WorldWideScience

Sample records for core-debris quenching-heat-transfer rates

  1. Retention of molten core debris pools in composite sacrificial beds. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, I K; Abdel-Khalik, S I

    1979-01-01

    Passive core catchers have been proposed as a means for retaining the core debris following a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. The core debris which may be in the form of a molten pool is passively retained in a sacrificial bed of high melting temperature material placed inside or outside the reactor vessel. Recently, it has been suggested that composite sacrificial beds with a low-melting-temperature zone inside the main high-melting-temperature bed may be more effective in retaining the pool than simple beds. It was argued that the inner zone would quickly melt and dilute the pool so that further growth into the main bed would be slowed. Hence, the main objective of this work has been to examine the composite bed concept to ascertain its efficacy vis-a-vis simple sacrificial beds.

  2. Historical summary of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 core debris transportation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Quinn, G.J. [Wastren, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Transport of the damaged core materials from the Unit 2 reactor of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for examination and storage presented many technical and institutional challenges, including assessing the ability to transport the damaged core; removing and packaging core debris in ways suitable for transport; developing a transport package that could both meet Federal regulations and interface with the facilities at TMI-2 and the INEL; and developing a transport plan, support logistics, and public communications channels suited to the task. This report is a historical summary of how the US Department of Energy addressed those challenges and transported, received, and stored the TMI-2 core debris at the INEL. Subjects discussed include preparations for transport, loading at TMI-2, institutional issues, transport operations, receipt and storage at the INEL, governmental inquiries/investigations, and lessons learned. Because of public attention focused on the TMI-2 Core Debris Transport Program, the exchange of information between the program and public was extensive. This exchange is a focus for parts of this report to explain why various operations were conducted as they were and why certain technical approaches were employed. And, because of that exchange, the program may have contributed to a better public understanding of such actions and may contribute to planning and execution of similar future actions.

  3. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in molten core debris-concrete systems. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, D K

    1979-01-01

    The heat and mass transport phenomena taking place in volumetrically-heated fluids have become of interest in recent years due to their significance in assessments of fast reactor safety and post-accident heat removal (PAHR). Following a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), the core and reactor internals may melt down. The core debis melting through the reactor vessel and guard vessel may eventually contact the concrete of the reactor cell floor. The interaction of the core debris with the concrete as well as the melting of the debris pool into the concrete will significantly affect efforts to prevent breaching of the containment and the resultant release of radioactive effluents to the environment.

  4. Second OECD (NEA) CSNI specialist meeting on molten core debris-concrete interactions. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsmeyer, H. [comp.

    1992-11-01

    The 37 contributions concentrated on two main topics. The first topic is the `classical` core debris-concrete interaction, both experimental and theoretical. Integral effects and separate effects were addressed in thermal hydraulics and heat transfer, material interaction, and aerosol release during concrete erosion, with some applications to prototypical nuclear power plants. The second topic is the possibility of controlling and ending the erosion of the concrete by spreading of the core melt, and/or achieving coolability by the addition of water. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die 37 Beitraege behandelten zwei Schwerpunkthemen. Das erste Thema ist die `klassische` Schmelze-Beton-Wechselwirkung, ueber die aus Sicht der Experimente und der Theorie berichtet wurde. Integrale und spezielle Effekte wurden angesprochen aus dem Bereich der Thermohydraulik und des Waermeuebergangs, des Materialverhaltens und der Aerosolfreisetzung waehrend der Betonerosion. Anwendungsrechnungen fuer einige prototypische Reaktoranlagen wurden vorgestellt. Das zweite Thema befasst sich mit der Moeglichkeit, die Erosion des Betons zu beeinflussen und nach Moeglichkeit zu beenden, indem die Kernschmelze weit verteilt wird und/oder durch Fluten mit Wasser gekuehlt wird. (orig./HP)

  5. Evaluation of materials for retention of sodium and core debris in reactor systems. Annual progress report, September 1977-December 1978. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, D.G.; Zehms, E.H.; McClelland, J.D.; Meyer, R.A.; van Paassen, H.L.L.

    1978-12-01

    This report considers some of the consequences of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a nuclear reactor. The interactions expected between molten core debris, liquid sodium, and materials that might be employed in an ex-vessel sacrificial-bed or in the reactor building are discussed. Experimental work performed for NRC by Sandia Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on the interactions between liquid sodium and basalt concrete is reviewed. Studies of molten steel interactions with concrete at Sandia Laboratories and molten UO/sub 2/ interactions with concrete at The Aerospace Corporation are also discussed. The potential of MgO for use in core containment is discussed and refractory materials other than MgO are reviewed. Finally, results from earlier experiments with molten core debris and various materials performed at The Aerospace Corporation are presented.

  6. The MELTSPREAD Code for Modeling of Ex-Vessel Core Debris Spreading Behavior, Code Manual – Version3-beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MELTSPREAD3 is a transient one-dimensional computer code that has been developed to predict the gravity-driven flow and freezing behavior of molten reactor core materials (corium) in containment geometries. Predictions can be made for corium flowing across surfaces under either dry or wet cavity conditions. The spreading surfaces that can be selected are steel, concrete, a user-specified material (e.g., a ceramic), or an arbitrary combination thereof. The corium can have a wide range of compositions of reactor core materials that includes distinct oxide phases (predominantly Zr, and steel oxides) plus metallic phases (predominantly Zr and steel). The code requires input that describes the containment geometry, melt “pour” conditions, and cavity atmospheric conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and cavity flooding information). For cases in which the cavity contains a preexisting water layer at the time of RPV failure, melt jet breakup and particle bed formation can be calculated mechanistically given the time-dependent melt pour conditions (input data) as well as the heatup and boiloff of water in the melt impingement zone (calculated). For core debris impacting either the containment floor or previously spread material, the code calculates the transient hydrodynamics and heat transfer which determine the spreading and freezing behavior of the melt. The code predicts conditions at the end of the spreading stage, including melt relocation distance, depth and material composition profiles, substrate ablation profile, and wall heatup. Code output can be used as input to other models such as CORQUENCH that evaluate long term core-concrete interaction behavior following the transient spreading stage. MELTSPREAD3 was originally developed to investigate BWR Mark I liner vulnerability, but has been substantially upgraded and applied to other reactor designs (e.g., the EPR), and more recently to the plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi. The most recent round of

  7. Safety apparatus for nuclear reactor to prevent structural damage from overheating by core debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Baker, L. Jr.

    The invention teaches safety apparatus that can be included in a nuclear reactor, either when newly fabricated or as a retrofit add-on, that will minimize proliferation of structural damage to the reactor in the event the reactor is experiencing an overheating malfunction whereby radioactive nuclear debris might break away from and can be discharged from the reactor core. The invention provides a porous bed of sublayer on the lower surface of the reactor containment vessel so that the debris falls on and piles up on the bed. Vapor release elements upstand from the bed in some laterally spaced array. Thus should the high heat flux of the debris interior vaporize the coolant at that location, the vaporized coolant can be vented downwardly to and laterally through the bed to the vapor release elements and in turn via the release elements upwardly through the debris. This minimizes the pressure buildup in the debris and allows for continuing infiltration of the liquid coolant into the debris interior.

  8. In-vessel core debris retention through external flooding of the reactor pressure vessel. State-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heel, A.M.J.M. van

    1995-07-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the ex-vessel flooding accident management strategy for severe accidents in a NPP has been given. The feasibility has been discussed, as well as the in- and ex-vessel phenomena, which influence the structural integrity of the vessel. Finally, some computer codes with the ability to model the phenomena involved in ex-vessel flooding have been discussed. (orig./HP).

  9. Ratings Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Signe Sophus

    2015-01-01

    tværs af medier og platforme, forskudt i tid og on-demand. This article focuses on audience ratings, which have functioned as the central ‘currency’ informing the media trade. It discusses changes to the production and accuracy of audience ratings at a time when established standards are being...

  10. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  11. Variable-Rate Premiums

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — These interest rates are used to value vested benefits for variable rate premium purposes as described in PBGC's regulation on Premium Rates (29 CFR Part 4006) and...

  12. Real Property Tax Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Levy Year 2012 real property tax rate dataset reflects all the rates per $100 set each year by the County Council. These rates are applied to the assessed value...

  13. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data.

  14. Rating Movies and Rating the Raters Who Rate Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The movie distribution company Netflix has generated considerable buzz in the statistics community by offering a million dollar prize for improvements to its movie rating system. Among the statisticians and computer scientists who have disclosed their techniques, the emphasis has been on machine learning approaches. This article has the modest goal of discussing a simple model for movie rating and other forms of democratic rating. Because the model involves a large number of parameters, it is nontrivial to carry out maximum likelihood estimation. Here we derive a straightforward EM algorithm from the perspective of the more general MM algorithm. The algorithm is capable of finding the global maximum on a likelihood landscape littered with inferior modes. We apply two variants of the model to a dataset from the MovieLens archive and compare their results. Our model identifies quirky raters, redefines the raw rankings, and permits imputation of missing ratings. The model is intended to stimulate discussion and development of better theory rather than to win the prize. It has the added benefit of introducing readers to some of the issues connected with analyzing high-dimensional data. PMID:20802818

  15. Interest rate derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenstrup, Mikkel

    This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....

  16. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  17. Rate Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — As of September 1, 2011, the Affordable Care Act and rate review regulation require review of rate increases of 10 percent or more. A non-grandfathered health plan...

  18. Glomerular filtration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007305.htm Glomerular filtration rate To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check ...

  19. Labor Force Participation Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This thematic map presents the labor force participation rate of working-age people in the United States in 2010. The 2010 Labor Force Participation Rate shows the...

  20. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    obtained a risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain different...... the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  1. Rating mutual funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Rangvid, Jesper

    obtained an annual risk-adjusted excess return that is approximately 3-4 percentage points higher per annum than if the funds with the highest costs had been invested in. We compare the atpRating with the Morningstar Rating. We show that one reason why the atpRating and the Morningstar Rating contain......, whereas the return of a fund in a certain year generally contains only little information about the future return that the fund will generate. Finally, we have information on the investments in different mutual funds made by a small subgroup of investors known to have been exposed to both the atp......We develop a new rating of mutual funds: the atpRating. The atpRating assigns crowns to each individual mutual fund based upon the costs an investor pays when investing in the fund in relation to what it would cost to invest in the fund's peers. Within each investment category, the rating assigns...

  2. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  3. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  4. Army aeromedical crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, R A; Freid, R L; Villarin, A R

    1999-02-01

    Safety is a principal concern for everyone in aviation, including those in military and civilian aeromedical programs. The U.S. Army flies thousands of helicopter missions each year, including many aeromedical flights. The comparison between Army general and aeromedical aviation crash data provides a benchmark for establishing patterns in aeromedical safety and may be useful for similar programs examining safety profiles. To determine the crash rates of Army aeromedical rotary-wing (helicopter) programs and compare them with crash rates in Army general aviation. Retrospective review of safety data from 1987 to 1995. Crashes or mishaps are categorized into three classes: A, B, and C. Class A reflects the most serious mishap and involves loss of life or aircraft destruction, whereas classes B and C represent lesser but still significant mishaps. Crash rates are compared on a year-by-year basis and are reported as events per 100,000 flight hours. Statistical analysis was performed by the z test with Yates' correction, with significance set at p crash rate was 1.86 compared with the aeromedical rate of 2.02. The mean general class A to C crash rate was 7.37 compared with the aeromedical rate of 7.44. Between 1992 and 1995, there were 3 years when the Army aeromedical program suffered no class A mishaps. Differences between study groups are statistically significant, but they are interpreted conservatively given the very low incidence of mishaps in both groups. Both rates are comparable with published civilian mishap rates. There is a very low overall incidence of crashes in both groups. There may be no practical difference between Army general and aeromedical aviation mishap rates. Furthermore, Army crash rates are comparable with published civilian mishap rates.

  5. Scaling metabolic rate fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Labra, Fabio A.; Marquet, Pablo A.; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Complex ecological and economic systems show fluctuations in macroscopic quantities such as exchange rates, size of companies or populations that follow non-Gaussian tent-shaped probability distributions of growth rates with power-law decay, which suggests that fluctuations in complex systems may be governed by universal mechanisms, independent of particular details and idiosyncrasies. We propose here that metabolic rate within individual organisms may be considered as an example of an emerge...

  6. NOC rate card catalog

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Salt Lake 2002 rate card is a detailed list of products and services available for rent by National Olympic Committees (NOCs) during the Salt Lake 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The rental process, explained in this document, includes ordering, invoicing, payment, procurement, delivery, installation, commissioning, on-site maintenance and service, collection and removal of rate card products.

  7. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  8. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    ), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way......The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...

  9. National ART Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ART and Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology National Summary Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... live-birth rate? [PDF - 1.37MB] Section 2: ART Cycles using fresh nondonor eggs or embryos What ...

  10. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  11. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  12. Rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Aagaard, Per; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of rate of force development during rapid contractions has recently become quite popular for characterising explosive strength of athletes, elderly individuals and patients. The main aims of this narrative review are to describe the neuromuscular determinants of rate of force...... development and to discuss various methodological considerations inherent to its evaluation for research and clinical purposes. Rate of force development (1) seems to be mainly determined by the capacity to produce maximal voluntary activation in the early phase of an explosive contraction (first 50-75 ms......), particularly as a result of increased motor unit discharge rate; (2) can be improved by both explosive-type and heavy-resistance strength training in different subject populations, mainly through an improvement in rapid muscle activation; (3) is quite difficult to evaluate in a valid and reliable way...

  13. Rate of Speed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Rate of spread was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  14. Ventilation rates and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundell, Jan; Levin, H; Nazaroff, W W

    2011-01-01

    The scientific literature through 2005 on the effects of ventilation rates on health in indoor environments has been reviewed by a multidisciplinary group. The group judged 27 papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals as providing sufficient information on both ventilation rates...... and health effects to inform the relationship. Consistency was found across multiple investigations and different epidemiologic designs for different populations. Multiple health endpoints show similar relationships with ventilation rate. There is biological plausibility for an association of health outcomes...... studies of the relationship between ventilation rates and health, especially in diverse climates, in locations with polluted outdoor air and in buildings other than offices. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Ventilation with outdoor air plays an important role influencing human exposures to indoor pollutants...

  15. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Additional Information About ART in the United States. Fertility Clinic Tables Introduction to Fertility Clinic Tables [PDF - ...

  16. Debenture Interest Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...

  17. The ratings game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braben, Donald W.

    2009-04-01

    How sad to read a supposedly serious debate among distinguished physicists (February p19) about which combinations of the latest Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) ratings represent a university physics department's true strengths.

  18. EDP Rates Student Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Data Systems, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Article describes the computer-based project in Barstow, California. The project seeks determination of students' learning achievements and whether these learning levels are rising at an acceptable rate to meet predetermined goals. (HB)

  19. Litter Decomposition Rates, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains decomposition rates for litter of Salicornia pacifica, Distichlis spicata, and Deschampsia cespitosa buried at 7 tidal marsh sites in 2015....

  20. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Haubold, H. J.; Mathai, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution of galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the cases of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are als...

  1. Ratings are Overrated!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios N. Yannakakis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Are ratings of any use in human-computer interaction and user studies at large? If ratings are of limited use, is there a better alternative for quantitative subjective assessment? Beyond the intrinsic shortcomings of human reporting, there are a number of supplementary limitations and fundamental methodological flaws associated with rating-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rate their level of agreement with a given statement such as a Likert item. While the effect of these pitfalls has been largely downplayed, recent findings from diverse areas of study question the reliability of using ratings. Rank-based questionnaires --- i.e. questionnaires that ask participants to rank two or more options --- appear as the evident alternative that not only eliminates the core limitations of ratings but also simplifies the use of sound methodologies that yield more reliable models of the underlying reported construct: user emotion, preference, or opinion. This paper solicits recent findings from various disciplines interlinked with psychometrics and offers a quick guide for the use, processing and analysis of rank-based questionnaires for the unique advantages they offer. The paper challenges the traditional state-of-practice in human-computer interaction and psychometrics directly contributing towards a paradigm shift in subjective reporting.

  2. Exchange Rate Dynamics under Alternative Optimal Interest Rate Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Binici, Mahir; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2011-01-01

    We explore the role of interest rate policy in the exchange rate determination process. Specifically, we derive exchange rate equations from interest rate rules that are theoretically optimal under a few alternative settings. The exchange rate equation depends on its underlying interest rate rule and its performance could vary across evaluation criteria and sample periods. The exchange rate equation implied by the interest rate rule that allows for interest rate and inflation inertia under co...

  3. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  4. Heart rate turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Heart rate turbulence (HRT) is a baroreflex-mediated biphasic reaction of heart rate in response to premature ventricular beats. Heart rate turbulence is quantified by: turbulence onset (TO) reflecting the initial acceleration of heart rate following premature beat and turbulence slope (TS) describing subsequent deceleration of heart rate. Abnormal HRT identifies patients with autonomic dysfunction or impaired baroreflex sensitivity due to variety of disorders, but also may reflect changes in autonomic nervous system induced by different therapeutic modalities such as drugs, revascularization, or cardiac resynchronization therapy. More importantly, impaired HRT has been shown to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death, particularly in postinfarction and congestive heart failure patients. It should be emphasized that abnormal HRT has a well-established role in stratification of postinfarction and heart failure patients with relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. The ongoing clinical trials will document whether HRT can be used to guide implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators in this subset of patients, not covered yet by ICD guidelines. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art knowledge regarding clinical significance of HRT in detection of autonomic dysfunction and regarding the prognostic significance of this parameter in predicting all-cause mortality and sudden death. © 2013.

  5. 77 FR 59447 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Doc No: 2012-23732] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  6. 78 FR 39434 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15648] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  7. 77 FR 76586 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Doc No: 2012-31295] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  8. Rate based failure detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  9. Fetal heart rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageotte, Michael P

    2015-06-01

    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is a widely utilized means of assessment of fetal status during labor. Whereas little evidence exists regarding efficacy, this modality continues to be used extensively in every modern labor and delivery unit in developed countries. It is of importance that all providers of health care to the woman in labor and her newborn have a clear understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fetal heart rate monitoring and an appreciation for labor course and concerns as they arise in order to optimize outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Basic Exchange Rate Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis four-chapter overview of basic exchange rate theories discusses (i) the elasticity and absorption approach, (ii) the (long-run) implications of the monetary approach, (iii) the short-run effects of monetary and fiscal policy under various economic conditions, and (iv) the transition

  11. Variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  12. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is your level of intensity? When is the best time of day to work out? Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down See More >> Getting Active Getting Started - Tips for Long-term Exercise Success Get Moving: Easy Tips to Get Active! ...

  13. Exciton laser rate equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rate equations of the exciton laser in the system of interacting excitons have been obtained and the inverted population conditions and generation have been derived. The possibility of creating radically new gamma-ray laser has been shown.

  14. Openings for Zero Rating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Preta (Augusto); P. Peng (Peng)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractZero rating (toll-free data) is the practice of internet service providers (ISPs) and mobile operators not charging end users for data usage of specific internet content and applications of content providers through their network. On one hand it may benefit consumers from using the

  15. fertilizer and stocking rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in this case the best economic response was achieved at a lower stocking rate than needed for ... The trial was conducted at two sites, the Bathurst Research Station (33°30'S; 26°50'E) (1986-1994) and ... Rainfall and evaporation at the Bathurst Research Station and rainfall at the Boslaagte homestead were measured ...

  16. ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Sed Rate; Sedimentation Rate; Westergren Sedimentation Rate Formal name: Erythrocyte Sedimentation ...

  17. Ratings Behaving Madly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCutcheon, Marion; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper investigates the surprising success of Danish TV drama in Australia via a quantitative study of audience ratings. Method and theory We use OzTAM’s metropolitan TV ratings data to explore the characteristics of the audience for Danish drama programs in Australia. Using the larger...... metropolitan sample provides the advantages associated with a large sample size. We purchased OzTAM audience and universe estimates by gender, age and educational attainment for Danish drama series broadcast in Australia since 2005 and for a sample of similar-genre Australian and foreign-language drama series...... occupied increasing amounts of screen time on Australian SBS’s television broadcast service, and attracted a growing audience, making Danish drama a vibrant offering in mainstream television in Australia. Australia and SBS thus stand out as the only country/broadcaster outside of Denmark’s wider geo...

  18. Lapse rate modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many...... prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...... of the corresponding two-space-dimensional parabolic partial differential equation. Extensive numerical experiments show the differences in terms of pricing and interest rate elasticity between the ACC and RE approaches as well as the sensitivity of the contract price with respect to changes in the policyholders...

  19. Lapse Rate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Giovanni, Domenico

    The surrender option embedded in many life insurance products is a clause that allows policyholders to terminate the contract early. Pricing techniques based on the American Contingent Claim (ACC) theory are often used, though the actual policyholders' behavior is far from optimal. Inspired by many...... prepayment models for mortgage backed securities, this paper builds a Rational Expectation (RE) model describing the policyholders' behavior in lapsing the contract. A market model with stochastic interest rates is considered, and the pricing is carried out through numerical approximation...... of the corresponding two-space-dimensional parabolic partial differential equation. Extensive numerical experiments show the differences in terms of pricing and interest rate elasticity between the ACC and RE approaches as well as the sensitivity of the contract price with respect to changes in the policyholders...

  20. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  1. VAP rates unchanged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  2. 76 FR 77581 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.375 (2\\3/8\\) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  3. 76 FR 18821 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.750 (3\\3/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  4. 78 FR 18664 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2013. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  5. 75 FR 37872 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  6. 75 FR 17453 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  7. 75 FR 60152 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.250 (3\\1/4\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  8. 77 FR 20476 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.250 (2 \\1/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  9. 77 FR 39560 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  10. 75 FR 81326 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.000 (3) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...

  11. 78 FR 62932 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2014. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  12. 76 FR 38717 - Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This ] rate will be 3.625 (3\\5/8\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...

  13. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics if sophis......I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  14. 75 FR 41876 - Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates AGENCY: Office of the Chief... mortgage amount. DATES: Comments Due Date: August 18, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are invited to... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs) Rates...

  15. Interest Rate Rules for Fixed Exchange Rate Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluca Benigno; Pierpaolo Benigno; Fabio Ghironi

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows that properly designed interest rate rules can be consistent with maintaining exchange rate stability. It sheds light on the relation between interest rate rules, exchange-rate regimes, and determinacy of the rational expectations equilibrium in a modern macroeconomic framework.

  16. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  17. Content and ratings of mature-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Tepichin, Karen; Haninger, Kevin

    2006-04-01

    To quantify the depiction of violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in video games rated M (for "mature") and to measure agreement between the content observed and the rating information provided to consumers on the game box by the Entertainment Software Rating Board. We created a database of M-rated video game titles, selected a random sample, recorded at least 1 hour of game play, quantitatively assessed the content, performed statistical analyses to describe the content, and compared our observations with the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors and results of our prior studies. Harvard University, Boston, Mass. Authors and 1 hired game player. M-rated video games. Percentages of game play depicting violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; use of profanity in dialogue, song lyrics, or gestures. Although the Entertainment Software Rating Board content descriptors for violence and blood provide a good indication of such content in the game, we identified 45 observations of content that could warrant a content descriptor in 29 games (81%) that lacked these content descriptors. M-rated video games are significantly more likely to contain blood, profanity, and substances; depict more severe injuries to human and nonhuman characters; and have a higher rate of human deaths than video games rated T (for "teen"). Parents and physicians should recognize that popular M-rated video games contain a wide range of unlabeled content and may expose children and adolescents to messages that may negatively influence their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors.

  18. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  19. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Sep 15,2017 Understanding the difference ... your blood moving through your blood vessels, your heart rate is the number of times your heart beats ...

  20. Dynamical Clustering of Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J; Mark McDonald; Stacy Williams; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S

    2009-01-01

    We use techniques from network science to study correlations in the foreign exchange (FX) market over the period 1991--2008. We consider an FX market network in which each node represents an exchange rate and each weighted edge represents a time-dependent correlation between the rates. To provide insights into the clustering of the exchange rate time series, we investigate dynamic communities in the network. We show that there is a relationship between an exchange rate's functional role withi...

  1. Legal issues of tax rates

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...

  2. [The seroprevalence rate, vaccination rate and seroconversion rate of hepatitis A in central region of Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung Wook; Lee, Won Kyung; Cho, Sun Young; Moon, Sung Hoon; Shin, Hyun Deok; Yun, Se Young; Kim, Suk Bae; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hong Ja; Song, Il Han; Lee, Kun Song; Lee, Jae Hyun

    2011-03-01

    Acute hepatitis A (HAV) is markedly increasing recently on. Some patients with acute hepatitis A show severe clinical course. The seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV has been changing with the regions and the times. Vaccination and seroconversion rate of HAV are not well known. In this study, we aimed to study the difference of seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV according to various clinical factors and to know the vaccination rate and seroconversion rate below 10 years old in the central region of South Korea including Cheonan city. Seven hundred seventy two subjects were included in the study from January to September 2009. We analyzed seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV according to sex, age, region, and other viral markers. We interviewed the history of vaccination(1st, 2nd) and analyzed seroconversion rate according to vaccination time below 10 years old. The total seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV was 65.3%. The seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV rate in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th decade was very low (1.9%, 18.8%, 44.8%). The vaccination rate of children was about 50%. The seroconversion rate after 1st, and 2nd vaccination were 85%, 96%. Catch-up vaccination for teenagers and young adults is needed. Immunizing children with HAV vaccine as a routine schedule should be considered.

  3. Effects of Liraglutide on Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumarathurai, Preman; Anholm, Christian; Larsen, Bjørn Strøier

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced heart rate variability (HRV) and increased heart rate (HR) have been associated with cardiovascular mortality. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) increase HR, and studies have suggested that they may reduce HRV. We examined the effect of the GLP-1 RA...

  4. Rate My Stake: Interpretation of Ordinal Stake Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Lebow; Grant Kirker

    2014-01-01

    Ordinal rating systems are commonly employed to evaluate biodeterioration of wood exposed outdoors over long periods of time. The purpose of these ratings is to compare the durability of test systems to nondurable wood products or known durable wood products. There are many reasons why these systems have evolved as the chosen method of evaluation, including having an...

  5. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  6. Heart rate and respiratory rate influence on heart rate variability repeatability: effects of the correction for the prevailing heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Sławomir Gąsior

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since heart rate variability (HRV is associated with average heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RespRate, alterations in these parameters may impose changes in HRV. Hence the repeatability of HRV measurements may be affected by differences in HR and RespRate. The study aimed to evaluate HRV repeatability and its association with changes in HR and RespRate.Methods: Forty healthy volunteers underwent two ECG examinations seven days apart. Standard HRV indices were calculated from 5-min ECG recordings. The ECG-derived respiration signal was estimated to assess RespRate. To investigate HR impact on HRV, HRV parameters were corrected for prevailing HR. Results: Differences in HRV parameters between the measurements were associated with the changes in HR and RespRate. However, in multiple regression analysis only HR alteration proved to be independent determinant of the HRV differences – every change in HR by 1 bpm changed HRV values by 16.5% on average. After overall removal of HR impact on HRV, coefficients of variation of the HRV parameters significantly dropped on average by 26.8% (p < 0.001, i.e. by the same extent HRV reproducibility improved. Additionally, the HRV correction for HR decreased association between RespRate and HRV. Conclusions: In stable conditions, HR but not RespRate is the most powerful factor determining HRV reproducibility and even a minimal change of HR may considerably alter HRV. However, the removal of HR impact may significantly improve HRV repeatability. The association between HRV and RespRate seems to be, at least in part, HR dependent.

  7. Multiple Ratings and Credit Spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Cremers, K.J.M.; Goetzmann, W.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We empirically document the outcome of

  8. Rating scales and Rasch measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessments with ratings in ordered categories have become ubiquitous in health, biological and social sciences. Ratings are used when a measuring instrument of the kind found in the natural sciences is not available to assess some property in terms of degree - for example, greater or smaller, better or worse, or stronger or weaker. The handling of ratings has ranged from the very elementary to the highly sophisticated. In an elementary form, and assumed in classical test theory, the ratings are scored with successive integers and treated as measurements; in a sophisticated form, and used in modern test theory, the ratings are characterized by probabilistic response models with parameters for persons and the rating categories. Within modern test theory, two paradigms, similar in many details but incompatible on crucial points, have emerged. For the purposes of this article, these are termed the statistical modeling and experimental measurement paradigms. Rather than reviewing a compendium of available methods and models for analyzing ratings in detail, the article focuses on the incompatible differences between these two paradigms, with implications for choice of model and inferences. It shows that the differences have implications for different roles for substantive researchers and psychometricians in designing instruments with rating scales. To illustrate these differences, an example is provided.

  9. Utility rates and solar commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, R.J.

    Electricity is likely to be the most popular backup for solar heating and cooling and hot water heating and for solar-produced electricity during periods of unfavorable weather. The rates at which that electricity is supplied will affect the economic feasibility of solar applications. The essential principle of rate regulation is that, in giving the utility a fair return on its investment, rates should reflect the cost of providing service. Some utilities claim that solar systems are expensive to serve. They are afraid that solar houses, which use electricity intermittently, will impose the same amount of demand on the utility at peak periods as all-electric houses, thus requiring the utility to have just as much plant standing by, while reducing the overall use of that plant and reducing utility revenues because solar buildings use less overall electricity. Studies have yielded conflicting results, but offpeak solar storage appears to reduce utility costs. Studies underway, particularly those by the industry's Electric Power Research Institute, may give a better answer. Higher rates charged for solar backup service by some utilities have negative effects on solar system economics. Most utilities apply standard residential rates to solar backup, and some charge cheaper all-electric rates or low, experimental rates for service used to recharge storage units during offpeak periods. Rates affect solar system design and collector size. The results of utility industry studies on the costs of supplying solar backup should be made public, and federal studies are needed.

  10. Predicting the Divorce Rate: Down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Theodore D.

    1983-01-01

    Predicted a decline in the divorce rate based on 10 factors including: decline in marriage rate, older age at marriage, mental health improvement, upper limit on employed women, less migration, end of the cultural revolution, exhaustion of latency effect of no-fault divorce, and fear of the consequences of divorce. (JAC)

  11. Can you Trust Online Ratings?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Julie; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Do user populations differ systematically in the way they express and rate sentiment? We use large collections of Danish and U.S. reviews to investigate this question, and we find evidence of important systematic differences: first, positive ratings are far more common in the U.S. data than in th...

  12. What Is a Reaction Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Guy

    2005-01-01

    The definition of reaction rate is derived and demonstrations are made for the care to be taken while using the term. Reaction rate can be in terms of a reaction property, the extent of reaction and thus it is possible to give a definition applicable in open and closed systems.

  13. Thermal hydraulic parametric investigation of decay heat removal from degraded core of a sodium cooled fast Breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Lokesh [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar Sharma, Anil, E-mail: aksharma@igcar.gov.in [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Kalpakkam (India); Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    established that a single plate core catcher can safely accommodate decay heat arising due to ∼70% of the core debris by establishing natural circulation in the lower sodium pool. The influence of heat removal rate by natural circulation on availability of the number of decay heat exchangers (DHX) dipped in the upper pool is also analyzed. It is seen that the temperatures in the inner vessel, source plate and the maximum debris temperature do not increase significantly even when the DHXs are deployed 5 h after the accident, demonstrating the benefit of large thermal inertia of the pool.

  14. Temporal Trends in Fertility Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increasing age at first childbirth has been suggested to increase the risk for infertility. Our objective is to determine whether women above thirty years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. DESIGN: A descriptive nationwide Danish study...... to determine total and age specific fertility rates. RESULTS: Total fertility rate (TFR) decreased from 4.1 to 1.8 children per woman and age specific fertility also decreased from 1901 to 2014. Women aged 30-34, 35-39 or 40-44 years in the first decade of the 20th century had higher fertility rates than...... for 10% of TFR in 1901 compared with 4% in 2014 despite usage of assisted reproduction. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study shows that women above 30 years of age historically have been able to sustain fertility rates above replacement level. This implies that other factors besides age are strong...

  15. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  16. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Optimal Interest Rates and the Current Interest Rate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Kallianiotis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.

  18. All about Heart Rate (Pulse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... result of taking a drug such as a beta blocker . A lower heart rate is also common for ... 100. Medication use: Meds that block your adrenaline (beta blockers) tend to slow your pulse, while too much ...

  19. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  20. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2011-10-01

    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. International Prices and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, Gita; Burstein, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    We survey the recent empirical and theoretical developments in the literature on the relation between prices and exchange rates. After updating some of the major findings in the empirical literature we present a simple framework to interpret this evidence. We review theoretical models that generate insensitivity of prices to exchange rate changes through variable markups, both under flexible prices and nominal rigidities, first in partial equilibrium and then in general equilibrium.

  2. Exchange rate determination in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thai-Ha Le

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of the exchange rate in Vietnam and suggests policy implications. Gregory-Hansen cointegration tests and generalised variance decomposition (VDC) analysis were applied to monthly data from July 2004 to December 2013. The model was built based on the three popular approaches to exchange rate determination, which are purchasing power parity (PPP) approach, balance of payment (BOP) approach, and monetary and portfolio approach. This study finds that the p...

  3. Smoking rates low in southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Gallup survey confirms that smoking rates in the US are declining and that smoking rates are lower in the Southwest than the US as a whole (1. Nationally, the smoking rate fell to 19.7% in 2013 from 21.1% in 2008. Among the Southwest states California ranked second (15.0%, Colorado ninth (17.4%, and Arizona tenth (17.5%. Only New Mexico was above the Nation's average at 20.0%. Utah remains the state with the lowest percentage of smokers, 12.2 percent, and Kentucky the highest, 30.2 percent. Nine of the 10 states with the lowest smoking rates have outright bans on smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars, with California allowing for ventilated rooms. Bans are significantly less common in the 10 states with the highest smoking rates. Kentucky, West Virginia, and Mississippi -- the states with the three highest smoking rates -- do not have statewide smoking bans. In addition, these three ...

  4. 76 FR 59767 - Interest Rates; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...

  5. Endoscopic cubital tunnel recurrence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tyson K; Sterbank, Patrick T; Lemke, Jon H

    2010-06-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most common nerve entrapment in the upper extremity. There are no current publications concerning the recurrence rates after endoscopic cubital tunnel release. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the recurrence rate of endoscopic cubital tunnel release compared to published reports of recurrence following open cubital tunnel procedures. We reviewed 134 consecutive cases of endoscopic cubital tunnel release in 117 patients. There were 104 cases in 94 patients with greater than 3 months follow-up. The mean follow-up time was 736 days. They were grouped using Dellon's classification. Two literature control groups were used from published reports of recurrence rate following open cubital tunnel release. A recurrence was identified if the patient was symptom-free following surgery but had symptoms reappear 3 months or more after surgery as defined in the literature. Of the 104 cases, 92.31% had more than a 4-month follow-up. One case (0.96%) met the criteria for recurrence at 4 months postprocedure. Data were then compared to the literature control groups used from published reports of recurrence rates following open cubital tunnel release. Pooled, the combined controls had 22 of 180 cases (12.22%) with recurrences. The percentage of procedure recurrence varied significantly with p value equal to 0.0004. It is recognized that there is a lack of common classification and comparative analysis of these studies, but they do classify preoperative grading and recurrence similarly. We are 95% confident that our true recurrence rate is between 0.02% and 5.24% and that endoscopic cubital tunnel release has a recurrence rate, which is not higher than open cubital tunnel release literature controls.

  6. Death Rate of Dental Anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Safi, Yaser

    2017-01-01

    Death was the most important side effect of anaesthesia in dentistry. In this article we reviewed more than 20 studies with adequate data focusing on death associated with dental procedures since 1955 and found 218 deaths out of 71,435,282 patients (3 deaths per 1,000,000 persons) with the mortality rate of 1:327,684. In addition, mortality rate per million has dropped to half (6.2 per 1,000,000 vs. 3 per 1,000,000) since 1955 till the last report in 2012 without any sex predilection. In chil...

  7. Failure Rates in Introductory Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2007-01-01

    It is a common conception that CS1 is a very difficult course and that failure rates are high. However, until now there has only been anecdotal evidence for this claim. This article reports on a survey among institutions around the world regarding failure rates in introductory programming courses....... The article describes the design of the survey and the results. The number of institutions answering the call for data was unfortunately rather low, so it is difficult to make firm conclusions. It is our hope that this article can be the starting point for a systematic collection of data in order to find...

  8. THE RATE OF SPONTANEOUS MUTATION

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Rate of Spontaneous Mutation of a Human Gene. (Published on 1935 J. Genet. 31, 317-326). J. B. S. Haldane. J. Genet. Classic Volume 83 Issue 3 December 2004 pp 235-244. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/083/03/0235-0244. Author Affiliations.

  9. Frame Rate and Human Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of the theatre experience, the film industry is interested in achieving higher frame rates for capture and display. In this talk I will describe the basic spatio-temporal sensitivities of human vision, and how they respond to the time sequence of static images that is fundamental to cinematic presentation.

  10. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  11. Fire danger rating network density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy M. King; R. William Furman

    1976-01-01

    Conventional statistical techniques are used to answer the question, "What is the necessary station density for a fire danger network?" The Burning Index of the National Fire-Danger Rating System is used as an indicator of fire danger. Results are presented as station spacing in tabular form for each of six regions in the western United States.

  12. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  13. 78 FR 14821 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to 25 CFR 514.2, that the National Indian Gaming... jurisdiction of the Commission. If a tribe has a certificate of self-regulation under 25 CFR part 518, the 2013...

  14. 77 FR 41202 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to 25 CFR 514.1(a)(3), that the National Indian Gaming Commission has adopted final...

  15. 77 FR 5267 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION Fee Rate AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given, pursuant to 25 CFR 514.1(a)(3), that the National Indian Gaming Commission has adopted...

  16. 78 FR 15973 - Fee Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission Fee Rate Correction In notice document 2013-05334, appearing on page 14821 in the issue of Thursday, March 7, 2013, make the following correction: On page 14821, in the...

  17. Recovery Rate of Clustering Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Fajie; Klette, Reinhard; Wada, T; Huang, F; Lin, S

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a simple and general way for defining the recovery rate of clustering algorithms using a given family of old clusters for evaluating the performance of the algorithm when calculating a family of new clusters. Under the assumption of dealing with simulated data (i.e., known old

  18. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  19. Immunization Dropout Rates: Some Issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaccination from BCG ‑ Measles first dose has a distinct advantage. DTP1–DTP3 dropout rate measures the ability of the immunization system to reach a child multiple times with the same antigen(s).[3] It also measures the same delivery system multiple times; thereby giving insight into factors that may hinder caregivers to ...

  20. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    ) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10.......0%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%). Regardless of place of acquisition, the proportion of bacteremias caused by enterococci increased (p

  1. Speculation, Hedging, and Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul

    of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...

  2. Realizations of interest rate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we comment on a recent paper by Bj¨ork and Gombani. In contrast to this paper our starting point is not the Musiela equation but the forward rate dynamics. In our approach we do not need to talk about infinitesimal generators.

  3. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  4. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  5. Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate

    OpenAIRE

    Reimann, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Reaction rates when barriers fluctuate : a path integral approach / P. Hänggi and P. Reimann. - In: International Conference on Path Integrals from peV to TeV : Proceedings of the ... / eds.: R. Casalbuoni ... - Singapore u.a. : World Scientific, 1999. - S. 407-409

  6. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  7. Potassium supplementation and heart rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Molenberg, Famke; Bakker, S.J.L.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Increasing the intake of potassium has been shown to lower blood pressure, but whether it also affects heart rate (HR) is largely unknown. We therefore assessed the effect of potassium supplementation on HR in a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods and

  8. Content and ratings of teen-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-02-18

    Children's exposure to violence, blood, sexual themes, profanity, substances, and gambling in the media remains a source of public health concern. However, content in video games played by older children and adolescents has not been quantified or compared with the rating information provided to consumers by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). To quantify and characterize the content in video games rated T (for "Teen") and to measure the agreement between the content observed in game play and the ESRB-assigned content descriptors displayed on the game box. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001, to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of ESRB-assigned content descriptors. We randomly sampled 80 video game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, quantitatively assessed the content, and compared the content we observed with the content descriptors assigned by the ESRB. Depictions of violence, blood, sexual themes, gambling, and alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs; whether injuring or killing characters is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; characterization of gender associated with sexual themes; and use of profanity in dialogue, lyrics, or gestures. Analysis of all content descriptors assigned to the 396 T-rated video game titles showed 373 (94%) received content descriptors for violence, 102 (26%) for blood, 60 (15%) for sexual themes, 57 (14%) for profanity, 26 (7%) for comic mischief, 6 (2%) for substances, and none for gambling. In the random sample of 81 games we played, we found that 79 (98%) involved intentional violence for an average of 36% of game play, 73 (90%) rewarded or required the player to injure characters, 56 (69%) rewarded or required the player to kill, 34 (42%) depicted blood, 22 (27%) depicted sexual themes

  9. Wear rates of resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, W W; Erickson, R I; Latta, M A; Wilwerding, T M

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY A laboratory study was conducted to examine the wear of resin composite materials using a generalized wear simulation model. Ten specimens each of five resin composites (Esthet•X [EX], Filtek Supreme Plus [SP], Filtek Z250 [Z2], Tetric EvoCeram [EC], and Z100 Restorative [Z1]) were subjected to wear challenges of 100,000, 400,000, 800,000, and 1,200,000 cycles. The materials were placed in cylinder-shaped stainless-steel fixtures, and wear was generated using a flat stainless-steel antagonist in a slurry of polymethylmethacrylate beads. Wear (mean facet depth [μm] and volume loss [mm(3)]) was determined using a noncontact profilometer (Proscan 2000) with Proscan and ProForm software. Statistical analysis of the laboratory data using analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test showed a significant difference (p<0.05) for mean wear facet depth and volume loss for both the number of cycles and resin composite material. Linear regression analysis was used to develop predictive wear rates and volume loss rates. Linear wear was demonstrated with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.914 to 0.995. Mean wear values (mean facet depth [μm]) and standard deviations (SD) for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 13.9 (2.0), Z2 26.7 (2.7), SP 30.1 (4.1), EC 31.8 (2.3), and EX 67.5 (8.2). Volume loss (mm(3)) and SDs for 1200K cycles were as follows: Z1 0.248 (0.036), Z2 0.477 (0.044), SP 0.541 (0.072), EC 0.584 (0.037), and EX 1.162 (0.139). The wear rate (μm) and volume loss rate (mm(3)) per 100,000 cycles for the five resin composites were as follows: wear rate Z1 0.58, EC 1.27, Z2 1.49, SP 1.62, and EX 4.35, and volume loss rate Z1 0.009, EC 0.024, Z2 0.028, SP 0.029, and EX 0.075. The generalized wear model appears to be an excellent method for measuring relative wear of resin composite materials.

  10. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  11. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  12. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  13. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  14. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-01-01

    In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Ital...

  15. Value-Added Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolfs Bems; Robert C. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    This paper updates the conceptual foundations for measuring real effective exchange rates (REERs) to allow for vertical specialization in trade. We derive a value-added REER describing how demand for the value added that a country produces changes as the price of its value added changes relative to competitors. We then compute this index for 42 countries from 1970-2009 using trade measured in value added terms and GDP deflators. There are substantial differences between value-added and conven...

  16. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine perce...... in screening versus diagnostic testing may have implications for how people, including medical doctors, understand and contribute to debates about the benefits and harms of mass screening programs....

  17. Real and Money Wage Rates

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Dunlop

    1998-01-01

    In the General Theory, John Maynard Keynes held money and real wage rates move in opposite directions. In expansion, prices increase faster because of increasing costs and a rise in the proportion of product going to profits. Neoclassical economists held similarly. Money illusion of workers supported their common view. The author's 1938 article rather showed a procyclical pattern, significant to macroeconomic models of the economy. Contemporary literature with new elements of compensation and...

  18. NREL module energy rating methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.; Kroposki, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    The goals of this project were to develop a tool for: evaluating one module in different climates; comparing different modules; provide a Q&D method for estimating periodic energy production; provide an achievable module rating; provide an incentive for manufacturers to optimize modules to non-STC conditions; and to have a consensus-based, NREL-sponsored activity. The approach taken was to simulate module energy for five reference days of various weather conditions. A performance model was developed.

  19. Supernovae Rates: A Cosmic History

    OpenAIRE

    Yungelson, L. R.; Livio, M.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the cosmic history of supernovae on the basis of various assumptions and recent data on the star formation history. We show that supernova rates as a function of redshift can be used to place significant constraints on progenitor models, on the star formation history, and on the importance of dust obscuration. We demonstrate that it is unlikely that the current observational indications for the existence of a cosmological constant are merely an artifact of the dominance of differen...

  20. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Marcic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped withmulti-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changinghydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individualinjection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paperallows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injectionrates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today knownmeasuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate indiesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possibledifferences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformationalmeasuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation ofmembrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. Thepressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For eachhole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into whichfuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. Duringmeasurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain anoverpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into thegraduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.Themembrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane andforming the full Wheatstone’s bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shapeand temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  1. Tree migration-rates: narrowing the gap between inferred post-glacial rates and projected rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    Full Text Available Faster-than-expected post-glacial migration rates of trees have puzzled ecologists for a long time. In Europe, post-glacial migration is assumed to have started from the three southern European peninsulas (southern refugia, where large areas remained free of permafrost and ice at the peak of the last glaciation. However, increasing palaeobotanical evidence for the presence of isolated tree populations in more northerly microrefugia has started to change this perception. Here we use the Northern Eurasian Plant Macrofossil Database and palaeoecological literature to show that post-glacial migration rates for trees may have been substantially lower (60-260 m yr(-1 than those estimated by assuming migration from southern refugia only (115-550 m yr(-1, and that early-successional trees migrated faster than mid- and late-successional trees. Post-glacial migration rates are in good agreement with those recently projected for the future with a population dynamical forest succession and dispersal model, mainly for early-successional trees and under optimal conditions. Although migration estimates presented here may be conservative because of our assumption of uniform dispersal, tree migration-rates clearly need reconsideration. We suggest that small outlier populations may be a key factor in understanding past migration rates and in predicting potential future range-shifts. The importance of outlier populations in the past may have an analogy in the future, as many tree species have been planted beyond their natural ranges, with a more beneficial microclimate than their regional surroundings. Therefore, climate-change-induced range-shifts in the future might well be influenced by such microrefugia.

  2. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  3. [German language physician rating sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, D; Reimann, S

    2012-08-01

    In physician rating sites (PRS), patients are able to share their experiences and indicate their satisfaction in qualitative and quantitative form. This information should support other patients in the search for a suitable physician and can serve as a form of anonymous feedback for physicians. Medical association representatives are often concerned that such reviews primarily aim at defamation. Furthermore, there are various aspects of medical work that cannot be adequately evaluated solely through the patients. In the United States of America, the majority of such previous reviews were shown to be positive. It has yet to be examined in the German and English speaking regions where distinct criteria presently allow patients to express their satisfaction through PRS. Based on the systematic review of patient satisfaction questionnaires, a set of criteria was created that represents the dimensions of patient satisfaction. German and English language physician rating sites were systematically researched using the Internet search machines "Google" and "Yahoo". The identified PRS were then evaluated with the help of the aforementioned set of criteria. In order to survey the tendency of the amount and content of reviews, a stratified sample of members of the Panel Doctor's Association in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. A total of 298 randomly selected physicians were searched for in 6 German-language PRS regarding potential reviews. Some of the key features of the relation-ship between physicians and patients, such as medical competence, information, and consultation, were surveyed by more than three-fourths of the German-speaking PRS; however, other features such as communication were only sampled by one. As opposed to formal points of view, office facilities and organisation were assessed by all PRS. General reviews on treatment success and satisfaction were displayed in more than half of the reviews. Between 75% and 98% of physicians from the random sampling

  4. NPP ATMS Snowfall Rate Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huan; Ferraro, Ralph; Kongoli, Cezar; Wang, Nai-Yu; Dong, Jun; Zavodsky, Bradley; Yan, Banghua

    2015-01-01

    Passive microwave measurements at certain high frequencies are sensitive to the scattering effect of snow particles and can be utilized to retrieve snowfall properties. Some of the microwave sensors with snowfall sensitive channels are Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) and Advance Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). ATMS is the follow-on sensor to AMSU and MHS. Currently, an AMSU and MHS based land snowfall rate (SFR) product is running operationally at NOAA/NESDIS. Based on the AMSU/MHS SFR, an ATMS SFR algorithm has been developed recently. The algorithm performs retrieval in three steps: snowfall detection, retrieval of cloud properties, and estimation of snow particle terminal velocity and snowfall rate. The snowfall detection component utilizes principal component analysis and a logistic regression model. The model employs a combination of temperature and water vapor sounding channels to detect the scattering signal from falling snow and derive the probability of snowfall (Kongoli et al., 2015). In addition, a set of NWP model based filters is also employed to improve the accuracy of snowfall detection. Cloud properties are retrieved using an inversion method with an iteration algorithm and a two-stream radiative transfer model (Yan et al., 2008). A method developed by Heymsfield and Westbrook (2010) is adopted to calculate snow particle terminal velocity. Finally, snowfall rate is computed by numerically solving a complex integral. NCEP CMORPH analysis has shown that integration of ATMS SFR has improved the performance of CMORPH-Snow. The ATMS SFR product is also being assessed at several NWS Weather Forecast Offices for its usefulness in weather forecast.

  5. Atmospheric radiation flight dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. K.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather's effects upon the near-Earth environment are due to dynamic changes in the energy transfer processes from the Sun's photons, particles, and fields. Of the domains that are affected by space weather, the coupling between the solar and galactic high-energy particles, the magnetosphere, and atmospheric regions can significantly affect humans and our technology as a result of radiation exposure. Space Environment Technologies (SET) has been conducting space weather observations of the atmospheric radiation environment at aviation altitudes that will eventually be transitioned into air traffic management operations. The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system and Upper-atmospheric Space and Earth Weather eXperiment (USEWX) both are providing dose rate measurements. Both activities are under the ARMAS goal of providing the "weather" of the radiation environment to improve aircraft crew and passenger safety. Over 5-dozen ARMAS and USEWX flights have successfully demonstrated the operation of a micro dosimeter on commercial aviation altitude aircraft that captures the real-time radiation environment resulting from Galactic Cosmic Rays and Solar Energetic Particles. The real-time radiation exposure is computed as an effective dose rate (body-averaged over the radiative-sensitive organs and tissues in units of microsieverts per hour); total ionizing dose is captured on the aircraft, downlinked in real-time, processed on the ground into effective dose rates, compared with NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) most recent Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation System (NAIRAS) global radiation climatology model runs, and then made available to end users via the web and smart phone apps. Flight altitudes now exceed 60,000 ft. and extend above commercial aviation altitudes into the stratosphere. In this presentation we describe recent ARMAS and USEWX results.

  6. CHANGES IN EXCHANGE RATE REGIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen SANDU (TODERASCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of recentyears showsthat it hasa fundamentalroleformation mechanismof the exchange rateinmacroeconomic stabilization. Global economiccrises, oil shockshave shownthe difficultyoffloatingsustainabilitybyparticipants in the system. EuropeanMonetary System, focused onconcertedfloatingcurrenciestoECU, was formedunder the conditionsin which somecountries have adoptedregional monetaryarrangements(EU countries, with suchbasescurrencyregimeshybridthat combinesspecific mechanismsto those offixedratefree floating. This paperaims to demonstratethe important role thatithasthe choice ofexchange rateregimeas abasic elementin thefoundationofmacroeconomic stabilizationinstruments. Consideredan expression of thestateof the domestic economyandinternationalcompetitiveness, the exchange rate is determined bya complex set ofexternal factorsorinternalstabilityisa prerequisite forthe crisis.

  7. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  8. For gold, heart rate matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmely, Jean-François; Mohacsi, Paul; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Carrel, Thierry; Delacretaz, Etienne

    2005-08-01

    A 19-year-old woman presented with decreased exercise tolerance 3 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. Exercise capacity was severely reduced, with a maximal workload of 84 W, corresponding to 56% of the predicted value. After exclusion of other causes, insufficient heart rate response to exercise was considered as the major contributor to her decreased exercise tolerance. Correction of this problem with the implantation of an AAIR pacemaker dramatically improved her physical performance, allowing her to win 5 gold medals at the European Heart and Lung Transplant Games. This case report illustrates how pacemaker therapy can dramatically improve the symptoms and performance of patients with chronotropic incompetence.

  9. Gig economy, rating, labour relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Pacella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the era of gig economy, the job performance is now influenced by the customer rating system. A new London’s Employment Tribunal judgment approaches the Uber London issue focusing also on customer feedback. Since drivers are qualified as workers, not self-employed, as the English Court ruled on, this article tooks a position about on-line feedback incidence on job relationship. Referring to customer’s opinion, the employer exercises control on services performed by each worker, whereas Italian Legal System bounds it, within the meaning of article 4 of Worker’s Statutory. On the other hand, the customer rating can be considered as a type of control on the business organization, in observance of limits established by the same article.Moreover, the paper’s purpose is to inquire about the feedback positive impact on workers: customer satisfaction could provide business bonus, or it could become an evidence against employer in a court case.

  10. Heart rate in professional musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Methods Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men, whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar®, Finland pulsometers to record their HR. In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR. Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 – age (in years formula. Results Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively. Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme were similar. Conclusion The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  11. Dual Brushless Resolver Rate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A resolver rate sensor is disclosed in which dual brushless resolvers are mechanically coupled to the same output shaft. Diverse inputs are provided to each resolver by providing the first resolver with a DC input and the second resolver with an AC sinusoidal input. A trigonometric identity in which the sum of the squares of the sin and cosine components equal one is used to advantage in providing a sensor of increased accuracy. The first resolver may have a fixed or variable DC input to permit dynamic adjustment of resolver sensitivity thus permitting a wide range of coverage. In one embodiment of the invention the outputs of the first resolver are directly inputted into two separate multipliers and the outputs of the second resolver are inputted into the two separate multipliers, after being demodulated in a pair of demodulator circuits. The multiplied signals are then added in an adder circuit to provide a directional sensitive output. In another embodiment the outputs from the first resolver is modulated in separate modulator circuits and the output from the modulator circuits are used to excite the second resolver. The outputs from the second resolver are demodulated in separate demodulator circuit and added in an adder circuit to provide a direction sensitive rate output.

  12. Heart rate in professional musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñesta, Claudia; Terrados, Nicolás; García, Daniel; Pérez, José A

    2008-07-25

    Very few studies have analysed heart rate (HR) with regard to music playing, and the scarce evidence available is controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the HR response of professional musicians during their real-work activity. Sixty-two voluntary professional musicians (20 women, 42 men), whose ages ranged between 15 and 71 years old, underwent the test while playing their instruments in real life scenarios, i.e. rehearsals, practice and public concerts. The musicians carried Sport Tester PE4000 (Polar(R), Finland) pulsometers to record their HR.In order to compare data from differently aged subjects we calculated their Maximum Theoretical Heart Rate (MTHR). Later on we found out the MTHR percentages (%MTHR) corresponding to the registered HR of each subject in different situations. The value of the MTHR for every musician was obtained by means of the 220 - age (in years) formula. Throughout the HR recordings, we have observed that musicians present a heightened HR while playing (in soloists, mean and maximum HR were 72% and 85%MTHR, respectively). Cardiac demand is significantly higher in concerts than in rehearsals while performing the same musical piece. The HR curves corresponding to the same musician playing in repeated concerts (with the same programme) were similar. The cardiac demand of a professional instrument player is higher than previously described, much greater than what would be expected from a supposedly sedentary activity.

  13. 78 FR 62616 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... into effect on an interim basis, increases the power rates for the Integrated System pursuant to the following Integrated System Rate Schedules: Rate Schedule P-13, Wholesale Rates for Hydro Peaking Power...

  14. 7 CFR 3575.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575.33 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates...

  15. 7 CFR 4279.125 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4279.125 Section 4279.125 Agriculture... Interest rates. The interest rate for the guaranteed loan will be negotiated between the lender and the applicant and may be either fixed or variable as long as it is a legal rate. Interest rates will not be more...

  16. 27 CFR 70.93 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... annual percentage rate of interest will exceed the prescribed rate of interest. (b) Applicability of...

  17. 7 CFR 1714.4 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1714.4 Section 1714.4 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.4 Interest rates. (a) Municipal rate loans. Each advance of funds on a municipal rate loan shall bear interest at a single rate...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.33 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates.... Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in similar circumstances in the ordinary...

  19. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and...

  20. Body support testing and rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J E

    1992-08-01

    The REF, C, and score are a means to give quantitative values for product performance. Other product variables defined as humidity control factor, shear control factor, differential temperature control factor, product life factor, and cost factor were not addressed as part of this study. Additional variables include delivery, maintenance, and warranties. These components can be added to the score in some weighted manner as they become clinically founded. Interface pressures and shears were not measured for beds that are gatched. Each product tested will have characteristics pertinent to its own design that must be addressed to minimize sacral and coccyx skin breakdown when subjects are in this posture because some pneumatic pads bottom out to give excessive sacral and coccyx pressure while others wrinkle when used in this position. This is of major concern when one considers that the coccyx is more susceptible to pressure than any other bony prominence. There may be some aversion to labeling support product performance because it will allow the purchaser to know what is being bought. This initial study indicates the feasibility of quantitating what all patients require: a valid interface support surface for each specific need. The user can be adequately informed before the purchase as to a product's merits without being influenced by the results of inadequate testing, referrals, or sales media influences. Although cushions, shoes, or other prosthetic/orthotic devices were not part of this study, it is appropriate to rate all these devices in a similar manner by simply comparing pressure relief attained to that desired, expressing the result as a percentage of the worst case, and then labeling the product accordingly. Those subjects with sensation can rate comfort as part of the overall score. For cushions, ischial tuberosity pressure relief can be expressed as a percentage of the maximum attainable relief. Metatarsal head relief during gait as well as during static

  1. Forecasting for dynamic line rating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiorri, Andrea; Nguyen, Huu-Minh; Alessandrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the state of the art on the research on Dynamic Line Rating forecasting. It is directed at researchers and decision-makers in the renewable energy and smart grids domain, and in particular at members of both the power system and meteorological community. Its aim...... sensors on the line that measure conductor temperature, tension, sag or environmental parameters such as wind speed and air temperature. Because of the conservative assumptions used to calculate static seasonal ampacity limits and the variability of weather parameters, DLRs are considerably higher than....... In order to facilitate the integration of DLR into power system operations, research has been launched into DLR forecasting, following a similar avenue to IRS production forecasting, i.e. based on a mix of statistical methods and meteorological forecasts. The development of reliable DLR forecasts...

  2. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences......, across a population of firms and over time, firmgrowth at any point is, on average, proportionate to size of the firm.We develop a theoretical argument that provides a reconciliation of this apparent paradox. The model implies that in early stages of an industry history. firm growth may have a systematic...... evolutionary dynamics of firm entry, and the subsequent consolidation of market share and industry shake-out is considered, then during early epochs of industry evolution, one would tend to observe systematic differences in growth rates associated with firm’s competitive fitness. Thus, it is only...

  3. Benchmarking heart rate variability toolboxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Adriana N; Li, Qiao; Liu, Chengyu; Nemati, Shamim; Shah, Amit; Clifford, Gari D

    Heart rate variability (HRV) metrics hold promise as potential indicators for autonomic function, prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, psychophysiological status, and general wellness. Although the investigation of HRV has been prevalent for several decades, the methods used for preprocessing, windowing, and choosing appropriate parameters lack consensus among academic and clinical investigators. A comprehensive and open-source modular program is presented for calculating HRV implemented in Matlab with evidence-based algorithms and output formats. We compare our software with another widely used HRV toolbox written in C and available through PhysioNet.org. Our findings show substantially similar results when using high quality electrocardiograms (ECG) free from arrhythmias. Our software shows equivalent performance alongside an established predecessor and includes validated tools for performing preprocessing, signal quality, and arrhythmia detection to help provide standardization and repeatability in the field, leading to fewer errors in the presence of noise or arrhythmias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic influences on birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, J

    1988-11-01

    A researcher uses an econometric analysis to test his theory that economic developments influence birth rates in post World War II in Great Britain. The base of the analysis consists of a group of equilibrium relationships examining the levels of conditional birth rates (at each birth order and each mother's age) and the levels of economic variables, e.g., ratio of women's hourly wage after taxes. The leading cause of a decrease in births, especially after 1974, was an increase in women's net wages in comparison to men's net wages. Additional evidence suggested that higher women's wages increase the cost of an additional child by raising missed earnings, and this higher opportunity cost reduces the chance of another birth. On the other hand, if men's earnings are higher, couples have more children and at a young age. Further, the higher the real house prices the more likely women are to postpone starting a family and, in the case of 20-24 year old women, these high prices also deter them from having a 2nd child. Higher house prices do not affect higher order births, however. When all other things are equal, women from larger families have a tendency to begin having children in their 30s and produce smaller families than those women from smaller families. Large child allowances encourage 3rd-4th births and early motherhood. To increase fertility to replacement level over the long term, the current level of child allowances would have to double costing about 5 billion British pounds or 1.5% of the gross domestic product.

  5. 5 CFR 430.308 - Rating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.308 Rating performance. (a) Initial summary rating... level official cannot change the supervisor's initial summary rating, but may recommend a different...

  6. 78 FR 73821 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service. ACTION: Notice of Depreciation Rates for Telecommunications Plant. SUMMARY: The United States Department of... Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period ending...

  7. 5 CFR 531.245 - Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rates for GM employees. 531.245 Section 531.245 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Gm Employees § 531.245 Computing locality rates and special rates for GM employees. Locality rates and special rates are computed for GM employees in the same manner as locality rates and special rates...

  8. European rating of drug harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; Phillips, Lawrence; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-06-01

    The present paper describes the results of a rating study performed by a group of European Union (EU) drug experts using the multi-criteria decision analysis model for evaluating drug harms. Forty drug experts from throughout the EU scored 20 drugs on 16 harm criteria. The expert group also assessed criteria weights that would apply, on average, across the EU. Weighted averages of the scores provided a single, overall weighted harm score (range: 0-100) for each drug. Alcohol, heroin and crack emerged as the most harmful drugs (overall weighted harm score 72, 55 and 50, respectively). The remaining drugs had an overall weighted harm score of 38 or less, making them much less harmful than alcohol. The overall weighted harm scores of the EU experts correlated well with those previously given by the UK panel. The outcome of this study shows that the previous national rankings based on the relative harms of different drugs are endorsed throughout the EU. The results indicates that EU and national drug policy measures should focus on drugs with the highest overall harm, including alcohol and tobacco, whereas drugs such as cannabis and ecstasy should be given lower priority including a lower legal classification. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Hypernatremia: Correction Rate and Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Nur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe hypernatremia is defined as serum sodium levels above 152 mEq/L, with a mortality rate ≥60%. 85-year-old gentleman was brought to the emergency room with altered level of consciousness after refusing to eat for a week at a skilled nursing facility. On admission patient was nonverbal with stable vital signs and was responsive only to painful stimuli. Laboratory evaluation was significant for serum sodium of 188 mmol/L and water deficit of 12.0 L. Patient was admitted to medicine intensive care unit and after inadequate response to suboptimal fluid repletion, hemodialysis was used to correct hypernatremia. Within the first fourteen hours, sodium concentration only changed 1 mEq/L with a fluid repletion; however, the concentration dropped greater than 20 mEq/L within two hours during hemodialysis. Despite such a drastic drop in sodium concentration, patient did not develop any neurological sequela and was at baseline mental status at the time of discharge.

  10. Arrhenius Rate: constant volume burn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-06

    A constant volume burn occurs for an idealized initial state in which a large volume of reactants at rest is suddenly raised to a high temperature and begins to burn. Due to the uniform spatial state, there is no fluid motion and no heat conduction. This reduces the time evolu tion to an ODE for the reaction progress variable. With an Arrhenius reaction rate, two characteristics of thermal ignition are illustrated: induction time and thermal runaway. The Frank-Kamenetskii approximation then leads to a simple expression for the adiabatic induction time. For a first order reaction, the analytic solution is derived and used to illustrate the effect of varying the activation temperature; in particular, on the induction time. In general, the ODE can be solved numerically. This is used to illustrate the effect of varying the reaction order. We note that for a first order reaction, the time evolution of the reaction progress variable has an exponential tail. In contrast, for a reaction order less than one, the reaction completes in a nite time. The reaction order also affects the induction time.

  11. Image migration: measured retrieval rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert M.

    2007-03-01

    When the Indianapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center changed Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) vendors, we chose to use "on demand" image migration as the more cost effective solution. The legacy PACS stores the image data on optical disks in multi-platter jukeboxes. The estimated size of the legacy image data is about 5 terabytes containing studies from ~1997 to ~2003. Both the legacy and the new PACS support a manual DICOM query/retrieve. We implemented workflow rules to determine when to fetch the relevant priors from the legacy PACS. When a patient presents for a new radiology study, we used the following rules to initiate the manual DICOM query/retrieve. For general radiography we retrieved the two most recent prior examinations and for the modalities MR and CT we retrieved the clinically relevant prior examinations. We monitored the number of studies retrieved each week for about a 12 month period. For our facility which performs about 70,000 radiology examinations per year, we observed an essentially constant retrieval rate of slightly less than 50 studies per week. Some explanations for what may be considered an anomalous result maybe related to the fact that we are a tertiary care facility and a teaching hospital.

  12. High bit rate BPSK receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Marti, J. A.; Sieiro, J. J.; Lopez-Villegas, J. M.

    2005-06-01

    This work presents a simple differentially BPSK receiver front-end using a novel schema without the need of an explicit carrier recovery system. The main principle of operation is the conversion of the incoming BPSK signal into an ASK signal having the same modulation pattern. Two versions of the system have been designed. One is intended to work at the 433.92 MHz ISM band and the other at 2 GHz frequency band. Accordingly, two prototypes of the system core, the BPSK to ASK converter circuit, have been implemented and tested. First a hybrid version for the low frequency operation and, second a multi chip module (MCM) for the 2 GHz frequency band. The system performance has been evaluated using Agilent Technologies Advanced Design System (ADS) platform. The ability to jointly perform system, circuit and EM simulations and co-simulations is the main advantage of this design tool. Obtained results indicate that modulation rates up to 20 Mbits/s for the hybrid version and up to 80 Mbits/s for the MCM version can be reached.

  13. Heart rate and heart rate variability in normal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coumel, P; Maison-Blanche, P; Catuli, D

    1994-11-01

    The relationships between heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) are not simple. Because both depend on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), they are not independent variables. Technically, the quantification of HRV is influenced by the duration of the cardiac cycles. The complexity of these relationships does not justify ignoring HR when studying HRV, as frequently occurs. Using spectral and nonspectral methods, the HR and various normalized and non-normalized indices of HRV were studied in 24-hour recordings of a homogeneous cohort of seventeen 20-year-old healthy males. The HR-HRV relationships were appraised by analyzing the same data in two different ways. The 24 mean hourly values provide consistent information on the circadian behavior of the indices, while the average 24-hour individual data show a wide spectrum of normality. Combined approaches allow assessment of the direct impact of RR interval on HRV evaluation. The correlations between HR and normalized indices of HRV are weaker in 24-hour individual data than in pooled hourly data of the same individuals. These correlations are close to 1 in the latter case, which does not mean that measuring HRV is simply another method of evaluating HR, but that normal physiology supposes a harmonious behavior of the various indices. When considered individually without normalization, the specific indices of vagal modulation (high-frequency band of the spectrum, short-term HR oscillations of the nonspectral analysis) consistently increase at night and diminish during the day. However, the low-frequency power, which supposedly reflects sympathetic influences, also increases at night, whereas more logically the longer HR oscillations would predominate during the day. Moreover, the selective analysis of HR oscillations during HR acceleration or decrease indicates that their behavior differs accordingly. We recommend that closer attention be paid to the complex relationships between HR and HRV. The strong correlations

  14. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... component of the Integrated System rates for power and energy, the Purchased Power Adder (PPA), produces... finalized Integrated System Rate Proposal, Power Repayment Studies, and Rate Design Study in support of the...

  15. State Variations in United States Divorce Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelon, Bill

    1971-01-01

    The "frontier atmosphere" explanation of high divorce rates in western areas of the United States was partially vindicated when comparisons were made between divorce rates in states having high migration rates and lower social costs with those states having low migration rates and higher social costs. (Author/CG)

  16. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study found that a long-run relationship exists between the industrial productivity growth rate, ration of industrial production to gross domestic product, exchange rate, interest rate and terms of trade, and that exchange rate deregulation has significant impact on industrial performance. In order to determine the short term ...

  17. 7 CFR 1950.105 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture... rate. (a) The Soldiers and Sailors Relief Act requires that the effective interest rate charged a... Supervisor will send the borrower a letter which states that the interest rate on the borrower's FmHA or its...

  18. 7 CFR 4274.325 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4274.325 Section 4274.325 Agriculture... (IRP) § 4274.325 Interest rates. (a) Loans made by the Agency pursuant to this subpart shall bear interest at a fixed rate of 1 percent per annum over the term of the loan. (b) Interest rates charged by...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4155 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks... Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct lender association shall bear interest at a rate or rates as may be determined by the institution board. The board...

  20. 24 CFR 206.21 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee. (b) Adjustable interest...

  1. 7 CFR 4280.124 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 4280.124 Section 4280.124 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.124 Interest rates. (a) The interest rate for the... in similar circumstances in the ordinary course of business. The interest rate charged is subject to...

  2. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Ergun’s equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  3. Universality in movie rating distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, J.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper histograms of user ratings for movies (1bigstar,...,10bigstar) are analysed. The evolving stabilised shapes of histograms follow the rule that all are either double- or triple-peaked. Moreover, at most one peak can be on the central bins 2bigstar,...,9bigstar and the distribution in these bins looks smooth `Gaussian-like’ while changes at the extremes (1bigstar and 10bigstar) often look abrupt. It is shown that this is well approximated under the assumption that histograms are confined and discretised probability density functions of Lévy skew α-stable distributions. These distributions are the only stable distributions which could emerge due to a generalized central limit theorem from averaging of various independent random variables as which one can see the initial opinions of users. Averaging is also an appropriate assumption about the social process which underlies the process of continuous opinion formation. Surprisingly, not the normal distribution achieves the best fit over histograms observed on the web, but distributions with fat tails which decay as power-laws with exponent -(1+α) (α=4/3). The scale and skewness parameters of the Lévy skew α-stable distributions seem to depend on the deviation from an average movie (with mean about 7.6bigstar). The histogram of such an average movie has no skewness and is the most narrow one. If a movie deviates from average the distribution gets broader and skew. The skewness pronounces the deviation. This is used to construct a one parameter fit which gives some evidence of universality in processes of continuous opinion dynamics about taste.

  4. Shapley ratings in brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kötter

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent applications of network theory to brain networks as well as the expanding empirical databases of brain architecture spawn an interest in novel techniques for analyzing connectivity patterns in the brain. Treating individual brain structures as nodes in a directed graph model permits the application of graph theoretical concepts to the analysis of these structures within their large-scale connectivity networks. In this paper, we explore the application of concepts from graph and game theory toward this end. Specifically, we utilize the Shapley value principle, which assigns a rank to players in a coalition based upon their individual contributions to the collective profit of that coalition, to assess the contributions of individual brain structures to the graph derived from the global connectivity network. We report Shapley values for variations of a prefrontal network, as well as for a visual cortical network, which had both been extensively investigated previously. This analysis highlights particular nodes as strong or weak contributors to global connectivity. To understand the nature of their contribution, we compare the Shapley values obtained from these networks and appropriate controls to other previously described nodal measures of structural connectivity. We find a strong correlation between Shapley values and both betweenness centrality and connection density. Moreover, a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicates that approximately 79% of the variance in Shapley values obtained from random networks can be explained by betweenness centrality alone. Finally, we investigate the effects of local lesions on the Shapley ratings, showing that the present networks have an immense structural resistance to degradation. We discuss our results highlighting the use of such measures for characterizing the organization and functional role of brain networks.

  5. Distributed Rate Allocation for Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jubin

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a distributed algorithm for rate allocation in wireless networks. As the main result, the paper establishes that this algorithm is throughput-optimal for very general class of throughput regions. In contrast to distributed on-off scheduling algorithms, this algorithm enables optimal utilization of physical layer schemes by scheduling multiple rate levels. The algorithm is based on a Markov process on these discrete set of rates with certain transition rates. For dealing with multiple rate levels, the paper introduces an important structure for the transition rates, which enable the design of appropriate update rule for these transition rates. The update uses local queue length information alone, and thus does not require global exchange of queue length information. In addition, the algorithm requires that each link can determine the feasibility of increasing its data-rate from the current value without reducing the data-rates of other links. Determining rate feasibility does not introduce...

  6. Some Aspects Regarding the Relationship between the Exchange Rate and the Interest Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Aivaz Kamer Ainur

    2011-01-01

    The literature about the relationship between the exchange rate and the interest rate is quite extensive. This paper realizes an overview of the theories, problems and limits regarding the exchange rate and one of its determinant, the interest rate.

  7. Peer Ratings in Massive Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zinoviev, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    Instant quality feedback in the form of online peer ratings is a prominent feature of modern massive online social networks (MOSNs). It allows network members to indicate their appreciation of a post, comment, photograph, etc. Some MOSNs support both positive and negative (signed) ratings. In this study, we rated 11 thousand MOSN member profiles and collected user responses to the ratings. MOSN users are very sensitive to peer ratings: 33% of the subjects visited the researcher's profile in r...

  8. Attaining the rate-independent limit of a rate-dependent strain gradient plasticity theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    The existence of characteristic strain rates in rate-dependent material models, corresponding to rate-independent model behavior, is studied within a back stress based rate-dependent higher order strain gradient crystal plasticity model. Such characteristic rates have recently been observed...... rates for a selected quantity are identified through numerical analysis. Evidently, the concept of a characteristic rate, within the rate-dependent material models, may help unlock an otherwise inaccessible parameter space....

  9. 29 CFR 778.420 - Combined hourly rates and piece rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined hourly rates and piece rates. 778.420 Section 778... Performed in Overtime Hours (secs. 7(g) (1) and (2)) § 778.420 Combined hourly rates and piece rates. Where an employee works at a combination of hourly and piece rates, the payment of a rate not less than one...

  10. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged by...

  11. 7 CFR 1714.5 - Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rates on municipal rate... General § 1714.5 Determination of interest rates on municipal rate loans. (a) RUS will post on the RUS website, Electric Program HomePage, a schedule of interest rates for municipal rate loans at the beginning...

  12. The NOK/euro exhange rate after inflation targeting: : the interest rate rules

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnstad, Roger; Jansen, Eilev S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Norway adopted a flexible inflation target in March 2001 following a long period with exchange rate targeting in various forms. The regime shift reverses the causal ordering between changes in the nominal exchange rate and changes in the interest rate. When the central bank targets the exchange rate, interest rates are rarely changed independently of foreign interest rates and only to counteract large movements in the exchange rate after interventions have failed to stabilise the...

  13. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 (PDF file)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early : 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple : performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Air...

  14. Mortality rates in pediatric septic shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusmawatiningtyas, Desy; Nurnaningsih, Nurnaningsih

    2017-01-01

    .... Recent investigations from developed countries have reported mortality rates of 20-30%. Few studies have reported mortality rates from pediatric septic shock in intensive care settings in developing countries with limited resources.  Objective...

  15. Elasticities, Tax Rates, and Tax Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar K. Browning

    1989-01-01

    Develops a theoretical analysis of the responsiveness of tax revenue to a change in tax rates on labor income. Finds that tax revenue is likely to be less responsive to higher tax rates than previous estimates suggest.

  16. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vital Statistics Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Provisional number of marriages and marriage rate: United States, 2000-2014 Year ...

  17. Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165946.html Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference Signs of ... News) -- High rates of suicide among people with autism are drawing specialists to a conference this week ...

  18. At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_165869.html At Major Teaching Hospitals, Lower Death Rates Researchers assess 30-day survival for older ... dies," said lead author Dr. Laura Burke. If death rates at non-teaching hospitals were similar to ...

  19. Pricing Interest-Rate-Derivative Securities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, John; White, Alan

    1990-01-01

    This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to be very tractable analytically. The article compares option prices obtained using the extended Vasicek model with ...

  20. Mutation Rates of STR Systems in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Christensen, Susanne

    rates on different STR loci. In the cases where mutations had occured, we found no interaction between kits, STRA loci or sexes. However, we found differences in the mutation rates between the sexes, meaning that the differences in male and female mutation rates can be assumed constant over STR loci...... and kits. Sex and STR locus specific mutation rates were estimated with 95% confidence limits by the method of Clopper and Pearson (1934)....

  1. How to stabilize the currency exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    BLINOV, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, many countries had to deal with the weakening of their currencies. Issues regarding exchange rate management by the Central Banks have again become the focal point of heated debate. For example, the Russian Ruble exchange rate has been fluctuating hugely. The problem now is not so much the Ruble's weakness as instability of its exchange rate, volatility. The management of the Central Bank claims that stabilization of the Ruble exchange rate is not possible though it is the respons...

  2. Nuclear reaction rates and the primordial nucleosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Abhishek; Basu, D. N.

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. We investigate the effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight. We have studied these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. We find that using these new reaction rates results in only a littl...

  3. International convergence of capital market interest rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and

  4. 38 CFR 3.273 - Rate computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rate computation. 3.273... Which Became Effective January 1, 1979 § 3.273 Rate computation. The commencement date of change in benefit payments based on rate computations under the provisions of this section will be determined under...

  5. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the poverty...

  6. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office... § 25.104 Poverty rate. (a) General. Eligibility of an area on the basis of poverty shall be established in accordance with the following poverty rate criteria specific to Round I, Round II, Round IIS and...

  7. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts within...

  8. URBANIZATION AND FERTILITY RATES IN ETHIOPIA1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Indeed, even in the Chinese context, the effectiveness of the country's .... positively related to fertility rates, since a greater likelihood of infant death requires a family to have more births in order to reach ... Infant mortality rates and fertility rates are also very closely correlated both across countries and within them (Ben-Porath ...

  9. Tabulated Neutron Emission Rates for Plutonium Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shores, Erik Frederick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This work tabulates neutron emission rates for 80 plutonium oxide samples as reported in the literature. Plutonium-­238 and plutonium-­239 oxides are included and such emission rates are useful for scaling tallies from Monte Carlo simulations and estimating dose rates for health physics applications.

  10. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class rating...

  11. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  12. Monetary and Exchange Rate Policy in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Caprirolo; Vladimir Lavrac

    2003-01-01

    The paper is divided in three sections presenting some stylized facts concerning monetary and exchange rate policy framework in Slovenia. Three periods are covered: Money-based Stabilization Policy (1991-1995), Price and Real Exchange Rate Stability Dual Targeting Policy (1996-2001), and Exchange Rate Based Stabilization Policy and Accession to ERM2 (2001-).

  13. 18 CFR 704.39 - Discount rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discount rate. 704.39... STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES Standards for Plan Formulation and Evaluation § 704.39 Discount rate. (a) The interest rate to be used in plan formulation and evaluation for discounting future benefits and computing...

  14. Currency crises and the interest rate defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, T.

    2008-01-01

    While virtually all modern models of exchange rate crises recognise that the decision to abandon an exchange rate peg depends on how harshly policy makers are willing to defend the regime, they virtually never model how the exchange rate is defended. We argue that incorporating both the mechanics of

  15. Knowledge Workers' Perceptions of Performance Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.

    2004-01-01

    One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…

  16. 46 CFR 183.230 - Temperature ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temperature ratings. 183.230 Section 183.230 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Requirements § 183.230 Temperature ratings. Temperature ratings of electrical...

  17. Air pollution and human fertility rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Basagaña, Xavier; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Cirach, Marta; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Jacquemin, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some reports have suggested effects of air pollution on semen quality and success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in humans and lower fertility rates in mice. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of air pollution on human fertility rates. Aims: We assessed the association

  18. Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…

  19. 7 CFR 1435.101 - Loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The national average loan rate for raw cane sugar produced from domestically grown sugarcane is: 18... the loan rate per pound of raw cane sugar for each of the crop years 2009 through 2012. (c) Loan rates... to raw cane sugar or beet sugar on the basis of the expected production of raw sugar or beet sugar...

  20. Biological evolution model with conditional mutation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.; Ghazaryan, Makar; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2017-05-01

    We consider an evolution model, in which the mutation rates depend on the structure of population: the mutation rates from lower populated sequences to higher populated sequences are reduced. We have applied the Hamilton-Jacobi equation method to solve the model and calculate the mean fitness. We have found that the modulated mutation rates, directed to increase the mean fitness.

  1. 7 CFR 981.343 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 981.343 Section 981.343 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 981.343 Assessment rate. On...

  2. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate....

  3. 7 CFR 959.237 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 959.237 Section 959.237 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Assessment Rates § 959.237 Assessment rate. On...

  4. 12 CFR 327.4 - Assessment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rates. 327.4 Section 327.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ASSESSMENTS In General § 327.4 Assessment rates. (a) Assessment risk assignment. For the purpose of determining the annual assessment rate for insured...

  5. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On...

  6. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NECTARINES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate....

  7. 7 CFR 966.234 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 966.234 Section 966.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Assessment Rates § 966.234 Assessment rate. On an...

  8. Atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrat, Y.; Hajdas, W.; Baltensperger, U.; Synal, H.A.; Kubik, P.W.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Using experimental cross sections, a new calculation of the atmospheric production rate of {sup 36}Cl was carried out. A mean production rate of 20 atoms m{sup -2}s{sup -1} was obtained, which is lower than mean {sup 36}Cl deposition rates. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  9. 5 CFR 1655.7 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 1655.7 Section 1655.7 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.7 Interest rate. (a... interest rate established by the Department of the Treasury in effect on the date the TSP record keeper...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.66 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4312 Interest rates. (a... such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed upon by the veteran and the lender, or bear...

  12. 13 CFR 120.932 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 120.932 Section 120.932 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.932 Interest rate. The interest rate of the 504 Loan...

  13. 76 FR 16570 - Interest Rate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... insured credit unions to have a written policy addressing interest rate risk (IRR) management and an... (FICUs) to have a written policy and an effective program addressing interest rate risk (IRR) as part of...

  14. 24 CFR 200.83 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 200.83 Section 200... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.83 Interest rate. (a) The mortgage shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. (b) Interest shall be...

  15. Points of Interest: What Determines Interest Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…

  16. 8 CFR 293.2 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens... CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury has determined that effective from date of deposit occurring after April 27, 1966, the interest rate shall be 3...

  17. 24 CFR 232.560 - Interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 232.560 Section 232... Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.560 Interest rate. (a) The loan shall bear interest at the rate agreed upon by the lender and the borrower. (b) Interest shall be payable in monthly installments...

  18. 40 CFR 1033.140 - Rated power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rated power. 1033.140 Section 1033.140... EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1033.140 Rated power. This section describes how to determine the rated power of a locomotive for the purposes of this part. (a) A locomotive...

  19. Factors influencing HIV seroprevalence rate among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among pregnant women in Calabar was studied. The aims were to establish HIV seroprevalence rate and to identify factors which influence this rate in our pregnant women. HIV seroprevalence rate of 2.7% among antenatal women in Calabar was recorded with a ...

  20. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be rated...

  1. 78 FR 44459 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... unlawfully high (from the current T-bill rate to the U.S. Prime Rate, as published in the Wall Street Journal... reasons set forth in the preamble, the Surface Transportation Board revises part 1141 of title 49, chapter... be computed shall be the most recent U.S. Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The...

  2. 5 CFR 591.305 - Allowance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowance rates. 591.305 Section 591.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Allowance Based on Duty at Remote Worksites § 591.305 Allowance rates. (a) General. An allowance rate may...

  3. Decomposition rates for hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Alexander M. Evans; Joseph C. Restaino

    2017-01-01

    Hand-constructed piles in eastern Washington and north-central New Mexico were weighed periodically between October 2011 and June 2015 to develop decay-rate constants that are useful for estimating the rate of piled biomass loss over time. Decay-rate constants (k) were determined by fitting negative exponential curves to time series of pile weight for each site. Piles...

  4. Modeling Equity for Alternative Water Rate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R.; Mjelde, J.

    2011-12-01

    The rising popularity of increasing block rates for urban water runs counter to mainstream economic recommendations, yet decision makers in rate design forums are attracted to the notion of higher prices for larger users. Among economists, it is widely appreciated that uniform rates have stronger efficiency properties than increasing block rates, especially when volumetric prices incorporate intrinsic water value. Yet, except for regions where water market purchases have forced urban authorities to include water value in water rates, economic arguments have weakly penetrated policy. In this presentation, recent evidence will be reviewed regarding long term trends in urban rate structures while observing economic principles pertaining to these choices. The main objective is to investigate the equity of increasing block rates as contrasted to uniform rates for a representative city. Using data from four Texas cities, household water demand is established as a function of marginal price, income, weather, number of residents, and property characteristics. Two alternative rate proposals are designed on the basis of recent experiences for both water and wastewater rates. After specifying a reasonable number (~200) of diverse households populating the city and parameterizing each household's characteristics, every household's consumption selections are simulated for twelve months. This procedure is repeated for both rate systems. Monthly water and wastewater bills are also computed for each household. Most importantly, while balancing the budget of the city utility we compute the effect of switching rate structures on the welfares of households of differing types. Some of the empirical findings are as follows. Under conditions of absent water scarcity, households of opposing characters such as low versus high income do not have strong preferences regarding rate structure selection. This changes as water scarcity rises and as water's opportunity costs are allowed to

  5. [Resting heart rate and cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Alemán Sánchez, José Juan; Cabrera de León, Antonio

    2014-07-07

    Heart rate reflects autonomic nervous system activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated that an increased heart rate at rest is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as an independent risk factor. It has been shown a link between cardiac autonomic balance and inflammation. Thus, an elevated heart rate produces a micro-inflammatory response and is involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. In turn, decrease in heart rate produces benefits in congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Alteration of other heart rate-related parameters, such as their variability and recovery after exercise, is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. Drugs reducing the heart rate (beta-blockers, calcium antagonists and inhibitors of If channels) have the potential to reduce cardiovascular events. Although not recommended in healthy subjects, interventions for reducing heart rate constitute a reasonable therapeutic goal in certain pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-rated health and age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frank Krarup; Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore and describe self-rated health in middle-aged and elderly Danes using both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Global and (age) comparative self-rated health are examined and compared. METHODS: This study is interview based and comprises data...... on 11,294 Danes aged 45-102 with more than 1,900 participants aged 90 years and older. RESULTS: As expected, global self-rated health declines with age in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. In contrast, comparative self-rated health either increases or remains stable with age in cross......-sectional analyses while in longitudinal analyses there is a slight decline in comparative self-rated health. CONCLUSIONS: The age-trajectory of global self-rated health is similar in individuals and populations. For comparative self-rated health, however, the individual on average experiences a slight decline...

  7. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  8. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  9. 29 CFR 778.109 - The regular rate is an hourly rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... piece-rate, salary, commission, or other basis, but in such case the overtime compensation due to... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The regular rate is an hourly rate. 778.109 Section 778.109... regular rate is an hourly rate. The “regular rate” under the Act is a rate per hour. The Act does not...

  10. GROWTH RATE DISTRIBUTION OF BORAX SINGLE CRYSTALS ON THE (001 FACE UNDER VARIOUS FLOW RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharso Suharso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth rates of borax single crystals from aqueous solutions at various flow rates in the (001 direction were measured using in situ cell method. From the growth rate data obtained, the growth rate distribution of borax crystals was investigated using Minitab Software and SPSS Software at relative supersaturation of 0807 and temperature of 25 °C. The result shows that normal, gamma, and log-normal distribution give a reasonably good fit to GRD. However, there is no correlation between growth rate distribution and flow rate of solution.   Keywords: growth rate dispersion (GRD, borax, flow rate

  11. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1998-01-01

    In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.

  12. Antioxidants, metabolic rate and aging in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Fleming, J.; Economos, A. C.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolic rate-of-living theory of aging was investigated by determining the effect of several life-prolonging antioxidants on the metabolic rate and life span of Drosophila. The respiration rate of groups of continuously agitated flies was determined in a Gilson respirometer. Vitamin E, 2,4-dinitrophenol, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and thiazolidine carboxylic acid were employed as antioxidants. Results show that all of these antioxidants reduced the oxygen consumption rate and increased the mean life span, and a significant negative linear correlation was found between the mean life span and the metabolic rate. It is concluded that these findings indicate that some antioxidants may inhibit respiration rate in addition to their protective effect against free radical-induced cellular damage.

  13. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  14. A probability distribution model for rain rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedem, Benjamin; Pavlopoulos, Harry; Guan, Xiaodong; Short, David A.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic approach is suggested for modeling the probability distribution of rain rate. Rain rate, conditional on rain and averaged over a region, is modeled as a temporally homogeneous diffusion process with appropiate boundary conditions. The approach requires a drift coefficient-conditional average instantaneous rate of change of rain intensity-as well as a diffusion coefficient-the conditional average magnitude of the rate of growth and decay of rain rate about its drift. Under certain assumptions on the drift and diffusion coefficients compatible with rain rate, a new parametric family-containing the lognormal distribution-is obtained for the continuous part of the stationary limit probability distribution. The family is fitted to tropical rainfall from Darwin and Florida, and it is found that the lognormal distribution provides adequate fits as compared with other members of the family and also with the gamma distribution.

  15. Modeling inflation rates and exchange rates in Ghana: application of multivariate GARCH models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortey, Ezekiel Nn; Ngoh, Delali D; Doku-Amponsah, Kwabena; Ofori-Boateng, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the volatility and conditional relationship among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates as well as to construct a model using multivariate GARCH DCC and BEKK models using Ghana data from January 1990 to December 2013. The study revealed that the cumulative depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar from 1990 to 2013 is 7,010.2% and the yearly weighted depreciation of the cedi to the US dollar for the period is 20.4%. There was evidence that, the fact that inflation rate was stable, does not mean that exchange rates and interest rates are expected to be stable. Rather, when the cedi performs well on the forex, inflation rates and interest rates react positively and become stable in the long run. The BEKK model is robust to modelling and forecasting volatility of inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The DCC model is robust to model the conditional and unconditional correlation among inflation rates, exchange rates and interest rates. The BEKK model, which forecasted high exchange rate volatility for the year 2014, is very robust for modelling the exchange rates in Ghana. The mean equation of the DCC model is also robust to forecast inflation rates in Ghana.

  16. Timber value growth rates in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A, Gansner; Stanford L. Arner; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1990-01-01

    Rates of growth in the value of standing timber can vary greatly from stand to stand and from tree to tree. In Maine, the compound annual rate of change in stand value between the two most recent forest inventories ranged from -12 to +43 percent. Faced with this kind of variation, forest managers can use help in determining financial rates of return for their woodland...

  17. Mortality rates in pediatric septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Rusmawatiningtyas; Nurnaningsih Nurnaningsih

    2017-01-01

    Background Septic shock remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children admitted to the intensive care unit. Recent investigations from developed countries have reported mortality rates of 20-30%. Few studies have reported mortality rates from pediatric septic shock in intensive care settings in developing countries with limited resources.  Objective  To determine the current mortality rates for pediatric patients with septic shock in a developing country. Methods A retr...

  18. Ethical principles for physician rating sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2011-12-06

    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites' effects on physicians' performance, patient outcomes, or the public's trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical effects, or indirect evidence. This paper aims, first, to structure the ethical debate about the basic concept of physician rating sites: allowing patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' performance, online and visible to everyone. Thus, it provides a more thorough and transparent starting point for further discussion and decision making on physician rating sites: what should physicians and health policy decision makers take into account when discussing the basic concept of physician rating sites and its possible implications on the physician-patient relationship? Second, it discusses where and how the preexisting evidence from the partly related field of public reporting of physician performance can serve as an indicator for specific needs of evaluative research in the field of physician rating sites. This paper defines the ethical principles of patient welfare, patient autonomy, physician welfare, and social justice in the context of physician rating sites. It also outlines basic conditions for a fair decision-making process concerning the implementation and regulation of physician rating sites, namely, transparency, justification, participation, minimization of conflicts of interest, and openness for revision. Besides other issues described in this paper, one trade-off presents a special challenge and will play an important role when deciding about more- or less-restrictive physician rating sites regulations: the potential psychological and financial harms for

  19. Estimation of Warfighter Resting Metabolic Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-14

    intake and activity (Aschoff and Pohl, 1970). In a constant environment during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle , women show a circadian...Dubois Formula BMI Body Mass Index VO2max Maximum Rate of Oxygen Uptake 1/min RMR Resting Metabolic Rate kcal/h RMRs Standard Resting Metabolic Rate...60% of VO2max the preceding day) and that there was an almost linear-dose response relationship with no evidence of a threshold. Thompson and Manore

  20. China: Exchange Rate Policy and Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero; Tuuli Koivu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that China s trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the renminbi real effective exchange rate. However, the current size of the trade surplus is such that exchange rate policy, alone, will probably not be able to address the imbalance. The reduction in the trade surplus is limited mainly because Chinese imports do not react as expected to exchange rate appreciation. In fact, they tend to fall rather than increase. By estimating bilateral import equations fo...

  1. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  2. Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation : Successful and Failed Strict Rate Control Against a Background of Lenient Rate Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, Hessel F.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Hillege, Hans L.; Alings, Marco; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate differences in outcome between patients treated with successful strict, failed strict, and lenient rate control. Background The RACE II (Rate Control Efficacy in Permanent Atrial Fibrillation) study showed no difference in outcome between lenient and

  3. Parents rate the ratings: a test of the validity of the American movie, television, and video game ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, D A; Gentile, D A; Van Brederode, T M

    2002-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented the potential effects on young audiences of violent content in media products, including movies, television programs, and computer and video games. Similar studies have evaluated the effects associated with sexual content and messages. Cumulatively, these effects represent a significant public health risk for increased aggressive and violent behavior, spread of sexually transmitted diseases, and pediatric pregnancy. In partial response to these risks and to public and legislative pressure, the movie, television, and gaming industries have implemented ratings systems intended to provide information about the content and appropriate audiences for different films, shows, and games. We conducted a panel study to test the validity of the current movie, television, and video game rating systems. Participants used the KidScore media evaluation tool, which evaluates films, television shows, and video and computer games on 10 aspects, including the appropriateness of the media product for children on the basis of age. Results revealed that when an entertainment industry rates a product as inappropriate for children, parent raters agree that it is inappropriate for children. However, parent raters disagree with industry usage of many of the ratings designating material suitable for children of different ages. Products rated as appropriate for adolescents are of the greatest concern. The level of disagreement varies from industry to industry and even from rating to rating. Analysis indicates that the amount of violent content and portrayals of violence are the primary markers for disagreement between parent raters and industry ratings. Short-term and long-term recommendations are suggested.

  4. Growth rate study of canavalin single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demattei, R. C.; Feigelson, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence on supersaturation of the growth rate of single crystals of the protein canavalin is studied. In the supersaturation ranges studied, the rate-limiting step for growth is best described by a screw dislocation mechanism associated with interface attachment kinetics. Using a ln-ln plot, the growth-rate data is found to fit a predictive relationship of the form G = 0.012 x the supersaturation to the 6.66, which, together with the solubility curves, allows the growth rate to be estimated under a variety of conditions.

  5. Aging and Productivity - Evidence from Piece Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkarinen, Tuomas; Uusitalo, Roope

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of aging on productivity using piece-rate earnings as a proxy for worker output. Our data contain the population of Finnish blue collar workers in 61 different industries during 1990-2002. A unique feature of the data is that we can observe the exact hours worked on piece rates and on fixed time rates as well as earnings under both performance schemes. We account for the selection into piece rates by using firm-level changes in pay systems as instruments for the probab...

  6. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  7. Online Patient Ratings of Hand Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Samir K; DeFrancesco, Christopher J; Nguyen, Joseph T; Charalel, Resmi A; Daluiski, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with positive online patient ratings and written comments regarding hand surgeons. We randomly selected 250 hand surgeons from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand member directory. Surgeon demographic and rating data were collected from 3 physician review Web sites (www.HealthGrades.com, www.Vitals.com, and www.RateMDs.com). Written comments were categorized as being related to professional competence, communication, cost, overall recommendation, staff, and office practice. Online presence was defined by 5 criteria: professional Web site, Facebook page, Twitter page, and personal profiles on www.Healthgrades.com and/or www.Vitals.com. A total of 245 hand surgeons (98%) had at least one rating among the 3 Web sites. Mean number of ratings for each surgeon was 13.4, 8.3, and 1.9, respectively, and mean overall ratings were 4.0 out of 5, 3.3 out of 4, and 3.8 out of 5 stars on www.HealthGrades.com, www.Vitals.com, and www.RateMDs.com, respectively. Positive overall ratings were associated with a higher number of ratings, Castle Connolly status, and increased online presence. No consistent correlations were observed among online ratings and surgeon age, sex, years in practice, practice type (ie, private practice vs academics), and/or geographic region. Finally, positive written comments were more often related to factors dependent on perceived surgeon competence, whereas negative comments were related to factors independent of perceived competence. Physician review Web sites featured prominently on Google, and 98% of hand surgeons were rated online. This study characterized hand surgeon online patient ratings as well as identified factors associated with positive ratings and comments. In addition, these findings highlight how patients assess care quality. Understanding hand surgeon online ratings and identifying factors associated with positive ratings are important for both patients and surgeons because of the recent growth in

  8. No Fatigue Effect on Blink Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Zangemeister, W.; Stark, L.

    1984-01-01

    Blink rate is reported to vary dependent upon ongoing task performance, perceptual, attentional and cognitive factors, and fatigue. Five levels of task difficulty were operationally defined and task performance as lines read aloud per minute were measured. A single noninvasive infrared TV eyetracker was modified to measure blinking and an on-line computer program identified and counted blinks while the subject performed the tasks. Blink rate decreased by 50% when either task performance increased (fast reading) or visual difficulty increased (blurred text); blink rate increased greatly during rest breaks. There was no change in blink rate during one hour experiments even though subjects complained of severe fatigue.

  9. Variability of Zinc Oxide Dissolution Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Monika; Fischer, Cornelius; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; Luttge, Andreas

    2017-04-18

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is of widespread use for numerous applications, including many in the cosmetic industry. Thus, ZnO particles are quite likely to enter the environment. ZnO may be harmful because of the release of cytotoxic Zn2+ ions during dissolution reactions. Here, we analyze the dissolution kinetics of the polar zinc-terminated (000-1) and nonpolar (10-10) crystal surfaces in ultrapure water to examine the impact of the crystal defects on dissolution. By using a complementary approach of atomic force microscopy and vertical scanning interferometry, we quantify the difference in reaction rate between the crystal faces, the overall range of rate variability, and the rate components that combine to an overall rate. The mean dissolution rate of the (000-1) crystal surface is more than 4 times that of the (10-10) surface. By using the rate spectrum analysis, we observed an overall dissolution rate variability of more than 1 order of magnitude. The rate components and the range of dissolution rate are important input parameters in reactive transport models for the prediction of potential release of Zn2+ into the environment.

  10. Pavlovian conditioning and cumulative reinforcement rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Justin A; Patterson, Angela E; Gharaei, Saba

    2015-04-01

    In 5 experiments using delay conditioning of magazine approach with rats, reinforcement rate was varied either by manipulating the mean interval between onset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) or by manipulating the proportion of CS presentations that ended with the US (trial-based reinforcement rate). Both manipulations influenced the acquisition of responding. In each experiment, a specific comparison was made between 2 CSs that differed in their mean CS-US interval and in their trial-based reinforcement rate, such that the cumulative reinforcement rate-the cumulative duration of the CS between reinforcements-was the same for the 2 CSs. For example, a CS reinforced on 100% of trials with a mean CS-US interval of 60 s was compared with a CS reinforced on 33% of trials and a mean duration of 20 s. Across the 5 experiments, conditioning was virtually identical for the 2 CSs with matched cumulative reinforcement rate. This was true as long as the timing of the US was unpredictable and, thus, response rates were uniform across the length of the CS. We conclude that the effects of CS-US interval and of trial-based reinforcement rate are reducible entirely to their common effect on cumulative reinforcement rate. We discuss the implications of this for rate-based, trial-based, and real-time associative models of conditioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  12. Does cancer affect the divorce rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete-time hazard regression models were employed to register and census data on 1.4 million Norwegian married couples from 1974-2001 to explore the probability of divorce following cancer illness. Divorce rates for around 215 000 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to divorce rates for persons for whom all the other observed variables were the same. No overall harmful influence of a cancer diagnosis was observed. Most cancer forms resulted in small, immediate declines in divorce rates the first years following diagnosis. Exceptions were significant increases in the divorce rates for persons diagnosed with cervical and testicular cancer.

  13. The determinants of exchange rate in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel BENAZIC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dilemma for every country with an independent monetary policy is which kind of exchange rate arrangement should be applied. Through the exchange rate policy, countries can influence their economies, i.e. price stability and export competiveness. Croatia is a new EU member state, it has its own monetary policy and currency but it is on the way to euro introduction. Regarding the experiences from the beginning of the 1990s when Croatia was faced with serious monetary instabilities and hyperinflation, the goal of Croatian National Bank (CNB is to ensure price stability and one way to do so is through exchange rate policy. Croatia, as a small and open economy, has applied a managed floating exchange rate regime. The exchange rate is determined primarily by the foreign exchange supply and demand on the foreign exchange market, with occasional market interventions by the CNB. Therefore, in order to maintain exchange rate stability, policymakers must be able to recognize how changes in these factors affect changes in the exchange rate. This research aims to find a relationship among the main sources of foreign currency inflow and outflow and the level of exchange rate in Croatia. The analysis is carried out by using the bounds testing (ARDL approach for co-integration. The results indicate the existence of a stable co-integration relationship between the observed variables, whereby an increase in the majority of variables leads to an exchange rate appreciation.

  14. Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15% heart rate reduction might translate into a 15% increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14% (median, interquartile range 12-15%) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2% (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2%.

  15. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Predation Rates on Artificial Nests Accurately Reflect Predation Rates on Natural Bird Nests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Curtice R. Griffin; Thomas J. Maier

    1999-01-01

    Artificial nests are widely used in avian field studies. However, it is unclear how well predation rates on artificial nests reflect predation rates on natural nests. Therefore, we compared survival rates of artificial nests (unused natural nests baited with House Sparrow eggs) with survival rates of active bird nests in the same habitat at the same sites. Survival...

  17. Burning rate of solid wood measured in a heat release rate calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran; R. H. White

    1992-01-01

    Burning rate is a key factor in modeling fire growth and fire endurance of wood structures. This study investigated the burning rate of selected wood materials as determined by heat release, mass loss and charring rates. Thick samples of redwood, southern pine, red oak and basswood were tested in a heat release rate calorimeter. Results on ignitability and average beat...

  18. Comparison of TID Effects in Space-Like Variable Dose Rates and Constant Dose Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Richard D.; McClure, Steven S.; Rax, Bernard G.; Evans, Robin W.; Jun, Insoo

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of the LM193 dual voltage comparator has been studied at different TID dose rate profiles, including several different constant dose rates and a variable dose rate that simulates the behavior of a solar flare. A comparison of results following constant dose rate vs. variable dose rates is made to explore how well the constant dose rates used for typical part testing predict the performance during a simulated space-like mission. Testing at a constant dose rate equal to the lowest dose rate seen during the simulated flare provides an extremely conservative estimate of the overall amount of degradation. A constant dose rate equal to the average dose rate is also more conservative than the variable rate. It appears that, for this part, weighting the dose rates by the amount of total dose received at each rate (rather than the amount of time at each dose rate) results in an average rate that produces an amount of degradation that is a reasonable approximation to that received by the variable rate.

  19. Interest Rate Rules, Exchange Market Pressure, and Successful Exchange Rate Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, F.; Mavromatis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Central banks with an exchange rate objective set the interest rate in response to what they call ''pressure.'' Instead, existing interest rate rules rely on the exchange rate minus its target. To stay closer to actual policy, we introduce a rule that uses exchange market pressure (EMP), the

  20. Pricing-to-Market, the Interest-Rate Rule, and the Exchange Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Obstfeld

    2006-01-01

    Even when the exchange-rate plays no expenditure-switching role, countries may wish to have flexible exchange rates in order to free the domestic interest rate as a stabilization tool. In a setting with nontraded goods, exchange-rate movements may also enhance international risk sharing.

  1. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  2. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... basic rate of pay for the number of miles constituting a basic day. (d) Piece rate or tonnage rate. Where a piece rate or tonnage rate is reported, the daily rate of compensation shall be determined by... time (excluding any overtime pay or penalty rates) at such piece rate or tonnage rate during the last...

  3. Pregnancy and birth rates after oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remohí, J; Gartner, B; Gallardo, E; Yalil, S; Simón, C; Pellicer, A

    1997-04-01

    To determine accumulated conception and live birth rates in ovum donation. Retrospective study from a computer database. Pregnancies with one gestational sac observed by ultrasound have been included as conceptional cycles and pregnancies that resulted in one live child were recorded for the analysis of the live birth rates. Life table analysis was applied. Oocyte donation program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Three hundred ninety-seven recipients undergoing a total of 627 ETs were analyzed. Ovarian stimulation and ovum pick-up in donors. Uterine ET in recipients after appropriate exogenous steroid replacement. Accumulated and estimated (95% confidence intervals [CI]) conception and live birth rates in the oocyte donation program as well as considering age and cause of infertility of the recipients. Pregnancy rate after one cycle was 53.4% (CI 50.9% to 55.9%), with a delivery rate of 42.6% (CI 40.1% to 45.1%). Accumulated pregnancy rate increased up to 94.8% (CI 90.6% to 99.0%) after four transfers. Similarly, live birth rates reached 88.7% (CI 88.1% to 89.3%) after four attempts of ET by ovum donation. Cycle fecundity rates were maintained at approximately 50% after each attempt. Implantation rate was 18.3% (430/2,340 replaced embryos). Age and cause of entering the program did not influence the overall results of ovum donation. Oocyte donation is a successful treatment modality for infertile couples that offers even higher success rates than natural conception. No difference in cumulative pregnancy rate was observed regardless of recipient age, indication for oocyte donation, or number of cycles attempted.

  4. Exchange Rate Expectations and the Current Exchange Rate: A Test of the Monetarist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    V S Somanath

    1984-01-01

    The monetarist model of the exchange rate includes expectations of the future exchange rate as a determinant of the current exchange rate. This paper investigates whether expectations are a significant determinant of the exchange rate. An expectations process that is consistent with a basic monetarist exchange rate model is considered. Alternative measures of expectations are generated using this process. In the empirical tests, while the standard forward exchange premium measure of expectati...

  5. 75 FR 25150 - NVOCC Negotiated Rate Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Shipping, LLC. The following associations filed comments in response to the Petition: Household Goods..., Inc. at 6). The Household Goods Forwarders Association of America, Inc. (HGFAA) states that the publication of NVOCC rates for household goods movements is particularly burdensome, because these rates are...

  6. Tiebreaker: Certification and multiple credit ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Cremers, K.J.M.; Goetzmann, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We empirically document the outcome of

  7. Baseline response rates affect resistance to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cook, James E; Lattal, Kennon A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of response rates on resistance to change, measured as resistance to extinction, was examined in two experiments. In Experiment 1, responding in transition from a variable-ratio schedule and its yoked-interval counterpart to extinction was compared with pigeons. Following training on a multiple variable-ratio yoked-interval schedule of reinforcement, in which response rates were higher in the former component, reinforcement was removed from both components during a single extended extinction session. Resistance to extinction in the yoked-interval component was always either greater or equal to that in the variable-ratio component. In Experiment 2, resistance to extinction was compared for two groups of rats that exhibited either high or low response rates when maintained on identical variable-interval schedules. Resistance to extinction was greater for the lower-response-rate group. These results suggest that baseline response rate can contribute to resistance to change. Such effects, however, can only be revealed when baseline response rate and reinforcement rate are disentangled (Experiments 1 and 2) from the more usual circumstance where the two covary. Furthermore, they are more cleanly revealed when the programmed contingencies controlling high and low response rates are identical, as in Experiment 2. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  8. High mitogenomic evolutionary rates and time dependency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.; Denver, D.R.; Millar, C.D.; Heupink, T.; Aschrafi, A.; Emslie, S.D.; Baroni, C.; Lambert, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Using entire modern and ancient mitochondrial genomes of Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) that are up to 44000 years old, we show that the rates of evolution of the mitochondrial genome are two to six times greater than those estimated from phylogenetic comparisons. Although the rate of

  9. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  10. 75 FR 27375 - Postal Rate Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION Postal Rate Case Management AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is seeking comments relevant to management of an anticipated exigent postal rate case. It has...

  11. Campus Student Suicide Rates: Fact or Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Morton M.

    1993-01-01

    Reviewed all English-language studies (14 foreign and 17 American) on campus student suicides. Only four single-site studies had higher suicide rate than comparable populations. Multiple-site collaborative studies done in U.S. since 1960 strongly suggest campus student suicide rate significantly less than in matched control population. (Author/NB)

  12. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of a given number ...

  13. Breast Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of women getting breast cancer or dying from breast cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many women out of a given number ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity “Incidence rate” means how many men out of a given number ...

  15. Factors influencing Complications and Conversion rates following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis is associated with a relatively high rate of conversion as well as complications. The aim of this study was to analyze prospectively various pre-operative and per-operative factors influencing the complications and conversion rate. Methods: A total of 60 ...

  16. 77 FR 2521 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY: Southwestern Power Administration, DOE... on the 2011 Integrated System Current Power Repayment Study, that existing rates will not satisfy... Control Act of 1944. The finalized 2011 Integrated System Power Repayment Studies (PRSs) indicate that an...

  17. Size and support ratings of US banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poghosyan, Tigran; Werger, Charlotte; de Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether Fitch support ratings of US banks depend on bank size. Using quarterly data for the period 2004:Q4 to 2012:Q4 and controlling for several factors that make large and small banks different, we find that bank size is positively related to support ratings. However, the effect is

  18. Carriage rates, circulating serotypes and antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and disease development are poorly understood in Yei. Availability of affordable antibiotics over the counter, lack of laboratory infrastructure and high rates of penicillin resistance have the potential to aggravate rates of childhood ...

  19. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | December 2013. GENERAL | ARTICLE. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing. Soumen Dey and Mohan Delampady. Keywords. False discovery rate, FDR,. pFDR, multiple testing, empiri- cal Bayes, hierarchical Bayes, high-dimensional problems. Soumen Dey is a research scholar at ISI, Bangalore.

  20. 7 CFR 1427.1207 - Payment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness... which the LFQc, the LFQf, the USPFEc, and the USPFEf prices first become available, the payment rate... USFEf prices first become available and ending the Thursday following July 31, the payment rate shall be...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1632 - Production rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production rates. 250.1632 Section 250.1632 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1632 Production rates. Each sulphur...

  2. pH & Rate of Enzymatic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative and inexpensive way to measure the rate of enzymatic reaction is provided. The effects of different pH levels on the reaction rate of an enzyme from yeast are investigated and the results graphed. Background information, a list of needed materials, directions for preparing solutions, procedure, and results and discussion are…

  3. Inflation targeting and interest rate policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the

  4. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  5. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natur...

  6. 42 CFR 21.45 - Rating values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rating values. 21.45 Section 21.45 Public Health... Appointment § 21.45 Rating values. The examination of every candidate for appointment to any grade in the... values for each part of the examination as are prescribed by the Surgeon General. No candidate who...

  7. Clients' Ratings of Counselor Multicultural Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Brobst, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Examines differences in perceptions between Euro American and ethnic minority respondents on the role of counselor multicultural competency. Results showed a strong positive correlation between clients' ratings of counselors' multicultural competencies and ratings of counselors' general competency and empathy. On comparisons of satisfaction,…

  8. A Latent Class Model for Rating Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    A latent class model for rating data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch model for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for rating categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…

  9. 7 CFR 922.235 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 922.235 Section 922.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Assessment Rate §...

  10. 7 CFR 983.253 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 983.253 Section 983.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Assessment Rate §...

  11. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN SOUTHEASTERN STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253...

  12. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347...

  13. 7 CFR 932.230 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 932.230 Section 932.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.230 Assessment rate....

  14. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment...

  15. 7 CFR 982.340 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 982.340 Section 982.340 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Assessment Rates § 982.340...

  16. 7 CFR 917.258 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 917.258 Section 917.258 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRESH PEARS AND PEACHES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 917.258...

  17. 7 CFR 955.209 - Assessment rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 955.209 Section 955.209 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations Assessment Rates § 95...

  18. Measuring heart rate with optical sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barachi, M. (Mitra)

    2014-01-01

    The problem addressed in this report is to verify the possibility of using an optical sensor in the SaxShirt in order to extract the heart rate. There are specifically three questions that we try to address. 1) How is it possible to extract heart rate (BPM) from the optical sensor? 2) Is it

  19. Stochastic interest rates model in compounding | Galadima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest rates considerations in cash flows are fundamental concepts in finance, real estate, insurance, accounting and other areas of business administration. The assumption that future rates are fixed and known with certainty at the beginning of an investment, is a restrictive and theoretical assumption that is not obtainable ...

  20. Moisture controls decomposition rate in thawing tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.E. Hicks-Pries; E.A.G. Schuur; S.M. Natali; J.G. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Permafrost thaw can affect decomposition rates by changing environmental conditions and litter quality. As permafrost thaws, soils warm and thermokarst (ground subsidence) features form, causing some areas to become wetter while other areas become drier. We used a common substrate to measure how permafrost thaw affects decomposition rates in the surface soil in a...

  1. 76 FR 72672 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION...) administers rural utilities programs, including the Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation... the depreciation rates that are used by RUS in its feasibility studies. Sec. 1737.70(e)(2) refers to...

  2. 76 FR 6762 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION... Agriculture (USDA), announces the depreciation rates for telecommunications plant for the period ending... Common to Insured and Guaranteed Telecommunications Loans, Sec. 1737.70(e) explains the depreciation...

  3. MONETARY MODELS AND EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1.242 percent increase in the nominal exchange rate (depreciation). The empirics of the results are straight forward; a domestic economy that inflates her money supply at a faster rate than does her trading partner can expect to suffer depreciation in the external value of her currency. Consequently, any change in the money ...

  4. 77 FR 65664 - Publication of Depreciation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Rural Utilities Service Publication of Depreciation Rates AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION...) administers rural utilities programs, including the Telecommunications Program. RUS announces the depreciation... the depreciation rates that are used by RUS in its feasibility studies. Sec. 1737.70(e)(2) refers to...

  5. A Robust Interpretation of Teaching Evaluation Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Henry H.

    2018-01-01

    There are no absolute standards regarding what teaching evaluation ratings are satisfactory. It is also problematic to compare teaching evaluation ratings with the average or with a cutoff number to determine whether they are adequate. In this paper, we use average and standard deviation charts (X[overbar]-S charts), which are based on the theory…

  6. 75 FR 80866 - Credit Rating Standardization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... stress; and standardizing credit rating terminology across asset classes, so that named ratings... Comments Use the Commission's Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/other.shtml ); or Send an e... the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov ). Comments are also available for Web site...

  7. Absolute rates of hole transfer in DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Grozema, F.C.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.; Lewis, F.D.; Berlin, Y.A.; Ratner, M.A.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Absolute rates of hole transfer between guanine nucleobases separated by one or two A:T base pairs in stilbenedicarboxamide-linked DNA hairpins were obtained by improved kinetic analysis of experimental data. The charge-transfer rates in four different DNA sequences were calculated using a

  8. 5 CFR 430.208 - Rating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.208 Rating performance. (a) As soon as practicable after the end of the appraisal period, a written, or... period(s) without an actual evaluation of the employee's performance during the subsequent appraisal...

  9. Construction of a Bilingual Attitude Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    A bilingual rating scale was constructed to determine teachers' ratings of attitude and proficiency among Anglo and Spanish children in Title VII classes. This instrument was designed to ascertain how teachers perceive the pupils in their classroom and how two teachers representing different backgrounds perceive children of similar and different…

  10. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Furth, Harold P.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Goldhaber, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  11. Term structure modeling and asymptotic long rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of the asymptotic long rate in three classes of term structure models. It shows that, in a frictionless and arbitrage-free market, the asymptotic long rate is a non-decreasing process. This gives an alternative proof of the same result of Dybvig et al. (Dybvig, P.H.,

  12. 77 FR 44571 - Rate Regulation Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Street Journal. Additional information is contained in the Board's decision served on July 25, 2012. To... Board proposes to amend part 1141 of title 49, chapter X, of the Code of Federal Regulations as follows... the most recent U.S. Prime Rate as Published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be...

  13. Multi-Canister overpack dual pressure rating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The SNF Project will change the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) design pressure rating in the mechanical closure configuration to 150 psig to permit substitution of 304L/304 stainless steel for the higher cost XM-19 in the MCO collar. The 450 psig pressure rating for the final welded MCO will remain unchanged.

  14. The Economic Analysis of University Participation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, George

    2015-01-01

    Over the postwar period in most developed countries, the university participation rate has risen steadily to well over 30 percent, although there remain differences between countries. Students from lower income families have lower participation rates than those from higher income families. The article provides an economic analysis of these…

  15. 36 CFR 223.63 - Advertised rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advertised rates. 223.63... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.63 Advertised rates. Timber shall be advertised for sale at its appraised value. The road construction cost used to...

  16. Litteraturstudie af forskning om environment rating scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Litteraturstudiet omhandler forskning om de internationalt anvendte evalueringssmetoder ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) og ITERS (Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale), der begge er instrumenter til måling af kvalitet og værktøjer til evaluering og udvikling af kvalitet i...

  17. The Agreement and Structure of Colleague Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabre, Maria M.; Forgan, Harry W.

    1985-01-01

    The interrater reliability and factor structure of colleague ratings of university faculty were studied for 46 faculty members from 4 departments within the School of Education and Allied Professions at the University of Miami (Florida). Within each department, each faculty member rated every other faculty member using two methods: (1) a global…

  18. Economic and accounting rates of return

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, D.W.; Wang, H.

    2000-01-01

    The rate of return on invested capital is a central concept in financial analysis. The purpose of calculating the rate of return on investment in general is to measure the financial performance, to assess the desirability of a project and to make decisions on the valuation of firms. Financial

  19. Water and Wastewater Rate Hikes Outpace CPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fuchs, Heidi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Water and wastewater treatment and delivery is the most capital-intensive of all utility services. Historically underpriced, water and wastewater rates have exhibited unprecedented growth in the past fifteen years. Steep annual increases in water and wastewater rates that outpace the Consumer Price Index (CPI) have increasingly become the norm across the United States. In this paper, we analyze water and wastewater rates across U.S. census regions between 2000 and 2014. We also examine some of the driving factors behind these rate increases, including drought, water source, required infrastructure investment, population patterns, and conservation effects. Our results demonstrate that water and wastewater prices have consistently increased and have outstripped CPI throughout the study period nationwide, as well as within each census region. Further, evaluation of the current and upcoming challenges facing water and wastewater utilities suggests that sharp rate increases are likely to continue in the foreseeable future.

  20. Fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Bing, Yuan; Zengji, Liu

    2006-10-01

    A new fixed-rate layered multicast congestion control algorithm called FLMCC is proposed. The sender of a multicast session transmits data packets at a fixed rate on each layer, while receivers each obtain different throughput by cumulatively subscribing to deferent number of layers based on their expected rates. In order to provide TCP-friendliness and estimate the expected rate accurately, a window-based mechanism implemented at receivers is presented. To achieve this, each receiver maintains a congestion window, adjusts it based on the GAIMD algorithm, and from the congestion window an expected rate is calculated. To measure RTT, a new method is presented which combines an accurate measurement with a rough estimation. A feedback suppression based on a random timer mechanism is given to avoid feedback implosion in the accurate measurement. The protocol is simple in its implementation. Simulations indicate that FLMCC shows good TCP-friendliness, responsiveness as well as intra-protocol fairness, and provides high link utilization.

  1. Graft Take-Rates After Tympanoplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts; Aabenhus, Kristine; Glad, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a prospective ear surgery database and investigate the graft take-rate and prognostic factors for graft take-rate in tympanoplasty using the database. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective database study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: A total of 1606 cases undergoing...... tympanoplasty types I to IV were registered in the database in the period from February 2004 to November 2013. INTERVENTION: A total of 837 cases underwent myringoplasty/tympanoplasty type I. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Graft take-rate and prognostic factors (age, discharge at time of surgery, tuba function...... was developed. The graft take-rate was found to be 93.0% at 2 to 6 months and 86.6% at more than 12 months. Except for a discharging ear at the time of surgery, no significant differences using χ² test of association were found when comparing graft take-rates for different prognostic factors or more advanced...

  2. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  3. Binary population synthesis and SNIa rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNeIa rate from the most common progenitor channels using the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa. Using SeBa, we aim constrain binary processes such as the common envelope phase and the efficiency of mass retention of white dwarf accretion. We find that the simulated rates are not sufficient to explain the observed rates. Further, we find that the mass retention efficiency of white dwarf accretion significantly influences the rates, but does not explain all the differences between simulated rates from different BPS codes.

  4. Currency Risk Management under Floating Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Duret

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As for the research into this subject, we find, therefore, that one of the most important indicators that quantify the international competitiveness is the exchange rate, together with other fundamental macroeconomic variables such as the size of the potential GDP, the equilibrium real exchange rate, gives a certain insight into the functioning of the fundamental macroeconomic mechanisms and their regulation. Commercial and financial operations imply relationships between partners from different currency countries or areas that involve conversion operations, of replacement of a currency to another. Exchange rate fluctuations of one currency create currency risk, to the extent that it is used to carry out international transactions. These operations are subjected to currency risk as exchange rates change frequently from one period to another and, on the other hand, speculations in the forex market influence the exchange rate by the interventions of those who perform them.

  5. Growth Rates of Microbes in the Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchman, David L

    2016-01-01

    A microbe's growth rate helps to set its ecological success and its contribution to food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Growth rates at the community level are constrained by biomass and trophic interactions among bacteria, phytoplankton, and their grazers. Phytoplankton growth rates are approximately 1 d(-1), whereas most heterotrophic bacteria grow slowly, close to 0.1 d(-1); only a few taxa can grow ten times as fast. Data from 16S rRNA and other approaches are used to speculate about the growth rate and the life history strategy of SAR11, the most abundant clade of heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. These strategies are also explored using genomic data. Although the methods and data are imperfect, the available data can be used to set limits on growth rates and thus on the timescale for changes in the composition and structure of microbial communities.

  6. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0...

  7. Resting heart rate, heart rate variability and functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Mahinrad, Simin; Stott, David J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart rate and heart rate variability, markers of cardiac autonomic function, have been linked with cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether heart rate and heart rate variability are associated with functional status in older adults, independent of cardiovascular disease. METHODS......: We obtained data from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). A total of 5042 participants were included in the present study, and mean followup was 3.2 years. Heart rate and heart rate variability were derived from baseline 10-second electrocardiograms. Heart rate.......3 years. At baseline, higher heart rate was associated with worse ADL and IADL, and lower SDNN was related to worse IADL (all p values heart rate (range 71-117 beats/min) had a 1.79-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-2.22) and 1.35-fold (95% CI 1...

  8. Larval developmental rate, metabolic rate and future growth performance in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Jonathan Vaz; Åberg, Madelene; Gjoen, Hans Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies in salmonids suggest a link between larval developmental rate, metabolic rate, and future growth. However, the connection between growth during exogenous and endogenous feeding is still debated. In the current study, a positive relationship between larval developmental rate, quan...... and growth in commercial rearing of Atlantic salmon. Furthermore, the link between larval standard metabolic rate and developmental rate and future growth is discussed in the present study.......Previous studies in salmonids suggest a link between larval developmental rate, metabolic rate, and future growth. However, the connection between growth during exogenous and endogenous feeding is still debated. In the current study, a positive relationship between larval developmental rate......, quantified as time to first feeding, and growth in later stages was demonstrated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The observed relationship between future growth and larval developmental rate suggests that sorting larvae by time to first feeding can be a potential tool to optimize feeding strategies...

  9. Influence of Gas Flow Rate on the Deposition Rate on Stainless Steel 202 Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Chowdhury

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid thin films have been deposited on stainless steel 202 (SS 202 substrates at different flow rates of natural gas using a hot filament thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD reactor. In the experiments, the variations of thin film deposition rate with the variation of gas flow rate have been investigated. The effects of gap between activation heater and substrate on the deposition rate have also been observed. Results show that deposition rate on SS 202 increases with the increase in gas flow rate within the observed range. It is also found that deposition rate increases with the decrease in gap between activation heater and substrate. In addition, friction coefficient and wear rate of SS 202 sliding against SS 304 under different sliding velocities are also investigated before and after deposition. The experimental results reveal that improved friction coefficient and wear rate is obtained after deposition than that of before deposition.

  10. Speech rate, rate-matching, and intelligibility in early-implanted cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Valerie; Pisoni, David B

    2017-08-01

    An important speech-language outcome for deaf people with cochlear implants is speech intelligibility-how well their speech is understood by others, which also affects social functioning. Beyond simply uttering recognizable words, other speech-language skills may affect communicative competence, including rate-matching or converging toward interlocutors' speech rates. This initial report examines speech rate-matching and its relations to intelligibility in 91 prelingually deaf cochlear implant users and 93 typically hearing peers age 3 to 27 years. Live-voice spoken sentences were repeated and later transcribed by multiple hearing listeners. Speech intelligibility was calculated as proportions of words correctly transcribed. For speech rate-matching measures, speech rates (syllables/s) were normalized as percentages faster or slower than examiners' speech rates. Cochlear implant users had slower speech rates, less accurate and less consistent rate-matching, and poorer speech intelligibility than hearing peers. Among cochlear implant users, speech rate and rate-matching were correlated with intelligibility: faster talkers and better rate-matchers were more intelligible. Rate-matching and intelligibility improved during preschool, with cochlear implant users delayed by about a year compared to hearing peers. By school-age, rate-matching and intelligibility were good overall, but delays persisted for many cochlear implant users. Interventions targeting rate-matching skills are therefore warranted in speech-language therapy for this population.

  11. Accelerated nail growth rate in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Elisa C; Marioni-Manriquez, Selina; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón F; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela

    2017-05-01

    Many factors have been noted to alter the growth rate of both finger and toe nails, some with harder evidence than others. Infectious diseases are among the ones reported as slowing the growth rate. However, on previous studies we noticed that patients living with HIV and onychomycosis could be cured without the use of antifungal therapy, only with the immunological improvement provided by the combined antiretroviral therapy, and we wanted to prove that the growth rate is also increased in this group and thus probably contributes to the cure of onychomycosis. This was an observational, descriptive, and prospective study. We marked with a scalpel the nail plate of the first finger of the non-dominant hand and the same foot, and measured the nail growth in the subsequent medical appointments with a magnifying glass and a millimetric scale. Thirteen patients completed the study, and were paired with healthy controls by age and gender. After performing Mann-Whitney U test, our results showed statistical significance among both groups, showing that patients with HIV have faster nail growth rates than those in the HIV negative group. There is little data on HIV nail growth rate to compare our results, but what we see in the clinical practice is that this group of patients shows a faster nail growth rate, as has also been reported for longer eyelashes, and this could be an important factor in the cure rates of onychomycosis. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. HANARO core channel flow-rate measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heon Il; Chae, Hee Tae; Im, Don Soon; Kim, Seon Duk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    HANARO core consists of 23 hexagonal flow tubes and 16 cylindrical flow tubes. To get the core flow distribution, we used 6 flow-rate measuring dummy fuel assemblies (instrumented dummy fuel assemblies). The differential pressures were measured and converted to flow-rates using the predetermined relationship between AP and flow-rate for each instrumented dummy fuel assemblies. The flow-rate for the cylindrical flow channels shows +-7% relative errors and that for the hexagonal flow channels shows +-3.5% relative errors. Generally the flow-rates of outer core channels show smaller values compared to those of inner core. The channels near to the core inlet pipe and outlet pipes also show somewhat lower flow-rates. For the lower flow channels, the thermal margin was checked by considering complete linear power histories. From the experimental results, the gap flow-rate was estimated to be 49.4 kg/s (cf. design flow of 50 kg/s). 15 tabs., 9 figs., 10 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Wheat genotypes under different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César Vieira Tavares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wheat tillering capacity defines yield and yield components, being affected by seeding rate. This study aimed at evaluating wheat genotypes under different seeding rates, in Londrina and Ponta Grossa, Paraná State, Brazil, in 2009 and 2010. A completely randomized blocks design, in a factorial scheme, with four replications, was used. The agronomic traits of three wheat genotypes (PF 014384, BRS Tangará and BRS Pardela were evaluated under the seeding rates of 150 pl m-2, 250 pl m-2, 350 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. In Londrina, the maximum yield was observed at densities close to 270 pl m-2, while in Ponta Grossa (2009 there was a linear fit. There was no adjustment for plant height, concerning seeding rate. The number of ears per area (ears m-2 was higher in Ponta Grossa (2009 and did not differ between the locations, in 2010. In Ponta Grossa (2010, the highest one thousand seeds weight was estimated at the density of 341 pl m-2, while in Londrina (2010 it was estimated at 150 pl m-2 and 450 pl m-2. The seeding rate affected grain yield, depending on place and year. In Londrina, there was a limit for yield, concerning seeding rate. The one thousand seeds weight was influenced by seeding rate, depending on year and location. Plant height was affected by genotype and growing area.

  14. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  15. Searching for an Appropriate Exchange Rate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Wang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to survey current debates on the choice of exchange rate regime in emerging market economies. The issue of choosing an appropriate exchange rate regime is being actively discussed since the recent Asian crisis. As a lesson from the recent crises, one widely shared conclusion is that soft peg exchange rate regimes are extremely vulnerable in a world of volatile capital movements. Consequently, new orthodoxy based on the impossible trinity hypothesis favours two corner solutions ― greater flexibility or credible institutional assurance, like a currency board system or dollarization. Nevertheless, questions whether such corner solutions are adequate for developing countries are rising of late. "Fear of floating" is still conspicuous in many developing countries having adopted nominally a free-floating exchange rate regime. Developing countries are sensitive to exchange rate fluctuations because the cost of exchange rate volatility is greater than the benefit when compared to developed countries. Monitoring bands is a compromise solution, but it still needs further enhancement of estimation techniques for fundamental equilibrium exchange rates in order to make those estimation results more workable in practice. Other alternatives include the creation of soft peg of the G-3 currencies. Despite counterarguments, the stability of G-3 currencies could prove to be beneficial to emerging market economies.

  16. VARIATION ANALYSIS ON NATIONAL STANDARD INTEREST RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ferreira Cardia Haddad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study’s main objective is to analyse an econometric model for forecasting purposes concerning the interest rate which is adopted as standard reference within the Brazilian economy, namely, the Actual-Selic rate, so as to verify the feasibility of performing short term predictions as to its variations. Thus the major variables that impact the Actual-Selic rate, such as price variations of agricultural and power commodities, national industrial production level, exchange rate and public sector net debt, are detailed. The modern macroeconomic approach describes the relevance of the Central Bank upon achievement of its goals so as to maintain the economic stability, amongst which lies the convergence of verified interest rates with the Selic rate target, as set forth by the Monetary Policy Committee (COPOM. Furthermore, this study poses to explain the relevance in forecasting, with a reasonable level of accuracy, the benchmark interest rate of Brazilian economy. The proposed model may be used to support decision making concerning investment strategies and as an additional tool for the monitoring of the achievement of macroeconomic policy objectives.

  17. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  18. Epidural failure rate using a standardised definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangamuthu, A; Russell, I F; Purva, M

    2013-11-01

    There is no globally-accepted definition of epidural failure; this leads to wide differences in reported failure rates. A definition of epidural failure was standardised using a modified Delphi approach involving senior obstetric anaesthetists in the UK. Using this definition, epidural failures were calculated in our institution. Following clinical governance approval, anonymised data from 1521 epidurals inserted between September 2010 and December 2011 were collected from our database. Details included pain relief 45 min from the start of the procedure, accidental dural puncture, epidural re-siting, maternal satisfaction, time of insertion and positioning for insertion. The overall failure rate was 23%. Individual failure rates for trainees were: Year 2, 26.8%; Year 3, 26.3%; Year 4, 21.4%; Year 5, 25%; Year 6, 18.5%; and Year 7, 13.5%. Epidural re-site rates for trainees were: Year 2, 6.5%; Year 3, 3.5%; Year 4, 4%; Year 5 and above, 1.5%. Cervical dilatation, time of day and position for insertion did not have a statistically significant association with the failure rate. However, the failure rate of the Year 2, Year 3, and Year 4 trainees was significantly higher when compared to that of Year 5 and above. The re-site rate was statistically higher for Year 2 and Year 4 trainees when compared to those of Year 5 and above. The accidental dural puncture rate was statistically higher among Year 3 trainees when compared to Year 5 and above. The study identified epidural failure rates using a standardised definition. This information could be used to guide training decisions and to support doctors during their training period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2010-01-23

    Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the survey was done, and the proportions of displaced people in the samples were the explanatory variables. Predicted mortality rates for five periods were computed and applied to population data taken from the UN's series about Darfur to obtain the number of deaths. 63 of 107 mortality surveys met all criteria for analysis. Our results show significant reductions in mortality rates from early 2004 to the end of 2008, although rates were higher during deployment of fewer humanitarian aid workers. In general, the reduction in rate was more important for violence-related than for diarrhoea-related mortality. Displacement correlated with increased rates of deaths associated with diarrhoea, but also with reduction in violent deaths. We estimated the excess number of deaths to be 298 271 (95% CI 178 258-461 520). Although violence was the main cause of death during 2004, diseases have been the cause of most deaths since 2005, with displaced populations being the most susceptible. Any reduction in humanitarian assistance could lead to worsening mortality rates, as was the case between mid 2006 and mid 2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The RNA chain elongation rate in Escherichia coli depends on the growth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1994-01-01

    We determined the rates of mRNA and protein chain elongation on the lacZ gene during exponential growth on different carbon sources. The RNA chain elongation rate was calculated from measurements of the time elapsing between induction of lacZ expression and detection of specific hybridization...... with a probe near the 3' end of the mRNA. The elongation rate for the transcripts decreased 40% when the growth rate decreased by a factor of 4, and it always correlated with the rate of translation elongation. A similar growth rate dependency was seen for transcription on the infB gene and on a part...

  1. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  2. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hensley, Jr., William H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Bryan L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  3. Considerations for How to Rate CPV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, M.; Marion, B.; Emery, K.; McConnell, R.; Surendran, S.; Kimber, A.

    2011-02-01

    The concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) industry is introducing multiple products into the marketplace, but, as yet, the; community has not embraced a unified method for assessing a nameplate rating. The choices of whether to use 850,; 900, or 1000 W/m2 for the direct-normal irradiance and whether to link the rating to ambient or cell temperature will; affect how CPV modules are rated and compared with other technologies. This paper explores the qualitative and; quantitative ramifications of these choices using data from two multi-junction CPV modules and two flat-plate; modules.

  4. Rates of Return to Schooling in China

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory C Chow

    2003-01-01

    This study uses data from a 1988 survey of Chinese individuals to estimate rates of return to schooling in China. The Mincer-type rate of return to schooling was estimated at 4.02 percent in rural areas and 3.29 percent in urban areas; these are fairly low estimates compared with similar estimates in other countries. The rate of return for schooling females was significantly higher than that for males in urban areas. In addition, members of the Communist Party in urban areas had significantly...

  5. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1 that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced rates will result in maximum effects, 2 that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3 that less than maximum effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use of reduced herbicide rates has been linked to the increasing number of cases of non-target resistance in outcrossing grass weed species like Alopecurus myosuroides and Lolium ssp. The underlying hypothesis is that the least susceptible individuals in the population will survive the use of reduced rates and that recombination will lead to a gradual increase in the resistance level in the weed population. This scenario is only valid if the use of reduced herbicide rates is prompted by acceptance of a lower effect but not if a high susceptibility of the weed species present in the field or optimum conditions are the reasons for reducing herbicide rates. This is an aspect that is often overlooked in the on-going discussion on herbicide rates and resistance. Large weed

  6. Error analysis for resonant thermonuclear reaction rates

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, W J

    1999-01-01

    A detailed presentation is given of estimating uncertainties in thermonuclear reaction rates for stellar nucleosynthesis involving narrow resonances, starting from random errors in measured or calculated resonance and nuclear level properties. Special attention is given to statistical matters such as probability distributions, error propagation, and correlations between errors. Interpretation of resulting uncertainties in reaction rates and the distinction between symmetric and asymmetric errors are also discussed. Computing reaction rate uncertainties is described. We give examples from explosive nucleosynthesis by hydrogen burning on light nuclei.

  7. Does Internet Censorship Reduce Crime Rate?

    OpenAIRE

    Karnadi, Erwin Bramana

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between Internet censorship and crime rate. Classical  views  of censorship  suggest that filtering contents  that are per- ceived as negative such as violence and pornography  can have a negative impact on crime rate. However,  there is no evidence to suggest  any causal relationship  between censorship  and crime rate. The Internet has  made it easier for individuals  to access  any information  they want, and hence Internet Censorship  is applied  to fil...

  8. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  9. STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: BRAILLE READING RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Blagoj Dimitrova-Radojichikj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison reading performance was done between 8 students who are using Braille and 14 students who are using enlarged print to read. Reading performance was determined using reading rate (words per minute, wpm. Reading rate results showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between those using the Braille (16.62±11.61 wpm and those using the enlarged print (27.21±24.89 wpm. This study has shown that Braille reader students read at lower reading rate compared to print reader students with visual impairment.

  10. Lightning on Jupiter - Rate, energetics, and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Voyager data on the optical and radio-frequency detection of lightning discharges in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggest a stroke rate significantly lower than on the earth. The efficiency of conversion of atmospheric convective energy flux into lightning is almost certainly less than on the earth, probably near 10 to the -7th rather than the terrestrial value of 10 to the -4th. At this level the rate of production of complex organic molecules by lightning and by thunder shock waves is negligible compared to the rates of known photochemical processes for forming colored inorganic solids.

  11. Adaptive Algorithm for Chirp-Rate Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Djurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chirp-rate, as a second derivative of signal phase, is an important feature of nonstationary signals in numerous applications such as radar, sonar, and communications. In this paper, an adaptive algorithm for the chirp-rate estimation is proposed. It is based on the confidence intervals rule and the cubic-phase function. The window width is adaptively selected to achieve good tradeoff between bias and variance of the chirp-rate estimate. The proposed algorithm is verified by simulations and the results show that it outperforms the standard algorithm with fixed window width.

  12. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  13. Effect of Air Injection on Nucleation Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capellades Mendez, Gerard; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    From disruption of the supersaturated solution to improved mass transfer in the crystallizing suspension, the introduction of a moving gas phase in a crystallizer could lead to improved rates of nucleation and crystal growth. In this work, saturated air has been injected to batch crystallizers...... of the distributions were studied independently, allowing the simultaneous determination of the mean induction time and a certain detection delay related to the rate of crystal growth after formation of the first nucleus. When saturated air was injected in aqueous glycine solutions, the average detection delay...... of this technique for reduction in nucleation induction time and improved mass deposition rates in crystallization operations....

  14. Violence in Teen-Rated Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-01-01

    Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2

  15. Violence in teen-rated video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-03-11

    Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for "Teen") by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2%) received only a content descriptor for blood, and 14 game titles

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, , USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  17. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  18. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School Programs to Prevent Skin Cancer Research Related Links Buttons and Badges Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ...

  19. Medicare FFS 30 Day Readmission Rate PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The hospital readmission rate PUF presents nation-wide information about inpatient hospital stays that occurred within 30 days of a previous inpatient hospital stay...

  20. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  1. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  2. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time: Response to Sheth's comments and some additional thoughts. Gautam Sen. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 487-488 ...

  3. Star Formation Rate Maps of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Frances H.; Pooley, David

    2018-01-01

    A key component of many extragalactic studies is the correlation of a galaxy’s overall star formation rate with a particular type of astronomical object (like supernovae or luminous X-ray sources). While these correlations have allowed for considerable progress in understanding the nature, formation, and diversity of these objects, the overall star formation rate is a rather blunt instrument. Star formation is not uniform across a galaxy, and maps of local star formation rates can be made. A well calibrated method by Leroy et al. (2007) employs a weighted combination of far ultraviolet (FUV) data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Telescope (GALEX) and 24-micron data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have applied this method to archival images of several nearby galaxy as part of an ongoing effort to build a star formation rate atlas of thousands of nearby galaxies. We present results for some of the most active star forming galaxies we have analyzed so far.

  4. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  5. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  6. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30......Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...

  7. Rating in the Assessment of Investment Property

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katarzyna Śmietana; Jan Konowalczuk; Anna Maszczyk

    2014-01-01

    .... In the investment property market, not only does rating provide transparency of property risk, but it can also be used for real estate portfolio analysis, investment controlling, and the analysis...

  8. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Conference Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  9. High-Rate Receiver Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose an initial architectural and preliminary hardware design study for a high-rate receiver capable of decoding modulation suites specified by CCSDS 413.0-G-1...

  10. Instructor Reputation and Student Ratings of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bryan W.

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between instructor reputation, as perceived by students, and student evaluations of the instructor and course. A total of 754 students from 39 classes participated in the study. Based on what students claimed to have heard about the instructor prior to enrolling in the course, they were classified into one of three groups: positive reputation, no information, and negative reputation. Using these groupings, two analyses were performed. In the first, mean overall ratings for the instructor and course were calculated and presented by class. In the second, both instructor and course ratings were modeled using multilevel regression. Results show large mean differences in both instructor and course ratings between the positive and negative reputation groups. More specifically, students who heard positive information regarding the instructor's reputation rated both the instructor and course higher than students who heard negative information about the instructor. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  11. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  12. Five-Star Quality Rating System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS created the Five-Star Quality Rating System to help consumers, their families, and caregivers compare nursing homes more easily and to help identify areas about...

  13. Flood Insurance Rate Map, Scott County, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  14. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide renography and direct urinary activity quantitation. A. C. Otto, P. H. Pretorius, M. Dunn, M. G. Nel, A. van Aswegen, J. Marais, M. G. Lotter ...

  15. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating......Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  16. Gearbox gene expression and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, M; Garrido, T; Tormo, A

    1993-07-01

    Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotic cells usually takes place at the level of transcription initiation. Different forms of RNA polymerase recognizing specific promoters are engaged in the control of many prokaryotic regulons. This also seems to be the case for some Escherichia coli genes that are induced at low growth rates and by nutrient starvation. Their gene products are synthesized at levels inversely proportional to growth rate, and this mode of regulation has been termed gearbox gene expression. This kind of growth-rate modulation is exerted by specific transcriptional initiation signals, the gearbox promoters, and some of them depend on a putative new σ factor (RpoS). Gearbox promoters drive expression of morphogenetic and cell division genes at constant levels per cell and cycle to meet the demands of cell division and septum formation. A mechanism is proposed that could sense the growth rate of the cell to alter gene expression by the action of specific σ factors.

  17. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  18. Rating the energy performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, Thomas; Meier, Alan; Lamberts, Roberto

    2004-12-01

    In order to succeed in developing a more sustainable society, buildings will need to be continuously improved. This paper discusses how to rate the energy performance of buildings. A brief review of recent approaches to energy rating is presented. It illustrates that there is no single correct or wrong concept, but one needs to be aware of the relative impact of the strategies. Different strategies of setting energy efficiency standards are discussed and the advantages of the minimum life cycle cost are shown. Indicators for building energy rating based on simulations, aggregated statistics and expert knowledge are discussed and illustrated in order to demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of each approach. In addition, the importance of considering the level of amenities offered is presented. Attributes of a rating procedure based on three elements, flexible enough for recognizing different strategies to achieve energy conservation, is proposed.

  19. NESDIS Blended Rain Rate (RR) Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The blended Rain Rate (RR) product is derived from multiple sensors/satellites. The blended products were merged from polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite...

  20. Life cycle costing with a discount rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    This article studies life cycle costing for a capability needed for the indefinite future, and specifically investigates the dependence of optimal policies on the discount rate chosen. The two costs considered are reprocurement cost and maintenance and operations (M and O) cost. The procurement price is assumed known, and the M and O costs are assumed to be a known function, in fact, a non-decreasing function, of the time since last reprocurement. The problem is to choose the optimum reprocurement time so as to minimize the quotient of the total cost over a reprocurement period divided by the period. Or one could assume a discount rate and try to minimize the total discounted costs into the indefinite future. It is shown that the optimum policy in the presence of a small discount rate hardly depends on the discount rate at all, and leads to essentially the same policy as in the case in which discounting is not considered.

  1. Resting heart rate estimation using PIR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapu, Hemanth; Saraswat, Kavisha; Ozturk, Yusuf; Cetin, A. Enis

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a non-invasive and non-contact system of estimating resting heart rate (RHR) using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor. This infrared system monitors and records the chest motion of a subject using the analog output signal of the PIR sensor. The analog output signal represents the composite motion due to inhale-exhale process with magnitude much larger than the minute vibrations of heartbeat. Since the acceleration of the heart activity is much faster than breathing the second derivative of the PIR sensor signal monitoring the chest of the subject is used to estimate the resting heart rate. Experimental results indicate that this ambient sensor can measure resting heart rate with a chi-square significance level of α = 0.05 compared to an industry standard PPG sensor. This new system provides a low cost and an effective way to estimate the resting heart rate, which is an important biological marker.

  2. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  4. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial Performance: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    CIPG = βo + β1EXR + β2INTR + β3TOT + µ2............. (iii). Where IPGR is industrial productivity growth rate and it is calculated as;. IPGR = (IOt-1 – IOt)/IOt-1. IO is index of industrial output. CIPG is contribution of industrial production to GDP, calculated as;. CIPG = (IO/GDP) X 100/1. Exchange Rate Deregulation and Industrial ...

  5. Optimal Mutation Rates on Static Fitness Landscpes

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, M.

    2000-01-01

    We study the evolution of mutation rates for an asexual population living on a static fitness landscape, consisting of multiple peaks forming an evolutionary staircase. The optimal mutation rate is found by maximizing the diffusion towards higher fitness. Surprisingly the optimal genomic copying fidelity is given by Q = e^(-1/ln(n)) (where n is the genome length), independent of all other parameters in the model. Simulations confirm this theoretical result. We also discuss the relation betwee...

  6. Real effective exchange rate misalignment in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nwachukwu, Ngozi E.; Adebayo, Racheal O.; Shettima, Abdullahi M.; Anigwe, John O.; Udechukwu-Peterclaver, Chidinma T.

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzed the relationship between relevant macroeconomic variables and the real effective exchange rate (REER) in Nigeria based on the Behavioural Equilibrium Exchange Rate (BEER) approach. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was estimated to obtain the equilibrium REER while the resultant levels of misalignment were computed for the period 1990 - 2014. Model results indicated that terms of trade and degree of trade openness are significant determinants of the REER, imply...

  7. Flow rate measurements by means of tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosetti, F. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Geodesia e Geofisica)

    The application of some sources of diffusion for the flow rate measurement of water or other fluids is here presented. The laminar instantaneous source, obtained in practice with easy devices, is very useful in river or channel measurements. The analysis of the measurements could supply the flow rate and the presence of water losses or recharges. The section of the channel can also be determined by such a method.

  8. Productivity Shocks, Discount Rate and Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Di Giannatale; Itza Curiel; Juan Herrera; Katya Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a repeated Principal Agent model, formulated as a Multi-Objective Optimization problem. We approximate its Pareto Frontier by using a recently proposed Multi-Objective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm named RankMOEA. We focus on the effects of changes of productivity shocks and discount rates on the aforementioned Pareto Frontier. Our numerical results indicate that as the discount rate increases, the Principal Agent relationship generates higher values; the spread...

  9. Cooling Rates of Lunar Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Zhang, Youxue; Peslier, Anne; Lange, Rebecca; Dingwell, Donald; Neal, Clive

    2016-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass beads are of volcanic origin. The diffusion profiles of volatiles in these glass beads are believed to be due to degassing during eruption (Saal et al., 2008). The degree of degassing depends on the initial temperature and cooling rate. Therefore, the estimations of volatiles in parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits depend on melt cooling rates. Furthermore, lunar glass beads may have cooled in volcanic environments on the moon. Therefore, the cooling rates may be used to assess the atmospheric condition in an early moon, when volcanic activities were common. The cooling rates of glasses can be inferred from direct heat capacity measurements on the glasses themselves (Wilding et al., 1995, 1996a,b). This method does not require knowledge of glass cooling environments and has been applied to calculate the cooling rates of natural silicate glasses formed in different terrestrial environments. We have carried out heat capacity measurements on hand-picked lunar glass beads using a Netzsch DSC 404C Pegasus differential scanning calorimeter at University of Munich. Our preliminary results suggest that the cooling rate of Apollo 17 orange glass beads may be 12 K/min, based on the correlation between temperature of the heat capacity curve peak in the glass transition range and glass cooling rate. The results imply that the parental magmas of lunar pyroclastic deposits may have contained more water initially than the early estimations (Saal et al., 2008), which used higher cooling rates, 60-180 K/min in the modeling. Furthermore, lunar volcanic glass beads could have been cooled in a hot gaseous medium released from volcanic eruptions, not during free flight. Therefore, our results may shed light on atmospheric condition in an early moon.

  10. Calibration and Rating of Photovoltaics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.

    2012-06-01

    Rating the performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules is critical to determining the cost per watt, and efficiency is useful to assess the relative progress among PV concepts. Procedures for determining the efficiency for PV technologies from 1-sun to low concentration to high concentration are discussed. We also discuss the state of the art in primary and secondary calibration of PV reference cells used by calibration laboratories around the world. Finally, we consider challenges to rating PV technologies and areas for improvement.

  11. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures Mars surface conditions. Therefore, jarosite-bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  12. Program computes turbine steam rates and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

    1988-11-01

    BASIC computer program quickly evaluates steam properties and rates during expansion in a steam turbine. Engineers involved in cogeneration projects and power plant studies often need to calculate the steam properties during expansion in a steam turbine to evaluate the theoretical and actual steam rates and hence, the electrical power output. With the help of this program written in BASIC, one can quickly evaluate all the pertinent data. Correlations used for steam property evaluation are also presented.

  13. Reflections on the Natural Rate Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Stiglitz

    1997-01-01

    Does the deviation of unemployment from some natural rate provide a robust and useful way to predict changes in the inflation rate? Can economists explain why the NAIRU changes over time? Is the NAIRU a useful way to frame policy discussions despite the uncertainty surrounding its precise level? The NAIRU hypothesis passes all three tests. Recent research shows that the NAIRU has fallen dramatically in the last decade. This paper refutes the need for a highly restrictive bias in macroeconomic...

  14. Interest Rate Liberalization; Some Lessons From Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Turtelboom

    1991-01-01

    This paper undertakes a survey of theoretical considerations and an analysis of the experience of five African countries with interest rate liberalization. Despite substantial progress in monetary policy reforms, liberalization has only partially affected the level and variability of interest rates. Several factors—macroeconomic instability, oligopolistic financial markets, the absence of developed capital markets, as well as the sequencing of the liberalization programs and the asymmetric av...

  15. Visible light communication using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Chung-Yen; Chen, Shih-Hao

    2015-01-01

    ...). However, using these CMOS image sensors are challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a VLC link using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate of the CMOS image sensor...

  16. Evaluation of the metabolic rate based on the recording of the heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchaire, Jacques; d'AMBROSIO Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor

    2017-06-08

    The assessment of harsh working conditions requires a correct evaluation of the metabolic rate. This paper revises the basis described in the ISO 8996 standard for the evaluation of the metabolic rate at a work station from the recording of the heart rate of a worker during a representative period of time. From a review of the literature, formulas different from those given in the standard are proposed to estimate the maximum working capacity, the maximum heart rate, the heart rate and the metabolic rate at rest and the relation (HR vs. M) at the basis of the estimation of the equivalent metabolic rate, as a function of the age, height and weight of the person. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to determine, from the approximations of these parameters and formulas, the imprecision of the estimated equivalent metabolic rate. The results show that the standard deviation of this estimate varies from 10 to 15%.

  17. Field Office Telephone Service - Monthly National Answer Rate and Busy Rate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides information at the national level by month for federal fiscal year 2013 onward for answer rate and busy rate for calls to our field offices....

  18. Exchange Rate Policy in Morocco and Persistence of Real Exchange Rate Misalignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Bouzahzah; Radouane Bachar

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of this article is to highlight the persistent nature of misalignments of the real exchange rate of the Dirham, especially since the adoption by Morocco of a policy exchange rate based...

  19. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  20. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  1. Rating vs. coding in animal personality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfill, Lauren; Hanbury, David; Kristiansen, Rachel; Kuczaj, Stan; Watson, Sheree

    2010-01-01

    Animal personality research has become increasingly popular over the past few decades. The two main methods used to examine individual differences in animals are rating and coding. The rating method involves human scoring of an animal's behavioral tendencies along various behavioral dimensions, such ratings are typically based on the human rater's experience with the animal. The coding method also requires humans to score an animal's behavior, but differs in that the scoring is based on the animal's immediate behavior in a specific context. This brief report describes the use of both the rating and coding methods to examine personality within a group of 10 Garnett's bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii). The results indicated that individual personalities do exist in bushbabies, but also suggested that the rating method is heavily influenced by the rater's experience with an animal. Consequently, it is important that the nature of the rater's interactions with the target animals be considered when using the rating method to assess animal personality. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Optimum solar collector fluid flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    1996-01-01

    Experiments showed that by means of a standard electronically controlled pump, type UPE 2000 from Grundfos it is possible to control the flow rate in a solar collector loop in such a way that the flow rate is strongly influenced by the temperature of the solar collector fluid passing the pump...... the energy consumption of a normal ciculation pump in the solar heating system.Calculations showed that the highest thermal performances for small SDHW systems based on mantle tanks with constant volume flow rates in the solar collector loops are achieved if the flow rate is situated in the interval from 0.......2 to 0.3 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for combi tank systems and in the interval from 0.3 to 0.4 l/min. per m^2 solar collector for preheating systems. Further, calculations showed that by means of an advanced control strategy for the flow rate - for instance if the flow rate is directly proportional...

  3. Crystallized Rate Regions for MIMO Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbah Merouane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering the multiuser SISO interference channel, the allowable rate region is not convex and the maximization of the aggregated rate of all the users by the means of transmission power control becomes inefficient. Hence, a concept of the crystallized rate regions has been proposed, where the time-sharing approach is considered to maximize the sumrate.In this paper, we extend the concept of crystallized rate regions from the simple SISO interference channel case to the MIMO/OFDM interference channel. As a first step, we extend the time-sharing convex hull from the SISO to the MIMO channel case. We provide a non-cooperative game-theoretical approach to study the achievable rate regions, and consider the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG mechanism design with a novel cost function. Within this analysis, we also investigate the case of OFDM channels, which can be treated as the special case of MIMO channels when the channel transfer matrices are diagonal. In the second step, we adopt the concept of correlated equilibrium into the case of two-user MIMO/OFDM, and we introduce a regret-matching learning algorithm for the system to converge to the equilibrium state. Moreover, we formulate the linear programming problem to find the aggregated rate of all users and solve it using the Simplex method. Finally, numerical results are provided to confirm our theoretical claims and show the improvement provided by this approach.

  4. Does Internet Censorship Reduce Crime Rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Bramana Karnadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the relationship between Internet censorship and crime rate. Classical  views  of censorship  suggest that filtering contents  that are per- ceived as negative such as violence and pornography  can have a negative impact on crime rate. However,  there is no evidence to suggest  any causal relationship  between censorship  and crime rate. The Internet has  made it easier for individuals  to access  any information  they want, and hence Internet Censorship  is applied  to filter contents that are deemed negative. We discussed several approaches that may be used to estimate the relationship between  Internet Censorship  and Crime Rate, and we decided  to use  OLS. We  found that Conflict Internet Censorship  is the only type of Internet censorship that has a significant negative impact on Crime Rate. Furthermore, it only significantly affects Crime Rate for highly educated countries.

  5. Base-rate sensitivity through implicit learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohil, Corey J.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from “observational” training to disrupt implicit learning or “response” training which supports implicit learning. Category label feedback on each trial was followed either immediately or after a 2.5 second delay by onset of a working memory task intended to disrupt explicit reasoning about category membership feedback. Decision criterion values were significantly larger following response training, suggesting that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity. Disrupting explicit processing had no effect on base-rate learning as long as implicit learning was supported. These results suggest base-rate sensitivity develops from experience primarily through implicit learning, consistent with separate learning systems accounts of categorization. PMID:28632779

  6. SIS Epidemic Spreading with Heterogeneous Infection Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we aim to understand the influence of the heterogeneity of infection rates on the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic spreading. Specifically, we keep the recovery rates the same for all nodes and study the influence of the moments of the independently identically distributed (i.i.d.) infection rates on the average fraction $y_\\infty$ of infected nodes in the meta-stable state, which indicates the severity of the overall infection. Motivated by real-world datasets, we consider the log-normal and gamma distributions for the infection rates and we design as well a symmetric distribution so that we have a systematic view of the influence of various distributions. By continuous-time simulations on several types of networks, theoretical proofs and physical interpretations, we conclude that: 1) the heterogeneity of infection rates on average retards the virus spread, and 2) a larger even-order moment of the infection rates leads to a smaller average fraction of infected nodes, but the odd-...

  7. FPGA Implementation of Heart Rate Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, D; Rakshit, M; Sahu, P K

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of a system that calculates the heart rate from Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. After heart rate calculation, tachycardia, bradycardia or normal heart rate can easily be detected. ECG is a diagnosis tool routinely used to access the electrical activities and muscular function of the heart. Heart rate is calculated by detecting the R peaks from the ECG signal. To provide a portable and the continuous heart rate monitoring system for patients using ECG, needs a dedicated hardware. FPGA provides easy testability, allows faster implementation and verification option for implementing a new design. We have proposed a five-stage based methodology by using basic VHDL blocks like addition, multiplication and data conversion (real to the fixed point and vice-versa). Our proposed heart rate calculation (R-peak detection) method has been validated, using 48 first channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. It shows an accuracy of 99.84%, the sensitivity of 99.94% and the positive predictive value of 99.89%. Our proposed method outperforms other well-known methods in case of pathological ECG signals and successfully implemented in FPGA.

  8. Measuring strength at ultrahigh strain rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogler, Tracy John

    2010-03-01

    The strain rate sensitivity of materials is measured through a combination of quasistatic, Hopkinson bar, and pressure-shear experiments. The pressure-shear technique has largely been limited to strain rates of order 1E6 1/s. Recent advances in laser and magnetically driven ramp loading have made it possible to achieve significantly higher rates, 1E5-1E8 1/s, under uniaxial strain compression. Strength in these experiments can be calculated by comparing the loading response to the hydrostatic (pressure-density) response of the material for the same density and temperature [Fowles, 1961]. This must be done accounting for the heating due to plastic work in the experiments. Experimental uniaxial strain data for aluminum for strain rates up to 1E8 1/s are examined and compared with existing data. The results are consistent with conventional views of the strain rate sensitivity of aluminum. However, when one considers the higher mean stress (pressure) present in the uniaxial strain experiments and, to a lesser extent, the pressure-shear experiments, one finds the material remains rate insensitive to about 1E7 1/s, two orders of magnitude higher than previously thought. Important caveats about determining strength in this manner will be discussed, and recommendations for future work will be made.

  9. New Hampshire Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  10. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  11. Missouri Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Missouri's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  12. Empirical rate equation model and rate calculations of hydrogen generation for Hanford tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    1999-07-13

    Empirical rate equations are derived to estimate hydrogen generation based on chemical reactions, radiolysis of water and organic compounds, and corrosion processes. A comparison of the generation rates observed in the field with the rates calculated for twenty eight tanks shows agreement with in a factor of two to three.

  13. Summary The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate,. QRS axis and QRS complex duration of the ECG was investigated in 41 pregnant compared to 39 non pregnant age and height matched Nigerian subjects. Results obtained show that pregnancy had no significant effect (p>0.05) on heart rate, respiratory ...

  14. Rate My Information Systems Professor: Exploring the Factors That Influence Student Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Mark; Crable, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Based on 820 entries on Ratemyprofessors.com, we explore whether information systems course ratings differ from those in marketing or management courses, whether lower level course ratings differ from those in senior or graduate level courses, whether course ratings differ between genders, and whether perceived course difficulty impacts course…

  15. Controlling Rater Stringency Error in Clinical Performance Rating: Further Validation of a Performance Rating Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    Prior research in a single clinical training setting has shown Cason and Cason's (1981) simplified model of their performance rating theory can improve rating reliability and validity through statistical control of rater stringency error. Here, the model was applied to clinical performance ratings of 14 cohorts (about 250 students and 200 raters)…

  16. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  17. Recidivism Rates for Two Education Programs' Graduates Compared to Overall Washington State Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Charles E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Recidivism rates for graduates of two correctional education programs in Washington were compared with statewide rates for all inmates released 1985-1987. Recidivism rates showed significant improvement when exposure to educational programs was extensive enough for individuals to receive diplomas and certificates. (JOW)

  18. Extending the Direct Behavior Rating: An Examination of Schoolwide Behavior Ratings and Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Barron, Sheila; Fernando, Josephine; Balint-Langel, Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of…

  19. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  20. Chest compression rate measurement from smartphone video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Kjersti; Hinna, Thomas; Ryen, Tom; Birkenes, Tonje S; Myklebust, Helge

    2016-08-11

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is a life threatening situation where the first person performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) most often is a bystander without medical training. Some existing smartphone apps can call the emergency number and provide for example global positioning system (GPS) location like Hjelp 113-GPS App by the Norwegian air ambulance. We propose to extend functionality of such apps by using the built in camera in a smartphone to capture video of the CPR performed, primarily to estimate the duration and rate of the chest compression executed, if any. All calculations are done in real time, and both the caller and the dispatcher will receive the compression rate feedback when detected. The proposed algorithm is based on finding a dynamic region of interest in the video frames, and thereafter evaluating the power spectral density by computing the fast fourier transform over sliding windows. The power of the dominating frequencies is compared to the power of the frequency area of interest. The system is tested on different persons, male and female, in different scenarios addressing target compression rates, background disturbances, compression with mouth-to-mouth ventilation, various background illuminations and phone placements. All tests were done on a recording Laerdal manikin, providing true compression rates for comparison. Overall, the algorithm is seen to be promising, and it manages a number of disturbances and light situations. For target rates at 110 cpm, as recommended during CPR, the mean error in compression rate (Standard dev. over tests in parentheses) is 3.6 (0.8) for short hair bystanders, and 8.7 (6.0) including medium and long haired bystanders. The presented method shows that it is feasible to detect the compression rate of chest compressions performed by a bystander by placing the smartphone close to the patient, and using the built-in camera combined with a video processing algorithm performed real-time on the device.

  1. Natural and anthropogenic rates of soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Nearing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regions of land that are brought into crop production from native vegetation typically undergo a period of soil erosion instability, and long term erosion rates are greater than for natural lands as long as the land continues being used for crop production. Average rates of soil erosion under natural, non-cropped conditions have been documented to be less than 2 Mg ha−1 yr−1. On-site rates of erosion of lands under cultivation over large cropland areas, such as in the United States, have been documented to be on the order of 6 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or more. In northeastern China, lands that were brought into production during the last century are thought to have average rates of erosion over this large area of as much as 15 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or more. Broadly applied soil conservation practices, and in particular conservation tillage and no-till cropping, have been found to be effective in reducing rates of erosion, as was seen in the United States when the average rates of erosion on cropped lands decreased from on the order of 9 Mg ha−1 yr−1 to 6 or 7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 between 1982 and 2002, coincident with the widespread adoption of new conservation tillage and residue management practices. Taking cropped lands out of production and restoring them to perennial plant cover, as was done in areas of the United States under the Conservation Reserve Program, is thought to reduce average erosion rates to approximately 1 Mg ha−1 yr−1 or less on those lands.

  2. Pregnancy rates in central Yellowstone bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogan, Peter J.; Russell, Robin E.; Olexa, Edward M.; Podruzny, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Plains bison (Bison b. bison) centered on Yellowstone National Park are chronically infected with brucellosis (Brucella abortus) and culled along the park boundaries to reduce the probability of disease transmission to domestic livestock. We evaluated the relationship between pregnancy rates and age, dressed carcass weight, and serological status for brucellosis among bison culled from the central Yellowstone subpopulation during the winters of 1996–1997, 2001–2002, and 2002–2003. A model with only dressed carcass weight was the best predictor of pregnancy status for all ages with the odds of pregnancy increasing by 1.03 (95% CI = 1.02–1.04) for every 1-kg increase in weight. We found no effect of age or the serological status for brucellosis on pregnancy rates across age classes; however, we did find a positive association between age and pregnancy rates for bison ≥2 years old. Bison ≥2 years old had an overall pregnancy rate of 65% with markedly different rates in alternate ages for animals between 3 and 7 years old. Pregnancy rates were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.31–0.69) for brucellosis positive and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.34–0.78) for brucellosis negative 2- and 3-year-olds and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.60–0.85) in brucellosis positive and 0.69 (95% CI = 0.49–0.85) in brucellosis negative bison ≥4 years old. Only 1 of 21 bison pregnancy rates.

  3. Heart Rate Variability - A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Billman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval – the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration – the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of heart rate variability. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the Physician’s Pulse Watch (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733 was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895 and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960’s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations that are commonly used to measure heart rate variability.

  4. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  5. Evaluation of the metabolic rate based on the recording of the heart rate

    OpenAIRE

    MALCHAIRE, Jacques; ALFANO, Francesca Romana d?AMBROSIO; PALELLA, Boris Igor

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of harsh working conditions requires a correct evaluation of the metabolic rate. This paper revises the basis described in the ISO 8996 standard for the evaluation of the metabolic rate at a work station from the recording of the heart rate of a worker during a representative period of time. From a review of the literature, formulas different from those given in the standard are proposed to estimate the maximum working capacity, the maximum heart rate, the heart rate and the me...

  6. Evaluations of dentists on a German physician rating Website: an analysis of the ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Martin; Halling, Frank; Meier, Florian

    2015-01-12

    Physician rating websites have been gaining in importance in both practice and research. However, no evidence is available concerning patients' ratings of dentists on physician rating websites. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive analysis of the ratings of dentists on a German physician rating website over a 2-year period. All dentist ratings on a German physician rating website (Jameda) from 2012 and 2013 were analyzed. The available dataset contained 76,456 ratings of 23,902 dentists from 72,758 patients. Additional information included the overall score and subscores for 5 mandatory questions, the medical specialty and gender of the dentists, and the age, gender, and health insurance status of the patients. Statistical analysis was conducted using the median test and the Kendall tau-b test. During the study period, 44.57% (23,902/53,626) of all dentists in Germany were evaluated on the physician rating website, Jameda. The number of ratings rose from 28,843 in 2012 to 47,613 in 2013, representing an increase of 65.08%. In detail, 45.37% (10,845/23,902) of dentists were rated once, 43.41% (10,376/23,902) between 2 and 5 times, and 11.21% (2681/23,902) more than 6 times (mean 3.16, SD 5.57). Approximately 90% (21,324/23,902, 89.21%) of dentists received a very good or good overall rating, whereas only 3.02% (721/23,902) were rated with the lowest scores. Better ratings were given either by female or older patients, or by those covered by private health insurance. The best-rated specialty was pediatric dentistry; the lowest ratings were given to orthodontists. Finally, dentists were rated slightly lower in 2013 compared to 2012 (P=.01). The rise in the number of ratings for dentists demonstrates the increasing popularity of physician rating websites and the need for information about health care providers. Future research should assess whether social media, especially Web-based ratings, are suitable in practice for patients and other stakeholders in

  7. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  8. The Seasonal Variation of TKR Infection Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Ben; Armit, Drew; Reid, Michael; Lorimer, Michelle; Harris, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A seasonal variation in the incidence of surgical site infections has been described following a number of common surgical procedures. However in the setting of elective Total Knee Replacement (TKR), the role of environmental factors is an area of research that is currently lacking from the literature. Data recently presented from our institution demonstrates a possible trend toward higher infection rates during periods of increased temperature and humidity. The aim of this study was to investigate if seasonal and geographical factors influence the rate of TKR infection within Australia. Methods: Data from the AOA National Joint Registry for all primary TKRs performed within the last 5 years was analysed to determine the revision rates for early (<12 months) post-operative infection. The infection rates for tropical regions (Darwin, Cairns, Townsville, Mackay) were compared to the remainder of the country. A month-by-month analysis was performed to determine if there was a seasonal variation within the 2 study groups. Results: During the study period a total of 207,540 primary TKRs were performed (6,514 tropical vs 201,026 non-tropical regions). Overall, the rate of revision for infection was significantly higher for the tropical regions of Australia (0.80% vs 0.39%). In non-tropical regions, there was no observed seasonal variation of infection rates. In tropical regions, there was a clear seasonal variation found, with the winter months being associated with a significantly lower rate of infection than the remainder of the year (0.37% vs 0.94%). The infection rates were not significantly different between tropical (0.37%) and non- tropical (0.38%) regions during the winter period. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate and demonstrate a significant influence from seasonal variation on primary TKR infection rates. This phenomenon is evident only within tropical regions, with the periods of warmer and humid

  9. Estimation of the rate of volcanism on Venus from reaction rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory rate data for the reaction between SO2 and calcite to form anhydrite are presented. If this reaction rate represents the SO2 reaction rate on Venus, then all SO2 in the Venusian atmosphere will disappear in 1.9 Myr unless volcanism replenishes the lost SO2. The required volcanism rate, which depends on the sulfur content of the erupted material, is in the range 0.4-11 cu km of magma erupted per year. The Venus surface composition at the Venera 13, 14, and Vega 2 landing sites implies a volcanism rate of about 1 cu km/yr. This geochemically estimated rate can be used to determine if either (or neither) of two discordant geophysically estimated rates is correct. It also suggests that Venus may be less volcanically active than the earth.

  10. Fertility rates: the decline is stalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, L

    1994-01-01

    During the 1970s, the rate of total fertility in China fell from 6.4 children per woman in 1968 to 2.2 in 1980. The decline in India was more modest, but still significant at 5.8 over the period 1966-71 to 4.8 during 1976-1981. These trends helped slow the rate of world population growth from 2.1% during 1965-70 to 1.7% during 1975-80. Fertility rates are currently declining in similar fashion in Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. While impressive and much needed to ultimately stabilize world population growth, fertility declines in China and India stalled throughout the 1980s. The fertility rate in China remained around 2.5 throughout much of the decade, while progress toward lower birth rates stalled in India after the defeat of the ruling Congress Party in the late 1970s. Moreover, 67 developing countries, home to 17% of global population, have yet to enter the phase of demographic transition. It is clear that governments must supply contraceptives and reproductive health care services to couples in need of regulating their fertility, but they must also lower the demand for children by working to improve women's lives and increase their access to and control over money, credit, and other resources.

  11. Rate matrix estimation from site frequency data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Tang, Yurong

    2017-02-01

    A procedure is described for estimating evolutionary rate matrices from observed site frequency data. The procedure assumes (1) that the data are obtained from a constant size population evolving according to a stationary Wright-Fisher or decoupled Moran model; (2) that the data consist of a multiple alignment of a moderate number of sequenced genomes drawn randomly from the population; and (3) that within the genome a large number of independent, neutral sites evolving with a common mutation rate matrix can be identified. No restrictions are imposed on the scaled rate matrix other than that the off-diagonal elements are positive, their sum is ≪1, and that the rows of the matrix sum to zero. In particular the rate matrix is not assumed to be reversible. The key to the method is an approximate stationary solution to the diffusion limit, forward Kolmogorov equation for neutral evolution in the limit of low mutation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Morphological rates of angiosperm seed size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Hallie J

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of seed size among angiosperms reflects their ecological diversification in a complex fitness landscape of life-history strategies. The lineages that have evolved seeds beyond the upper and lower boundaries that defined nonflowering seed plants since the Paleozoic are more dispersed across the angiosperm phylogeny than would be expected under a neutral model of phenotypic evolution. Morphological rates of seed size evolution estimated for 40 clades based on 17,375 species ranged from 0.001 (Garryales) to 0.207 (Malvales). Comparative phylogenetic analysis indicated that morphological rates are not associated with the clade's seed size but are negatively correlated with the clade's position in the overall distribution of angiosperm seed sizes; clades with seed sizes closer to the angiosperm mean had significantly higher morphological rates than clades with extremely small or extremely large seeds. Likewise, per-clade taxonomic diversification rates are not associated with the seed size of the clade but with where the clade falls within the angiosperm seed size distribution. These results suggest that evolutionary rates (morphological and taxonomic) are elevated in densely occupied regions of the seed morphospace relative to lineages whose ecophenotypic innovations have moved them toward the edges. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. High resolution measurement of the glycolytic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla X Bittner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently-developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis.

  14. Convex weighting criteria for speaking rate estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yishan; Berisha, Visar; Tu, Ming; Liss, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Speaking rate estimation directly from the speech waveform is a long-standing problem in speech signal processing. In this paper, we pose the speaking rate estimation problem as that of estimating a temporal density function whose integral over a given interval yields the speaking rate within that interval. In contrast to many existing methods, we avoid the more difficult task of detecting individual phonemes within the speech signal and we avoid heuristics such as thresholding the temporal envelope to estimate the number of vowels. Rather, the proposed method aims to learn an optimal weighting function that can be directly applied to time-frequency features in a speech signal to yield a temporal density function. We propose two convex cost functions for learning the weighting functions and an adaptation strategy to customize the approach to a particular speaker using minimal training. The algorithms are evaluated on the TIMIT corpus, on a dysarthric speech corpus, and on the ICSI Switchboard spontaneous speech corpus. Results show that the proposed methods outperform three competing methods on both healthy and dysarthric speech. In addition, for spontaneous speech rate estimation, the result show a high correlation between the estimated speaking rate and ground truth values. PMID:26167516

  15. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change. PMID:24535890

  16. Influence of kitesurf equipment on injury rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, Sebastian F; Stawinski, Tanja; Schmitz, Daniel; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Jäger, Marcus; Wedemeyer, Christian; Kauther, Max D

    2017-07-24

    Various injuries in kitesurfing (KS) have been reported so far. The aim of this study was to validate the effect of different kite designs and safety equipment on the injury rate compared to older studies. A retrospective epidemiological study based on an anonymous face-to-face survey was conducted amongst active kitesurfers. The questionnaire consisted of 66 questions focusing on the equipment used, injury rates, overuse injuries and gender differences. A stepwise Poisson- Model was used to identify injury-associated factors. A total of 202 kitesurfers with a mean age of 31.8±9.1 years and 698.2±931.5 hours of KS experience were included. 2613 injuries were recorded (18.5/1000 hours KS). Almost 50% were haematomas, bruises or cuts. 3.9% of all injuries (0.71/1,000 hours KS) were time-loss injuries of more than one week. Female kitesurfers had a significantly greater injury rate, were less experienced and fewer of them used C-Kites. Height, weight, primary kite spot, experience, physical activity, warm-up/stretching, the type of kite and control bar used, and the use of a board leash were independent factors associated to injury rate. The lower extremity, the elbow, thorax and abdomen were at risk for overuse injuries. An influence of equipment on injuries could be statistically shown. The overall injury rate in KS did not decline in the last decades, but time-loss injuries did.

  17. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  18. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  19. Infant mortality rates and decentralisation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niringiye, Aggrey

    2015-01-01

    Many countries in the developing world have embarked on the path of decentralisation over the last three decades to improve the provision of public goods such as healthcare services. It is hypothesised that devolving power to local governments would improve efficiency as well as equity and thereby health outcomes by bringing decision makers closer to the people, and by enhancing the participation of the community in the decision-making and implementation processes. This paper aims to assess the impact of decentralisation on infant mortality rates in Uganda. The intervention model was used to analyse national representative data from Uganda Demographic Health Surveys (1988/89, 1995, 2001, 2006). Results indicate that infant mortality rates deteriorated during the decentralisation period in three out of four regions in Uganda, but not overall when analysed for the whole country. Decentralisation was supposed to lead to a decrease in infant mortality rates, however, the opposite effect was seen with rates increasing in individual regions. There is need for further detailed studies to understand why infant mortality rates increased during the period of decentralisation in Uganda.

  20. 48 CFR 1602.170-2 - Community rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Community rate. 1602.170-2... 1602.170-2 Community rate. (a) Community rate means a rate of payment based on a per member per month... using community rates. (b) Adjusted community rate means a community rate which has been adjusted for...

  1. Micro-miniature roll rate sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Nelson, Bruce; Garnes, George

    1989-11-01

    The Phase 2 Micro-Miniature Roll Rate Sensor Program developed an optical centripetal accelerometer that can be tailored to work over a wide range of accelerations. A rate sensing device was developed by measuring centripetal acceleration due to rotation with a proof mass loading a photoelastic sensing element. The acceleration is proportional to the amount of birefringence induced by the load. Development of this technology resulted in construction of a prototype rate sensor targeted for use with the Copperhead munition. The sensors developed in this program can be adjusted for the desired range of operation through changes in width of a photoelastic (plastic) sensing element and/or changes in the amount of proof mass used to load the sensing element. Radial location of the sensor can also be used to control the range.

  2. Strain rate effects in stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkins, R.N. (Newcastle upon Tyne Univ. (UK). Dept. of Metallurgy and Engineering Materials)

    1990-03-01

    Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was initially developed as a rapid, ad hoc laboratory method for assessing the propensity for metals an environments to promote stress corrosion cracking. It is now clear, however, that there are good theoretical reasons why strain rate, as opposed to stress per se, will often be the controlling parameter in determining whether or not cracks are nucleated and, if so, are propagated. The synergistic effects of the time dependence of corrosion-related reactions and microplastic strain provide the basis for mechanistic understanding of stress corrosion cracking in high-pressure pipelines and other structures. However, while this may be readily comprehended in the context of laboratory slow strain tests, its extension to service situations may be less apparent. Laboratory work involving realistic stressing conditions, including low-frequency cyclic loading, shows that strain or creep rates give good correlation with thresholds for cracking and with crack growth kinetics.

  3. Localization in inelastic rate dependent shearing deformations

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2016-09-18

    Metals deformed at high strain rates can exhibit failure through formation of shear bands, a phenomenon often attributed to Hadamard instability and localization of the strain into an emerging coherent structure. We verify formation of shear bands for a nonlinear model exhibiting strain softening and strain rate sensitivity. The effects of strain softening and strain rate sensitivity are first assessed by linearized analysis, indicating that the combined effect leads to Turing instability. For the nonlinear model a class of self-similar solutions is constructed, that depicts a coherent localizing structure and the formation of a shear band. This solution is associated to a heteroclinic orbit of a dynamical system. The orbit is constructed numerically and yields explicit shear localizing solutions. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Estimation of transition probabilities of credit ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gan Chew; Hin, Pooi Ah

    2015-12-01

    The present research is based on the quarterly credit ratings of ten companies over 15 years taken from the database of the Taiwan Economic Journal. The components in the vector mi (mi1, mi2,⋯, mi10) may first be used to denote the credit ratings of the ten companies in the i-th quarter. The vector mi+1 in the next quarter is modelled to be dependent on the vector mi via a conditional distribution which is derived from a 20-dimensional power-normal mixture distribution. The transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) for getting mi+1,j = l given that mi, j = k is then computed from the conditional distribution. It is found that the variation of the transition probability Pkl (i ,j ) as i varies is able to give indication for the possible transition of the credit rating of the j-th company in the near future.

  5. Resting Heart Rate and Auditory Evoked Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fiuza Regaçone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between rest heart rate (HR and the components of the auditory evoked-related potentials (ERPs at rest in women. We investigated 21 healthy female university students between 18 and 24 years old. We performed complete audiological evaluation and measurement of heart rate for 10 minutes at rest (heart rate monitor Polar RS800CX and performed ERPs analysis (discrepancy in frequency and duration. There was a moderate negative correlation of the N1 and P3a with rest HR and a strong positive correlation of the P2 and N2 components with rest HR. Larger components of the ERP are associated with higher rest HR.

  6. Grade Inflation Rates among Different Ability Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mc Spirit

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compares grade inflation rates among different ability students at a large, open admissions public University. Specifically, this study compares trends in graduating grade point average (GPA from 1983 to 1996 across low, typical and higher ability students. This study also tests other explanations for increases in graduating GPA. These other explanations are changes in 1 ACT score 2 gender 3 college major and 4 vocational programs. With these other explanations considered, regression results still report an inflationary trend in graduating GPA. Time, as measured by college entry year, is still a significant positive predictor of GPA. More directly, comparisons of regression coefficients reveal lower ability students as experiencing the highest rate of grade increase. Higher grade inflation rates among low aptitude students suggest that faculty might be using grades to encourage learning among marginal students.

  7. Rate-independent systems theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Mielke, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides both an introduction to and a thorough exposition of the theory of rate-independent systems, which the authors have worked on with a number of collaborators over many years. The focus is mostly on fully rate-independent systems, first on an abstract level with or without a linear structure, discussing various concepts of solutions with full mathematical rigor. The usefulness of the abstract concepts is then demonstrated on the level of various applications primarily in continuum mechanics of solids, including suitable approximation strategies with guaranteed numerical stability and convergence. Particular applications concern inelastic processes such as plasticity, damage, phase transformations, or adhesive-type contacts both at small strains and at finite strains. Other physical systems such as magnetic or ferroelectric materials, and couplings to rate-dependent thermodynamic models are also considered. Selected applications are accompanied by numerical simulations illustrating both t...

  8. Statistical Patterns in Movie Rating Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ramos

    Full Text Available Currently, users and consumers can review and rate products through online services, which provide huge databases that can be used to explore people's preferences and unveil behavioral patterns. In this work, we investigate patterns in movie ratings, considering IMDb (the Internet Movie Database, a highly visited site worldwide, as a source. We find that the distribution of votes presents scale-free behavior over several orders of magnitude, with an exponent very close to 3/2, with exponential cutoff. It is remarkable that this pattern emerges independently of movie attributes such as average rating, age and genre, with the exception of a few genres and of high-budget films. These results point to a very general underlying mechanism for the propagation of adoption across potential audiences that is independent of the intrinsic features of a movie and that can be understood through a simple spreading model with mean-field avalanche dynamics.

  9. The healthy immigrant effect and mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edward

    2011-12-01

    According to the 2006 Census, almost the Canadian population were foreign-born, a percentage that is projected to reach at least 25% by 2031. Studies based on age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) have found a healthy immigrant effect, with lower overall rates among immigrants. A duration effect has also been observed-immigrants' mortality advantage lessened as their time in Canada increased. ASMRs based on the 1991 to 2001 census mortality follow-up study indicate a healthy immigrant effect and a duration effect at the national level for all-cause mortality for both sexes. However, at the national level, the mortality rate among women from the United States and from Sub-Saharan Africa was similar to that of Canadian-born women. For the three largest Census Metropolitan Areas (Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver), a healthy immigrant effect was not observed among women or among most men from the United States or Sub-Saharan Africa.

  10. EVIDENCE ON EMPLOYMENT RATE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia VĂCEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a causal relationship between employment rate and economic growth for European Union countries, in general, and produces a structural assessment of employment on the background of labour market dynamics. Economic growth is the key in economic theory and the main source of well-being and quality of life. Since the 2008 financial crisis, most European countries have experienced job shortage and unemployment problem, but today's European economic outlook is strengthening on the bases of a GDP growing momentum. Empirical data shows, regardless the GDP's moderate positive trend, the employment rate did not increase enough. Given this, the present analysis address the question: to what extent the employment rate is affected by economic growth?

  11. Rate of Failure of Czech Family Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Machek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Family business is becoming a promising area of research in post-socialist countries, including the Czech Republic. Stability belongs to frequently cited properties of family firms. The goal of this article is to test the hypothesis whether family firms tend to have a lower rate of failure than their non-family counterparts. Using a sample of 1148 family and 5972 non-family firms in the Czech Republic, we find that there is no significant relationship between family involvement and rate of failure. A possible greater stability of family businesses is not necessarily linked with a lower rate of bankruptcy. We also discuss possible reasons and policy implications.

  12. Low Resting Heart Rate and Stalking Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Danielle; Wells, Jessica; Armstrong, Todd; Lewis, Richard H; Woeckener, Matthias; Nobles, Matt R

    2017-04-01

    There is consistent evidence to suggest that individuals with low resting heart rate are more likely to engage in a variety of antisocial behaviors. The present study examines whether this finding can be extended to stalking perpetration. Drawing from fearlessness theory and stimulation-seeking theory, as well as conceptual work of Meloy and Fisher, we find that individuals with low resting heart rates had significantly greater odds of engaging in stalking behavior, net of controls for sex, age, race, self-control, parental affection, delinquent peers, attitudes/beliefs toward crime, and aggression. When disaggregated by sex, the heart rate-stalking relationship was found to be significant for males, but not for females. The implications of these findings are discussed from a biosocial perspective.

  13. Ultra low bit-rate speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ramasubramanian, V

    2015-01-01

    "Ultra Low Bit-Rate Speech Coding" focuses on the specialized topic of speech coding at very low bit-rates of 1 Kbits/sec and less, particularly at the lower ends of this range, down to 100 bps. The authors set forth the fundamental results and trends that form the basis for such ultra low bit-rates to be viable and provide a comprehensive overview of various techniques and systems in literature to date, with particular attention to their work in the paradigm of unit-selection based segment quantization. The book is for research students, academic faculty and researchers, and industry practitioners in the areas of speech processing and speech coding.

  14. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  15. Renal oncocytoma growth rates before intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Anil Nicholas; Thompson, R Houston; Leibovich, Bradley C; Harmsen, W Scott; Sebo, Thomas J; Callstrom, Matthew R; Kawashima, Akira; Atwell, Thomas D

    2012-11-01

    To describe the growth rates of oncocytomas before treatment with surgical resection or percutaneous ablation. This single-institution retrospective study included 33 consecutive, pathologically proven renal oncocytomas with serial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans spanning at least 1 year before intervention, from 2000 to 2009. Tumours were measured by two radiologists, and growth rates and interobserver variability were calculated. The mean (range) pre-procedural imaging surveillance period was 36 (12-124) months (median 33 months). The mean (SD) oncocytoma size was 17 (11) mm (range 4-47 mm, median 15 mm) in maximum transverse diameter on initial imaging and grew to a mean (SD) of 26 (5) mm (range 10-83 mm, median 23 mm) by the time of treatment. Overall, the mean (SD) and median growth rates were 2.9 (2.6) mm/year and 2.7 mm/year, respectively (range -1.2-10.9 mm/year). After weighting by the se of each tumour's growth rate, the mean (SD) change was 2.1 (1.2) mm/year. The mean (range) interobserver variability for each tumour measurement was 1 (0-7) mm with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.99. Renal oncocytomas grow at a rate similar to reported growth rates of renal cell carcinoma. As the observation of growth does not distinguish between benign and malignant renal tumours, growth of small renal masses under active surveillance should be carefully considered before a switch is made to intervention. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  16. Overall Postneonatal Mortality and Rates of SIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Richard D; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Sens, Mary Ann; Harty, Brian J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-01-01

    Reductions in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are commonly attributed to modifications in infant sleep environments. Approaches to diagnosis in sudden infant death, death scene investigations, the prevalence of intrinsic risk factors for SIDS, and the potential influence of treatment-related factors on infant vulnerability have also changed. Understanding all contributory factors may help reduce residual SIDS rates. We analyzed US Mortality Multiple Causes Records for 1983 to 2012 to compare SIDS postneonatal mortality rates with a projection applying non-SIDS mortality changes, using those changes as a proxy measure for alterations in intrinsic risk. Composites of neglect-related, unknown, and circumstantial respiratory diagnoses were measured, as was a cumulative composite of unexplained infant death diagnoses. Cluster analysis with leading causes of postneonatal mortality and SIDS mortality rates for low birth weight infants were also examined. SIDS and non-SIDS postneonatal mortality rates were concordant over time. Important variance was seen 1994 to 1996, coinciding with Back-to-Sleep initiation. Other variance, eliminated in the cumulative composite, appeared related to differences in diagnostic practices. Changes in SIDS rates resembled changes in mortality from congenital malformations, respiratory distress of the newborn, and diseases of the circulatory system. SIDS rates for low birth weight infants followed broader postneonatal trends. SIDS mortality followed trends in overall postneonatal mortality, including effects of changes in the infant sleep environment and diagnostic classification. Preventing asphyxia risk in the sleep environment must be coupled with efforts to understand intrinsic biological pathways, some potentially associated with other categories of infant and perinatal mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Temperature dependence of fission product release rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.L.; McGown, M.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1984-10-01

    Fission product fractional release rates, K, used in the Albrecht-Wild model and measured at Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe and Oak Ridge National Laboratory can be fitted well by a single straight line for each fission product over the entire temperature range of the data when in K is plotted as a function of 1/T. Past applications of the Albrecht-Wild model have used plots of ln K versus T, which required three fits over the temperature range. Thus it is suggested that fractional release rates be represented by the Arrhenius form, K = K /SUB o/ exp(-Q/RT).

  18. Pycnonuclear reaction rates for binary ionic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Ogata, S.; Van Horn, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    Through a combination of compositional scaling arguments and examinations of Monte Carlo simulation results for the interparticle separations in binary-ionic mixture (BIM) solids, we have derived parameterized expressions for the BIM pycnonuclear rates as generalizations of those in one-component solids obtained previously by Salpeter and Van Horn and by Ogata et al. We have thereby discovered a catalyzing effect of the heavier elements, which enhances the rates of reactions among the lighter elements when the charge ratio exceeds a critical value of approximately 2.3.

  19. Occupational differences in US Army suicide rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R. C.; Stein, M. B.; Bliese, P. D.; Bromet, E. J.; Chiu, W. T.; Cox, K. L.; Colpe, L. J.; Fullerton, C. S.; Gilman, S. E.; Gruber, M. J.; Heeringa, S. G.; Lewandowski-Romps, L.; Millikan-Bell, A.; Naifeh, J. A.; Nock, M. K.; Petukhova, M. V.; Rosellini, A. J.; Sampson, N. A.; Schoenbaum, M.; Zaslavsky, A. M.; Ursano, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Civilian suicide rates vary by occupation in ways related to occupational stress exposure. Comparable military research finds suicide rates elevated in combat arms occupations. However, no research has evaluated variation in this pattern by deployment history, the indicator of occupation stress widely considered responsible for the recent rise in the military suicide rate. Method The joint associations of Army occupation and deployment history in predicting suicides were analysed in an administrative dataset for the 729 337 male enlisted Regular Army soldiers in the US Army between 2004 and 2009. Results There were 496 suicides over the study period (22.4/100 000 person-years). Only two occupational categories, both in combat arms, had significantly elevated suicide rates: infantrymen (37.2/100 000 person-years) and combat engineers (38.2/100 000 person-years). However, the suicide rates in these two categories were significantly lower when currently deployed (30.6/100 000 person-years) than never deployed or previously deployed (41.2–39.1/100 000 person-years), whereas the suicide rate of other soldiers was significantly higher when currently deployed and previously deployed (20.2–22.4/100 000 person-years) than never deployed (14.5/100 000 person-years), resulting in the adjusted suicide rate of infantrymen and combat engineers being most elevated when never deployed [odds ratio (OR) 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1–4.1], less so when previously deployed (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), and not at all when currently deployed (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8–1.8). Adjustment for a differential ‘healthy warrior effect’ cannot explain this variation in the relative suicide rates of never-deployed infantrymen and combat engineers by deployment status. Conclusions Efforts are needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms underlying this interaction to guide preventive interventions for soldiers at high suicide risk. PMID:26190760

  20. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  1. Components of supervisors' ratings of therapists' skillfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S H; Krasner, R F; Howard, K I

    1992-03-01

    A questionnaire was developed to assess the skillfulness of therapists from the perspective of the supervisor. This supervisor report yielded two scores: one for psychotherapeutic techniques and one for the educational alliance. These scores had high internal consistency and were relatively independent of one another. Ratings of proficiency in psychotherapeutic techniques accounted for 54% of the variance in supervisors' rating? of global skillfulness; educational alliance contributed an additional 12%. Compared with other supervisors, those who espoused self psychology based more of their appraisal of skill fulness on the trainee's use of the supervisory relationship.

  2. Leptonic fake rates from jets at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Wooden, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    With first data, the ATLAS detector may be used to look for evidence of new physics in many different processes with leptons in the final state. In order to search for interesting new physics, it will be necessary to understand and eliminate sources of background. One source of background arises from events in which jets are falsely reconstructed as leptons. This fake rate has been calculated for both electrons and muons using simulated data. The rate at which jets fake electrons has also been calculated using data-driven techniques in W events.

  3. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  4. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed) is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based...... on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use...

  5. A video rate laser scanning confocal microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhou; Jiang, James; Ren, Hongwu; Cable, Alex E.

    2008-02-01

    A video-rate laser scanning microscope was developed as an imaging engine to integrate with other photonic building blocks to fulfill various microscopic imaging applications. The system is quipped with diode laser source, resonant scanner, galvo scanner, control electronic and computer loaded with data acquisition boards and imaging software. Based on an open frame design, the system can be combined with varies optics to perform the functions of fluorescence confocal microscopy, multi-photon microscopy and backscattering confocal microscopy. Mounted to the camera port, it allows a traditional microscope to obtain confocal images at video rate. In this paper, we will describe the design principle and demonstrate examples of applications.

  6. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  7. Exchange rate arrangements: From extreme to "normal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies theoretical and empirical location dispersion of exchange rate arrangements - rigid-intermediate-flexible regimes, in the context of extreme arrangements of a currency board, dollarization and monetary union moderate characteristics of intermediate arrangements (adjustable pegs crawling pegs and target zones and imperative-process "normalization" in the form of a managed or clean floating system. It is established that de iure and de facto classifications generate "fear of floating" and "fear of pegging". The "impossible trinity" under the conditions of capital liberalization and globalization creates a bipolar view or hypothesis of vanishing intermediate exchange rate regimes.

  8. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulon, Dina Joy K

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. The CONSTELLATION(®) Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT(®) vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+(®), 25, 23, and 20 gauge) operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm) up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration.

  9. Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic cutters: effects of duty cycle and cut rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulon DJK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dina Joy K Abulon Medical Affairs, Alcon Research, Ltd, Lake Forest, CA, USA Purpose: We aimed to investigate effects of instrument settings on porcine vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic high-speed vitrectomy probes. Methods: The CONSTELLATION® Vision System was tested with 250, 450, and 650 mmHg of vacuum using six ULTRAVIT® vitrectomy probes of each diameter (25+®, 25, 23, and 20 gauge operated from 500 cuts per minute (cpm up to 5,000 cpm. Duty cycle modes tested included biased open, 50/50, and biased closed. Flow rates were calculated by assessing the change in weight of porcine eyes during vitreous aspiration. Volumetric flow rate was measured with a computer-connected electronic scale. Results: At lower cut rates, the biased open mode produced higher flow than did the 50/50 mode, which produced higher flow than did the biased closed mode. In the biased closed and 50/50 modes, vitreous flow rates tended to increase with increasing cut rate. Vitreous flow rates in the biased open duty cycle mode remained relatively constant across cut rates. Conclusion: Vitreous flow rates through dual pneumatic vitrectomy probes could be manipulated by changing the duty cycle modes on the vitrectomy system. Differences in duty cycle behavior suggest that high-speed cut rates of 5,000 cpm may optimize vitreous aspiration. Keywords: enhanced 25-gauge vitrectomy, 25-gauge vitrectomy, 20-gauge vitrectomy, 23-gauge vitrectomy, aspiration, Constellation Vision System

  10. Hydration status after exercise affect resting metabolic rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo; Pérez-Luco, Cristian; Monsalves, Matías; Andrade, David Cristobal; Zbinden-Foncea, Herman; Báez-San Martín, Eduardo; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2014-12-17

    Heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate are commonly to assess athlete's physiological status and energy requirements. Exercise-induced dehydration can reach up to 5% of body mass per hour. Consequently, dehydration may have a profound physiological effect on human's homeostasis. To compare the effects of dehydration and rehydration after exercise on heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate in college athletes. 14 college athletes were divided into a dehydration group (n=7) and a rehydration group (n=7), both submitted to basal (T1) heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate measurements. After basal measurements both groups were actively dehydrated (-3.4 ± 0.4% of body mass for both groups). Afterwards, dehydration group rested, while rehydration group receive a fluid intake (during a 3 h period) equivalent to 150% of body mass loss achieved during active dehydration. Four hours after active dehydration heart rate variability and resting metabolic rate were re-assessed (T2). At T2 both rehydration group (+13%) and dehydration group (+30%) achieve a significant (phydration state before resting metabolic rate and heart rate variability assessment. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Phylogenetic estimates of diversification rate are affected by molecular rate variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchêne, D A; Hua, X; Bromham, L

    2017-10-01

    Molecular phylogenies are increasingly being used to investigate the patterns and mechanisms of macroevolution. In particular, node heights in a phylogeny can be used to detect changes in rates of diversification over time. Such analyses rest on the assumption that node heights in a phylogeny represent the timing of diversification events, which in turn rests on the assumption that evolutionary time can be accurately predicted from DNA sequence divergence. But there are many influences on the rate of molecular evolution, which might also influence node heights in molecular phylogenies, and thus affect estimates of diversification rate. In particular, a growing number of studies have revealed an association between the net diversification rate estimated from phylogenies and the rate of molecular evolution. Such an association might, by influencing the relative position of node heights, systematically bias estimates of diversification time. We simulated the evolution of DNA sequences under several scenarios where rates of diversification and molecular evolution vary through time, including models where diversification and molecular evolutionary rates are linked. We show that commonly used methods, including metric-based, likelihood and Bayesian approaches, can have a low power to identify changes in diversification rate when molecular substitution rates vary. Furthermore, the association between the rates of speciation and molecular evolution rate can cause the signature of a slowdown or speedup in speciation rates to be lost or misidentified. These results suggest that the multiple sources of variation in molecular evolutionary rates need to be considered when inferring macroevolutionary processes from phylogenies. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Developments in the Frequency of Ratings and Evaluation Tendencies: A Review of German Physician Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Stuart; Strech, Daniel; Reimann, Swantje

    2017-08-25

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) have been developed to allow all patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' quality online as a source of information for others searching for a physician. At the beginning of 2010, a sample of 298 randomly selected physicians from the physician associations in Hamburg and Thuringia were searched for on 6 German PRWs to examine the frequency of ratings and evaluation tendencies. The objective of this study was to examine (1) the number of identifiable physicians on German PRWs; (2) the number of rated physicians on German PRWs; (3) the average and maximum number of ratings per physician on German PRWs; (4) the average rating on German PRWs; (5) the website visitor ranking positions of German PRWs; and (6) how these data compare with 2010 results. A random stratified sample of 298 selected physicians from the physician associations in Hamburg and Thuringia was generated. Every selected physician was searched for on the 6 PRWs (Jameda, Imedo, Docinsider, Esando, Topmedic, and Medführer) used in the 2010 study and a PRW, Arztnavigator, launched by Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (AOK). The results were as follows: (1) Between 65.1% (194/298) on Imedo to 94.6% (282/298) on AOK-Arztnavigator of the physicians were identified on the selected PRWs. (2) Between 16.4% (49/298) on Esando to 83.2% (248/298) on Jameda of the sample had been rated at least once. (3) The average number of ratings per physician ranged from 1.2 (Esando) to 7.5 (AOK-Arztnavigator). The maximum number of ratings per physician ranged from 3 (Esando) to 115 (Docinsider), indicating an increase compared with the ratings of 2 to 27 in the 2010 study sample. (4) The average converted standardized rating (1=positive, 2=neutral, and 3=negative) ranged from 1.0 (Medführer) to 1.2 (Jameda and Topmedic). (5) Only Jameda (position 317) and Medführer (position 9796) were placed among the top 10,000 visited websites in Germany. Whereas there has been an overall increase in

  13. Rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Protz, R.

    1988-01-01

    Mean annual rates of calcium carbonate removal from soils in a subarctic climate estimated from data on two chronosequences of calcareous storm ridges, appeared to be relatively constant through time. Concentrations of dissolved calcium carbonate in the soil solution in the study sites calculated

  14. Universal Vocoder Using Variable Data Rate Vocoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    of precision to use: 1. Speech content. Because vowels are more complex than consonants or gaps, VDR uses more precision (data rate) to encode... vowels . For each 22.5 ms frame, VDR can choose one of six levels of precision based on speech content. 2. Network capacity. VDR also has the option...

  15. Erythrocyte seditnentation rate in elderly blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This study inv~tigated the erythrocyte sedimen- tation rate (ESR) in an elderly population with the objective of establishing reference ranges and the diagnostic value of the ESR. Elderly blacks were randomly selected frOIn conununities in the. Orange Free State. ESR determinations were done according to the ...

  16. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez A.B.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc. or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.. In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s−1 in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB. Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  17. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  18. Rate of Forgetting in Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert P.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined patients (N=14) with mild Alzheimer's dementia (DAT), patients with major depression (N=10), and normal control subjects (N=14), for rate of forgetting. Suggests that some form of deficient consolidation contributes to memory loss in DAT but not in depression. Implicates the disruption of different psychobiological mechanisms in these…

  19. Growth, Mortality and Exploitation Rates of Sarotherodon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evans

    ABSTRACT. Sarotherodon melanotheron population of Dominli Lagoon in the Western Region of Ghana was studied for its growth and mortality parameters as well as exploitation rate. The study generally aimed at providing basic information necessary for the assessment and management of the fish stock in the lagoon.

  20. CAESAREAN SECTION RATE AT FEDERAL MEDICAL CENTRE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EagleMarkRes

    Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre Makurdi, Benue, Benue State. Makurdi. ABSTRACT. Context: Regular auditing of caesarean section rate is important to establish trend, review indications, associated complications and offer possible solutions to improve outcome. Objective: To audit caesarean ...