondii infected cells. Currently, little data exist pertaining to peptides that are presented after T. gondii infection. Herein we purify HLA-A*02:01 complexes from T. gondii infect...

  10. New Toxoplasma gondii genotypes isolated from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha, Brazil: unexpected findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide comparison of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens has indicated that T. gondii isolates from Brazil are phenotypically and genetically different than isolates from other countries; most strains from Brazil are pathogenic to mice, there is great genetic variability, most iso...

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from the central region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis because they are the only definitive hosts that excrete environmentally resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Little is known of feline toxoplasmosis in China and most of the literature is in Chinese. Here we summarized all published reports on ...

  12. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Lowland Tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii, by the presence of antibodies to the parasite, was documented in 47 Brazilian tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) maintained ex-situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan Institution. One animal had samples collected on two occasions (November 2010 and October 2011), and 19 (4...

  13. The time course of the specific antibody response by various ELISAs in pigs experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Peter; Haugegaard, J.; Wingstrand, Anne

    1997-01-01

    With the aim of developing routine serological tests for monitoring the Toxoplasma infection status of Danish swine herds, four ELISAs based on tachyzoite antigen were set up: (1) an indirect ELISA for IgG-antibody; (2) a blocking ELISA for antibody to the membrane antigen, P-30; (3) an indirect ...

  14. Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii-specific T cells recovered from vitreous fluid of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, E. J.; Klaren, V. N.; Wierenga, E. A.; Verjans, G. M.; Kijlstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in reactivations of latent ocular Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) infections in immunocompetent patients are poorly understood. In view of the possible role of T cells in the immunopathogenesis of the disease, ocular infiltrating T cells obtained from patients with recurrent ocular

  15. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Edvinsson, B; Lundgren, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii. In ...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

  17. High prevalence of toxoplasmosis in cats from Egypt: isolation of viable Toxoplasma Gondii, tissue distribution, and isolate designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 158 feral cats from Giza, Egypt were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 97.4% with modified ...

  18. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  19. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild marsupials and rodents from the Atlantic forest of Pernambuco State, Northeastern region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felids are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in their feces. Cats are considered to acquire T. gondii infection in nature by ingesting tissues of small mammals and birds. Serum samples of feral 22...

  1. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avians are considered important intermediate hosts for Toxoplasma gondii because they serve as source of infection for Felidae, which shed environmentally resistant oocysts after ingesting infected tissues. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in wild birds. In the present study, ant...

  2. Long-Term Protective Immune Response Elicited by Vaccination with an Expression Genomic Library of Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Fachado, Alberto; Rodriguez, Alexandro; Molina, Judith; Silvério, Jaline C.; Marino, Ana P. M. P.; Pinto, Luzia M. O.; Angel, Sergio O.; Infante, Juan F.; Traub-Cseko, Yara; Amendoeira, Regina R.; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2003-01-01

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with an expression genomic library of Toxoplasma gondii induces a Th1-type immune response, with recognition of several T. gondii proteins (21 to 117 kDa) and long-term protective immunity against a lethal challenge. These results support further investigations to achieve a multicomponent anti-T. gondii DNA vaccine.

  3. UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Mariane B Melo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available UNC93B1 associates with Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 3, TLR7 and TLR9, mediating their translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endolysosome, hence allowing proper activation by nucleic acid ligands. We found that the triple deficient '3d' mice, which lack functional UNC93B1, are hyper-susceptible to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We established that while mounting a normal systemic pro-inflammatory response, i.e. producing abundant MCP-1, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ, the 3d mice were unable to control parasite replication. Nevertheless, infection of reciprocal bone marrow chimeras between wild-type and 3d mice with T. gondii demonstrated a primary role of hemopoietic cell lineages in the enhanced susceptibility of UNC93B1 mutant mice. The protective role mediated by UNC93B1 to T. gondii infection was associated with impaired IL-12 responses and delayed IFNγ by spleen cells. Notably, in macrophages infected with T. gondii, UNC93B1 accumulates on the parasitophorous vacuole. Furthermore, upon in vitro infection the rate of tachyzoite replication was enhanced in non-activated macrophages carrying mutant UNC93B1 as compared to wild type gene. Strikingly, the role of UNC93B1 on intracellular parasite growth appears to be independent of TLR function. Altogether, our results reveal a critical role for UNC93B1 on induction of IL-12/IFNγ production as well as autonomous control of Toxoplasma replication by macrophages.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in red deer from Central Italy

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    Guido Rocchigiani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cosmopolite protozoan parasites impacting on human and animal health. In particular, T. gondii commonly infects human beings and all warm-blooded animals, while N. caninum is responsible for bovine abortion and neuromuscular disease in dogs. The aim of the presented survey was to evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of these parasites in the most numerous Italian red deer population. The sera of 60 red deer ( Cervus elaphus inhabiting Central Italy (43°56’N 10°55’E and killed by selective hunting were examined using an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT for both N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies. White blood cells (buffy coat were also checked by PCR and T. gondii DNA was genotyped. Thirteen out of 60 sera (22% scored positive for Toxoplasma, 17 samples (28% were Neospora positive. Coinfection was recorded in 5 cases (8%. T. gondii (genotype II and N. caninum DNA was detected in one and 3 samples of buffy coat, respectively. The presented study is the first to examine the occurrence of these parasites in the most numerous red deer Italian population, confirming this animal species as carrier of the investigated pathogens. These animals spread near human settlements, co-inhabiting with final hosts of [i]T. gondii[/i] and N. caninum and could contribute to their transmission to domestic ruminants and humans. In particular, the seroprevalence value for N. caninum was the highest among European records.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10 7 tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in human consumed ovine meat in Tunis City.

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    Sonia Boughattas

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis has been recognized as parasitic zoonosis with the highest human incidence. The human infection by the parasite can lead to severe clinical manifestations in congenital toxoplasmosis and immunocompromised patients. Contamination occurs mainly by foodborne ways especially consumption of raw or undercooked meat. In contrast to other foodborne infections, toxoplasmosis is a chronic infection which would make its economic and social impact much higher than even previously anticipated. Ovine meat was advanced as a major risk factor, so we investigated its parasite survey, under natural conditions. Serological MAT technique and touchdown PCR approaches were used for prevalence determination of the parasite in slaughtered sheep intended to human consumption in Tunis City. The genotyping was carried by SNPs analysis of SAG3 marker. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were present in 38.2% of young sheep and in 73.6% of adult sheep. Molecular detection revealed the contamination of 50% of ewes' tissue. Sequencing and SNPs analysis enabled unambiguous typing of meat isolates and revealed the presence of mixed strains as those previously identified from clinical samples in the same area. Our findings conclude that slaughtered sheep are highly infected, suggesting them as a major risk factor of Toxoplasma gondii transmission by meat consumption. Special aware should target consequently this factor when recommendations have to be established by the health care commanders.

  7. Comparative study on the antioxidant and anti-Toxoplasma activities of vanillin and its resorcinarene derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio B S; Meurer, Ywlliane S R; Oliveira, Marianne G; Medeiros, Wendy M T Q; Silva, Francisco O N; Brito, Ana C F; Pontes, Daniel de L; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2014-05-07

    A resorcinarene derivative of vanillin, resvan, was synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques. We measured the cytotoxicity (in vivo and in vitro), antioxidant and anti-Toxoplasma activities of vanillin and the resorcinarene compound. Here we show that vanillin has a dose-dependent behavior with IC50 of 645 µg/mL through an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. However, we could not observe any cytotoxic response at higher concentrations of resvan (IC50 > 2,000 µg/mL). The in vivo acute toxicity assays of vanillin and resvan exhibited a significant safety margin indicated by a lack of systemic and behavioral toxicity up to 300 mg/kg during the first 30 min, 24 h or 14 days after administration. The obtained derivative showed greater antioxidative activity (84.9%) when comparing to vanillin (19.4%) at 1,000 μg/mL. In addition, vanillin presents anti-Toxoplasma activity, while resvan does not show that feature. Our findings suggest that this particular derivative has an efficient antioxidant activity and a negligible cytotoxic effect, making it a potential target for further biological investigations.

  8. Anti-Toxoplasma Activity of 2-(Naphthalene-2-γlthiol-1H Indole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasem Asgari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability, infectivity and immunity of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites exposed to 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole.Tachyzoites of RH strain were incubated in various concentrations of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole (25-800 μM for 1.5 hours. Then, they were stained by PI and analyzed by Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. To evaluate the infectivity, the tachyzoites exposed to the different concentrations of the compound were inoculated to 10 BALB/c mice groups. For Control, parasites exposed to DMSO (0.2% v/v were also intraperitoneally inoculated into two groups of mice. The immunity of the exposed tachyzoites was evaluated by inoculation of the naïve parasite to the survived mice.The LD50 of 2-(naphthalene-2-ylthio-1H-indole was 57 μmol. The longevity of mice was dose dependent. Five mice out of group 400μmol and 3 out of group 800μmol showed immunization to the parasite.Our findings demonstrated the toxoplasmocidal activity of the compound. The presence of a well-organized transporter mechanism for indole compounds within the parasite in conjunction with several effective mechanisms of these compounds on Toxoplasma viability would open a window for production of new drugs and vaccines.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy sheep and goats mixed stock farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakoua, Anastasia; Anastasia, Diakou; Papadopoulos, Elias; Elias, Papadopoulos; Panousis, Nikolaos; Nikolaos, Panousis; Karatzias, Charilaos; Charilaos, Karatzias; Giadinis, Nektarios; Nektarios, Giadinis

    2013-12-06

    Toxoplasma and Neospora infections are important causes of abortions and economic losses in animal production. Mixed stock farming of sheep and goats is a common practice in Mediterranean countries and could serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of differences between the two animal species regarding parasitic infections. In order to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum among flocks of small ruminants in Greece and to evaluate any prevalence difference between sheep and goats kept in mixed flocks, 833 sera samples (458 sheep and 375 goats) from 50 mixed flocks in different areas of the country were examined by ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies. Specific IgG against T. gondii were detected in 53.71% and 61.3% and against N. caninum in 16.8% and 6.9% of the sheep and goats, respectively. Goats had higher Toxoplasma seroprevalence than sheep (pgoats (pgoats that are kept together in mixed flocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tunisian Toxoplasma gondii strains genotyping by the use of AK69 marker

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    Aoun Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical manifestation due to infection by Toxoplasma gondii is closely linked to the infecting strain of the parasite. Several genetic markers are available to determinate its genotype but few of them are able to discriminate between the three predominant lineages, namely types I, II and III. The number of markers decreases when atypical, recombinant/mixed genotypes need to be identified. Findings In our study, the contribution of sequence polymorphisms in the AK69 gene as typing markers for T. gondii was investigated for the first time in an epidemiological study. The coding region of the marker was amplified, sequenced and aligned for different Toxoplasma strains. The identified nucleotide polymorphism at 12 positions was able to highly discriminate between the different congenital toxoplasmosis Tunisian strains. Moreover the high detection sensitivity level of the marker enabled unambiguous identification of mixed/recombinant genotypes directly. Conclusion It can be, thus, very useful for direct typing in areas where such genotypes are frequently encountered, mainly in the African continent.

  11. [Awareness and infection of Toxoplasma gondii in married childbearing women in Chengde Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-jing; Xu, Tao; Song, Ren-hao

    2014-08-01

    To understand Toxoplasma gondii infection and awareness condition of married childbearing women in Chengde Region, so as to provide the evidence for the establishment of control measures. Totally 733 married childbearing women who took physical examination in Chengde Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July to December in 2013 were investigated by questionnaire to understand the awareness condition on T. gondii infection, then 490 women among them from 3 counties and 2 districts were randomly chosen to detect the Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA. A total of 733 questionnaires were returned, and 126 women knew related knowledge about T. gondii infection, and the awareness rate was 17.19%( 126/733). Sixty-three women were determined as infected cases, and the infection rate was 12.86%( 63/490). The infection rates of the women who with higher educational level, working as medical staff and living in urban were lower, and the awareness rates of them were higher. The infection rate of T. gondii among the married childbearing women in Chengde Region is high, and the awareness rate of them is low. In order to decrease the infection rate as well as to increase the awareness rate of the population, the health education should be strengthened.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

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    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  13. Genotyping of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavalla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran.Methods: A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the posi­tive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus.Results: Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III.Conclusion: The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  14. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam James

    2012-03-22

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

  15. Prevención de la toxoplasmosis congénita en un hospital de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Carral

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevención de la toxoplasmosis congénita se basa en la información de la mujer con medidas de prevención primaria, el diagnóstico serológico y el tratamiento de la embarazada y del niño. Se presentan los resultados de 12 años de implementación de un programa de prevención de la toxoplasmosis congénita, la tasa de madres infectadas, de transmisión vertical, de niños infectados y la gravedad de la afección causada. Se realizó un estudio observacional prospectivo sobre 12 035 gestantes atendidas en la maternidad del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires entre enero de 2000 y diciembre de 2011. Se observó una prevalencia de anticuerpos anti Toxoplasma gondii de 18.33% (2 206/12 035. Treinta y siete mujeres de 9 792 susceptibles tuvieron infección aguda, la tasa de incidencia de infección materna fue de 3.78 por 1 000 nacimientos. La tasa de transmisión transplacentaria de la infección fue 5.4% (2/37. Dos recién nacidos tuvieron toxoplasmosis congénita, uno no tuvo signos clínicos y el otro presentó coriorretinitis y estrabismo. Recibieron tratamiento 35 madres y los 2 niños con toxoplasmosis congénita. En conclusión: Las cifras de transmisión obtenida permiten considerar a este programa de prevención como un recurso válido para minimizar el impacto de la toxoplasmosis congénita.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  17. Comprehensive Evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii VEG and Neospora caninum LIV Genomes with Tachyzoite Stage Transcriptome and Proteome Defines Novel Transcript Features

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Mourier, Tobias; Naeem, Raeece; Malas, Tareq B.; Moussa, Ehab; Panigrahi, Aswini; Vermont, Sarah J.; Otto, Thomas D.; Wastling, Jonathan; Pain, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals and causes opportunistic infections in immuno-compromised humans. Its closest relative, Neospora caninum, is an important veterinary pathogen that causes

  18. Experimental reinfection of BALB/c mice with different recombinant type I/III strains of Toxoplasma gondii: involvement of IFN-³ and IL-10

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Geane Peroni; Melo,Maria Norma; Gazzinelli,Ricardo Tostes; Caetano,Braulia Costa; Ferreira,Adriana Melo; Silva,Letícia Azevedo; Vitor,Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2009-01-01

    To assess reinfection of BALB/c mice with different Toxoplasma gondii strains, the animals were prime infected with the non-virulent D8 strain and challenged with virulent recombinant strains. Thirty days after challenge, brain cysts were obtained from surviving BALB/c mice and inoculated in Swiss mice to obtain tachyzoites for DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP analysis to distinguish the different T. gondii strains present in possible co-infections. Anti-Toxoplasma immune responses were evaluated ...

  19. Induction of partial protection against infection with Toxoplasma gondii genotype II by DNA vaccination with recombinant chimeric tachyzoite antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, Carina Agerbo; De Craeye, S.; Jongert, E.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a significant source of parasitic infections worldwide. In adults, infections may often lead to severe retinochoroiditis. Infection of the foetus causes abortion or congenital pathology that may lead to neurological complicat......Infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a significant source of parasitic infections worldwide. In adults, infections may often lead to severe retinochoroiditis. Infection of the foetus causes abortion or congenital pathology that may lead to neurological...

  20. Immunity Status of Blood Donors Regarding Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, West Africa

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    Liliane Siransy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM blood donors performed by ELISA. Results. An overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among blood donors recruited was 67.92% (n=72. Among these, 68 have Toxoplasma gondii IgG (64.15%, 12 Toxoplasma gondii IgM (11.32%, and 4 (3.77% both. The risk varies between 8 for 100000 and 172 for 100000 donations. Conclusion. The need to strengthen security measures for people multitransfused, immunocompromised, and pregnant women to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis is important.

  1. Epidemiology of Toxoplasma and CMV serology and of GBS colonization in pregnancy and neonatal outcome in a Sicilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Canduscio, Laura Antonella; Cino, Lucia; Romano, Amelia; Schimmenti, Maria Gabriella; Giuffrè, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-02-22

    Aim of our study is to analyze the immunological status in pregnancy for two main TORCH agents, Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the results of group B streptococcus (GBS) screening, assessing the risk for congenital infection in a population from Palermo, Italy. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all inborn live newborns who were born in our division during 2012, gathering information about the mother, the pregnancy and neonatal hospitalization at birth. Whenever data were available, we categorized the serologic status of the mothers for Toxoplasma and CMV. We also considered the results of rectal and vaginal swabs for GBS. We compared the results in Italian and immigrant mothers. The neonatal outcome was evaluated in all cases at risk. Prevalence of anti-Toxo IgG antibodies was 17.97%, and was significantly higher in immigrant women (30% vs 16.4% in Italian women; p = 0.0008). Prevalence of anti-CMV IgG antibodies was 65.87%. Again, it was significantly higher in immigrant women (91.4% vs 62.5%, p = 3.31e-08). We compared those data with a previous study performed in our hospital in 2005-2006, and found that the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-CMV antibodies in our population has remained stable, both in the immigrant and in the local population. Seroconversion rates and neonatal infections were rare: no seroconversions were observed for Toxoplasma, 4 seroconversions for CMV. One neonatal Toxoplasma infection and two neonatal CMV infections were documented. In some cases with dubious patterns or probable persistence of IgM, we performed additional tests and follow-up. Vaginal and rectal swabs were positive for GBS in 7.98% of cases, with no significant difference between the Italian and the immigrant population. No GBS neonatal sepsis was documented. The prevalence of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in pregnant women was low in our population, if compared with European countries and with other parts of Italy, and is significantly

  2. Evidence for a structural role for acid-fast lipids in oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkin, G Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P; Costello, Catherine E; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2013-09-03

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of β-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). Oocysts, which are essential for the fecal-oral spread of coccidia, have a wall that is thought responsible for their survival in the environment and for their transit through the stomach and small intestine. While oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria are strengthened by a porous scaffold of fibrils of β-1,3-glucan and by proteins cross

  3. [Serological survey on Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy in Bazhou area, Hebei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Hui, Zhu; Li-Juan, Xu; Zhen-Wei, Xue

    2016-06-22

    To investigate the Toxoplasma gondii infection status in pregnant women with history of adverse pregnancy and risk factors in Bazhou area, Hebei Province. A total of 302 pregnant women with the history of adverse pregnancy were chosen as respondents (an experimental group) in the hospital from March 2012 to December 2015, and 197 pregnant women without the history of adverse pregnancy as a control group. TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM were detected by using ELISA in two groups. The risk factors of Toxoplasma infection were surveyed by questionnaires. The total positive rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was 28.15% (85/302) in the experimental group, which was significantly higher than that [9.64%(19/197)] in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( χ 2 = 24.76, P <0.05). The positive rates of TOX-IgM, TOX-IgG and TOX-IgM + TOX-IgG were 6.95% (21/302), 18.54% (56/302), and 2.65% (8/302) respectively in the experimental group, which were higher than 2.03% (4/197), 7.61% (15/197), and 0% (0/197) respectively in the control group ( χ 2 = 6.07, 11.67, 3.76, all P <0.05). The questionnaire survey showed that the proportions of keeping pets, cutting board regardless, liking to eat hot pot or barbecue, eating raw meat, often eating in the restaurant in the pregnant women with Toxoplasma infection were higher than those in the pregnant women without Toxoplasma infection, and the differences were statistically significant ( χ 2 = 22.57, 3.96, 5.87, 7.40, 4.86, all P <0.05), and therefore, the above unhealthy habits may be important risk factors. Toxoplasma infection could lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, the above-mentioned unhealthy habits should be avoided, especially during pregnancy period.

  4. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  5. Efecto inmunosupresor de la infección por Trypanosoma musculi (Mastigophora: Trypanosomatidae en la toxoplasmosis experimental Immunosuppressor effect of Trypanosoma musculi (Mastigophora: Trypanosomatidae on experimental toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Piccolo-Johanning

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia de infecciones por Toxoplasma gondii en el ser humano es de 5-90% según la zona geográfica; en Costa Rica por ejemplo, la seroprevalencia es de un 58%, por lo que es importante comprender algunos procesos inmunológicos, propios en estas afectaciones parasitarias. Con el objeto de determinar si el Trypanosoma musculi ejerce procesos de inmunosupresión sobre Toxoplasma gondii se realizó un experimento en el que se inocularon ratones Swiss con T. musculi cuatro, cinco, seis y siete días previos a la infección con T. gondii, ocurriendo la inmunosupresión cuando la inoculación con T. musculi fue hecha cuatro días antes. Además, la cantidad de tripomastigotos inoculados no influyó en el proceso. Se probaron tres cepas de T. gondii aisladas de las heces de un gato casero (TFC, de un Leopardus pardalis (TLP, de un Leopardus wiedii y de la carne de un Bos taurus (TBT. La cepa TLP resultó ser muy patógena, matando a los animales en un tiempo corto, independientemente de la inoculación con T. musculi; para las otras cepas se mantuvo el patrón de inmunosupresión en los ratones. Se reporta entonces un modelo experimental de inmunosupresión, aspecto muy en boga en este momento, por su relación con enfermedades que inducen esta condición en el ser humano, especialmente a enfermedades como el cáncer y el SIDA. Este modelo es más fácil de aplicar experimentalmente que el correspondiente con T. lewisi previamente descrito, el cual usa ratas blancas de más difícil manejo que los ratones usados en este estudio.The immunosuppression caused by species of the gender Trypanosoma has been widely documented. The influence over experimental infections with Toxoplasma gondii is evident when using Trypanosoma lewisi, a natural parasite of white rats. We decided to test the effect of Trypanosoma musculi from mice, an organism with very similar biological characteristics to T. lewisi, to see if this trypanosomatid could induce a similar

  6. Toxoplasma gondii sequesters lysosomes from mammalian hosts in the vacuolar space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Isabelle; Dunn, Joe Dan; Romano, Julia D; Pypaert, Marc; Zhang, Hui; Boothroyd, John C; Joiner, Keith A

    2006-04-21

    The intracellular compartment harboring Toxoplasma gondii satisfies the parasite's nutritional needs for rapid growth in mammalian cells. We demonstrate that the parasitophorous vacuole (PV) of T. gondii accumulates material coming from the host mammalian cell via the exploitation of the host endo-lysosomal system. The parasite actively recruits host microtubules, resulting in selective attraction of endo-lysosomes to the PV. Microtubule-based invaginations of the PV membrane serve as conduits for the delivery of host endo-lysosomes within the PV. These tubular conduits are decorated by a parasite coat, including the tubulogenic protein GRA7, which acts like a garrote that sequesters host endocytic organelles in the vacuolar space. These data define an unanticipated process allowing the parasite intimate and concentrated access to a diverse range of low molecular weight components produced by the endo-lysosomal system. More generally, they identify a unique mechanism for unidirectional transport and sequestration of host organelles.

  7. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torres-Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13 in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  8. First molecular evidence of Toxoplasma gondii in opossums (Didelphis virginiana) from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Castro, M; Noh-Pech, H; Puerto-Hernández, R; Reyes-Hernández, B; Panti-May, A; Hernández-Betancourt, S; Yeh-Gorocica, A; González-Herrera, L; Zavala-Castro, J; Puerto, F I

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite recognized as a causal agent of toxoplasmosis; zoonotic disease endemic in many countries worldwide, including Mexico. Different species of animals participate in the wild cycle infection, including opossums of the species Didelphis virginiana. Thirteen D. virginiana were captured in Yucatan, Mexico. Detection of T. gondii was achieved by Polymerase Chain Reaction, which determined an infection of 76.9% (10/13) in brains. Positive amplicons were sequenced for analysis, this produced results similar to T. gondii with identity and coverage values of 98% and 96-100%, respectively. This study presents the first molecular evidence of the circulation of T. gondii in D. virginiana from Mexico.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in females buffaloes in Ninavah province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Al-Iraqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the females of the local breed buffaloes. A 400 sera samples were collected from 49 herds from different nine geographical area in Ninavah province by using latex agglutination and modified latex agglutination tests. The results shows that the total prevalence rate of the antibodies was 30%, and this percentage was differ according to the region. The highest percentage appeared in Badosh and Qnetra at 52.3%, 51.2% respectively, while the lowest was in Hawiaslan 4.3%. The antibodies titer most appear was 80 in percentage 30.5%, while the titer 640 was lowest in percentage 1.7%. Also recorded that numbers of the active cases was highest in percentage 81.4% compared with inactive cases was lowest in percentage 18.6%, also noted that the seropositive samples decreased with age.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Capparis Spinosa Honey on the Immune Response of Rats Infected with Toxoplasma Gundii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaffer Hegazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an intracellular opportunistic protozoan parasite that infects approximately one-third of the human population worldwide. Honey has long been used for treatment of many diseases in folk medicine. Honey has exhibited significant anthelmintic, nematicidal and anti-protozoal activities. This study was conducted to investigate the immunological patterns in rats infected with T. gondii who were treated orally with supplemented 15% Capparis spinosa honey (Saudi Arabia for a period of 28 days. Methods: Immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, and cytokines were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. In addition, the mortality and the morbidity rates were assessed. Results: Oral administration of Capparis spinosa honey as a natural food additive was experimentally shown to increase the antibody titer; furthermore, compared with the rats in the control group,

  11. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  12. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ruminants (sheep, goats and cattle) in Northwest Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdouni, Yosra; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Amairia, Safa; Awadi, Sofia; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat from slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle in Northwest Tunisia (Béja district). PCRs were performed on genomic DNA extracted from 420 meat samples (150 ewes, 120 goats and 150 cows). The overall molecular prevalence of T. gondii in sheep, goats and cattle were 33.3 (50/150), 32.5 (39/120) and 19.3% (29/150), respectively. Toxoplasma gondii molecular prevalences in the three meat ruminant species were significantly higher in adults compared to young animals (pgoats (pmeat. Extension programmes should be implemented to decrease the risk of infection related to sheep, goats and cattle meat manipulation and raw or undercooked meat consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in zoo and domestic animals in Jiangxi Province, China

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    Luo Houqiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals throughout the world. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined using a commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA test in wild animals in a zoo. Three of 11 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis (27%, 1 of 5 wolves (Canis lupus laniger (20%, 1 of 6 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious (17%, and 2 of 9 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus (22% were found to be positive. No antibodies were detected in leopards (Panthera pardus, wild geese (Anser cygnoides, and Eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus. Domestic species from 13 counties of Jiangxi Province, China were also investigated by an indirect hemagglutination (IHA test. Thirty-five of 340 goats (10%, 94 of 560 water buffaloes (17%, and 4 of 35 cattle (11% were found to be seropositive. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in animals kept in zoos and domestic animals in this province.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D L; Ulrey, W A; Guthrie, J M; Kwok, O C H; Cox, J J; Maehr, D S; Dubey, J P

    2012-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a significant worldwide parasitic protozoan. In the present study, prevalence of antibodies of T. gondii was examined from 29 free-ranging black bears ( Ursus americanus ) from south-central Florida where the host species was listed as state threatened during this project. Overall T. gondii prevalence was found to be 44.8%, specifically 46.2% in male and 43.8% in female U. americanus , using a modified agglutination test (1:25 titer). Seroprevalence differences between sexes were not significant (P > 0.05). Results of the present study add supportive data to the growing body of evidence suggesting that U. americanus has one of the highest T. gondii seroprevalences among all known intermediate hosts. In addition, our data emphasize the importance of understanding parasitic disease dynamics from a conservation perspective.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii in horse meat intended for human consumption in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paştiu, Anamaria Ioana; Györke, Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Bolfă, Pompei; Rosenthal, Benjamin Martin; Oltean, Miruna; Villena, Isabelle; Spînu, Marina; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-09-15

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, an economically important zoonotic protozoan, was investigated in horses slaughtered for export and human consumption in the North of Romania. Pairs of samples, sera and heart tissues, were collected from 82 slaughtered horses. Examination of horse sera by ELISA at a dilution of 1:10, and by modified agglutination test (MAT) at a dilution of 1:6, revealed that 32 (39%) and 31(37.8%) horses, respectively, had antibodies against T. gondii. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, T. gondii DNA was not found in any heart sample collected from horses. By bioassay in mice, we obtained viable isolates of T. gondii from two of ten horses determined to be strongly positive by serological assay/ELISA. The prevalence estimated in horses highlighted the potential risk for human contamination by consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Yokota, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Keiko; Masatani, Tatsunori

    2017-11-17

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalent than in the urban area of the island. This finding indicates a possible risk to wildlife of infection from free-ranging and feral cats. Therefore, management of cats is important for wildlife conservation.

  17. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona in beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, C.N.; Kaur, T.; Koenen, K.; DeStefano, S.; Zajac, A.M.; Lindsay, D.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystls neurona in a population of beavers (Castor canadensis) from Massachusetts. Sixty-two blood samples were collected during the field seasons over 3 consecutive years from different animals. Blood was collected onto filter paper and shipped to the Department of Biomedical Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, for parasite testing. The samples were tested at dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100 against each parasite antigen by modified agglutination tests to determine whether antibodies to either parasite were present in the blood. Six of 62 samples (10%) were positive for T. gondii, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 4 having titers of 1:50. Four of 62 samples (6%) were positive for S. neurona, with 2 samples having titers of 1:25 and 2 having titers of 1:50. ?? American Society of Pathologists 2005.

  18. Understanding mechanisms and the role of differentiation in pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Sullivan Jr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasite differentiation from proliferating tachyzoites into latent bradyzoites is central to pathogenesis and transmission of the intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts in human hosts and their subsequent rupture can cause life-threatening recrudescence of acute infection in the immunocompromised and cyst formation in other animals contributes to zoonotic transmission and widespread dissemination of the parasite. In this review, we discuss the evidence showing how the clinically relevant process of bradyzoite differentiation is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Specific regulatory factors implicated in modulating bradyzoite differentiation include promoter-based cis-elements, epigenetic modifications and protein translation control through eukaryotic initiation factor -2 (eIF2. In addition to a summary of the current state of knowledge in these areas we discuss the pharmacological ramifications and pose some questions for future research.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengifo-Herrera Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water were associated with seropositivity.

  20. Serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in wild birds and mammals from southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Pena, Hilda Fáitima de Jesus; Dubey, Jitender Prakash; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2014-03-01

    In this study, serum samples of 53 wild animals from two different states from the southeast region of Brazil were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off of 1: 5 for birds and of 1: 25 for mammals. Out of the sampled animals, 27 were birds and 26 were mammals, and from this total, 83% (n = 44) were free-living animals. Antibodies were found in 13 mammals, from which 11 were free-living animals, and in five birds, all of which were free-living. In this study, T. gondii antibodies were detected in four bird species (crested seriema, Cariama cristata; buff-necked ibis, Theristicus caudatus; picazuro pigeon, Patagioenas picazuro; and burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia) and in a giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) for the first time.

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats and sheep in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove, T.; Lind, Peter; Mukaratirwa, S.

    2005-01-01

    Seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii anti-antibodies in adult goats and sheep from different parts of Zimbabwe were determined. A total of 225 (67.9 %) of the 335 serum samples tested were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies with the indirect fluorescent antibody test. There were...... differences in antibody seroprevalences among communal land goats from the different agro-ecological zones (Natural regions IIb and III: 80 and 96.7%, respectively; Natural region IV: 65.9%; Natural region V: 45%; and Natural region III had a significantly higher seroprevalence than IV and V. The highest...... in sheep from a large commercial farm (10%) was significantly lower than that of sheep reared under the communal grazing system (80%). Overall, significantly higher proportions of seropositive animals had antibody titres of 1:50 (34.2% of 225) and 1:100 (44% of 225) as compared to the 9.8% and 12...

  2. Detection of Zoonotic Protozoa Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis suihominis in Wild Boars from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Pérez-Martín, J E; Reina, D; Serrano, F J; Frontera, E; Fuentes, I; Dubey, J P

    2016-08-01

    Food safety regulations require the control of the presence of protozoa in meats destined for human consumption. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) meat may constitute a source of zoonoses. A 23.8% (688/2881) seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and 72.2% (662/910) Sarcocystis sarcocysts prevalence were detected among wild boars hunted in Southwestern areas of Spain. Identity of Sarcocystis spp. was performed by RFLP-PCR and sequencing, detecting S. miescheriana (7/8) and the zoonotic S. suihominis (1/8). Risk assessment studies of these coccidian in meats destined to human consumption are needed. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Detection of toxoplasma gondii antigens in sera from experimentally infected mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaee, S.; Keshavarz, H.; Rezaian, M.; Mohebali, M.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of Toxoplasma antigen in serum of mice by Immunoblotting. strain. IgG isolated from rabbits that were immunized with T. gondii Immunoblotting was performed to detect T. gondii antigens in sera of mice. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with T. gondii RH strain. The value of Immunoblotting in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in acute stage of infection. The antigen bands detected in serum sample of mice were experimentally infected with T. gondii tachyzoite in immunoblotting. Six bands demonstrated on seventh post infection day six bands were identified. Similarly on sixth day four bands, on day five three bands and on fourth post infection day two bands were identified. No band was detected in control group sera. Immunoblotting is a sensitive method for diagnosis of acute stage of toxoplasmosis. (author)

  4. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in a free-ranging giant anteater

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    Thais Oliveira Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which establishes acute and chronic infections in birds and mammals, including humans. This note reports, for the first time, the detection and sequencing of DNA from T. gondii in the peripheral blood of a young free range giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. For the diagnosis, the following methods were used: polymerase chain reaction (PCR and positive serology (1:800 by means of the modified agglutination test (MAT. Since this species may be consumed by humans and predated by wild felids, its importance is emphasized as a probable source of zoonotic infection, in addition to its possible participation in the infection enzootic cycle. Although, parasitemia has been confirmed in this specimen, it presented no clinical sign of infection.

  5. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

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    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis among Patients with Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Jin; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Sun Hyun; Hong, Sung-Hee; You, Yong Sung; Kwon, Oh Woong; Kim, Hyeun Seung

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara canis in patients with uveitis. Patients with uveitis were examined. Serum antibodies to T. gondii and T. canis were tested by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done using blood and aqueous humor (AH). Ninety-eight patients were enrolled. Mean age was 43.5 ± 13.2 years. Six patients were seropositive for T. gondii with the following pattern: anterior uveitis, 1; posterior uveitis with retinitis, 2; pan uveitis, 2. One patient had a positive PCR result for T. gondii in AH, who showed panuveitis. Twenty-three patients were positive to serum IgG for T. canis with the following clinical manifestation: granuloma, 6; pigmented scar, 3; vitritis, 6--but none were PCR positive. T. gondii and T. canis are still important causes of uveitis. Ocular toxocariasis is not an uncommon cause of uveitis, even in adults.

  7. Screening of chemical compound libraries identified new anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Oluyomi Stephen; Sugi, Tatsuki; Han, Yongmei; Kato, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, a common parasitic disease that affects nearly one-third of the human population. The primary infection can be asymptomatic in healthy individuals but may prove fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Available treatment options for toxoplasmosis patients are limited, underscoring the urgent need to identify and develop new therapies. Non-biased screening of libraries of chemical compounds including the repurposing of well-characterized compounds is emerging as viable approach to achieving this goal. In the present investigation, we screened libraries of natural product and FDA-approved compounds to identify those that inhibited T. gondii growth. We identified 32 new compounds that potently inhibit T. gondii growth. Our findings are new and promising, and further strengthen the prospects of drug repurposing as well as the screening of a wide range of chemical compounds as a viable source of alternative anti-parasitic therapeutic agents.

  8. ARF6, PI3-kinase and host cell actin cytoskeleton in Toxoplasma gondii cell invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira da Silva, Claudio; Alves da Silva, Erika; Costa Cruz, Mario; Chavrier, Philippe; Arruda Mortara, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects a variety of different cell types in a range of different hosts. Host cell invasion by T. gondii occurs by active penetration of the host cell, a process previously described as independent of host actin polymerization. Also, the parasitophorous vacuole has been shown to resist fusion with endocytic and exocytic pathways of the host cell. ADP-ribosylation factor-6 (ARF6) belongs to the ARF family of small GTP-binding proteins. ARF6 regulates membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements at the plasma membrane. Here, we have observed that ARF6 is recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole of tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain and it also plays an important role in the parasite cell invasion with activation of PI3-kinase and recruitment of PIP 2 and PIP 3 to the parasitophorous vacuole of invading parasites. Moreover, it was verified that maintenance of host cell actin cytoskeleton integrity is important to parasite invasion.

  9. DNA chip-assisted diagnosis of a previously unknown etiology of intermediate uveitis- Toxoplasma gondii

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    Basu Soumyava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of DNA chip technology in the identification of Toxoplasma gondii as the etiological agent in two patients with recurrent intermediate uveitis (IU. Both patients had recurrent episodes of vitritis (with no focal retinochoroidal lesion over varying time intervals and were diagnosed to have IU. The tuberculin test was negative in both. Blood counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and serum angiotensin convertase enzyme levels were normal. In both cases, the vitreous fluid tested positive for the T. gondii DNA sequence by using a uveitis DNA chip (XCyton Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India. It contained complimentary sequences to "signature genes" of T. gondii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. chelonae, and M. fortuitum. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA detected elevated serum antitoxoplasma IgG levels in both. They responded to the antitoxoplasma therapy with oral co-trimoxazole (and additional intravitreal clindamycin in patient 1, with no recurrence during follow-ups of 6 and 8 months, respectively.

  10. Urine sample used for detection of toxoplasma gondii infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Pan, Chang-Wang; Li, Ya-Fei; Wang, Han; Tan, Feng

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in mice infected with T. gondii PRU strain. This LAMP assay was based on the sequence of highly repetitive B1 gene. The detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay was 1 pg of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. The LAMP assay was also highly specific for T. gondii and able to detect T. gondii DNA in urine of mice treated with dexamethasone at 90 day post infection (p.i.), although this assay could not detect the DNA in mice urine 2-6 days p.i. These results demonstrated that LAMP is effective for evaluation of therapy effectiveness for T. gondii infection. The established LAMP assay may represent a useful and practical tool for the routine diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of human toxoplasmosis.

  11. Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

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    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.

  12. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Neurisvan Ramos Guerra

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii that affects homeothermic animals, including humans. Felines are considered the definitive host of this parasite, while other animals act as intermediate hosts. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in bovines in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Serum samples (n = 427 from animals in 13 municipalities of the coastal forest/plantation region of the state were analyzed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The overall results revealed a prevalence rate of 16.63% (27/427. High percentages of positivity were found among animals aged 25 to 36 months (28.57%; 30/42 and in males (22.22%; 2/9. The present findings suggest that bovine toxoplasmosis is endemic in the area under study.

  13. Soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em rebanhos caprinos no Estado de São Paulo Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dairy goats in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Soares Mainardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi colhido um total de 442 soros em rebanhos caprinos de sete regiões do Estado de São Paulo e testados para anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Em todos os rebanhos, foram encontrados caprinos reagentes, totalizando 64 (14,5% animais com sorologia positiva em diferentes capris.Four hundred forty-two serum samples were collected from dairy goats in seven regions of São Paulo State. These were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Sixty-four (14,5% serologically positive animals were found from all these goat farms studied.

  14. A seroepidemiological survey of Toxoplasma gondii infection in referred dogs to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz, Iran

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    Fatemeh Zarra-Nezhad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite, which is the cause of toxoplasmosis and can infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including dogs and humans. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in Ahvaz, southwest city of Iran, and investigated the related possible risk factors. A total of 180 serum samples were collected from dogs referred to Veterinary Hospital of Ahvaz. The samples were then tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The prevalence of T. gondii antibodies were 46.67%. Logistic regression and chi square tests were used for evaluating of risk factors. The positivity increased statistically significantly with dog’s gender (56% females and 39% males, P = 0.001, age (18% in <2 years old, 96% in ≥4 years old, P = 0.001 and place of living (47% outdoor dogs 38% house hold dogs, P = 0.025. However, no statistically significant association was found with dogs’ breed, deworming, food ingestion or contact with cats. Overall, the results showed a relatively high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in southwest Iran (Ahvaz and proved association of T. gondii prevalence rates with the dog’s age, gender and place of living. Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Toxoplasmosis, Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Outdoor dogs, House hold dogs, Deworming

  15. Mouse-virulent Toxoplasma gondii isolated from feral cats on Mona Island, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; López-Torres, H Y; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Ajzenberg, D; Kwok, O C H; Hill, R; Dardé, M L; Su, C

    2007-12-01

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from cats from Mona, a remote island off the coast of Puerto Rico, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test and found in 16 of 19 (84.2%) of cats, with titers of 1:10 in 2, 1:80 in 1, 1:160 in 4, 1:320 in 3, and 1:1,280 or higher in 6. Tissues of 19 of the 20 cats were bioassayed in mice for T. gondii infection. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 12 cats: from the hearts of 9, skeletal muscle of 10, and brain of 1 cat. All infected mice from 10 of 12 isolates died of acute toxoplasmosis during primary infection. Genotyping of these 12 T. gondii isolates (designated (TgCatPr 1-12) by 10 multilocus PCR-RFLP markers, i.e., SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker Apico, and the 6 multilocus microsatellite markers TUB2, W35, TgM-A, B18, B17, and M33, revealed 7 genotypes; 5 isolates had Type I alleles at all loci except at 1 microsatellite locus, and the remainder were atypical. The latter isolates of T. gondii were different biologically and phenotypically from the feline isolates from the rest of the Americas. One isolate (TgCatPr 12) was a mixed infection with 2 genotypes.

  16. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Jeffrey B; Varela-Stokes, Andrea; Guo-Ross, Shirley X; Kummari, Evangel; Smith, Holly M; Cox, Erin; Lindsay, David S

    2015-01-01

    Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population) and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%), genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/-) mice and wild-type (+/+) mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI) prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  17. Chronic Toxoplasma gondii in Nurr1-null heterozygous mice exacerbates elevated open field activity.

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    Jeffrey B Eells

    Full Text Available Latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii is common in humans (approximately 30% of the global population and is a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Since prevalence of T. gondii infection is far greater than prevalence of schizophrenia (0.5-1%, genetic risk factors are likely also necessary to contribute to schizophrenia. To test this concept in an animal model, Nurr1-null heterozygous (+/- mice and wild-type (+/+ mice were evaluate using an emergence test, activity in an open field and with a novel object, response to bobcat urine and prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI prior to and 6 weeks after infection with T. gondii. In the emergence test, T. gondii infection significantly decreased the amount of time spent in the cylinder. Toxoplasma gondii infection significantly elevated open field activity in both +/+ and +/- mice but this increase was significantly exacerbated in +/- mice. T. gondii infection reduced PPI in male +/- mice but this was not statistically significant. Aversion to bobcat urine was abolished by T. gondii infection in +/+ mice. In female +/- mice, aversion to bobcat urine remained after T. gondii infection while the male +/- mice showed no aversion to bobcat urine. Antibody titers of infected mice were a critical variable associated with changes in open field activity, such that an inverted U shaped relationship existed between antibody titers and the percent change in open field activity with a significant increase in activity at low and medium antibody titers but no effect at high antibody titers. These data demonstrate that the Nurr1 +/- genotype predisposes mice to T. gondii-induced alterations in behaviors that involve dopamine neurotransmission and are associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. We propose that these alterations in murine behavior were due to further exacerbation of the altered dopamine neurotransmission in Nurr1 +/- mice.

  18. Anti-Toxoplasma Effects of Methanol Extracts of Feijoa sellowiana, Quercus castaneifolia, and Allium paradoxum

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    Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The currently available agents for use against toxoplasmosis have serious limitations. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii activities of methanol extracts of Feijoa sellowiana (F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Quercus castaneifolia (Q. castaneifolia (fruits, and Allium paradoxum (A. paradoxum (leaves in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Vero cells were treated with different concentrations (from 0 to 400 μg/mL of the above extracts or with pyrimethamine at a dose of 50 mg/mL (positive control. Then, the viabilities of the T. gondii-infected cells were measured by using colorimetric MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. In addition, the survival rates of mice acutely infected with 2 × 104 RH strain tachyzoites of T. gondii were examined in vivo after intraperitoneal injection of the extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 5 days. Results: In the in vitro anti- T. gondii assay, the IC50 values were 12.77, 180.2, 74.73, 213.2 and 163.8 μg/mL, and the selectivity indices were 6.05, 1.31, 0.35, 0.69 and 1.30 for the F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits, Q. castaneifolia, and A. paradoxum extracts and pyrimethamine, respectively. Moreover, the mice treated with F. sellowiana (leaves and fruits achieved better results in terms of survival than the others (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that methanol extract of F. sellowiana has significant anti-Toxoplasma activity. Further study should be conducted to investigate the potential bioactivity of this extract through bioactivity-guided fractionation.

  19. Point-of-care testing for Toxoplasma gondii IgG/IgM using Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM test with sera from the United States and implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, Ian J; Lykins, Joseph; Zhou, Ying; Lai, Bo Shiun; Levigne, Pauline; El Bissati, Kamal; Boyer, Kenneth; Withers, Shawn; Clouser, Fatima; Noble, A Gwendolyn; Rabiah, Peter; Swisher, Charles N; Heydemann, Peter T; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G; Montoya, Jose G; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ramirez, Raymund; Press, Cindy; Stillwaggon, Eileen; Peyron, François; McLeod, Rima

    2017-06-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis is a serious but preventable and treatable disease. Gestational screening facilitates early detection and treatment of primary acquisition. Thus, fetal infection can be promptly diagnosed and treated and outcomes can be improved. We tested 180 sera with the Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM point-of-care (POC) test. Sera were from 116 chronically infected persons (48 serotype II; 14 serotype I-III; 25 serotype I-IIIa; 28 serotype Atypical, haplogroup 12; 1 not typed). These represent strains of parasites infecting mothers of congenitally infected children in the U.S. 51 seronegative samples and 13 samples from recently infected persons known to be IgG/IgM positive within the prior 2.7 months also were tested. Interpretation was confirmed by two blinded observers. A comparison of costs for POC vs. commercial laboratory testing methods was performed. We found that this new Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM POC test was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (100%) for distinguishing IgG/IgM-positive from negative sera. Use of such reliable POC tests can be cost-saving and benefit patients. Our work demonstrates that the Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM test can function reliably as a point-of-care test to diagnose Toxoplasma gondii infection in the U.S. This provides an opportunity to improve maternal-fetal care by using approaches, diagnostic tools, and medicines already available. This infection has serious, lifelong consequences for infected persons and their families. From the present study, it appears a simple, low-cost POC test is now available to help prevent morbidity/disability, decrease cost, and make gestational screening feasible. It also offers new options for improved prenatal care in low- and middle-income countries.

  20. Loss of predator aversion in female rats after Toxoplasma gondii infection is not dependent on ovarian steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulai-Saiku, Samira; Vyas, Ajai

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odors in male rats. Relevant proximate mechanisms include interaction of gonadal testosterone and brain nonapeptide arginine-vasopressin. Both of these substrates are sexually dimorphic with preferential expression in males; suggesting either absence of behavioral change in females or mediation by analogous neuroendocrine substrates. Here we demonstrate that Toxoplasma gondii infection reduces aversion to cat odor in female rats. This change is not accompanied by altered steroid hormones; cannot be rescued by gonadal removal; and, does not depend on arginine-vasopressin. Thus behavioral change in males and female occur through non-analogous mechanisms that remain hitherto unknown. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection shifts dendritic cells into an amoeboid rapid migration mode encompassing podosome dissolution, secretion of TIMP-1, and reduced proteolysis of extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsson, Einar B; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Barragan, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) infected by Toxoplasma gondii rapidly acquire a hypermigratory phenotype that promotes systemic parasite dissemination by a "Trojan horse" mechanism in mice. Recent paradigms of leukocyte migration have identified the amoeboid migration mode of DCs as particularly suited for rapid locomotion in extracellular matrix and tissues. Here, we have developed a microscopy-based high-throughput approach to assess motility and matrix degradation by Toxoplasma-challenged murine and human DCs. DCs challenged with T. gondii exhibited dependency on metalloproteinase activity for hypermotility and transmigration but, strikingly, also dramatically reduced pericellular proteolysis. Toxoplasma-challenged DCs up-regulated expression and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and their supernatants impaired matrix degradation by naïve DCs and by-stander DCs dose dependently. Gene silencing of TIMP-1 by short hairpin RNA restored matrix degradation activity in Toxoplasma-infected DCs. Additionally, dissolution of podosome structures in parasitised DCs coincided with abrogated matrix degradation. Toxoplasma lysates inhibited pericellular proteolysis in a MyD88-dependent fashion whereas abrogated proteolysis persevered in Toxoplasma-infected MyD88-deficient DCs. This indicated that both TLR/MyD88-dependent and TLR/MyD88-independent signalling pathways mediated podosome dissolution and the abrogated matrix degradation. We report that increased TIMP-1 secretion and cytoskeletal rearrangements encompassing podosome dissolution are features of Toxoplasma-induced hypermigration of DCs with an impact on matrix degradation. Jointly, the data highlight how an obligate intracellular parasite orchestrates key regulatory cellular processes consistent with non-proteolytic amoeboid migration of the vehicle cells that facilitate its dissemination. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fatal attraction phenomenon in humans: cat odour attractiveness increased for toxoplasma-infected men while decreased for infected women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Flegr

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Latent toxoplasmosis, a lifelong infection with the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, has cumulative effects on the behaviour of hosts, including humans. The most impressive effect of toxoplasmosis is the "fatal attraction phenomenon," the conversion of innate fear of cat odour into attraction to cat odour in infected rodents. While most behavioural effects of toxoplasmosis were confirmed also in humans, neither the fatal attraction phenomenon nor any toxoplasmosis-associated changes in olfactory functions have been searched for in them.Thirty-four Toxoplasma-infected and 134 noninfected students rated the odour of urine samples from cat, horse, tiger, brown hyena and dog for intensity and pleasantness. The raters were blind to their infection status and identity of the samples. No signs of changed sensitivity of olfaction were observed. However, we found a strong, gender dependent effect of toxoplasmosis on the pleasantness attributed to cat urine odour (p = 0.0025. Infected men rated this odour as more pleasant than did the noninfected men, while infected women rated the same odour as less pleasant than did noninfected women. Toxoplasmosis did not affect how subjects rated the pleasantness of any other animal species' urine odour; however, a non-significant trend in the same directions was observed for hyena urine.The absence of the effects of toxoplasmosis on the odour pleasantness score attributed to large cats would suggest that the amino acid felinine could be responsible for the fatal attraction phenomenon. Our results also raise the possibility that the odour-specific threshold deficits observed in schizophrenia patients could be caused by increased prevalence of Toxoplasma-infected subjects in this population rather than by schizophrenia itself. The trend observed with the hyena urine sample suggests that this carnivore, and other representatives of the Feliformia suborder, should be studied for their possible role as definitive hosts in

  3. Metabolic Cooperation of Glucose and Glutamine Is Essential for the Lytic Cycle of Obligate Intracellular Parasite Toxoplasma gondii*

    OpenAIRE

    Nitzsche, Richard; Zagoriy, Vyacheslav; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite infecting nearly all warm-blooded organisms. Asexual reproduction of the parasite within its host cells is achieved by consecutive lytic cycles, which necessitates biogenesis of significant energy and biomass. Here we show that glucose and glutamine are the two major physiologically important nutrients used for the synthesis of macromolecules (ATP, nucleic acid, proteins, and lipids) in T. gondii, and either of them is sufficient to ensure ...

  4. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in horse meat from supermarkets in France and performance evaluation of two serological tests

    OpenAIRE

    Aroussi Abdelkrim; Vignoles Philippe; Dalmay François; Wimel Laurence; Dardé Marie-Laure; Mercier Aurélien; Ajzenberg Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii an...

  5. Incidence of adult brain cancers is higher in countries where the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Frédéric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Brodeur, Jacques; Elguero, Eric; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée

    2011-01-01

    We explored associations between the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and brain cancers in human populations. We predicted that T. gondii could increase the risk of brain cancer because it is a long-lived parasite that encysts in the brain, where it provokes inflammation and inhibits apoptosis. We used a medical geography approach based on the national incidence of brain cancers and seroprevalence of T. gondii. We corrected reports of incidence for national gross domestic product b...

  6. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Alvarado-Esquivel, Domingo; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-01-01

    Background Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Donkeys were sampled in four premises (trade centers) where donkeys were gather for shipment to abattoirs in other Mexican states. Results A...

  7. Seroprevalence of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in patients suspected to have active toxoplasmosis: A cross-sectional survey

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    Abbas Ali Eskandarian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and distribution of anti-toxoplasma-specific IgM and IgG tantibodies in patients suspected to have toxoplasmosis and investigate for any association between IgM and IgG antibodies and some toxoplasmosis risk factors as well. Materials and Methods: In a comparative cross-sectional study, 70 patients suspected to had active toxoplasmosis and 30 control volunteers, who gave informed consent, entered the study. In each group, patient age, sex, signs of appearance, education level, residency status (urban / rural, occupation, frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, abortion history, and some risk factors (Direct cat exposure, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were recorded. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kits (EUROIMMUN®, United Kingdom were used for the evaluation of anti-toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies according to the manufacturer›s instructions. All analyses were done using SPSS-20. Results: The frequency of toxoplasma-specific IgG and IgM antibodies like: Direct cat exposures, Occupational exposure to raw meat, and Raw vegetable consumption were not statistically significant between the two groups (P > 0.05. The history of previous abortions in women in the toxoplasmosis-suspected group was significantly higher than that in the controls (31.4% versus 6.7%; P = 0.009. Conclusion: The frequency of specific IgM and IgG antibodies in toxoplasmosis suspected in the toxoplasmosis and control groups was not statistically significant.

  8. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobode, H O; Olubi, I C

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii poses a risk of congenital infection during pregnancy in infected women. The disease poses a threat of ocular and neurological sequelae in congenitally ilfected infants and HIV patients; however, there is little valuable information on its prevalence in Ibadan. A cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal care in three primary healthcare centres in Ibadan was carried out. 179 women were screened for T gondii infection using PCR, 83 of these were also screened for HIV. Forty nine (27.4%) were positive for T gondii, and 2(2.4%) were HIV positive (P = 0.002, OR = 0.28, CL = 95%). 27 (15.1%) of the infected women were in third trimester, with 20 (11.2%) and 2 (1.1%) in second and first trimester respectively. 18 (10.1%) positive cases were identified among the primigravidas and 31 (17.2%) among the multigravidas. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were assessed, and the source of drinking water and the types of animals around habitation were found to be significantly associated with the presence of Toxoplasma infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.109 and P = 0.004, OR = 1.693 respectively). The high prevalence among women in third trimester may indicate high risk of congenital infection, and the significant association found between the source of drinking water and infection suggests environmental contamination as a major possible mode of infection. The need to educate pregnant women about the transmission mechanisms of T. gondii, and the effects of the infection on neonates and babies is pertinent in order to effectively control Toxoplasma infection.

  9. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and potentially zoonotic helminths in wild boars (Sus scrofa hunted in central Italy

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    Roberto Amerigo Papini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the risk of human toxoplasmosis via meat consumption from wild boars by estimating the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in animals hunted in central Italy. Using a modified agglutination test, 213 sera from wild boars were examined for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. Diaphragm samples (n=65 from seropositive and seronegative animals were tested by nested-PCR to detect T. gondii DNA. Toxoplasma DNA from diaphragms was genotyped by PCR-RFLP using 12 genetic markers. Moreover, the aim of the study was also to identify helminth infections of wild boars in the selected area and to evaluate their hazard for humans. Examination of sera revealed a seroprevalence of 12.2%. Only one T. gondii strain could be genotyped from a seropositive animal and PCR-RFLP revealed that it belonged to type II. Analysis of 50 samples of faeces and 32 small intestines revealed that 78% and 15.6% of the samples harboured parasites, respectively, with the occurrence of parasites potentially dangerous for humans. These latter included Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, Trichuris suis, and Metastrongylus spp. A significant association was found between coprological positivity and male sex. These results indicate that T. gondii infection may be present in wild boar tissues and consumption of undercooked or raw wild boar meat may expose humans to risk of toxoplasmosis in the study area. Furthermore, the study highlights that wild boars are hosts of helminths of veterinary and medical importance transmissible to pigs and humans.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Conrad, Patricia A; Miller, Melissa A; Melli, Ann C; Carpenter, Tim E; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2013-09-01

    Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. Toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened Southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. As wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding Toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. To assess relative contributions to terrestrial parasite loading, we evaluated infection and shedding among managed and unmanaged feral domestic cats, mountain lions, and bobcats in coastal California, USA. Infection prevalence differed among sympatric felids, with a significantly lower prevalence for managed feral cats (17%) than mountain lions, bobcats, or unmanaged feral cats subsisting on wild prey (73-81%). A geographic hotspot of infection in felids was identified near Monterey Bay, bordering a high-risk site for otter infection. Increased odds of oocyst shedding were detected in bobcats and unmanaged feral cats. Due to their large populations, pet and feral domestic cats likely contribute more oocysts to lands bordering the sea otter range than native wild felids. Continued coastal development may influence felid numbers and distribution, increase terrestrial pathogens in freshwater runoff, and alter disease dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface.

  11. Las cosas por su nombre

    OpenAIRE

    Storani, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    El artículo propone indagar sobre los modos y diferentes formatos que se utilizan tanto en la escritura como en la lectura, para articular con las luchas por la identidad de género. La Ley de Identidad de Género ha sido un puntapié clave para pensarnos a nosotros mismos culturalmente y para pensar a los demás. Pero, ¿cómo mencionamos, escribimos y leemos las diferentes identidades? La escritura, también es un mundo transformador para quienes bregan por una sociedad más libre y sin prejuicios....

  12. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

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    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  13. Diverticulitis yeyunal perforada por enterolito.

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    Marenco De la Cuadra, Beatriz; Gomez-Rosado, Juan-Carlos; Capitan-Morales, Luis-Cristobal; Valdés Hernández, Javier; Reyes-lopera, N.J. De los

    2012-01-01

    La diverticulosis yeyunal es una enfermedad adquirida rara. Casi el 60-70% keeps asymptomátic or Con síntomas crónicos inespecíficos, aunque puede presentarse como un abdomen agudo. La perforación debida a enterolitos es una causa extremadamente rara do complicación, y puede producirse por la impactación de ésta contra la pared intestinal. Presentamos caso de un varón de 82 años que acude a urgencias por un dolor súbito abdominal, difuso, con irritación peritoneal, leucocitosis con neutro...

  14. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci; Virginia Pujol Lereis; Sebastián Ameriso; Guillermo Povedano; María F. Díaz; Alejandro Hlavnicka; Néstor A. Wainsztein; Sebastián F. Ameriso

    2013-01-01

    La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Str...

  15. Effects of dendritic cell vaccine activated with protein components of toxoplasma gondii on tumor specific CD8+ T-cells

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    Amari A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Dendritic Cell (DC is an important antigen-presenting cell that present tumor antigen to CD8+ and CD4+ T- Lymphocytes and induce specific anti-tumor immunity. In order to induce effective anti-tumor response, an option is increasing the efficiency of antigen presentation of dendritic cells and T cell activation capacity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dendritic cell maturation with protein components of toxoplasma gondii on cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and their infiltration in to the tumor."n"nMethods: For DC generation, bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. After that, LPS, protein components and whole extract of toxoplasma gondii were added to the culture media and incubated for another two days for DC maturation. To generate tumor, mices were injected subcutaneously with WEHI-164 cell line. For immunotherapy 106 DCs matured with different compounds were injected around the tumor site. Infiltration of CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry and cytotoxic activity was measured by LDH detection kit."n"nResults: Immunotherapy with DCs treated with protein components of toxoplasma gondii led to a significant increase in the

  16. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in a subset of Mexican patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Torres-Castorena, Alejandro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Urbina-Álvarez, Jesús D

    2012-01-11

    Toxoplasma gondii has been associated with reflex impairment and traffic accidents. It is unknown whether Toxoplasma infection might be associated with work accidents. Therefore, using a case-control seroprevalence study design, 133 patients with a recent work accident and 266 control subjects of the general population from the same region were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence and levels of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from each worker were obtained. Eleven (8.3%) of 133 patients, and 14 (5.3%) of 266 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were higher than 150 IU/ml in 8 (6%) patients and 10 (3.8%) controls. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in one (0.8%) of the workers, and in 6 (2.3%) of the controls. No statistically significant differences in the IgG seroprevalences, frequencies of high IgG levels, and IgM seroprevalences among patients and controls were found. In contrast, a low socio-economic level in patients with work accidents was associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity (P = 0.01). Patients with work accidents and low socioeconomic status showed a significantly (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 0.84-16.06; P = 0.04) higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same socioeconomic status (15.1% vs. 5%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed a positive association of T. gondii infection with boar meat consumption (OR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.03-8.94; P = 0.04). In contrast, a negative association between T. gondii infection and national trips (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.96; P = 0.04), sausage consumption (OR = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.68; P = 0.01), and ham consumption (OR = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.51; P = 0.002) was found. In the study described here seropositivity to T. gondii was associated to work accidents in a subset of patients with low socioeconomic status. This is the first report of an

  17. Elp3 and RlmN: A tale of two mitochondrial tail-anchored radical SAM enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Leah R; Lentini, Jenna M; Holmes, Michael J; Stilger, Krista L; Fu, Dragony; Sullivan, William J

    2018-01-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (rSAM) enzymes use a 5'-deoxyadensyl 5'-radical to methylate a wide array of diverse substrates including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. One such enzyme, Elongator protein-3 (TgElp3), is an essential protein in Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite that can cause life-threatening opportunistic disease. Unlike Elp3 homologues which are present in all domains of life, TgElp3 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) via a tail-anchored trafficking mechanism in Toxoplasma. Intriguingly, we identified a second tail-anchored rSAM domain containing protein (TgRlmN) that also localizes to the OMM. The transmembrane domain (TMD) on Toxoplasma Elp3 and RlmN homologues is required for OMM localization and has not been seen beyond the chromalveolates. Both TgElp3 and TgRlmN contain the canonical rSAM amino acid sequence motif (CxxxCxxC) necessary to form the 4Fe-4S cluster required for tRNA modifications. In E. coli, RlmN is responsible for the 2-methlyadenosine (m2A) synthesis at purine 37 in tRNA while in S. cerevisiae, Elp3 is necessary for the formation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at the wobble tRNA position. To investigate why these two rSAM enzymes localize to the mitochondrion in Toxoplasma, and whether or not TgRlmN and TgElp3 possess tRNA methyltransferase activity, a series of mutational and biochemical studies were performed. Overexpression of either TgElp3 or TgRlmN resulted in a significant parasite replication defect, but overexpression was tolerated if either the TMD or rSAM domain was mutated. Furthermore, we show the first evidence that Toxoplasma tRNAGlu contains the mcm5s2U modification, which is the putative downstream product generated by TgElp3 activity.

  18. Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia species antibodies in patients with schizophrenia: a case-control study from western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevizci, Sibel; Celik, Merve; Akcali, Alper; Oyekcin, Demet Gulec; Sahin, Ozlem Oztürk; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-06-01

    We examined IgG antibody seroprevalence and risk factors for anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Borrelia sp. in schizophrenic patients. This case-control study included 30 schizophrenic patients and 60 healthy individuals. Serological analyses were identified by using ELISA technique. In the case group the Toxoplasma seropositivity was 33.3% and Borrelia seropositivity was 13.3%, while in the control group the Toxoplasma positivity was 21.7% and Borrelia seropositivity was 15.0%. There was no significant difference with regard to seroprevalence between the groups (P = 0.232; P = 0.832, respectively). There was statistically significant difference between case and control groups related to hand and kitchen utensil hygiene after dealing with raw meat (P = 0.001). Our data showed the rate of Toxoplasma antibodies was higher in the case group, while the rate of Borrelia antibodies was higher in the control group. In both groups the high rates of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii and Borrelia sp. is thought to be due to neglect of personal hygiene. The present study also is the first to examine the association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is an association between Borrelia sp. and schizophrenia or not.

  19. DESAJUSTE EDUCATIVO POR REGIONES EN COLOMBIA: ¿COMPETENCIA POR SALARIOS O POR PUESTOS DE TRABAJO?

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    Maribel Castillo Caicedo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación, entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  20. Consanguinidad por isonimia en Salta

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    Albeza, María V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el coeficiente de parentesco por isonimia para localidades de la Puna, Valle Calchaquí y Valle de Lerma, a fin de evaluar diferentes factores evolutivos que podrían estar afectando la composición genética de la población. A partir de los apellidos de las parejas consignadas en fuentes primarias de información, se estimó la isonimia conyugal o marital, el coeficiente total Ft y sus componentes Fr (inbreeding azaroso y Fn (inbreeding no azaroso. De las localidades estudiadas, en la Puna se ha detectado sólo una pareja isónima en una de ellas, en el Valle Calchaquí, tres y ninguna en el Valle de Lerma. Tanto en el Valle Calchaquí como en el de Lerma, se han estimado valores negativos de Ft, y en la Puna se registran los valores más elevados. En las localidades estudiadas no se cumple el supuesto de transmisión patrilineal de apellidos por lo que los valores de Fr y por ende de Ft podrían estar subestimados. Es por ello que sería necesario contar con información desde otras vertientes metodológicas para corroborar, complementar y manejar cuidadosamente el análisis de los datos y las conclusiones que se obtienen.

  1. Celulitis por citomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus cellulitis

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    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics without improvement. A skin biopsy was performed and the tissue obtained was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures as well as for histological examination. Cultures were negative. The biopsy showed CMV cytopathic changes. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for CMV and polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing revealed CMV DNA. She was treated with ganciclovir with resolution of the lesion. CMV cellulitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation

  2. Utilização, em politransfundidos, da pesquisa de anticorpos igm anti-trypanosoma cruzi e anti-toxoplasma gondii para detectar infecções pós-transfusionais recentes IgM Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the detection of recent transfusion-transmitted infections

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Consideram os Autores que a pesquisa de anticorpos IgM no soro é tática capaz de revelar recentes infecções pós-transfusionais. Por isso, decidiram usar esse tipo de mensuração relativamente a grupo constituído por 101 politrans-fundidos, tendo abordado especificamente as aquisições de doença de Chagas e toxoplasmose. Através da investigação que realizaram, só em duas oportunidades encontraram anticorpos IgM anti-Trypanosoma cruzi ou anti-Toxoplasma gondii e, portanto, não evidenciaram expressivo panorama tradutor de processos há pouco tempo contraídos, como ainda, por meio de anticorpos IgG não identificaram números expressivos de pessoas com essas protozooses. No entanto, detectaram a expressiva taxa de 4,9% de casos de doença de Chagas muito provavelmente decorrentes da hemoterapia. A despeito da relevância não acentuada dos resultados que obtiveram, julgaram os Autores ser válido estimular a efetivação de outros estudos congêneres e correlatos, aptos a contribuir para aqui-latamento de riscos pertinentes à prática hemoterápica.The Authors have regarded serum IgM antibodies titration as useful in the detection of recent transfusion-transmitted infections. For this reason a group consisting of 101 patients, who had received many blood transfusions, underwent such mensuration in order to reveal recent Chagas'disease and toxoplasmosis acquired infections. Throughout the investigation just two cases have yielded IgM trypanosomal or toxoplasmal antibodies, showing therefore that this sort of titration did not correlate with the real existence of recent acquired infections. On the other hand IgM antibodies in the same patients did not show a considerable incidence of these two protozoan infections. However an expressive rate of 4.9% of Chagas'disease probably due to hemotherapy was found. Although the results this study were not very relevant, the Authors still have in mind that further similar investigations should be

  3. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in zoo animals in selected zoos in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camps, Silvia; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J A

    2008-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections in zoo animals are of interest because many captive animals die of clinical toxoplasmosis and because of the potential risk of exposure of children and elderly to T. gondii oocysts excreted by cats in the zoos. Seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in wild zoo felids, highly susceptible zoo species, and feral cats from 8 zoos of the midwestern United States was determined by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). A titer of 1:25 was considered indicative of T. gondii exposure. Among wild felids, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 6 (27.3%) of 22 cheetahs (Acynonyx jubatus jubatus), 2 of 4 African lynx (Caracal caracal), 1 of 7 clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), 1 of 5 Pallas cats (Otocolobus manul), 12 (54.5%) of 22 African lions (Panthera leo), 1 of 1 jaguar (Panthera onca), 1 of 1 Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), 1 of 1 Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor), 5 (27.8%) of 18 Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), 1 of 4 fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus), 3 of 6 pumas (Puma concolor), 2 of 2 Texas pumas (Puma concolor stanleyana), and 5 (35.7%) of 14 snow leopards (Uncia uncia). Antibodies were found in 10 of 34 feral domestic cats (Felis domesticus) trapped in 3 zoos. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any of the 78 fecal samples from wild and domestic cats. Among the macropods, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 Dama wallabies (Macropus eugenii), 1 of 1 western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus), 1 of 2 wallaroos (Macropus robustus), 6 of 8 Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), 21 (61.8%) of 34 red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), and 1 of 1 dusky pademelon (Thylogale brunii). Among prosimians, antibodies were detected in 1 of 3 blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), 1 of 21 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), 2 of 9 red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra), and 2 of 4 black- and white-ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata). Among the avian species tested, 2 of 3 bald

  4. Investigating the Determinants of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Meat: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression.

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    Simone Belluco

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites in humans and can cause severe illness in immunocompromised individuals. However, its role in healthy people is probably under-appreciated. The complex epidemiology of this protozoan recognizes several infection routes but consumption of contaminated food is likely to be the predominant one. Among food, consumption of raw and undercooked meat is a relevant route of transmission, but the role of different meat producing animal species and meats thereof is controversial.The aim of the present work is to summarize and analyse literature data reporting prevalence estimates of T. gondii in meat animals/meats.We searched Medline, Web of Science, Science Direct (last update 31/03/2015.Relevant papers should report data from primary studies dealing with the prevalence of T. gondii in meat from livestock species as obtained through direct detection methods. Meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed.Of 1915 papers screened, 69 papers were included, dealing mainly with cattle, pigs and sheep. Pooled prevalences, based on random-effect models, were 2.6% (CI95 [0.5-5.8] for cattle, 12.3% (CI95 [7.6-17.8] for pigs and 14.7% (CI95 [8.9-21.5] for sheep. Due to the high heterogeneity observed, univariable and multivariable meta-regression models were fitted showing that the geographic area for cattle (p = 0.032, the farming type for pigs (p = 0.0004 and the sample composition for sheep (p = 0.03 had significant effects on the prevalences of Toxoplasma detected/estimated. Moreover, the role of different animal species was dependent on the geographic location of animals' origin.Limitations were due mainly to a possible publication bias.The present work confirms the role of meat, including beef, as T. gondii sources, and highlights the need for a control system for this parasite to be implemented along the meat production chain. Moreover, consumer knowledge should be strengthened in order to reduce

  5. Pathology, clinical signs, and tissue distribution of Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally infected reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

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    Émilie Bouchard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite found in vertebrates worldwide for which felids serve as definitive hosts. Despite low densities of felids in northern Canada, Inuit people in some regions show unexpectedly high levels of exposure, possibly through handling and consumption of Arctic wildlife. Free-ranging caribou (Rangifer tarandus are widely harvested for food across the Canadian North, show evidence of seroexposure to T. gondii, and are currently declining in numbers throughout the Arctic. We experimentally infected three captive reindeer (conspecific with caribou with 1000, 5000 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii via stomach intubation to assess clinical signs of infection, pathology, and tissue distribution. An unexposed reindeer served as a negative control. Signs of stress, aggression, and depression were noted for the first two weeks following infection. By 4 weeks post infection, all infected reindeer were positive on a modified agglutination test at the highest titer tested (1:200 for antibodies to T. gondii. At 20 weeks post infection, no gross abnormalities were observed on necropsy. Following histopathology and immunohistochemistry, tissue cysts were visualized in the reindeer given the highest and lowest dose of oocysts. Focal pleuritis and alveolitis were associated with respiratory problems in reindeer given the middle dose. DNA of T. gondii was detected following traditional DNA extraction and conventional PCR on 25 mg samples from 17/33 muscles and organs, and by magnetic capture DNA extraction from 100 g samples from all 26 tissues examined. This research demonstrated that reindeer/caribou can serve as intermediate hosts for T. gondii, and that the parasite may be associated with health effects in wildlife. The presence of T. gondii in all tissues tested, many of which are commonly consumed raw, smoked, or dried in northern communities, suggests that caribou may serve as a source of human exposure to T

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

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    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  7. Socio-demographic determinants of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in migrant workers of Peninsular Malaysia.

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    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Basáñez, Maria-Gloria; Walker, Martin; Lewis, John W; Noordin, Rahmah; Abdullah, Khairul Anuar; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-05-15

    The number of migrants working in Malaysia has increased sharply since the 1970's and there is concern that infectious diseases endemic in other (e.g. neighbouring) countries may be inadvertently imported. Compulsory medical screening prior to entering the workforce does not include parasitic infections such as toxoplasmosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection among migrant workers in Peninsular Malaysia by means of serosurveys conducted on a voluntary basis among low-skilled and semi-skilled workers from five working sectors, namely, manufacturing, food service, agriculture and plantation, construction and domestic work. A total of 484 migrant workers originating from rural locations in neighbouring countries, namely, Indonesia (n = 247, 51.0%), Nepal (n = 99, 20.5%), Bangladesh (n = 72, 14.9%), India (n = 52, 10.7%) and Myanmar (n = 14, 2.9%) were included in this study. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 57.4% (n = 278; 95% CI: 52.7-61.8%) with 52.9% (n = 256; 95% CI: 48.4-57.2%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG only, 0.8% (n = 4; 95% CI: 0.2-1.7%) seropositive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM only and 3.7% (n = 18; 95% CI: 2.1-5.4%) seropositive with both IgG and IgM antibodies. All positive samples with both IgG and IgM antibodies showed high avidity (> 40%), suggesting latent infection. Age (being older than 45 years), Nepalese nationality, manufacturing occupation, and being a newcomer in Malaysia (excepting domestic work) were positively and statistically significantly associated with seroprevalence (P Malaysia. Efforts should be made to encourage improved personal hygiene before consumption of food and fluids, thorough cooking of meat and better disposal of feline excreta from domestic pets.

  8. Antibody Detection, Isolation, Genotyping, and Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii in Captive Felids from China

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    Yu-Rong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The felids are the only definitive hosts of Toxoplasma gondii, which could excrete oocysts into the environment and provide an infection source for toxoplasmosis in various warm-blooded animal species, particularly the captive felids that live close to human communities. The infection rate of the captive felids is a perfect standard in detecting the presence of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment. In this study, sera or tissue samples from zoo (1 young tiger, 2 adult tigers, 6 young lions, farm (10 masked palm civets, and pet hospital (28 cats from Henan Province (China were collected. The sera (n = 47 were tested for immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies against T. gondii by using modified agglutination test (MAT, whereas the hearts tissue (n = 40 were bioassayed in mice to isolate T. gondii strains. The genotype was distinguished by using PCR-RFLP of 10 loci (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, GRA6, BTUB, L358, c22-8, PK1, c29-2, and Apico. The detection rate for the T. gondii antibody in captive felids was 21.3% (10/47. One viable T. gondii strain (TgCatCHn4 was obtained from a cat heart tissue, and its genotype was ToxoDB#9. The oocysts of ToxoDB#9 were collected from a T. gondii-free cat. The virulence of TgCatCHn4 was low and no cysts were detected in the brain of mice at 60 days post-inoculation. The finding of the present study suggested a widespread exposure of T. gondii for felids in Henan Province of central China, particularly those from the zoological gardens and homes. ToxoDB#9 was the predominant strain in China. Preventive measures against T. gondii oocyst contamination of various components of the environment should thus be implemented, including providing pre-frozen meat, well-cooked cat food, cleaned fruits and vegetables, monitoring birds and rodents, inactive T. gondii oocysts in felids feces, and proper hygiene.

  9. Geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Asia: A link with neighboring continents.

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    Chaichan, P; Mercier, A; Galal, L; Mahittikorn, A; Ariey, F; Morand, S; Boumédiène, F; Udonsom, R; Hamidovic, A; Murat, J B; Sukthana, Y; Dardé, M L

    2017-09-01

    Defining the pattern of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii is important to understand its worldwide distribution. During the last decades, a large number of studies have been published on Toxoplasma genotypes circulating in Europe, in North and South America. Two continents are still largely unexplored, Africa and, to a less extent, Asia. In this last continent, an increasing number of publications reported genotypes circulating in diverse provinces of China, but very few data are available for other Asian countries. After a systematic database search, 47 papers related to T. gondii genotypes in Asia were analyzed. Genetic characterization of DNA was performed by microsatellite markers, or more usually by a multiplex PCR using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, allowing data comparison to draw a first global picture of the population structure of this parasite throughout Asia. Overall, 390 isolates or DNA extracts were completely typed by PCR-RFLP and/or microsatellite marker methods, revealing 36 different PCR-RFLP or equivalent microsatellite genotypes: 15 genotypes identified by a ToxoDB number and 21 atypical or unique genotypes. The most common genotype found in Asia is the genotype ToxoDB#9 (Chinese 1). The clonal types I, II and II variant, and III were also commonly found in Asia. The geographical distribution of these genotypes across Asia may reflect either a continuum with Europe for the western part of Asia (presence of Type II), or the circulation of strains through animal migration or human activities between Africa and the Southwestern part of Asia (Africa 1 genotype in Turkey or ToxoDB#20 both I Sri-Lanka and in Ethiopia or Egypt). Although there are some indications of a genetic population structure in Southeast Asian countries different from the rest of Asia, more studies in this tropical part of Asia will be necessary for a region which represent as well as Africa one of the missing links of the T. gondii genetic diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  10. Preliminary report of HIV and Toxoplasma gondii occurrence in pregnant women from Mozambique

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    Sonia Paula Benedito Luis Sitoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, a protozoan disease, causes severe disease in fetuses during pregnancy and deadly encephalitis in HIV patients. There are several studies on its seroprevalence around the world, but studies focusing on African countries are limited in number and mostly anecdotal. We studied two groups of samples from Mozambique by ELISA, using serum samples from 150 pregnant women and six Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from AIDS patients with encephalitis. HIV status was confirmed, and CD4 blood counts were obtained from HIV-positive pregnant women. IgG seroprevalence of the group as a whole was 18.7% (28/150, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive individuals compared to those who were HIV-negative (31.3%, [18/58] vs. 10.9%, [10/92] patients. These data may be biased due to cumulative effects of exposition affecting disease prevalence. If corrected, this data may indicate an interaction of HIV and T. gondii. Prevalence of both diseases increases with age, but this is more clearly seen for toxoplasmosis (p < 0.005 than HIV infection, possibly explained by higher transmission of HIV after childhood. In HIV patients suffering from encephalitis, CSF serology showed that 33% of specific IgG CSF had a high avidity, which was in accordance with the data from the group of pregnant women. Lower prevalence rates of both infections in older groups could be explained by more deaths in the infected groups, resulting in an artificially lower prevalence. Using CD4 counts as a marker of time of HIV infection, and correcting for age, patients with contact with T. gondii had fewer CD4 cells, suggesting prolonged HIV disease or other causes. Toxoplasma IgG prevalence is higher in HIV+ groups, which could be ascribed to HIV- and T. gondii-associated risk factors, such as exposure to higher and more diverse social contacts. The low incidence of Toxoplasma IgG in younger age groups shows that transmission could be related to better access to cyst-containing meat

  11. Soroprevalência de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em trabalhadores de um matadouro de suínos e em indivíduos com outras atividades na cidade de Palmas, Paraná, Brasil Seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in workers of a swine slaughterhouse and in individuals with other activities in the city of Palmas, Paraná, Brazil

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    Patricia Riddell Millar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O risco de infecção por Toxoplasma gondii em trabalhadores de um frigorífico de suínos em Palmas, Paraná, Brasil, foi estudado comparativamente a outros indivíduos que não mantinham contato com animais e suas carcaças. As 174 amostras de soros foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 - funcionários de um matadouro-frigorífico de suínos (133 e grupo 2 - controle (41. No ato da coleta, todos os participantes responderam a um questionário epidemiológico com as seguintes variáveis: sexo, idade, contato com gatos e solo, hábito de ingerir carne crua ou mal cozida, embutidos crus e leite cru. Todas as amostras de soros foram submetidas aos testes ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay e RIFI (Reação de imunofluorescência indireta - IgG anti-T. gondii; por sua vez, para IgM anti-T. gondii, foi utilizada a RIFI. Todos os 174 indivíduos eram IgM soro não-reagentes. No grupo 1, 48,1% eram IgG sororreagentes na RIFI e 58,6% na ELISA. No grupo 2, 39,0% eram IgG sororreagentes na RIFI e 51,2% na ELISA. Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos 1 e 2 em todas as variáveis, com exceção de "contato com gatos", para o grupo 1, e de "ingestão de leite cru", para o grupo 2, que foram estatisticamente significativas. Os resultados sugerem que a manipulação de carcaças (cistos não deve ter sido o único mecanismo de infecção envolvido na alta freqüência de sororeagentes na população estudada, embora possa ter contribuído na transmissão do parasita como fator de risco, assim como o contato com solo contaminado ou com gatos (oocistos.The risk of Toxoplasma gondii infection in workers of a swine slaughterhouse in Palmas, Paraná, Brazil was compared to other individuals not exposed to these animals and its carcasses. The 174 serum samples were divided in two groups: group 1 - slaughterhouse workers (133, and group 2 - control (41. During blood sampling, workers answered an epidemiological

  12. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

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    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  13. Analysis of the association opportunistic infections with c-reactive protein focus toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, rubella,and hepatitis in human immunodeficiency virus

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    Khadijah, K. H.; Ferica, K.; Katu, S.; Halim, R.; Mubin, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    Opportunistic infections occur more often severe in people with HIV. C-reactive protein is known to have a prognostic value in HIV and those with HIV-related opportunistic infections. High level of CRP will increase therisk of infection toxoplasma, CMV, rubella,and hepatitis in HIV.Analyzing association of opportunistic infections toxoplasma, CMV, rubella,and hepatitis with the level of CRP in HIV, a cross-sectional analytic study wasduring January-July 2017 on both outpatientand inpatient HIV subjects at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar. Each HIV patient is categorized into agroup of opportunistic infections: toxoplasma, CMV, rubella, hepatitis. CRP levels will be assessed in each group, defined by normal values 0.05).

  14. Esporotricosis diagnosticada por el laboratorio

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    Nelly Ordóñez

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available De 1976 a 1989 se han diagnosticado 40 casos de esporotricosis en el laboratorio de Micología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. La enfermedad se presentó en pacientes entre 4 y 52 años y tuvo predilección por el sexo masculino: 35 de 40 (87,5%; las formas clínicas más frecuentes fueron la cutánea fija, 18 de 40 (45%, y la linfocutánea, 17 de 40 (42,5%, con localización mayor en miembros superiores, 18 de 40 (45%. El diagnóstico se estableció por el aislamiento del Sporothrix schenckii en 35 de 38 pacientes (92%; los otros dos pacientes se diagnosticaron empleando otras técnicas: inmunofluorescencia directa, intradermorreacción y aglutinación en tubo.

  15. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

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    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ha efectuado una revisión de los casos de miasis cutáneas forunculoides importadas publicados en España, así como de la biología, patología, tratamiento y prevención de la miasis humana por Cordylobia anthropophaga. El caso referido, se caracterizó por la infestación con un número inusualmente elevado de larvas, no sospechándose su etiología hasta la fase final de la enfermedad. La emergencia continuada de larvas (se recogieron 91 generó en la paciente un estado de ansiedad importante. Finalmente, la eliminación de las larvas provocó una rápida mejoría de la paciente. Aunque los casos de miasis cutánea no tienen la gravedad de otras enfermedades importadas, su conocimiento es necesario desde el punto de vista preventivo, diagnóstico y terapeútico. Es importante proceder a la identificación morfológica de las larvas diferenciándolas de otro tipo de miasis con implicaciones terapéuticas diferentes.

  16. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces lipid metabolism alterations in the murine host

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    Ivan Milovanović

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Host lipids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondiiinfection. To determine if Toxoplasmainfection influences the lipid status in the normal host, we assessed serum lipids of Swiss-Webster mice during infection with the BGD-1 strain (type-2 at a series of time points. Mice were bled at days zero and 42 post-infection, and subgroups were additionally bled on alternating weeks (model 1, or sacrificed at days zero, 14 and 42 (model 2 for the measurement of total cholesterol (Chl, high density lipoproteins (HDL, low density lipoproteins (LDL and triglycerides and adiponectin. At day 42, brains were harvested for cyst enumeration. A significant decrease (p = 0.02 in HDL and total Chl was first noted in infected vs. control mice at day 14 and persisted to day 42 (p = 0.013. Conversely, LDL was unaltered until day 42, when it increased (p = 0.043. Serum LDL levels at day 42 correlated only with cyst counts of above 300 (found in 44% mice, while the change in HDL between days zero and 42 correlated with both the overall mean cyst count (p = 0.041 and cyst counts above 300 (p = 0.044. Calculated per cyst, this decrease in HDL in individual animals ranged from 0.1-17 µmol/L, with a mean of 2.43 ± 4.14 µmol/L. Serum adiponectin levels remained similar between infected and control mice throughout the experiment.

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in humans and pigs in North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

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    Tuda, Josef; Adiani, Sri; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Umeda, Kousuke; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, is a major public health concern throughout the world. Importantly, toxoplasmosis has several adverse effects, including neurological and ocular diseases. There are currently no data on the prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans or animals in North Sulawesi, although Indonesia is known to have a high seroprevalence of this parasite. In this study, the prevalence of T. gondii was determined in samples of humans and pigs from North Sulawesi using the latex agglutination test. In total, 856 human were sampled and 58.5% of whom were positive for T. gondii. Although the antibody prevalence in male and female children aged 0-9years was 40% in both sexes, suggesting that the transmission rate of the parasite to humans is extremely high in this area. However, the overall prevalence of T. gondii in pigs was only 2.3%. Our study indicates a high incidence of T. gondii infection in humans. Therefore, a survey of the prevalence of T. gondii among different infection sources is required to determine the major risk factors for infection in North Sulawesi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein in Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Aoife T Heaslip

    Full Text Available The microtubule cytoskeleton provides essential structural support for all eukaryotic cells and can be assembled into various higher order structures that perform drastically different functions. Understanding how microtubule-containing assemblies are built in a spatially and temporally controlled manner is therefore fundamental to understanding cell physiology. Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite, contains at least five distinct tubulin-containing structures, the spindle pole, centrioles, cortical microtubules, the conoid, and the intra-conoid microtubules. How these five structurally and functionally distinct sets of tubulin containing structures are constructed and maintained in the same cell is an intriguing problem. Previously, we performed a proteomic analysis of the T. gondii apical complex, a cytoskeletal complex located at the apical end of the parasite that is composed of the conoid, three ring-like structures, and the two short intra-conoid microtubules. Here we report the characterization of one of the proteins identified in that analysis, TgICMAP1. We show that TgICMAP1 is a novel microtubule binding protein that can directly bind to microtubules in vitro and stabilizes microtubules when ectopically expressed in mammalian cells. Interestingly, in T. gondii, TgICMAP1 preferentially binds to the intra-conoid microtubules, providing us the first molecular tool to investigate the intra-conoid microtubule assembly process during daughter construction.

  20. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  1. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Somayeh Namroodi

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%, 6 (17%, and 30 (83% samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  2. Production, characterization and applications for Toxoplasma gondii-specific polyclonal chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins.

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    Álvaro Ferreira Júnior

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model.In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers.Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii.

  3. Cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting

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    R. A. M. B. Almeida

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplantation. Disseminated toxoplasmosis after liver transplantation is a rare but fatal event. Serologic screening of the donor and the recipient is essential to prophylactic management, early diagnosis and therapeutic strategies to minimize the consequences of these infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of CMV and Toxoplasma gondii (TG in a Brazilian liver transplant waiting list (LTWL. Serological data were collected from 44 candidates on the LTWL between May 2003 and November 2004. Serological investigation of antibodies IgM and IgG against CMV (anti-CMV and TG (anti-T. gondii was performed using fluorometry commercial kits. IgG anti-CMV was positive in 37 patients (94.9% out of 39 available results. There were not IgM anti-CMV positive results. Out of 36 analyzed patients, 22 (61.1% presented positive IgG anti-T. gondii and none had positive IgM anti-T. gondii. The high CMV seroprevalence among our LTWL reinforces the need for appropriate protocols to avoid related complications, like reactivation and superinfection by CMV. Environmental and drug prophylactic strategies against primary infection and reactivation, as well as early diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis complications, are essential for the good outcome of transplant patients.

  4. An overexpression screen of Toxoplasma gondii Rab-GTPases reveals distinct transport routes to the micronemes.

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    Katrin Kremer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic organisation of the endomembrane system is conserved in all eukaryotes and comparative genome analyses provides compelling evidence that the endomembrane system of the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA is complex with many genes required for regulated traffic being present. Although apicomplexan parasites, causative agents of severe human and animal diseases, appear to have only a basic set of trafficking factors such as Rab-GTPases, they evolved unique secretory organelles (micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules that are sequentially secreted during invasion of the host cell. In order to define the secretory pathway of apicomplexans, we performed an overexpression screen of Rabs in Toxoplasma gondii and identified Rab5A and Rab5C as important regulators of traffic to micronemes and rhoptries. Intriguingly, we found that not all microneme proteins traffic depends on functional Rab5A and Rab5C, indicating the existence of redundant microneme targeting pathways. Using two-colour super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED we verified distinct localisations of independent microneme proteins and demonstrate that micronemal organelles are organised in distinct subsets or subcompartments. Our results suggest that apicomplexan parasites modify classical regulators of the endocytic system to carryout essential parasite-specific roles in the biogenesis of their unique secretory organelles.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii exposes phosphatidylserine inducing a TGF-β1 autocrine effect orchestrating macrophage evasion

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    Seabra, Sergio H.; Souza, Wanderley de; Matta, Renato A. da

    2004-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Activated macrophages control T. gondii growth by nitric oxide (NO) production. However, T. gondii active invasion inhibits NO production, allowing parasite persistence. Here we show that the mechanism used by T. gondii to inhibit NO production persisting in activated macrophages depends on phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure. Masking PS with annexin-V on parasites or activated macrophages abolished NO production inhibition and parasite persistence. NO production inhibition depended on a transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) autocrine effect confirmed by the expression of Smad 2 and 3 in infected macrophages. TGF-β 1 led to inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) degradation, actin filament (F-actin) depolymerization, and lack of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the nucleus. All these features were reverted by TGF-β 1 neutralizing antibody treatment. Thus, T. gondii mimics the evasion mechanism used by Leishmania amazonensis and also the anti-inflammatory response evoked by apoptotic cells

  6. Infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 Toxoplasma gondii strain in bovine milk and homemade cheese

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    Hiramoto RM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze the infectivity and storage resistance of cysts of the ME-49 strain of Toxoplasma gondii in artificially infected bovine milk and homemade fresh cheese. METHODS: Pasteurized bovine milk was infected with 10 cysts/ml of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii and inoculated in different groups of mice, immediately or after storage at 4ºC for 5, 10 and 20 days. Homemade fresh cheese was prepared with artificially infected milk, and also tested in groups of mice, using the same storage process. Infection was identified by the presence of cysts in the brain or serological testing in challenged mice after 5 weeks, confirmed by Western Blot and histology. RESULTS: The infectivity of cysts of the ME-49 strain of T.gondii was maintained in the milk even after storage for 20 days at refrigerator temperatures. Cysts were also able to survive the production process of homemade fresh cheese and storage for a period of 10 days in the same conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrated that milk and dairy products could be an important source of T.gondii in human contamination, reinforcing the importance of milk pasteurization before any processing or ingestion.

  7. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Arpron Leesombun

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination. We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL. Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice. Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  8. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

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    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  9. Characterization of Toxoplasma DegP, a rhoptry serine protease crucial for lethal infection in mice.

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    Gaelle Lentini

    Full Text Available During the infection process, Apicomplexa discharge their secretory organelles called micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules to sustain host cell invasion, intracellular replication and to modulate host cell pathways and immune responses. Herein, we describe the Toxoplasma gondii Deg-like serine protein (TgDegP, a rhoptry protein homologous to High temperature requirement A (HtrA or Deg-like family of serine proteases. TgDegP undergoes processing in both types I and II strains as most of the rhoptries proteins. We show that genetic disruption of the degP gene does not impact the parasite lytic cycle in vitro but affects virulence in mice. While in a type I strain DegPI appears dispensable for the establishment of an infection, removal of DegPII in a type II strain dramatically impairs the virulence. Finally, we show that KO-DegPII parasites kill immunodeficient mice as efficiently as the wild-type strain indicating that the protease might be involved in the complex crosstalk that the parasite engaged with the host immune response. Thus, this study unravels a novel rhoptry protein in T. gondii important for the establishment of lethal infection.

  10. A qualitative assessment of Toxoplasma gondii risk in ready-to-eat smallgoods processing.

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    Mie, Tanya; Pointon, Andrew M; Hamilton, David R; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of humans and other warm-blooded animals. In most adults, it does not cause serious illness, but severe disease may result from infection in fetuses and immunocompromised people. Consumption of raw or undercooked meats has consistently been identified as an important source of exposure to T. gondii. Several studies indicate the potential failure to inactivate T. gondii in the processes of cured meat products, This article presents a qualitative risk-based assessment of the processing of ready-to-eat smallgoods, which include cooked or uncooked fermented meat, pâté, dried meat, slow cured meat, luncheon meat, and cooked muscle meat including ham and roast beef. The raw meat ingredients are rated with respect to their likelihood of containing T. gondii cysts and an adjustment is made based on whether all the meat from a particular source is frozen. Next, the effectiveness of common processing steps to inactivate T. gondii cysts is assessed, including addition of spices, nitrates, nitrites and salt, use of fermentation, smoking and heat treatment, and the time and temperature during maturation. It is concluded that processing steps that may be effective in the inactivation of T. gondii cysts include freezing, heat treatment, and cooking, and the interaction between salt concentration, maturation time, and temperature. The assessment is illustrated using a Microsoft Excel-based software tool that was developed to facilitate the easy assessment of four hypothetical smallgoods products.

  11. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in the retina in eye banks in Brazil.

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    Costa, Deise F; Nascimento, Heloisa; Sutili, Aline; Nobrega, Fernando A J; Fowler, Flavio; Nobrega, Mario Junqueira; Garrido, Cristina; de Oliveira Dias, Janaina; Adán, Consuelo B D; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Silveira, Claudio; Belfort, Rubens; Commodaro, Alessandra G

    2017-07-01

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16). The retinas were macroscopically analyzed and collected for DNA extraction. Real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed using the T. gondii B1 marker. By qPCR, a higher frequency of T. gondii DNA in the retinas from the eye bank of Joinville (25%) was found when compared to Manaus (5%). The retinas from Sao Paulo and Chapeco were qPCR negative. Clinical examination determined the retina lesions to be compatible with toxoplasmosis in the following frequencies: Joinville (62.5%), Manaus (10%), Sao Paulo (6.7%), and Chapeco (15.4%).

  12. Computational Prediction of MicroRNAs from Toxoplasma gondii Potentially Regulating the Hosts’ Gene Expression

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    Müşerref Duygu Saçar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs were discovered two decades ago, yet there is still a great need for further studies elucidating their genesis and targeting in different phyla. Since experimental discovery and validation of miRNAs is difficult, computational predictions are indispensable and today most computational approaches employ machine learning. Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite residing within the cells of its hosts like human, uses miRNAs for its post-transcriptional gene regulation. It may also regulate its hosts’ gene expression, which has been shown in brain cancer. Since previous studies have shown that overexpressed miRNAs within the host are causal for disease onset, we hypothesized that T. gondii could export miRNAs into its host cell. We computationally predicted all hairpins from the genome of T. gondii and used mouse and human models to filter possible candidates. These were then further compared to known miRNAs in human and rodents and their expression was examined for T. gondii grown in mouse and human hosts, respectively. We found that among the millions of potential hairpins in T. gondii, only a few thousand pass filtering using a human or mouse model and that even fewer of those are expressed. Since they are expressed and differentially expressed in rodents and human, we suggest that there is a chance that T. gondii may export miRNAs into its hosts for direct regulation.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in southern districts of Tamil Nadu using IgG-ELISA.

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    Sucilathangam, G; Palaniappan, N; Sreekumar, C; Anna, T

    2012-10-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in and around Tirunelveli by in-house IgG assay using ELISA. Serum samples from 175 immunodeficient and 175 immunocompetent patients were collected at Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu from May 2006 to October 2007. They were subjected into in-house IgG assay using enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) in which tachyzoite soluble antigen derived from solubilised whole organisms was used. Out of 350 patients tested by IgG ELISA, 46 patients (13.14%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis with mean OD value of 0.2 ± 0.073 and the OD value ranged from 0.144 to 0.444. Among the immunocompetent group of 175 patients, 19 patients (10.86%) had antibodies to toxoplasmosis whereas, in immunodeficient group of 175 patients, 27 patients (15.43%) had antibodies for toxoplasmosis. There was no statistical difference (P > 0.05) between the immunocompetent and immunodeficient group. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG ELISA in detecting toxoplasmosis was 90 and 100%, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in and around Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu was 13.14% based on IgG ELISA. The study has proved ELISA to be a sensitive and specific procedure for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis.

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Stimulates Apoptosis in RH and Tehran Strains of Toxoplasma gondii, in Vitro.

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    Jebreil Shamseddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on apoptosis of tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain (type I and the cyst-forming Tehran strain (type II in vitro.Toxoplasma strains were injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice. The Tehran strain forms cysts in the brain of mice. Bradyzoites within the cysts are reactivated to proliferative tachyzoites, by dexamethasone. Tachyzoites were aspirated from the peritoneum of infected mice, and the percentage of viable parasites was estimated with trypan blue staining. Tachyzoites were inoculated into HeLa cells cultivated in DMEM medium. Different concentrations of CLA were evaluated on T. gondii in HeLa cells by the tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay. Differentiation between apoptosis and cell death was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI double staining. The statistical analysis performed by GraphPad Prism version 6.00.CLA induces apoptosis in virulent (RH and avirulent (Tehran strains of T. gondii. The results of MTT indicated that CLA could decrease the proliferation of tachyzoites of both strains in HeLa cells.Conjugated linoleic acid has anti-toxoplasmacidal activity on tachyzoites of T. gondii. Therefore, we recommended further studies on this component in order to achieve a new drug against the parasite.

  15. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

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    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii influences aversive behaviors of female rats in an estrus cycle dependent manner.

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    Golcu, Doruk; Gebre, Rahiwa Z; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2014-08-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) manipulates the behavior of its rodent intermediate host to facilitate its passage to its feline definitive host. This is accomplished by a reduction of the aversive response that rodents show towards cat odors, which likely increases the predation risk. Females on average show similar changes as males. However, behaviors that relate to aversion and attraction are usually strongly influenced by the estrus cycle. In this study, we replicated behavioral effects of T. gondii in female rats, as well as expanded it to two novel behavioral paradigms. We also characterized the role of the estrus cycle in the behavioral effects of T. gondii on female rats. Uninfected females preferred to spend more time in proximity to rabbit rather than bobcat urine, and in a dark chamber rather than a lit chamber. Infected females lost both of these preferences, and also spent more time investigating social novelty (foreign bedding in their environment). Taken together, these data suggest that infection makes females less risk averse and more exploratory. Furthermore, this effect was influenced by the estrus cycle. Uninfected rats preferred rabbit urine to bobcat urine throughout the cycle except at estrus and metestrus. In contrast, infected rats lost this preference at every stage of the cycle except estrus. Commensurate with the possibility that this was a hormone-dependent effect, infected rats had elevated levels of circulating progesterone, a known anxiolytic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "Latent" infection with Toxoplasma gondii: association with trait aggression and impulsivity in healthy adults.

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    Cook, Thomas B; Brenner, Lisa A; Cloninger, C Robert; Langenberg, Patricia; Igbide, Ajirioghene; Giegling, Ina; Hartmann, Annette M; Konte, Bettina; Friedl, Marion; Brundin, Lena; Groer, Maureen W; Can, Adem; Rujescu, Dan; Postolache, Teodor T

    2015-01-01

    Latent chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a common neurotropic pathogen, has been previously linked with suicidal self-directed violence (SSDV). We sought to determine if latent infection with T. gondii is associated with trait aggression and impulsivity, intermediate phenotypes for suicidal behavior, in psychiatrically healthy adults. Traits of aggression and impulsivity were analyzed in relationship to IgG antibody seropositivity for T. gondii and two other latent neurotropic infections, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). One thousand community-residing adults residing in the Munich metropolitan area with no Axis I or II conditions by SCID for DSM-IV (510 men, 490 women, mean age 53.6 ± 15.8, range 20-74). Plasma samples were tested for IgG antibodies to T. gondii, HSV-1 and CMV by ELISA. Self-reported ratings of trait aggression scores (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression [FAF]) and trait impulsivity (Sensation-Seeking Scale-V [SSS-V]) were analyzed using linear multivariate methods. T. gondii IgG seropositivity was significantly associated with higher trait reactive aggression scores among women (p impulsive sensation-seeking (SSS-V Disinhibition) among younger men (p impulsivity, personality traits considered as endophenotypes for SSDV, are associated with latent T. gondii infection in a gender and age-specific manner, and could be further investigated as prognostic and treatment targets in T. gondii-positive individuals at risk for SSDV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Non-association between anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and ABO blood group system

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    ACF Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects humans through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, which elicits humoral immune response with specific antibodies. The expression of the ABO blood group glycoconjugates also occurs in this same system and may influence the human susceptibility of infection by T. gondii. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ABO blood group phenotypes and the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies. Data - including age, results of serology tests for T. gondii infection and ABO blood group phenotypes - were assembled from the medical records of 1,006 pregnant women attended in the Base Hospital of the Medical School of São José do Rio Preto, Brazil, between 2001 and 2004. The chi-square test was used to compare the results with the level of significance set at 5%. Of the studied cases, 64.1% (645/1006 and 35.9% (391/1006 presented respectively positive and negative serology tests for anti-T. gondii antibodies. The mean age of those who tested positive was higher than those with negative serology tests (p = 0.0004. The frequencies of ABO blood group phenotypes were similar in those with and without anti-T. gondii antibodies (p = 0.35. In conclusion, the ABO blood group system is not associated with the presence or absence of anti-T. gondii antibodies.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii GRA7-Targeted ASC and PLD1 Promote Antibacterial Host Defense via PKCα.

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    Koh, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Ye-Ram; Kim, Jae-Sung; Yun, Jin-Seung; Jang, Kiseok; Yang, Chul-Su

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a global health problem and at least one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). MTB is a successful pathogen that enhances its own intracellular survival by inhibiting inflammation and arresting phago-lysosomal fusion. We previously demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) dense granule antigen (GRA) 7 interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 via Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, enabling innate immune responses in macrophages. To extend these studies, we found that GRA7 interacts with host proteins involved in antimicrobial host defense mechanisms as a therapeutic strategy for tuberculosis. Here, we show that protein kinase C (PKC)α-mediated phosphorylation of T. gondii GRA7-I (Ser52) regulates the interaction of GRA7 with PYD domain of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a carboxy-terminal CARD, which is capable of oligomerization and inflammasome activation can lead to antimicrobial defense against MTB. Furthermore, GRA7-III interacted with the PX domain of phospholipase D1, facilitating its enzyme activity, phago-lysosomal maturation, and subsequent antimicrobial activity in a GRA7-III (Ser135) phosphorylation-dependent manner via PKCα. Taken together, these results underscore a previously unrecognized role of GRA7 in modulating antimicrobial host defense mechanism during mycobacterial infection.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii GRA7-Targeted ASC and PLD1 Promote Antibacterial Host Defense via PKCα.

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    Hyun-Jung Koh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a global health problem and at least one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. MTB is a successful pathogen that enhances its own intracellular survival by inhibiting inflammation and arresting phago-lysosomal fusion. We previously demonstrated that Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii dense granule antigen (GRA 7 interacts with TNF receptor-associated factor 6 via Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, enabling innate immune responses in macrophages. To extend these studies, we found that GRA7 interacts with host proteins involved in antimicrobial host defense mechanisms as a therapeutic strategy for tuberculosis. Here, we show that protein kinase C (PKCα-mediated phosphorylation of T. gondii GRA7-I (Ser52 regulates the interaction of GRA7 with PYD domain of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a carboxy-terminal CARD, which is capable of oligomerization and inflammasome activation can lead to antimicrobial defense against MTB. Furthermore, GRA7-III interacted with the PX domain of phospholipase D1, facilitating its enzyme activity, phago-lysosomal maturation, and subsequent antimicrobial activity in a GRA7-III (Ser135 phosphorylation-dependent manner via PKCα. Taken together, these results underscore a previously unrecognized role of GRA7 in modulating antimicrobial host defense mechanism during mycobacterial infection.

  1. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in Egyptian feral cats reveals new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Rajendran, C; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Su, C; Dubey, J P

    2010-12-01

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, 115 viable T. gondii isolates from tissues of cats from Egypt were genotyped using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) and DNA from tachyzoites. Seven genotypes were recognized including the clonal Type II, Type III (2 genotypes), and 4 atypical genotypes. Ninety percent (103 of 115) of isolates were clonal, i.e., Type II (n  =  61) and Type III (n  =  42) strains. Of the 61 Type II strains, all had the Type II alleles at all loci, except for 2 strains that had allele I at Apico. Eight isolates were divided into 4 atypical genotypes. One of these genotypes (with 4 isolates) was previously reported in dogs from Sri Lanka and in sand cats from the United Arab Emirates. Four isolates had mixed infections. These results revealed a strong clonal population structure with the dominance of clonal Type II and III lineages of T. gondii in feral cats from Egypt.

  2. Atypical Toxoplasma gondii genotype in feral cats from the Fernando de Noronha Island, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, R P B; Almeida, J C; Lima, D C V; Pedrosa, C M; Magalhães, F J R; Alcântara, A M; Barros, L D; Vieira, R F C; Garcia, J L; Mota, R A

    2016-07-15

    Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Brazil have a different phenotypic and genotypic pattern, with predominance of virulent isolates and recombinant genotypes, compared to the North Hemisphere. Considering that a new T. gondii genotype, non-pathogenic to mice, was previously identified from free-range chickens from the Fernando de Noronha Island, Brazil, this study aimed to identify genotypes of this parasite in tissue samples of feral cats (Felis catus) from this Brazilian Island. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 18/31 (58%) feral cats. Two non-virulent T. gondii isolates were obtained by mouse bioassay. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP using 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, L358 and Apico) and an atypical strain of T. gondii (ToxoDB #146) was identified. This is the first report of this genotype in feral cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Eun; Kim, Neung-Hee; Chae, Hee-Sun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Nam, Ho-Woo; Lee, Won-Ja; Kim, Sun-Heung; Lee, Jung-Hark

    2011-02-01

    The present study assessed the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cat populations in Seoul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 456 feral cats from 17 wards in Seoul was surveyed. The overall prevalence of T. gondii infection was 15.8% (69/456) by ELISA and 17.5% (80/456) by PCR; by gender, 17% (44/259) by ELISA and 16.2% (42/259) by PCR in males and 14.3% (28/196) by ELISA and 19.4% (38/196) by PCR in females. On a baseline of the Han River, prevalence was 15.1% (29/192) by ELISA and 15.6% (30/192) by PCR in the upper region and 16.4% (43/264) by ELISA and 18.9% (50/264) by PCR in the lower area. This suggested that toxoplasmosis is widespread throughout Seoul's feral cat population and it is critical that the city institute policies for the control of the feral cat population to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis transmission to animals, including humans.

  4. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in household and feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Eon; Choi, Ran; Kang, Seung-Won; Hyun, Changbaig

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence rate of Toxoplasma gondii ( T. gondii ) infection in household cats in Korea. One hundred household cats and 50 feral cats from nine of the largest cities in Korea were enrolled in this study. The tests performed in this survey was an in-house rapid screen IgG and IgM combo test, faecal PCR test for T. gondii oocysts, and an ELISA immunoassay for IgG antibodies. There were no household cats positive for T. gondii infection detected using the in-house IgG and IgM rapid screen combo test, although 6/50 and 0/50 feral cats were positive in IgG and IgM tests, respectively. This initial finding was confirmed by subsequent ELISA test for IgG antibody and PCR for T. gondii in faeces. Despite the higher prevalence rate of the disease in feral cats in Korea, we did not find any household cats that were either infected or exposed previously to T. gondii in our study population. Our study indicates that there is minimal risk of T. gondii transmission from household cats to human in Korea.

  5. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  6. Detection of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, S; Oliveira, J B; Víquez, C; Gómez-García, A; González, O; Romero, J J; Kwok, O C H; Dubey, J P; Howe, D K

    2011-06-01

    Serum samples from 315 horses from Costa Rica, Central America, were examined for the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii by using the surface antigen (SAG) SnSAG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NhSAG1 ELISA, and the modified agglutination test, respectively. Anti- S. neurona antibodies were found in 42.2% of the horses by using the SnSAG2 ELISA. Anti- Neospora spp. antibodies were found in only 3.5% of the horses by using the NhSAG1 ELISA, and only 1 of these horses was confirmed seropositive by Western blot. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 34.0% of the horses tested, which is higher than in previous reports from North and South America. The finding of anti- S. neurona antibodies in horses from geographical areas where Didelphis marsupialis has wide distribution suggests that D. marsupialis is a potential definitive host for this parasite and a source of infection for these horses.

  7. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in birds from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Kobédová, Kateřina; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Rampedi, Kgethedi Michael; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2018-02-01

    There are not any records on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of wild birds in the African continent. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of DNA from these protozoan parasites in brain tissue samples collected in years 2014-2015 from 110 wild and domestic birds of 15 orders. Birds came mainly from the province of Limpopo (n=103); the other seven birds came from other five provinces of South Africa. Parasite DNAs were detected by PCR in animal brains. While all samples were negative for N. caninum, T. gondii DNA was detected in three (2.7%) birds: a Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata), a Laughing Dove (S. senegalensis) and a Southern-Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus leucomelas), all from Limpopo province. Positive samples were selected for genotyping by a 15 microsatellite markers method in a single multiplex PCR assay. Only the sample from the Red-eyed Dove was successfully genotyped and characterized as type II. This is the first detection of T. gondii in tissue of native African wild birds and the first study focusing on N. caninum in birds from South Africa. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Aspects of Toxoplasma Infection on the Reproductive System of Experimentally Infected Rams (Ovis Aries

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    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight reproductive rams with no prior reproductive disease were distributed into three groups of infection with T. gondii: GI, 3 rams, 2.0×105 P strain oocysts; GII, 3 rams, 1.0×106 RH strain tachyzoites; GIII, 2 control rams. Clinical parameters were measured and serological evaluations (IIF were performed. Presence of the parasite in the semen was investigated by PCR and bioassay techniques. The rams presented clinical alterations (hyperthermia and apathy related to toxoplasmosis in both groups infected with Toxoplasma gondii. All the inoculated rams responded to antigenic stimulus, producing antibodies against T. gondii from postinoculation day 5 onwards. In ovine groups I and II, the greatest titers observed were 1 : 4096 and 1 : 8192, respectively. In semen samples collected from these two groups, the presence of T. gondii was detected by bioassay and PCR. This coccidian was isolated (bioassay and PCR in tissue pools (testicles, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostrate from two rams infected presenting oocysts and in one presenting tachyzoites.

  9. Immunological response and protection of mice immunized with plasmid encoding Toxoplasma gondii glycolytic enzyme malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Wang, S; Xu, L; Yan, R; Song, X; XiangRui, L

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) plays an important role as part of the energy production cycle. In this investigation, immunological changes and protection efficiency of this protein delivered as a DNA vaccine have been evaluated. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with pTgMDH, followed by challenge with virulent T. gondii RH strain, 2 weeks after the booster immunization. Compared to the control groups, the results showed that pTgMDH has stimulated specific humoral response as demonstrated by significant high titers of total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a , beside IgA and IgM, but not IgE. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, while no significant changes were detected in TGF-β1. In cell-mediated response, both T lymphocytes subpopulations CD4(+) and CD8(+) were positively recruited as significant percentages were recorded in response to immunization with TgMDH. Significant long survival rate, 17 days, has been observed in the TgMDH vaccinated group, in contrast with control groups which died within 8-9 days after challenge. These results demonstrated that TgMDH could induce significant immunological responses leading to a considerable level of protection against acute toxoplasmosis infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

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    Witkowski Lucjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus, 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%, 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7% and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans.

  11. LILRB4 Decrease on uDCs Exacerbate Abnormal Pregnancy Outcomes Following Toxoplasma gondii Infection

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    Shaowei Zhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in early pregnancy can result in miscarriage, dead fetus, and other abnormalities. The LILRB4 is a central inhibitory receptor in uterine dendritic cells (uDCs that plays essential immune-regulatory roles at the maternal–fetal interface. In this study, T. gondii-infected human primary uDCs and T. gondii-infected LILRB4-/- pregnant mice were utilized. The immune mechanisms underlying the role of LILRB4 on uDCs were explored in the development of abnormal pregnancy outcomes following T. gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the expression levels of LILRB4 on uDCs from normal pregnant mice were obviously higher than non-pregnant mice, and peaked in mid-gestation. The LILRB4 expression on uDC subsets, especially tolerogenic subsets, from mid-gestation was obviously down-regulated after T. gondii infection and LILRB4 decrease could further regulate the expression of functional molecules (CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR or MHC II on uDCs, contributing to abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Our results will shed light on the molecular immune mechanisms of uDCs in abnormal pregnancy outcomes by T. gondii infection.

  12. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul

    2018-05-14

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  13. Macrophages facilitate the excystation and differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii sporozoites into tachyzoites following oocyst internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freppel, Wesley; Puech, Pierre-Henri; Ferguson, David J P; Azas, Nadine; Dubey, Jitender P; Dumètre, Aurélien

    2016-09-19

    Toxoplasma gondii is a common parasite of humans and animals, which is transmitted via oocysts in cat faeces or tissue cysts in contaminated meat. The robust oocyst and sporocyst walls protect the infective sporozoites from deleterious external attacks including disinfectants. Upon oocyst acquisition, these walls lose their integrity to let the sporozoites excyst and invade host cells following a process that remains poorly understood. Given the resistance of the oocyst wall to digestive enzymes and the ability of oocysts to cause parenteral infections, the present study investigated the possible contribution of macrophages in supporting sporozoite excystation following oocyst internalisation. By using single cell micromanipulations, real-time and time-point imaging techniques, we demonstrated that RAW macrophages could interact rapidly with oocysts and engulfed them by remodelling of their actin cytoskeleton. Internalised oocysts were associated to macrophage acidic compartments and showed evidences of wall disruption. Sporozoites were observed in macrophages containing oocyst remnants or in new macrophages, giving rise to dividing tachyzoites. All together, these results highlight an unexpected role of phagocytic cells in processing T. gondii oocysts, in line with non-classical routes of infection, and open new perspectives to identify chemical factors that lead to oocyst wall disruption under physiological conditions.

  14. Serological evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive marine mammals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Sánchez-Okrucky, R; Dubey, J P

    2012-03-23

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Serological evidence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive marine mammals from four facilities in southern and central geographical regions in Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT, 1:25 or higher) to T. gondii were found in 55 (87.3%) of 63 Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), 3 of 3 Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus gillii), 2 of 4 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), but not in 3 West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus), and 2 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Seropositive marine mammals were found in all 4 (100%) facilities sampled. All marine mammals were healthy and there has not been any case of clinical toxoplasmosis in the facilities sampled for at least the last 15 years. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in marine mammals of the same species did not vary significantly with respect to sex and age. This is the first report on the detection of antibodies to T. gondii in marine mammals in Mexico. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in captive mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Gayosso-Dominguez, Edgar Arturo; Villena, Isabelle; Dubey, J P

    2013-09-01

    Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 167 mammals in three zoos in Mexico City, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 89 (53.3%) of the 167 animals tested. Antibodies were found in 35 of 43 wild Felidae: 2 of 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus); 4 of 4 cougars (Puma concolor); 10 of 13 jaguars (Panthera onca); 5 of 5 leopards (Panthera pardus); 7 of 7 lions (Panthera leo); 2 of 3 tigers (Panthera tigris); 2 of 3 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis); 2 of 2 Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae); lof 2 Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jagouaroundi); but not in 0 of 2 oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus). Such high seroprevalence in wild felids is of public health significance because of the potential of oocyst shedding. Four of 6 New World primates (2 of 2 Geoffroy's spider monkeys [Ateles geoffroyi], 1 of 3 Patas monkeys [Erythrocebus patas], and 1 of 1 white-headed capuchin [Cebus capucinus]) had high MAT titers of 3,200, suggesting recently acquired infection; these animals are highly susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. However, none of these animals were ill. Seropositivity to T. gondii was found for the first time in a number of species.

  16. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawm, Saw; Maung, Wint Yi; Win, Myat Yee; Thu, May June; Chel, Hla Myet; Khaing, Tin Aye; Wai, Soe Soe; Htun, Lat Lat; Myaing, Tin Tin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Igarashi, Makoto; Katakura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162) of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4%) samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06), farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs) (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94), and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83). This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country. PMID:26904362

  17. Serological Survey and Factors Associated with Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Domestic Goats in Myanmar

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    Saw Bawm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat farming is important for the livelihood of millions of rural people because it contributes to food security and creation of assets. However, infection of goats with Toxoplasma gondii could be a source of parasite transmission to humans. The information on T. gondii infection of goat was not reported yet in Myanmar. A total of 119 goat serum samples were collected from three cities in the central region of Myanmar for T. gondii antibody survey. With the occurrence value obtained in this first study, a second one, more complete, with larger number (162 of animals and properties, was carried out and the risk factors and prevalence were determined. In both studies the samples were analyzed by the LAT. Of these, 32 (11.4% samples were showed to be positive. The infection was associated with the presence of cats at the farm (odds ratio [OR] = 4.66, 95% confidential interval [CI] = 1.03–21.06, farming with different animal species (sheep, cattle, and pigs (OR = 4.33, 95% CI = 1.57–11.94, and farming without good management practices (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.06–0.83. This is the first T. gondii prevalence study in goats in the country.

  18. The Evolution of Host Mitochondrial Association and its Impact on Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Elizabeth D.

    The association of intracellular pathogens with host mitochondria has been observed across taxa, from bacterial pathogens, such as Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia trachomati, to the eukaryotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. However the functional impact of host mitochondrial association (HMA) remains difficult to assess in most of these species because in many cases the genes responsible for this phenomenon have not yet been identified. The recent discovery of the T. gondii gene responsible for HMA, Mitochondrial Association Factor 1 ( MAF1) has provided us with the tools to begin to understand the evolution and impact of HMA. Here we use multispecies sequence analysis to determine that the MAF1 locus is tandemly duplicated and diversified in both T. gondii and its nearest extant relative Hammondia hammondi, but not another close relative Neospora caninum. Using cross-species complementation we find that T. gondii and H. hammondi harbor copies of MAF1 able to mediate HMA, while N. caninum does not. We have begun mutational analysis using naturally occurring HMA+ and HMA- paralogs of MAF1 in order to determine the portions of MAF1 protein necessary for HMA. Additionally, we have identified the first in vivo phenotypes associated with HMA using multiple mouse models, for both acute and chronic infection. Taken together these data indicate that HMA likely evolved via neofunctionalization of a duplicated ancestral MAF1 gene, and that the neofunctionalized, HMA competent copy of MAF1 provides a selective advantage.

  19. Fatal toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed domestic cat from Brazil caused by Toxoplasma gondii clonal type I

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    Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of the study was to report on a fatal case of feline toxoplasmosis with coinfection with the feline leukemia virus (FeLV. A domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus presented intense dyspnea and died three days later. In the necropsy, the lungs were firm, without collapse and with many white areas; moderate lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly were also observed. The histopathological examination showed severe necrotic interstitial bronchopneumonia and mild necrotic hepatitis, associated with intralesional cysts and tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii that were positive by anti-T. gondii immunohistochemical (IHC evaluation. The bone marrow showed chronic myeloid leukemia and the neoplastic cells were positive by anti-FeLV IHC evaluation. DNA extracted from lungs was positive for T. gondii by PCR targeting REP-529. T. gondii was characterized by PCR-RFLP and by the microsatellites technique. ToxoDB-PCR-RFLP #10, i.e. the archetypal type I, was identified. Microsatellite analysis showed that the strain was a variant of type I with two atypical alleles. This was the first time that a T. gondii clonal type I genotype was correlated with a case of acute toxoplasmosis in a host in Brazil.

  20. Reduced ERPs and theta oscillations underlie working memory deficits in Toxoplasma gondii infected seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread infections in humans. Recent studies give evidence for memory deficits in infected older adults. To investigate working memory dysfunction in infected elderly, a double-blinded electrophysiological study was conducted. 84 persons derived from a sample of 131 healthy participants with the mean age of 70 years were assigned to two groups of 42 non-infected and 42 infected individuals. The outcome measures were behavioral performance, target and response-related ERPs, and time-frequency wavelets during performance in a n-back working-memory task. The infected individuals showed a reduced rate of detected targets and diminished P3b amplitude both in target-locked as well as response-locked data compared to the non-infected group. Time-frequency decomposition of the EEG-signals revealed lower evoked power in the theta frequency range in the target-locked as well as in the response-locked data in infected individuals. The reported effects were comparable with differences between healthy young and old adults described previously. Taking together, the reduced working-memory performance accompanied by an attenuated P3b and frontal theta activity may suggest neurotransmitter imbalance like dopamine and norepinephrine in T. gondii infected individuals. In face of a high prevalence of T. gondii infection and the increasing ratio of older population their accelerated memory decline may have substantial socioeconomic consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

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    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  2. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Shirazi, Amir S; Khaleghi, Seyyed Reza; N Mills, James; Kheirabady, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica). In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%), 6 (17%), and 30 (83%) samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola) were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs reared under different management systems in Zimbabwe

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    T. Hove

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 474 domestic pigs (Sus scrofa from Zimbabwe were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. The results showed that T. gondii infection is widespread in Zimbabwean pigs. Seroprevalence was lowest in fattening pigs from large and small-scale commercial farms that practise good hygiene (19.75 % of 238 and highest in backyard scavenging pigs (35.71 % of 70. Only 11.7 % (11 of the 127 positive samples had titres of > 1:400 and nine (81.82 % of these 11 originated from pigs reared under poor hygienic conditions. A prevalence of 3.51 % was found in the same group of fattening pigs using an indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the single serum dilution of 1:400. The serosurvey shows the importance of modern intensive husbandry systems in reducing the prevalences of T. gondii infection in domestic pigs.

  4. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country.

  5. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in lowland tapirs maintained ex situ in Brazil and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Naegeli Gondim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Lowland Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris is the second largest South American land mammal. It is strictly herbivorous and its exposure to Toxoplasma gondii should be indicative of environmental contamination by oocysts.In the present study antibodies to T. gondii in 47 Brazilian tapirs maintained ex situ in 10 Brazilian and in one Paraguayan institution were sought in serum samples by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥25. None of the animals presented clinical signs during the study. From 47 animals 35 (74.5% were positive with titers of 25 in 8, 50 in 6, 100 in 12, 200 in 5, 400 in 1 and 800 in 3. One animal had samples collected on twice, and 19 were born in captivity. There was no association between occurrence of T. gondii antibodies and gender, and positive animals were reported in all institutions. The high occurrence of seropositive tapirs born ininstitutions (54.3% confirmed the high exposure of these mammals to T. gondii in captivity. Only two cases ofabortion were reported, but it was not possible to correlate these abortions to T. gondii infection.

  6. Highly diverged novel subunit composition of apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase identified from Toxoplasma gondii

    KAUST Repository

    Salunke, Rahul; Mourier, Tobias; Banerjee, Manidipa; Pain, Arnab; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrial F-type ATP synthase, a multi-subunit nanomotor, is critical for maintaining cellular ATP levels. In Toxoplasma gondii and other apicomplexan parasites, many subunit components, necessary for proper assembly and functioning of this enzyme, appear to be missing. Here, we report the identification of 20 novel subunits of T. gondii F-type ATP synthase from mass spectrometry analysis of partially purified monomer (~600 kDa) and dimer (>1 MDa) forms of the enzyme. Despite extreme sequence diversification, key FO subunits, a, b and d, can be identified from conserved structural features. Orthologs for these proteins are restricted to apicomplexan, chromerid and dinoflagellate species. Interestingly, their absence in ciliates indicates a major diversion, with respect to subunit composition of this enzyme, within the alveolate clade. Discovery of these highly diversified novel components of the apicomplexan F-type ATP synthase complex will facilitate the development of novel anti-parasitic agents. Structural and functional characterization of this unusual enzyme complex will advance our fundamental understanding of energy metabolism in apicomplexan species.

  7. Host Mitochondrial Association Evolved in the Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii via Neofunctionalization of a Gene Duplicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomako-Ankomah, Yaw; English, Elizabeth D; Danielson, Jeffrey J; Pernas, Lena F; Parker, Michelle L; Boulanger, Martin J; Dubey, Jitender P; Boyle, Jon P

    2016-05-01

    In Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of humans and other animals, host mitochondrial association (HMA) is driven by a gene family that encodes multiple mitochondrial association factor 1 (MAF1) proteins. However, the importance of MAF1 gene duplication in the evolution of HMA is not understood, nor is the impact of HMA on parasite biology. Here we used within- and between-species comparative analysis to determine that the MAF1 locus is duplicated in T. gondii and its nearest extant relative Hammondia hammondi, but not another close relative, Neospora caninum Using cross-species complementation, we determined that the MAF1 locus harbors multiple distinct paralogs that differ in their ability to mediate HMA, and that only T. gondii and H. hammondi harbor HMA(+) paralogs. Additionally, we found that exogenous expression of an HMA(+) paralog in T. gondii strains that do not normally exhibit HMA provides a competitive advantage over their wild-type counterparts during a mouse infection. These data indicate that HMA likely evolved by neofunctionalization of a duplicate MAF1 copy in the common ancestor of T. gondii and H. hammondi, and that the neofunctionalized gene duplicate is selectively advantageous. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii: 1908-2008, homage to Nicolle, Manceaux and Splendore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J P Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Toxoplasma gondii independently by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908 and Splendore (1908 was to open a "Pandora's Box" that has led research on this parasite into a number of scientific disciplines. In the 100 years since its discovery, the mystery surrounding T. gondii and its inter-relationship with humans has continued to provide a stimulating source of material in many areas of research, resulting in the publication of almost 20,000 papers and a number of books. This flood of diverse information shows no sign of abating, with an average of 10 papers per week appearing in PubMed. Herein, it is impossible to do more than provide a very superficial comment on what has become a massive body of scientific information. T. gondii has many unique features and seems to be the "exception to almost every rule" thus acting as a focus for research in disciplines from epidemiology to immunology to human behaviour to cell biology to human disease. In this review a number of the historical advances will be mentioned and combined with a description of the basic biology of the parasite.

  9. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats from two Argentinean provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Gos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in goats from two Argentinean provinces raised under different management conditions. A total of 2922 serum samples from adult goats of Córdoba (n=2187 and Buenos Aires provinces (n= 735, Argentina, were assayed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT, cut-off 1:100 for antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum. Seroprevalence was 40.8% (CI 39.0%-42.6% and 5.5% (CI 4.7%-6.4% for T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. The seropositivity for both infections was higher in goats from dairy farms, resulting as follows: for T. gondii 32.7% (CI 30.8%-34.8% in extensive farms and 59.3% (CI 56.1%-62.6% in dairy farms and for N. caninum 4.1% (CI 3.2%-4.9% in extensive farms and 8.8% (CI 6.9%-10.7% in dairy farms. This is the first extensive seroepidemiology investigation for T. gondii and N. caninum in goats in Argentina.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces suppression in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.

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    Ignacio M Fenoy

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is an inflammatory disorder characterized by infiltration of the airway wall with inflammatory cells driven mostly by activation of Th2-lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. There is a link between increased allergy and a reduction of some infections in Western countries. Epidemiological data also show that respiratory allergy is less frequent in people exposed to orofecal and foodborne microbes such as Toxoplasma gondii. We previously showed that both acute and chronic parasite T. gondii infection substantially blocked development of airway inflammation in adult BALB/c mice. Based on the high levels of IFN-γ along with the reduction of Th2 phenotype, we hypothesized that the protective effect might be related to the strong Th1 immune response elicited against the parasite. However, other mechanisms could also be implicated. The possibility that regulatory T cells inhibit allergic diseases has received growing support from both animal and human studies. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms involved in T. gondii induced protection against allergy. Our results show for the first time that thoracic lymph node cells from mice sensitized during chronic T. gondii infection have suppressor activity. Suppression was detected both in vitro, on allergen specific T cell proliferation and in vivo, on allergic lung inflammation after adoptive transference from infected/sensitized mice to previously sensitized animals. This ability was found to be contact-independent and correlated with high levels of TGF-β and CD4(+FoxP3(+ cells.

  12. Seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. in Children with Cryptogenic Epilepsy, Benha, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; Abdel-Hady, Soha; Abdallah, Karim Fetouh

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible association of Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. infections with cryptogenic epilepsy in children. The study was carried out between June 2014 and March 2015. Total 90 children (40 with cryptogenic epilepsy, 30 with non-cryptogenic epilepsy, and 20 healthy control children) were evaluated to determine the anti-Toxocara and anti-T. gondii IgG seropositivity using ELISA kits. Epileptic cases were selected from those attending the pediatrics outpatient clinic of Benha University Hospital, Pediatrics Neurology Unit, and from Benha Specialized Hospital of children. The results showed that the level of anti-T. gondii IgG seropositivity was significantly higher among children with cryptogenic epilepsy (20%) than among children with non-cryptogenic children (0%). In healthy controls (10%), there was no association between toxocariasis seropositivity and cryptogenic epilepsy (only 5.7%; 4 out of 70 cases) among cases and 10% (2 out of 20) among controls. Among toxocariasis IgG positive cases, 3 (7.5%) were cryptogenic, and only 1 (3.3%) was non-cryptogenic. These statistically significant results support the association between T. gondii infection and cryptogenic epilepsy while deny this association with toxocariasis.

  13. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  14. Interaction and cystogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii within skeletal muscle cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Vaz Guimarães

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is widely prevalent in humans and animals. To prevent human infection, all meat should be well cooked before consumption, since the parasite is present in skeletal muscle. In this context, the use of skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs as a cellular model opens up new approaches to investigate T. gondii-host cell interactions. Immunofluorescent detection of proteins that are stage-specific for bradyzoites indicated that complete cystogenesis of T. gondii in in vitro cultures of SkMCs occurs after 96 h of infection. Ultrastructural analysis showed that, after 48 h of interaction, there were alterations on the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, including greater thickness and increased electron density at the inner face of the membrane. The present study demonstrates the potential use of primary cultures of SkMCs to evaluate different molecular aspects of T. gondii invasion and cystogenesis and presents a promising in vitro model for the screening of drug activities toward tissue cysts and bradyzoites.

  15. Toxoplasmosis in dogs: first report of Toxoplasma gondii infection in any animal species in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Granada, Sara; Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Brancal, Hugo; Dubey, Jitender P; Cardoso, Luís; Vilhena, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the worldwide importance of zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, nothing is known of toxoplasmosis in animals in Angola. The present study aimed at estimating the seroprevalence and also at assessing correlates of T. gondii infection in pet dogs from Luanda, Angola. Dogs (n = 103) brought to a veterinary clinic in the city of Luanda were investigated. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to T. gondii with a modified agglutination test (MAT) commercial kit, at serial dilutions of 1∶20 to 1∶160. In accordance with the established cutoff value (MAT ≧20), 16 dogs [15·5%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 9·2-24·0%] had antibodies to T. gondii: 10 had a titer of 20, two had a titer of 40, and four had a titer of 80. Age (≧12 months) was found to be a risk factor for infection [odds ratio (OR) = 9·23; 95% CI: 1·16-73·27). For each 1-year increase in age, the risk of a dog being found seropositive significantly increased by an OR of 1·18 (95% CI: 1·02-1·36). The present study, which represents the first serological survey of T. gondii in any animal species from Angola, reveals a 15·5% seroprevalence of infection in pet dogs in Luanda. Further studies are needed to better understand the epidemiology of zoonotic T. gondii infection in Luanda and also in Angola.

  16. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in Drinking Water from an Endemic Region in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cortazar, Ivonne B; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Segura-Correa, Jose C; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis can be acquired through the ingestion of contaminated drinking water with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii, highly resistant to the routinely disinfection processes; based on chlorination commonly used in the water supply industry. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of T. gondii DNA in samples of public drinking water from an endemic region of southern Mexico. In total 74 samples of water (5 L each) were collected from the three well fields (I, II, and III) and 71 independent wells, distributing public drinking water to the city of Merida Yucatan, after passing through the chlorination process. Water samples were filtered and concentrated by a sucrose solution, then DNA was extracted and evaluated through a nested-PCR (nPCR) specific for T. gondii. Positive samples were detected in 5.4% (4/74) of the water samples. This is the first report of the presence of T. gondii DNA in public drinking water from a large city in southern Mexico, where their consumption without any postpurification treatment could pose a risk for acquiring the infection in the urban population.

  17. Targeted Delivery of Toxoplasma gondii Antigens to Dendritic Cells Promote Immunogenicity and Protective Efficiency against Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Lakhrif

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem and the development of a human vaccine is of high priority. Efficient vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii requires both a mucosal and systemic Th1 immune response. Moreover, dendritic cells play a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune functions and driving specific adaptive immunity to T. gondii. In this study, we explore an original vaccination strategy that combines administration via mucosal and systemic routes of fusion proteins able to target the major T. gondii surface antigen SAG1 to DCs using an antibody fragment single-chain fragment variable (scFv directed against DEC205 endocytic receptor. Our results show that SAG1 targeting to DCs by scFv via intranasal and subcutaneous administration improved protection against chronic T. gondii infection. A marked reduction in brain parasite burden is observed when compared with the intranasal or the subcutaneous route alone. DC targeting improved both local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses and potentiated more specifically the Th1 response profile by more efficient production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, IgG2a, and nasal IgA. This study provides evidence of the potential of DC targeting for the development of new vaccines against a range of Apicomplexa parasites.

  18. Titres of Specific Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in Goats and their Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Mišurová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to perform repeated determination of specific antibody levels in mothers and their kids in order to assess indirectly the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis in goats. Twenty-eight goats with their kids were included in the study. The following variables were assessed: number of born kids in relation to antibody titres of goats; levels of specific antibodies in the blood of goats and kids; and concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig, total protein (TP and total globulins (G in order to define the end of colostral immunity and the start of active production of antibodies in kids under 69 days of age. Specific antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in goats were detected by IFAT in titres ranging from 0 to 1 280. Out of a total of 28 animals, 5 goats were negative (17.9% and 23 goats were seropositive (82.1%. The goats delivered 42 kids. A total ratio of number of kids to number of mothers was 1.5. Partial evaluation of results in goats without positive titre against T. gondii before parturition and goats with positive titre showed that negative goats tended to have more kids (p p < 0.01 of monitored non-specific immunity indicators. During this period, we observed increased titres of specific antibodies against toxoplasmosis in 20 kids (5 kids 41 days old, 5 kids 55 days old, and 10 kids 69 days old and thus we could assume the possibility of vertical transmission of toxoplasmosis.

  19. Lacrimal secretory IgA in active posterior uveitis induced by Toxoplasma gondii

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    Maria Isabel Lynch

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available It is quite difficult to diagnose active toxoplasmosis in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Active posterior uveitis presumably due to Toxoplasma gondii infection (APUPT is seldom produced during a prime-infection; hence most patients do not show high IgM antibodies. High levels of IgA have been described in active toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible association between APUPT and the specific anti-parasite sIgA in tears. The study was carried out as case-control. Tears of 25 clinically confirmed APUPT patients and 50 healthy control subjects were analyzed. All were IgG seropositive. Specific sIgA was determined by ELISA assay using T. gondii RH strain crude extract. Anti-T. gondii sIgA was found in 84% of the cases and in 22% of the control subjects. The intensity of the reaction was higher in APUPT cases (P = 0.007. There was strong association between APUPT patients and lacrimal sIgA (odds-ratio 18.61, P = 0.0001. ELISA test sensitivity was 84% and specificity 78% . Our data suggest that anti-T.gondii secretory IgA found in tears may become an important marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  20. Lacrimal secretory IgA in active posterior uveitis induced by Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Maria Isabel; Cordeiro, Francisco; Ferreira, Silvana; Ximenes, Ricardo; Oréfice, Fernando; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2004-12-01

    It is quite difficult to diagnose active toxoplasmosis in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Active posterior uveitis presumably due to Toxoplasma gondii infection (APUPT) is seldom produced during a prime-infection; hence most patients do not show high IgM antibodies. High levels of IgA have been described in active toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible association between APUPT and the specific anti-parasite sIgA in tears. The study was carried out as case-control. Tears of 25 clinically confirmed APUPT patients and 50 healthy control subjects were analyzed. All were IgG seropositive. Specific sIgA was determined by ELISA assay using T. gondii RH strain crude extract. Anti-T. gondii sIgA was found in 84% of the cases and in 22% of the control subjects. The intensity of the reaction was higher in APUPT cases (P = 0.007). There was strong association between APUPT patients and lacrimal sIgA (odds-ratio 18.61, P = 0.0001). ELISA test sensitivity was 84% and specificity 78%. Our data suggest that anti-T.gondii secretory IgA found in tears may become an important marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection induces dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala accompanied by reduced corticosterone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupshi Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Pathological anxiety is thought to reflect a maladaptive state characterized by exaggerated fear. Naturally occurring perturbations that reduce fear can be crucial in the search for new treatments. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii invades rat brain and removes the fear that rats have of cat odors, a change believed to be parasitic manipulation of host behavior aimed at increasing parasite transmission. It is likely that mechanisms employed by T. gondii can be used as a heuristic tool to understand possible means of fear reduction in clinical settings. Male Long-Evans rats were infected with T. gondii and compared with sham-infected animals 8 weeks after infection. The amount of circulating plasma corticosterone and dendritic arborization of basolateral amygdala principal neurons were quantified. Previous studies have shown that corticosterone, acting within the basolateral amygdala, enhances the fear response to environmental stimuli. Here we show that T. gondii infection causes a dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons. Such dendritic retraction is accompanied by lower amounts of circulating corticosterone, both at baseline and when induced by an aversive cat odor. The concerted effects of parasitism on two pivotal physiological nodes of the fear response provide an animal model relevant to interactions between stress hormones and amygdalar plasticity.

  2. Screening and identification of novel B cell epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Wang, Guangxiang; Zhang, Delin; Yin, Hong; Wang, Meng

    2013-04-30

    The identification of protein epitopes is useful for diagnostic purposes and for the development of peptide vaccines. In this study, the epitopes of Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 were identified using synthetic peptide techniques with the aid of bioinformatics. Eleven peptides derived from T. gondii SAG1 were assessed by ELISA using pig sera from different time points after infection. Four (PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11), out of the eleven peptides tested were recognized by all sera. Then, shorter peptides that were derived from PS4, PS6, PS10 and PS11 were predicted using bioinformatics and tested by experimentation. Four out of nine shorter peptides were identified successfully (amino acids 106-120, 166-180, 289-300 and 313-332). We have precisely located the epitopes of T. gondii SAG1 using pig sera collected at different time points after infection. The identified epitopes may be useful for the further study of epitope-based vaccines and diagnostic reagents.

  3. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M Tim; Moore, James; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2-3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  4. New views of the Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole as revealed by Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Wanderley; Attias, Marcia

    2015-07-01

    The Helium Ion Microscope (HIM) is a new technology that uses a highly focused helium ion beam to scan and interact with the sample, which is not coated. The images have resolution and depth of field superior to field emission scanning electron microscopes. In this paper, we used HIM to study LLC-MK2 cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii. These samples were chemically fixed and, after critical point drying, were scraped with adhesive tape to expose the inner structure of the cell and parasitophorous vacuoles. We confirmed some of the previous findings made by field emission-scanning electron microscopy and showed that the surface of the parasite is rich in structures suggestive of secretion, that the nanotubules of the intravacuolar network (IVN) are not always straight, and that bifurcations are less frequent than previously thought. Fusion of the tubules with the parasite membrane or the parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) was also infrequent. Tiny adhesive links were observed for the first time connecting the IVN tubules. The PVM showed openings of various sizes that even allowed the observation of endoplasmic reticulum membranes in the cytoplasm of the host cell. These findings are discussed in relation to current knowledge on the cell biology of T. gondii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lack of immunoglobulin M suppression by immunoglobulin G antibody in thymectomized, irradiated, and bone marrow-reconstituted mice infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, J; Hafizi, A; Modabber, F

    1980-03-01

    Thymectomized, irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (T-deprived) mie infected with an avirulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii produced antibody titers comparable to those produced in intact syngeneic mice. Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies were produced in T-deprived animals; however, the IgM antibody remained constant in the presence of increasing amounts of IgG. In the intact animals, IgM became undetectable by day 50 postinfection as expected. Feedback inhibition of IgM by IgG seems to be dependent upon T-cells in Toxoplasma-infected mice.

  6. Abdome agudo por obstrução por ileobiliar

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    Márcia Cristina de Alencastro

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever a experiência na abordagem dos doentes com abdome agudo por obstrução por IB, desde o diagnóstico até o tratamento definitivo. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo incluindo todos os casos de IB tratados em um período de 23 anos. De acordo com a abordagem cirúrgica realizada, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (1 enterolitotomia com colecistectomia no segundo momento; e (2 enterolitotomia, colecistectomia e abordagem da fístula. RESULTADOS: Doze pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 11 mulheres (91,6%, com média de idade de 72,2 anos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam doenças associadas, principalmente hipertensão arterial sistêmica (75%. Dois pacientes não apresentavam sintomas significativos de obstrução intestinal. O diagnóstico de IB foi realizado em seis pacientes (50% antes da laparotomia. O grupo 1 foi constituído de oito pacientes e o grupo 2 de quatro, e a morbidade foi, respectivamente, 33,3% e 8,3%. A mortalidade foi 16,6% (um paciente de cada grupo. CONCLUSÃO: O manejo do IB deve ser individualizado. O tratamento da obstrução mediante remoção do cálculo biliar por enterotomia proximal é a escolha inicial para o tratamento do IB. A colecistectomia e a correção da fístula bilioentérica podem ser realizadas juntamente com a remoção do cálculo, no entanto, em pacientes com comorbidades significativas, esses procedimentos devem ser realizados posteriormente.

  7. Presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. and -Ehrlichia canis antibodies in free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus in the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O lobo-guará (Chrysocyon brachyurus habita o ecossistema de Cerrado e é considerado o maior canídeo da América do Sul e uma espécie ameaçada de extinção pela "International Union for Conservation of Nature" (IUNC. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar a presença de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii, -Neospora caninum, -Leishmania spp. e -Ehrlichia canis em lobos-guará da região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Das 17 amostras de soro testadas por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI, 88,2% (15/17, 17,6% (3/17 e 52,9% (9/17 apresentaram anticorpos anti-T. gondii, -Leishmania spp. e -E. canis, respectivamente. Todos os animais testados foram soronegativos para N. caninum. Esses resultados indicam a exposição dos lobos-guará dessa região aos agentes pesquisados. A presença de um complexo industrial, agricultura extensiva e fragmentação de habitat na região nordeste do estado de São Paulo, favorece a proximidade desses animais silvestres a ambientes urbanos o que pode contribuir para a transmissão de doenças entre os animais silvestres, domésticos e o homem.

  8. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

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    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  9. Muerte materna por malaria grave por Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años con 29 semanas de gestación, procedente de Llumpe (Ancash con antecedentes de viajes a las localidades de Chanchamayo (Junín y Rinconada (Ancash. Ingresó al Hospital de Chacas (Ancash por presentar mal estado general, deshidratación, dificultad respiratoria, ictericia, sensación de alza térmica y dolor abdominal, tuvo reporte de: hemoparásitos 60% en frotis sanguíneo. Fue transferida al Hospital Ramos Guardia (Huaraz donde presentó mayor dificultad respiratoria, coluria, hematuria, disminución del débito urinario y reporte de Plasmodium (+, luego fue transferida al Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima donde ingresó a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, con evolución a falla multiorgánica, óbito fetal y muerte materna. Se confirmó infección por Plasmodium vivax. Destacamos la importancia de mejorar nuestras capacidades de diagnóstico y manejo para brindar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno.

  10. The structure of bradyzoite-specific enolase from Toxoplasma gondii reveals insights into its dual cytoplasmic and nuclear functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jiapeng [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mouveaux, Thomas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Anderson, Wayne F. [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Tomavo, Stanislas [Université Lille Nord de France, (France); Ngô, Huân M., E-mail: h-ngo@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, 320 E. Superior Street, Morton 7-601, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); BrainMicro LLC, 21 Pendleton Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The second crystal structure of a parasite protein preferentially enriched in the brain cyst of T. gondii has been solved at 2.75 Å resolution. Bradyzoite enolase 1 is reported to have differential functions as a glycolytic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator in bradyzoites. In addition to catalyzing a central step in glycolysis, enolase assumes a remarkably diverse set of secondary functions in different organisms, including transcription regulation as documented for the oncogene c-Myc promoter-binding protein 1. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii differentially expresses two nuclear-localized, plant-like enolases: enolase 1 (TgENO1) in the latent bradyzoite cyst stage and enolase 2 (TgENO2) in the rapidly replicative tachyzoite stage. A 2.75 Å resolution crystal structure of bradyzoite enolase 1, the second structure to be reported of a bradyzoite-specific protein in Toxoplasma, captures an open conformational state and reveals that distinctive plant-like insertions are located on surface loops. The enolase 1 structure reveals that a unique residue, Glu164, in catalytic loop 2 may account for the lower activity of this cyst-stage isozyme. Recombinant TgENO1 specifically binds to a TTTTCT DNA motif present in the cyst matrix antigen 1 (TgMAG1) gene promoter as demonstrated by gel retardation. Furthermore, direct physical interactions of both nuclear TgENO1 and TgENO2 with the TgMAG1 gene promoter are demonstrated in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Structural and biochemical studies reveal that T. gondii enolase functions are multifaceted, including the coordination of gene regulation in parasitic stage development. Enolase 1 provides a potential lead in the design of drugs against Toxoplasma brain cysts.

  11. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, M; Peyron, F; Cornu, C; Vinault, S; Abrahamowicz, M; Kopp, C Bonithon; Binquet, C

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy exposes the fetus to risks of congenital infection and sequelae that depend heavily on gestational age (GA) at time of infection. Accurate risk estimates by GA are necessary to counsel parents and improve clinical decisions. We analyzed data from pregnant women diagnosed with acute Toxoplasma infection in Lyon (France) from 1987 to 2008 and assessed how the risks of congenital toxoplasmosis and of clinical signs at age 3 years vary depending on GA at the time of maternal infection. Among 2048 mother-infant pairs, 93.2% of mothers received prenatal treatment and 513 (24.7%) fetuses were infected. Because of a significant reduction in risk since 1992 when monthly screening was introduced (59.4% vs 46.6% at 26 GA weeks; P = .038), probabilities of infection were estimated on the basis of maternal infections diagnosed after mid-1992 (n = 1624). Probabilities of congenital infection were <10% for maternal infections before 12 weeks of gestation, rose to 20.0% at 19 weeks, and then continued increasing to 52.3% and almost 70% at 28 and 39 GA weeks, respectively. Because of a significant reduction in risk of clinical signs of congenital toxoplasmosis in infected children born from mothers diagnosed after 1995 when polymerase chain reaction testing on amniotic fluid was initiated (87/794 vs 46/1150; P = .012), probabilities of clinical signs at 3 years were estimated based on 1015 maternal infections diagnosed after 1995 including 207 infected children, with symptoms in 46 (22.2%). These analyses demonstrated that introduction of monthly prenatal screening and improvement in antenatal diagnosis were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of congenital infection and a better outcome at 3 years of age in infected children. Our updated estimates will improve individual management and counseling in areas where genotype II Toxoplasma is predominant.

  12. Oocyst-Derived Extract of Toxoplasma Gondii Serves as Potent Immunomodulator in a Mouse Model of Birch Pollen Allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Wagner

    Full Text Available Previously, we have shown that oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts prevented type I allergy in mice. Here we investigated whether the application of a T. gondii oocyst lysate antigen (OLA could also reduce allergy development. BALB/c mice were immunised twice with OLA followed by sensitisation with the major birch pollen (BP allergen Bet v 1 and an aerosol challenge with BP extract.First, we tested OLA in vitro. Stimulation of splenocytes and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with OLA led to the production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines such as IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BMDC exposed to OLA upregulated the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHCII. Furthermore, OLA was recognised by TLR2-transfected human embryonic kidney cells.Immunisation of mice with OLA induced high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in sera along with increased production of IFN-γ and IL-10 in Toxoplasma-antigen restimulated splenocytes. OLA reduced allergic airway inflammation as manifested by significant reduction of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluids, decreased cellular infiltrates and mucus production in the lungs. Accordingly, Bet v 1-specific IgE was decreased in OLA-pretreated mice. The reduced allergic immune responses were accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in spleens as well as by increased numbers of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in lungs when compared to sensitised controls suggesting that these two cell populations might be involved in the suppression of the allergic immune responses.Our data demonstrate that pretreatment with the oocyst extract can exert anti-allergic effects comparable to T. gondii infection. Thus, the immunomodulatory properties of the parasite extract indicate that this extract and in the future defined molecules thereof might serve as immunomodulatory adjuvants in allergy treatment and prophylaxis.

  13. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  14. Coinfection by Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. in domestic cats (Felis catus in State of Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Rennó Campos Braga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis are important to public health. Methods Antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. were evaluated in cats from Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis. Serum samples from 50 asymptomatic cats were titrated for T. gondii by the immunofluorescence antibody test and modified agglutination test and for Leishmania spp. by the immunofluorescence antibody test. Results These two agents coinfected two (4% of the 50 tested animals. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the concomitant presence of two important zoonoses in cats from Brazilian endemic regions for canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. Occurrence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered swine in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine slaughtered in Iporã, Northwest Paraná state. Blood samples were obtained from 500 finishing swine. All animals were raised under intensive farming; the blood samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Animals with titers of ?64 were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of the tested samples, 63 (12.6% were positive by IFAT; 58 (92.06% of these showed titers of 64 (4.7%, with titers 256 and two (3.1% titers of 1024. These pigs might be considered a source of T. gondii infection for humans

  16. A new set of primers for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii in amniotic fluid using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloux, H; Weiss, J; Simon, J; Muet, F; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Goullier-Fleuret, A; Ambroise-Thomas, P

    1996-04-15

    A new PCR system including a pair of primers, a probe and an internal control were designed from the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii. The system described allowed the detection of less than 10 tachyzoites of the RH strain of T. gondii. Among 21 amniotic fluid samples, this system diagnosed the cases of congenital toxoplasmosis which were simultaneously diagnosed using mice inoculation, in vitro culture, and serology from both amniotic fluid and fetal blood. These results show that these new primers allow for a highly sensitive detection of T. gondii DNA.

  17. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii secretory IgA in tears of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis: immunodiagnostic validation by ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch,Maria Isabel; Malagueño,Elizabeth; Lynch,Luiz Felipe; Ferreira,Silvana; Stheling,Raphael; Oréfice,Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes posterior uveitis and the specific diagnosis is based on clinical criteria. The presence of anti-T. gondii secretory IgA (sIgA) antibodies in patients' tears has been reported and an association was found between ocular toxoplasmosis and the anti-T. gondii sIgA isotype in Brazilian patients. The purpose of this study was to provide an objective validation of the published ELISA test for determining the presence of anti-T. gondii sIgA in the tears of individuals with o...

  18. Miasis ocular por Oestrus ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Beltrán F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .

  19. Research on antibodies anti toxoplasma gondii in intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humor) from patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, in the City of Belém, Pará State

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Ediclei Lima do; Almeida, Edmundo Frota; Bichara, Cléa Nazaré; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2005-01-01

    Foi realizada pesquisa de anticorpos IgG, IgM e IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii no soro e fluidos intra-oculares (humor aquoso e vítreo) de pacientes com toxoplasmose ocular. A partir dos resultados obtidos verificou-se que anticorpos IgG e IgA intraocular anti-Toxoplasma gondii podem vir a ser importantes marcadores no diagnóstico de toxoplasmose ocular.Tests were performed for antibodies IgG, IgM and IgA anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum and intraocular fluids (Aqueous and vitreous humo...

  20. Hipoglucemia inducida por carcinoma adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Soutelo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma suprarrenal es una neoplasia maligna infrecuente y de mal pronóstico. La presentación clínica más común es originada por la producción hormonal excesiva, mientras que el desarrollo de hipoglucemia sintomática es excepcional. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años que ingresó al hospital por síntomas de hipoglucemias graves, hipertensión arterial, hipopotasemia y amenorrea secundaria. En el laboratorio se halló hipoglucemia con insulina inhibida y niveles de andrógenos en rango tumoral. La tomografía computarizada (TC de abdomen y pelvis mostró voluminosa formación heterogénea de aspecto sólido sin plano de clivaje con respecto al parénquima hepático e intenso realce con contraste. Luego de la extirpación de la masa retroperitoneal, evolucionó con valores de glucemia y potasemia normales, estabilizó la presión arterial y recuperó los ciclos menstruales.

  1. La curiosidad por la naturaleza

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    José Vicente Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta actitud es un instrumento estratégico para estimular procesos de desarrollo realmente sostenibles, donde se aproveche la admiración que nos embarga al conocer y apreciar lo que nos rodea para responsablemente utilizar y conservar nuestros recursos naturales. Con esta reflexión deseo resaltar esa motivación de escudriñar lo desconocido, que fue también la virtud que propició el desarrollo de la personalidad de Francisco José de Caldas y Tenorio, uno de nuestros primeros y connotados sabios colombianos, y en cuyo honor se constituyó la revista de divulgación científica más importante del país, que en estos momentos cumple 76 años de existencia. Caldas tuvo curiosidad por todo lo que existía en su entorno; inicialmente en su natal Popayán, donde se maravilló por lo natural, lo que lo motivó y llevó más allá de su tierra a formar parte de la mayor empresa de exploración científica adelantada en ese entonces en territorio americano: la primera Expedición Botánica al nuevo Reino de Granada, de José Celestino Mutis.

  2. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

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    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  3. Toxoplasmose ocular em cães jovens inoculados com Toxoplasma gondii Ocular toxoplasmosis in young dogs inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Bonini de Abreu

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose é uma doença zoonótica de distribuição mundial que pode infectar uma grande variedade de espécies animais e o homem. No presente trabalho, foram avaliados nove cães jovens inoculados experimentalmente com três cepas diferentes de T. gondii em que se observaram através de microscopia direta e indireta, alterações oftálmicas em sete deles, confirmadas através de retinografia e histopatologia. Com os resultados obtidos, observou-se que as alterações oftálmicas na toxoplasmose adquirida nos cães apareceram já ao término da terceira semana pós-inoculação, mostrando a precocidade das alterações. No exame direto do olho, sete cães apresentaram áreas de hiperrefletividade. Alterações como papiledema, exsudato peripapilar e diminuição da pigmentação do tapetum foram observadas em três cães submetidos à retinografia. O exame histopatológico revelou a presença de discreto infiltrado mononuclear na córnea na região subepitelial em estroma conjuntivo em nível do ângulo da íris, congestão vascular da coróide e edema sub-retiniano em oito cães. Nossos resultados permitem concluir que a toxoplasmose ocular adquirida nos cães é tão significativa quanto na espécie humana. Assim, estudos devem ser aprofundados nesta linha de pesquisa para reforçar os achados.Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution that can infect a great variety of animal species and man. In the present study nine young dogs inoculated with three different samples of Toxoplasma gondii were evaluated. Seven of them showed ophthalmic alterations by means of direct and indirect microscopy, photomicrograph and histopathology. From the results obtained it was noted that ophthalmic alterations were already present at the end of the third week after inoculation, showing the precocity of such alterations. In the direct examination of the eyes, seven dogs presented increased reflective areas. Alterations such as

  4. Fatores associados a soroprevalência de Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em rebanhos caprinos na região sul de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary S. Varaschin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo estabelece a soroprevalência de Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em rebanhos caprinos no Sul de Minas Gerais e verifica a sua associação com o desempenho reprodutivo dos rebanhos analisados, uma vez que não há dados sobre neosporose em caprinos neste Estado. Amostras de soro de 401 caprinos provenientes de 11 propriedades foram submetidas à reação de imunofluorescência indireta anti-N. caninum e T. gondii. A prevalência média de animais positivos foi de 10,7% e 21,4%, respectivamente. Houve diferença significativa entre as faixas etárias. Neste quesito os maiores índices de positividade, para ambos os parasitas, foram observados nos caprinos acima de três anos de idade. Estes apresentaram uma probabilidade 2,6 e 4,8 maior, em relação aos animais de até um ano de idade, para N. caninum e T. gondii, respectivamente. No teste T não houve associação positiva entre as médias de prevalência de N. caninum (p=0,553 e T. gondii (p=0,098 com a ocorrência de problema reprodutivo nos rebanhos. Porém, propriedades com histórico de problemas reprodutivos apresentaram uma média de reagentes para N. caninum de 18,64%, se comparadas a 13,97% de criatórios que não relataram essas alterações. Quando os problemas reprodutivos foram separados em categorias a relação entre a ocorrência de aborto e a soroprevalência de N. caninum e de T. gondii foi significativa (p0,05 entre as médias de prevalência de T. gondii e o acesso de gatos ao rebanho no teste T. Entretanto, a média de prevalência nas propriedades em que os gatos tinham acesso foi de 31,01%, se comparada a 17,34% em criatórios onde não existiam gatos. Foi constatado o acesso de cães em 100% das propriedades. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo demonstram que N. caninum e T. gondii infectam caprinos no Sul de Minas Gerais e que estes parasitas podem estar associados à ocorrência de abortos nessa espécie animal.

  5. Evasion of Human Neutrophil-Mediated Host Defense during Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tatiane S; Gov, Lanny; Lodoen, Melissa B

    2018-02-13

    Neutrophils are a major player in host immunity to infection; however, the mechanisms by which human neutrophils respond to the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are still poorly understood. In the current study, we found that, whereas primary human monocytes produced interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in response to T. gondii infection, human neutrophils from the same blood donors did not. Moreover, T. gondii inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-1β synthesis in human peripheral blood neutrophils. IL-1β suppression required active parasite invasion, since heat-killed or mycalolide B-treated parasites did not inhibit IL-1β release. By investigating the mechanisms involved in this process, we found that T. gondii infection of neutrophils treated with LPS resulted in reduced transcript levels of IL-1β and NLRP3 and reduced protein levels of pro-IL-1β, mature IL-1β, and the inflammasome sensor NLRP3. In T. gondii -infected neutrophils stimulated with LPS, the levels of MyD88, TRAF6, IKKα, IKKβ, and phosphorylated IKKα/β were not affected. However, LPS-induced IκBα degradation and p65 phosphorylation were reduced in T. gondii- infected neutrophils, and degradation of IκBα was reversed by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Finally, we observed that T. gondii inhibited the cleavage and activity of caspase-1 in human neutrophils. These results indicate that T. gondii suppression of IL-1β involves a two-pronged strategy whereby T. gondii inhibits both NF-κB signaling and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. These findings represent a novel mechanism of T. gondii evasion of human neutrophil-mediated host defense by targeting the production of IL-1β. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects approximately one-third of humans worldwide and can invade virtually any nucleated cell in the human body. Although it is well documented that neutrophils infiltrate the site of acute T

  6. Toxoplasma gondii Requires Glycogen Phosphorylase for Balancing Amylopectin Storage and for Efficient Production of Brain Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Tu, Vincent; Ma, Yanfen; Tomita, Tadakimi; Weiss, Louis M

    2017-08-29

    In immunocompromised hosts, latent infection with Toxoplasma gondii can reactivate from tissue cysts, leading to encephalitis. A characteristic of T. gondii bradyzoites in tissue cysts is the presence of amylopectin granules. The regulatory mechanisms and role of amylopectin accumulation in this organism are not fully understood. The T. gondii genome encodes a putative glycogen phosphorylase (TgGP), and mutants were constructed to manipulate the activity of TgGP and to evaluate the function of TgGP in amylopectin storage. Both a stop codon mutant (Pru/TgGP S25stop [expressing a Ser-to-stop codon change at position 25 in TgGP]) and a phosphorylation null mutant (Pru/TgGP S25A [expressing a Ser-to-Ala change at position 25 in TgGp]) mutated at Ser25 displayed amylopectin accumulation, while the phosphorylation-mimetic mutant (Pru/TgGP S25E [expressing a Ser-to-Glu change at position 25 in TgGp]) had minimal amylopectin accumulation under both tachyzoite and bradyzoite growth conditions. The expression of active TgGP S25S or TgGP S25E restored amylopectin catabolism in Pru/TgGP S25A To understand the relation between GP and calcium-dependent protein kinase 2 (CDPK2), which was recently reported to regulate amylopectin consumption, we knocked out CDPK2 in these mutants. Pru Δcdpk2 /TgGP S25E had minimal amylopectin accumulation, whereas the Δcdpk2 phenotype in the other GP mutants and parental lines displayed amylopectin accumulation. Both the inactive S25A and hyperactive S25E mutant produced brain cysts in infected mice, but the numbers of cysts produced were significantly less than the number produced by the S25S wild-type GP parasite. Complementation that restored amylopectin regulation restored brain cyst production to the control levels seen in infected mice. These data suggest that T. gondii requires tight regulation of amylopectin expression for efficient production of cysts and persistent infections and that GP phosphorylation is a regulatory mechanism

  7. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in two southern Wooly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides-Geoffroy, 1806) from the Rio de Janeiro primate center, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Strefezzi, R F; Pissinatti, A; Kanamura, C T; Takakura, C F H; Duarte, M I S; Catão-Dias, J L

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasmosis led to the death of two Brachyteles arachnoides, an endangered atelid. The diagnosis was established by necropsy, histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural changes. The analysis confirms the presence of Toxoplasma gondii. This report contributes to the development of protocols for health surveillance on maintenance and conservation of southern muriquis.

  8. Antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (Lynx rufus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and wildlife from Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. In this study, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutinatio...

  9. Epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus): occurrence, congenital transmission, correlates of infection, isolation, and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in white tailed deer (WTD) in the USA is high, but little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in this host. In the present study, we compared T. gondii seroprevalence from 531 WTD collected in 2012 and 2013 from a Metropolitan Park in Ohio, and and 485 W...

  10. β-1,3-Glucan, Which Can Be Targeted by Drugs, Forms a Trabecular Scaffold in the Oocyst Walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Magnelli, Paula; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Dubey, Jitender P.; Miska, Katarzyna B.; Bullitt, Esther; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The walls of infectious pathogens, which are essential for transmission, pathogenesis, and diagnosis, contain sugar polymers that are defining structural features, e.g., β-1,3-glucan and chitin in fungi, chitin in Entamoeba cysts, β-1,3-GalNAc in Giardia cysts, and peptidoglycans in bacteria. The goal here was to determine in which of three walled forms of Toxoplasma gondii (oocyst, sporocyst, or tissue cyst) is β-1,3-glucan, the product of glucan synthases and glucan hydrolases predicted by whole-genome sequences of the parasite. The three most important discoveries were as follows. (i) β-1,3-glucan is present in oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria (a chicken parasite that is a model for intestinal stages of Toxoplasma) but is absent from sporocyst and tissue cyst walls. (ii) Fibrils of β-1,3-glucan are part of a trabecular scaffold in the inner layer of the oocyst wall, which also includes a glucan hydrolase that has a novel glucan-binding domain. (iii) Echinocandins, which target the glucan synthase and kill fungi, arrest development of the Eimeria oocyst wall and prevent release of the parasites into the intestinal lumen. In summary, β-1,3-glucan, which can be targeted by drugs, is an important component of oocyst walls of Toxoplasma but is not a component of sporocyst and tissue cyst walls. PMID:23015739

  11. Low prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs in Jilin, Henan and Anhui Provinces of the People’s Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are important pathogens of worldwide distribution. N. caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and dogs are main reservoirs because they excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts. Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis and dogs are consider...

  12. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms

  13. Toxoplasma gondii abortion storm in sheep on a Texas farm and isolation of mouse virulent atypical genotype T. gondii from an aborted lamb from a chronically infected ewe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep are commonly infected with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Infection may cause early embryonic death and resorption, fetal death and mummification, abortion, stillbirth, and neonatal death. Most sheep acquire T. gondii infection after birth. Recent studies reported that repeat ovine...

  14. Isolation and RFLP genotyping of toxoplasma gondii in free-range chicken(Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, revealed widespread and dominance of clonal type III parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to estimate the prevalence and to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with ...

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  16. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from black bears (Ursus americanus), bobcats (Felis rufus), and feral cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase u...

  18. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in donkeys (Equus asinus) from the U.S.A. and isolation of T. gondii from cats on donkey farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkeys (Equus asinus) are used as companion animals, in leisure activities as working animals, for onotherapy, and their meat and milk is used for human consumption in certain countries. Here we report first serological survey for Toxoplasma gondii in donkeys in the U.S.A. Serum samples were collec...

  19. Long-term humoral antibody responses by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with oocysts of four strains of Toxoplasma gondii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Andrews, C.D.; Thulliez, P.

    1997-01-01

    Antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 16 pigs orally inoculated with 1000 or 10000 oocysts of one of the four strains (GT-1, ME-49, TS-2, TC-2) of T. gondii. Pigs were euthanized on postinoculation days 103-875 and their tissues were bioassayed for T. gondii. Antibody titers wer...

  20. Cross-sectional survey in pig breeding farms in Hesse, Germany: seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp. and Neospora caninum in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damriyasa, I.M.; Bauer, C.; Edelhofer, R.

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to estimate the prevalences of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii (ELISA, IFAT), Sarcocystis spp. (ELISA, using S. miescheriana as antigen) and Neospora caninum (ELISA, immunoblotting) in sows from breeding farms in southern Hesse, Germany. A total of 2041 plas...