WorldWideScience

Sample records for copper sulfates

  1. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  2. Decomposition of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate: A Sequential Gravimetric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Arlo D.; Kalbus, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an improved experiment of the thermal dehydration of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate. The improvements described here are control of the temperature environment and a quantitative study of the decomposition reaction to a thermally stable oxide. Data will suffice to show sequential gravimetric analysis. (Author/SA)

  3. Copper sulfate acute ecotoxicity and environmental risk for tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Ferreira da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate copper sulfate acute toxicity and to determine death percentage and environmental risk on guppy fish (Phallocerus caudimaculatus, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, mato grosso (Hyphessobrycon eques, and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. Fish were exposed to 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (guppy, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.30 mg L-1 (zebrafish, 0.07, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mg L-1 (mato grosso and 9.5, 10.0, 10.5, 11.0, 11.5, and 12.0 mg L-1 (pacu of copper sulfate, with triplicate control. The estimated 50% average lethal concentrations (LC50; 96 hours were 0.05 (guppy, 0.13 (zebrafish; 0.16 (mato grosso and 10.36 mg L-1 (pacu. Copper sulfate was extremely toxic for guppy, highly toxic for zebrafish and mato grosso and lightly toxic for pacu and presents environmental risk of high adverse effects on the guppy, zebrafish and mato grosso and moderate adverse effect to the pacu. Therefore, the guppy fish, zebrafish, and mato grosso are important alternatives for copper sulfate toxicity evaluation in waterbodies.

  4. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  5. Trihydrated Complex of Tetrabenzimidazole Copper(Ⅱ) Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN Fang-fang; WANG Huan-xiang; XIAO Hai-lian; JIAO Kui

    2005-01-01

    A Trihydrated complex of benzimidazole copper(Ⅱ) sulfate [(C7H6N2)4CuSO4]·3H2O was synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure of this compound is built up of six solvated water molecules and two dissimilar copper ions identified as Cu1 and Cu2. The coordination geometry of copper(Ⅱ) is a slightly distorted square pyramid. The four equivalent tertiary nitrogen atoms of the benzimidazole ligand form an equatorial plane, while the oxygen atoms of sulfato occupy the axial site. In the solid state, the title compound forms a three dimensional network structure via hydrogen bonds. The benzimidazole, sulfato ion and H2O moieties are connected by the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The (EPR) spectrum shows axial symmetry with g⊥=2.039 and g∥=2.285. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility shows that there is a weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the neighboring copper(Ⅱ) ions.

  6. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  7. Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-05-01

    Effects of a magnetic field (≤0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation.

  8. Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis- Where is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    . For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used...... of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles...... as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence...

  9. Differential sexual survival of Drosophila melanogaster on copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinski, Michael A; Woodruff, Ronny C

    2017-04-01

    Based on studies of the influence of X-chromosomes on the viability of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to cadmium, and on the role of X-linked genes on copper homeostasis, we examined the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) on offspring viability using three independent, inbred D. melanogaster crosses (ensuring identical autosomes for males and females within each cross). Each cross was performed with attached X-chromosome females and males with a single X-chromosome. As female D. melanogaster have less metallothionein RNA expression than males, we predicted fewer female offspring than male offspring in crosses exposed to CuSO4, even though females have two copies of X-chromosome genes, possibly resulting in overdominant heterozygosity. In two of three crosses, CuSO4 caused significantly higher numbers of male offspring compared to female offspring. We hypothesized that these gender-based viability differences to copper exposure are caused by X-chromosome ploidy and X-linked genetic variation affecting metallothionein expression. Observed differential offspring viability responses among crosses to copper exposure also showed that different genetic backgrounds (autosomal and/or X-chromosome) can result in significant differences in heavy metal and metallothionein regulation. These results suggest that the effect of copper on offspring viability depends on both genetic background and gender, as both factors can affect the regulation of metallothionein proteins as well as homeostasis of biologically necessary heavy metals.

  10. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven.

  11. A hybrid water-splitting cycle using copper sulfate and mixed copper oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, J. D.; Remick, R. J.; Foh, S. E.; Mazumder, M. M.

    1980-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has derived and developed a hybrid thermochemical water-splitting cycle based on mixed copper oxides and copper sulfate. Similar to other metal oxide-metal sulfate cycles that use a metal oxide to 'concentrate' electrolytically produced sulfuric acid, this cycle offers the advantage of producing oxygen (to be vented) and sulfur dioxide (to be recycled) in separate steps, thereby eliminating the need of another step to separate these gases. The conceptual process flow-sheet efficiency of the cycle promises to exceed 50%. It has been completely demonstrated in the laboratory with recycled materials. Research in the electrochemical oxidation of sulfur dioxide to produce sulfuric acid and hydrogen performed at IGT indicates that the cell performance goals of 200 mA/sq cm at 0.5 V will be attainable using relatively inexpensive electrode materials.

  12. 21 CFR 864.9320 - Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper sulfate solution for specific gravity determinations. 864.9320 Section 864.9320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9320 Copper sulfate solution for specific...

  13. Recovering indium with sulfating roasting from copper-smelting ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A technology for recovering indium from Jinchuan copper-smelting ash was developed. Indium in the ash was first enriched to the leaching-slag in leaching process, and then recovered by sulfating roasting. The method included mixing the leaching-slag with sulfuric acid, making them into particles, roasting the mixture, and then leaching the calcine with hot water. Above 90% of indium in calcine could be dissolved into the leaching solution. The optimized conditions were determined as follows: the mass ratio of sulfuric acid to leaching slag was 0.1, the roasting time was about 1 to 1.5 h in the temperature range of 200-250 ℃, and the calcine was leached for 1 h with 5:1 of liquid/solid ratio at 60℃. Over 99% of indium in leaching solution was finally enriched by Zn substitution or sulfide precipitation.

  14. COORDINATION CROSSLINKING OF NITRILE RUBBER FILLED WITH COPPER SULFATE PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By incorporating copper sulfate (CuSO4) particles into acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) followed by heat pressing.a novel vulcanization method is developed in rubber through the formation of coordination crosslinking.This method totally differs from traditional covalent or non-covalent vulcanization approaches of rubber.No other vulcanizing agent or additional additive is involved in this process.By analyzing the results of DMA,XPS and FT-IR,it is found that the crosslinking of CuSO4 particles filled NBR was induced by in situ coordination between nitrogen atoms of nitrile groups (-CN) and copper ions (Cu2+) from CuSO4.SEM and EDX results revealed the generation of a core (CuSO4 solid particle) shell (adherent NBR) structure,which leads to a result that the crosslinked rubber has excellent mechanical properties.Moreover,poly (vinyl chloride)(PVC) and liquid acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (LNBR) were used as mobilizer to improve the coordination crosslinking of CuSO4/NBR.The addition of PVC or LNBR could lead to higher crosslink density and better mechanical properties of coordination vulcanization.In addition,crystal water in CuSO4 played a positive role to coordination crosslinking of rubber because it decreased the metal point of CuSO4 and promoted the metal ionization.

  15. In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate positively influences chicken performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia; Łukasiewicz, Monika; Wnuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesise that in ovo administration will allow for better...... utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied post-natally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) on broiler chicken performance. RESULTS: The study showed the positive influences...... of Cu nanoparticles and CuSO4 on broiler chickens performance. Body weight, at the end of the rearing period (day 42) was significantly higher in NanoCu (2206 g) and CuSO4 (2402 g) groups compared to the control group (2000 g). Both treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion rate...

  16. Fate and forms of Cu in a reservoir ecosystem following copper sulfate treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, E.; Chatenet, P.; Deluchat, V.; Chazal, P.M.; Froissard, D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) addition to freshwater for phytoplankton control has been practiced for decades, and remains the most effective algicidal treatment for numerous managed water bodies. A reservoir in the centre of France was the site for an investigation of copper distribution in aquatic system

  17. Toxic effects of copper sulfate and copper nanoparticles on minerals, enzymes, thyroid hormones and protein fractions of plasma and histopathology in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hedayati, Aliakbar; Taheri Mirghaed, Ali; Ghelichpour, Melika

    2016-10-01

    Differences in toxicological effects of dissolved copper and copper nanoparticles were studied in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The fish were exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper sulfate (0.25Cu), 0.25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (0.25NCu) and 25mgL(-1) copper as copper oxide nanoparticles (25NCu) over 14days. Plasma biochemical, enzymatic and hormonal characteristics, and liver and kidney histopathology were examined at the end of the experiment. The results showed that both forms of copper had no significant effects on plasma calcium levels, however, significantly increased plasma phosphorous levels, compared to control group (no added copper). Plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity increased in 0.25Cu and 25NCu treatments compared to the control and 0.25NCu treatments. Nanoparticle copper exposure significantly decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity compared to the control and 0.25Cu treatments. Only copper sulfate exposure caused plasma aspartate transaminase (AST) elevation. Both copper forms increased plasma T4 and free T4 (FT4); however, copper sulfate effect was higher than nanoparticle copper. Copper sulfate exposure increased plasma albumin fraction, whereas, 25mgL(-1) copper nanoparticle exposure increased plasma α2-globulin fraction compared to the control. Both copper forms damaged the fish liver and kidney, however, copper sulfate caused more severe damages compared to nanoparticle copper. Overall, except for plasma ALP and α2-globulin fraction, dissolved copper seems to be more toxic than nanoparticle copper in common carp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. In ovo administration of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate positively influences chicken performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek-Sosnowska, Natalia; Łukasiewicz, Monika; Wnuk, Agnieszka; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Jan; Skot, Abdullah; Jaworski, Sławomir; Chwalibog, André

    2016-07-01

    Copper (Cu) is a key trace mineral involved in a variety of physiological processes, and is commonly used in poultry production. However, regardless of the inclusion level the majority of Cu is excreted with poultry faeces. We hypothesise that in ovo administration will allow for better utilisation of Cu during embryo development than when supplied post-natally with feed to growing chickens. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of in ovo administration of NanoCu and copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) on broiler chicken performance. The study showed the positive influences of Cu nanoparticles and CuSO4 on broiler chickens performance. Body weight, at the end of the rearing period (day 42) was significantly higher in NanoCu (2206 g) and CuSO4 (2402 g) groups compared to the control group (2000 g). Both treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion rate and mortality, and higher percentage of breast and leg muscles in the carcass versus control. The in ovo application of Cu colloids may ensure an efficient penetration of Cu into the embryonic tissue with long lasting effects on postnatal growth. The method may provide a successful alternative to using Cu as a feed additive. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Toxicity of copper sulfate and rotenone to Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Danielle M.; Stephen, Bruce J.; Kill, Robert A.; Smeenk, Nicholas A.; Allen, Craig R.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mystery snail (Bellamya chinensis) is a freshwater snail native to Southeast Asia, Japan, and Russia and is currently classified as an invasive species in at least 27 states in the USA. The species tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions, making management of established populations difficult. We tested the efficacy of two traditional chemical treatments, rotenone and copper sulfate, on the elimination of adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments. All snails (N=50) survived 72-hour exposure to rotenone-treated lake water, and 96% (N=25) survived 72-hour exposure to pre-determined rotenone concentrations of 0.25, 2.5, and 25.0 mg/L. All snails (N=10) survived exposure to 1.25 mg/L copper sulfate solution, 90% (N=10) survived exposure to 2.50 mg/L copper sulfate solution, and 80% (N=5) survived exposure to 5.0 mg/L copper sulfate solution. Neither rotenone nor copper sulfate effectively killed adult Chinese mystery snails in laboratory experiments, most likely due to their relatively large size, thick shell, and operculum. Therefore, it appears that populations will be very difficult to control once established, and management should focus on preventing additional spread or introductions of this species.

  20. Efficacy of formalin, copper sulfate, and a commercial footbath product in the control of digital dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A G V; Machado, V S; Caixeta, L S; Pereira, R V; Bicalho, R C

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the relative efficacy of a novel, commercially available disinfectant agent (T-Hexx Dragonhyde HBC, Hydromer, Branchburg, NJ) compared with formalin and copper sulfate. The hypothesis was 2 sided; therefore, the hypothesis was that the new agent would be better or worse compared with the industry gold standard footbath agents, formalin and copper sulfate. The study was conducted in a large commercial dairy farm located near Ithaca, New York, from June 18, 2009 to October 26, 2009. Two identical studies were conducted, the first comparing Dragonhyde (5% solution, twice weekly) and formalin (5% solution, twice weekly) and the second comparing Dragonhyde (5% solution, twice weekly) and copper sulfate (10% solution, twice weekly). The study design was identical for both studies with 4 pens (physically identical), 2 treatments (Dragonhyde vs. formalin and Dragonhyde vs. copper sulfate), 2 periods (crossing over the treatment within pen), and 3 repeated measures (3 observations per cow: enrollment, wk 2, and wk 4). For study 1, 406 cows were enrolled (n=201 formalin and 205 Dragonhyde). For study 2, 356 cows were enrolled (n=189 copper sulfate and 167 Dragonhyde). The adjusted odds of digital dermatitis lesion (DDL) throughout the study period were analyzed by mixed logistic regression model. In study 1, the odds of DDL were 1.36 times higher for the formalin group compared with the Dragonhyde group. In study 2, the data were analyzed by a similar statistical model and the variable treatment did not significantly affect the overall prevalence of DDL. In conclusion, the performance of 3 hoof care products was evaluated and it was concluded that Dragonhyde performed better than formalin and that there was no difference between copper sulfate and Dragonhyde.

  1. Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12-21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values.

  2. Antimicrobial evaluation of copper sulfate (II) on strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In vitro study.

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Sierra; Aldo Sanhueza; Rául Alcántara; Gabriela Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Controlling Enterococcus faecalis is of vital importance in endodontics, as this pathogen is associated with endodontic failure. Experimental evidence has shown that copper has antibacterial activity against other pathogens with similar characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of copper (II) or cupric (SC-II) sulfate on strains of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare it with the most commonly used antimicrobials. Methodol...

  3. Deposition of copper and sulfate on Au(1 1 1): New insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, B.; Wandelt, K.; Nowicki, M.

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of sulfate anions (SO42-) and copper cations on Au(1 1 1) from CuSO4 containing H2SO4 solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The underpotential deposition from solution results first in the formation of 2/3 monolayer of copper with the well known (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) structure of sulfate followed by the completion of the first copper monolayer at lower potentials. Just after formation of 1ML of Cu STM reveals a disordered surface. At more negative potential values, already in the overpotential deposition region, the STM images reflect a (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on terraces of the first pseudomorphic Cu layer, a (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) -like structure on terraces of the second uncompleted Cu layer with sulfate anions residing in atomic vacancies, and the known Moiré structure on terraces of the multi-layer Cu deposit. The formation of the (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on pseudomorphic monolayer Cu terraces on Au(1 1 1) is discussed in the context of results obtained for sulfate on bare Au(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) electrodes in H2SO4 solution.

  4. Nickel, manganese and copper removal by a mixed consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria at a high COD/sulfate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, L P; Costa, P F; Bertolino, S M; Silva, J C C; Guerra-Sá, R; Leão, V A; Teixeira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in passive treatments of acidic effluents containing heavy metals has become an attractive alternative biotechnology. Treatment efficiency may be linked with the effluent conditions (pH and metal concentration) and also to the amount and nature of the organic substrate. Variations on organic substrate and sulfate ratios clearly interfere with the biological removal of this ion by mixed cultures of SRB. This study aimed to cultivate a mixed culture of SRB using different lactate concentrations at pH 7.0 in the presence of Ni, Mn and Cu. The highest sulfate removal efficiency obtained was 98 %, at a COD/sulfate ratio of 2.0. The organic acid analyses indicated an acetate accumulation as a consequence of lactate degradation. Different concentrations of metals were added to the system at neutral pH conditions. Cell proliferation and sulfate consumption in the presence of nickel (4, 20 and 50 mg l(-1)), manganese (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) and copper (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) were measured. The presence of metals interfered in the sulfate biological removal however the concentration of sulfide produced was high enough to remove over 90 % of the metals in the environment. The molecular characterization of the bacterial consortium based on dsrB gene sequencing indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomonas pigra and Desulfobulbus sp. The results here presented indicate that this SRB culture may be employed for mine effluent bioremediation due to its potential for removing sulfate and metals, simultaneously.

  5. Bioremediation of copper-containing wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria coupled with iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-11-15

    In order to treat copper-containing wastewater effectively using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron (Fe(0)) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. The SRB system and the SRB + Fe(0) system were operated under continuous operation. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the SRB + Fe(0) system was twice as much as that of the SRB system with the sulfate loading rate at 125  mg L(-1) h(-1). The effect of COD/SO4(2-) on sulfate reduction indicates an enhanced activity of SRB by adding Fe(0). 99% of total sulfate was deducted in both systems at pH 4.0-7.0, and temperature slightly influenced the removal of sulfate in the SRB + Fe(0) system. In the copper-containing wastewater treatment, the SRB + Fe(0) system shows a better performance since sulfate removal in this system was higher than the SRB system, and the removal ratio of Cu(2+) was held above 95% in SRB + Fe(0) system at all influent Cu(2+) concentrations.

  6. Relative bioavailability of copper in tribasic copper chloride to copper in copper sulfate for laying hens based on egg yolk and feather copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Shin, J E; Kil, D Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the relative bioavailability (RBV) of Cu in tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) to Cu in copper sulfate (monohydrate form; CuSO4·H2O) for layer diets based on egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations. A total of 252, 72-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were allotted to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates consisting of 6 hens per replicate in a completely randomized design. Hens were fed corn-soybean meal-based basal diets supplemented with 0 (basal), 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4 or TBCC for 4 wk. Results indicated that egg production, egg weight, and egg mass were not affected by dietary treatments. However, increasing inclusion levels of Cu in diets from CuSO4 decreased (P hens fed diets containing CuSO4 than for hens fed diets containing TBCC. The values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 based on log10 transformed egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were 107.4% and 69.5%, respectively. These values for the RBV of Cu in TBCC did not differ from Cu in CuSO4 (100%). The RBV measured in egg yolk did not differ from the RBV measured in feather. In conclusion, the RBV of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 can be determined using Cu concentrations of egg yolk and feathers although the values depend largely on target tissues of laying hens. For a practical application, however, the RBV value of Cu in TBCC to Cu in CuSO4 could be 88.5% when the RBV values determined using egg yolk and feather Cu concentrations were averaged.

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  8. Egg saprolegniasis in a commercial sunshine bass hatchery: Control regime developed using copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An obstacle to sunshine bass (female white bass Morone chrysops × male striped bass M. saxatilis) larval production is fungal growth on eggs caused by the water-mold Saprolegnia spp. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in troughs of catfish hatcheries, but the effectiveness o...

  9. Influence of alkalinity and hardness on copper sulfate toxicity to various fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate treatments are currently used to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs. This compound has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common treatment now. In our lab’s efforts to gain an FDA-approval ...

  10. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...

  12. The protective nature of Chironomus luridus larval tubes against copper sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halpern

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether the tubes in which Chironomus larvae dwell protect them against chemical toxicants. A laboratory culture of an Israeli benthic midge, Chironomus luridus, was exposed to copper sulfate. Two conditions were tested in bioassay experiments: larvae within silt tubes and larvae without tubes. The non toxic, anionic, fluorescent dye, fluorescein, was used to examine the effect of sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations on the permeability of cuticular, gill and gut epithelia of the chironomids. Increased cell permeability, which is the cause of cell damage, was reflected by an increase in fluorescence intensity. Following exposure to copper sulfate, higher fluorescence was found in different body compartments: midgut, hindgut, tracheal gills, fat body and muscles, and the Malpighian tubules. The effect was significantly higher in tube-free larvae when compared to silt tube dwelling larvae. We conclude that in addition to its other functions in feeding, respiration, and anti-predation shelter, the Chironomus luridus tube protects its inhabitant from toxins such as copper sulfate.

  13. Effects of copper sulfate on seedlings of Prosopis pubescens (screwbean mesquite).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an established method of removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils worldwide. Phytoextraction is most efficient if local plants are used in the contaminated site. We propose that Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) would be a successful phytoextractor of copper in our local soils. In order to determine the feasibility of using Screw bean mesquite, we utilized inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and elemental analysis to observe the uptake of copper and the effects on macro and micro nutrients within laboratory-grown seedlings. We have previously shown that P. pubescens is a hyperaccumulator of copper in soil-grown seedlings. Light and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated death of root cells and ultrastructural changes due to the presence of copper from 50 mg/L - 600 mg/L. Ultrastructural changes included plasmolysis, starch accumulation, increased vacuolation and swollen chloroplasts with disarranged thylakoid membranes in cotyledons. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analyses of macro- and micro-nutrients revealed that the presence of copper sulfate in the growth medium of Petri-dish grown Prosopis pubescens seedlings resulted in dramatic decreases of magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. At 500-600 mg/L of copper sulfate, a substantial increase of sulfur was present in roots.

  14. Comparison of the toxicity of two chelated copper algaecides and copper sulfate to non-target fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K R; Paul, E A

    2014-12-01

    New pesticide products are reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for possible effects to non-target aquatic organisms. The required toxicity data are for the active ingredient only, and fail to include toxicity of the mixture of other ingredients found in these pesticides. These ingredients may increase the toxicity of the active ingredient to non-target organisms. Our study compares the toxicity of two formulations of chelated copper algaecides with each other, and to a copper sulfate algaecide. We were particularly interested in the effects of a surfactant that is present in one of the formulations. We found that copper becomes less toxic to fish (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.90 mg/L) when it is chelated, providing an additional margin of safety to non-target fish compared to copper sulfate. However, inclusion of a surfactant to the formulation resulted in increased toxicity (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.30 mg/L).

  15. Uptake and distribution of copper sulfate and its effect on the respiration rate of the hemocyanin-producing freshwater snail Lymnaea natalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolmarans, C.T.; Yssel, E.

    1988-08-01

    Copper sulfate was one of the earliest compounds suggested as a molluscicide and although several new compounds have since been developed, copper sulfate is still widely used against freshwater snail intermediate hosts of trematode parasites causing bilharzia. However, the toxic effect that copper sulfate may have on these species has not yet been investigated adequately. This incomplete picture of the action of copper sulfate on freshwater snails is further complicated by the fact that some of these snail species have hemocyanin (a protein containing copper) as respiration pigment. Because of the existence of a copper metabolic pathway, these species may handle external copper differently from those species with hemoglobin as respiration pigment. In the present study, the uptake of external copper in the form of copper sulfate, as well as the effect of this ion on respiration rate, was investigated in Lymnaea natalensis, the intermediate host of Fasciola gigantica. This snail possesses hemocyanin as respiratory pigment.

  16. USE OF COPPER SULFATE FOR DEHYDRATION OF INDUSTRIAL ALCOHOL

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Mariñas, Leoncio; Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Peru; Chuquilín Terán, Carlos; Facultad de Química e lng. Química, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Peru

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the work is to obtain alcohol dehydrated from rectified alcohol industrialist of 96º G.L., using copper sulphate, second composed was selected to make the work by its easy separation and recovery. The time required for the total dehydration of the alcohol was 60 minutes. The purity of the dehydrated alcohol was verified by measurement of its refractive index and by comparison with a pattern MERCK and 100 G.L. to 24ºC. El objetivo del trabajo es mostrar el uso del sulfato d...

  17. Sulfate-bridged dimeric trinuclear copper(II)-pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Gellert

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of CuSO4·5H2O, 4-chloro-pyrazole (4-Cl-pzH) and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in di-methyl-formamide (DMF) produced crystals of di-aqua-hexa-kis-(μ-4-chloro-pyrazolato-κ(2) N:N')bis-(N,N-di-methyl-formamide)di-μ3-hydroxido-bis-(μ4-sulfato-κ(4) O:O':O'':O'')hexa-copper(II) N,N-di-methyl-formamide tetra-solvate dihydrate, [Cu3(OH)(SO4)(C3H2ClN2)3(C3H7NO)(H2O)]2·4C3H7NO·2H2O. The centrosymmetric dimeric molecule consists of two trinuclear copper-pyrazolate units bridged by two sulfate ions. The title compound provides the first example of a trinuclear copper-pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands on the Cu atoms, and also the first example of such complex with a strongly binding basal sulfate ion. Within each trinuclear unit, the Cu(II) atoms are bridged by μ-pyrazolate groups and a central μ3-OH group, and are coordinated by terminal sulfate, H2O and DMF ligands, respectively. Moreover, the sulfate O atoms coordinate at the apical position to the Cu atoms of the symmetry-related unit, providing square-pyramidal coordination geometry around each copper cation. The metal complex and solvent mol-ecules are involved in O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, leading to a two-dimensional network parallel to (10-1).

  18. Comparison between sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate reducer in lightening of overexposed working length radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ezoddini Ardakani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to test whether lightening of the overexposed radiographs improve determination of endodontic files length and whether lightened radiographs are comparable with ideally exposed radiographs. Material and Methods: Four dried human skull coated with soft tissue-equivalent wax used for exposing radiographs of the upper molars. First, the endodontic file was placed in full length of the root and four series of radiographs obtained. The time to expose the first series was unchanged (standard group but increased for the other three series.  Two series of overexposed radiographs set as test groups (one lightened with copper sulfate reducer and the other lightened with sodium hypochlorite and one series set as control group. Then the endodontic file placed 2mm short in the root and four series of radiographs obtained like the former. A viewer evaluated radiographs. ROC curves were obtained and areas under the curves were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and Cohen’s kappa was calculated. Results: The average area under ROC curves was 1, 0.995,1 and 0.643 for the standard, Copper sulfate, sodium hypochlorite and the control group, respectively. Sodium hypochlorite show a better performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity compared to Copper sulfate. Differences between the test radiographs and standard and control radiographs were significant (p

  19. Natural attenuation of inorganic pollutants (copper, sulfate) in the aquifer below an industrial site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A. C. M.; Kedziorek, M. A. M.

    2003-05-01

    The contamination of soils and aquifers by inorganic pollutants is so widespread in industrial sites that it does not seem economically feasible to decontaminate the large areas or soil volumes involved. It is therefore interesting to investigate whether the local environment is capable to attenuate this contamination. Natural attenuation by degradation seems realistic for many organic pollutants. Here we show that it can take place also for inorganic pollutants. The phreatic fill aquifer underlying an industrial plant located on the river banks of the Garonne River is contaminated by acidic water (pH down to 1) and high concentrations of sulfate (up to 50 g/L) and copper (up to 30 g/L). As acid water, rich in Cu and sulfate. migrates away from the contamination source, pH increases due to buffering of aquifer solids, dissolved Cu concentrations decrease by 6 orders of magnitude, while sulfate concentrations decrease little.

  20. Sulfate reduction and copper precipitation by a Citrobacter sp. isolated from a mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Rongliang, E-mail: eesqrl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhao Benliang; Liu Jinling [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Xiongfei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)] [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Qingfei [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Brewer, Eric [Viridian Environmental LLC, VA 22207 (United States); Wang, Shizhong; Shi, Ning [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-05-30

    A strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain 'DBM', was isolated from sediments of a mining area. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Citrobacter, with C. AzoR-4, C. freundii, C. braakii and C. werkmanii being the most closely related species (sequence similarity up to 98%). Few studies have been done on sulfate reduction ability in Citrobacter. Electron microscopy studies showed that the morphology of the strain DBM was rod-shaped. Strain DBM reduced 10 mM of sulfate completely to sulfide within 7 d, and it recovered its sulfate reduction ability after 7 d of aerobic growth. Furthermore, strain DBM effectively precipitated 0.40 mM copper during its growth. Elemental composition of the resulting microbial precipitate was studied using electro-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.07. The result was consistent with the formation of copper sulfide. Heavy metal precipitation by Citrobacter sp. strain DBM was a phenomenon that may be useful in the bioremediation of acid mine drainage.

  1. Laboratory study on the molluscicidal effect of Earth Tec: an environmentally responsible copper sulfate product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M M; Hady, H M; Salama, M M; el-Ghazali, S

    1994-08-01

    Studies were carried out, under laboratory conditions to evaluate the molluscicidal activity of Earth Tec on Biomphalaria alexandrina snails, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Earth Tec is an environmentally responsible copper sulfate product manufactured and marketed as an algicide/bactericide with an active ingredient form of copper ion (Cu++). A single application, of 1 ppm of copper equivalent, for 24 hours caused 100% mortality rate of the snails. Exposure for 48 hours to 1 ppm and 2 weeks to 0.25 ppm caused mortality rates of 84% and 100% respectively. It was concluded that this chemical compound is a promising molluscicide. Field studies are ongoing and will be published in due time.

  2. Sulfated ligands for the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Hong, Senglian; Tran, Andrew; Jiang, Hao; Triano, Rebecca; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xing; Wu, Peng

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the prototypical reaction of click chemistry, is accelerated by tris(triazolylmethyl)amine-based ligands. Herein, we compare two new ligands in this family--3-[4-({bis[(1-tert-butyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl]amino}methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]propanol (BTTP) and the corresponding sulfated ligand 3-[4-({bis[(1-tert-butyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl]amino}methyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl]propyl hydrogen sulfate (BTTPS)--for three bioconjugation applications: 1) labeling of alkyne-tagged glycoproteins in crude cell lysates, 2) labeling of alkyne- or azide-tagged glycoproteins on the surface of live mammalian cells, and 3) labeling of azides in surface proteins of live Escherichia coli. Although BTTPS exhibits faster kinetics than BTTP in accelerating the CuAAC reaction in in vitro kinetic measurements, its labeling efficiency is slightly lower than BTTP in modifying biomolecules with a significant amount of negative charges due to electrostatic repulsion. Nevertheless, the negative charge conferred by the sulfate at physiological conditions significantly reduced the cellular internalization of the coordinated copper(I), thus making BTTPS-Cu(I) a better choice for live-cell labeling. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Copper sulfate pentahydrate reduced epithelial cytotoxicity induced by lipopolysaccharide from enterogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzi, Adel; Delkhosh, Aref; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Cheraghi, Omid; Khakpour, Mansour; Barekati-Mowahed, Mazyar; Soltani, Sina; Mohammadi, Seyede Momeneh; Kazemi, Masoumeh; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Namdarian, Reza

    2017-05-01

    The over usage of multiple antibiotics contributes to the emergence of a whole range of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria causing enterogenic infections in poultry science. Therefore, finding an appropriate alternative natural substance carrying an antibacterial capacity would be immensely beneficial. It has been previously discovered that the different types of cupric salts, especially copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), to carry a potent bactericidal capacity. We investigated the neutralizing effect of CuSO4·5H2O (6.25μg/ml) on the reactive oxygen species generation, and expression of MyD88, an essential adaptor protein of Toll-like receptor, and NF-κB in three intestinal epithelial cell lines exposed to 50ng/ml lipopolysaccharide. In order to find the optimal cupric sulfate concentration without enteritis-inducing toxicity, broiler chickens were initially fed with water containing 0.4, 0.5, and 1mg/l during a period of 4days. After determination of appropriate dosage, two broiler chickens and turkey flocks with enteritis were fed with cupric compound for 4days. We found that cupric sulfate can lessen the cytotoxic effect of lipopolysaccharide by reducing the reactive oxygen species content (p<0.05). Additionally, the expression of MyD88 and NF-κB was remarkably down-regulated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide and cupric sulfate. The copper sulfate in doses lower than 0.4mg/ml expressed no cytotoxic effect on the liver, kidney, and the intestinal tract while a concentration of 0.5 and 1mg/ml contributed to a moderate to severe tissue injuries. Pearson Chi-Square analysis revealed the copper cation significantly diminished the rate of mortality during 4-day feeding of broiler chicken and turkey with enteritis (p=0.000). Thus, the results briefed above all confirm the potent anti-bactericidal feature of cupric sulfate during the course of enteritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of dietary copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite on ureolytic bacteria found in the pig large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Robinson, I M; Pond, W G

    1987-09-01

    The predominant ureolytic bacteria in the pig large intestine were determined while growing pigs were fed a basal diet or basal diet plus copper sulfate, Aureo SP250, or clinoptilolite. Fecal samples were collected from four pigs fed each diet at 3, 9, and 14 weeks and analyzed for total colony counts and percent ureolytic bacteria. Fecal urease activity, ammonia nitrogen, and identity of the ureolytic bacteria were determined at 14 weeks. Copper sulfate and Aureo SP250 reduced the number of ureolytic organisms, with a marked decrease occurring in the Streptococcus spp., which made up 74% of the ureolytic isolates from the pigs on the basal diet. Other ureolytic species detected at lower concentrations were Staphylococcus spp., Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides multiacidus, and Eubacterium limosum. Copper sulfate also reduced fecal urease activity (P less than 0.10). Fecal ammonia concentrations were not different between pigs fed the various diets. These data suggest that the streptococci are the most numerous ureolytic species in the pig intestinal tract and are significantly reduced by copper sulfate and Aureo SP250; however, only copper sulfate reduced intestinal urease activity.

  5. Stick–slip behaviour on Au(111 with adsorption of copper and sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Podgaynyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several transitions in the friction coefficient with increasing load are found on Au(111 in sulfuric acid electrolyte containing Cu ions when a monolayer (or submonolayer of Cu is adsorbed. At the corresponding normal loads, a transition to double or multiple slips in stick–slip friction is observed. The stick length in this case corresponds to multiples of the lattice distance of the adsorbed sulfate, which is adsorbed in a √3 × √7 superstructure on the copper monolayer. Stick–slip behaviour for the copper monolayer as well as for 2/3 coverage can be observed at FN ≥ 15 nN. At this normal load, a change from a small to a large friction coefficient occurs. This leads to the interpretation that the tip penetrates the electrochemical double layer at this point. At the potential (or point of zero charge (pzc, stick–slip resolution persists at all normal forces investigated.

  6. Electrochemical deposition of copper onto Pt(111) in the presence of (bi)sulfate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, C.A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Using {ital in situ} x-ray diffraction we have studied the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper onto a Pt(111) electrode in sulfuric acid. Deposition occurs in a two-stage process; close to a full monolayer of Cu being preceded by a ({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree} structure that consists of both Cu and (bi)sulfate anions and is similar to the structure observed on the Au(111) electrode. Utilizing anomalous scattering methods we can accurately determine the Cu coverage during UPD and propose structural models based on crystal truncation rod measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Spectroscopic study of copper(II) complexes with carboxymethyl dextran and dextran sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glišić, S.; Nikolić, G.; Cakić, M.; Trutić, N.

    2015-07-01

    The copper(II) ion complexes with carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) and dextran sulfate (DS) were studied by different methods. Content of copper was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. It was found that copper : ligand mole ratio (Cu : CMD) is 1 : 2, and Cu : DS is 1 : 1 by mole ratio method. Spectrophotometric parameters of synthesized compounds are characteristic for Cu(II) ion in octahedral ( O h ) coordination. Analyzing of FTIR spectra in ν(C=O) vibration region has showed that -COOH group acts as bidentate ligand, while the compounds of Cu(II) with DS copper ions are in the region of four oxygen atoms of two adjacent sulfo groups. The presence of crystalline water was determined by isotopic substitution of H2O molecules with D2O molecules. Comparison of spectra recorded at room (RT) and liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) has enabled detection bands of water molecules libration indicating that they are coordinated complementing coordination sphere of Cu(II) ions to six. The complexes are of Cu(II) · (CMD)2 · (H2O)2 or Cu(II) · DS · (H2O)2 type. The similarities of the γ(C-H) range in a part of FTIR spectra indicate that there is no difference in the conformation of the 4 C 1 glucopyranose (Glc) unit CMD and DS synthesized Cu(II) complexes.

  8. Determination of kjeldahl nitrogen in fertilizers by AOAC official methods 978.02: effect of copper sulfate as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dean; Metcalf, David; Hojjatie, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In AOAC Official Method 955.04, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers, Kjeldahl Method, fertilizer materials are analyzed using mercuric oxide or metallic mercury HgO or Hg) as a catalyst. AOAC Official Methods 970.02, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers is a comprehensive total nitrogen (including nitrate nitrogen) method adding chromium metal. AOAC Official Method 978.02, Nitrogen (Total) in Fertilizers is a modified comprehensive nitrogen method used to measure total nitrogen in fertilizers with two types of catalysts. In this method, either copper sulfate or chromium metal is added to analyze for total Kjeldahl nitrogen. In this study, the part of AOAC Official Method 978.02 that is for nitrate-free fertilizer products was modified. The objective was to examine the necessity of copper sulfate as a catalyst for the nitrate-free fertilizer products. Copper salts are not environmentally friendly and are considered pollutants. Products such as ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, urea-containing fertilizers such as isobutylene diurea (IBDU), and urea-triazone fertilizer solutions were examined. The first part of the study was to measure Kjeldahl nitrogen as recommended by AOAC Official Method 978.02. The second part of the study was to exclude the addition of copper sulfate from AOAC Official Method 978.02 to examine the necessity of copper sulfate as a catalyst in nitrate-free fertilizers, which was the primary objective. Our findings indicate that copper sulfate can be eliminated from the method with no significant difference in the results for the nitrogen content of the fertilizer products.

  9. Sulfate-bridged dimeric trinuclear copper(II–pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gellert Mezei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of CuSO4·5H2O, 4-chloropyrazole (4-Cl-pzH and triethylamine (Et3N in dimethylformamide (DMF produced crystals of diaquahexakis(μ-4-chloropyrazolato-κ2N:N′bis(N,N-dimethylformamidedi-μ3-hydroxido-bis(μ4-sulfato-κ4O:O′:O′′:O′′hexacopper(II N,N-dimethylformamide tetrasolvate dihydrate, [Cu3(OH(SO4(C3H2ClN23(C3H7NO(H2O]2·4C3H7NO·2H2O. The centrosymmetric dimeric molecule consists of two trinuclear copper–pyrazolate units bridged by two sulfate ions. The title compound provides the first example of a trinuclear copper–pyrazolate complex with three different terminal ligands on the Cu atoms, and also the first example of such complex with a strongly binding basal sulfate ion. Within each trinuclear unit, the CuII atoms are bridged by μ-pyrazolate groups and a central μ3-OH group, and are coordinated by terminal sulfate, H2O and DMF ligands, respectively. Moreover, the sulfate O atoms coordinate at the apical position to the Cu atoms of the symmetry-related unit, providing square–pyramidal coordination geometry around each copper cation. The metal complex and solvent molecules are involved in O—H...O hydrogen bonds, leading to a two-dimensional network parallel to (10-1.

  10. Modelling the inhibitory effect of copper sulfate on the growth of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judet-Correia, D; Charpentier, C; Bensoussan, M; Dantigny, P

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of copper sulfate (from 0 to 8 mmol kg(-1)) on radial growth rate and lag time of two moulds responsible for vine grapes spoilage: Penicillium expansum strain 25·03 and Botrytis cinerea, strains BC1 and BC2. A new model was developed to describe tailing and shoulders in the inhibition curves. Because of tailing, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), was not defined as the concentration at which no growth was observed, but as the concentration at which the lag time was infinite. The concentrations at which μ = μ(opt)/2, (Cu50), were in the range of 2·2-2·6 mmol kg(-1). Radial growth rate of P. expansum and the reciprocal of the lag time were linearly correlated (r = 0·84). In contrast, in the range 0-4 mmol kg(-1), an inhibition of growth of B. cinerea was observed whereas germination remained unaffected (i.e. the lag time was constant). In the range 4-8 mmol kg(-1) , the radial growth rate of B. cinerea was almost constant (c. 1 mm day(-1)), but germination was inhibited (i.e. the lag time was increased). The MIC values were 4·7 mmol kg(-1) for P. expansum, 8·2 and 7·3 mmol kg(-1) for B. cinerea strain BC1 and BC2, respectively, demonstrating that some isolates of these moulds are resistant to copper. Copper concentrations at 4 mmol kg(-1) would be sufficient to control the development of these isolates, but the toxicity of copper should be extended to other isolates and evaluated in vineyards. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Genome Sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia

    OpenAIRE

    Abicht, Helge K.; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  12. Genome sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from copper mining waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Helge K; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2011-11-01

    We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

  13. Integrated transcriptome, proteome and physiology analysis of Epinephelus coioides after exposure to copper nanoparticles or copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Long, Xiaohua; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yuanrui; Liu, Zhaopu; Han, Shiqun; Yan, Shaohua

    2017-03-01

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) are components in numerous commercial products, but little is known about the mechanisms of their toxicity to marine fish. Here, we investigated physiology, transcriptome and proteome in Epinephelus coioides after exposure to Cu as Cu-NPs or copper sulfate (CuSO4). Aggregation, oxidation and dissolution of Cu-NPs occurred after suspension in seawater within 24 h. Cu-NPs had similar types of the histology and hematological effects as CuSO4 on E. coioides, but toxicity of Cu-NPs seems more severe than that of CuSO4. Venn diagram analyses revealed 1428 and 2239 genes with significantly altered regulation in, respectively, CuSO4 and Cu-NPs treatments; of these, 911 genes were common to both treatments. A total of 354 and 140 proteins with significantly altered regulation were identified in, respectively, CuSO4 and Cu-NPs treatments; of these, 75 proteins were common to both treatments. A total of 11,417 transcripts and 3210 proteins were assigned to gene ontology terms, clusters of orthologous groups and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. Correlation analysis of gene and protein expressions revealed that 21 differentially expressed proteins had their regulation changed in the same direction in both Cu-NPs and CuSO4 treatments. Those genes and proteins could be used as targets for subsequent analysis, regardless of the Cu form. Among those proteins, one of the most notable changes was in proteins related to lipid transport and metabolism. This study provides an enhanced understanding of E. coioides responses to Cu-NPs or CuSO4.

  14. The effect of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (Polyporales, Polyporaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Al-Maali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research was to study the influence of citrate and sulfate of copper on the biomass composition of the mycelium of the medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor (L. Lloyd, (1920 cultivated in a liquid medium. The studied strain of Trametes versicolor 353 was obtained from the Culture Collection of Mushrooms (IBK from M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Copper citrate was obtained from the Institute of Nanobiotechnologies and Resource Conservation of Ukraine, Kyiv. In this study we used glucose-peptone-yeast extract medium. Cu2+ (sulfate or citrate form was added to the medium in concentration 4 mg/L. Mycelium was grown in a submerged culture on a rotary shaker (120 rpm at 26 °C in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks, containing 50 ml of liquid media. The biomass was harvested after 9 days of cultivation in the liquid medium, filtered, washed, dried to a constant weight at 105 °C and weighed. Total nitrogen content (Ntotal in the mycelium determined by the Kjeldahl method, crude protein content was determined as Ntotal x 6.25. The ash was obtained by the standard method. Total lipids were extracted from undried mycelium by a modified method of Bligh and Dyer. Amino acid composition was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography Agilent 1200 (Agilent technologies, USA. The methyl ethers of fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS Agilent 6890N/5973 inert. The results of our research demonstrated that sulfates and citrates of copper increased the amount of crude protein on the mycelium of T. versicolor 353. Also both form of copper increased the amount of ash by a third relative to the control medium. At the same time, both forms of copper reduced the amount of total carbohydrates on mycelial biomass. But copper sulfate reduced the amount of total lipids relative to the control medium and medium with copper citrate. It should be noted, that given the significant

  15. Sub-lethal effects of a copper sulfate fungicide on development and reproduction in three coccinellid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Michaud

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles.

  16. Determination of nitrogen content in milk by the Kjeldahl method using copper sulfate: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grappin, R; Horwitz, W

    1988-01-01

    Copper sulfate was substituted for mercury as the catalyst in the International Dairy Federation (IDF) Standard 20A:1986 method for the determination of nitrogen content in milk. The substitution was supported by results obtained in an interlaboratory study by 24 laboratories in 12 countries. Each laboratory analyzed 12 test samples of milk as blind duplicates in a double split level design with high, medium, and low nitrogen concentrations. The method protocol requires the concurrent analyses of an ammonium salt solution and a tryptophan solution as internal quality control standards with a minimum nitrogen recovery between 99 and 100% for the former and at least 98% for the latter. The repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations are 0.5 and 1%, respectively, for the range 0.35-0.70 g N/100 g. The performance of the laboratories that did not meet the required quality control specifications was clearly poorer than that of those that did meet the specifications.

  17. Copper sulfate improves pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans as the catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Ju, Xiaomin; Zhang, Gaochuan; Wang, Donghua; Wei, Gongyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of mineral salts on pullulan production by bioconversion using whole cells of Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 as the catalyst were investigated. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) improved pullulan production by 36.2% and 42.3% when added at the optimum concentration of 0.2mg/L to the bioconversion broth or seed medium, respectively, as compared with controls without CuSO4 addition. Pullulan production was further enhanced when CuSO4 was added to both seed medium and bioconversion broth simultaneously. In order to probe the mechanism of CuSO4 improvement, cell viability, membrane integrity, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the activities of key enzymes involved in pullulan biosynthesis were determined. As a result, CuSO4 increased the activities of key biosynthetic enzymes, maintained intracellular ATP at a higher level, and accelerated the rate of pullulan secretion, all of which contributed to improved pullulan production by bioconversion.

  18. The Synthesis and Analysis of Ammine Complexes of Copper and Silver Sulfate: An Undergraduate Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clareen, Steven S.; Marshall, Shireen R.; Price, Kristin E.; Royall, Margaret B.; Yoder, Claude H.; Schaeffer, Richard W.

    2000-07-01

    An undergraduate chemistry laboratory project involving the synthesis of [Ag(NH3)2]2SO4 and Cu(NH3)4SO4 from the simple sulfate salts is described. Characterization of the stoichiometry of the complexes is accomplished by gravimetric and volumetric analysis. Silver is precipitated as the chloride and copper is precipitated as the hydroxide and converted to the oxide before weighing. The ammonia content of each complex is determined with a back titration using dilute nitric acid and sodium hydroxide. Typical student work gives results for the stoichiometry of the complexes within 1-5% of the theoretical values. The project provides a convenient preparation of two compounds whose identity and formula will not be obvious to the student. The analytical procedures illustrate the fundamentals of gravimetric and volumetric analysis and some basic characteristics of simple coordination complexes. The analytical data allow the student to determine the identity of each product by determining its empirical formula.

  19. Antimicrobial evaluation of copper sulfate (II on strains of Enterococcus faecalis. In vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Sierra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Controlling Enterococcus faecalis is of vital importance in endodontics, as this pathogen is associated with endodontic failure. Experimental evidence has shown that copper has antibacterial activity against other pathogens with similar characteristics. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of copper (II or cupric (SC-II sulfate on strains of Enterococcus faecalis and to compare it with the most commonly used antimicrobials. Methodology: We used 33 strains of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from different clinical pictures in different Chilean hospitals. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of SC-II, chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide was determined by the broth microdilution technique, following the recommendations given by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: The MIC for CHX varied in the range of 5-10µg/ml; SC-II from 1.5 to 12 µg/ml, and HC was >32mg/ml. The geometric mean of SC-II was 6µg/ml, lower than that of CHX, which was 7.29µg/ml. Conclusions: SC-II showed antimicrobial activity at lower concentrations than CHX. HC (which could have been affected by the buffer effect of the broth microdilution technique showed high values, not comparable to other compounds. We suggest carrying out further studies on the properties of SC-II, such assessing its biocompatibility and reaction with other materials to be used clinically in endodontic therapy.

  20. Time-Lapse Observation of Electrolysis of Copper Sulfate with a Full-Field X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohigashi, Takuji; Aota, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Norio; Takano, Hidekazu; Yokosuka, Hiroki; Aoki, Sadao

    2008-06-01

    The time-lapse observation of the electrodeposition of copper in copper sulfate solution was performed by imaging X-ray fluorescence from the copper deposition. The X-ray fluorescence was directly imaged with a full-field Wolter mirror microscope, which was constructed at the Photon Factory. Controlling the electric current in the solution from 0 to 71.7 µA, the deposition of copper on a Pt cathode was directly observed by imaging its X-ray fluorescence. One exposure time for obtaining an X-ray fluorescence image was 80 s. Then, it was 17 min later from the beginning of the electrolysis when the X-ray fluorescence image of the electrodeposition is observed for the first time. At this exposure time, the detection limit of the mass of copper was estimated to be 0.60 pg/image, which was calculated using test samples of 1.00×10-3-1.00 mol/l copper sulfate solutions.

  1. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Justel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different temperatures (293.15 to 318.15 K, and its effect on physical properties (density, viscosity, and solubility. Knowledge of these properties and solubility data are useful in the leaching process and in the design of copper sulfate pentahydrate crystallization plants from the leaching process using seawater by means of the addition of sulfuric acid.

  2. Sound production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and its alteration by exposure to aldicarb and copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ik Joon; Qiu, Xuchun; Moroishi, Junya; Oshima, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    This study is the first to report sound production in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Sound production was affected by exposure to the carbamate insecticide (aldicarb) and heavy-metal compound (copper sulfate). Medaka were exposed at four concentrations (aldicarb: 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg L(-1); copper sulfate: 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg L(-1)), and sound characteristics were monitored for 5 h after exposure. We observed constant average interpulse intervals (approx 0.2 s) in all test groups before exposure, and in the control groups throughout the experiment. The average interpulse interval became significantly longer during the recording periods after 50 min of exposure to aldicarb, and reached a length of more than 0.3 s during the recording periods after 120 min exposure. Most medaka fish stopped to produce sound after 50 min of exposure to copper sulfate at 1 and 2 mg L(-1), resulting in significantly declined number of sound pulses and pulse groups. Relative shortened interpulse intervals of sound were occasionally observed in medaka fish exposed to 0.5 mg L(-1) copper sulfate. These alternations in sound characteristics due to toxicants exposure suggested that they might impair acoustic communication of medaka fish, which may be important for their reproduction and survival. Our results suggested that using acoustic changes of medaka has potential to monitor precipitate water pollutions, such as intentional poisoning or accidental leakage of industrial waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SOLUBILITIES AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SATURATED SOLUTIONS IN THE COPPER SULFATE + SULFURIC ACID + SEAWATER SYSTEM AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Justel; M. Claros; M. E. Taboada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In Chile, the most important economic activity is mining, concentrated in the north of the country. This is a desert region with limited water resources; therefore, the mining sector requires research and identification of alternative sources of water. One alternative is seawater, which can be a substitute of the limited fresh water resources in the region. This work determines the influence of seawater on the solid-liquid equilibrium for acid solutions of copper sulfate at different...

  4. Indirect determination of thiocyanate with ammonium sulfate and ethanol by extraction-flotation of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wei, W; Liu, Q

    2000-10-01

    A new method for the indirect determination of thiocyanate with ammonium sulfate and ethanol by extraction-flotation of copper in the presence of ascorbic acid is described. A small amount of Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) by ascorbic acid, then Cu(I) is precipitated with SCN-. In the course of phase separation of ethanol from water, the precipitated CuSCN stays in the interface of ethanol and water. A good linear relationship is observed between the flotation yield of Cu(II) and the amount of SCN-. Using 1.0 ml of 1 x 10(-3) M ascorbic acid solution, 50 micrograms of Cu(II), 3.5 g of (NH4)2SO4 and 3.0 ml of ethanol with a total volume of 10 ml, the concentration of thiocyanate could then be determined by determining the flotation yield of Cu(II). The detection limit for thiocyanate is 5 x 10(-5) M. Every parameter was optimized and the reaction mechanism was studied. The method is simple and rapid and it was successfully applied to the determination of thiocyanate in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers and in venous blood of patients infused with sodium nitroprusside.

  5. Suppressive Effects of Copper Sulfate Accumulation on the Spermatogenesis of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J Y; Yang, X; Sun, X D; Zhuang, C C; Xu, F B; Li, Y F

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of copper sulfate (CuSO4) in the rat spermatogenesis. Forty male rats, weighing 70-80 g, were randomly divided into four groups: control group (CG, 0 mg/kg BW), low-dose group (LG, 100 mg/kg BW), mid-dose group (MG, 200 mg/kg BW), and high-dose group (HG, 400 mg/kg BW). Rats were administered CuSO4 by gavage for 30 days. A variety of measurements were taken including the testis coefficients, the sperm count, the abnormal malformation rate, testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations in the serum. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the testis were determined. The results showed that in the CuSO4-treated groups, the testis coefficients, sperm count, T, LH, and FSH concentrations, and GSH-Px and SOD activities decreased, while the abnormal malformation rate and MDA concentration increased, compared with the CG. It indicates that CuSO4 exposure impairs the sperm quality and inhibits secretion of sex hormone and gonadotropin, and testis anti-oxidative function, suppressing the rat spermatogenesis.

  6. Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River - Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6-15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed LC{sub 50} values of 0.97 and 0.84 mg Cu/L for phytoplankton and YCT-S, respectively. Previously obtained values for phytoplankton tests are 2.02 and 1.12 mg Cu/L. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Although significant reduction in growth, compared to the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups.

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance Copper (I, copper (II variants namely copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, tribasic copper sulfate, copper (I oxide, Bordeaux mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State France, for the pesticide active substance copper (I, copper (II variants (formerly referred to as copper compounds are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory environmental fate and behaviour and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of copper (I, copper (II variants as a fungicide/bactericide on grapes and tomatoes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented. Concerns are identified.

  8. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillus (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from May 12--21, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Results from this test showed an LC{sub 50} value of 1.12 mg Cu/L which is lower than the value of 2.02 mg Cu/L obtained in a previous test. Too few tests have been conducted with copper as the toxicant to determine a normal range of values. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; Copper analysis request and results; and Personnel training documentation.

  9. Multiple Sulfate Isotopic Evidence on the Formation of Oxide Copper Ore at Spence, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.; Palacios, C.

    2007-12-01

    In the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, one of the world's richest metallogenic provinces, porphyry copper deposits are characterized by the unique occurrence of atacamite in their oxidized zones. The origin and formation of the oxide zone of these copper deposits is, however, controversial. It was proposed that Cl-rich deep formation water pumping-up events along faults by earthquakes, after onset of the hyperaridity, were required (Cameron et al., 2007). Their model would imply that supplies of saline deep formation water from fractures to the surface should have left behind a homogeneous or fracture-controlled salt profile from surface down to the oxide zone. While no excluding the deep formation water model in other deposit, here we propose that, in our sampling region, the alternative saline source, which is critical for atacamite formation, could be locally evaporated groundwater, Cl-rich salts leached from arid surface by meteoric water, or brines from eastern salar basins at a time when the climate in northern Chile was changing from arid to hyperarid. At this climate transition, arid- requiring minerals such as atacamite in the oxide zone were formed and, more importantly, preserved upon evaporation beneath the surface alluvial deposits. Since salt accumulation at the surface remain active during hyperarid condition, our model would predict that water-soluble salt profile from surface to the oxide zone should have a characteristic pattern: salts with an atmospheric component on the surface gradually transitioning to salts of the oxide ore zone on the bottom and a mixing zone in between. To test these two alternative models, we focus on sulfate salts, one of the common water-soluble salts in arid environments. An added advantage is that sulfate accumulated on desert surface has a secondary atmospheric component that bears a unique triple oxygen isotope signature, easily distinguishable from sulfate formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals at the oxide

  10. Impacts of Hydrogen Peroxide and Copper Sulfate on the Control of Microcystis aeruginosa and MC-LR and the Inhibition of MC-LR Degrading Bacterium Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelline M. R. Kansole

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the impacts of H2O2 and copper sulfate on M. aeruginosa PCC7820, microcystin-LR (MC-LR and its degrading bacteria Bacillus sp., previously isolated from Hulupi Lake in Taiwan. The study shows that 3 mg·L−1 hydrogen peroxide removed only 9% M. aeruginosa within seven days of exposure, from an initial cell concentration of 2 × 106 cells/mL. With copper sulfate, a concentration of 2 mg·L−1 removed 99% M. aeruginosa cells, but showed negligible efficacy in removing 0.05 mg·L−1 MC-LR. At a higher dosage, 20 mg·L−1 H2O2 led to 40% and 95% removal, respectively for MC-LR and M. aeruginosa cells. Copper sulfate and H2O2 were both lethal to Bacillus sp. population, with mortality rate constants of k = 0.04 h−1 and 0.03 h−1 under 1 mg·L−1 copper sulfate and 5 mg·L−1 H2O2, respectively. H2O2 is competitive in terms of cost, with a capability of degrading organic compounds with the assistance of ultraviolet (UV light, and it may be considered as an alternative algaecide to copper sulfate in reservoirs for algae growth control.

  11. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai

    2010-03-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.

  12. Proteomic analysis of acute responses to copper sulfate stress in larvae of the brine shrimp,Artemia sinica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周茜; 吴长功; 董波; 李富花; 刘凤岐; 相建海

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica.Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified.Three spots were up-expressed and identified:actin, heat shock protein 70,and chaperone subunit 1;three down-regulated proteins were identified:arginine kinase,elongation factor-2,and glycine-rich protein;and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin....

  13. Effect of copper sulfate on the survival and growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharedaashi, Esmail; Nekoubin, Hamed; Imanpoor, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the LC50/96 h value of copper sulfate and determine the growth performance of Caspian Sea kutum) Rutilus frisii kutum (fingerlings during 60-days sub-lethal copper (Cu). After acclimation period to two weeks, for determine the LC50/96 h value, total of 27 aquarium with a capacity of 60 L each stocked with 10 fishes an aquarium. Tunney four aquarium and 8 concentrations of (Cu) composed the 24 treatments while 3 other aquaria were used as control. For each treatment, three replications were conducted. And experiment to determine the growth performance fish were transferred into fiberglass aquaria of 200 L water capacity for growth trials. The treated fish were kept in the aquarium containing sub-lethal concentrations of Cu (0.11 and 0.23 mg L(-1)) and affected to grow for 60 days, while control fish were placed in metal free water. The results indicated that median lethal concentrations (LC50) of copper to Caspian Sea kutum for 96 h exposure was 2.310 ppm. The chronic sub-lethal water-borne Cu exposure to the fish exerted that fish had significantly decreased final body weight in comparison to control group. The copper sulfate also had significant negative effects on specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in comparison to those fed the control group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and condition factor (CF) were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P Rutilus frisii kutum).

  14. Characterization of a Marine Microbial Community Used for Enhanced Sulfate Reduction and Copper Precipitation in a Two-Step Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Depraect, Octavio; Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Ordaz, Alberto

    2017-06-01

    Marine microorganisms that are obtained from hydrothermal vent sediments present a great metabolic potential for applications in environmental biotechnology. However, the work done regarding their applications in engineered systems is still scarce. Hence, in this work, the sulfate reduction process carried out by a marine microbial community in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated for 190 days under sequential batch mode. The effects of 1000 to 5500 mg L(-1) of SO4(-2) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4(-2) ratio were studied along with a kinetic characterization with lactate as the electron donor. Also, the feasibility of using the sulfide produced in the UASB for copper precipitation in a second column was studied under continuous mode. The system presented here is an alternative to sulfidogenesis, particularly when it is necessary to avoid toxicity to sulfide and competition with methanogens. The bioreactor performed better with relatively low concentrations of sulfate (up to 1100 mg L(-1)) and COD/SO4(-2) ratios between 1.4 and 3.6. Under the continuous regime, the biogenic sulfide was sufficient to precipitate copper at a removal rate of 234 mg L(-1) day(-1). Finally, the identification of the microorganisms in the sludge was carried out; some genera of microorganisms identified were Desulfitobacterium and Clostridium.

  15. Differences in Median Ultraviolet Light Transmissions of Serial Homeopathic Dilutions of Copper Sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and Sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabine D; Sandig, Annegret; Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Homeopathic remedies are produced by potentising, that is, the serial logarithmic dilution and succussion of a mother tincture. Techniques like ultraviolet spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, calorimetry, or thermoluminescence have been used to investigate their physical properties. In this study, homeopathic centesimal (c) potencies (6c to 30c) of copper sulfate, Hypericum perforatum, and sulfur as well as succussed water controls were prepared. Samples of these preparations were exposed to external physical factors like heat, pressure, ultraviolet radiation, or electromagnetic fields to mimic possible everyday storage conditions. The median transmissions from 190 nm to 340 nm and 220 nm to 340 nm were determined by ultraviolet light spectroscopy on five measurement days distributed over several months. Transmissions of controls and potencies of sulfur differed significantly on two of five measurement days and after exposure to physical factors. Transmissions of potencies exposed to ultraviolet light and unexposed potencies of copper sulfate and Hypericum perforatum differed significantly. Potency levels 6c to 30c were also compared, and wavelike patterns of higher and lower transmissions were found. The Kruskal-Wallis test yielded significant differences for the potency levels of all three substances. Aiming at understanding the physical properties of homeopathic preparations, this study confirmed and expanded the findings of previous studies.

  16. Reagents for selective extraction of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from highly acidic sulfate feeds containing iron

    OpenAIRE

    Roebuck, James William

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on development of new regents which are suitable for recovering nickel, cobalt and copper from laterite leach solutions, specifically focusing on reagent requirements for novel base metal flowsheets developed by Anglo American. The work aims to design reagents which can extract nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from a highly acidic aqueous sulfate solutions whilst showing selectivity over iron(II) and iron(III). Chapter 1 reviews current extractive metallur...

  17. Effects of copper sulfate on seedlings of Prosopis pubescens (Screwbean mesquite)

    OpenAIRE

    Zappala, Marian N.; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoextraction is an established method of removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils worldwide. Phytoextraction is most efficient if local plants are used in the contaminated site. We propose that Prosopis pubescens (Screw bean mesquite) would be a successful phytoextractor of copper in our local soils. In order to determine the feasibility of using Screw bean mesquite, we utilized inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and elemental analysis to observe the ...

  18. Efficient degradation of atrazine by magnetic porous copper ferrite catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation via the formation of hydroxyl and sulfate radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ying-Hong; Ma, Jun; Ren, Yue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Lei; Xiao, Jia-Yue; Lin, Ling-qiang; Zhang, Chen

    2013-09-15

    Magnetic porous copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) showed a notable catalytic activity to peroxymonosulfate (PMS). More than 98% of atrazine was degraded within 15 min at 1 mM PMS and 0.1 g/L CuFe2O4. In contrast, CuFe2O4 exhibited no obvious catalytic activity to peroxodisulfate or H2O2. Several factors affecting the catalytic performance of PMS/CuFe2O4 were investigated. Results showed that the catalytic degradation efficiency of atrazine increased with PMS and CuFe2O4 doses, but decreased with the increase of natural organic matters concentration. The catalytic oxidation also showed a dependence on initial pH. The presence of bicarbonate stimulated atrazine degradation by PMS/CuFe2O4 at low concentrations but inhibited the degradation at high concentrations. Furthermore, the reactive species for atrazine degradation in PMS/CuFe2O4 system were identified as hydroxyl radical (HO) and sulfate radical (SO4(·-)) through competition reactions of atrazine and nitrobenzene, instead of commonly used alcohol scavenging, which was not a reliable method in metal oxide catalyzed oxidation. Surface hydroxyl groups of CuFe2O4 were a critical part in radical generation and the copper on CuFe2O4 surface was an active site to catalyze PMS. The catalytic degradation of atrazine by PMS/CuFe2O4 was also effective under the background of actual waters.

  19. Effects of bacterially produced precipitates on the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria during the bio-treatment process of copper-containing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A large volume of bacterially produced precipitates are generated during the bio-treatment of heavy metal wastewater.The composition of the bacterially produced precipitates and its effects on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in copper-containing waste stream were evaluated in this study.The elemental composition of the microbial precipitate was studied using electrodispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.12.Combining with the results of copper distribution in the SRB metabolism culture,which was analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure,copper in the precipitates was determined as covellite (CuS).The bacterially produced precipitates caused a decrease of the sulfate reduction rate,and the more precipitates were generated,the lower the sulfate reduction rate was.The particle sizes of bacterially generated covellite were ranging from 0.03 to 2 m by particles size distribution (PSD) analysis,which was smaller than that of the SRB cells.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the microbial covellite was deposited on the surface of the cell.The effects of the microbial precipitate on SRB metabolism were found to be weakened by increasing the precipitation time and adding microbial polymeric substances in later experiments.These results provided direct evidence that the SRB activity was inhibited by the bacterially produced covellite,which enveloped the bacterium and thus affected the metabolism of SRB on mass transfer.

  20. Static renewal tests using Anodonta imbecillis (freshwater mussels). Anodonta imbecillis copper sulfate reference toxicant/food test, Clinch River-Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbeck, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    Reference toxicant testing using juvenile freshwater mussels was conducted as part of the CR-ERP biomonitoring study of Clinch River sediments to assess the sensitivity of test organisms and the overall performance of the test. Tests were conducted using moderately hard synthetic water spiked with known concentrations of copper as copper sulfate. Two different foods, phytoplankton and YCT-Selenastrum (YCT-S), were tested in side by side tests to compare food quality. Toxicity testing of copper sulfate reference toxicant was conducted from July 6--15, 1993. The organisms used for testing were juvenile fresh-water mussels (Anodonta imbecillis). Although significant reduction in growth, compared to the phytoplankton control, was seen in all treatments, including the YCT-S Control, the consequence of this observation has not been established. Ninety-day testing of juvenile mussels exhibited large variations in growth within treatment and replicate groups. Attachments to this report include: Toxicity test bench sheets and statistical analyses; and Copper analysis request and results.

  1. Copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium, mediated by the tcrB gene, is selected by supplementation of pig feed with copper sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Kempf, I.; Chidaine, B.;

    2006-01-01

    The tcr gene cluster mediates in vitro copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium. Here we describe the selection of tcr-mediated copper resistance in E. faecium in an animal feeding experiment with young pigs fed 175 mg copper/kg feed (ppm), which is the concentration commonly used for piglets...... in European pig production. tcr-mediated copper resistance was not selected for in a control group fed low levels of copper (6 ppm). We also show coselection of macrolide- and glycopeptide-resistant E. faecium in the animal group fed the high level of copper. Finally, we identify the tcr genes...

  2. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent. Part 2. The regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maat, Hendrik; ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Versteeg, Geert

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to

  3. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part II. the regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to 75

  4. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent: Part II. The regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide—an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter H.; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to 75

  5. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part II. the regeneration of copper sulfide to copper oxide - An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities for a selective and efficient method to convert copper(II) sulfide (CuS) into copper(II) oxide (CuO). The oxidation of copper sulfide has been studied experimentally using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 450 to

  6. Analysis of copper corrosion in compacted bentonite clay as a function of clay density and growth conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), growth conditions, bentonite densities and copper sulfide generation under circumstances relevant to underground, high-level radioactive waste repositories. Experiments took place 450 m underground, connected under in situ pressure to groundwater containing SRB. The microbial reduction of sulfate to sulfide and subsequent corrosion of copper test plates buried in compacted bentonite were analysed using radioactive sulfur (35SO4(2-)) as tracer. Mass distribution of copper sulfide on the plates indicated a diffusive process. The relationship between average diffusion coefficients (Ds) and tested density (rho) was linear. Ds (m2 s(-1))=-0.004xrho (kg m(-3))+8.2, decreasing by 0.2 Ds units per 50 kg m(-3) increase in density, from 1.2x10(-11) m2 s(-1) at 1750 kg m(-3) to 0.2x10(-11) m2 s(-1) at 2000 kg m(-3). It is possible that sulfide corrosion of waste canisters in future radioactive waste repositories depends mainly on sulfide concentration at the boundary between groundwater and the buffer, which in turn depends on SRB growth conditions (e.g., sulfate accessibility, carbon availability and electron donors) and geochemical parameters (e.g., presence of ferrous iron, which immobilizes sulfide). Maintaining high bentonite density is also important in mitigating canister corrosion. The sulfide diffusion coefficients can be used in safety calculations regarding waste canister corrosion. The work supports findings that microbial activity in compacted bentonite will be restricted. The study emphasizes the importance of growth conditions for sulfate reduction at the groundwater boundary of the bentonite buffer and linked sulfide production.

  7. EFFECTS OF COPPER SULFATE TREATMENT ON EUTROPHIC URBAN LAKE PHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITIES%硫酸铜控藻对浮游植物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小丽; 宋立荣; 张小明

    2009-01-01

    硫酸铜广泛用于水华藻类的去除和控制.本文测定了不同藻类对Cu2+的敏感性,几种常见水华藻类对Cu2+的敏感性顺序为:铜绿微囊藻>水华鱼腥藻>小环藻>莱哈衣藻>斜生栅藻.在某城市的富营养化湖泊中用Cu-SO4·5H2O(102μg/L Cu2+)作为杀藻剂控制蓝藻水华的试验结果表明:在用硫酸铜控制蓝藻水华的过程中,水体透明度有明显改善;总氮总磷无显著变化;浮游植物总数在试验初期下降,但在试验后期则有所回升,在试验初期蓝藻门数量有所下降,绿藻门和硅藻门数量增加,这与不同藻类对Cu2+敏感性差异相关;试验后期,蓝藻门种类快速生长,并成为优势种;水柱中微囊藻毒素的浓度随藻类数量的减少在4d内大幅降低.%Copper sulphate treatment is widely used as a global and empirical method to remove or control phytoplankton blooms. We tested the acute toxicity of 5 species of familiar microalgae and gave an urban lake copper sulfate treat in order to illuminate how the water body response to copper treat, especially the change of phytoplankton species and density of microcystins. According to OECD Alga growth inhibition test, effect of copper on 5 species of familiar microalgae was tested, and species of Cyanophyta showed much higher sensitivity to copper than species of Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. In a eutrophic urban lake,CuSO4·5H2O was used as algicide to control the water bloom caused by cyanobacterial.The copper concentration applied was 102μg/L (as copper). We investigated the lake response to copper sulfate, which showed that the transparence was substantially improved; TN and TP did not change a lot; total algal decreased just after the copper sulfate treatment, and later increased again; at the beginning of the experiment, species of Cyanophyta died and the amount sharply decreased, Bacillariophyta and Chlorophyta turned to be the preponderant species, which could be related to species

  8. Effects of copper sulfate-oxidized or myeloperoxidase- modified LDL on lipid loading and programmed cell death in macrophages under hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaminck B

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Vlaminck,1 Damien Calay,1 Marie Genin,1 Aude Sauvage,1 Noelle Ninane,1 Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia,2 Martine Raes,1 Carine Michiels1 1Laboratory of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology (URBC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences (NARILIS, University of Namur, Namur, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Medicine (ULB 222 Unit, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CHU de Charleroi, Charleroi, Belgium Abstract: Atheromatous plaques contain heavily lipid-loaded macrophages that die, hence generating the necrotic core of these plaques. Since plaque instability and rupture is often correlated with a large necrotic core, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying foam cell death. Furthermore, macrophages within the plaque are associated with hypoxic areas but little is known about the effect of low oxygen partial pressure on macrophage death. The aim of this work was to unravel macrophage death mechanisms induced by oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL both under normoxia and hypoxia. Differentiated macrophages were incubated in the presence of native, copper sulfate-oxidized, or myeloperoxidase-modified LDL. The unfolded protein response, apoptosis, and autophagy were then investigated. The unfolded protein response and autophagy were triggered by myeloperoxidase-modified LDL and, to a larger extent, by copper sulfate-oxidized LDL. Electron microscopy observations showed that oxidized LDL induced excessive autophagy and apoptosis under normoxia, which were less marked under hypoxia. Myeloperoxidase-modified LDL were more toxic and induced a higher level of apoptosis. Hypoxia markedly decreased apoptosis and cell death, as marked by caspase activation. In conclusion, the cell death pathways induced by copper sulfate-oxidized and myeloperoxidase-modified LDL are different and are differentially modulated by hypoxia. Keywords: Ox-LDL, myeloperoxidase, hypoxia, UPR, apoptosis, autophagy, macrophages

  9. 空气氧化—氨浸出废旧电路板中的铜%Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Copper Leaching from Waste Printed Circuit Boards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张有新; 李静; 潘发芳

    2013-01-01

    A novel hydrometallurgical process of copper recovery from waste printed circuit boards was introduced. In this process, air was blown into solution as oxidant for copper leaching in NH3-(NH4)2SO4-H2O system, while leaching residue was treated by physical method. The effects of ammonia and ammonium sulfate concentration, ratio of solid to liquid, leaching temperature, air flow and leaching time on copper leaching rate were investigated. The results show that copper leaching rate is up to 96. 67% under the following optimum conditions including ammonia concentration of 2 mol/L, ammonium sulfate concentration of 2 mol/L, ratio of solid to liquid of 1 : 20, leaching temperature of 25 ℃ , air flow of 8 m3/h and leaching time of 4 h.%提出了在氨水—硫酸铵体系下鼓入空气浸出废旧电路板中铜的新工艺.考察了氨水浓度、硫酸铵浓度、固液比、反应温度、通入空气流量和浸出时间对铜浸出率的影响.结果表明,在下述最佳浸出条件下,渣计铜浸出率达到96.67%:氨水浓度2 mol/L,硫酸铵浓度2 mol/L,固液比1∶20,反应温度25℃、通入空气量8 m3/h、浸出时间4h.

  10. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II, from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper electrodeposition and current efficiency are revealed. The results showed that the increase in pH (provided not lead to the deposition of Cu(OH2, initial concentration of the copper and flow rate increased the electrodeposition of copper as well as improved current efficiency. However, increasing intensity of the applied electric current led to an increase in the electrodeposition of copper and decreased electrical efficiency. It was also observed that reducing the intensity of applied electric current with time during the electrolysis process while maintaining other operating variables constant led to a significant reduction in the consumption of electrical energy used in the process of copper removal by electrodeposition; a reduction of 41.6% could be achieved.

  11. Electrodeposition of copper from a copper sulfate solution using a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current

    OpenAIRE

    Meshaal F. Alebrahim; I.A. Khattab; Sharif, Adel O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is mainly to investigate the performance of a packed-bed continuous-recirculation flow reactor at high applied electric current in removing copper, Cu(II), from simulated electrolyte by electrodeposition. The effects of pHo, circulation rate of flow, initial copper concentration, intensity of the applied current and the method of application of electric current, as to have a constant value during all the time of electrolysis or to be decreased with time, on copper el...

  12. 硫酸四氨合铜结晶过程的粒度控制技术%Particle Size Control Technology of Copper Sulfate-ammonia Complex Solution in Crystallization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 冯璐璐; 柳沛宏

    2014-01-01

    氨水和硫酸铜溶液反应形成铜氨溶液,之后与乙醇混合使硫酸四氨合铜以晶体形式析出,过滤、干燥制备硫酸四氨合铜晶体。考察不同操作条件对硫酸四氨合铜晶体粒度分布的影响。结果表明,析出过程中加入合适的表面活性剂对粒度分布有一定影响,混料时以铜氨溶液分散加入到乙醇中效果较好,适当增加乙醇用量和提高搅拌强度有利于得到小粒度产品。%Ammonia reacted with copper sulfate solution to form copper sulfate-ammonia complex solution, and then the solution mixed with ethanol to form copper sulfate-ammonia complex crystal. After filtration and desiccation, copper sulfate-ammonia complex crystal was prepared. The influence of different operation conditions on copper sulfate-ammonia complex crystal size distribution was investigated. The results showed that in the precipitation process, the addition of suitable surface active agent had a certain influence on the particle size distribution. And it had good effect when copper sulfate-ammonia solution dispersed into ethanol. Increase of ethanol amount and stirring strength would get fine grain products.

  13. One step synthesis and characterization of copper doped sulfated titania and its enhanced photocatalytic activity in visible light by degradation of methyl orange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radha Devi Chekuri; Siva Rao Tirukkovalluri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the synthesis of copper doped sulfated titania nano-crystalline powders with varying (2.0%–10.0%, by mass) by single step sol gel method. The synthesized photo catalyst has been characterized by employing various techniques like X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet–Visible Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies (FT-IR), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). From the XRD and TEM results, al the samples were reported in anatase phase with reduction in particle size in the range of 7 to 12 nm. SEM indicated the change in morphology of the particles. The presence of copper in titania lattice was evidenced by XPS. From UV–Vis DRS and FT-IR studies indicated that prominent absorption shift is observed towards visible region (red shift), the entry of Cu2+into TiO2 lattice as a substitution-al dopant and SO42− ions were covalently bonded with Ti4+ on the surface of the copper doped titania respectively. The photocatalytic activity studies were investigated by considering methyl orange (MO) as dye pol utant in the presence of the visible light. The effect of various parameters like effect of dosage of the catalyst, dopant concentration, pH of the solution, and concentration of the dye was studied in detail.

  14. Experimental Study on the Best Conditions of Preparation Copper-Constantan Thermopile by Copper Sulfate Acid Copper Plating%硫酸铜酸性镀铜法制备铜-康铜热电堆的最佳实验条件研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗浩; 彭同江; 孙红娟

    2012-01-01

    Thermopile is a common heat flow sensor,and the plating effect of thermopile affect its performance directly.This paper based on the basic principles of copper sulfate acid copper plating,and preparing thermopile through the electroplating of copper in constantan substrate,to study the effect of plating time,copper sulfate concentration,sulfuric acid concentration,electroplate solution temperature and current density on the thermoelectric potential of the thermopile.The results show that the optimal conditions for plating: plating time 20 min,copper sulfate concentration of 250 g/L,sulfuric acid concentration of 60 g/L,electroplate solution temperature 36 ℃,current density 10 A/dm2.Under these conditions,the thermoelectric potential of copper-constantan thermopile reaches the maximum.%热电堆是一种常见的热流传感器,热电堆的电镀效果直接影响其性能。基于硫酸铜酸性镀铜基本原理,通过在康铜基体上电镀铜的方式制备热电堆。研究了电镀时间、硫酸铜浓度、硫酸浓度、溶液温度、电流密度对热电堆输出热电势的影响。结果表明,最佳电镀条件为:电镀时间20 min,硫酸铜浓度250 g/L,硫酸浓度60 g/L,镀液温度36℃,电流密度10 A/dm2。在此条件下制备的铜-康铜热电堆输出热电势最高。

  15. Application of electroless nickel plating prior to sulfate copper electroplating%化学镀镍作为钢酸性镀铜前处理工艺的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元盛

    2012-01-01

    In order to avoid copper replacement reaction during sulfate copper electroplating on steel surface, electroless nickel plating process was introduced as the pretreatment of electroplating. The effect of electroless nickel plating on sulfate copper electroplating was studied. The results show that there is no copper precipitation on the surface of steel samples electroless nickel plated at least for 6 min after dipping in sulfate copper electroplating solution for 10 min. The effects of electroless plating coating on the both the surface appearance and the adhesion of copper coating are not obvious, so the eleetroless nickel plating can be used for the pretreatment of sulfate copper electroplating.%为了防止钢表面酸性电镀铜出现置换铜,采取在电镀铜前增加化学镀镍工序,研究了化学镀镍工艺对酸性电镀铜的影响。结果表明,化学镀镍时间超过6min时(镍层厚度〉2.5-3μm),工件在酸性镀铜液中浸泡10min,无置换铜出现。化学镀镍层对后续的酸性镀铜层的表面形貌和附着力均无明显影响,表明化学镀镍可作为钢酸性镀铜的底层。

  16. Sulfated chitosan/PVA absorbent membrane for removal of copper and nickel ions from aqueous solutions-Fabrication and sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saied, M A; Wycisk, Ryszard; Abbassy, Moustafa M; El-Naim, G Abd; El-Demerdash, F; Youssef, M E; Bassuony, H; Pintauro, Peter N

    2017-06-01

    Novel absorbents for the removal of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) ions from aqueous solutions were prepared from solution cast sulfated chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol membranes (SCS/PVA) and their properties were investigated. FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA analyses were used to determine membrane structure. The effect of environmental parameters on absorption was studied, including pH, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Freundlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms were fitted to experimental data and a pseudo-second order rate equation was employed to model the kinetics of uptake for several copper and nickel ion concentrations. The results indicate that the affinity of an SCS/PVA membrane for Cu(2+) ions was higher than that for Ni(2+) ions. The study demonstrated that the SCS/PVA system can be utilized as highly efficient sorbents, to extract Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) from aqueous feed solutions.

  17. Redox transformation, solid phase speciation and solution dynamics of copper during soil reduction and reoxidation as affected by sulfate availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulda, Beate; Voegelin, Andreas; Ehlert, Katrin; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-12-01

    In periodically flooded soils, interactions of Cu with biogenic sulfide formed during soil reduction lead to the precipitation of sparingly soluble Cu-sulfides. In contaminated soils, however, the amounts of Cu can exceed the amount of sulfate available for microbial reduction to sulfide. In laboratory batch experiments, we incubated a paddy soil spiked to ∼4.4 mmol kg-1 (280 mg kg-1) Cu(II) to monitor temporal changes in the concentrations of dissolved Cu and the speciation of solid-phase Cu during 40 days of soil reduction and 28 days of reoxidation as a function of initially available reducible sulfate (0.06, 2.09 or 5.92 mmol kg-1). Using Cu K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy, we found that a large fraction of Cu(II) became rapidly reduced to Cu(I) (23-39%) and Cu(0) (7-17%) before the onset of sulfate reduction. Combination with results from sequential Cu extraction and chromium reducible sulfur (CRS) data suggested that complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups (Sorg) may be an important process during this early stage. In sulfate-depleted soil, Cu(0) and Cu(I)-Sorg remained the dominant species over the entire reduction period, whereas in soils with sufficient sulfate, initially formed Cu(0) and (remaining) Cu(II) became transformed into Cu-sulfide during continuing sulfate reduction. The formation of Cu(0), Cu(I)-Sorg, and Cu-sulfide led to an effective decrease in dissolved Cu concentrations. Differences in Cu speciation at the end of soil reduction however affected the dynamics of Cu during reoxidation. Whereas Cu(0) was rapidly oxidized to Cu(II), more than half of the S-coordinated Cu fraction persisted over 14 days of aeration. Our results show that precipitation of Cu(0) and complexation of Cu(I) by reduced organic S groups are important processes in periodically flooded soils if sulfide formation is limited by the amount of available sulfate or the duration of soil flooding. The speciation changes of Cu described in this study may also affect the

  18. Biomass reduction of Salvinia molesta exposed to copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Alves de Azevedo Barros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper in the aquatic ecosystem may remain adsorbed or be incorporated into the biomass and undergo biomagnification causing unwanted effects to aquatic macrophyte communities. This study evaluated the biomass reduction of Salvinia molesta (Mitchell exposed to copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O under laboratory conditions. Approximately 20.5 g of fresh mass (FM of S. molesta (0.74 g dry matter, DM were placed in glass tanks with different concentrations (n = 3 of CuSO4.5H2O as follows: 0.0; 2.0; 4.0; 6.0; and 8.0 mg L-1 for 28 days. The dry mass was determined after each seven-day interval over 28 days and submitted to repeated ANOVA measures, followed by a Tukey test (P<0,05. The results show that macrophyte increased until the seventh day of exposure in all treatments. After this period, the biomass of S. molesta decreased; but there was no significant difference between treatments with copper, except for the 8.0 mg L-1 treatment. The copper treatments decreased the S. molesta biomass an average of 43.2% (0.50 g DM after 28 days. At the end of the experiment, copper absorption in the treatments with 6.0 and 8.0 mg L-1 was on average 77.9% higher than in the treatments with 2 and 4 mg L-1 . The treatments with 6.0 and 8.0 mg L-1 reached their maximum bioaccumulation capacity after 14 days. The results show that contamination of the aquatic environment at concentrations above 2 mg L-1 Cu2+ can reduce the S. molesta biomass by approximately 43%.

  19. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  20. 硫酸钴浸出液中用N902萃取铜生产试验研究%Industrial Experimental Research on Extraction of Copper by N902 in Cobalt Sulfate Leaching Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凤灵

    2011-01-01

    采用N902对硫酸钴浸出液中铜的萃取进行了研究,考察了萃取相比(0∶A)、萃原液中铜含量、萃取时间对铜萃取率的影响,以及反萃相比(O∶A)、反萃时间、酸度、反萃液铜浓度对铜反萃率的影响,确定了适宜的铜萃取生产条件,当铜离子浓度为6~7g/L时,用15%的N902萃取硫酸介质中的铜,1级铜萃取率可达95%;用新配制的200 g/L的硫酸对负载铜有机相进行循环反萃,1级铜反萃率可达95%.%In the research, N902 is adopted for extraction of the copper in cobalt sulfate leaching solution, the following items are also investigated: effect of extraction phase ratio (O:A) , copper content in original solution and extraction time on copper extraction rate, as well as the effect of stripping phase ratio (0: A), stripping time, acidity and strip liquor's copper concentration on copper stripping rate, and then the proper production conditions for copper extraction is determined, when the concentration of copper ion is 6 ~7 g/L, it is better to use 15% N902 to extract copper in sulfuric acid medium, so the first stage extraction rate of copper can be 95% ; if new prepared 200 g/L sulfuric acid is used for circular stripping of copper loaded organic phase, the first stage stripping rate of copper can reach 95%.

  1. Crystallization of copper(II) sulfate based minerals and MOF from solution: Chemical insights into the supramolecular interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Singh; D Kumar; J Thomas; A Ramanan

    2010-09-01

    Crystallization of solids, molecular or non-molecular from solution is a supramolecular reaction. Nucleation of a lattice structure at supersaturation can be conceived to result from a critical nucleus, a high energy intermediate (supramolecular transition state). Conceptualization of a structure for the critical nucleus in terms of aggregation of tectons through non-covalent interactions provides chemical insights into the architecture of a solid. The retrosynthetic analysis of copper-based minerals and materials offers an elegant description for the crystal packing. It addresses the influence of the geometry, functionality and reactivity of copper tecton(s) in directing a specific supramolecular aggregation. The mechanistic approach provides guiding principles to chemists to account for the experimentally crystallized solids and a platform to practice structure-synthesis correlation. Rationalization of the same composition with different atomic arrangements (polymorphs), compositional variation leading to different pseudopolymorphs, degree of hydration (anhydrous to hydrated), water clusters, role of solvent, etc. can all be justified on molecular basis. Also, the method gives predictive components including directions to synthesize new solids. In a nutshell, the paper is an attempt to generalize the crystallization of inorganic solids from solution by recognizing supramolecular interactions between metal tectons and gain insights for designing new MOF.

  2. Indirect Determination of Ascorbic Acid with Ammonium Sulfate and Isopropyl Alcohol by Extraction-flotation of Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao Mei WANG; Yun XING; Quan Min LI

    2003-01-01

    A new method of indirect determination of ascorbic acid(Vc) with ammonium sulfateand isopropyl alcohol by extraction-flotation of copper is studied in this paper. It shows that asmall amount of Cu(Ⅱ) can be reduced to Cu(Ⅰ) by Vc, then Cu(Ⅰ) reacted with the SCN-,which precipitated on the interface of isopropyl alcohol and H2O. A good linear relationship isobserved between the flotation yield(E) of Cu(Ⅱ) and the amount of Vc. The detection limit forVc is 1.76μ g/mL. The method is simple, rapid (5 min), but suffers from little interference ofcommon anions and cations. It has been successfully applied for the determination of Vc infruits.

  3. Effects of copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on oxidative stress and the expression of genes involved photosynthesis and microcystin disposition in Microcystis aeruginosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Yu Shuqiong; Sun Zhengqi; Xie Xiucai; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei, E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310032 (China)

    2010-09-01

    Algal blooms have been increasing in prevalence all over the world, destroying ecosystems and placing other organisms at risk. Chemical remediation is one of most important methods of controlling algal bloom formation. The effects of copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine on photosynthesis-related and microcystin-related gene transcription and physiological changes of Microcystis aeruginosa were analyzed. The results suggest that transcription of psaB, psbD1 and rbcL was inhibited by the three algaecides, which blocked the electron transport chain, significantly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and overwhelmed the antioxidant system. The increase in ROS destroyed pigment synthesis and membrane integrity, which inhibited or killed the algal cells. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment down-regulated mcyD transcription, which indicated a decrease in the microcystin level in the cells. Our results demonstrate that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has the greatest potential as an algaecide because it not only inhibits algae growth but may reduce microcystin synthesis.

  4. High-field 1H T1 and T2 NMR relaxation time measurements of H2O in homeopathic preparations of quartz, sulfur, and copper sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Stephan; Wolf, Martin; Skrabal, Peter; Bangerter, Felix; Heusser, Peter; Thurneysen, André; Wolf, Ursula

    2009-09-01

    Quantitative meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials investigating the specific therapeutic efficacy of homeopathic remedies yielded statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Since the remedies used contained mostly only very low concentrations of pharmacologically active compounds, these effects cannot be accounted for within the framework of current pharmacology. Theories to explain clinical effects of homeopathic remedies are partially based upon changes in diluent structure. To investigate the latter, we measured for the first time high-field (600/500 MHz) 1H T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of H2O in homeopathic preparations with concurrent contamination control by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Homeopathic preparations of quartz (10 c-30 c, n = 21, corresponding to iterative dilutions of 100-10-100-30), sulfur (13 x-30 x, n = 18, 10-13-10-30), and copper sulfate (11 c-30 c, n = 20, 100-11-100-30) were compared to n = 10 independent controls each (analogously agitated dilution medium) in randomized and blinded experiments. In none of the samples, the concentration of any element analyzed by ICP-MS exceeded 10 ppb. In the first measurement series (600 MHz), there was a significant increase in T1 for all samples as a function of time, and there were no significant differences between homeopathic potencies and controls. In the second measurement series (500 MHz) 1 year after preparation, we observed statistically significant increased T1 relaxation times for homeopathic sulfur preparations compared to controls. Fifteen out of 18 correlations between sample triplicates were higher for controls than for homeopathic preparations. No conclusive explanation for these phenomena can be given at present. Possible hypotheses involve differential leaching from the measurement vessel walls or a change in water molecule dynamics, i.e., in rotational correlation time and/or diffusion. Homeopathic preparations

  5. 枣缩果病初侵染链格孢菌的抗硫酸铜标记及稳定性%Resistance-Labeling and Stability of Jujube Shrunken-Fruit Disease Pathogen Alternaria alternata to Copper Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵乐; 邢艺林; 李正楠; 郭金堂; 冉隆贤

    2016-01-01

    Objective]In order to determine the suitable agent and method for labeling Alternaria alternata,the pathogen of jujube shrunken-fruit disease,and to explore its primary infection period,the labeling system with copper sulfate in A. alternata was established,which will facilitate the study of infection mechanisms and pathogenicity of the pathogen,and effective management of the disease in the field. [Method]Copper sulfate was selected for the reagent of resistance-labeling in A. alternata wild type strain CN193 from the four fungicidal chemicals,i. e. copper sulfate,cobalt chloride,silver nitrate and cycloheximide by using inhibition zone method on PDA plate. With the inhibition method of spore germination,the mixture of conidial spore suspension with either 1. 0 mg·mL -1 ,1. 5 mg·mL -1 or 2. 0 mg·mL -1 concentration of the copper sulfate in a ratio of 1∶1 was dropped into concave slides. The germinated spores were scored after a 12 h incubation,and the initial concentration of copper sulfate was determined. A copper sulfate-resistant mutant strain CN193Cur was obtained by culturing the fungus on PDA medium containing copper sulfate from 1. 5 mg·mL -1 up to 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . The stability of the copper sulfate resistance of mutant CN193Cur was verified in the laboratory,and its infectivity was determined by pathogenicity test in a jujube plantation with inoculation of spore by spraying to the jujube flowers and stab-wounding on the surface of unripe jujube fruits,together with the analysis of BOX-PCR finger printing patterns.[Result]Copper sulfate had highly inhibitory effect on A. alternata while cobalt chloride and silver nitrate were less inhibitive,and cycloheximide was not inhibitive. The initial concentration of copper sulfate was set at 1. 5 mg·mL -1 , which produced a mutation rate of 12%,and the final concentration of copper sulfate in this study was 4. 5 mg·mL -1 . Inoculation tests showed that the mutant CN193Cur had the same pathogenicity as did

  6. Dependency of the band gap of electrodeposited Copper oxide thin films on the concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H2O) and pH in bath solution for photovoltaic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Md. Anisul

    2016-03-10

    In this study, Copper oxide thin films were deposited on copper plate by electrodeposition process in an electrolytic bath containing CuSO4.5H2O, 3M lactic acid and NaOH. Copper oxide films were electrodeposited at different pH and different concentration of CuSO4.5H2O and the optical band gap was determined from their absorption spectrum which was obtained from UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. It was found that copper oxide films which were deposited at low concentration of CuSO4.5H2O have higher band gap than those deposited at higher bath concentration. The band gap of copper oxide films also significantly changes with pH of the bath solution. It was also observed that with the increase of the pH of bath solution band gap of copper oxide film decreased. © 2015 IEEE.

  7. EDTA complexometric titration for determination of aluminum in copper sulfate waste solution%EDTA 络合滴定法测定硫酸铜废液中的铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白小叶; 迟爱玲

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate waste solution generated in metallurgical process is studied in determining aluminum . Ammonia (1+1) is used to separate aluminum in the form of aluminum hydroxide precipitation from the principal part of the solution ,and then the aluminum mass concentration is determined by EDTA complexometry .A series of ex-periments are conducted on the parameters such as copper and iron ionic interference ,solution acidity and the temper-ature of the EDTA complexation reaction ,solving the problems of the determination of the aluminum in this copper sul-fate waste solution .This method compared with spectrophotometry is simple , rapid and has lower analysis cost .The method through the determination in copper sulfate solution with different mass fraction ,obtains a relative standard de-viation of 0.071 %-0.930 %(n=6),and sample measurements are consistent with the azure S value determined by spectrophotometry .%实验研究了冶金工艺过程产生的硫酸铜废液中铝的测定方法。采用氨水(1+1)使铝以氢氧化铝沉淀的形式与主体溶液分离,然后用EDTA络合法测定铝的质量浓度;对该硫酸铜废液中铜、铁干扰离子、溶液的酸度、EDTA络合反应温度等条件进行了一系列的实验,解决了硫酸铜废液中铝的测定难题。该方法与分光光度法比较,简单快速,分析成本低廉;通过对不同硫酸铜废液中铝的质量浓度测定,相对标准偏差为0.071%~0.930%(n=6),样品测定值与络天青S分光光度法测定值相符合。

  8. In Situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Bisulfate and Sulfate Adsorption on Gold, With and Without the Underpotential Deposition of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    fleta Entered) In situ surface infrared (IR) spectroelectrochemistry is used to investigate the adsorption of sulfate (SO42 ") and bisulfate ( HS04 ) ions...IR) spectroelectrochemistry is used to investigate the adsorption of sulfate (SO42-) and bisulfate ( HS04 -) ions on polycrystalline gold surfaces in...asymmetric stretch) peak (Figure 7) suggest that for predominantly acidic solutions, HS04 - is lost from the surface as the potential is increased. On

  9. Toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o caramujo (Pomacea canaliculata = Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (Pomacea canaliculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Perri Venturini

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os caramujos podem se tornar um problema ambiental e econômico, podendo causar muitos prejuízos. O trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a toxicidade aguda do sulfato de cobre pentaidratado (CuSO4.5H2O e do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim para o P. canaliculata, em condição de laboratório. Para determinação da CL (I(50;96h, o caramujo foi exposto a seis concentrações crescentes de sulfato de cobre (0,0; 0,01; 0,03; 0,05; 0,07 e 0,1 mg L-1 e a seis concentrações crescentes de extrato aquoso de folhas secas denim (0,0; 100; 125; 150; 175 e 200 mL de extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim L-1 de água, equivalente a 0,0; 1,18; 1,47; 1,77; 2,06; e 2,36 mg de azadiractina L-1, com três repetições e um tratamento-controle em um experimento no delineamento inteiramente casualizado(DIC. A CL (I(50;96h estimada para o caramujo foi de 0,07 mg de sulfato de cobre L-1, com limite inferior de 0,05 mg L-1 e limite superior de 0,1 mg L-1. A concentração letal 50% (CL (I50;96h estimada do extrato aquoso de folhas secas de nim (EAFSN para o caramujo foi de 142,75 mL L-1, equivalente a 1,68 mg L-1 de azadiractina, com limite inferior de 130,89 mL L-1 (1,54, mg L-1 e limite superior de 155,69 mL L-1 (1,83 mg L-1.Snails can become an environmental and economic problem, causing substantial losses. The objective of this work was to estimatethe acute toxicity of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O and the aqueous extract of dried neem leaves on snails (P. canaliculata under laboratory conditions. In order to estimate the lethal concentration 50% (LC (I50;96h, snails were exposed to six increasing copper sulfate concentrations (0.0; 0.01; 0.03; 0.05; 0.07 and 0.1 mg L-1 and six increasing concentrations of aqueous extract of dried neem leaves 0.0; 100; 125; 150; 175 and 200 mL aqueous extract of dried neem leaves L-1 water, equivalent to (0.0; 1.18; 1.47; 1.77; 2.06; and 2.36 mg azadirachtin L-1, in triplicate and one control treatment in an

  10. The Revovery of Copper and Cobalt from Oxidized Copper Ore and Converter Slag

    OpenAIRE

    ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Berrin; ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Recep

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for obtaining copper and cobalt from oxidized copper ore and converter slag. In order to convert the copper and cobalt into sulfate compounds the main step was to roast the samples obtained by sulfurization and transfer the samples into solution. First the oxidized copper ore was roasted, followed by the mixture of converter slag and oxidized copper ore. Since the levels of copper and cobalt were low, the sulfurization process was carri...

  11. [Study of a topical antibacterial, contraceptive, antifungal and anti-venereal pharmacological combination. III. Post-coital test of the spermicidal action of a combination of oxyquinoline sulfate, copper sulfate and lactic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, F; Santoro, S; Crescenzi, F; Santoro, C; Ivaldi, M

    1979-06-01

    30 fertile couples volunteered to test a new spermicidal vaginal cream. The cream, an association of oxyguinoline sulphate, copper sulphate, and lactic acid, was applied before and during intercourse. Postcoital tests were done with material taken from the posterior fornix and from the cervical mucus to investigate the presence and motility of spermatozoa. No mobile forms were found, while preceding spermiograms had evaluated that count, motility, and morphology of the partners' spermatozoa were perfectly normal. From these results it can be stated that the drug can be a valid alternative to oral or intrauterine contraception, being safe, easy, cheap, and without side effects.

  12. Metal-organic framework based on copper(I) sulfate and 4,4‧-bipyridine catalyzes the cyclopropanation of styrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fa-Nian; Silva, Ana Rosa; Rocha, João

    2011-08-01

    The hydrothermal synthesis of a new metal-organic framework (MOF) formulated as Cu 2(4,4'-bpy) 2SO 4·6(H 2O), [abbreviation: (1); bpy or 4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine; SO 42-=sulfate group] has been reported. The structure of this MOF consists of Cu + nodes connected via 4,4'-bpy to form infinite chains, with two neighboring chains further bridged on the nodes by SO 42-, resulting in a 1-D double chain network. Guest water molecules reside in between the chains and are hydrogen-bonded to the O and S atoms from the nearest sulfate groups, leading to the formation of a 3-D supramolecular framework. This MOF is good heterogeneous catalyst for the cyclopropanation of styrene, with high trans cyclopropane diastereoselectivity and was recycled and reused for three consecutive cycles without a significant loss of catalytic activity.

  13. 硫酸铜和氰戊菊酯对斑马鱼急性毒性试验%Acute toxicity of copper sulfate and fenvalerate to zebrafish ( Brachydanio rerio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱军; 李晓芹; 胡秀彩; 张艳华; 程超

    2011-01-01

    为探究重金属和农药对斑马鱼的毒性与安全评价,选用硫酸铜、氰戊菊酯对斑马鱼进行急性毒性试验,以24~96h半致死浓度(LC50)判定斑马鱼对这两种药物的敏感性.结果表明,硫酸铜24 hLC50、48h LC50、72 h LC50、96h LC50分别为12mg/L、7.9 mg/L、6.8mg/L、5.4 mg/L;氰戊菊酯24 h LC50、48h LC50、72h LC50、96h LC50分别为1.2×10-4 mg/L、0.9×10-4 mg/L、0.9×10-4 mg/L、0.9×10-4 mg/L; 硫酸铜安全质量浓度为1.03mg/L,氰戊菊酯为1.52×1O-5 mg/L.参照我国化学物质对鱼类毒性分级标准,判定硫酸铜对斑马鱼急性毒性为Ⅱ级,氰戊菊酯对斑马鱼急性毒性为Ⅰ级.%The present paper is aimed to report our experiments and investigations on the toxicity of the heavy metals and pesticides to ze bralish (Brachydanio rerio ) by using standardized laboratory proce dures, along with our measurements on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate and fenvalerate. In proceeding with our experiments, we have tested and measure the sensitivities of zebarfish to these pesticides re spectively by using medium lethal concentrations (LC50) every 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. The results showed that the values of 24 h LC50, 48 h LC50,72 h LC50 and 96 h LC50 of CuS04 were 12 mg/L, 7.9 mg/L, 6.8 mg/L and 5.4 mg/L, respectively. The values of LC50 for fenvalerate were 1.2 × 10-4 mg/L, 0.9 × 10-4 mg/L, 0.9 × 10-4 mg/L and 0.9 × 10-4 mg/L, respectively. The safe concen trations of the two pesticides were 1.03 mg/L and 1.52 × 10-5 mg/L, respectively. Though we have found that the copper sulfate is likely to lead to shape distortion of zebrafish, causing the phenomena of upside-down and the head-up, the scoliosis was not obvious. How ever, the fenvalerate can cause the bending of back and side in fish, which is of different characteristics. However, the pesticide fenvaler ate proves more sensitive to zebarfish than the copper sulfate. There was no change in the death rate of zebarfish after 48

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria: Co-Evolution of Copper and INH Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yuling; Yang, Fan; Sun, Zhongyuan; Wang, Qingtao; Mi, Kaixia; Deng, Haiteng

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand the resistance mechanisms of mycobacteria to copper, we generated a copper-resistant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, mc2155-Cu from the selection of copper sulfate treated-bacteria...

  15. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone with n-propyl alcohol-ammonium sulfate-water system by extraction flotation of copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Quanmin

    2008-05-01

    Although the determination methods of sodium ceftriaxone has been increasingly reported, these methods have their inherent limits preventing them from being broadly applied in common laboratories. In order to circumvent this problem, a rapid and simple method for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of sodium ceftriaxone is reported. Sodium ceftriaxone was degraded completely in the presence of 0.20 mol/l sodium hydroxide in boiling water bath for 20 min. The thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (I) of sodium ceftriaxone could reduce cupric to cuprous ions, and the resulting which was precipitated with the thiol group (-SH) of the degradation product (II) at pH 4.0. By determining the residual amount of copper (II), the indirect determination of sodium ceftriaxone can be achieved. Standard curve of sodium ceftriaxone versus the flotation yield of copper(II) showed that sodium ceftriaxone could be determined in low concentrations. The linear range of sodium ceftriaxone was 0.70-32 microg/ml and the detection limit evaluated by calibration curve (3sigma/k) was found to be 0.60 microg/ml. A simple and efficient method was developed and it has been successfully applied to the determination of sodium ceftriaxone in human serum and urine samples, respectively. It is expected that this method will find broad applications in the detection of cephalosporin derivatives with similar structure.

  16. 2010年饮用水中硫酸盐和铜质控结果分析%Analysis of inner - laboratory comparison results of sulfate and copper in drinking water in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢素格; 夏芳; 张榕杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:为了更好的提高全省疾控中心实验室在饮用水方面的检测水平.方法:依照《生活饮用水标准检验方法》(GB/T5750.5/6 - 2006)对应方法对合成水样中硫酸盐和铜进行质控考核.用Z比分数统计评价检测结果,分为满意、可疑和不满意3种.结果:此次对全省18个地市和55个县市疾控中心共73个实验室进行水质检验质量控制考核,硫酸盐测定结果满意的57家,占78.1%;结果可疑的8家,占11.0%;结果不满意的8家,占11.0%.铜测定结果满意的64家,占87.7%;结果可疑的8家,占11.0%.结果不满意的1家,占1.3%.结论:全省各级疾病预防控制中心硫酸盐、铜总体检测能力较高,少数实验室检测能力有待提高.%Objective: In order to well enhance the accuracy of laboratory detection result in drinking water. Methods: The sample was detected according to " Standard examination methods for drinking water" ( GB/T5750.5/6 - 2006) and the detection results were analyzed by "Z - score". Results: Detection results were provided by 73 laboratories of city and county centers for disease control and prevention. The detection results of sulfate were satisfactory in 57 laboratories (78. 1% ) , suspicious in 8 laboratories (11. 0% ) and dissatisfactory in 8 laboratories (11. 0% ) ; while the detection results of copper were satisfactory in 64 laboratories (87.1% ), suspicious in 8 laboratories (11.0%) and dissatisfactory inl laboratory (1. 3% ). Conclusion: The general testing capability on sulfate and copper is relatively high. However, there is still much room for improvement on testing quality level in several laboratories.

  17. 再生水中硫酸盐还原菌对铜合金的腐蚀%Effect of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria on Corrosion of Copper Alloy HSn701-AB in Recycled Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 李进; 焦迪

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and growth characters of sulfate reducing bacteria, which were separated from recycled water, and its effect on corrosion of copper alloy HSn701-AB in recycled water were investigated by means of microbiological technology, surface analysis technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the growth of SRB had 2 d~3 d's lag phase in recycled water. After immersed in recycled water with SRB for 3 days, the copper alloy HSn701-AB showed features of barrier diffusion impedance, and with the immersion time increased, the corrosion of HSn701-AB became severe in company with formation of a dense SRB bio-film.%采用微生物技术、表面分析技术以及电化学测量技术,研究了从再生水环境中分离提纯得到的硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)的形态、生长规律,以及SRB对铜合金HSn701-AB在再生水环境中腐蚀的影响.结果表明,在再生水环境中SRB的生长曲线存在2 d~3 d的停滞期;铜合金HSn701~AB在接种SRB的再生水环境中浸泡3 d时,出现阻挡层扩散阻抗,随着浸泡时间的增长,腐蚀加重,20 d时其表而生成致密的SRB生物膜.

  18. Effects of brief and intermediate exposures to sulfate submicron aerosols and sulfate injections on cardiopulmonary function of dogs and tracheal mucous velocity of sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackner, M.A. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL); Dougherty, R.L.; Chapman, G.A.; Cipley, J.; Perez, D.; Kwoka, M.; Reinhart, M.; Brito, M.; Schreck, R.

    1981-06-01

    Pulmonary mechanics of anesthetized dogs were not changed or were minimally altered by breathing the following compounds as submicron aerosols in concentrations up to 17.3 mg/m/sup 3/ for 7.5 min: (1) sodium chloride (as a control), (2) sodium sulfate, (3) ammonium sulfate, (4) zinc sulfate, (5) zinc ammonium sulfate, (6) ammonium bisulfate, (7) aluminum sulfate, (8) manganese sulfate, (9) nickel sulfate, (10) copper sulfate, (11) ferrous fulfate, and (12) ferric sulfate. Submicron aerosols of these compounds in concentrations of 4.1 to 8.8 mg/m/sup 3/, administered for 4 h to anesthetized dogs, did not affect mechanics of breathing, hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases. In conscious sheep, tracheal mucous velocity was not altered by exposure to the submicron aerosols of the sulfate compounds. None of these compounds, injected iv in a dose of 1 mg, had adverse effects on mechanics of breathing, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, or arterial blood gases. In 100-mg injections, zinc sulfate and zinc ammonium sulfate produced a fall in cardiac output, systemic hypotension, hypoxemia, and metabolic acidosis. Copper sulfate at this dose produced pulmonary hypertension, a fall in cardiac output, hypoxemia, respiratory acidosis, and a decrease of specific total respiratory conductance. It is concluded that submicron aerosols of sulfate salts do not have adverse cardiopulmonary effects when administered in high concentrations for up to 4 h. However, prolonged exposure to high concentrations of zinc sulfate, zinc ammonium sulfate, and copper sulfate aerosols might have adverse cardiopulmonary effects.

  19. Effects of ferrous sulfate, inoculum history, and anionic form on lead, zinc, and copper toxicity to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John E. Aston; William A. Apel; Brady D. Lee; Brent M. Peyton

    2010-12-01

    The current study reports the single and combined toxicities of Pb, Zn, and Cu to Acidithiobacillus caldus strain BC13. The observed half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50),?±?95% confidence intervals, for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 0.9?±?0.1?mM, 39?±?0.5?mM, and 120?±?8?mM, respectively. The observed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Pb, Zn, and Cu were 7.5?mM, 75?mM, and 250?mM, respectively. When metals were presented in binary mixtures, the toxicities were less than additive. For example, when 50% of the Pb MIC and 50% of the Cu MIC were presented together, the specific growth rate was inhibited by only 59?±?3%, rather than 100%. In addition, the presence of ferrous iron in the growth media decreased Pb and Zn toxicity to A. caldus strain BC13. The importance of inoculum history was evaluated by pre-adapting cultures through subsequent transfers in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu at their respective IC50s. After pre-adaptation, cultures had specific growth rates 39?±?11, 32?±?7, and 28?±?12% higher in the presence of Pb, Zn, and Cu IC50s, respectively, compared with cultures that had not been pre-adapted. In addition, when cells exposed to the MICs of Pb, Zn, and Cu were harvested, washed, and re-inoculated into fresh, metal-free medium, they grew, showing that the cells remained viable with little residual toxicity. Finally, metal chlorides showed more toxicity than metal sulfates, and studies using sodium chloride or a mixture of metal sulfates and sodium chloride suggested that this was attributable to an additive combination of the metal and chloride toxicities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2669–2675. © 2010 SETAC

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated γ-alumina support modified by a new Schiff base for solid phase extraction and flame-AAS determination of lead and copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast approach for solid phase extraction is herein described, and used to determine trace amounts of Pb2+ and Cu2+ metal ions. The solid phase support is sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-coated γ-alumina modified with bis(2-hydroxy acetophenone-1,6-hexanediimine (BHAH ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 6 mL of 4 M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The sorption recovery of metal ions was investigated with regard to the effects of pH, amount of ligand, γ-alumina and surfactant and the amount and type of eluent. Complexation of BHAH with Pb2+ or Cu2+ ions was examined via spectrophotometry using the HypSpec program. The detection limit for Cu2+ was 7.9 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.67%, while that for Pb2+ was 6.4 µg L-1 with a relative standard deviation of 1.64%. A preconcentration factor of 100 was achieved for these ions. The method was successfully applied to determine analyte concentrations in samples of liver, parsley, cabbage, and water.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of bis-(2-cyano-1-methyl-3-{2- {{(5-methylimidazol-4-yl)methyl}thio}ethyl)guanidine copper(II) sulfate tetrahydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahardjo, Sentot B.; Endah Saraswati, Teguh; Pramono, Edy; Fitriana, Nur

    2016-02-01

    Complex of copper(II) with 2-cyano-1-methyl-3-{2-{{(5-methylimidazol-4- yl)methyl}thio}ethyl)guanidin(xepamet) had been synthesized in 1 : 4 mole ratio of metal to the ligand in methanol. The complex was characterized by metal analysis, thermal gravimetry/differential thermal analyzer (TG/DTA), molar conductivity meter, (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility balance. The molar conductivity measurement shows that the complex was 2: 1 for electrolyte and SO42- which was acting as a counter ion. The thermal analysis by Thermogravimetric (TG) indicates that the complex contained four molecules of H2O. The Infrared spectral data indicates that functional groups of (C=N) imidazole and (C-S) are coordinated to the center ion Cu2+. Magnetic moment measurement shows that the complex is paramagnetic with peff = 1.78 ± 0.01 BM. Electronic spectra of the complex show a broad band at 608 nm (16447.23 cm-1) are due to Eg→T2g transition. Based on those of characteristics, The complex formula was estimated as [Cu(xepamet)2]SO4.4H2O. The structure of [Cu(xepamet)2]SO4.4H2O complex is probably square planar.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria: Co-Evolution of Copper and INH Resistance: e0127788

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuling Chen; Fan Yang; Zhongyuan Sun; Qingtao Wang; Kaixia Mi; Haiteng Deng

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand the resistance mechanisms of mycobacteria to copper, we generated a copper-resistant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, mc2155-Cu from the selection of copper sulfate treated-bacteria...

  3. Oxidation Mechanism of Copper Selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Pekka; Patana, Sonja; Kobylin, Petri; Latostenmaa, Petri

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation mechanism of copper selenide was investigated at deselenization temperatures of copper refining anode slimes. The isothermal roasting of synthetic, massive copper selenide in flowing oxygen and oxygen - 20% sulfur dioxide mixtures at 450-550 °C indicate that in both atmospheres the mass of Cu2Se increases as a function of time, due to formation of copper selenite as an intermediate product. Copper selenide oxidises to copper oxides without formation of thick copper selenite scales, and a significant fraction of selenium is vaporized as SeO2(g). The oxidation product scales on Cu2Se are porous which allows transport of atmospheric oxygen to the reaction zone and selenium dioxide vapor to the surrounding gas. Predominance area diagrams of the copper-selenium system, constructed for selenium roasting conditions, indicate that the stable phase of copper in a selenium roaster gas with SO2 is the sulfate CuSO4. The cuprous oxide formed in decomposition of Cu2Se is further sulfated to CuSO4.

  4. Effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of zinc sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas A. M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of magnetic field on the crystallization of diamagnetic zinc sulfate was investigated in a series of controlled batch cooling experiments. Zinc sulfate solutions were exposed to magnetic fields of different intensities, up to a maximum of 0.7T. A clear influence of magnetic field on the following zinc sulfate crystallization parameters was found: an increase in saturation temperature, a decrease in metastable zone width, and an increase in growth rate and average crystal size. These effects were observed for the diamagnetic zinc sulfate, but not in similar, previously reported experiments for paramagnetic copper sulfate.

  5. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and met

  6. The removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams using an aqueous metal sulfate absorbent : Part I. the absorption of hydrogen sulfide in metal sulfate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Maat, H.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    The desulfurization of gas streams using aqueous iron(II)sulfate (Fe(II)SO4), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) solutions as washing liquor is studied theoretically and experimentally. The desulfurization is accomplished by a precipitation reaction that occurs when sulfide ions and

  7. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  8. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The rapid killing of various bacteria in contact with metallic copper is thought to be influenced by the influx of copper ions into the cells, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. This study showed that the kinetics of contact killing of copper surfaces depended greatly on the amount...... of moisture present, copper content of alloys, type of medium used, and type of bacteria. We examined antibiotic- and copper ion-resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium isolated from pig farms following the use of copper sulfate as feed supplement. The results showed rapid killing...... of both copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium strains when samples in rich medium were spread in a thin, moist layer on copper alloys with 85% or greater copper content. E. coli strains were rapidly killed under dry conditions, while E. faecium strains were less affected. Electroplated copper...

  9. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  10. Copper on Chitosan: A Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Azide-alkyne Cycloaddition Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate is immobilized over chitosan by simply stirring an aqueous suspension of chitosan in water with copper sulfate; the ensuing catalyst has been utilized for the azide-alkyne cycloaddition in aqueous media and it can be recycled and reused many time without loosing it...

  11. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  12. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Andreazza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29º09'53.92''S and 51º31'39.40''W and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30º29'43.48''S and 53'32'37.87W. Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L-1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h. GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  13. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R; Pieniz, S; Okeke, B C; Camargo, F A O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09'53.92″S and 51°31'39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29'43.48″S and 53'32'37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L(-1) in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration.

  14. Ferrous Sulfate (Iron)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrous sulfate provides the iron needed by the body to produce red blood cells. It is used ... Ferrous sulfate comes as regular, coated, and extended-release (long-acting) tablets; regular and extended-release capsules; ...

  15. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  16. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  17. Potassium sorbate-A new aqueous copper corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, Esta [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Starosvetsky, David [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ein-Eli, Yair [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: eineli@tx.technion.ac.il

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the novel nature of 2,4-hexadienoic acid potassium salt (potassium sorbate (KCH{sub 3}CH=CHCH=CHCO{sub 2})) as an effective copper aqueous corrosion inhibitor. The influence of pH and potassium sorbate concentration on copper corrosion in aerated sulfate and chloride solutions is reported. Degree of copper protection was found to increase with an increase in potassium sorbate concentration; an optimum concentration of this inhibitor in sulfate solutions was found to be 10 g/L. Copper is highly resistant to corrosion attacks by chloride ions in the presence of potassium sorbate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies suggest that copper protection is achieved via the formation of a mixed layer of cuprous oxide, cupric hydroxide and copper(II)-sorbate at the metal surface.

  18. Simulated small-scale pilot heap leaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore with selective extraction of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wen-qing; ZHANG Yan-sheng; LI Wei-zhong; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    The bioleaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore and the selective extraction of copper were investigated.Lix984 dissolved in kerosene was used as extractant.The results show that it is possible to selectively leach copper from the ores by heap leaching.The copper concentration of leaching liquor after 250 d is 2.17 g/L,and the copper concentration is 0.27 g/L after solvent extraction.The leach liquor was subjected to solvent extraction,scrubbing and selective stripping for the enrichment of copper and the removal of impurities.The pregnant copper sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for copper electro-winning.

  19. Tyrosine Sulfation of Statherin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kasinathan, N. Gandhi, P. Ramaprasad, P. Sundaram, N. Ramasubbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase (TPST, responsible for the sulfation of a variety of secretory and membrane proteins, has been identified and characterized in submandibular salivary glands (William et al. Arch Biochem Biophys 1997; 338: 90-96. In the present study we demonstrate the sulfation of a salivary secretory protein, statherin, by the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase present in human saliva. Optimum statherin sulfation was observed at pH 6.5 and at 20 mm MnCl2. Increase in the level of total sulfation was observed with increasing statherin concentration. The Km value of tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase for statherin was 40 μM. Analysis of the sulfated statherin product on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by autoradiography revealed 35S-labelling of a 5 kDa statherin. Further analysis of the sulfated statherin revealed the sulfation on tyrosyl residue. This study is the first report demonstrating tyrosine sulfation of a salivary secretory protein. The implications of this sulfation of statherin in hydroxyapatite binding and Actinomyces viscosus interactions are discussed.

  20. Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Impact Several Toxicological Endpoints and Cause Neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J; Zanon, Tyler; Kappell, Anthony D; Petrella, Lisa N; Andersen, Erik C; Hristova, Krassimira R

    2016-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly incorporated into technology and consumer products. In 2014, over 300 tons of copper oxide nanoparticles were manufactured in the United States. The increased production of nanoparticles raises concerns regarding the potential introduction into the environment or human exposure. Copper oxide nanoparticles commonly release copper ions into solutions, which contribute to their toxicity. We quantified the inhibitory effects of both copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on C. elegans toxicological endpoints to elucidate their biological effects. Several toxicological endpoints were analyzed in C. elegans, including nematode reproduction, feeding behavior, and average body length. We examined three wild C. elegans isolates together with the Bristol N2 laboratory strain to explore the influence of different genotypic backgrounds on the physiological response to copper challenge. All strains exhibited greater sensitivity to copper oxide nanoparticles compared to copper sulfate, as indicated by reduction of average body length and feeding behavior. Reproduction was significantly reduced only at the highest copper dose, though still more pronounced with copper oxide nanoparticles compared to copper sulfate treatment. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on neurons, cells with known vulnerability to heavy metal toxicity. Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons was observed in up to 10% of the population after copper oxide nanoparticle exposure. Additionally, mutants in the divalent-metal transporters, smf-1 or smf-2, showed increased tolerance to copper exposure, implicating both transporters in copper-induced neurodegeneration. These results highlight the complex nature of CuO nanoparticle toxicity, in which a nanoparticle-specific effect was observed in some traits (average body length, feeding behavior) and a copper ion specific effect was observed for other traits

  1. Roles of heparan sulfate sulfation in dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Satoru; Kurosaka, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Takeshi; Kalus, Ina; Milz, Fabian; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Islam, Md Nurul; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Saito, Masahiro; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Adachi, Taiji; Dierks, Thomas; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2012-04-06

    Cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential regulator of cell signaling and development. HS traps signaling molecules, like Wnt in the glycosaminoglycan side chains of HS proteoglycans (HSPGs), and regulates their functions. Endosulfatases Sulf1 and Sulf2 are secreted at the cell surface to selectively remove 6-O-sulfate groups from HSPGs, thereby modifying the affinity of cell surface HSPGs for its ligands. This study provides molecular evidence for the functional roles of HSPG sulfation and desulfation in dentinogenesis. We show that odontogenic cells are highly sulfated on the cell surface and become desulfated during their differentiation to odontoblasts, which produce tooth dentin. Sulf1/Sulf2 double null mutant mice exhibit a thin dentin matrix and short roots combined with reduced expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) mRNA, encoding a dentin-specific extracellular matrix precursor protein, whereas single Sulf mutants do not show such defective phenotypes. In odontoblast cell lines, Dspp mRNA expression is potentiated by the activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. In addition, pharmacological interference with HS sulfation promotes Dspp mRNA expression through activation of Wnt signaling. On the contrary, the silencing of Sulf suppresses the Wnt signaling pathway and subsequently Dspp mRNA expression. We also show that Wnt10a protein binds to cell surface HSPGs in odontoblasts, and interference with HS sulfation decreases the binding affinity of Wnt10a for HSPGs, which facilitates the binding of Wnt10a to its receptor and potentiates the Wnt signaling pathway, thereby up-regulating Dspp mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that Sulf-mediated desulfation of cellular HSPGs is an important modification that is critical for the activation of the Wnt signaling in odontoblasts and for production of the dentin matrix.

  2. The ceric sulfate dosimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbakke, Erling

    1970-01-01

    The process employed for the determination of absorbed dose is the reduction of ceric ions to cerous ions in a solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in 0.8N sulfuric acid: Ce4+→Ce 3+ The absorbed dose is derived from the difference in ceric ion concentration before and after irradiation...

  3. Optimization and validation of a method for the determination of the refractive index of milk serum based on the reaction between milk and copper(II) sulfate to detect milk dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Patrícia Sueli; do Carmo, Geraldo Paulo; Esteves, Eduardo Gonçalves

    2015-06-01

    We report the use of a method to determine the refractive index of copper(II) serum (RICS) in milk as a tool to detect the fraudulent addition of water. This practice is highly profitable, unlawful, and difficult to deter. The method was optimized and validated and is simple, fast and robust. The optimized method yielded statistically equivalent results compared to the reference method with an accuracy of 0.4% and quadrupled analytical throughput. Trueness, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and ruggedness are determined to be satisfactory at a 95.45% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty of the measurement was ±0.38°Zeiss at the 95.45% confidence level (k=3.30), corresponding to 1.03% of the minimum measurement expected in adequate samples (>37.00°Zeiss). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2012-01-01

    Heparan sulfate is perhaps the most complex polysaccharide known from animals. The basic repeating disaccharide is extensively modified by sulfation and uronic acid epimerization. Despite this, the fine structure of heparan sulfate is remarkably consistent with a particular cell type. This suggests...... that the synthesis of heparan sulfate is tightly controlled. Although genomics has identified the enzymes involved in glycosaminoglycan synthesis in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, the regulation of the process is not understood. Moreover, the localization of the various enzymes in the Golgi apparatus has......-quality resolution of the distribution of enzymes. The EXT2 protein, which when combined as heterodimers with EXT1 comprises the major polymerase in heparan sulfate synthesis, has been studied in depth. All the data are consistent with a cis-Golgi distribution and provide a starting point to establish whether all...

  5. Copper and selenium supplementation in the diet of Brangus steers on the nutritional characteristics of meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Saran Netto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on the carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle and on the copper and selenium concentrations in the liver. The treatments were: no supplementation of copper or selenium; 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite; 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate; and 2 mg Se/kg DM as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg DM as copper sulfate. The fat thickness, rib eye area and fatty acid composition of the longissimus dorsi muscle were not affected by treatments. There was no effect on carcass yield and cooling loss with the supplementation of copper, selenium or selenium × copper in the levels studied. For the ether extract concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle, no differences were found according to the treatments with selenium, copper or selenium × copper. The treatments with selenium and selenium × copper showed higher selenium concentrations in the liver than the control and copper treatments. For the copper concentration in the liver, the copper and selenium × copper treatments showed higher values than the control and selenium treatments. Despite the little effect on the meat composition, the results of this experiment demonstrate no interaction between selenium and copper in the levels studied.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria: Co-Evolution of Copper and INH Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yuling Chen; Fan Yang; Zhongyuan Sun; Qingtao Wang; Kaixia Mi; Haiteng Deng

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a worldwide public health threat. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of resisting various stresses in host cells, including high levels of ROS and copper ions. To better understand the resistance mechanisms of mycobacteria to copper, we generated a copper-resistant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, mc2155-Cu from the selection of copper sulfate treated-bacteria. The mc2155-Cu strain has a 5-fold higher resistance to coppe...

  7. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species.

  8. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  9. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  10. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  11. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  12. Evaluation of copper resistant bacteria from vineyard soils and mining waste for copper biosorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, R.; Pieniz, S.; Okeke, B.C.; Camargo, F.A.O

    2011-01-01

    Vineyard soils are frequently polluted with high concentrations of copper due application of copper sulfate in order to control fungal diseases. Bioremediation is an efficient process for the treatment of contaminated sites. Efficient copper sorption bacteria can be used for bioremoval of copper from contaminated sites. In this study, a total of 106 copper resistant bacteria were examined for resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption of copper. Eighty isolates (45 from vineyard Mollisol, 35 from Inceptisol) were obtained from EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária) experimental station, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil (29°09′53.92″S and 51°31′39.40″W) and 26 were obtained from copper mining waste from Caçapava do Sul, RS, Brazil (30°29′43.48″S and 53′32′37.87W). Based on resistance to copper toxicity and biosorption, 15 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Maximal copper resistance and biosorption at high copper concentration were observed with isolate N2 which removed 80 mg L−1 in 24 h. Contrarily isolate N11 (Bacillus pumilus) displayed the highest specific copper biosorption (121.82 mg/L/OD unit in 24 h). GenBank MEGABLAST analysis revealed that isolate N2 is 99% similar to Staphylococcus pasteuri. Results indicate that several of our isolates have potential use for bioremediation treatment of vineyards soils and mining waste contaminated with high copper concentration. PMID:24031606

  13. Electrodeposition of copper selenide films from acidic bath and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Rajaram S.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan; Pathan, Habib M.

    2012-06-01

    Copper selenide thin films are successfully deposited using electrodeposition method by combining copper sulfate and sodiumseleno sulfate precursors at room temperature in acidic bath. The chemical composition was a key factor in preparing high-quality uniform and smooth thin films of the copper selenide. We present indium-tin-oxide as a substrate for depositing copper selenide films which usually exists as copper (I) selenide or copper (II) selenide. Obtained brownish films of copper selenide are examined for their structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques, respectively for the structural, morphological and optical analysis.

  14. Effects of auxin and copper on growth of saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Sharifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is known as one of the most common spices and medicinal plant in the world. Little information is available on the effects of copper and growth regulators on morphological characteristics of saffron. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of copper and auxin on morphological properties of root and leaf of saffron. This study was arranged as a factorial experiment in greenhouse condition and in hydroponic system. Copper was used in copper sulfate (CuSO4 form (0, 0.02, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L and auxin in naphthalene acetic acid (NAA form (0, 1 and 2 g/L. Results showed that interaction of Naphthalene acetic acid 1 g/L and copper sulfate 0.1 mg/L increased root number, as well as root and leaf dry weight. Furthermore, naphthalene acetic acid 1 and 2 g/L in most treatments reduced the number of buds. Copper concentration of corm was increased in 0.2 mg/L copper sulfate.

  15. Syndecan heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Angélica Maciel; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; Multhaupt, Hinke A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell. Their hep......Virtually all animal cells express heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Syndecans are a major group of transmembrane proteoglycans functioning as receptors that mediate signal transmission from the extracellular microenvironment to the cell....... Their heparan sulfate chains, due to their vast structural diversity, interact with a wide array of ligands including potent regulators of adhesion, migration, growth and survival. Frequently, ligands interact with cell surface heparan sulfate in conjunction with high affinity receptors. The consequent...... signaling can therefore be complex, but it is now known that syndecans are capable of independent signaling. This review is divided in two sections, and will first discuss how the assembly of heparan sulfate, the anabolic process, encodes information related to ligand binding and signaling. Second, we...

  16. Produção de betacianina em erva-de-jacaré cultivada in vitro com diferentes concentrações de sulfato de cobre Betacyanin production in alligator weed, grown in vitro, with different concentrations of copper sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janieli Cristina Perotti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A manipulação da concentração dos microelementos no meio de cultura representa uma boa estratégia para aumentar a produção de metabólitos secundários em cultura de tecidos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo demonstrar a influência do sulfato de cobre na produção de betacianina e na multiplicação de plantas de Alternanthera philoxeroides (erva-de-jacaré cultivadas in vitro. Segmentos nodais, obtidos de plantas pré-estabelecidas e após três subcultivos, foram inoculados em meio MS, com diferentes concentrações de CuSO4 (0; 25; 75; 125; 175; 200µM. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis concentrações de CuSO4 e cinco repetições representadas por um frasco contendo quatro explantes. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância, à regressão polinomial e a análises de correlação entre as variáveis morfológicas e a produção de betacianina. Concentrações acima de 75µM diminuíram a altura das plantas, o número de brotos e gemas e o crescimento radicular, enquanto que, na concentração de 125µM, houve a maior produção de massa fresca. A produção de betacianina aumentou 60% em relação ao controle com 175µM de CuSO4. Ocorreu crescimento das plantas em todas as concentrações de CuSO4 testadas, com exceção de 200µM, sendo esta considerada tóxica.The manipulation of concentration of trace elements in the culture medium represents a good strategy to increase the production of secondary metabolites in tissue culture. This study aimed to demonstrate the influence of copper sulphate in the production of betacyanin and the multiplication of plants of Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed cultured in vitro. Nodal segments, obtained from plants pre-stablished and after three subcultures, were inoculated in basic MS with different concentrations of CuSO4 (0, 25, 75, 125, 175, 200µM. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, polynomial regression and

  17. The effect of bi presence as impurities in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zvonimir D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Bi, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution was investigated using the galvanostatic single-pulse method. Results indicate that presence of Bi atoms in anode copper increases the exchange current density, as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction, which is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  18. Flash light sintered copper precursor/nanoparticle pattern with high electrical conductivity and low porosity for printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Wan-Ho; Hwang, Hyun-Jun [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak-Sung, E-mail: kima@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haendang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated and sintered via flash light irradiation to achieve highly conductive electrode pattern with low porosity. The hybrid copper ink was made of copper nanoparticles and various copper precursors (e.g., copper(II) chloride, copper(II) nitrate trihydrate, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and copper(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate). The printed hybrid copper inks were sintered at room temperature and under ambient conditions using an in-house flash light sintering system. The effects of copper precursor weight fraction and the flash light irradiation conditions (light energy and pulse duration) were investigated. Surfaces of the sintered hybrid copper patterns were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Also, spectroscopic characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the crystal phases of the flash light sintered copper precursors. High conductivity hybrid copper patterns (27.3 μΩ cm), which is comparable to the resistivity of bulk copper (1.68 μΩ cm) were obtained through flash light sintering at room temperature and under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • The hybrid copper inks with precursor and nanoparticles were fabricated. • The hybrid copper ink was sintered via flash light irradiation. • The resistivity of sintered hybrid copper ink was 27.3 μΩ cm. • Highly conductive copper film with low porosity could be achieved.

  19. Material characterization of ancient Indian copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Srivastava; R Balasubramaniam

    2003-10-01

    A chalcolithic (2350–1800 BC) copper chisel from Balathal has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, microstructural and electrochemical methods. The surface patina was composed of sulfates and oxysulfates in the outer layers while the inner layers were rich in copper oxides. The chisel exhibited smaller grain sizes near two of the surfaces while the structure in the interior was equiaxed. The deformed grains and inclusions near the surfaces and variation in the microhardness of the sample from different faces proved that the copper chisel was processed by cold deformation after initial casting of the square cross-section chisel. The electrochemical behaviour of chalcolithic Cu has been compared with that of a modern Cu sample by potentiodynamic polarization studies. The corrosion rate of chalcolithic Cu in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution was only marginally higher than that of modern Cu. The higher rate of corrosion has been attributed to the presence of second phase sulfide inclusions. The excellent condition of preservation of the 3800-year-old copper object, with no indications of stress corrosion cracking, suggests that pure copper or copper-based materials can be seriously considered as candidate canister materials for long-term underground storage of nuclear wastes in underground repositories.

  20. Controlling barium sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, R.

    Even though for several years success has been realized in controlling barium sulfate scale deposition in relatively shallow, low pressure oil wells--by squeezing an organic phosphonate scale inhibitor into the producing zone--barium sulfate scale depositon in deep, high pressure/high temperature wells usually meant an expensive workover operation. A case history of a deep (16,000 ft) well in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, and the scale inhibitor squeeze operation are described. Based on the successful results obtained in treating this well, a generalized treating procedure for combating downhole scale deposition in high pressure/high temperature gas wells is presented. Formation squeezing with such an inhibitor represents a significant breakthrough for the oil and gas industry.

  1. Electrochemical nucleation and growth of copper and copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wenbo

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical processes occurring in electrochemical nucleation and growth. To this end, the effects of various anions (chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-) and sulfamate (NH2SO 3-)) on the electrochemical kinetics and the mechanism of copper reduction, as well as on the microstructure of the resulting films, were studied. On the basis of this work, the deposition of copper alloys (Cu-Ag with positive heat of mixing, Cu-Au with negative heat of mixing) was investigated with the main objective to achieve an insight on the role of solid state thermodynamics on the electrocrystallization process. Chloride ions cause two competing effects: at low chloride concentration the formation of an adsorbed chloride layer introduces an additional reaction pathway, resulting in an overall depolarization of the reduction process with no significant change of the Tafel slope. At high chloride concentration, complexation phenomena induce a cathodic polarization of the deposition process and a decrease in the Tafel slope. Chlorides cause a decrease in the density and an increased size of copper nuclei. Sulfamate depolarizes copper reduction the most and results in the largest nucleus density. Chloride promotes the faceting, and dendritic growth of copper deposits along direction by introducing interfacial anisotropy. Addition of Ag in the solution or in the electrode substrate enhances copper deposition and results in an additional reduction peak. Codeposition of Cu-Ag increases nucleus density and decreases nucleus size. Such enhancement of copper deposition, the increase in nucleus density and the decrease in nucleus size by Ag could be due to the continued formation of a surface alloy of Cu-Ag and the fast interface dynamics of Ag deposition. Cu can be underpotentially codeposited in the Cu-Au alloy. Homogeneous solid solutions are grown under conditions of underpotential deposition of Cu, while precipitation

  2. Studies on copper coating on carbon fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The weak interface bonding of metal matrix reinforced by carbon fibers is the central problem of fabricating such composites. Depositing copper coating on carbon fibers is regarded as a feasible method to solve the problem. In this paper, copper coating has been deposited on the fibers through both electroless deposition and electroplating methods. Two kinds of complexing agents and two stabilizing agents are taken during the electroless plating process. The solution is stable, and little extraneous component is absorbed on the surface. After adding additive agents and increasing the concentration of H2SO4 to the acid cupric sulfate electrolyte, the "black core" during usual electroplating process is avoided. The quality of copper coating is analyzed using SEM and XRD, etc.

  3. The effect of antimony presence in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Z.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of Sb atoms, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics, and, on the mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution has been investigated. The galvanostatic single-pulse method has been used. Results indicate that presence of Sb atoms in anode copper increase the exchange current density as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction. It is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  4. Sulfation of chondroitin. Specificity, degree of sulfation, and detergent effects with 4-sulfating and 6-sulfating microsomal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugumaran, G.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Microsomal preparations from chondroitin 6-sulfate-producing chick embryo epiphyseal cartilage, and from chondroitin 4-sulfate-producing mouse mastocytoma cells, were incubated with UDP-(14C)glucuronic acid and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine to form non-sulfated proteo(14C)chondroitin. Aliquots of the incubations were then incubated with 3'-phosphoadenylylphosphosulfate (PAPS) in the presence or absence of various detergents. In the absence of detergents, there was good sulfation of this endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin by the original microsomes from both sources. Detergents, with the exception of Triton X-100, markedly inhibited sulfation in the mast cell system but not in the chick cartilage system. These results indicate that sulfation and polymerization are closely linked on cell membranes and that in some cases this organization can be disrupted by detergents. When aliquots of the original incubation were heat inactivated, and then reincubated with new microsomes from chick cartilage and/or mouse mastocytoma cells plus PAPS, there was no significant sulfation of this exogenous proteo(14C) chondroitin with either system unless Triton X-100 was added. Sulfation of exogenous chondroitin and chondroitin hexasaccharide was compared with sulfation of endogenous and exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Sulfate incorporation into hexasaccharide and chondroitin decreased as their concentrations (based on uronic acid) approached that of the proteo(14C)chondroitin. At the same time, the degree of sulfation in percent of substituted hexosamine increased. However, the degree of sulfation did not reach that of the endogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin. Hexasaccharide and chondroitin sulfation were stimulated by the presence of Triton X-100. However, in contrast to the exogenous proteo(14C)chondroitin, there was some sulfation of hexasaccharide and chondroitin in the absence of this detergent.

  5. Off limits: sulfate below the sulfate-methane transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Benjamin; Arnold, Gail; Røy, Hans; Müller, Inigo; Jørgensen, Bo

    2016-07-01

    One of the most intriguing recent discoveries in biogeochemistry is the ubiquity of cryptic sulfur cycling. From subglacial lakes to marine oxygen minimum zones, and in marine sediments, cryptic sulfur cycling - the simultaneous sulfate consumption and production - has been observed. Though this process does not leave an imprint in the sulfur budget of the ambient environment - thus the term cryptic - it may have a massive impact on other element cycles and fundamentally change our understanding of biogeochemical processes in the subsurface. Classically, the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) in marine sediments is considered to be the boundary that delimits sulfate reduction from methanogenesis as the predominant terminal pathway of organic matter mineralization. Two sediment cores from Aarhus Bay, Denmark reveal the constant presence of sulfate (generally 0.1 to 0.2 mM) below the SMT. The sulfur and oxygen isotope signature of this deep sulfate (34S = 18.9‰, 18O = 7.7‰) was close to the isotope signature of bottom-seawater collected from the sampling site (34S = 19.8‰, 18O = 7.3‰). In one of the cores, oxygen isotope values of sulfate at the transition from the base of the SMT to the deep sulfate pool (18O = 4.5‰ to 6.8‰) were distinctly lighter than the deep sulfate pool. Our findings are consistent with a scenario where sulfate enriched in 34S and 18O is removed at the base of the SMT and replaced with isotopically light sulfate below. Here, we explore scenarios that explain this observation, ranging from sampling artifacts, such as contamination with seawater or auto-oxidation of sulfide - to the potential of sulfate generation in a section of the sediment column where sulfate is expected to be absent which enables reductive sulfur cycling, creating the conditions under which sulfate respiration can persist in the methanic zone.

  6. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  7. Copper Products Capacity Expansion Stimulate the Copper Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The dramatic growth of copper consumption in China can directly be seen from the expansion of copper products capacity.According to sta- tistics,in the past 4 years,the improvement on the balance of trade on copper bar,copper,and copper alloy and copper wire & cable has driven the growth of copper consumption a lot.

  8. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  9. 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob T; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    positive patch test reactions to the coupler 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. METHODS: Patch test results from the Allergen Bank database for eczema patients patch tested with 2-amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014 were reviewed. RESULTS......: A total of 902 dermatitis patients (154 from the dermatology department and 748 from 65 practices) were patch tested with amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate 2% pet. from 2005 to 2014. Thirteen (1.4%) patients had a positive patch test reaction. Our results do not indicate irritant reactions....... CONCLUSIONS: 2-Amino-4-hydroxyethylaminoanisole sulfate is a new but rare contact allergen....

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria: Co-Evolution of Copper and INH Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuling Chen

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a worldwide public health threat. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of resisting various stresses in host cells, including high levels of ROS and copper ions. To better understand the resistance mechanisms of mycobacteria to copper, we generated a copper-resistant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, mc2155-Cu from the selection of copper sulfate treated-bacteria. The mc2155-Cu strain has a 5-fold higher resistance to copper sulfate and a 2-fold higher resistance to isoniazid (INH than its parental strain mc2155, respectively. Quantitative proteomics was carried out to find differentially expressed proteins between mc2155 and mc2155-Cu. Among 345 differentially expressed proteins, copper-translocating P-type ATPase was up-regulated, while all other ABC transporters were down-regulated in mc2155-Cu, suggesting copper-translocating P-type ATPase plays a crucial role in copper resistance. Results also indicated that the down-regulation of metabolic enzymes and decreases in cellular NAD, FAD, mycothiol, and glutamine levels in mc2155-Cu were responsible for its slowing growth rate as compared to mc2155. Down-regulation of KatG2 expression in both protein and mRNA levels indicates the co-evolution of copper and INH resistance in copper resistance bacteria, and provides new evidence to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of survival of mycobacteria under stress conditions.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Drug-Resistant Mycobacteria: Co-Evolution of Copper and INH Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuling; Yang, Fan; Sun, Zhongyuan; Wang, Qingtao; Mi, Kaixia; Deng, Haiteng

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a worldwide public health threat. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is capable of resisting various stresses in host cells, including high levels of ROS and copper ions. To better understand the resistance mechanisms of mycobacteria to copper, we generated a copper-resistant strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis, mc2155-Cu from the selection of copper sulfate treated-bacteria. The mc2155-Cu strain has a 5-fold higher resistance to copper sulfate and a 2-fold higher resistance to isoniazid (INH) than its parental strain mc2155, respectively. Quantitative proteomics was carried out to find differentially expressed proteins between mc2155 and mc2155-Cu. Among 345 differentially expressed proteins, copper-translocating P-type ATPase was up-regulated, while all other ABC transporters were down-regulated in mc2155-Cu, suggesting copper-translocating P-type ATPase plays a crucial role in copper resistance. Results also indicated that the down-regulation of metabolic enzymes and decreases in cellular NAD, FAD, mycothiol, and glutamine levels in mc2155-Cu were responsible for its slowing growth rate as compared to mc2155. Down-regulation of KatG2 expression in both protein and mRNA levels indicates the co-evolution of copper and INH resistance in copper resistance bacteria, and provides new evidence to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of survival of mycobacteria under stress conditions.

  12. Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferrous sulfate. 184.1315 Section 184.1315 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (iron (II) sulfate... as pale, bluish-green crystals or granules. Progressive heating of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate...

  14. Relationship between copper, glycopeptide, and macrolide resistance among Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from pigs in Denmark between 1997 and 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    A significant relationship between copper resistance (tcrB), glycopeptide resistance (Tn1546), and macrolide resistance [erm(B)] in Enterococcus faecium isolated from pigs was found. The tcrB gene was located closely upstream of the Tn1546 element. However, the continued use of copper sulfate has...

  15. Copper Recovery from Yulong Complex Copper Oxide Ore by Flotation and Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Xiao, Jun; Qin, Wenqing; Chen, Daixiong; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A combined process of flotation and high-gradient magnetic separation was proposed to utilize Yulong complex copper oxide ore. The effects of particle size, activators, Na2S dosage, LA (a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ethylenediamine) dosage, activating time, collectors, COC (a combination collector of modified hydroxyl oxime acid and xanthate) dosage, and magnetic intensity on the copper recovery were investigated. The results showed that 74.08% Cu was recovered by flotation, while the average grade of the copper concentrates was 21.68%. Another 17.34% Cu was further recovered from the flotation tailing by magnetic separation at 0.8 T. The cumulative recovery of copper reached 91.42%. The modifier LA played a positive role in facilitating the sulfidation of copper oxide with Na2S, and the combined collector COC was better than other collectors for the copper flotation. This technology has been successfully applied to industrial production, and the results are consistent with the laboratory data.

  16. The selective catalytic reduction of no over copper-containing hematite; Reducao catalitica seletiva de oxidos de nitrogenio sobre hematita contendo cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Hadma Sousa; Oliveira, Soraia Jesus; Rangel, Maria do Carmo [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br; Urquieta-Gonzalez, Ernesto A.; Martins, Leandro [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Garcia Fierro, Jose Luis [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Instituto de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica; Marchetti, Sergio G. [Universidad de La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    The activity of copper-doped hematite in the SCR with propane, in the presence of oxygen, was evaluated in this work. It was found that copper sulfate led to the production of solids with different specific surface areas depending on the amount of copper. The sulfur and copper species were mainly located on the surface. The copper-containing catalysts were more active in the reduction of nitrogen oxides and less active in the propane oxidation as compared to pure hematite. This behavior was assigned to an association of both sulfur and copper species to produce new sites active for NO reduction. (author)

  17. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting ...

  18. Interaction of PACls with sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; WANG Dong-Sheng; TANG Hong-Xiao

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the influential factors on Al13 separation considering the interaction of sulfate with various polyaluminum chloride(PACl). The experimental results showed that the basicity(B=[OH]/[Al]), the concentration of PACl and Al/SO4 ratio exhibited significant roles in the PACl-sulfate reaction. It indicated that different species in various PACl underwent different reaction pathway with sulfate. The Alc, colloidal species, formed precipitation quickly with sulfate, while Alb, oligomers and polymers, undergoes slow crystallization. And Ala, monomers, reacts with sulfate to form soluble complexes. The kinetic difference of reaction made it possible to realize the separation of Alb and further purification. The decrease of Ala resulted in the limit of ferron method was also mentioned.

  19. Recovery of copper and cobalt by biopolymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, L K; Lopez, S L; Eastman, S L; Pryfogle, P

    1991-02-05

    The recovery of copper from synthetic aqueous media circulating in a loop fluidized bed reactor operated batchwise was investigated by using the following biopolymer systems: (1) a viscous solution of sodium alginate (from kelp) dispensed directly into the reactor fluid containing dissolved copper (sulfate salt) at initial concentrations of 60-200 ppm, (2) partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres for absorbing dissolved copper at initial concentrations of 10-40 ppm, and (3) a mixture of green algae Microcystis and sodium alginate dispensed directly into the reactor fluid. The recovery of copper and cobalt, a strategic metal, from cobalt ore leachate was achieved by a two-step approach: direct dispensing of sodium alginate to absorb the bulk of metals followed by the addition of partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres to "polish" the leachate. Metal binding capacity and conditional stability constant of each biopolymer system as well as the effective diffusivity of cupric ion in the matrix of biopolymer gels are reported.

  20. Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.; Learned, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

  1. Cathodic protection of XL 52 steel under the influence of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, R. Garcia [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Departamento de lngenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Olivares, G. Zavala; Gayosso, M.J. Hernandez; Trejo, A. Gayosso [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico, D.F. 07730 (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The effect of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) upon the cathodic protection of XL 52 steel was determined, in order to identify if the potential value of -0.950 V versus copper/copper sulfate electrode is good enough to protect the metal surface. During the experiments, different operational parameters were monitored: hydrogen sulfide production, iron concentration, electrolyte alkalinity, microorganisms' population, as well as the metal surface damage. At the same time, the corrosion rate was determined using two electrochemical techniques: polarization resistance (PR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). According to the results, it was observed that the protection potential of -0.950 V versus copper/copper sulfate electrode is not enough to control the microbiologically induced corrosion. This situation is reinforced by the fact that significant iron concentration was found in the electrolyte. The microbiological activity is not affected by the protection potential. On the contrary, the population growth is slightly strengthened. The alkalinity generated by the applied potential did not stop the SRB growth. A type of localized corrosion was developed during the experiments with microorganisms, even when the protection potential was applied to the system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Heparan sulfate and cell division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porcionatto M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Heparan sulfate is a component of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues which appears during the cytodifferentiation stage of embryonic development. Its structure varies according to the tissue and species of origin and is modified during neoplastic transformation. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that heparan sulfate plays a role in cellular recognition, cellular adhesion and growth control. Heparan sulfate can participate in the process of cell division in two distinct ways, either as a positive or negative modulator of cellular proliferation, or as a response to a mitogenic stimulus.

  3. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gryp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If chronic kidney disease (CKD is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden.

  4. p-Cresyl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryp, Tessa; Vanholder, Raymond; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Glorieux, Griet

    2017-01-01

    If chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an impairment of kidney function, several uremic solutes are retained. Some of these exert toxic effects, which are called uremic toxins. p-Cresyl sulfate (pCS) is a prototype protein-bound uremic toxin to which many biological and biochemical (toxic) effects have been attributed. In addition, increased levels of pCS have been associated with worsening outcomes in CKD patients. pCS finds its origin in the intestine where gut bacteria metabolize aromatic amino acids, such as tyrosine and phenylalanine, leading to phenolic end products, of which pCS is one of the components. In this review we summarize the biological effects of pCS and its metabolic origin in the intestine. It appears that, according to in vitro studies, the intestinal bacteria generating phenolic compounds mainly belong to the families Bacteroidaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Veillonellaceae. Since pCS remains difficult to remove by dialysis, the gut microbiota could be a future target to decrease pCS levels and its toxicity, even at earlier stages of CKD, aiming at slowing down the progression of the disease and decreasing the cardiovascular burden. PMID:28146081

  5. Volumetric determination of uranium using titanous sulfate as reductant before oxidimetric titration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg, James S.; Skinner, Dwight L.; Rader, Lewis F.

    1956-01-01

    A new method for determining uranium in samples containing 0.05 percent or more U3O8, using titanous sulfate as reducing agent, is much shorter, faster, and has fewer interferences than conventional methods using reductor columns. The sample is dissolved with sulfuric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric acids. Elements that would otherwise form insoluble fluorides are kept in solution by complexing the fluoride ion with boric acid. A precipitation is made with cupferron to remove interfering elements. The solution is filtered to remove the precipitated cupferrates instead of extracting them with chloroform as is usually done. Filtration is preferred to extraction because any niobium that may be in solution forms an insoluble cupferrate that may be removed by filtering but is very difficult to extract with chloroform. Excess cupferron is destroyed by oxidizing with nitric and perchloric acids, and evaporating to dense fumes of sulfuric acid. The uranium is reduced to U(IV) by the addition of titanous sulfate, with cupric sulfate used as an indicator of the completeness of the reduction. Metallic copper is formed when all the uranium is reduced. The reduced copper is then reoxidized by the addition of mercuric perchlorate, an excess of ferric sulfate added, and the solution titrated immediately with standard ceric sulfate with ferroin as an indicator. Precision of the method compared favorable with methods in common use, both for uranium ores and for most types of uranium-rich materials.

  6. [Copper pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, B; Romette, J; Di Costanzo, J D

    1982-01-30

    Copper is an essential dietary component, being the coenzyme of many enzymes with oxidase activity, e.g. ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, etc. The metabolism of copper is complex and imperfectly known. Active transport of copper through the intestinal epithelial cells involves metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups which also binds the copper in excess and probably prevents absorption in toxic amounts. In hepatocytes a metallothionein facilitates absorption by a similar mechanism and regulates copper distribution in the liver: incorporation in an apoceruloplasmin, storage and synthesis of copper-dependent enzymes. Metallothioneins and ceruloplasmin are essential to adequate copper homeostasis. Apart from genetic disorders, diseases involving copper usually result from hypercupraemia of varied origin. Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, although clinically and pathogenetically different, are both marked by low ceruloplasmin and copper serum levels. The excessive liver retention of copper in Wilson's disease might be due to increased avidity of hepatic metallothioneins for copper and decreased biliary excretion through lysosomal dysfunction. Menkes' disease might be due to low avidity of intestinal and hepatic metallothioneins for copper. The basic biochemical defect responsible for these two hereditary conditions has not yet been fully elucidated.

  7. [Copper IUDs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-10-01

    Following initial development of the Grafenberg ring in the 1920's, IUDs fell into disuse until the late 1950s, when plastic devices inserted using new technology began to gain worldwide acceptance. Further research indicated that copper had a significant antifertility effect which increased with increasing surface area, and several copper IUDs were developed and adapted, including the Copper T 200, the Copper T 220C, and the Copper T 380 A, probably the most effective yet. The Gravigard and Multiload are 2 other copper devices developed according to somewhat different principles. Copper devices are widely used not so much because of their great effectiveness as because of their suitability for nulliparous patients and their ease of insertion, which minimizes risk of uterine perforation. Records of 2584 women using Copper IUDs for 7190 women-years and 956 women using devices without copper for 6059 women-years suggest that the copper devices were associated with greater effectiveness and fewer removals for complications. Research suggests that the advantages of copper IUDs become more significant with increased duration of use. Contraindications to copper devices include allergy to copper and hepatolenticular degeneration. No carcinogenic or teratogenic effect of copper devices has been found, but further studies are needed to rule out other undesirable effects. Significant modifications of copper devices in recent years have been developed to increase their effectiveness, prolong their duration of usefulness, facilitate insertion and permit insertion during abortion or delivery. The upper limit of the surface area of copper associated with increased effectiveness appears to be between 200-300 sq mm, and at some point increases in copper exposure may provoke expulsion of the IUD. The duration of fertility inhibition of copper IUDs is usually estimated at 2-3 years, but recent research indicates that it may be 6-8 years, and some devices may retain copper surface

  8. Effects of two copper compounds on Microcystis aeruginosa cell density, membrane integrity, and microcystin release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Pei

    2015-10-01

    Microcystin release following Microcystis aeruginosa cell lysis after copper-based algaecide treatment is often cited as a concern leading to restricted use of algaecide in restoration of natural water resources. To examine this concern, bench-scale experiments were conducted to study responses of M. aeruginosa to 8-day copper exposures as copper sulfate and copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA). M. aeruginosa UTEX 2385 was cultured in BG11 medium to cell density of 10(6)cells/mL with total and extracellular microcystin of 93 and 53μg/L, respectively. Exposures of copper concentration ranged from 40 to 1000μgCu/L. Cell membrane integrity was indicated by erythrosine B. In the end of experiment, total microcystin and cell density in untreated control (313μg/L and 10(7)cells/mL) was 3.3 and 10 times greater than pretreatment value, respectively. Minimum amount of copper required to reduce M. aeruginosa population within 8 days was 160μgCu/L as copper sulfate and 80μgCu/L as Cu-EA, where total and extracellular microcystin concentrations (47 and 44μg/L for copper sulfate; 56 and 44μg/L for Cu-EA) were degraded with degradation rate coefficient 0.1 day(-1) and were less than pretreatment values. Given a copper concentration at 80µgCu/L as Cu-EA, M. aeruginosa cells were intact and less microcystin were released compared to treatments at 160-1000µgCu/L, where lysed cells and relatively greater microcystin release were observed. Based on the laboratory results, a minimum amount of copper required for reducing M. aeruginosa population could decrease total microcystin concentration and not compromise cells and minimize microcystin release.

  9. Influence of seawater and its aerosols on copper patina composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, L., E-mail: veleva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Applied Physics Department, Center for Investigation and Advanced Study, CINVESTAV-Merida, Carr. Ant. a Progreso, Km. 6, 97310 Merida (Mexico); Farro, W. [Department of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Urb. San Andres, Trujillo (Peru)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper patina was grown during one-year period on samples exposed to splash, tidal, full immersion sea zone and atmospheric aerosols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cuprite and atacamite contributed most to patina formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atacamite became the sole majority phase in the full immersion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cuprite decreased over time and posnjakite and chalcanthite appeared as minority phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper patina composition is strongly influenced by chloride pollution and specific zone conditions. - Abstract: X-ray diffraction analysis was used to monitor patina composition on copper samples exposed during one-year period to different seawater zones (splash, tidal and full immersion) and marine atmospheric aerosols. Two phases contributed most to patina formation: cuprite (copper oxide) and atacamite (copper chloride compound). Their relative XRD spectra intensities were very similar in patina formed in the tidal sea zone, but atacamite became the sole majority phase in the full immersion zone. The cuprite phase decreased over time, and two minority copper sulfates phases appeared: posnjakite and chalcanthite (CuSO{sub 4}). The results revealed that copper patina composition is strongly influenced by chloride pollution and specific zone conditions. Additional factors, such as wind-blown sand, continuous dredging in coastal areas and vessel docking, influenced degree of pollutant compound adherence to patinas and consequently their structure (porous or compact).

  10. STUDIES OF ACTIVATION OF GALENA BY COPPER AND XANTHATE (PIPX SYNTHESIZED COLLECTORS ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. NEDJAR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we suggest proceeding to an experimental study concerning the synthesis of new organo metallic product xanthate (PIPX by intermittent method and their use in the processes of sulphides flotation. Flotation of sulphide minerals and their activation and modification have been investigated for many years. In this work the influence of sulphite on xanthate-induced flotation of copper-activated galena has been studied been investigated. The adsorption of potassium isopropyl xanthate (PIPX 3⋅10-3M on galena has been also studied using electrochemical potential, FTIR spectra and SEM. Galena activated with copper sulfate (10-4 M have been investigated at pH = 9. Surface species have been identified and correlated with SEM. After copper sulfate activation, copper xanthate exists on all of the minerals studied. Basic pH is most favorable for potassium isopropyl xanthate adsorption on activated minerals.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1307 - Ferric sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1307 Ferric sulfate. (a) Ferric sulfate (iron (III) sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 CAS Reg. No. 10028-22-5) is a yellow substance that may be prepared by oxidizing iron (II) sulfate or by treating ferric oxide or ferric hydroxide with sulfuric acid. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  12. 21 CFR 558.364 - Neomycin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate. 558.364 Section 558.364 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.364 Neomycin sulfate. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated article: 325 grams per.... (c) (d) Conditions of use. Neomycin sulfate is used as follows: Neomycin Sulfate...

  13. Analysis of green copper pigments in illuminated manuscripts by micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B; Denoël, S; Weber, G; Allart, D

    2003-10-01

    In the majority of the literature describing green coloured materials used on ancient painting layers (15th or 16th century), two copper greens are mainly cited: malachite [CuCOr3 x Cu(OH)2] and verdigris [Cu(CH3COO)2 x [Cu(OH)2]3 x 2H2O]. It is shown, by micro-Raman spectroscopy, that the artists were actually employing more than these two copper greens, in particular various copper sulfates, among which the most common pigment found is posnjakite [CuSO4 x 3Cu(OH)2 x H2O]. In contrast to the PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique, Raman spectroscopy is a technique of choice, able to distinguish not only a copper sulfate from a carbonate or acetate but also the different sulfates themselves; in this respect, we found that the high wavenumber region (2800-4000 cm(-1)), characteristic of H2O vibrations, is of particular interest. It is also shown that numerous green areas were created with mixtures of a copper sulfate mixed with other pigments, for instance to enhance the colour depth. Finally, in some cases, no green pigment is actually employed but the colour is obtained by intimately mixing yellow and blue pigments. All these results led to a new look at the pigments which were in use on the palettes of the ancient artists.

  14. Microstructure & Other Properties of Pulse-Plated Copper for Electroforming Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Dam, H.C.;

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure, hardness, material distribution and current efficiency were studied for various pulse patterns (both direct current, on/off and pulse reverse plating) and different bath compositions of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, with additions of chloride. The objective was to develop a re...... a reliable copper electroforming process to provide a fine-grained and hard (above HV 125) deposit with good micro- and macrothrowing power. Potential applications include solar cell panels, tools for micro injection molding and various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)....

  15. Microstructure & Other Properties of Pulse-Plated Copper for Electroforming Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Dam, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Microstructure, hardness, material distribution and current efficiency were studied for various pulse patterns (both direct current, on/off and pulse reverse plating) and different bath compositions of copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, with additions of chloride. The objective was to develop a re...... a reliable copper electroforming process to provide a fine-grained and hard (above HV 125) deposit with good micro- and macrothrowing power. Potential applications include solar cell panels, tools for micro injection molding and various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)....

  16. Copper ions stimulate the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells via oxygen stress in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, San-qing; Zhu, Hui-yun; Lin, Jian-guo; Su, Tang-feng; Liu, Yan; Luo, Xiao-ping

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of copper ions on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and the role of oxidative stress in this process in order to gain insight into the mechanism of hepatic fibrosis in Wilson's disease. LX-2 cells, a cell line of human HSCs, were cultured in vitro and treated with different agents including copper sulfate, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) for different time. The proliferation of LX-2 cells was measured by non-radioactive cell proliferation assay. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β subunit (PDGFβR), ELISA to determine the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), dichlorofluorescein assay to measure the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid hydroperoxide assay to quantify the level of lipid peroxide (LPO). The results showed that copper sulfate over a certain concentration range could promote the proliferation of LX-2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The effect was most manifest when LX-2 cells were treated with copper sulfate at a concentration of 100 μmol/L for 24 h. Additionally, copper sulfate could dose-dependently increase the levels of ROS and LPO, and decrease the ratio of GSH/GSSG in LX-2 cells. The copper-induced increase in mRNA and protein expression of PDGFβR was significantly inhibited in LX-2 cells pre-treated with NAC, a precursor of GSH, and this phenomenon could be reversed by the intervention of BSO, an inhibitor of NAC. It was concluded that copper ions may directly stimulate the proliferation of HSCs via oxidative stress. Anti-oxidative stress therapies may help suppress the copper-induced activation and proliferation of HSCs.

  17. Particles carried by ascending gas flow at the Tongchanghe copper mine,Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We collected and analyzed, using transmission electron microscopy, the particles carried by ascending gas flow in soil above the concealed orebody of the Tongchanghe copper mine, Guizhou Province. Particles of native copper, native copper-iron alloy, and native chromium-iron-copper alloy particles in the ascending gas flow were first discovered. Commonly, they were aggre- gations of relatively small particles. Individual particles within aggregations were subcircular, elliptical, regularly polygonal, or elongate and from 5 to 40 nm in size. The aggregations were subcircular or elliptical and 20-150 nm in size. Chloride, oxide, sulfate, and hydroxide particles containing ore-forming metals in the ascending gas flow were also discovered. The elements of the particles were commonly in a high valence state, suggesting that they were formed in a near-surface oxidizing environment. Discovery of the particles extracted from the ascending gas flow above the Tongchanghe copper mineprovided a powerful tool for exploration for deep concealed orebodies. Our study also showed that native copper, native copper-iron alloys, native chromium-iron-copper alloys, as well as chloride, oxide, sulfate, and hydroxide compounds containing ore-forming metals can be transported in particle form by ascending gas flow below the Earth’s surface.

  18. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalik R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV), anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM). The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium star...

  19. Bioengineered heparins and heparan sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Suflita, Matthew; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Heparin and heparan sulfates are closely related linear anionic polysaccharides, called glycosaminoglycans, which exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of animal cells. While heparan sulfate is a widely distributed membrane and extracellular glycosaminoglycan, heparin is found primarily intracellularly in the granules of mast cells. While heparin has historically received most of the scientific attention for its anticoagulant activity, interest has steadily grown in the multi-faceted role heparan sulfate plays in normal and pathophysiology. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is largely precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on livestock animal tissues for the isolation and the annual commercial production of hundred ton quantities of heparin used in the manufacture of anticoagulant drugs and medical device coatings. The variability of animal-sourced heparin and heparan sulfates, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials and their manufacturing processes, suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans, driven by both therapeutic applications and as probes to study their natural functions. This review focuses on the complex biology of these glycosaminoglycans in human health and disease, and the use of recombinant technology in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and metabolic engineering of heparin and heparan sulfates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  1. Recovery of copper through decontamination of synthetic solutions using modified barks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, I.; Goy, D.; Allain, E.; Kilbertus, G.; Thauront, J.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination of synthetic acetate, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate solutions containing 10, 100, 1,000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm of copper using chemically treated barks has been studied. Metal percentage removal from solutions depends on the pH, the initial concentration, and, to some extent, the anion. It varies from 40 through 99 pct of the initial metallic ion’s content in the solution. The average retention capacity of the treated bark is about 43 mg of Cu/g of dry modified bark (0.68 mmole/g of dry bark). Extraction of copper cations from the saturated modified bark was made possible with dilute acid. Regeneration of bark for reuse as an ion exchanger was possible. Bark loaded with copper was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Copper was uniformly distributed in the bulk of the bark. No copper segregation was observed. It seems that copper was bound to the acidic (phenolic) sites of the bark. Anions were not detected on the copper-loaded bark with either SEM electron probe microanalysis or IR spectroscopy. Incineration of the bark loaded with copper resulted in ashes containing about 77 pct of copper oxides, while pyrolysis of the same sample led to ashes containing 10 pct of metallic copper and about 85 pct carbon.

  2. Heparan sulfate structure: methods to study N-sulfation and NDST action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagälv, Anders; Lundequist, Anders; Filipek-Górniok, Beata; Dierker, Tabea; Eriksson, Inger; Kjellén, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important modulators of cellular processes where the negatively charged polysaccharide chains interact with target proteins. The sulfation pattern of the heparan sulfate chains will determine the proteins that will bind and the affinity of the interactions. The N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) enzymes are of key importance during heparan sulfate biosynthesis when the sulfation pattern is determined. In this chapter, metabolic labeling of heparan sulfate with [(35)S]sulfate or [(3)H]glucosamine in cell cultures is described, in addition to characterization of polysaccharide chain length and degree of N-sulfation. Methods to measure NDST enzyme activity are also presented.

  3. Studies on Sulfation of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI,Jian-Ping; YAN,Hong; ZHONG,Ru-Gang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Polysaccharides can anti-virus, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1),[1] herpes simplex virus (HSV-1,HSV-2) and cytomegalovirus. Some of them are sulfates, e.g. dextran sulfate, heparin, sulfonation of chitosan and sulfated derivatives of Lentinan. Our results showed that sulfated derivatives of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP)have anti-HIV activity. Because the anti-HIV activity of LBP was deeply dependent on the molecular weight, the sulfation pattern and glycosidic branches besides degree of sulfation (DS), so we emphasized our work on the factors of DS.

  4. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  5. Canine models of copper toxicosis for understanding mammalian copper metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fieten, Hille; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Watson, Adrian L.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary forms of copper toxicosis exist in man and dogs. In man, Wilson’s disease is the best studied disorder of copper overload, resulting from mutations in the gene coding for the copper transporter ATP7B. Forms of copper toxicosis for which no causal gene is known yet are recognized as well, often in young children. Although advances have been made in unraveling the genetic background of disorders of copper metabolism in man, many questions regarding disease mechanisms and copper homeo...

  6. Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) seedlings are hyperaccumulators of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Marian N; Ellzey, Joanne T; Bader, Julia; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    Due to health reasons, toxic metals must be removed from soils contaminated by mine tailings and smelter activities. The phytoremediation potential of Prosopis pubescens (screw bean mesquite) was examined by use of inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes of parenchymal cells of leaves in the presence of copper. Elemental analysis was used to localize copper within leaves. A 600-ppm copper sulfate exposure to seedlings for 24 days resulted in 31,000 ppm copper in roots, 17,000 ppm in stems, 11,000 in cotyledons and 20 ppm in the true leaves. For a plant to be considered a hyperaccumulator, the plant must accumulate a leaf-to-root ratio <1. Screw bean mesquite exposed to copper had a leaf-to-root ratio of 0.355 when cotyledons were included. We showed that P. pubescens grown in soil is a hyperaccumulator of copper. We recommend that this plant should be field tested.

  7. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  8. Large-scale synthesis of copper nanoparticles by chemically controlled reduction for applications of inkjet-printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngil; Choi, Jun-rak; Lee, Kwi Jong; Stott, Nathan E; Kim, Donghoon [Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Central R and D Institute, Electro-Materials and Devices (eMD) Center, Functional Materials Technology Group, Nanomaterials Team, 314 Maetan-3-Dong Yeongtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: youngil1.lee@samsung.com

    2008-10-15

    Copper nanoparticles are being given considerable attention as of late due to their interesting properties and potential applications in many areas of industry. One such exploitable use is as the major constituent of conductive inks and pastes used for printing various electronic components. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized through a relatively large-scale (5 l), high-throughput (0.2 M) process. This facile method occurs through the chemical reduction of copper sulfate with sodium hypophosphite in ethylene glycol within the presence of a polymer surfactant (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation and give dispersion stability to the resulting colloidal nanoparticles. Reaction yields were determined to be quantitative while particle dispersion yields were between 68 and 73%. The size of the copper nanoparticles could be controlled between 30 and 65 nm by varying the reaction time, reaction temperature, and relative ratio of copper sulfate to the surfactant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the particles revealed a spherical shape within the reported size regime, and x-ray analysis confirmed the formation of face-centered cubic (FCC) metallic copper. Furthermore, inkjet printing nanocopper inks prepared from the polymer-stabilized copper nanoparticles onto polyimide substrates resulted in metallic copper traces with low electrical resistivities ({>=}3.6 {mu}{omega} cm, or {>=}2.2 times the resistivity of bulk copper) after a relatively low-temperature sintering process (200 deg. C for up to 60 min)

  9. Solvent extraction and separation of copper from base metals using bifunctional ionic liquid from sulfate medium%在硫酸盐介质中采用双官能团离子液体从母材中提取和分离铜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niharbala Devi

    2016-01-01

    研究了一种在煤油中采用双官能团[A336/Cy272]离子液体(IL),从其他母材离子溶剂萃取与分离铜的新工艺。采用这种双官能团IL比单独采用Aliquat 336或Cyanex 272萃取剂能更有效地萃取铜。采用紫外−可见光谱表征八面体铜−IL复合物的形成,同时采用FTIR光谱验证金属配体的相互作用。0.1 mol/L [A336/Cy272]的负载容量为1.71 g/L。剥离研究表明,采用0.1 mol/L硫酸从0.05 mol/L IL中有效剥离0.298 g/L铜离子。在煤油中采用0.05 mol/L [A336/Cy272]等摩尔二元混合物研究铜对镍、镉、铁的选择性。在pH 3.56时得到最高分离因子8.41。在pH研究范围内铜能有效地从镍中分离,铁比铜优先被IL萃取,在pH 2.4时,得到最高分离因子3246。含有其他金属杂质的铜合成溶液中金属离子萃取率顺序为Fe>Zn>Cu>Cd>Co>Ni。%A novel solvent extraction process for extraction and separation of copper from other base metal ions using a bifunctional ionic liquid (IL) (trioctylmethylammonium/2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinate, [A336/Cy272]) in kerosene was reported. This IL was found to extract copper more efficiently than the individual extractants Aliquat 336 or Cyanex 272. Formation of an octahedral copper-IL complex was characterized by UV-Visible spectra and metal ligand interaction was confirmed by FTIR spectra. The loading capacity of 0.1 mol/L [A336/Cy272] was found to be 1.71 g/L. Stripping studies reported that 0.298 g/L copper ions were efficiently stripped using 0.1 mol/L sulfuric acid from 0.05 mol/L loaded IL. The selectivity of copper against nickel, cadmium and iron was investigated from their equimolar binary mixtures using 0.05 mol/L [A336/Cy272] in kerosene. The highest separation factorβCu/Cd=8.41 was obtained at pH 3.56. Copper can be effectively separated from nickel over the pH range studied. The IL extracts preferentially iron over copper and the highest separation factorβFe/Cuwas 3246 at pH 2

  10. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  11. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  12. Designing of Copper Nanoparticle Size Formed via Aerosol Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Vukoman; Čolović, Božana; Stopić, Srećko; Friedrich, Bernd

    2012-11-01

    In this article, the synthesis and structural design of spherical, nonagglomerated particles of copper powder, synthesized by ultrasonic atomization of copper sulfate solutions in hydrogen atmosphere at 1173 K (900 °C), was investigated. Well-controlled particle sizes of Cu powders were obtained from precursor solutions of various concentrations. The mean particle diameters and the ranges of particle size distribution were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameter values of Cu particles obtained experimentally and estimated theoretically, using the most frequently applied atomization models, were compared. Special attention was paid to our break up capillary waves model, described elsewhere and significantly advanced by Jokanović's theoretical approach, which was applied for the first time to a copper metal system as described in this article. The best agreement between the calculated and the experimentally obtained values was found using this model.

  13. Toward understanding the influence of soil metals and sulfate content on plant thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunaiti, Abdelrahim A; Al-Oqlah, Ahmed; Shannag, Noor M; Abukhalaf, Imad K; Silvestrov, Natalia A; von Deutsch, Daniel A; Bayorh, Mohamed A

    2007-03-15

    Plants respond to increased concentrations of metals by a number of mechanisms, including chelation with phytochelatins (PCs). Soil specimens and plants (Veronica anagalis-aquatica, Typha domingensis, Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Rumex dentatus, Amaranthus gracilis, Chenopodium murale, Inula viscosa) leaves were collected from two sites in northern Jordan and subsequently metals (cadmium, copper, and lead), sulfate, and PC (from leaves) levels were determined. One of these sites was contaminated with metals and the other served as a control site. The contaminated site had elevated cadmium, copper, lead, and sulfate levels. This increase of metal and sulfate levels in the soil at the contaminated site correlated with a rise in plant total glutathione (GSH(T)) and cysteine (CYS(T)). These increases were not attributed to an elevation in total phytochelatin levels. However, a significant increase in the ratio of short-chain phytochelatins to the total phytochelatin stores was observed. The individual effects of metals and sulfate on glutathione, short-chain PCs and long-chain PCs levels were dissimilar.

  14. A sulfate conundrum: Dissolved sulfates of deep-saline brines and carbonate-associated sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labotka, Dana M.; Panno, Samuel V.; Locke, Randall A.

    2016-10-01

    Sulfates in deeply circulating brines and carbonate-associated sulfates (CAS) within sedimentary units of the Cambrian strata in the Illinois Basin record a complex history. Dissolved sulfate within the Mt. Simon Sandstone brines exhibits average δ34SSO4 values of 35.4‰ and δ18OSO4 values of 14.6‰ and appears to be related to Cambrian seawater sulfate, either original seawater or sourced from evaporite deposits such as those in the Michigan Basin. Theoretical and empirical relationships based on stable oxygen isotope fractionation suggest that sulfate within the lower depths of the Mt. Simon brines has experienced a long period of isolation, possibly several tens of millions of years. Comparison with brines from other stratigraphic units shows the Mt. Simon brines are geochemically unique. Dissolved sulfate from brines within the Ironton-Galesville Sandstone averages 22.7‰ for δ34SSO4 values and 13.0‰ for δ18OSO4 values. The Ironton-Galesville brine has mixed with younger groundwater, possibly of Ordovician to Devonian age and younger. The Eau Claire Formation lies between the Mt. Simon and Ironton-Galesville Sandstones. The carbonate units of the Eau Claire and stratigraphically equivalent Bonneterre Formation contain CAS that appears isotopically related to the Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian Mississippi Valley-type ore pulses that deposited large sulfide minerals in the Viburnum Trend/Old Lead Belt ore districts. The δ34SCAS values range from 21.3‰ to 9.3‰, and δ18OCAS values range from +1.4‰ to -2.6‰ and show a strong covariance (R2 = 0.94). The largely wholesale replacement of Cambrian seawater sulfate signatures in these dolomites does not appear to have affected the sulfate signatures in the Mt. Simon brines even though these sulfide deposits are found in the stratigraphically equivalent Lamotte Sandstone to the southwest. On the basis of this and previous studies, greater fluid densities of the Mt. Simon brines may have prevented the

  15. Sulfate transport in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Simonsen, K

    1988-01-01

    1. In short-circuited toad skin preparations exposed bilaterally to NaCl-Ringer's containing 1 mM SO2(-4), influx of sulfate was larger than efflux showing that the skin is capable of transporting sulfate actively in an inward direction. 2. This active transport was not abolished by substituting...... apical Na+ for K+. 3. Following voltage activation of the passive Cl- permeability of the mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells sulfate flux-ratio increased to a value predicted from the Ussing flux-ratio equation for a monovalent anion. 4. In such skins, which were shown to exhibit vanishingly small leakage...... conductances, the variation of the rate coefficient for sulfate influx (y) was positively correlated with the rate coefficient for Cl- influx (x), y = 0.035 x - 0.0077 cm/sec (r = 0.9935, n = 15). 5. Addition of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine to the serosal bath of short...

  16. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  17. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen sulfotransferas

  18. Sulfation of thyroid hormone by estrogen sulfotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.A. Kester (Monique); T.J. Visser (Theo); C.H. van Dijk (Caren); D. Tibboel (Dick); A.M. Hood (Margaret); N.J. Rose; W. Meinl; U. Pabel; H. Glatt; C.N. Falany; M.W. Coughtrie

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSulfation is one of the pathways by which thyroid hormone is inactivated. Iodothyronine sulfate concentrations are very high in human fetal blood and amniotic fluid, suggesting important production of these conjugates in utero. Human estrogen

  19. Sulfate-rich Archean Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, J. L.; Choney, A. P.; Ohmoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    There is a widely held belief that prior to 2.4 Ga, the Archean oceans and atmosphere were reducing, and therefore sulfate poor (concentrations 100 m), widely distributed (> km2), and contain only minor amounts of sulfides. These barite beds may have developed from reactions between Ba-rich hydrothermal fluids and evaporate bodies. Simple mass balance calculations suggest that the sulfate contents of the pre-evaporitic seawater must have been greater than ~1 mM. Some researchers have suggested that the SO4 for these beds was derived from the hydrolysis of SO2-rich magmatic fluids. However, this was unlikely as the reaction, 4SO2 + 4H2O → 3H2SO4 + H2S would have produced large amounts of sulfide, as well as sulfate minerals. Many Archean-aged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, much like those of the younger ages, record evidence for abundant seawater sulfate. As VMS deposits are most likely formed by submarine hydrothermal fluids that developed from seawater circulating through the seafloor rock, much of the seawater sulfate is reduced to from sulfides at depths. However, some residual sulfate in the hydrothermal fluids, with or without the addition of sulfate from the local seawater, can form sulfate minerals such as barite at near the seafloor. The d34S relationships between barites and pyrites in the Archean VMS deposits are similar to those of the younger VMS deposits, except for the lower d34S values for the seawater SO4. The abundance of pyrite in Archean black shales is also evidence of sulfate rich seawater. Pyrites in Archean-aged black shales were most likely the products of either bacterial or thermochemical sulfate reduction during diagenesis of the sediments. Their abundance in sedimentary rocks is determined by: (a) the availability of reactive carbon; (b) the availability of reactive Fe (Fe3+ hydroxides and Fe2+-rich pore fluid); (c) the sedimentation rate; and (d) the flux of SO42- in the sediments, which depends on the seawater SO42

  20. The Sedimentation—reworking Genesis of Dongchuan—type Stratiform Copper Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华仁民

    1990-01-01

    The Dongchuan-type copper deposits have long been studied and well reported because of their great economic significance.The present paper proposes a "sedimentation-reworking" origin for this type of deposits to challenge the current "sedimentation-metamorphism" model which has been widely asscpted since 1970s.According to the new idea,orebodies were not directly deposited in the Luoxue dolomite where they are hosted.Instead,copper was preliminarily concentrated in the Yinmin Formation.During or after diagenesis,copper in the Yinmin Formation was mobilized and leached by hydrothermal solutions derived from the interstitial water of sediments under the high geothermal gradient of rift environment,Thus,copper was transported from the source bed(the Yinmin Formation)upward to the Luoxue algal dolomite where sulfur was produced by the reduction of sulfates.The copper sulfides were formed through replacement of initial sulfides by Cu-bearing solutions.

  1. Bioavailability of copper to rats from various foodstuffs and in the presence of different carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.E.; Stuart, M.A.; Bowman, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Copper bioavailability was studied in rats using an extrinsic Cu label. Copper absorption from sunflower seeds (46%), peanuts (41%), cooked shrimp (50%), and cooked beef (40%) was as good or better than copper sulfate (46%). Copper from plant foods (sunflower seeds, garbanzo beans, peanuts) was absorbed equally as well as copper from animal foods (beef, shrimp, chicken liver), 39 +/- 7% vs 43 +/- 7%, P greater than 0.05. There was no significant difference in percentage Cu absorption between intrinsically labeled chicken liver and extrinsically labeled chicken liver. In a second experiment, Cu absorption was measured in the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, or cornstarch. There were no significant differences in Cu absorption due to different carbohydrates in a single meal.

  2. Analysis of copper losses throughout weak acid effluent flows generated during off-gas treatment in the New Copper Smelter RTB Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ivšić-Bajčeta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The previous inadequate treatment of off-gas in RTB Bor in Serbia has resulted in serious pollution of the environment and the possibly high losses of copper through the effluent flows. The project of New Copper Smelter RTB Bor, besides the new flash smelting furnace (FSF and the reconstruction of Pierce-Smith converter (PSC, includes more effective effluent treatment. Paper presents an analysis of the new FSF and PSC off-gas treatment, determination of copper losses throughout generated wastewaters and discussion of its possible valorization. Assumptions about the solubility of metals phases present in the FSF and PSC off-gas, obtained by the treatment process simulation, were compared with the leaching results of flue dusts. Determined wastewaters characteristics indicate that the PSC flow is significantly richer in copper, mostly present in insoluble metallic/sulfide form, while the FSF flow has low concentration of copper in the form of completely soluble oxide/sulfate. The possible scenario for the copper valorization, considering arsenic and lead as limiting factors, is the separation of the FSF and PSC flows, return of the metallic/sulfide solid phase to the smelting process and recovery from the sulfate/oxide liquid phase.

  3. 21 CFR 524.1484e - Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution. 524.1484e Section 524.1484e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484e Neomycin sulfate and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solution....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sulfate. 582.1643 Section 582.1643 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Product. Potassium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1643 - Potassium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium sulfate. 184.1643 Section 184.1643 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1643 Potassium sulfate. (a) Potassium sulfate (K2SO4, CAS Reg... having a bitter, saline taste. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  8. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded that the sulfate transport system catalyzes the symport of two protons with one sulfate anion.

  9. Sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miletto, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis constitutes a pioneer attempt at elucidating the ecology of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes in river floodplains. These are non-typical sulfate-reducing environmental settings, given the generally low sulfate concentration that characterize freshwater habitats, and river flow regulation

  10. 21 CFR 582.5315 - Ferrous sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous sulfate. 582.5315 Section 582.5315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5315 Ferrous sulfate. (a) Product. Ferrous sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese sulfate. 582.5461 Section 582.5461 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Product. Manganese sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1461 - Manganese sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese sulfate. 184.1461 Section 184.1461 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1461 Manganese sulfate. (a) Manganese sulfate (MnSO4·H2O, CAS... manganese compounds with sulfuric acid. It is also obtained as a byproduct in the manufacture...

  13. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  14. Coping with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure......, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils....

  15. Kunpeng Copper:The largest Copper Smelting Company of Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On September 9,Liangshan Mining Company’s 100,000 tons/year cathode copper project kicked off.It is another key project of the company following the successful launch of the 100,000 tons/year anode copper project.Based on ISA copper smelting technology of the largest open-cast copper mine in southwest China,

  16. 硫酸钠盐析对萃取微量铜的增敏作用及其应用%Sensitizing effect of sodium-sulfate salting-out phase separation in extraction of trace amount of copper ions and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖晓祥; 李晖; 李延芳; 梁冰

    2011-01-01

    A new Na2SO4sahing-out extraction method has been developed for preconcentration trace amounts of copper as a prior step to its determination by UV-visible spectrophotometry, in which diethyldithiocarbamate(DDTC) was used as complexing agent,with chloroform as extraction solvent.Variables affecting salting-out extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized.Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.002 μg/mL ~ 0.08 μg/mLof copper, detection limit was 0.11 ng/mL in original solution (3Sbc/m) and the relative standard deviation for seven replicate determination of 0.002 μg/mL copper was ± 1.9%.The proposed method has been applied for determination of copper in Honeysuckle, Radix Glycyrrhiza,Lycium samples with satisfactory results, the recovery were 103%, 102% ,96%, RSD were 1.5%, 1.9%, 2.0%, respectively.%建立了以二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠(DDTC)为络合剂,硫酸钠-氯仿-水盐析萃取,紫外可见分光光度法测定痕量铜(Ⅱ)的新方法.研究了萃取的条件,共存离子的干扰.结果表明本法灵敏度高,选择性好,在最佳实验条件下,铜的线性范围为0.002~0.08μg/mL,0.002μg/mL铜标准液测定的RSD=1.9%(n=7),检出限为0.11ng/mL.应用于金银花、甘草、枸杞中铜的测定,回收率分别为103%、102%、96%,RSD分别为1.5%、1.9%、2.0%.

  17. Tris(ethylenediaminecobalt(II sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunlawee Yotnoi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [CoII(C2H8N23]SO4, the cobalt example of [M(C2H8N23]SO4, is reported. The Co and S atoms are located at the 2d and 2c Wyckoff sites (point symmetry 32, respectively. The Co atom is coordinated by six N atoms of three chelating ethylenediamine molecules generated from half of the ethylenediamine molecule in the asymmetric unit. The O atoms of the sulfate anion are disordered mostly over two crystallographic sites. The third disorder site of O (site symmetry 3 has a site occupancy approaching zero. The H atoms of the ethylenediamine molecules interact with the sulfate anions via intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  18. Sulfates on Mars: Indicators of Aqueous Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Lane, Melissa D.; Dyar, M. Darby; Brown, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent analyses by MER instruments at Meridiani Planum and Gusev crater and the OMEGA instrument on Mars Express have provided detailed information about the presence of sulfates on Mars [1,2,3]. We are evaluating these recent data in an integrated multi-disciplinary study of visible-near-infrared, mid-IR and Mossbauer spectra of several sulfate minerals and sulfate-rich analog sites. Our analyses suggest that hydrated iron sulfates may account for features observed in Mossbauer and mid-IR spectra of Martian soils [4]. The sulfate minerals kieserite, gypsum and other hydrated sulfates have been identified in OMEGA spectra in the layered terrains in Valles Marineris and Terra Meridiani [2]. These recent discoveries emphasize the importance of studying sulfate minerals as tracers of aqueous processes. The sulfate-rich rock outcrops observed in Meridiani Planum may have formed in an acidic environment similar to acid rock drainage environments on Earth [5]. Because microorganisms typically are involved in the oxidation of sulfides to sulfates in terrestrial sites, sulfate-rich rock outcrops on Mars may be a good location to search for evidence of past life on that planet. Whether or not life evolved on Mars, following the trail of sulfate minerals will lead to a better understanding of aqueous processes and chemical weathering.

  19. Chondroitin Sulfate Perlecan Enhances Collagen Fibril Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, A. J.; Johnson, A. E.; Mörgelin, M.

    2006-01-01

    produced in the presence of perlecan. Interestingly, the enhancement of collagen fibril formation is independent on the core protein and is mimicked by chondroitin sulfate E but neither by chondroitin sulfate D nor dextran sulfate. Furthermore, perlecan chondroitin sulfate contains the 4,6-disulfated......Inactivation of the perlecan gene leads to perinatal lethal chondrodysplasia. The similarity to the phenotypes of the Col2A1 knock-out and the disproportionate micromelia mutation suggests perlecan involvement in cartilage collagen matrix assembly. We now present a mechanism for the defect...... in collagen type II fibril assembly by perlecan-null chondrocytes. Cartilage perlecan is a heparin sulfate or a mixed heparan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The latter form binds collagen and accelerates fibril formation in vitro, with more defined fibril morphology and increased fibril diameters...

  20. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level. Th

  1. Sulfation and biological activities of konjac glucomannan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Surina; Muschin, Tegshi; Kanamoto, Taisei; Nakashima, Hideki; Yoshida, Takashi

    2013-05-15

    The sulfation of konjac glucomannan and its anti-HIV and blood anticoagulant activities were investigated. Konjac glucomannan is a polysaccharide occurring naturally in konjac plant tubers and has high molecular weights. Solubility in water is very low, and the aqueous solutions at low concentrations have high viscosity. Before sulfation, hydrolysis by diluted sulfuric acid was carried out to decrease the molecular weights of M¯n=19.2 × 10(4)-0.2 × 10(4). Sulfation with piperidine-N-sulfonic acid or SO3-pyridine complex gave sulfated konjac glucomannans with molecular weights of M¯n=1.0 × 10(4)-0.4 × 10(4) and degrees of sulfation (DS) of 1.3-1.4. It was found that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had potent anti-HIV activity at a 50% effective concentration, (EC50) of 1.2-1.3 μg/ml, which was almost as high as that of an AIDS drug, ddC, whose EC50=3.2 μg/ml, and moderate blood anticoagulant activity, AA=0.8-22.7 units/mg, compared to those of standard sulfated polysaccharides, curdlan (10 units/mg) and dextran (22.7 units/mg) sulfates. Structural analysis of sulfated konjac glucomannans with negatively charged sulfated groups was performed by high resolution NMR, and the interaction between poly-l-lysine with positively charged amino groups as a model compound of proteins and peptides was measured by surface plasmon resonance measurement, suggesting that the sulfated konjac glucomannans had a high binding stability on immobilized poly-l-lysine. The binding of sulfated konjac glucomannan was concentration-dependent, and the biological activity of the sulfated konjac glucomannans may be due to electrostatic interaction between the sulfate and amino groups.

  2. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  3. [Copper and the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krízek, M; Senft, V; Motán, J

    1997-11-19

    Copper is one of the essential trace elements. It is part of a number of enzymes. Deficiency of the element is manifested by impaired haematopoesis, bone metabolism, disorders of the digestive, cardiovascular and nervous system. Deficiency occurs in particular in patients suffering from malnutrition, malabsorption, great copper losses during administration of penicillamine. Sporadically copper intoxications are described (suicidal intentions or accidental ingestion of beverages with a high copper content). Acute exposure to copper containing dust is manifested by metal fume fever. Copper salts can produce local inflammations. Wilson's disease is associated with inborn impaired copper metabolism. In dialyzed patients possible contaminations of the dialyzate with copper must be foreseen as well as the possible release of copper from some dialyzation membranes. With the increasing amount of copper in the environment it is essential to monitor the contamination of the environment.

  4. Modeling of ferric sulfate decomposition and sulfation of potassium chloride during grate‐firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Ferric sulfate is used as an additive in biomass combustion to convert the released potassium chloride to the less harmful potassium sulfate. The decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer and a volumetric reaction model is proposed to describe...... the process. The yields of sulfur oxides from ferric sulfate decomposition under boiler conditions are investigated experimentally, revealing a distribution of approximately 40% SO3 and 60% SO2. The ferric sulfate decomposition model is combined with a detailed kinetic model of gas‐phase KCl sulfation...... and a model of K2SO4 condensation to simulate the sulfation of KCl by ferric sulfate addition. The simulation results show good agreements with experiments conducted in a biomass grate‐firing reactor. The results indicate that the SO3 released from ferric sulfate decomposition is the main contributor to KCl...

  5. Targeting copper in cancer therapy: 'Copper That Cancer'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Delphine; Masaldan, Shashank; La Fontaine, Sharon; Cater, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient involved in fundamental life processes that are conserved throughout all forms of life. The ability of copper to catalyze oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, which can inadvertently lead to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), necessitates the tight homeostatic regulation of copper within the body. Many cancer types exhibit increased intratumoral copper and/or altered systemic copper distribution. The realization that copper serves as a limiting factor for multiple aspects of tumor progression, including growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, has prompted the development of copper-specific chelators as therapies to inhibit these processes. Another therapeutic approach utilizes specific ionophores that deliver copper to cells to increase intracellular copper levels. The therapeutic window between normal and cancerous cells when intracellular copper is forcibly increased, is the premise for the development of copper-ionophores endowed with anticancer properties. Also under investigation is the use of copper to replace platinum in coordination complexes currently used as mainstream chemotherapies. In comparison to platinum-based drugs, these promising copper coordination complexes may be more potent anticancer agents, with reduced toxicity toward normal cells and they may potentially circumvent the chemoresistance associated with recurrent platinum treatment. In addition, cancerous cells can adapt their copper homeostatic mechanisms to acquire resistance to conventional platinum-based drugs and certain copper coordination complexes can re-sensitize cancer cells to these drugs. This review will outline the biological importance of copper and copper homeostasis in mammalian cells, followed by a discussion of our current understanding of copper dysregulation in cancer, and the recent therapeutic advances using copper coordination complexes as anticancer agents.

  6. Influence of Dietary Copper on Serum Growth-Related Hormone Levels and Growth Performance of Weanling Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Guo, Yazhou; Wang, Zhe; Zhao, Baoyu; Yin, Yunhou; Liu, Guowen

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary copper on serum growth-related hormones levels and growth performance, a total of 60 weanling pigs were randomly assigned to six groups each containing 10 pigs, fed on basal diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate for 80 days, respectively. The average daily gain (ADG), feed to gain ratio (F/G), feed intake and serum growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) levels were detected at interval of 20 days. The results revealed that ADG, and serum GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were increased significantly in the pigs fed on diets added with 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg/kg copper sulfate. Meanwhile, in the pigs supplemented with 250 mg/kg copper sulfate, ADG was increased significantly from the 40th to the 60th day of the experiment (P growth of pigs were related to the increasing levels of GH, INS, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 in serum which were induced by copper. High dietary copper increase the concentrations of growth-related hormones in serum, resulting in improving the growth performance of weanling pigs.

  7. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  8. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Wen Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg-1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg-1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  9. Effect of different levels of copper on growth performance and cecal ecosystem of newly weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Feng Mei

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of copper sulfate on the growth performance and cecal ecosystem in newly weaned piglets. One hundred piglets weaned at 28±2 d were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 5 replicates of 5 piglets each. Piglets received for 28 d the base diet with i no addition (control or with copper addition (from copper sulfate at ii 100, iii 175, and iv 250 mg/kg–1. On day 21, twenty piglets were randomly selected (one from each replicate to slaughter and investigate the population and diversity of cecal microorganisms. The results showed that the diets containing 175 and 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved the average daily gain (ADG by 51% and 60% and decreased the feed to gain ratio (F/G by 21% and 16%, respectively. Adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper improved crude protein, ether extract, calcium and phosphorus digestibility. Viable counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacilli in cecum tended to be reduced, while the concentrations of cecal volatile fatty acids (VFA were increased in pigs fed diet supplemented as copper level increased. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR results showed that adding 175 or 250 mg/kg–1 copper reduced the lactobacilli in cecum. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE maps showed that band numbers and intensity of cecal bacterial 16S rDNA decreased as the copper levels increased. The results suggested that the effects of high dietary copper on microflora and their activities and metabolic products might contribute to the intestinal health and result in improved growth performance.

  10. Effect of Flotation Reagents on the Cake Moisture of Copper Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effect of reagents used in separating chalcopyrite from pyrite on the cake moisture of the copper concentrate at Daye Iron Mine Mineral Processing Plant was investigated. The results showed that the dosage of lime used for depressing pyrite was the main factor that increased the filter cake moisture of copper concentrate. With increasing the dosage of lime, the cake moisture of copper concentrate increased sharply. The cause was concluded to be the addition of lime to the pulp, which resulted in the formation of floc and a high pH value. The collector Z-200#, used for collecting chalcopyrite, had, as well, an adverse effect on the cake moisture of copper concentrate, but its effect was inferior in respect to that of lime. The cake moisture of copper concentrate can be decreased by changing the method with which lime is added and the pH value of pulp is regulated. The experiment results showed that the sulfuric acid was the best regulator. When the clarified liquor of lime was used as a depressant and the pH value of the pulp was regulated to 6.5€?7.0 by adding sulfuric acid, the cake moisture of copper concentrate was reduced from 15.49% to 13.13%. The examination of chalcopyrite surface by using ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) showed that calcium sulfate and iron hydroxide had formed on the surface of chalcopyrite when lime was added to the pulp. The formation of calcium sulfate and iron hydroxide on its surface increased the hydrophilicity of chalcopyrite so that its cake moisture increased. The addition of sulfuric acid to the pulp not only removed the calcium sulfate, but also reduced the concentration of iron hydroxide on the surface of chalcopyrite so that the cake moisture of copper concentrate was decreased.

  11. The effects of copper toxicity on histopathological and morphometrical changes of the rat testes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Homayoon Babaei; Reza Kheirandish; Laya Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to environmental toxicants such as copper has been suggested to have adverse effects on male reproduction. Therefore, our aim in the present study was to investigate morphometrical changes of rat testes following long term consumption. Methods: Animals were divided into three experimental groups. Two different doses of copper sulfate were applied once a day for 8 weeks by gavage. The first treatment group received copper sulfate at a dose of 100 mg/kg (Cu100 group) and the second treatment group was given copper sulfate at a dose of 200 mg/kg (Cu200 group). Control animals received normal saline using the same method. Testes from five cases of 15 animals of each group were removed for histopathological examinations on days 14, 28 and 56. Morphometrically, seminiferous tubules diameter, spermatogonial cells nuclei diameter, sertoli cells nuclei diameter and epithelial height were measured in the experimental groups. Meiotic index and the percentage of spermatogenesis were also calculated.Results: The mean values of about mentioned morphometrical parameters in copper treated groups showed significant decrease on 14th day compared to the control group. Copper administration caused a significant damage to morphometrical parameters on 28th day compared to the day 14. Also, in some parameters further decreases were observed specially in the Cu200 group on 56th day such as the diameter of seminiferous tubules, spermatogonial and sertoli cells nuclei and epithelial height of germinal layer (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that exposure to copper has the deleterious effects on morphometrical structure of testes which are appeared as early as two weeks.

  12. Inhibition of synthesis of heparan sulfate by selenate: Possible dependence on sulfation for chain polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.P.; Nader, H.B. (Paulist School of Medicine, Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Buonassisi, V.; Colburn, P. (W. Alton Jones Cell Science Center, Lake Placid, NY (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Selenate, a sulfation inhibitor, blocks the synthesis of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate by cultured endothelial cells. In contrast, selenate does not affect the production of hyaluronic acid, a nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan. No differences in molecular weight, ({sup 3}H)glucosamine/({sup 35}S)sulfuric acid ratios, or disaccharide composition were observed when the heparan sulfate synthesized by selenate-treated cells was compared with that of control cells. The absence of undersulfated chains in preparations from cultures exposed to selenate supports the concept that, in the intact cell, the polymerization of heparan sulfate might be dependent on the sulfation of the saccharide units added to the growing glycosaminoglycan chain.

  13. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  14. 酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法%Analysis Method of Zinc Impurity in an Acidic Copper Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭崇武

    2012-01-01

    在电镀生产中,监控镀液中金属杂质是十分必要的.制定了酸性镀铜溶液中锌杂质的分析方法.用碘量法测定硫酸铜,用EDTA容量法测定硫酸铜和锌杂质的总量,从总量中减去硫酸铜的量得到锌杂质的质量浓度.方法准确,能够满足监控酸性镀铜溶液的要求.%It is necessary to monitor the metal impurites in bath during the electroplating production. An a-nalysis method of zinc impurity in acidic copper plating bath is established. The concentration of copper sulfate is firstly determined by using iodimetry, and then the sum of the copper sulfate and zinc impurity is determined with EDTA volumetry. The concentration of zinc is determined by the deference between copper sulfate and the sum of copper sulfate and zinc impurity. This method is exact and accurate, and can satisfy the controlling requirement of acidic copper plating solution.

  15. Rapid recovery of dilute copper from a simulated Cu-SDS solution with low-cost steel wool cathode reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-H. [Department of Public Health, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: shchang@csmu.edu.tw; Wang, K.-S.; Hu, P.-I; Lui, I-C. [Department of Public Health, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-30

    Copper-surfactant wastewaters are often encountered in electroplating, printed circuit boards manufacturing, and metal finishing industries, as well as in retentates from micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration process. A low-cost three-dimensional steel wool cathode reactor was evaluated for electrolytic recovery of Cu ion from dilute copper solution (0.2 mM) in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), octylphenol poly (ethyleneglycol) 9.5 ether (TX), nonylphenol poly (oxyethylene) 9 ether (NP9) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (TW) and also mixed surfactants (anionic/nonionic). The reactor showed excellent copper recovery ability in comparison to a parallel-plate reactor. The reactor rapidly recovered copper with a reasonable current efficiency. 93% of copper was recovered at current density of 1 A m{sup -2} and pH 4 in the presence of 8.5 mM SDS. Initial solution pH, cathodic current density, solution mixing condition, SDS concentration, and initial copper concentrations significantly influenced copper recovery. The copper recovery rate increased with an increase in aqueous SDS concentrations between 5 and 8.5 mM. The influences of nonionic surfactants on Cu recovery from SDS-Cu solution depended not only on the type of surfactants used, but also on applied concentrations. From the copper recovery perspective, TX at 0.1 mM or NP should be selected rather than TW, because they did not inhibit copper recovery from SDS-Cu solution.

  16. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  17. Evaluating Deterioration of Concrete by Sulfate Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Effects of factors such as water to cement ratio, fly ash and silica fume on the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack were investigated by dry-wet cycles and immersion method. The index of the resistance to sulfate attack was used to evaluate the deterioration degree of concrete damaged by sulfate. The relationship between the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack and its permeability/porosity were analyzed as well as its responding mechanism. Results show that the depth of sulfate crystal attack from surface to inner of concrete can be reduced by decreasing w/c and addition of combining fly ash with silica fume. The variation of relative elastic modulus ratio and relative flexural strength ratio of various specimens before and after being subjected to sulfate attack was compared.

  18. Depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides under hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Minoru; Takatori, Masaki; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Mori, Daiki; Takashima, Osamu; Yoshida, Shinichi; Sato, Kimihiko; Kawamoto, Hitoshi; Tamura, Jun-ichi; Izawa, Hironori; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Saimoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-30

    Fucoidan and chondroitin sulfate, which are well known sulfated polysaccharides, were depolymerized under hydrothermal conditions (120-180°C, 5-60min) as a method for the preparation of sulfated polysaccharides with controlled molecular weights. Fucoidan was easily depolymerized, and the change of the molecular weight values depended on the reaction temperature and time. The degree of sulfation and IR spectra of the depolymerized fucoidan did not change compared with those of untreated fucoidan at reaction temperatures below 140°C. However, fucoidan was partially degraded during depolymerization above 160°C. Nearly the same depolymerization was observed for chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that hydrothermal treatment is applicable for the depolymerization of sulfated polysaccharides, and that low molecular weight products without desulfation and deformation of the initial glycan structures can be obtained under mild hydrothermal conditions.

  19. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  20. Sulfur chemistry in a copper smelter plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Christensen, J. J.; Eatough, N. I.; Hill, M. W.; Major, T. D.; Mangelson, N. F.; Post, M. E.; Ryder, J. F.; Hansen, L. D.; Meisenheimer, R. G.; Fischer, J. W.

    Sulfur transformation chemistry was studied in the plume of the Utah smelter of Kennecott Copper Corporation from April to October 1977. Samples were taken at up to four locations from 4 to 60 km from the stacks. Data collected at each station included: SO 2 concentration, low-volume collected total paniculate matter, high-volume collected size fractionated paniculate matter, wind velocity and direction, temperature, and relative humidity. Paniculate samples were analyzed for S(IV). sulfate, strong acid, anions, cations, and elemental concentrations using calorimetric, ion Chromatographie, FIXE, ESCA, ion microprobe, and SEM-ion microprobe techniques. The concentration of As in the paniculate matter was used as a conservative plume tracer. The ratios Mo/As, Pb/As, and Zn/As were constant in particulate matter collected at all sampling sites for any particle size. Strong mineral acid was neutralized by background metal oxide and/or carbonate particulates within 40km of the smelter. This neutralization process is limited only by the rate of incorporation of basic material into the plume. Two distinct metal-S(IV) species similar to those observed in laboratory aerosol experiments were found in the plume. The formation of paniculate S(IV) species occurs by interaction of SO 2 (g) with both ambient and plume derived aerosol and is equilibrium controlled. The extent of formation of S(IV) complexes in the aerosol is directly proportional to the SO 2(g) and paniculate (Cu + Fe) concentration and inversely proportional to the paniculate acidity. S(IV) species were stable in collected paniculate matter only in the neutralized material, but with proper sampling techniques could be demonstrated to also be present in very acidic particles at high ambient SO 2(g) concentrations. Reduction of arsenate to arsenite by the aerosol S(IV) complexes during plume transport is suggested. The SO 2(g)-sulfate conversion process in the plume is described by a mechanism which is first order

  1. Role of the copper transporter, CTR1, in platinum-induced ototoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Swati S.; Akil, Omar; Ianculescu, Alexandra G.; Geier, Ethan G.; Lustig, Lawrence R.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the role of an influx copper transporter, CTR1, in the ototoxicity induced by cisplatin, a potent anticancer platinum analog used in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors. As determined through RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry, mouse CTR1 (Ctr1) was found to be abundantly expressed and highly localized at the primary sites of cisplatin toxicity in the inner ear; mainly outer hair cells (OHC), inner hair cells (IHC), stria vascularis (SV), spiral ganglia (SG) and surrounding nerves in the mouse cochlea. A CTR1 substrate, copper sulfate, decreased the uptake and cytotoxicity of cisplatin in HEI-OC1, a cell line that expresses many molecular markers reminiscent of OHCs. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Ctr1 in this cell line caused a corresponding decrease in cisplatin uptake. In mice, intratympanic administration of copper sulfate 30 min before intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin was found to prevent hearing loss at click stimulus and 8, 16 and 32 kHz frequencies. To date, the utility of cisplatin remains severely limited due to its ototoxic effects. The studies described in this report suggest that cisplatin induced ototoxicity and cochlear uptake can be modulated by administration of a CTR1 inhibitor, copper sulfate. The possibility of local administration of CTR1 inhibitors during cisplatin therapy as a means of otoprotection is thereby raised. PMID:20631178

  2. Significant role of organic sulfur in supporting sedimentary sulfate reduction in low-sulfate environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraee, Mojtaba; Li, Jiying; Katsev, Sergei

    2017-09-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) is a major carbon mineralization pathway in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater, which regulates the production of hydrogen sulfide and the mobilization rates of biologically important elements such as phosphorus and mercury. It has been widely assumed that water-column sulfate is the main sulfur source to fuel this reaction in sediments. While this assumption may be justified in high-sulfate environments such as modern seawater, we argue that in low-sulfate environments mineralization of organic sulfur compounds can be an important source of sulfate. Using a reaction-transport model, we investigate the production of sulfate from sulfur-containing organic matter for a range of environments. The results show that in low sulfate environments (50%) of sulfate reduction. In well-oxygenated systems, porewater sulfate profiles often exhibit sub-interface peaks so that sulfate fluxes are directed out of the sediment. Our measurements in Lake Superior, the world's largest lake, corroborate this conclusion: offshore sediments act as sources rather than sinks of sulfate for the water column, and sediment DSR is supported entirely by the in-sediment production of sulfate. Sulfate reduction rates are correlated to the depth of oxygen penetration and strongly regulated by the supply of reactive organic matter; rate co-regulation by sulfate availability becomes appreciable below 500 μM level. The results indicate the need to consider the mineralization of organic sulfur in the biogeochemical cycling in low-sulfate environments, including several of the world's largest freshwater bodies, deep subsurface, and possibly the sulfate-poor oceans of the Early Earth.

  3. Instantaneous Click Chemistry by a Copper-Containing Polymeric-Membrane-Installed Microflow Catalytic Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Ohno, Aya; Sato, Takuma; Uozumi, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-23

    The copper(I)-catalyzed Huisgen cycloaddition (azide-alkyne cycloaddition) is an important reaction in click chemistry that ideally proceeds instantaneously. An instantaneous Huisgen cycloaddition has been developed that uses a novel catalytic dinuclear copper complex-containing polymeric membrane-installed microflow device. A polymeric membranous copper catalyst was prepared from poly(4-vinylpyridine), copper(II) sulfate, sodium chloride, and sodium ascorbate at the interface of two laminar flows inside microchannels. Elucidation of the structure by XANES, EXAFS, and elemental analysis, as well as second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) calculations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations assigned the local structure near Cu as a μ-chloro dinuclear Cu(I) complex. The microflow device promotes the instantaneous click reaction of a variety of alkynes and organic azides to afford the corresponding triazoles in quantitative yield.

  4. Morphology study of electrodeposited zinc from zinc sulfate solutions as anode for zinc-air and zinc-carbon batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhaswani Alias; Ahmad Azmin Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of Zinc (Zn) deposits was investigated as anode for aqueous batteries. The Zn was deposited from zinc sulfate solution in direct current conditions on a copper surface at different current densities. The morphology characterization of Zn deposits was performed via field emission scanning electron microscopy. The Zn deposits transformed from a dense and compact structure to dendritic form with increasing current density. The electrodeposition of Zn with a current density of 0.02...

  5. In-situ contact electrical resistance technique for investigating corrosion inhibitor adsorption on copper electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, G.; Quartarone, G.; Zingales, A. [Univ. of Venice (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry; Molokanov, V.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-02-01

    Traditional electrochemical tests and the contact electrical resistance technique (CER) were used to investigate the effect on corrosion of pure copper (99.999 wt%) of adding benzotriazole (BTA) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazone (1-OH-BTA) to acidic solutions (sulfuric acid [H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}], pH = 1.7, and sodium sulfate [Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}] until total sulfate [SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}] concentration = 0.1 M). This technique permitted growth of oxide and/or salt films as well as adsorption of the organic inhibitors on the copper surface to be evaluated. Formation of copper oxide ([Cu{sub 2}O]{sub 2})., sulfate (CuSo{sub 4}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O), thiocyanate (CuSCN), and halogenyde (CuI, CuBr, and CuCl) films on copper electrodes was followed in situ in sulfate solutions at various pH values under low overpotentials. Effects of pH, solution anion content, and/or the amount of BTA or 1-OH-BTA on electrical resistance (R) of the surface films formed on pure copper electrodes were treated. BTA acted as a more efficient corrosion inhibitor than 1-OH-BTA, reaching inhibition percentages (IP) of {approximately}90% compared to those of 1-OH-BTA, which reached a maximum of {approximately}76% in 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} M solutions. It was possible to distinguish between maximum R of the surface film, found in solutions containing BTA, associated with the adsorption of neutral inhibitor molecules, and the sharp rise in R attributable to [Cu(BTA)]{sub n} complex formation.

  6. EFFECT OF THE SULFATE REDUCING BACTERIA BIOFILM ON PHASE BOUNDARY BETWEEN HSn70-1AB COPPER ALLOY AND SOLUTION%硫酸盐还原菌生物膜对HSn70-1AB铜合金电极界面的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进; 许兆义; 杜一立; 苑维双; 牟伟腾

    2008-01-01

    测试了硫酸盐还原菌(sulfate reducing bacteria,SRB)的生长规律,浸泡初期(前 3d)SRB处于对数增长期,浸泡后期(4 d后)SRB进入稳定生长期.利用AFM技术和EIS电化学方法研究了SRB生物膜对HSn70-1AB铜合金电极界面的影响.AFM分析表明,浸泡后期合金表面生物膜粗糙度较前期有所下降.EIS结果表明,浸泡前3 d,合金表面氧化膜层较为稳定,氧化膜层电容值变化不明显.浸泡7 d后,合金表面氧化膜遭受局部腐蚀,开始出现微孔,粗糙度增加,氧化膜层电容值增大.

  7. Discovery of a Heparan sulfate 3- o -sulfation specific peeling reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yu; Mao, Yang; Zong, Chengli; Lin, Cheng; Boons, Geert Jan; Zaia, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) 3-O-sulfation determines the binding specificity of HS/heparin for antithrombin III and plays a key role in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, the low natural abundance of HS 3-O-sulfation poses a serious challenge for functional studies other than the two cases ment

  8. Involvement of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate in the metastasis of the Lewis lung carcinoma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.; Dam, G.B. ten; Murugan, S.; Yamada, S.; Hashiguchi, T.; Mizumoto, S.; Oguri, K.; Okayama, M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Sugahara, K.

    2008-01-01

    The altered expression of cell surface chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) in cancer cells has been demonstrated to play a key role in malignant transformation and tumor metastasis. However, the functional highly sulfated structures in CS/DS chains and their involvement in the process

  9. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Montes; Susana Rivera-Mancia; Araceli Diaz-Ruiz; Luis Tristan-Lopez; Camilo Rios

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased pr...

  10. Copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulphate act as antigenotoxic agents in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Marcos, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The biological reactivity of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials is attributed to their redox properties, which would explain their pro- or anti-cancer properties depending on exposure circumstances. In this sense, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP) have been proposed as a potential anti-tumoral agent. The aim of this study was to assess if CuONP can exert antigenotoxic effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Genotoxicity was induced by two well-known genotoxic compounds, namely potassium dichromate (PD) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The wing-spot assay and the comet assay were used as biomarkers of genotoxic effects. In addition, changes in the expression of Ogg1 and Sod genes were determined. The effects of CuONP cotreatment were compared with those induced by copper sulfate (CS), an agent releasing copper ions. Using the wing-spot assay, CuONP and CS were not able to reduce the genotoxic effects of EMS exposure, but had the ability to decrease the effects induced by PD, reducing the frequency of mutant twin-spots that arise from mitotic recombination. In addition, CuONP and CS were able to reduce the DNA damage induced by PD as determined by the comet assay. In general, similar qualitative antigenotoxic effects were obtained with both copper compounds. The antigenotoxic effects of environmentally relevant and non-toxic doses of CuONP and CS may be explained by their ability to partially restore the expression levels of the repair gene Ogg1 and the antioxidant gene Cu,ZnSod, both of which are inhibited by PD treatment. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:46-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Jiangxi Copper Plans to Increase its Refined Copper Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>According to news published on March 30th, China’s largest copper producer--Jiangxi Copper alleged in its 2010 Financial Report Statement that it plans to improve its output of refined copper by 4.4% in 2011, to increase from 900,000 tonnes last year to 940,000 tons.

  12. [Copper metabolism and genetic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Norikazu

    2016-07-01

    Copper is one of essential trace elements. Copper deficiency lead to growth and developmental failure and/or neurological dysfunction. However, excess copper is also problems for human life. There are two disorders of inborn error of copper metabolism, Menkes disease and Wilson disease. Menkes disease is an X linked recessive disorder with copper deficiency and Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with copper accumulation. These both disorders result from the defective functioning of copper transport P-type ATPase, ATP7A of Menkes disease and ATP7B of Wilson disease. In this paper, the author describes about copper metabolism of human, and clinical feature, diagnosis and treatment of Menkes disease and Wilson disease.

  13. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Mixture of Allylamine and Polyallylamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sierra-Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs with sizes lower than 31 nm were prepared by wet chemical reduction using copper sulfate solution, hydrazine, and mixture of allylamine (AAm and polyallylamine (PAAm as stabilizing agents. The use of AAm/PAAm mixture leads to the formation of Cu and CuO nanoparticles. The resulting nanostructures were characterized by XRD, TGA, and TEM. The average particle diameters were determined by the Debye-Scherrer equation. Analysis by TGA, TEM, GS-MS, and 1HNMR reveals that synthesized NPs with AAm presented a coating with similar characteristics to NPs with PAAm, suggesting that AAm underwent polymerization during the synthesis. The synthesis of NPs using AAm could be a good alternative to reduce production costs.

  14. Production of metallic copper powder by autocatalytic reaction in suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Rocha Poço

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of metallic powder by precipitation from solution was studied in laboratory scale as an alternative to the conventionally adopted processes, based on the atomization of molten material, for producing metal powders with small particle size. The process is based on the precipitation of metals from aqueous solutions by reduction under controlled conditions. Results of laboratory scale experiments are presented for the production of copper particles from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate, using formaldehyde as reducing reactant, and EDTA as complexing agent. The effect of the presence of nuclei was studied. Metallic particles with average sizes in the range from about 0.3 µm to about 15 µm were obtained. In the process, large particles are formed mainly by aggregation of submicrometric particles, indicating that the particle size distribution of the product depends on the control of particle agglomeration rate.

  15. Fucoidans - sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usov, Anatolii I; Bilan, M I [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  16. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  17. Primary mesenchyme cell migration requires a chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, M C; Solursh, M

    1991-02-01

    Primary mesenchyme cell migration in the sea urchin embryo is inhibited by sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous beta-D-xylosides, two treatments known to disrupt proteoglycan synthesis. We show that in the developing sea urchin, exogenous xyloside affects the synthesis by the primary mesenchyme cells of a very large, cell surface chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. This proteoglycan is present in a partially purified fraction that restores migratory ability to defective cells in vitro. The integrity of this chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan appears essential for primary mesenchyme cell migration since treatment of actively migrating cells with chondroitinase ABC reversibly inhibited their migration in vitro.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  19. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  20. A simplified method for estimation of jarosite and acid-forming sulfates in acid mine wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Smart, Roger St C; Schumann, Russell C; Gerson, Andrea R; Levay, George

    2007-02-01

    In acid base accounting (ABA) estimates of acid mine wastes, the acid potential (AP) estimate can be improved by using the net carbonate value (NCV) reactive sulfide S method rather than total S assay methods but this does not give recovery of potentially acid producing ferrous and ferric sulfates present in many wastes. For more accurate estimation of AP, an effective, site-specific method to quantify acid sulfate salts, such as jarosite and melanterite, in waste rocks has been developed and tested on synthetic and real wastes. The SPOCAS (acid sulfate soils) methods have been modified to an effective, rapid method to speciate sulfate forms in different synthetic waste samples. A three-step sequential extraction procedure has been established. These steps are: (1) argon-purged water extraction (3 min) to extract soluble Fe(II) salts (particularly melanterite), epsomite and gypsum (1 wt.% S) as copper sulfides, the second step of roasting needs to be excluded from the procedure with an increased time of 4 M HCl extraction to 16 h for jarosite determination.

  1. Chinese Copper Manufacturers Expand Overseas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In 2012,China’s apparent copper consumption reached 8.84 million tons,accounting for 43%of the global total demand.Spurred by strong demand,China’s copper smelting capacity roars with annual average growth in domestic copper smelting capacity reaching approx-

  2. Structural studies of copper sulfide films: effect of ambient atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Kundu et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the structural properties of copper sulfide films as a function of the sulfurization time of 70-nm-thick Cu films. Copper sulfide films with various phases such as mixed metallic Cu-chalcocite, chalcocite, roxbyite, and covellite phases were formed with increasing sulfurization time. To evaluate the structural stability of various films, all the films were exposed to the ambient atmosphere for the same amount of time. Although the phase structure and stoichiometry of the films were maintained at a greater depth, the near-surface region of the films was oxidized and covered with overlayers of oxide, hydroxide, and/or sulfate species due to the exposure and reaction with the ambient atmosphere. The oxygen uptake and its reactivity with the copper sulfide film surfaces were enhanced with increasing sulfur content of the films. In addition, the type of divalent state of copper formed on the film surfaces depended on the phase structure, composition, and stoichiometry of the films.

  3. Evolution of patinas on copper exposed in a suburban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masamitsu [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan)]. E-mail: mwatanabe@east.ntt.co.jp; Toyoda, Etsuko [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Handa, Takao [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Ichino, Toshihiro [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Kuwaki, Nobuo [Technical Assistance and Support Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation, 4-10-23 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141 0022 (Japan); Higashi, Yasuhiro [NTT Service Integration Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3-9-11 Midori-cho, Musashino-shi, Tokyo 180 8585 (Japan); Tanaka, Tohru [NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243 0198 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Copper plates were exposed under sheltered outdoor conditions for up to one year, starting in September 2001 in Musashino City, Tokyo, a suburban area. Following various periods of exposure, the patinas on the plates were characterized to investigate their evolution by using X-ray fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The difference in the roles of sulfur and chlorine in the early stages of copper patination were identified by analyzing the depth profiles of these two elements. Sulfur was found on top of the patina as cupric sulfates such as posnjakite (Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6} . H{sub 2}O) or brochantite (Cu{sub 4}SO{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}). Brochantite appeared only after 12 months of exposure. In contrast, chlorine was found on the surface after only one month of exposure. It gradually penetrated the patina as the exposure period lengthened, forming copper chloride complexes. Chloride ions accumulated at the patina/copper interface, forming nantokite (CuCl), which promoted corrosion.

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Metallic Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. S. Virk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoflowers have been fabricated using two different techniques; electro-deposition of copper in polymer and anodic alumina templates, and cytyltrimethal ammonium bromide (CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images record some interesting morphologies of metallic copper nanoflowers. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM has been used to determine morphology and composition of copper oxide nanoflowers. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic phase of CuO in the crystallographic structure of copper oxide nanoflowers. There is an element of random artistic design of nature, rather than science, in exotic patterns of nanoflowers fabricated in our laboratory.

  5. Growth of a Copper-Gold Alloy Phase by Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Investigated by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Møller, Per

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous in situ scanning tunneling microscopy measurements and recordings of voltammograms were used to study in real time the initial cycles of potentiostatic copper electrodeposition and subsequent dissolution on a clean gold polycrystalline electrode. The cycles were carried out by sweeping...... the potential in the double-layer charging region from 500 to -100 mV and back to 500 mV at a sweep rate of 1 mV/s in an acidified copper sulfate electrolyte (0.01M H2SO4, 0.01M CuSO4, and Millipore water). After completion of the first cycle the gold surface had recrystallized and nuclei of an alloy phase were...... formed. After completion of subsequent cycles the distribution of crystallite dimensions and the shape of the crystallites changed and the growth was compared with features of concomitant voltammograms. Relations between charge densities and potentials were deduced from data of the voltammograms. A shift...

  6. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  7. Pseudoazurin from Sinorhizobium meliloti as an electron donor to copper-containing nitrite reductase: influence of the redox partner on the reduction potentials of the enzyme copper centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Félix M; Marangon, Jacopo; Neuman, Nicolás I; Cristaldi, Julio C; Brambilla, Silvina M; Guerrero, Sergio A; Rivas, María G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2014-08-01

    Pseudoazurin (Paz) is the physiological electron donor to copper-containing nitrite reductase (Nir), which catalyzes the reduction of NO2 (-) to NO. The Nir reaction mechanism involves the reduction of the type 1 (T1) copper electron transfer center by the external physiological electron donor, intramolecular electron transfer from the T1 copper center to the T2 copper center, and nitrite reduction at the type 2 (T2) copper catalytic center. We report the cloning, expression, and characterization of Paz from Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 (SmPaz), the ability of SmPaz to act as an electron donor partner of S. meliloti 2011 Nir (SmNir), and the redox properties of the metal centers involved in the electron transfer chain. Gel filtration chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis together with UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies revealed that as-purified SmPaz is a mononuclear copper-containing protein that has a T1 copper site in a highly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The SmPaz/SmNir interaction investigated electrochemically showed that SmPaz serves as an efficient electron donor to SmNir. The formal reduction potentials of the T1 copper center in SmPaz and the T1 and T2 copper centers in SmNir, evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and by UV-vis- and EPR-mediated potentiometric titrations, are against an efficient Paz T1 center to Nir T1 center to Nir T2 center electron transfer. EPR experiments proved that as a result of the SmPaz/SmNir interaction in the presence of nitrite, the order of the reduction potentials of SmNir reversed, in line with T1 center to T2 center electron transfer being thermodynamically more favorable.

  8. Electrodeposition of chromium from trivalent chromium urea bath containing sulfate and chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The reduction of Cr( Ⅲ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode in trivalent chromium urea bath containing chromium sulfate and chromium chloride as chromium source has been investigated by potentiodynamic sweep. The transfer coefficient α for reduction of Cr( Ⅲ ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode was calculated as 0.46. The reduction is a quasi-reversible process. J-t responses at different potential steps showed that the generation and adsorption characteristics of carboxylate bridged oligomer are relevant to cathode potential. The interface behavior between electrode and solution for Cr( Ⅲ ) complex is a critical factor influencing sustained electrode position of chromium. The hypotheses of the electro-inducing polymerization of Cr( Ⅲ ) was proposed. The potential scope in which sustained chromium deposits can be prepared is from- 1.3 V to- 1.7 V (vs SCE) in the urea bath. Bright chromium deposits with thickness of 30 μm can be prepared in the bath.

  9. Electrodeposition of a protective copper/nickel deposit on the magnesium alloy (AZ31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Wang, T.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Weirich, T. [Gemeinschaeftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Neubert, V. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    An environmental-friendly Cu electrodeposition process was proposed for the Magnesium alloy (AZ 31). Experimental results show that a good bonding between Cu deposit and Mg alloy surface can be achieved with a pretreatment of galvanostatic etching and then copper electrodeposition in the alkaline copper-sulfate plating bath. Microstructures between Cu deposit and Mg alloy substrate were examined with scanning electron and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopes (SEM and EF-TEM). The Cu-deposited Mg alloy can be further electroplated in acidic Cu and Ni plating baths to acquire a protective Cu/Ni deposit.

  10. Increased sensitivity of apolipoprotein E knockout mice to copper-induced oxidative injury to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Li, Bin; Zhao, Ran-ran; Zhang, Hui-feng; Zhen, Chao; Guo, Li

    2015-04-10

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes are related to clinical presentations in patients with Wilson's disease, indicating that ApoE may play an important role in the disease. However, our understanding of the role of ApoE in Wilson's disease is limited. High copper concentration in Wilson's disease induces excessive generation of free oxygen radicals. Meanwhile, ApoE proteins possess antioxidant effects. We therefore determined whether copper-induced oxidative damage differ in the liver of wild-type and ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Both wild-type and ApoE(-/-) mice were intragastrically administered with 0.2 mL of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mg/kg; a total dose of 4 mg/d) or the same volume of saline daily for 12 weeks, respectively. Copper and oxidative stress markers in the liver tissue and in the serum were assessed. Our results showed that, compared with the wild-type mice administered with copper, TBARS as a marker of lipid peroxidation, the expression of oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone 1 (NQO1) significantly increased in the ApoE(-/-) mice administered with copper, meanwhile superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased. Thus, it is concluded that ApoE may protect the liver from copper-induced oxidative damage in Wilson's disease.

  11. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  12. Green copper pigments biodegradation in cultural heritage: from malachite to moolooite, thermodynamic modeling, X-ray fluorescence, and Raman evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Sarmiento, Alfredo; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Luis Angel

    2008-06-01

    Moolooite (copper oxalate), a very rare compound, was found as a degradation product from the decay of malachite in several specimens of Cultural Heritage studied. Computer simulations, based on heterogeneous chemical equilibria, support the transformation of malachite to moolooite through the intermediate copper basic sulfates or copper basic chlorides, depending on the presence of available free sulfate or chloride anions in the chemical system. Raman and X-ray fluorescence spectral evidence found during the analysis of the three case studies investigated supported the model predictions. According to the study, the presence of lichens and other microorganisms might be responsible for the decay phenomena. This work tries to highlight the importance of biological attack on specimens belonging to Cultural Heritage and to demonstrate the consequences of oxalic acid, excreted by some of these microorganisms, on the conservation and preservation of artwork.

  13. Industrial experiment of copper electrolyte purification by copper arsenite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ya-jie; XIAO Fa-xin; WANG Yong; LI Chun-hua; XU Wei; JIAN Hong-sheng; MA Yut-ian

    2008-01-01

    Copper electrolyte was purified by copper arsenite that was prepared with As2O3. And electrolysis experiments of purified electrolyte were carried out at 235 and 305 A/m2, respectively. The results show that the yield of copper arsenite is up to 98.64% when the molar ratio of Cu to As is 1.5 in the preparation of copper arsenite. The removal rates of Sb and Bi reach 74.11% and 65.60% respectively after copper arsenite is added in electrolyte. The concentrations of As, Sb and Bi in electrolyte nearly remain constant during electrolysis of 13 d. The appearances of cathode copper obtained at 235 and 305 A/m2 are slippery and even, and the qualification rate is 100% according to the Chinese standard of high-pure cathode copper(GB/T467-97).

  14. In vitro digestion method for estimation of copper bioaccessibility in Açaí berry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Wojcieszek, Justyna

    Copper is an essential trace element for humans and its deficiency can lead to numerous diseases. A lot of mineral supplements are available to increase intake of copper. Unfortunately, only a part of the total concentration of elements is available for human body. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine bioaccessibility of copper in Açai berry, known as a "superfood" because of its antioxidant qualities. An analytical methodology was based on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) and on capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS). To extract various copper compounds, berries were treated with the following buffers: ammonium acetate, Tris-HCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The best extraction efficiency of copper was obtained for SDS extract (88 %), while results obtained for Tris-HCl and ammonium acetate were very similar (47 and 48 %, respectively). After SEC-ICP-MS analysis, main signal was obtained for all extracts in the region of molecular mass about 17 kDa. A two-step model simulated gastric (pepsin) and gastrointestinal (pancreatin) digestion was used to obtain the knowledge about copper bioaccessibility. Copper compounds present in Açai berry were found to be highly bioaccessible. The structures of five copper complexes with amino acids such as aspartic acid, tyrosine, phenylalanine, were proposed after µ-HPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis. Obtained results show that copper in enzymatic extracts is bound by amino acids and peptides what leads to better bioavailability of copper for human body.

  15. Influence of estrogens on copper indicators: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Miguel; Núñez, Héctor; López, Guadalupe; Pizarro, Fernando; Ayala, Mariana; Araya, Magdalena

    2010-06-01

    Classic copper indicators are not sensitive and specific for detecting excess copper exposure when this is higher than customary but not markedly elevated. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin (Cp) are the most commonly used indicators to assess nutritional status of copper. The objective of this paper was to study the influence of estrogens on these indicators and others used to assess early effects of excess copper exposure in humans and the expression of a set of copper related proteins in a hepatic cellular model. For the studies in humans, 107 healthy participants (18-50 years) were allocated as follows: group 1 (n = 39), women assessed on day 7 of their hormonal cycle; group 2 (n = 34), women assessed on day 21 of their hormonal cycle, and group 3 (n = 34, comparison group), healthy men. Participants received 8 mg Cu/day (as copper sulfate) during 6 months. Serum Cp and Cu, Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase activity, liver function indicators [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT)], and serum Fe and Zn concentrations were measured monthly. In addition, the influence of estradiol on intracellular total copper content, hctr1, dmt1 and shbg mRNA abundance and hCTR1, and DMT1 expression was measured in HepG2 cells. Serum Cu, Fe, and Zn and liver aminotransferases but not Cu-Zn-superoxide dismutase varied depending on sex. Fe nutrition indicators, GGT, and ALT activities showed significant differences between the hormonal phases. Cellular experiments showed that estradiol increased cellular Cu concentration and hCTR1 and DMT1 mRNA expression and changed these proteins expression patterns. Estradiols significantly influence the responses to copper at the whole body and the cellular levels, suggesting that they help maintaining copper availability for metabolic needs.

  16. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  17. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher (p<0.05) in the broodfish fed CSD0 and CSD1 diets than the other diets. Exposure of Clarias gariepinus fish to copper in water, at concentrations above 1.0mg CuSO4/g elicits adverse ... introduction of a toxicant to an aquatic system ..... Toxicity of four commonly used agrochemicals on. Oreochromis niloticus (L) fry.

  18. Presenilin promotes dietary copper uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Southon

    Full Text Available Dietary copper is essential for multicellular organisms. Copper is redox active and required as a cofactor for enzymes such as the antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Copper dyshomeostasis has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the presenilin genes encoding PS1 and PS2 are major causes of early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. PS1 and PS2 are required for efficient copper uptake in mammalian systems. Here we demonstrate a conserved role for presenilin in dietary copper uptake in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Ubiquitous RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the single Drosophila presenilin (PSN gene is lethal. However, PSN knockdown in the midgut produces viable flies. These flies have reduced copper levels and are more tolerant to excess dietary copper. Expression of a copper-responsive EYFP construct was also lower in the midgut of these larvae, indicative of reduced dietary copper uptake. SOD activity was reduced by midgut PSN knockdown, and these flies were sensitive to the superoxide-inducing chemical paraquat. These data support presenilin being needed for dietary copper uptake in the gut and so impacting on SOD activity and tolerance to oxidative stress. These results are consistent with previous studies of mammalian presenilins, supporting a conserved role for these proteins in mediating copper uptake.

  19. Optimization of a biological sulfate reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A.

    1985-01-01

    A biological sulfate reduction process is presented. It is intended to treat sulfate wastes by converting them to hydrogen sulfide which can be further oxidized to elemental sulfur. An optimization study of a completely-mixed reactor system was performed. Major operating parameters were determined at the bench-scale level. The study was conducted in batch-culture experiments, using a mixed Desulfovibrio culture from sewage. Kinetic values were extrapolated using the Michaelis-Menten model, which best fitted the experimental data. The iron loading and the sulfate loading significantly affected the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). A model to determine V/sub m/ from the iron and sulfate loading values was explored. The model is limited by sulfate loading greater than 4.3 g/l, where bacterial growth is inhibited. Iron loading is not anticipated to suppress the bacterial metabolism efficiency since it remained in the linear pattern even at inhibition levels. Studies of the metabolic behavior of SRB, using lactic acid as the carbon source, showed a requirement of 2.7 moles of lactate for each mole of sulfate. This technique and its application to the sulfur recovery process are discussed.

  20. Using Terrestrial Sulfate Efflorescences as an Analogue of Hydrated Sulfate Formation in Valles Marineris on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. C.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrated sulfate minerals provide conclusive evidence that a hydrologic cycle was once active on the surface of Mars. Two classes of hydrated sulfate minerals have been detected by robotic instruments on Mars: monohydrated sulfate minerals comprised of kieserite and gypsum, and various polyhydrated sulfates with Fe-Ca-Na-Mg-rich compositions. These minerals are found in various locations on Mars, including large surface exposures in valley settings of Valles Marineris. However, the sulfate sources and formation mechanisms of these minerals are not yet well understood.Recently, it has been suggested that the sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris might have formed in a manner similar to sulfate efflorescences found in dry environments on Earth. In this study, we use sulfate effloresences from the Rio Puerco Watershed, New Mexico as a terrestrial analogue to assess major factors that might have led to deposition of sulfate minerals in Valles Marineris. In different seasons indicative of dry and wet conditions, we collected field photographs and sediment samples for chemical and stable isotopic analyses (sulfur content, δ34S) to determine major sources of sulfate ions for efflorescences and to assess how the seasonal changes in surface/groundwater activity affect their formation. Preliminary sulfur isotope results suggest that oxidation of bedrock sulfides (0.01-0.05 wt. S %) is a major source of sulfate ion for efflorescences formation because their δ34S varied in negative range (-28 to -20‰) similar to sulfides (average -32‰). Using field photographs collected in Oct 2006, Feb and Nov 2012, May 2013, Mar and Oct 2014, we infer that the highest surface accumulation of sulfate efflorescences in the studied analog site was observed after summer monsoon seasons when more water was available for surface and subsurface transport of solutes from chemical weathering. Conversely, spring snow melt led to enhanced dissolution of sulfate efflorescences.

  1. The role of sulfate in aerobic granular sludge process for emerging sulfate-laden wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weiqi; Hao, Tianwei; Mackey, Hamish R; Li, Xiling; Chan, Richard C; Chen, Guanghao

    2017-11-01

    Sulfate-rich wastewaters pose a major threat to mainstream wastewater treatment due to the unpreventable production of sulfide and associated shift in functional bacteria. Aerobic granular sludge could mitigate these challenges in view of its high tolerance and resilience against changes in various environmental conditions. This study aims to confirm the feasibility of aerobic granular sludge in the treatment of sulfate containing wastewater, investigate the impact of sulfate on nutrient removal and granulation, and reveal metabolic relationships in the above processes. Experiments were conducted using five sequencing batch reactors with different sulfate concentrations operated under alternating anoxic/aerobic condition. Results showed that effect of sulfate on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is negligible, while phosphate removal was enhanced from 12% to 87% with an increase in sulfate from 0 to 200 mg/L. However, a long acclimatization of the biomass (more than 70 days) is needed at a sulfate concentration of 500 mg/L and a total deterioration of phosphate removal at 1000 mg/L. Batch tests revealed that sulfide promoted volatile fatty acids (VFAs) uptake, producing more energy for phosphate uptake when sulfate concentrations were beneath 200 mg/L. However, sulfide detoxification became energy dominating, leaving insufficient energy for Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis and phosphate uptake when sulfate content was further increased. Granulation accelerated with increasing sulfate levels by enhanced production of N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), a kind of quorum sensing (QS) auto-inducer, using S-Adenosyl Methionine (SAM) as primer. The current study demonstrates interactions among sulfate metabolism, nutrients removal and granulation, and confirms the feasibility of using the aerobic granular sludge process for sulfate-laden wastewaters treatment with low to medium sulfate content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Di-sulfated Keratan Sulfate as a Novel Biomarker for Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IVA, and IVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tomatsu, Shunji; Mason, Robert W; Yasuda, Eriko; Mackenzie, William G; Hossain, Jobayer; Shibata, Yuniko; Montaño, Adriana M; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Keratan sulfate (KS) is a storage material in mucopolysaccharidosis IV (MPS IV). However, no detailed analysis has been reported on subclasses of KS: mono-sulfated KS and di-sulfated KS. We established a novel method to distinguish and quantify mono- and di-sulfated KS using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and measured both KS levels in various specimens.Di-sulfated KS was dominant in shark cartilage and rat serum, while mono-sulfated KS was dominant in bovine cornea and human serum. Levels of both mono- and di-sulfated KS varied with age in the blood and urine from control subjects and patients with MPS II and IVA. The mean levels of both forms of KS in the plasma/serum from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB were elevated compared with that in age-matched controls. Di-sulfated KS provided more significant difference between MPS IVA and the age-matched controls than mono-sulfated KS. The ratio of di-sulfated KS to total KS in plasma/serum increased with age in control subjects and patients with MPS II but was age independent in MPS IVA patients. Consequently, this ratio can discriminate younger MPS IVA patients from controls. Levels of mono- and di-sulfated KS in urine of MPS IVA and IVB patients were all higher than age-matched controls for all ages studied.In conclusion, the level of di-sulfated KS and its ratio to total KS can distinguish control subjects from patients with MPS II, IVA, and IVB, indicating that di-sulfated KS may be a novel biomarker for these disorders.

  3. Analysis of tyrosine-O-sulfation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, J.R.; Sen, J.W.; Johnsen, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tyrosine O-sulfation was first described about 50 years ago as a post-translational modification of fibrinogen. In the following 30 years it was considered to be a rare modification affecting only a few proteins and peptides. However, in the beginning of the 1980s tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation was shown...... the presence of radioactively labeled tyrosine. These techniques have been described in detail previously. The aim of this chapter is to present alternative analytical methods of Tyr sulfation than radioisotope incorporation before analysis Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  4. Sulfated binary and trinary oxide solid superacids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪长喜; 华伟明; 陈建民; 高滋

    1996-01-01

    A series of sulfated binary and trinary oxide solid superacids were prepared, and their catalytic activities for n-butane isomerization at low temperature were measured. The incorporation of different metal oxides into ZrO2 may produce a positive or negative effect on the acid strength and catalytic activity of the solid superacids. Sulfated oxides of Cr-Zr, Fe-Cr-Zr and Fe-V-Zr are 2 - 3 times more active than the reported sulfated Fe-Mn-Zr oxide. The enhancement in the superacidity and catalytic activity of these new solid superacids has been discussed on account of the results of various characteriation techniques.

  5. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulfation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, D.E.; Silbert, J.E.

    1988-07-15

    Bovine aorta endothelial cells were cultured in medium containing (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 35/S)sulfate, and various concentrations of chlorate. Cell growth was not affected by 10 mM chlorate, while 30 mM chlorate had a slight inhibitory effect. Chlorate concentrations greater than 10 mM resulted in significant undersulfation of chondroitin. With 30 mM chlorate, sulfation of chondroitin was reduced to 10% and heparan to 35% of controls, but (/sup 3/H)glucosamine incorporation on a per cell basis did not appear to be inhibited. Removal of chlorate from the culture medium of cells resulted in the rapid resumption of sulfation.

  6. Comparative characteristics of copper, copper chloride, and copper bromide vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Petrash, G.G.; Trofimov, A.N.

    1980-03-01

    The paper reports the results of a comparative study of copper and copper halide vapor lasers emitting in a repetitively-pulsed regime. Copper chloride and copper bromide vapor lasers are found to have identical lasing characteristics under any excitation conditions. These characteristics are different from those of a copper vapor laser. An average lasing power of 13 W has been obtained for all lasers studied for an efficiency of 1%. It is shown that the choice of a laser will largely depend on the laser design suitability for a specific application.

  7. Effects of copper and selenium supplementation on performance and lipid metabolism in confined brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Arlindo Saran; Zanetti, Marcus Antônio; Claro, Gustavo Ribeiro Del; de Melo, Mariza Pires; Vilela, Flávio Garcia; Correa, Lisia Bertonha

    2014-04-01

    Twenty-eight Brangus cattle were used to determine the effect of copper and selenium supplementation on performance, feed efficiency, composition of fatty acids in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, and cholesterol concentration in serum and in LD muscle and enzymes activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The treatments were: i) Control, without copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) supplementation; ii) Se, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite; iii) Cu, 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate; iv) Se/Cu, 2 mg Se/kg of dry matter such as sodium selenite and 40 mg Cu/kg of dry matter such as copper sulfate. LD muscle fatty acid composition was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05). The serum concentration of cholesterol was not influenced by the treatments (p>0.05), however, the concentration of cholesterol in LD was lower in cattle supplemented with copper and selenium (p<0.05). Oxidized glutathione and reduced glutathione increased (p<0.05) with Cu, Se and Se/Cu supplementation. The supplementation of copper (40 mg/kg DM) and selenium (2 mg/kg DM) altered the metabolism of lipids in confined Brangus cattle, through a decrease in cholesterol deposition in the LD, possibly by changing the ratio between reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione. Copper and selenium supplementation improved animal performance and feed efficiency (p<0.05) when compared to the control group, providing advantages in the production system, while also benefiting consumers by reducing cholesterol concentration in the meat.

  8. Copper Ion as a New Leakage Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modaresi J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Most failures of root canal treatments are caused by bacteria. Studies showed that the most common cause of endodontic failures were the incomplete obturation of the root canal and the lack of adequate apical seal. Some in-vitro methods are used to estimate sealing quality, generally by measuring microleakage that allows the tracer agent to penetrate the filled canal.Purpose: Conventional methods of evaluating the seal of endodontically treated teeth are complicated and have some drawbacks. We used copper ion diffusion method to assess the leakage and the results were compared to dye penetration method.Materials and Method: The crowns of 21 extracted teeth were cut off at the CEJ level. After preparing the canals, the teeth were placed in tubes containing saline. They were divided randomly into 15 experimental cases; 3 positive and 3 negative controls. Positive controls were filled by single cone without sealer while the experimental and the negative control groups were filled by lateral technique. The coronal portion of gutta was removed and 9mm was left. The external surface of each tooth was coated with nail polish. Two millimeters of apical portion was immersed into 9ml of distilled water and 0.3ml of CuSO4 solution was injected into the coronal portion. After 2 days, copper sulfate was measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The teeth were then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 24 hours, sectioned and the extent of dye penetration was measured by a stereomicroscope.Results: The maximum and minimum recorded copper ion concentrations for the experimental group were 18.37 and 2.87ppm respectively. The maximum and minimum recorded dye penetrations for the experimental group were 8.5 and 3.5mm respectively. The statistical analysis, adopting paired samples test, showed poor correlation between average recorded results of two methods.Conclusion: Based on our results, there was no significant correlation between

  9. Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Abshenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12 or three treatment groups each containing twelve animals. Animals in the first treatment group was gavaged with copper sulfate, the second treatment group was injected with zinc sulfate, and the third treatment group was given combined treatment of copper and zinc. Control animals received normal saline using the same volume and similar methods. Six rats from each group were sacrificed on day 28 and 56 after treatments for sperm quality evaluations. Results: In spite of testicular weight reduction 56 days after copper consumption in comparison to the control group (p=0.002, there was not a significant difference between the control and combined treatment of copper and zinc group (31.40±0.55 vs. 28.63±0.55, p=0.151. Administration of copper caused a significant decrease in the sperm count, viability and motility after 56 days compared to the control group. However, a complete recovery in sperm count was seen in combined treatment of copper and zinc group after 56 days compared to the control group (p=0.999 and a partial improvement was seen about the percentage of viability and motility (p<0.001. Conclusion: Adverse effects of long term consumption of copper on sperm quality could be prevented by zinc therapy in rats.

  10. Large-scale synthesis of copper nanoparticles by chemically controlled reduction for applications of inkjet-printed electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngil; Choi, Jun-Rak; Lee, Kwi Jong; Stott, Nathan E; Kim, Donghoon

    2008-10-15

    Copper nanoparticles are being given considerable attention as of late due to their interesting properties and potential applications in many areas of industry. One such exploitable use is as the major constituent of conductive inks and pastes used for printing various electronic components. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized through a relatively large-scale (5 l), high-throughput (0.2 M) process. This facile method occurs through the chemical reduction of copper sulfate with sodium hypophosphite in ethylene glycol within the presence of a polymer surfactant (PVP), which was included to prevent aggregation and give dispersion stability to the resulting colloidal nanoparticles. Reaction yields were determined to be quantitative while particle dispersion yields were between 68 and 73%. The size of the copper nanoparticles could be controlled between 30 and 65 nm by varying the reaction time, reaction temperature, and relative ratio of copper sulfate to the surfactant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the particles revealed a spherical shape within the reported size regime, and x-ray analysis confirmed the formation of face-centered cubic (FCC) metallic copper. Furthermore, inkjet printing nanocopper inks prepared from the polymer-stabilized copper nanoparticles onto polyimide substrates resulted in metallic copper traces with low electrical resistivities (≥3.6 µΩ cm, or ≥2.2 times the resistivity of bulk copper) after a relatively low-temperature sintering process (200 °C for up to 60 min).

  11. Response of Four Russula Species under Copper Sulphate and Lead Acetate Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela BUSUIOC; Elekes, Carmen Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms have a species-specific affinity for heavy metals in soil. Therefore, mushrooms may act as an effective bioaccumulator of metals, thus can be used in mycoremediation technologies to remove and recover heavy metals from soil. The response of four Russula species to copper sulfate and lead acetate treatments concerning the absorption, accumulation and translocation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb was studied. Differences in metal concentrations were recorded between caps and stipes of the fr...

  12. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  13. ROE Wet Sulfate Deposition 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The raster data represent the amount of wet sulfate deposition in kilograms per hectare from 2009 to 2011. Summary data in this indicator were provided by EPA’s...

  14. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  15. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  16. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  17. Tongling:Copper Industry Giant Takes Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centering on the strategic goal of building "World Copper Capital", Tongling constantly extends its product lines and improves the copper industry chain. Now, the copper industry with a production value of RMB 100 billion has taken shape.As the largest copper wire rod manufacturer in Asia, Tongling Quanwei Copper Technologies Co., Ltd., upon its moving into the local market,

  18. Sulfate Resistance of Alkali Activated Pozzolans

    OpenAIRE

    Bondar, Dali

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of sulfate attack on geopolymer concrete, made from an alkali activated natural pozzolan (AANP) has been studied in this paper. Changes in the compressive strength, expansion and capillary water absorption of specimens have been investigated combined with phases determination by means of X-ray diffraction. At the end of present investigation which was to evaluate the performance of natural alumina silica based geopolymer concrete in sodium and magnesium sulfate solution, the l...

  19. Novel copper (II) alginate hydrogels and their potential for use as anti-bacterial wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkajon, Wimonwan; Supaphol, Pitt

    2014-08-01

    The incorporation of a metal ion, with antimicrobial activity, into an alginate dressing is an attractive approach to minimize infection in a wound. In this work, copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels were successfully prepared using a two-step cross-linking procedure. In the first step, solid alginate films were prepared using a solvent-casting method from soft gels of alginate solutions that had been lightly cross-linked using a copper (II) (Cu(2+)) sulfate solution. In the second step, the films were further cross-linked in a corresponding Cu(2+) sulfate solution using a dipping method to further improve their dimensional stability. Alginate solution (at 2%w/v) and Cu(2+) sulfate solution (at 2%w/v) in acetate buffer at a low pH provided soft films with excellent swelling behavior. An increase in either Cu(2+) ion concentration or cross-linking time led to hydrogels with more densely-cross-linked networks that limited water absorption. The hydrogels clearly showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes, which was proportional to the Cu(2+) ion concentration. Blood coagulation studies showed that the tested copper (II) cross-linked alginate hydrogels had a tendency to coagulate fibrin, and possibly had an effect on pro-thrombotic coagulation and platelet activation. Conclusively, the prepared films are likely candidates as antibacterial wound dressings.

  20. Is there a correlation between structure and anticoagulant action of sulfated galactans and sulfated fucans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana S; Melo, Fábio R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2002-10-01

    We attempted to identify the specific structural features in sulfated galactans and sulfated fucans that confer anticoagulant activity. For this study we employed a variety of invertebrate polysaccharides with simple structures composed of well-defined units of oligosaccharides. Our results indicate that a 2-O-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan, but not a alpha-L-fucan with a similar molecular size, is a potent thrombin inhibitor mediated by antithrombin or heparin cofactor II. The difference between the activities of these two polysaccharides is not very pronounced when factor Xa replaced thrombin. The occurrence of 2,4-di-O-sulfated units is an amplifying motif for 3-linked alpha-fucan-enhanced thrombin inhibition by antithrombin. If we replace antithrombin by heparin cofactor II, then the major structural requirement for the activity becomes single 4-O-sulfated fucose units. The presence of 2-O-sulfated fucose residues always had a deleterious effect on anticoagulant activity. Overall, our results indicate that the structural requirements for interaction of sulfated galactans and sulfated fucans with coagulation cofactors and their target proteases are stereospecific and not merely a consequence of their charge density and sulfate content.

  1. Hormonal control of sulfate uptake and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones have a plethora of functions in control of plant development, stress response, and primary metabolism, including nutrient homeostasis. In the plant nutrition, the interplay of hormones with responses to nitrate and phosphate deficiency is well described, but relatively little is known about the interaction between phytohormones and regulation of sulfur metabolism. As for other nutrients, sulfate deficiency results in modulation of root architecture, where hormones are expected to play an important role. Accordingly, sulfate deficiency induces genes involved in metabolism of tryptophane and auxin. Also jasmonate biosynthesis is induced, pointing to the need of increase the defense capabilities of the plants when sulfur is limiting. However, hormones affect also sulfate uptake and assimilation. The pathway is coordinately induced by jasmonate and the key enzyme, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is additionally regulated by ethylene, abscisic acid, nitric oxid, and other phytohormones. Perhaps the most intriguing link between hormones and sulfate assimilation is the fact that the main regulator of the response to sulfate starvation, SULFATE LIMITATION1 (SLIM1) belongs to the family of ethylene related transcription factors. We will review the current knowledge of interplay between phytohormones and control of sulfur metabolism and discuss the main open questions.

  2. Ammonium sulfate preparation from phosphogypsum waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hakim T. Kandil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian phosphogypsum waste is treated using sulfuric acid prior the ammonium sulfate production. The relevant factors that would affect the removal efficiencies of some impurities are studied. The optimum conditions of the treatment are 8 M sulfuric acid solution and 1/4 solid/liquid ratio for 30 min contact time at 80 °C. Moreover, the optimum conditions of the ammonium sulfate preparation are 10 g of the suspended impure or purified phosphogypsum in 40 ml of 3% ammonium sulfate solution (as initiator, 1/4 solid/liquid ratio at pH7 at an addition of an excess ammonium carbonate, and 150 rpm stirring speed for 4.0 h contact time at 55 °C as well as the 5 mg of barium chloride is added to remove the radium in the ammonium sulfate product. Finally, the ammonium sulfate is crystallized and the chemical analysis of the product shows 20% nitrogen and 23.6% sulfur. Therefore, the purity of the obtained ammonium sulfate is 95% from the purified phosphogypsum.

  3. Preparation of Agarose Sulfate and Its Antithrombogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE Youping; ZHANG Lingmin; CHEN Peng; MAO Xuan; TANG Shunqing

    2012-01-01

    As one of the seaweed polysaccharide,agarose has received much attention because of its biocompatibility.However,its application in biomedical field was limited with its biological inertia.Modification with some functional groups is needed to obtain agarose derivatives with biological activity and expand its applications.Consequently,agarose was sulfated with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine with formamide as dispersing agent.The orthogonal test result showed that the optimal reaction condition was the reaction time being 4 h,the reaction temperature 65 ℃,and the ratio of chlorosulfonic acid to agarose 1-4(mL/g).Two kinds of the insoluble agarose sulfate (below 37 ℃) were synthesized with degree of substitution (DS) being 0.17 and 0.43 respectively.Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy results proved that C3-6 in agarose was sulfated.Their hydrophobic property and BSA adsorption capacity rose with increasing DS,while the adsorption of Hb was reduced.The anti-clotting properties of agarose sulfate were significantly improved,and agarose sulfate could protect red blood cells from deformation after adsorption of BSA.These findings demonstrate that the cold-water insoluble agarose sulfate has a promise for applications as heparin-like material in anticoagulation or endothelial regeneration scaffold.

  4. Structure of a rat hepatoma heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedarko, N.S.; Ishihara, M.; Conrad, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    Previous studies showed that as monolayer cultures of a rat hepatocyte cell line passed from log growth to confluency there was an increase in sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) and the accumulation of a unique species of HS with a high content of sulfated GlcA residues in the nucleus. The present study compares the HS metabolism of a rat (Morris) hepatoma line. Cells were labeled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and the structure and distribution of (/sup 35/SO/sub 4/)HS from the culture medium (CM), the pericellular matrix (Ma), the nucleus (NUC), the outer nuclear membrane (NM), and the remaining cytoplasmic (CP) pool was measured as nitrous acid-susceptible material. The amount of label incorporated into each pool was 1/10 that observed in the hepatocyte line. The HS proteglycan and the free HS chains from the hepatoma showed size distributions similar to those found for the hepatocytes, but a lower average charge density. In the HS from the CM, Ma, and CP pools 56% of glucosamine residues were sulfated; in that from the NM and NUC pools 46% were sulfated. HONO treatment gave mono- and disulfated disaccharides in a ratio of 1.5:1 for all five cellular pools, but showed that the HS from the NUC pool did not contain high levels of sulfated GlcA residues.

  5. Sulfated polysaccharides and cell differentiation in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvtrup-Rein, H; Løvtrup, S

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides during the embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus has been investigated by incorporation of radioactive sulfate, glucose, glucosamine and fucose. The following substances become labelled: fucan sulfate (approximately 60%), heparan sulfate (approximately 20%) and dermatan sulfate (approximately 20%), and possibly a very slight amount of chondroitin sulfate. In animalized and vegetalized embryos, the rate of incorporation is significantly reduced, and furthermore dermatan sulfate is almost absent in animalized embryos. It is concluded that this substance is associated with the differentiation of vegetative cells, possibly the mesenchyme cells.

  6. Direct Production of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorovich, G. S.; Bell, M. C.; Diaz, C. M.; Bell, J. A. E.

    1987-09-01

    The use of commercially pure oxygen in flash smelting a typical chalcopyrite concentrate or a low grade comminuted matte directly to copper produces a large excess of heat. The heat balance is controlled by adjusting the calorific value of the solid feed. A portion of the sulfide material is roasted to produce a calcine which is blended with unroasted material, and the blend is then autogeneously smelted with oxygen and flux directly to copper. Either iron silicate or iron calcareous slags are produced, both being subject to a slag cleaning treatment. Practically all of the sulfur is contained in a continuous stream of SO2 gas, most of which is strong enough for liquefaction. A particularly attractive feature of these technologies is that no radically new metallurgical equipment needs to be developed. The oxygen smelting can be carried out not only in the Inco type flash furnace but in other suitable smelters such as cyclone furnaces. Another major advantage stems from abolishion of the ever-troublesome converter aisle, which is replaced with continuous roasting of a fraction of the copper sulfide feed.

  7. The treatment of Wilson's disease, a rare genetic disorder of copper metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterised by the deposition of copper in the brain, liver; cornea, and other organs. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction. Copper overload in patients with Wilson's disease is caused by impairment to the biliary route for excretion of dietary copper A combination of neurological, psychiatric and hepatic symptoms can make the diagnosis of Wilson's disease challenging. Most symptoms appear in the second and third decades of life. The disease affects between one in 30,000 and one in 100,000 individuals, and is fatal if left untreated. Five drugs are currently available to treat Wilson's disease: British Anti-Lewisite; D-penicillamine; trientine; zinc sulfate or acetate; and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Each drug can reduce copper levels and/or transform copper into a metabolically inert and unavailable form in the patient. The discovery and introduction of these five drugs owes more to the inspiration of a few dedicated physicians and agricultural scientists than to the resources of the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. The Effect of Desulfovibrio sp. Biofilms on Corrosion Behavior of Copper in Sulfide-Containing Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Nihal Doğruöz; Çotuk, Ayşın; Dışpınar, Derya

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to detect the effect of Desulfovibrio sp. on copper in terms of biofilm formation and corrosion in 722 h. In that way, appropriate strategies to inhibit microbiological corrosion in copper systems with Desulfovibrio sp. can be evaluated. For this purpose, experiments were performed in 1 L glass model system containing 28 copper coupons and pure culture of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) strain Desulfovibrio sp. in Postgate's medium C. Also, a control system with copper coupons but without Desulfovibrio sp. containing sterile Postgate's medium was studied concurrently with the test system. The test coupons were collected from systems at certain time intervals, namely 24, 168, 360, and 720 h. The samples were then subjected to several characterization analyses such as measurement of Desulfovibrio sp. numbers, corrosion resistance, EPS extraction, carbohydrate analysis, SEM, and EDS. During the experiments, the maximum Desulfovibrio sp. count in biofilm samples was found at 360 h. Carbohydrate and copper concentrations in biofilm were increased over time. EDS analysis revealed Cu, S, C, O, and Cl peaks on the surface of the samples. For the control coupons, only Cu peaks were observed. The results obtained from this study showed that copper was corroded by Desulfovibrio sp. in the model system under laboratory conditions.

  9. A regenerable copper-based sorbent for H{sub 2}S removal from coal gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Slimane, R.B. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This paper reports on research conducted for the development of copper-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization applications in the temperature range of 550-650{degree}C. A thermodynamic analysis is given to rationalize the selection of chromia (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and its potential superiority to alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), for the stabilization of copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) against complete reduction to elemental copper (Cu) upon exposure to a fuel gas in the indicated temperature range. The results of packed-bed experiments carried out for the determination of optimum operating conditions as well as the evaluation of the long-term durability and regenerability of a selected copper chromite sorbent was presented and discussed. The regenerable copper chromite sorbent developed, designated as CuCr-29, is capable of achieving less than 5 ppmv H{sub 2}S concentration in the cleaned fuel gas. The optimum desulfurization temperature in terms of sorbent efficiency (terminal H{sub 2}S levels in the cleaned fuel gas) and utilization (sulfur capacity at breakthrough or effective capacity) for this sorbent is determined to be about 600{degree}C. Sorbent regeneration with a dilute O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} gas mixture at 750{degree}C ensured complete conversion of the copper sulfide to oxide without sulfate formation or reactivity deterioration in subsequent cycles.

  10. Mitochondrial proteomic alterations caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure in mouse cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xuemei; Wei, Gang; Huang, Zhijun; Qu, Zhongsen; Huang, Xinfeng; Xu, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Yang, Xifei

    2016-11-30

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in neurotoxicity caused by exposure of various chemicals such as copper. However, the effects of long-term low-dose copper exposure on mitochondrial proteome remain unclear. In this study, we found the treatment of copper (0.13ppm copper sulfate in drinking water) for 12 months caused abnormal expression of a total of 13 mitochondrial proteins (7 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry in mouse cortex. Protein functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressed proteins mainly included apoptosis-associated proteins, axon guidance-associated proteins, axonogenesis-associated proteins and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex. Among these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins, GRP75 (75kDa glucose-regulated protein) and GRP78 (78kDa glucose-regulated protein) were found to be significantly down-regulated as confirmed by Western-blot analysis. The down-regulation of GRP75 was shown to promote apoptosis. The down-regulation of GRP78/BiP could up-regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediators and thus cause apoptosis. Our study suggested that these differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins such as GRP75 and GRP78 could be involved in neurotoxicity caused by long-term low-dose copper exposure and serve as potential molecular targets for the treatment of copper neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanochemical reactions on copper-based compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castricum, H.L.; Bakker, H.; Poels, E.K.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanochemical reactions of copper and copper oxides with oxygen and carbon dioxide are discussed, as well as decomposition and reduction of copper compounds by mechanical milling under high-vacuum conditions.

  12. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  13. Effects of copper and cadmium on heavy metal polluted waterbody restoration by duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenhua; Chen, Xiao; Song, Guanling; Wang, Qunhui; Chi Chang, Chein

    2007-01-01

    Aquatic plants have been identified as a potentially useful group for accumulating and bioconcentrating heavy metals. In the study, we investigated changes in the contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments as well as the activity of antioxidant enzymes caused by copper sulfate and cadmium dichloride, respectively in duckweed (Lemna minor) during concentration-dependent exposure (0.05-20 mg l(-1)) to metal salt. The results demonstrated that exposure to high concentration heavy metals (Cu>10 mg l(-1), Cd>0.5 mg l(-1)) could result the disintegration of antioxidant system in duckweed. Also, the significant decrease of contents of soluble protein and photosynthetic pigments was observed to high-level metal stress. Additionally, cadmium was found to be more toxic than copper on plants. The outcome of this study corroborate that Lemna minor is a suitable candidate for the phytoremediation of low-level copper and cadmium contaminated waterbody.

  14. Electrochemical removal of copper ions from dilute solutions using packed bed electrode. Part І

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Khattab

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Removal of some hazardous waste like copper from effluent streams has an industrial importance. In this field, this paper is directed towards electrochemical removal of copper ions from sulfate solution using packed bed electrode. The cathode packing is in static mode, consisted of graphite particles, with mean particle size equal to 0.125 cm. The high surface area of this cell is expected to give high current efficiency and removal percent. The effect of current density and liquid flow rate were tested. Experimental results obtained indicate that the efficiencies are in direct proportional with current density while inversely proportional with liquid flow rate. It was observed that, using this cell was effective in reducing copper concentration to less than 4 mg/l with R.E of 96.2% during 30 min electrolysis time.

  15. Sulfated polysaccharides and immune response: promoter or inhibitor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Wu, X Z; Wen, Z Y

    2008-06-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides, which frequently connect to core protein, are expressed not only on cell surface but also throughout the extracellular matrix. Besides providing structural integrity of cells, sulfated polysaccharides interact with a variety of sulfated polysaccharides-binding proteins, such as growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and proteases. Sulfated polysaccharides play two-edged roles, inhibitor and promoter, in immune response. Some sulfated polysaccharides act as the immunosuppressor by blocking inflammatory signal transduction induced by proinflammatory cytokines, suppressing the activation of complement and inhibiting the process that leukocytes adhere to and pass through endothelium. On the contrary, the interaction between immune cells and sulfated polysaccharides produced by bacteria, endothelial cells and immune cells initiate the occurrence of immune response. It promotes the processes of recognizing and arresting antigen, migrating transendothelium, moving into and out of immune organ and enhancing the proliferation of lymphocyte. The structure of sulfated polysaccharides, such as molecular weight and sulfated sites heterogeneity, especially the degree of disaccharide sulfation, position of the sulfate moiety and organization of sulfated domains, may play critical role in their controversial effects. As a consequence, the interaction between sulfated polysaccharides and sulfated polysaccharide-binding proteins may be changed by modifying the structure of sulfated polysaccharides chains. The administration of drug targeting sulfated polysaccharide-protein interaction may be useful in treating inflammatory related diseases.

  16. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  17. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić Jelka; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Petrović Đorđe; Grujić Zorica; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Kopitović Vesna; Bjelica Artur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathol...

  18. On the roles and regulation of chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate in zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmborn, Katarina; Habicher, Judith; Kasza, Zsolt;

    2012-01-01

    The present study addresses the roles of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans and chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans in the development of zebrafish pharyngeal cartilage structures. uxs1 and b3gat3 mutants, predicted to have impaired biosynthesis of both HS and CS because of defective formation...

  19. 21 CFR 524.960 - Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone, neomycin sulfate, and polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic solutions. 524.960 Section 524.960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... fundamental healing mechanism. Adrenocorticoid compounds have been reported to cause an increase in...

  20. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  1. Study of Copper Substitute in High Copper Price Market Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The high price of copper drives up industry cost,also it is difficult for terminal products to raise price to transfer the cost pressure brought by increase in copper price,as a result downstream consumption markets instead try to seek

  2. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Coated with Nitrogen Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Sierra-Ávila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of copper nanoparticles was studied by wet chemical methods using copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O and nitrogen ligands allylamine (AAm and polyallylamine (PAAm as stabilizers. The results suggest that the use of these ligands leads to the exclusive formation of metallic copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs. The use of partially crosslinked polyallylamine (PAAmc leads to nanoparticles (NPs with low yields and high coating content, while linear PAAm leads to NPs with high yields and low coating content. The chemical composition of the particles was determined by XRD and average particle diameters were determined by the Debye-Scherrer equation. TGA analysis provided evidence of the content and thermal stability of the coating on the nanoparticles and PAAm. The morphology, particle size distribution, and presence of PAAm coating were observed through TEM. The use of AAm in the synthesis of NPs could be a good alternative to reduce costs. By using TGA, TEM, and DSC techniques, it was determined that synthesized NPs with AAm presented a coating with similar characteristics to NPs with PAAm, suggesting that AAm underwent polymerization during the synthesis.

  3. Fixation Property of Copper Triazole Wood Preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to AWPA E11-2006 standard,copper fixation rates of several copper-based formulations,such as ammoniacal copper,amine copper,and ammoniacal-ethanolamine copper,as well as alkaline copper quaternary(ACQ),were tested and compared in this paper.And the fixation rates of tebuconazole(TEB) and propiconazole(PPZ) in several formulations,such as copper azole,emulsified type and solvent type,were also compared.The determination of copper content in the leachate was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrom...

  4. INTERACTION OF COPPER BASED PRESERVATIVES WITH WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Temiz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Copper is highly toxic to fungi and the element is widely used in many preservative formulations over 50 years. The interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives impact both the performance and the environment aspects of treated wood. Copper might be present in treated wood as coppercellulose complex, copper-lignin complex, and crystalline or amorphous inorganic/organic copper compounds. In this review; it was aimed to investigate the interactions of wood and copper-based preservatives, Copper Adsorpsion factors and copper forms in treated wood

  5. Modeling of sulfation of potassium chloride by ferric sulfate addition during grate-firing of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Aho, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Potassium chloride, KCl, formed from critical ash-forming elements released during combustion may lead to severe ash deposition and corrosion problems in biomass-fired boilers. Ferric sulfate, Fe2(SO4)3 is an effective additive, which produces sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3) to convert KCl to the less...... harmful K2SO4. In the present study the decomposition of ferric sulfate is studied in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and a kinetic model is proposed to describe the decomposition process. The yields of SO2 and SO3 from ferric sulfate decomposition are investigated in a laboratory......-scale tube reactor. It is revealed that approximately 40% of the sulfur is released as SO3, the remaining fraction being released as SO2. The proposed decomposition model of ferric sulfate is combined with a detailed gas phase kinetic model of KCl sulfation, and a simplified model of K2SO4 condensation...

  6. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A

    2016-05-05

    This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  7. Electroleaching of Copper Waste with Recovery of Copper by Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new process to leach and recover copper from solid waste using electric fields was designed. The leaching with electro migration is presented as an alternative to traditional leaching. Preliminary data indicate that the copper ion migration is facilitated by using the electrical potential difference; therefore applying a potential difference in the processes of leaching facilitates the removal of copper. This is especially useful when mineral concentrations are very low. Different phenomena associated with transport of copper in solution are studied to generate a model able predict the state of the copper ion concentration in time. A kinetic model for the process was developed and fitted very well the experimental data.

  8. Synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles by solution plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Genki; Hosokai, Sou; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of copper/copper oxide nanoparticles via a solution plasma, in which the effect of the electrolyte and electrolysis time on the morphology of the products was mainly examined. In the experiments, a copper wire as a cathode was immersed in an electrolysis solution of a K2CO3 with the concentration from 0.001 to 0.50 M or a citrate buffer (pH = 4.8), and was melted by the local-concentration of current. The results demonstrated that by using the K2CO3 solution, we obtained CuO nanoflowers with many sharp nanorods, the size of which decreased with decreasing the concentration of the solution. Spherical particles of copper with/without pores formed when the citrate buffer was used. The pores in the copper nanoparticles appeared when the applied voltage changed from 105 V to 130 V, due to the dissolution of Cu2O.

  9. Heparin-like properties of sulfated alginates with defined sequences and sulfation degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlov, Øystein; Aachmann, Finn Lillelund; Sundan, Anders; Espevik, Terje; Skjåk-Bræk, Gudmund

    2014-07-14

    Sulfated glycosaminoglycans have a vast range of protein interactions relevant to the development of new biomaterials and pharmaceuticals, but their characterization and application is complicated mainly due to a high structural variability and the relative difficulty to isolate large quantities of structurally homogeneous samples. Functional and versatile analogues of heparin/heparan sulfate can potentially be created from sulfated alginates, which offer structure customizability through targeted enzymatic epimerization and precise tuning of the sulfation degree. Alginates are linear polysaccharides consisting of β-D-mannuronic acid (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G), derived from brown algae and certain bacteria. The M/G ratio and distribution of blocks are critical parameters for the physical properties of alginates and can be modified in vitro using mannuronic-C5-epimerases to introduce sequence patterns not found in nature. Alginates with homogeneous sequences (poly-M, poly-MG, and poly-G) and similar molecular weights were chemically sulfated and structurally characterized by the use of NMR and elemental analysis. These sulfated alginates were shown to bind and displace HGF from the surface of myeloma cells in a manner similar to heparin. We observed dependence on the sulfation degree (DS) as well as variation in efficacy based on the alginate monosaccharide sequence, relating to relative flexibility and charge density in the polysaccharide chains. Co-incubation with human plasma showed complement compatibility of the alginates and lowering of soluble terminal complement complex levels by sulfated alginates. The sulfated polyalternating (poly-MG) alginate proved to be the most reproducible in terms of precise sulfation degrees and showed the greatest relative degree of complement inhibition and HGF interaction, maintaining high activity at low DS values.

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of chondroitin sulfate, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, entactin, and laminin in basement membranes of postnatal developing and adult rat lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannes, P L; Burch, K K; Khosla, J

    1993-01-01

    Histologic preparations of lungs from 1-, 5-, 10-, 18-, and 25-day-old postnatal and adult rats were examined immunohistochemically with antibodies specific against chondroitin sulfate (CS), basement membrane chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (BM-CSPG), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), entactin...

  11. Studies of copper transport in mammalian cells using copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    The trace element copper poses a major problem for all organisms. It is essential as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Using the copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t1/2 = 61 hr) we have developed a number of systems for studying copper transport in mammalian cells. These include investigation of copper uptake, copper efflux and ligand blot assays for Cu-binding proteins. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency disorder in humans. We have demonstrated that the Menkes protein is directly involved as a copper efflux pump in mammalian cells. Using cells overexpressing the Menkes protein we have provided the first biochemical evidence that this functions as a Cu translocating (across the membrane) P-type ATPase (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press). These studies were carried out using purified plasma membrane vesicles. We are now carrying out structure- function studies on this protein using targeted mutations and assaying using the radiocopper vesicle assay. Recently we have commenced studies on the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in copper transport and relationship of this to Alzheimers disease

  12. A Plasmodium falciparum copper-binding membrane protein with copper transport motifs

    OpenAIRE

    Choveaux David L; Przyborski Jude M; Goldring JP

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Copper is an essential catalytic co-factor for metabolically important cellular enzymes, such as cytochrome-c oxidase. Eukaryotic cells acquire copper through a copper transport protein and distribute intracellular copper using molecular chaperones. The copper chelator, neocuproine, inhibits Plasmodium falciparum ring-to-trophozoite transition in vitro, indicating a copper requirement for malaria parasite development. How the malaria parasite acquires or secretes copper st...

  13. Nanocrystalline copper based microcomposites

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. Stobrawa; Z.M. Rdzawski; W. Głuchowski; J. Domagała-Dubiel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of copper microcomposites: Cu- Y2O3, Cu- ZrO2 and Cu-WC produced by powder metallurgy techniques.Design/methodology/approach: Tests were made with Cu-Y2O3, Cu-ZrO2 and Cu-WC microcomposites containing up to 2% of a strengthening phase. The materials were fabricated by powder metallurgy techniques, including milling of powders, followed by their compacting and sintering. The main mec...

  14. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi...

  15. p-Cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate in pediatric patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate are important protein-bound uremic retention solutes whose levels can be partially reduced by renal replacement therapy. These solutes originate from intestinal bacterial protein fermentation and are associated with cardiovascular outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. The aims of this study were to investigate the levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate as well as the effect of probiotics on reducing the levels of uremic toxins in pediatric patients on dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; We enrolled 20 pediatric patients undergoing chronic dialysis; 16 patients completed the study. The patients underwent a 12-week regimen of VSL#3, a high-concentration probiotic preparation, and the serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate were measured before treatment and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the regimen by using fluorescence liquid chromatography. To assess the normal range of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate we enrolled the 16 children with normal glomerular filtration rate who had visited an outpatient clinic for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria that had been detected by a school screening in August 2011. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The baseline serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p- cresyl sulfate in the patients on chronic dialysis were significantly higher than those in the children with microscopic hematuria. The baseline serum levels of p- cresyl sulfate in the peritoneal dialysis group were significantly higher than those in the hemodialysis group. There were no significant changes in the levels of these uremic solutes after 12-week VSL#3 treatment in the patients on chronic dialysis. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The levels of the uremic toxins p- cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate are highly elevated in pediatric patients on dialysis, but there was no significant effect by

  16. Copper is required for cobalt-induced transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liying; Ding, Xueqin; Zhang, Zhen; Kang, Y James

    2012-08-01

    Cobalt inhibits prolyl hydroxylases, leading to the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and a concomitant increase in the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. Therefore, cobalt has been under development as a drug for activating HIF-1 under some disease conditions. However, it has been shown that ischemic conditions resulted in the loss of copper, and the activation of HIF-1 would not occur unless copper was supplemented. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that copper is also required for the cobalt activation of HIF-1 transcriptional activity. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) at concentrations above 25 μM for 2 h resulted in an accumulation of HIF-1α, which was determined by Western blot analysis, and an increase in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which was determined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis for mRNA levels and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis for protein levels. The copper chelator tetraethylenepentamine at 25 μM did not significantly affect the accumulation of HIF-1α but blocked increases in VEGF mRNA and protein levels, an effect that could be reversed by the addition of 25 μM copper sulfate (CuSO(4)). In addition, gene silencing of the copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase blocked VEGF expression with little effect on cobalt-induced HIF-1α accumulation. The present study thus demonstrates that copper was required for cobalt-activated transcriptional activity of HIF-1, although copper did not affect cobalt-induced accumulation of HIF-1α in the cells.

  17. The limit of the genetic adaptation to copper in freshwater phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouco, Mónica; López-Rodas, Victoria; González, Raquel; Huertas, I Emma; García-Sánchez, María J; Flores-Moya, Antonio; Costas, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Copper is one of the most frequently used algaecides to control blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in water supply reservoirs. Among the negative impacts derived from the use of this substance is the increasing resistance of cyanobacteria to copper toxicity, as well as changes in the community structure of native phytoplankton. Here, we used the ratchet protocol to investigate the differential evolution and maximum adaptation capacity of selected freshwater phytoplankton species to the exposure of increasing doses of copper. Initially, a dose of 2.5 μM CuSO4·5H2O was able to completely inhibit growth in three strains of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, whereas growth of the chlorophyceans Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides and Desmodesmus intermedius (represented by two different strains) was completely abolished at 12 μM. A significant increase in resistance was achieved in all derived populations during the ratchet experiment. All the chlorophyceans were able to adapt to up to 270 μM of copper sulfate, but 10 μM was the highest concentration that M. aeruginosa strains were able to cope with, although one of the replicates adapted to 30 μM. The recurrent use and increasing doses of copper in water reservoirs could lead to the selection of copper-resistant mutants of both chlorophyceans and cyanobacteria. However, under high concentrations of copper, the composition of phytoplankton community could undergo a drastic change with cyanobacteria being replaced by copper-resistant chlorophyceans. This result stems from a distinct evolutionary potential of these species to adapt to this substance.

  18. Sulfate-reducing bacteria: Microbiology and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sulfate reducing bacteria, the first nonphotosynthetic anaerobic bacteria demonstrated to contain c type cytochromes, perform electron transfer coupled to phosphorylation. A new bioenergetic scheme for the formation of a proton gradient for growth of Desulfovibrio on organic substrates and sulfate involving vectors electron transfer and consistent with the cellular localization of enzymes and electron transfer components was proposed. Hydrogen is produced in the cytoplasm from organic substrates and, as a permease molecule diffuses rapidly across the cytoplasmic membrane, it is oxidized to protons and electrons by the periplasmic hydrogenase. The electrons only are transferred across the cytoplasmic membrane to the cytoplasm where they are used to reduce sulfate to sulfide. The protons are used for transport or to drive a reversible ATPOSE. The net effect is the transfer of protons across the cytoplasmic membrane with the intervention of a proton pump. This type of H2 cycling is relevant to the bioenergetics of other types of anaerobic microorganisms.

  19. Sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures for multipotent protein activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sungsoo S.; Fyrner, Timmy; Chen, Feng; Álvarez, Zaida; Sleep, Eduard; Chun, Danielle S.; Weiner, Joseph A.; Cook, Ralph W.; Freshman, Ryan D.; Schallmo, Michael S.; Katchko, Karina M.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Smith, Justin T.; Yun, Chawon; Singh, Gurmit; Hashmi, Sohaib Z.; McClendon, Mark T.; Yu, Zhilin; Stock, Stuart R.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Hsu, Erin L.; Stupp , Samuel I. (NWU)

    2017-06-19

    Biological systems have evolved to utilize numerous proteins with capacity to bind polysaccharides for the purpose of optimizing their function. A well-known subset of these proteins with binding domains for the highly diverse sulfated polysaccharides are important growth factors involved in biological development and tissue repair. We report here on supramolecular sulfated glycopeptide nanostructures, which display a trisulfated monosaccharide on their surfaces and bind five critical proteins with different polysaccharide-binding domains. Binding does not disrupt the filamentous shape of the nanostructures or their internal β-sheet backbone, but must involve accessible adaptive configurations to interact with such different proteins. The glycopeptide nanostructures amplified signalling of bone morphogenetic protein 2 significantly more than the natural sulfated polysaccharide heparin, and promoted regeneration of bone in the spine with a protein dose that is 100-fold lower than that required in the animal model. These highly bioactive nanostructures may enable many therapies in the future involving proteins.

  20. Effects of copper(II) and copper oxides on THMs formation in copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Qu, Jiuhui; Liu, Huijuan; Hu, Chengzhi

    2007-08-01

    Little is known about how the growth of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water is affected in copper pipe. The formation of THMs and chlorine consumption in copper pipe under stagnant flow conditions were investigated. Experiments for the same water held in glass bottles were performed for comparison. Results showed that although THMs levels firstly increased in the presence of chlorine in copper pipe, faster decay of chlorine as compared to the glass bottle affected the rate of THMs formation. The analysis of water phase was supplemented by surface analysis of corrosion scales using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results showed the scales on the pipe surface mainly consisted of Cu(2)O, CuO and Cu(OH)(2) or CuCO(3). Designed experiments confirmed that the fast depletion of chlorine in copper pipe was mainly due to effect of Cu(2)O, CuO in corrosion scales on copper pipe. Although copper(II) and copper oxides showed effect on THMs formation, the rapid consumption of chlorine due to copper oxide made THM levels lower than that in glass bottles after 4h. The transformations of CF, DCBM and CDBM to BF were accelerated in the presence of copper(II), cupric oxide and cuprous oxide. The effect of pH on THMs formation was influenced by effect of pH on corrosion of copper pipe. When pH was below 7, THMs levels in copper pipe was higher as compared to glass bottle, but lower when pH was above 7.

  1. Effect of doping rare earth oxide on performance of copper-manganese catalysts for water-gas shift reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何润霞; 姜浩强; 武芳; 智科端; 王娜; 周晨亮; 刘全生

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth-doped copper-manganese mixed oxide catalysts were prepared by coprecipitation and mechanical mixing using copper sulfate, manganese sulfate, and rare-earth oxides REO (REO indicates La2O3, CeO2, Y2O3, or Pr6O11) as raw materials. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), temperature-programmed reduc-tion of oxidized surfaces (s-TPR), and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Catalytic activities were tested for a water-gas shift reaction. Doping rare earth oxides did not alter the crystal structure of the original copper-manganese mixed oxides but changed the interplanar spacing, adsorption performance and reaction performance. Doping with La2O3 enhanced the activity and stability of Cu-Mn mixed oxides because of high copper distribution and fine reduction. Doping with CeO2 and Y2O3 also decreased the reduc-tion temperatures of the samples to different degrees while improving the dispersion of Cu on the surface, thus, catalytic activity was better than that of undoped Cu-Mn sample. The Pr6O11-doped sample was difficult to reduce, the dispersion of surface coppers was lowered, resulting in poor activity.

  2. Formation of the natural sulfate aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.; Hillamo, R.; Maekinen, M.; Virkkula, A.; Maekelae, T.; Pakkanen, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, together with particles from biomass burning, may significantly reduce the climatic warming due to man-made greenhouse gases. The radiative forcing of aerosol particles is based on their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation (direct effect), and on their influences on cloud albedos and lifetimes (indirect effect). The direct aerosol effect depends strongly on the size, number and chemical composition of particles, being greatest for particles of 0.1-1 {mu}m in diameter. The indirect aerosol effect is dictated by the number of particles being able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). For sulfate particles, the minimum CCN size in tropospheric clouds is of the order of 0.05-0.2 {mu}m. To improve aerosol parameterizations in future climate models, it is required that (1) both primary and secondary sources of various particle types will be characterized at a greater accuracy, and (2) the influences of various atmospheric processes on the spatial and temporal distribution of these particles and their physico-chemical properties are known much better than at the present. In estimating the climatic forcing due to the sulfate particles, one of the major problems is to distinguish between sulfur from anthropogenic sources and that of natural origin. Global emissions of biogenic and anthropogenic sulfate pre-cursors are comparable in magnitude, but over regional scales either of these two source types may dominate. The current presentation is devoted to discussing the natural sulfate aerosol, including the formation of sulfur-derived particles in the marine environment, and the use of particulate methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as a tracer for the natural sulfate

  3. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  4. Molybdate transport through the plant sulfate transporter SHST1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate L; Tyerman, Stephen D; Kaiser, Brent N

    2008-04-30

    Molybdenum is an essential micronutrient required by plants. The mechanism of molybdenum uptake in plants is poorly understood, however, evidence has suggested that sulfate transporters may be involved. The sulfate transporter from Stylosanthes hamata, SHST1, restored growth of the sulfate transport yeast mutant, YSD1, on media containing low amounts of molybdate. Kinetic analysis using 99MoO4(2-) demonstrated that SHST1 enhanced the uptake of molybdate into yeast cells at nM concentrations. Uptake was not inhibited by sulfate, but sulfate transport via SHST1 was reduced with molybdate. These results are the first measurement of molybdate transport by a characterised plant sulfate transport protein.

  5. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  6. Selective sulfation of carrageenans and the influence of sulfate regiochemistry on anticoagulant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Cristiano A; Noseda, Miguel D; Cipriani, Thales R; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Ducatti, Diogo R B

    2013-01-16

    Sulfated polysaccharides are recognized for their broad range of biological activities, including anticoagulant properties. The positions occupied by the sulfate groups are often related to the level of the inherent biological activity. Herein the naturally sulfated galactans, kappa-, iota- and theta-carrageenan, were additionally sulfated by regioselective means. The anticoagulant activity of the resulting samples was then studied using the aPTT in vitro assay. The influence of sulfate regiochemistry on the anticoagulant activity was evaluated. From kappa-carrageenan three rare polysaccharides were synthesized, one of them involved a synthetic route with an amphiphilic polysaccharide intermediate containing pivaloyl groups. Iota- and theta-carrageenan were utilized in a selective C6 sulfation at β-D-Galp units to produce different structures comprising trisulfated diads. All the samples were characterized by NMR (1D and 2D). The resulting aPPT measurements suggested that sulfation at C2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-D-Galp and C6 of β-D-Galp increased the anticoagulant activity.

  7. Examining mechanism of toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashock, Michael J.

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are an up and coming technology increasingly being used in industrial and consumer applications and thus may pose risk to humans and the environment. In the present study, the toxic effects of CuO NPs were studied with two model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Caenorhabditis elegans. The role of released Cu ions during dissolution of CuO NPs in growth media were studied with freshly suspended, aged NPs, and the released Cu 2+ fraction. Exposures to the different Cu treatments showed significant inhibition of S. cerevisiae cellular metabolic activity. Inhibition from the NPs was inversely proportional to size and was not fully explained by the released Cu ions. S. cerevisiae cultures grown under respiring conditions demonstrated greater metabolic sensitivity when exposed to CuO NPs compared to cultures undergoing fermentation. The cellular response to both CuO NPs and released Cu ions on gene expression was analyzed via microarray analysis after an acute exposure. It was observed that both copper exposures resulted in an increase in carbohydrate storage, a decrease in protein production, protein misfolding, increased membrane permeability, and cell cycle arrest. Cells exposed to NPs up-regulated genes related to oxidative phosphorylation but also may be inducing cell cycle arrest by a different mechanism than that observed with released Cu ions. The effect of CuO NPs on C. elegans was examined by using several toxicological endpoints. The CuO NPs displayed a more inhibitory effect, compared to copper sulfate, on nematode reproduction, feeding, and development. We investigated the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate on neuronal health, a known tissue vulnerable to heavy metal toxicity. In transgenic C. eleganswith neurons expressing a green fluorescent protein reporter, neuronal degeneration was observed in up to 10% of the population after copper oxide nanoparticle exposure. Additionally, nematode

  8. Influence of copper ions on the viability and cytotoxicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions relevant to drinking water environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwidjosiswojo, Zenyta; Richard, Jessica; Moritz, Miriam M; Dopp, Elke; Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2011-11-01

    Copper plumbing materials can be the source of copper ions in drinking water supplies. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of copper ions on the viability and cytotoxicity of the potential pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa that presents a health hazard when occurring in building plumbing systems. In batch experiments, exposure of P. aeruginosa (10(6)cells/mL) for 24h at 20°C to copper-containing drinking water from domestic plumbing systems resulted in a loss of culturability, while total cell numbers determined microscopically did not decrease. Addition of the chelator diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to copper-containing water prevented the loss of culturability. When suspended in deionized water with added copper sulfate (10 μM), the culturability of P. aeruginosa decreased by more than 6 log units, while total cell counts, the concentration of cells with intact cytoplasmic membranes, determined with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit, and the number of cells with intact 16S ribosomal RNA, determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization, remained unchanged. When the chelator DDTC was added to copper-stressed bacteria, complete restoration of culturability was observed to occur within 14 d. Copper-stressed bacteria were not cytotoxic towards Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-9) cells, while untreated and resuscitated bacteria caused an almost complete decrease of the concentration of viable CHO-9 cells within 24 h. Thus, copper ions in concentrations relevant to drinking water in plumbing systems seem to induce a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in P. aeruginosa accompanied by a loss of culturability and cytotoxicity, and VBNC cells can regain both culturability and cytotoxicity, when copper stress is abolished.

  9. Treatment of acid rock drainage using a sulfate-reducing bioreactor with zero-valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, James A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Electron donor from zero-valent iron (ZVI) drives sulfate reduction to sulfide. • Sulfide converts soluble heavy metals into sulfide minerals. • Excess sulfide is sequestered by iron preventing discharge. • Corrosion of ZVI consumes acidity in acid rock drainage. • ZVI as reactive material outlasted limestone in removing heavy metals. - Abstract: This study assessed the bioremediation of acid rock drainage (ARD) in flow-through columns testing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for the first time as the sole exogenous electron donor to drive sulfate-reducing bacteria in permeable reactive barriers. Columns containing ZVI, limestone or a mixture of both materials were inoculated with an anaerobic mixed culture and fed a synthetic ARD containing sulfuric acid and heavy metals (initially copper, and later also cadmium and lead). ZVI significantly enhanced sulfate reduction and the heavy metals were extensively removed (>99.7%). Solid-phase analyses showed that heavy metals were precipitated with biogenic sulfide in the columns packed with ZVI. Excess sulfide was sequestered by iron, preventing the discharge of dissolved sulfide. In the absence of ZVI, heavy metals were also significantly removed (>99.8%) due to precipitation with hydroxide and carbonate ions released from the limestone. Vertical-profiles of heavy metals in the columns packing, at the end of the experiment, demonstrated that the ZVI columns still had excess capacity to remove heavy metals, while the capacity of the limestone control column was approaching saturation. The ZVI provided conditions that enhanced sulfate reduction and generated alkalinity. Collectively, the results demonstrate an innovative passive ARD remediation process using ZVI as sole electron-donor.

  10. Jiangxi Copper Corporation Builds 900,000-Ton Copper Production Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The Eastward Refined Copper Expansion Pro- ject of Guixi Smelting Plant under Jiangxi Copper Corporation has output its first lot of Copper cathode,marking the company’s pos- session of a 900,000-ton copper production ca- pacity.Thus the company further strengthens its position as the top 3 of the copper world.

  11. Activation and transfer of sulfate in biological systems (1960); Activation biologique du sulfate et son transfert (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeville, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It examines in this review the successive stages of active sulfate formation and its role in biological synthesis of sulfuric esters. The possible role of active sulfate as intermediary in sulfate reduction is also discussed. (author) [French] On examine dans cette etude les stades successifs de la mise en evidence du sulfate actif, son role dans la formation des esters sulfuriques de natures diverses, ainsi que sa participation eventuelle comme intermediaire au cours de la reduction du sulfate. On decrit aussi un procede de preparation du systeme biologique, generateur du sulfate actif et une methode de synthese chimique. (auteur)

  12. Secondary Copper Industry Entered Rapid Growth Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    In China’s copper output,secondary copper accounts for about 40%,for power cable industry,the usage percentage of secondary copper is about 50%.Under the favorable policy of the government to vigorously support recycling industry,secondary copper rod enterprises begin to expand,and are confident toward the industry’s potentials.

  13. Unravelling the Chemical Nature of Copper Cuprizone

    OpenAIRE

    Messori, L.; Casini, A.; C.Gabbiani; Sorace, L.; Muniz-Miranda, M.; Zatta, P

    2007-01-01

    During the last 50 years, formation of the highly chromogenic copper cuprizone complex has been exploited for spectrophotometric determinations of copper although the precise chemical nature of the resulting species has never been ascertained; we eventually show here, in contrast to current opinion, that copper cuprizone is a copper(III) complex.

  14. Secondary Copper Consumption and Location in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> China is short of copper resources and is alsothe second largest copper consuming country inthe world.The way to overcome the contradic-tion between the resource shortage and fastgrowth in consumption is to import copper rawmaterial in large quantities.Since the 1990’s,China’s import quantity of copper scrap hasincreased considerably.During the last twoyears,China has imported copper scrap worthof US$2.25 billion,1.32 times of the value ofimported copper concentrates in the same pe-riod.China is one of the biggest copper scrap

  15. METABOLISM OF SULFATE-REDUCING PROKARYOTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HANSEN, TA

    1994-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction is carried out by a heterogeneous group of bacteria and archaea that occur in environments with temperatures up to 105 degrees C. As a group together they have the capacity to metabolize a wide variety of compounds ranging from hydrogen via typical organic fermentatio

  16. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  17. Plasmin Regulation through Allosteric, Sulfated, Small Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A. Al-Horani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmin, a key serine protease, plays a major role in clot lysis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Heparin, a natural polydisperse sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is known to allosterically modulate plasmin activity. No small allosteric inhibitor of plasmin has been discovered to date. We screened an in-house library of 55 sulfated, small glycosaminoglycan mimetics based on nine distinct scaffolds and varying number and positions of sulfate groups to discover several promising hits. Of these, a pentasulfated flavonoid-quinazolinone dimer 32 was found to be the most potent sulfated small inhibitor of plasmin (IC50 = 45 μM, efficacy = 100%. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric inhibition of plasmin by these inhibitors. Studies also indicated that the most potent inhibitors are selective for plasmin over thrombin and factor Xa, two serine proteases in coagulation cascade. Interestingly, different inhibitors exhibited different levels of efficacy (40%–100%, an observation alluding to the unique advantage offered by an allosteric process. Overall, our work presents the first small, synthetic allosteric plasmin inhibitors for further rational design.

  18. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  19. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  20. Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.

    1996-01-01

    Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded th

  1. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  2. Lung injury in dimethyl sulfate poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip, M.; Wong, K.L.; Wong, K.F.; So, S.Y.

    1989-02-01

    Two manual laborers were exposed to dimethyl sulfate during work and sustained mucosal injury to the eyes and respiratory tract. In one of them, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema occurred and improved with high-dose methylprednisolone. On follow-up for 10 months, this patient developed persistent productive cough with no evidence of bronchiectasis or bronchial hyperreactivity.

  3. Intravenous magnesium sulfate therapy in severe asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Al-Ajmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 22-year-old female, known asthmatic since seven years, developed severe bronchospasm in the preop-erative period. Bronchospasm remained unresponsive to the inhaled beta-agonist plus anticholinergic, IV ami-nophylline and hydrocortisone but responded quickly with magnesium sulfate® ( PSI, KSA infusion 1.25gm in 100ml normal saline over 20 minutes and another 1.25 gm over next 30 minutes as the initial infusion showed improvement in her clinical symptoms. Within half an hour of administering the 1st infusion of magnesium sulfate (1.25 gm the respiratory rate started reducing, rhonchi became less, SpO 2 came upto 92% and re-mained always above 90%. Encouraged by this result IV magnesium sulfate 2.5 gm in 500 ml normal saline was infused over next 24 hours along with alternate salbutamol and ipratropium nebulization every 6 hourly. With this treatment regimen the patient became asymptomatic within next 24 hours with normal clinical parameters and FEV 1 value. Hence it may be concluded that IV magnesium sulfate can be considered for patients with acute severe asthma who do not respond to standard therapeutic medications.

  4. Galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity in Morquio syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, T.; Okada, S.; Kato, T.; Inui, K.; Yabuuhi, H. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    The authors have prepared a new substrate, o-..beta..-D-sulfo-galactosyl-(1-4)-..beta..-D-6-sulfo-2-acetamido-2-deoxyglucosyl-(1-4)-D-(1-/sup 3/H)galactitol, from shark cartilage keratan sulfate, for the assay of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity. Using this substrate, they found there was a striking deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, in addition to the known deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase, in the cultured skin fibroblasts of patients with Morquio syndrome. Their results could be explained by the hypothesis that accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in Morquio syndrome is due to a deficiency of galactose 6-sulfate sulfatase and N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfate sulfatase activity, which are necessary for the degradation of these two mucopolysaccharides.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Ankaferd Blood Stopper, Ferric Sulfate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-24

    Jul 24, 2016 ... ferric sulfate (FS) as pulpotomy agent in primary teeth. Settings and Design: ... sulfate (FS), calcium hydroxide (CH), and mineral trioxide aggregate ..... internal root resorption may remain stable or may be repaired with hard ...

  6. Bacterial transport of sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barajas, Esther; Díaz-Pérez, César; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor; Cervantes, Carlos

    2011-08-01

    Sulfur is an essential element for microorganisms and it can be obtained from varied compounds, sulfate being the preferred source. The first step for sulfate assimilation, sulfate uptake, has been studied in several bacterial species. This article reviews the properties of different bacterial (and archaeal) transporters for sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions. Sulfate uptake is carried out by sulfate permeases that belong to the SulT (CysPTWA), SulP, CysP/(PiT), and CysZ families. The oxyanions molybdate, tungstate, selenate and chromate are structurally related to sulfate. Molybdate is transported mainly by the high-affinity ModABC system and tungstate by the TupABC and WtpABC systems. CysPTWA, ModABC, TupABC, and WtpABC are homologous ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transporters with similar organization and properties. Uptake of selenate and chromate oxyanions occurs mainly through sulfate permeases.

  7. Pregnenolone Sulfate: From Steroid Metabolite to TRP Channel Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Harteneck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pregnenolone sulfate is a steroid metabolite with a plethora of actions and functions. As a neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulfate modulates a variety of ion channels, transporters, and enzymes. Interestingly, as a sulfated steroid, pregnenolone sulfate is not the final- or waste-product of pregnenolone being sulfated via a phase II metabolism reaction and renally excreted, as one would presume from the pharmacology textbook knowledge. Pregnenolone sulfate is also the source and thereby the starting point for subsequent steroid synthesis pathways. Most recently, pregnenolone sulfate has been functionally “upgraded” from modulator of ion channels to an activating ion channel ligand. This review will focus on molecular aspects of the neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulfate, its metabolism, concentrations in serum and tissues and last not least will summarize the functional data.

  8. Copper activates HIF-1α/GPER/VEGF signalling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigiracciolo, Damiano Cosimo; Scarpelli, Andrea; Lappano, Rosamaria; Pisano, Assunta; Santolla, Maria Francesca; De Marco, Paola; Cirillo, Francesca; Cappello, Anna Rita; Dolce, Vincenza; Belfiore, Antonino; Maggiolini, Marcello; De Francesco, Ernestina Marianna

    2015-10-27

    Copper promotes tumor angiogenesis, nevertheless the mechanisms involved remain to be fully understood. We have recently demonstrated that the G-protein estrogen receptor (GPER) cooperates with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) toward the regulation of the pro-angiogenic factor VEGF. Here, we show that copper sulfate (CuSO4) induces the expression of HIF-1α as well as GPER and VEGF in breast and hepatic cancer cells through the activation of the EGFR/ERK/c-fos transduction pathway. Worthy, the copper chelating agent TEPA and the ROS scavenger NAC prevented the aforementioned stimulatory effects. We also ascertained that HIF-1α and GPER are required for the transcriptional activation of VEGF induced by CuSO4. In addition, in human endothelial cells, the conditioned medium from breast cancer cells treated with CuSO4 promoted cell migration and tube formation through HIF-1α and GPER. The present results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved by copper in triggering angiogenesis and tumor progression. Our data broaden the therapeutic potential of copper chelating agents against tumor angiogenesis and progression.

  9. The Importance of Sulfate Adenylyl Transferase in S and O Fractionation by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Johnston, D. T.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) is critical to the oxidation of organic matter in modern and ancient oceans, and plays an important role in regulating the redox state of the Earth's surface. The sulfur and oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate and of sulfate minerals reflect the biogeochemical processes that cycle sulfur, of which MSR is among the most important. MSR is a multi-enzymatic reaction network that partitions the isotopes of sulfur and oxygen as a consequence of both the flux of sulfate through this biochemical network and the fractionation imposed by each individual enzyme. MSR affects the δ18O of residual, extracellular sulfate mainly by the equilibration of the MSR intermediate sulfite with extracellular water (Antler et al., 2013 GCA, Wankel et al., 2013 Geobiol). A series of oxidative and exchange reactions catalyzed by APS reductase (APSr), sulfate adenylyl transferase (Sat), and sulfate transporters promote the conversion of water-equilibrated intracellular sulfite to extracellular sulfate. The flux of sulfoxy anions via these proteins will be, at least in part, dependent on the activity of these enzymes. To test this, we examined sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation in genetically engineered mutants of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH). In these mutants, the activity of Sat has been artificially increased by perturbing the (i) transcriptional repressor Rex and (ii) its binding site upstream of the gene encoding Sat (Christensen et al., 2015 J. Bacteriol). It was predicted that this would minimize the back reaction of Sat, enhance the intracellular pool of APS, and minimize the equilibration between sulfite and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Both mutants, along with the wild type DvH were grown in batch culture made with water enriched in 18O. Samples were collected throughout batch growth, and we report the evolution of the S and O isotopic composition of sulfate, and of the S isotopic

  10. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  11. Sources of sulfate supporting anaerobic metabolism in a contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, G.A.; Breit, G.N.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Field and laboratory techniques were used to identify the biogeochemical factors affecting sulfate reduction in a shallow, unconsolidated alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. Depth profiles of 35S-sulfate reduction rates in aquifer sediments were positively correlated with the concentration of dissolved sulfate. Manipulation of the sulfate concentration in samples revealed a Michaelis-Menten-like relationship with an apparent Km and Vmax of approximately 80 and 0.83 ??M SO4-2??day-1, respectively. The concentration of sulfate in the core of the leachate plume was well below 20 ??M and coincided with very low reduction rates. Thus, the concentration and availability of this anion could limit in situ sulfate-reducing activity. Three sulfate sources were identified, including iron sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and advective flux of sulfate. The relative importance of these sources varied with depth in the alluvium. The relatively high concentration of dissolved sulfate at the water table is attributed to the microbial oxidation of iron sulfides in response to fluctuations of the water table. At intermediate depths, barite dissolves in undersaturated pore water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved barium (???100 ??M) and low concentrations of sulfate. Dissolution is consistent with the surface texture of detrital barite grains in contact with leachate. Laboratory incubations of unamended and barite-amended aquifer slurries supported the field observation of increasing concentrations of barium in solution when sulfate reached low levels. At a deeper highly permeable interval just above the confining bottom layer of the aquifer, sulfate reduction rates were markedly higher than rates at intermediate depths. Sulfate is supplied to this deeper zone by advection of uncontaminated groundwater beneath the landfill. The measured rates of sulfate reduction in the aquifer also correlated with the abundance of accumulated iron sulfide

  12. Histopathological changes in snail, Pomacea canaliculata, exposed to sub-lethal copper sulfate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummee, Vipawee; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Damrongphol, Praneet; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2015-12-01

    The acute toxicity test of Cu including range-finding and definitive test, was performed on golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of Cu at exposure times of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 330, 223, 177 and 146 µg/L, respectively. P. canaliculata were exposed to Cu at 146 µg/L for 96 h to study bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in various organs. Snails accumulated elevated levels of Cu in gill, and lesser amounts in the digestive tract, muscle, and digestive gland. Histopathological investigation revealed several alterations in the epithelia of gill, digestive tract (esophagus, intestine, rectum), and digestive gland. The most striking changes were observed in the epithelium of the gill in which there was loss of cilia, an increase in number of mucus cells, and degeneration of columnar cells. Similar changes occurred in digestive tract epithelium. The digestive gland showed moderate alterations, vacuolization and degeneration of cells and an increase in the number of basophilic cells. We concluded that, P. canaliculata has a great potential as a bioindicator for Cu, and a biomarker for monitoring Cu contamination in aquatic environment.

  13. Ion pair formation in copper sulfate aqueous solutions at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez De Leo, Lucila P. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional General San Martin, Alem 3901, 1653 Villa Ballester (Argentina); Bianchi, Hugo L. [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional General San Martin, Alem 3901, 1653 Villa Ballester (Argentina); Fernandez-Prini, Roberto [Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Comision Nacional de Energia, Avenida del Libertador 8250, 1429 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina) and INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: rfprini@cnea.gov.ar

    2005-05-15

    Ionic association between Cu{sup 2+}(aq) and SO42-(aq) has been studied in the temperature range (298 to 473) K using a spectrophotometric technique. Experiments were designed to minimize the contribution of other protolytic equilibria in solution. The values of the ionic association equilibrium constant at different temperatures and pressures were fitted to an appropriate equation that allows the calculation of the thermodynamic quantities for states close to the saturation line. Using Bjerrum's model for ionic association evidence for two ion pair populations was obtained. The process of ion pairing is discussed and a possibility to reconcile the continuum model (Bjerrum) with molecular simulation results is suggested.

  14. Mechanism of electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on copper in acidic sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Karen L; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2007-09-11

    Hydrogen peroxide is a commonly used oxidizer component in chemical mechanical planarization slurries, used in the processing of Cu metallization in microelectronics applications. We studied the electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide on Cu in 0.1 M H2SO4 solutions using methods including cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk electrode experiments, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen peroxide molecule is reduced at negative potentials to form a Cu-OH surface species in acidic solutions, a result consistent with the insight from Tafel slope measurements. DFT calculations support the instability of peroxide relative to the surface-coordinated hydroxide on both Cu(111) and Cu(100) surfaces.

  15. 78 FR 78727 - Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... inert ingredients for use in antimicrobial formulations (Food-contact surface sanitizing solutions... equipment at a maximum level in the end use concentration of 80 parts per million (ppm). Toxcel on behalf of... code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311)....

  16. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Copper Alloys in Saline Waters Containing Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Industries-Detection and Prevention," Argentine-USA Workshop on Biodeterioration (CONICET-NSF), (San Paulo, Brazil: Aquatec Quimica , 1985). 12. 1. Alanis...34 Proceedings of 5th International Congress on Marine Corrosion and Fouling (Barcelona, Spain: Biologia Marina, 1980). 2.5. E. C. Fischer, V. J. Castelli, S. D

  17. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484a - Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. 524.1484a... § 524.1484a Neomycin sulfate ophthalmic ointment. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the ointment contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent in activity to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base....

  19. Nanocrystalline cellulose with various contents of sulfate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, M I; Surov, O V; Zakharov, A G

    2013-10-15

    Properties of films derived from aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose dispersions by water evaporation depend on concentration of sulfate groups. Namely type of thermodestruction and surface morphology change as a function of contents of sulfate groups. Surface roughness increases and water adsorption enhances with increasing sulfate groups content particularly at high relative pressure.

  20. De Novo Sequencing of Complex Mixtures of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Rongrong; Zong, Chengli; Venot, Andre; Chiu, Yulun; Zhou, Dandan; Boons, Geert-Jan; Sharp, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe the first sequencing method of a complex mixture of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides by LC-MS/MS. Heparin and heparan sulfate (HS) are linear polysaccharides that are modified in a complex manner by N- and O-sulfation, N-acetylation, and epimerization of the uronic acid. Heparin an

  1. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...

  2. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (Pzinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (Pzinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (Pzinc addition (Pzinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (Pzinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover, a copper×zinc interaction was observed for catalase in the experiment (Pzinc levels (Pzinc supplementation can improve growth by increasing feed intake and improving fat digestibility. Additionally, copper and zinc can enhance the antioxidant capacity of blue foxes. This study also indicates that additional zinc up to 200 mg/kg did not exert significant adverse effects on the copper metabolism of growing-furring blue foxes.

  3. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  4. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  5. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  6. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  7. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    can be successfully treated, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Serum ferritin values, transferrin saturation and genetic analysis are used when diagnosing haemochromatosis. The diagnostics of Wilson's disease depends on the use of urinary copper values, serum ceruloplasmin and liver...

  8. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  9. Composition and spectra of copper-carotenoid sediments from a pyrite mine stream in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Furio, Marta; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Jurado, Valme; Correcher, Virgilio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2015-01-01

    Mine drainages of La Poderosa (El Campillo, Huelva, Spain), located in the Rio Tinto Basin (Iberian Pyrite Belt) generate carotenoid complexes mixed with copper sulfates presenting good natural models for the production of carotenoids from microorganisms. The environmental conditions of Rio Tinto Basin include important environmental stresses to force the microorganisms to accumulate carotenoids. Here we show as carotenoid compounds in sediments can be analyzed directly in the solid state by Raman and Luminescence spectroscopy techniques to identify solid carotenoid, avoiding dissolution and pre-concentration treatments, since the hydrous copper-salted paragenesis do not mask the Raman emission of carotenoids. Raman spectra recorded from one of these specimens' exhibit major features at approximately 1006, 1154, and 1520 cm-1. The bands at 1520 cm-1 and 1154 cm-1 can be assigned to in-phase Cdbnd C (γ-1) and Csbnd C stretching (γ-2) vibrations of the polyene chain in carotenoids. The in-plane rocking deformations of CH3 groups linked to this chain coupled with Csbnd C bonds are observed in the 1006 cm-1 region. X-irradiation pretreatments enhance the cathodoluminescence spectra emission of carotenoids enough to distinguish organic compounds including hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Carotenoids in copper-sulfates could be used as biomarkers and useful proxies for understanding remote mineral formations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to mine drainage contamination including biological activity and photo-oxidation processes.

  10. Potential foliar fertilizers with copper and zinc dual micronutrients in nanocrystal suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Li; Du, Yumei; Hampton, Marc A.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Huang, Longbin; Rudolph, Victor; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2014-11-01

    Control preparation, aqueous stability, and ion release of several Cu-Zn-containing crystals in suspensions have been investigated as potential dual micronutrient foliar fertilizers. These crystals were prepared by quick co-precipitation through simultaneously adding potassium hydroxide and copper salt solutions into zinc salt solution, and characterized in structure and composition with XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and ICP in detail. As-prepared Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate was identified as a two-phase mixture while Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate as a single-phase compound. These crystals are all sheet-like in morphology and stable in aqueous solutions with pH 5-9. No phase change was detected after the samples were kept in shelf for >3 months, suggesting that these crystals have long shelf lives. In terms of ion release, Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide nitrate and Cu-Zn mixed hydroxide sulfate can afford 4 and 1 mg L-1 of Cu2+, respectively, which could be suitable for different levels of copper deficiency in plants. Moreover, both compounds can provide 38-39 mg L-1 of Zn2+ in aqueous suspensions. Thus, our findings suggest that as-prepared compounds can be potentially applied as long-term foliar fertilizers to simultaneously correct deficiencies of copper and zinc in various crops.

  11. Introduction of sulfate groups on poly(ethylene) surfaces by argon plasma immobilization of sodium alkyl sulfates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, J.P.; Terlingen, J.G.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Sulfate groups were introduced at the surface of poly(ethylene) (PE) samples. This was accomplished by immobilizing a precoated layer of either sodium 10-undecene sulfate (S11(:)) or sodium dodecane sulfate (SDS) on the polymeric surface by means of an argon plasma treatment. For this purpose, S11(:

  12. ELECTRON DETACHMENT DISSOCIATION OF SYNTHETIC HEPARAN SULFATE GLYCOSAMINOGLYCAN TETRASACCHARIDES VARYING IN DEGREE OF SULFATION AND HEXURONIC ACID STEREOCHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2012-12-15

    Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates provide a challenging analytical target for structural determination due to their polydisperse nature, non-template biosynthesis, and labile sulfate modifications. The resultant structures, although heterogeneous, contain domains which indicate a sulfation pattern or code that correlates to specific function. Mass spectrometry, in particular electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (EDD FT-ICR MS), provides a highly sensitive platform for GAG structural analysis by providing cross-ring cleavages for sulfation location and product ions specific to hexuronic acid stereochemistry. To investigate the effect of sulfation pattern and variations in stereochemistry on EDD spectra, a series of synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) tetrasaccharides are examined. Whereas previous studies have focused on lowly sulfated compounds (0.5-1 sulfate groups per disaccharide), the current work extends the application of EDD to more highly sulfated tetrasaccharides (1-2 sulfate groups per disaccharide) and presents the first EDD of a tetrasaccharide containing a sulfated hexuronic acid. For these more highly sulfated HS oligomers, alternative strategies are shown to be effective for extracting full structural details. These strategies inlcude sodium cation replacement of protons, for determining the sites of sulfation, and desulfation of the oligosaccharides for the generation of product ions for assigning uronic acid stereochemistry.

  13. Prognostic significance of highly sulfated chondroitin sulfates in ovarian cancer defined by the single chain antibody GD3A11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, S.C.H.A. van der; Tilborg, A.G. van; Vallen, M.J.E.; Bulten, J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Massuger, L.F.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of ovarian cancer may provide a number of potential biomarkers. Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a class of sulfated polysaccharides, is abundantly present in the ECM of ovarian cancer. Structural alterations of CS chains (i.e. sulfation pattern) have been demonstr

  14. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Multi-nano Layered Copper-Nickel Thin Film by the Dynamic-Nano Indentation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The dynamic nano-indentation method was applied to study the effect of interface moving behavior with heat treatment on the nano-mechanical properties of multi-nano-layered copper-nickel thin film. Layer-by-layer depositions of copper and nickel of nano-sized thickness were prepared by two-step pulse electro-deposition in a modified copper-nickel sulfate bath at 25°C. The multi-layered copper-nickel thin sheet was composed of a 20-nm-thick copper-rich nickel phase, and a 25-nm-thick nickel-rich copper phase. Thermal vacuum annealing influenced the interface morphology between copper and nickel nano-layers. Inter-diffusion mainly occurred after annealing at 500°C for 6 h. The interface disappeared after annealing at 600°C to form a completely solid solution. Thermal annealing reduced the nano-hardness and elastic recovery. The average nano-hardness of the multi-layered nano-copper-nickel thin film for the specimens of as-received, 300°C, 500°C and 600°C were 7.9 Gpa, 6.1 Gpa, 4.7 Gpa and 3.0 GPa, respectively. The elastic stiffness was 15.77 × 104 Nm-1 for the as-received specimen, which finally became 2.98 × 104 Nm-1 for the specimen after annealing at 600°C for 6 h.

  15. High rates of sulfate reduction in a low-sulfate hot spring microbial mat are driven by a low level of diversity of sulfate-respiring microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillon, Jesse G; Fishbain, Susan; Miller, Scott R

    2007-01-01

    The importance of sulfate respiration in the microbial mat found in the low-sulfate thermal outflow of Mushroom Spring in Yellowstone National Park was evaluated using a combination of molecular, microelectrode, and radiotracer studies. Despite very low sulfate concentrations, this mat community...... was shown to sustain a highly active sulfur cycle. The highest rates of sulfate respiration were measured close to the surface of the mat late in the day when photosynthetic oxygen production ceased and were associated with a Thermodesulfovibrio-like population. Reduced activity at greater depths...... was correlated with novel populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms, unrelated to characterized species, and most likely due to both sulfate and carbon limitation....

  16. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Rusden Campus, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  17. Physicochemical characterization of functionalized-nanostructured-titania as a carrier of copper complexes for cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Tessy [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Xochimilco, Calzada del Hueso 1100, Villa Quietud, Coyoacán, 04960 México D.F. (Mexico); Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans (United States); Ortiz, Emma, E-mail: emma170@hotmail.com [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Guevara, Patricia [Neuroimmunology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Gómez, Esteban [Nanotechnology Laboratory, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery “MVS”, Avenida Insurgentes Sur 3877, La Fama, Tlalpan, 14269 México D.F. (Mexico); Novaro, Octavio [Institute of Physics-UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    In the present paper we report the preparation and characterization of functionalized-TiO{sub 2} (F-TiO{sub 2}) to obtain a biocompatible material to be used as carrier of alternative anticancer agents: copper acetate and copper acetylacetonate. The sol–gel procedure was used to prepare the fuctionalized titania material through hydrolysis and condensation of the titanium's butoxide. Sulfate, amine and phosphate ions served as functional groups which were anchored to the titania's surface. Mineral acids and gamma amine butyric acid were the precursors and they were added at the initial step of the synthesis. The copper complexes were loaded on titania and were also added to the reactor synthesis from the beginning. Infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were the principal techniques used to the characterization of F-TiO{sub 2} and copper complexes loaded on titania materials. Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) was used to complement the characterization's studies. The biocompatibility of F-TiO{sub 2} was evaluated by treating different cancer cell lines with increased concentration of this compound. The amine, the sulfate and the phosphate on the titania's surface, as well as the integral structures of the metal complexes on titania were well identified by infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies. The TEM photographs of Cu(acac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} and Cu(Oac){sub 2}/F-TiO{sub 2} materials showed the formation of nanoparticles, which have sizes ranging from 4 to 10 nm, with no morphology alterations in comparison with F-TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, suggesting that the presence of low quantities of copper do not affect the structure of the nanoparticles. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of copper on the titania's nanoparticles. The biological results indicate that there is more than 90% cell survival, thus suggesting that F-TiO{sub 2} does not cause damage to the cells. Therefore

  18. Sulfate and acid resistant concrete and mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowitz, John W.; Wecharatana, Methi; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Cerkanowicz, deceased, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to concrete, mortar and other hardenable mixtures comprising cement and fly ash for use in construction and other applications, which hardenable mixtures demonstrate significant levels of acid and sulfate resistance while maintaining acceptable compressive strength properties. The acid and sulfate hardenable mixtures of the invention containing fly ash comprise cementitious materials and a fine aggregate. The cementitous materials may comprise fly ash as well as cement. The fine aggregate may comprise fly ash as well as sand. The total amount of fly ash in the hardenable mixture ranges from about 60% to about 120% of the total amount of cement, by weight, whether the fly ash is included as a cementious material, fine aggregate, or an additive, or any combination of the foregoing. In specific examples, mortar containing 50% fly ash and 50% cement in cementitious materials demonstrated superior properties of corrosion resistance.

  19. Effects of sulfate chitosan derivatives on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingming; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Lv, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentration emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  20. Effects of Sulfate Chitosan Derivatives on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingming; WANG Yuanhong; JIANG Tingfu; LV Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good solubility and therapeutic effect on the cell model of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. The male Wistar rats were orally fed high fat emulsion and received sulfate chitosan derivatives for 5 weeks to determine the pre-treatment effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of sulfate chitosan derivatives on NAFLD, the rats were orally fed with high concentra-tion emulsion for 5 weeks, followed by sulfate chitosan derivatives for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and biomedical assays showed that sulfate chitosan derivatives can dramatically prevent the development of hepatic steatosis in hepatocyte cells. In animal studies, pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives significantly protected against hepatic steatohepatitis induced by high fat diet according to histological analysis. Furthermore, increased TC, ALT, MDA, and LEP in NAFLD were significantly amelio-rated by pre-treatment and treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Furthermore, increased TG, AST, and TNF-α in NAFLD were significantly ameliorated by treatment with sulfate chitosan derivatives. Sulfate chitosan derivatives have good pre-treatment and therapeutic effect on NAFLD.

  1. The Importance of Heparan Sulfate in Herpesvirus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher D.O'Donnell; Deepak Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is one of many pathogens that use the cell surface glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate as a receptor.Heparan sulfate is highly expressed on the surface and extracellular matrix of virtually all cell types making it an ideal receptor.Heparan sulfate interacts with HSV-1 envelope glycoproteins gB and gC during the initial attachment step during HSV-1 entry.In addition,a modified form of heparan sulfate,known as 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate,interacts with HSV-1 gD to induce fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membrane.The 3-O-sulfation of heparan sulfate is a rare modification which occurs during the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate that is carded out by a family of enzymes known as 3-O-sulfotransferases.Due to its involvement in multiple steps of the infection process,heparan sulfate has been a prime target for the development of agents to inhibit HSV entry.Understanding how heparan sulfate functions during HSV-1 infection may not only be critical for inhibiting infection by this virus,but it may also be crucial in the fight against many other pathogens as well.

  2. Cholesterol sulfate in human physiology: what's it all about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strott, Charles A; Higashi, Yuko

    2003-07-01

    Cholesterol sulfate is quantitatively the most important known sterol sulfate in human plasma, where it is present in a concentration that overlaps that of the other abundant circulating steroid sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate. Although these sulfolipids have similar production and metabolic clearance rates, they arise from distinct sources and are metabolized by different pathways. While the function of DHEA sulfate remains an enigma, cholesterol sulfate has emerged as an important regulatory molecule. Cholesterol sulfate is a component of cell membranes where it has a stabilizing role, e.g., protecting erythrocytes from osmotic lysis and regulating sperm capacitation. It is present in platelet membranes where it supports platelet adhesion. Cholesterol sulfate can regulate the activity of serine proteases, e.g., those involved in blood clotting, fibrinolysis, and epidermal cell adhesion. As a result of its ability to regulate the activity of selective protein kinase C isoforms and modulate the specificity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, cholesterol sulfate is involved in signal transduction. Cholesterol sulfate functions in keratinocyte differentiation, inducing genes that encode for key components involved in development of the barrier. The accumulating evidence demonstrating a regulatory function for cholesterol sulfate appears solid; the challenge now is to work out the molecular mechanisms whereby this interesting molecule carries out its various roles.

  3. 铜电解过程中砷存在形态的研究及其控制实践%STUDY ON ARSENIC EXISTENCE FORM AND PRACTICE OF ARSENIC CONTROL DURING COPPER ELECTROLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宏全; 张豫

    2011-01-01

    本文对砷在电解铜、电解液、硫酸铜结晶母液、砷渣中存在形态进行了分析,从而研究砷在铜电解过程中的行为以及砷在铜电解过程中的控制方法.%This paper analyses arsenic existence form in electrolytic copper, electrolyte, pregnant solution after crystallization of copper sulfate, arsenic dregs, further studying on the behaviors of arsenic and methods of arsenic control during copper electrolysis.

  4. Sulfate was a trace constituent of Archean seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crowe, Sean Andrew; Paris, Guillaume; Katsev, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In the low-oxygen Archean world (>2400 million years ago), seawater sulfate concentrations were much lower than today, yet open questions frustrate the translation of modern measurements of sulfur isotope fractionations into estimates of Archean seawater sulfate concentrations. In the water column...... of Lake Matano, Indonesia, a low-sulfate analog for the Archean ocean, we find large (>20 per mil) sulfur isotope fractionations between sulfate and sulfide, but the underlying sediment sulfides preserve a muted range of delta S-34 values. Using models informed by sulfur cycling in Lake Matano, we infer...... Archean seawater sulfate concentrations of less than 2.5 micromolar. At these low concentrations, marine sulfate residence times were likely 10(3) to 10(4) years, and sulfate scarcity would have shaped early global biogeochemical cycles, possibly restricting biological productivity in Archean oceans....

  5. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    Sulfate reduction was measured with the (SO42-)-S-35-tracer technique in slurries of sediment from Aarhus Bay, Denmark, where seasonal temperatures range from 0 degrees to 15 degrees C. The incubations were made at temperatures from 0 degrees C to 80 degrees C in temperature increments of 2 degrees...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...

  6. Studies on the binding of amylopectin sulfate with gastric mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Bella, A; Whitehead, J S; Isaacs, R; Remer, L

    1975-07-01

    Amylopectin sulfate, a sulfated polysaccharide that has an antipeptic property, was examined for its ability to bind gastric mucins. After chemically cross-linking the amylopectin sulfate into an insoluble gel, its binding with mucins isolated from antral and fundic mucosa of canine stomachs was studied with chromatography. A component present in both mucin fractions bound to the amylopectin sulfate gel below pH 4.5. This binding was reversible, and the complex dissociated above pH 5. Similar binding properties were found with soluble amylopectin sulfate. The component of the mucine which bound to amylopectin sulfate differed from the one which did not bind in its electrophoretic mobility and in its higher proportion of basic amino acids and a lower hexosamine, serine, and threonine content. This study suggests that amylopectin sulfate may bind to gastric mucins only under conditions of low pH.

  7. Nickel hydroxide precipitation from aqueous sulfate media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sist, Cinziana; Demopoulos, George P.

    2003-08-01

    Hydrometallurgical processing of laterite ores constitutes a major industrial and R&D activity in extractive metallurgy. In some of the process flowsheets, nickel hydroxide precipitation is incorporated. For these operations, the optimization of nickel hydroxide precipitation is important to assure efficiency and product quality. The main objective of this investigation was to study and improve the precipitation characteristics of Ni(OH)2 in a sulfate system using supersaturation controlled precipitation.

  8. Engineering sulfotransferases to modify heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ding; Moon, Andrea F.; Song, Danyin; Pedersen, Lars C.; Liu, Jian (NIH); (UNC)

    2008-03-19

    The biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS) involves an array of specialized sulfotransferases. Here, we present a study aimed at engineering the substrate specificity of different HS 3-O-sulfotransferase isoforms. Based on the crystal structures, we identified a pair of amino acid residues responsible for selecting the substrates. Mutations of these residues altered the substrate specificities. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of tailoring the specificity of sulfotransferases to modify HS with desired functions.

  9. Effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper in synthesized Fe(III) minerals and Fe-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaohua; Zhang, Youchi; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Wensui

    2014-04-01

    The effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper were investigated in a high concentration of sulfate with synthesized Fe(III) minerals and red earth soils rich in amorphous Fe (hydr)oxides. Batch microcosm experiments showed that red earth soil inoculated with subsurface sediments had a faster Fe(III) bioreduction rate than pure amorphous Fe(III) minerals and resulted in quicker immobilization of Cu in the aqueous fraction. Coinciding with the decrease of aqueous Cu, SO4(2-) in the inoculated red earth soil decreased acutely after incubation. The shift in the microbial community composite in the inoculated soil was analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results revealed the potential cooperative effect of microbial Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction on copper immobilization. After exposure to air for 144 h, more than 50% of the immobilized Cu was remobilized from the anaerobic matrices; aqueous sulfate increased significantly. Sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the organic matter/sulfide-bound Cu increased by 52% after anaerobic incubation relative to the abiotic treatment but decreased by 32% after oxidation, indicating the generation and oxidation of Cu-sulfide coprecipitates in the inoculated red earth soil. These findings suggest that the immobilization of copper could be enhanced by mediating microbial Fe(III) reduction with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions. The findings have an important implication for bioremediation in Cucontaminated and Fe-rich soils, especially in acid-mine-drainage-affected sites.

  10. Administration of copper reduced the hyper-excitability of neurons in CA1 hippocampal slices from epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Juan; Infante, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    Copper as a trace metal is involved in several neurodegenerative illnesses, such as Menkes, Wilson's, Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that acute perfusion of copper can inhibit long-term synaptic potentiation in hippocampal slices. The objective of this work is to determine whether Cu perfusion can perturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices derived from pilocarpine treated epileptic rats. Field potential (FP) recordings of the CA1 neurons of rats with chronic epilepsy showed voltage and response duration decrease following copper sulfate perfusion. However, voltage and response duration were higher after removing copper by washing. The discharge frequency of the CA1 neurons of hippocampal slices from non-epileptic control rats was increased after acute perfusion of 10 μM of pilocarpine. This increase was blocked by administering copper sulphate 10 μM. Krebs-Ringer solution washing re-established the discharges, with a higher frequency than that provoked by pilocarpine perfusion. We discuss the blocking effect of copper and the synaptic hyper-excitability generated by its removal.

  11. Improving Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag by Modifying the Molten Copper Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new technology was developed to improve the beneficiation of copper and iron components from copper slag, by modifying the molten slag to promote the mineralization of valuable minerals and to induce the growth of mineral grains. Various parameters, including binary basicity, dosage of compound additive, modification temperature, cooling rate and the end point temperature of slow cooling were investigated. Meanwhile, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS was employed to determine the mineralogy of the modified and unmodified slag, as well as to reveal the mechanisms of enhancing beneficiation. The results show that under the proper conditions, the copper grade of rougher copper concentrate was increased from 6.43% to 11.04%, iron recovery of magnetic separation was increased significantly from 32.40% to 63.26%, and other evaluation indexes were changed slightly, in comparison with unmodified copper slag. Moreover, matte and magnetite grains in the modified slag aggregated together and grew obviously to the mean size of over 50 μm, resulting in an improvement of beneficiation of copper and iron.

  12. Sulfation and Cation Effects on the Conformational Properties of the Glycan Backbone of Chondroitin Sulfate Disaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Christina E.; Guvench, Olgun

    2015-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of several glycosaminoglycans that are major components of proteoglycans. A linear polymer consisting of repeats of the disaccharide -4GlcAβ1-3GalNAcβ1-, CS undergoes differential sulfation resulting in five unique sulfation patterns. Because of the dimer repeat, the CS glycosidic “backbone” has two distinct sets of conformational degrees of freedom defined by pairs of dihedral angles: (ϕ1, ψ1) about the β1-3 glycosidic linkage and (ϕ2, ψ2) about the β1-4 glycosidic linkage. Differential sulfation and the possibility of cation binding, combined with the conformational flexibility and biological diversity of CS, complicate experimental efforts to understand CS three-dimensional structures at atomic resolution. Therefore, all-atom explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations with Adaptive Biasing Force sampling of the CS backbone were applied to obtain high resolution, high precision free energies of CS disaccharides as a function of all possible backbone geometries. All ten disaccharides (β1-3 vs. β1-4 linkage x five different sulfation patterns) were studied; additionally, ion effects were investigated by considering each disaccharide in the presence of either neutralizing sodium or calcium cations. GlcAβ1-3GalNAc disaccharides have a single, broad, thermodynamically important free-energy minimum whereas GalNAcβ1-4GlcA disaccharides have two such minima. Calcium cations but not sodium cations bind to the disaccharides, and binding is primarily to the GlcA –COO− moiety as opposed to sulfate groups. This binding alters the glycan backbone thermodynamics in instances where a calcium cation bound to –COO− can act to bridge and stabilize an interaction with an adjacent sulfate group, whereas, in the absence of this cation, the proximity of a sulfate group to –COO− results in two like charges being both desolvated and placed adjacent to each other and is found to be destabilizing. In addition to providing

  13. Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

    2005-06-01

    Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

  14. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  15. Conformation of sulfated galactan and sulfated fucan in aqueous solutions: implications to their anticoagulant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Camila F; Guimarães, Jorge A; Mourão, Paulo A S; Verli, Hugo

    2007-07-01

    The discovery of sulfated galactans and sulfated fucans in marine invertebrates with simple and ordered structures opened new perspectives to investigate the biological activity of these molecules and to determine whether different structures confer high affinity for a particular protein. We undertook a conformational analysis of a 2-sulfated, 3-linked alpha-L-galactan and of a alpha-L-fucan with similar structure. Through comparison between theoretical and NMR derived coupling constants, we observed that the pyranose rings are predominantly in the (1)C(4) conformation in these polysaccharides. Additionally, the geometry of the glycosidic linkages was determined based on force field calculations, indicating that the two polysaccharides have similar conformations in solution. Since the sulfated alpha-L-galactan, but not the alpha-L-fucan potentiates antithrombin (AT) inhibition of thrombin, the solution conformations of the compounds were docked into AT and the complexes obtained were refined through molecular dynamics calculations. The obtained results indicates extremely different orientations for the two polysaccharides, which well correlates and explain their distinct anticoagulant activities. Finally, the molecular mechanism of a selective 2-desulfation reaction, observed among sulfated fucans, was explained as a consequence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond capable of assisting in the removal of the charged group.

  16. Treatment of industry wastewater using thermo-chemical combined processes with copper salt up to recyclable limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Sahu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is valuable crop of India and has a major role in foreign exchange. The aim of research work is to investigate the reduction of chemical oxygen demand and color from sugarcane industry effluent by thermolysis and coagulation method. The complete study was done in batch mode to determine the effect of operating parameters. The result shows maximum 73% of chemical oxygen demand and 76% color removal with copper oxide catalyst at 5 kg/m3 massloading, 85 °C reacting temperature, 9 h treatment time and pH 8. Combined study showed 97.6% chemical oxygen demand and 99.9% color removal at pH 6.5 and mass loading 8 mM with copper sulfate salt. The settling and filtration was found to be good at 65 °C and 75 °C with copper oxide treated sugar industry wastewater.

  17. Membrane technology applied to acid mine drainage from copper mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambiado, K; Bustos, C; Schwarz, A; Bórquez, R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the treatment of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) from copper mining by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) at pilot scale. The performances of two commercial spiral-wound membranes - NF99 and RO98pHt, both from Alfa Laval - were compared. The effects of pressure and feed flow on ion rejection and permeate flux were evaluated. The results showed high ion removal under optimum pressure conditions, which reached 92% for the NF99 membrane and 98% for the RO98pHt membrane. Sulfate removal reached 97% and 99% for NF99 and RO98pHt, respectively. In the case of copper, aluminum, iron and manganese, the removal percentage surpassed 95% in both membranes. Although concentration polarization limited NF performance at higher pressures, permeate fluxes observed in NF were five times greater than those obtained by RO, with only slightly lower divalent ion rejection rates, making it a promising option for the treatment of AMD.

  18. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS) consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan. PMID:28280523

  19. Antimicrobial potential of consolidation polymers loaded with biological copper nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Khallaf, Mohamed K

    2016-07-11

    Biodeterioration of historic monuments and stone works by microorganisms takes place as a result of biofilm production and secretion of organic compounds that negatively affect on the stone matrix. Copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were prepared biologically using the headspace gases generated by the bacterial culture Escherichia coli Z1. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was evaluated against the bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Streptomyces parvulus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as some fungal strains Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium solani and Alternaria solani. Biological CuNPs demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activities higher than those of the untreated copper sulfate. At the same time, limestone and sandstone blocks treated with consolidation polymers functionalized with CuNPs recorded apparent antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. parvulus and B. subtilis in addition to an improvement in the physical and mechanical characters of the treated stones. Furthermore, the elemental composition of CuNPs was elucidated using electron dispersive x-ray system connected with the scanning electron microscope. Consolidation polymers impregnated with CuNPs could be used to restrain microbial deterioration in addition to the refinement of physico-mechanical behavior of the historic stones.

  20. Copper metabolic defects and liver disease: environmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A

    2002-12-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for many biological processes. Cu homeostasis is generally well maintained by inbuilt controls in intestinal absorption, biliary excretion and intrahepatic storage. Copper deficiency disorders are rare. Acute Cu toxicity occurs occasionally in accidental poisoning with Cu sulfate. Chronic Cu toxicity in the form of liver cirrhosis and damage to other organs is seen classically in Wilson's Disease (genetic abnormality of Cu metabolism) and in the presumed environmental disorder Indian Childhood Cirrhosis (ICC). The clinical, epidemiological and treatment aspects of ICC are described. The evidence linking ICC to environmental Cu is (i) greatly increased hepatic Cu; (ii) early introduction of Cu contaminated milk boiled or stored in brass vessels; (iii) dramatic decline in ICC throughout the country coincident with change in feeding vessels; and (iv) continued long-term remission in d-penicillamine-treated patients after withdrawal of the drug. The nature and role of a second factor in the causation of ICC remains unclear, although a genetic predisposition is strongly suspected. Scattered reports of an ICC-like illness from the West (Idiopathic Cu Toxicosis, Endemic Tyrolean Infantile Cirrhosis), suggest that different mechanisms (environmental, genetic or both) can lead to the same end stage liver disease-'ecogenetic' disorders.

  1. Inhibition of chickpea seedling copper amine oxidases by tetraethylenepentamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Talaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases are important enzymes, which contribute to the regulation of mono- and polyamine levels. Each monomer contains one Cu(II ion and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TPQ as cofactors. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes with a ping-pong mechanism consisting of a transamination. The mechanism is followed by the transfer of two electrons to molecular oxygen which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors are important tools in the study of catalytic properties of copper amine oxidases and they also have a wide application in physiological research. In this study, purification of the chickpea seedling amine oxidase, was done via salting out by ammonium sulfate and dialysis, followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. By using the Lineweaver - Burk plot, the Km and Vm of the enzyme were found to be 3.3 mM and 0.95 mmol/min/mg, respectively. In this study, the interaction of chickpea diamino oxidase with tetraethylene- pentamine was studied. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that tetraethylenepentamine (with Ki=0.1 mM inhibits the enzyme by linear mixed inhibitory effect.

  2. Resveratrol Attenuates Copper-Induced Senescence by Improving Cellular Proteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Matos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfate-induced premature senescence (CuSO4-SIPS consistently mimetized molecular mechanisms of replicative senescence, particularly at the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis level. In fact, disruption of protein homeostasis has been associated to age-related cell/tissue dysfunction and human disorders susceptibility. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with proved antiaging properties under particular conditions. In this setting, we aimed to evaluate resveratrol ability to attenuate cellular senescence induction and to unravel related molecular mechanisms. Using CuSO4-SIPS WI-38 fibroblasts, resveratrol is shown to attenuate typical senescence alterations on cell morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase activity, and cell proliferation. The mechanisms implicated in this antisenescence effect seem to be independent of senescence-associated genes and proteins regulation but are reliant on cellular proteostasis improvement. In fact, resveratrol supplementation restores copper-induced increased protein content, attenuates BiP level, and reduces carbonylated and polyubiquitinated proteins by autophagy induction. Our data provide compelling evidence for the beneficial effects of resveratrol by mitigating CuSO4-SIPS stressful consequences by the modulation of protein quality control systems. These findings highlight the importance of a balanced cellular proteostasis and add further knowledge on molecular mechanisms mediating resveratrol antisenescence effects. Moreover, they contribute to identifying specific molecular targets whose modulation will prevent age-associated cell dysfunction and improve human healthspan.

  3. Heritability and clinical determinants of serum indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, candidate biomarkers of the human microbiome enterotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Viaene

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate are unique microbial co-metabolites. Both co-metabolites have been involved in the pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular disease and renal disease progression. Available evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate may be considered candidate biomarkers of the human enterotype and may help to explain the link between diet and cardiovascular disease burden. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Information on clinical determinants and heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate serum is non-existing. To clarify this issue, the authors determined serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate in 773 individuals, recruited in the frame of the Flemish Study on Environment, Genes and Health Outcomes (FLEMENGHO study. RESULTS: Serum levels of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate amounted to 3.1 (2.4-4.3 and 13.0 (7.4-21.5 μM, respectively. Regression analysis identified renal function, age and sex as independent determinants of both co-metabolites. Both serum indoxyl sulfate (h2 = 0.17 and p-cresyl sulfate (h2 = 0.18 concentrations showed moderate but significant heritability after adjustment for covariables, with significant genetic and environmental correlations for both co-metabolites. LIMITATIONS: Family studies cannot provide conclusive evidence for a genetic contribution, as confounding by shared environmental effects can never be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The heritability of indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate is moderate. Besides genetic host factors and environmental factors, also renal function, sex and age influence the serum levels of these co-metabolites.

  4. Selectively leaching Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) from acid mine drainage sludge by using ethylenediamine-ammonium sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method based on controlling the complexation-precipitation equilibrium of metal ions was proposed to selectively recover nickel and copper from hydroxide sludge formed by lime neutralization of acid mine drainage(AMD). Ethylenediamine(EDA) and ammonium sulfate were chosen as complex reagent and precipitating reagent, respectively, to dissolve target metal hydroxides from sludge and limit useless metal ions in the pregnant solution. Results from both synthetic and natural samples show the excellent selectivity for the target metals(copper and nickel) against Fe(Ⅲ), Ca(Ⅱ) and Mg(Ⅱ), 99% recovery of Cu(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) and shorter leaching time can be reached by this process, and the resultant solution can be used for direct electrowinning. The optimum operating conditions are: pH=9~11, ρ(EDA)=40g/L, ammonium sulfate 50g/L, leaching time 5h(for natural sample) and 2.5h(for synthetic sludge), liquid to solid ratio being 4 with mechanical stirring at room temperature.

  5. Sulfate as a pivotal factor in regulation of Serratia sp. strain S2B pigment biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari, Banafsheh; Karbalaei-Heidari, Hamid Reza

    2016-10-01

    In the present work, we investigated the prodiginine family as secondary metabolite members. Bacterial strain S2B, with the ability to produce red pigment, was isolated from the Sarcheshmeh copper mine in Iran. 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was placed in the Serratia genus. Pigment production was optimized using low-cost culture medium and the effects of various physicochemical factors were studied via statistical approaches. Purification of the produced pigment by silica gel column chromatography showed a strong red pigment fraction and a weaker orange band. Mass spectrometry, FT-IR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the red pigment was prodigiosin and the orange band was a prodigiosin-like analog, with molecular weights of 323 and 317 Da, respectively. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity studies confirmed their membership in the prodiginine family. Analysis of the production pattern of the pigments in the presence of different concentrations of ammonium salts revealed the role of sulfate as an important factor in regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway. Overall, the data showed that regulation of the pigment biosynthesis pathway in Serratia sp. strain S2B was affected by inorganic micronutrients, particularly the sulfate ions.

  6. Purity determination of amphotericin B, colistin sulfate and tobramycin sulfate in a hydrophilic suspension by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Corina; Fassauer, Georg; Gerecke, Hagen; Jira, Thomas; Remane, Yvonne; Frontini, Roberto; Byrne, Jonathan; Reinhardt, Robert

    2015-05-15

    A suspension comprising of the three antibiotic substances amphotericin B, colistin sulfate and tobramycin sulfate is often used in clinical practice for the selective decontamination of the digestive tract of patients in intensive care. Since no detailed procedures, specifications or stability data are available for manufacturing this suspension, there may be discrepancies regarding formulation and stability of suspensions prepared in different pharmacies. The aim of this work is to develop a standardized formulation and to determine its stability under defined storage conditions. This would help guarantee that all patients receive the same preparation, therefore ensuring similar efficacy and improved safety. The first step in this process is to develop the required analytical tools to measure the content and purity of the drug substances in this complex mixture. In this paper, the development and validation of these tools as well as the development of the drug suspension formulation is described. The formulation comprises of Ampho-Moronal(®)-Suspension (Dermapharm) and a buffered, preservated aqueous solution of colistin sulfate and tobramycin sulfate. Two simple, well established high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods in the European Pharmacopoeia (EP) for impurity profiling of the two active ingredients amphotericin B and colistin sulfate were combined with a newly developed sample extraction procedure for the suspension. Sufficient selectivity and stability-indicating power have been demonstrated. Additionally, a new robust routine method was developed to determine possible degradation products of tobramycin sulfate in the investigated suspension. The specificity, precision, accuracy and linearity of the analytical procedures were demonstrated. The recovery rate was in the range of 90-110%. The precision results for the calculated impurities showed variation coefficients of <10%. The calibration curves were found to be linear with correlation

  7. Sulfation pattern of fucose branches affects the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nian; Zhang, Yu; Ye, Xingqian; Hu, Yaqin; Ding, Tian; Chen, Shiguo

    2016-08-20

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfates (fCSs) are glycosaminoglycans extracted from sea cucumbers, consisting of chondroitin sulfate E (CSE) backbones and sulfated fucose branches. The biological properties of fCSs could be affected by the sulfation pattern of their fucose branches. In the present study, two fCSs were isolated from sea cucumbers Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) and Pearsonothuria graeffei (fCS-Pg). Their monosaccharide compositions of glucuronic acid (GlcA), N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), fucose (Fuc) and sulfate were at similar molar ratio with 1.0/0.7/0.9/3.1 for fCS-Ib and 1.0/0.8/1.5/2.6 for fCS-Pg. The two fCSs have different sulfation patterns on their fucose branches, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation while fCS-Ib with 2,4-O-disulfation. Their antihyperlipidemic effects were compared using a high-fat high-fructose diet (HFFD)-fed C57BL/6J mice model. Both fCS-Ib and fCS-Pg had significant effects on lipid profile improvement, liver protection, blood glucose diminution and hepatic glycogen synthesis. Specifically, fCS-Pg with 3,4-O-disulfation fucose branches was more effective in reduction of blood cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and atherogenic index (AI). Our results indicate that both fCSs, especially fCS-Pg, could be used as a potential anti-hyperlipidemic drug.

  8. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Ronge; LIU Song; WANG Lin; CAI Shengbao; YU Huahua; FENG Jinhua; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O(2))/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O(2) scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL.However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  9. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  10. Extraction of Copper(I Thiosulfate by Modified Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okky Anggraito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is one of non-toxic natural biopolymer and abundance in nature. Chitosan have two active sites such as amine and hydroxyl groups. Amine groups (-NH2 in chitosan can be modified into secondary amine (-NHR. In this research, copper was dissolved as copper(I thiosulfate as anion complex (Cu(S2O323- and chitosan was modified by trimethylamine sulfur trioxide (TMAS. One of hydrogen atom in –NH2 was substituted by –SO3Na. The result of this research, the modified chitosan was identified by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra gave characteristic band at 3600-3200 cm-1 (O-H and N-H; 1648 cm-1 (C=O; 1115,74 cm-1 (S=O and 617,18 cm-1 (N-S. The result of surface analysis using SEM and TEM showed that the surface morphology of sulfated chitosan as a result of modification is different in comparison with chitosan. Based on chitosan, pH extraction was adjusted to pH 3 until 8. After optimum pH of extraction was obtained then re-extraction was done by using thiosulfate solution at 0.05 ; 0.10 ; 0.50 ; and 1.00 M. Extraction and re-extraction of copper(I thiosulfate was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The highest efficiency extraction using modified chitosan and chitosan respectively at pH 3 and 6. The efficiency re-extraction using modified chitosan and chitosan respectively 100% and below 100%.

  11. Extraction of Copper(I Thiosulfate by Modified Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okky Anggraito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is one of non-toxic natural biopolymer and abundance in nature. Chitosan have two active sites such as amine and hydroxyl groups. Amine groups (-NH2 in chitosan can be modified into secondary amine (-NHR. In this research, copper was dissolved as copper(I thiosulfate as anion complex (Cu(S2O323- and chitosan was modified by trimethylamine sulfur trioxide (TMAS. One of hydrogen atom in –NH2 was substituted by –SO3Na. The result of this research, the modified chitosan was identified by FT-IR. FT-IR spectra gave characteristic band at 3600-3200 cm-1 (O-H and N-H; 1648 cm-1 (C=O; 1115,74 cm-1 (S=O and 617,18 cm-1 (N-S. The result of surface analysis using SEM and TEM showed that the surface morphology of sulfated chitosan as a result of modification is different in comparison with chitosan. Based on chitosan, pH extraction was adjusted to pH 3 until 8. After optimum pH of extraction was obtained then re-extraction was done by using thiosulfate solution at 0.05 ; 0.10 ; 0.50 ; and 1.00 M. Extraction and re-extraction of copper(I thiosulfate was analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. The highest efficiency extraction using modified chitosan and chitosan respectively at pH 3 and 6. The efficiency re-extraction using modified chitosan and chitosan respectively 100% and below 100%.

  12. [Copper compounds ameliorate cardiovasclur dysfunction and diabetes in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hiromu

    2012-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is essential for our daily life and it is found at approximately 110 mg in human adults with the body weight of 70 kg, in which this metal occurs at 46 mg in the bone and 26 mg in the muscle. Although Cu exists in the brain (approximately 5 mg/kg), liver (6 mg/kg), kidney (13 mg/kg), erythrocytes (90 mg/L), bile (6 mg/L) and serum (120 mg/L), its organ-specific distribution is not yet known. In metalloenzymes such as oxidoreductases, Cu is abundantly found and greatly contributes in life functions. In addition, intracellular Cu transport system has been revealed in connection with iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) intracellular transport systems. In spite of such great contribution of Cu in life, no Cu-containing pharmaceutics have yet been known. Under such background, the author and his research group have tried to examine a possibility of Cu compounds as potential pharmaceutics. In the review, the following topics are concerned; (1) improvement of cardiovascular dysfunction in animals by di-nuclear Cu-asprinate complex on the basis of the results on its reactive oxygen scavenging (ROS) effect, (2) blood glucose-lowering effect of mono-nuclear Cu-picolinate complex in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic animals, based on the results on in vitro insulinomimetic activity, and (3) anti-diabetic effect of copper sulfate in animals with regard to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. These results suggest that copper ion and its complexes are possible seeds for developing Cu-containing pharmaceutics in the future.

  13. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin is a green to black powder obtained from chlorophyll...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity...

  15. Testing Corrosion Inhibitors for the Conservation of Archaeological Copper and Copper Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faltermeier

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a synopsis of the Ph.D. research undertaken at the Institute of Archaeology, University College London. The aim was to evaluate corrosion inhibitors for use in the conservation of copper and copper alloy archaeological artefacts. The objective of this work was to acquire an insight into the performance of copper corrosion inhibitors, when applied to archaeological copper.

  16. Inactivation of thrombin by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, P A; Boisson-Vidal, C; Tapon-Bretaudière, J; Drouet, B; Bros, A; Fischer, A

    2001-04-15

    A polysaccharide extracted from the sea cucumber body wall has the same backbone structure as the mammalian chondroitin sulfate, but some of the glucuronic acid residues display sulfated fucose branches. These branches confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide. Since the sea cucumber chondroitin sulfate has analogy in structure with mammalian glycosaminoglycans and sulfated fucans from brown algae, we compared its anticoagulant action with that of heparin and of a homopolymeric sulfated fucan with approximately the same level of sulfation as the sulfated fucose branches found in the sea cucumber polysaccharide. These various compounds differ not only in their anticoagulant potencies but also in the mechanisms of thrombin inhibition. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, like heparin, requires antithrombin or heparin cofactor II for thrombin inhibition. Sulfated fucans from brown algae have an antithrombin effect mediated by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II, plus a direct antithrombin effect more pronounced for some fractions. But even in the case of these two polysaccharides, we observed some differences. In contrast with heparin, total inhibition of thrombin in the presence of antithrombin is not achieved with fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, possibly reflecting a less specific interaction. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is able to inhibit thrombin generation after stimulation by both contact-activated and thromboplastin-activated systems. It delayed only the contact-induced thrombin generation, as expected for an anticoagulant without direct thrombin inhibition. Overall, the specific spatial array of the sulfated fucose branches in the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate not only confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide but also determine differences in the way it inhibits thrombin.

  17. Lacrimal gland development and Fgf10-Fgfr2b signaling are controlled by 2-O- and 6-O-sulfated heparan sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, X.; Carbe, C.; Tao, C.; Powers, A.; Lawrence, R.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Cardoso, W.V.; Grobe, K.; Esko, J.D.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate, an extensively sulfated glycosaminoglycan abundant on cell surface proteoglycans, regulates intercellular signaling through its binding to various growth factors and receptors. In the lacrimal gland, branching morphogenesis depends on the interaction of heparan sulfate with Fgf10-Fg

  18. The link between copper and Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and extrahepatic organs such as the brain and cornea. Patients may present with combinations of hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Copper is the therapeutic target for the treatment of Wilson's disease. But how did copper come to be linked with Wilson's disease? The answer encompasses a study of enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs in the 1930s, the copper-chelating properties of British Anti-Lewisite, and the chemical analysis for copper of the organs of deceased Wilson's disease patients in the mid-to-late 1940s. Wilson's disease is one of a number of copper-related disorders where loss of copper homeostasis as a result of genetic, nutritional or environmental factors affects human health.

  19. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L).

  20. Synthesis of aminoarenethiolato-copper(I) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperotto, E.; van Klink, G.P.M.; van Koten, G.

    2008-01-01

    Copper(I)-mediated reactions have recently become the choice for large industrial scale applications, since copper is environmentally friendly and cheaper than other transition metals already explored. However, most organocopper compounds still present several limitations including the sensitivity t

  1. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  2. EFFECT OF COPPER ON PASSIVITY AND CORROSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... metallic copper enriched on the surface film of austenitic stainless ... Dispersed inclusions of this phase can influence the stability of .... two microstructures showed that copper concentration possessed a non-uniform chemical.

  3. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  4. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tao

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Sulfur compounds in therapy: Radiation-protective agents, amphetamines, and mucopolysaccharide sulfation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foye, W.O. (Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Boston (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Sulfur-containing compounds have been used in the search for whole-body radiation-protective compounds, in the design of amphetamine derivatives that retain appetite-suppressive effects but lack most behavioral effects characteristic of amphetamines, and in the search for the cause of kidney stone formation in recurrently stoneforming patients. Organic synthetic procedures were used to prepare radiation-protective compounds having a variety of sulfur-containing functional groups, and to prepare amphetamine derivatives having electron-attracting sulfur functions. In the case of the kidney stone causation research, isolation of urinary mucopolysaccharides (MPS) from recurrently stoneforming patients was carried out and the extent of sulfation of the MPS was determined by electrophoresis. Whole-body radiation-protective agents with a high degree of protection against lethal doses of gamma-radiation in mice were found in a series of quinolinium and pyridinium bis(methylthio) and methylthio amino derivatives. Mechanism studies showed that the copper complexes of these agents mimicked the beneficial action of superoxide dismutase. Electron-attracting sulfur-containing functions on amphetamine nitrogen, as well as 4'-amino nitrogen provided amphetamine derivatives with good appetite-suppressant effects and few or no adverse behavioral effects. Higher than normal levels of sulfation of the urinary MPS of stone formers suggested a cause for recurrent kidney stone formation. A sulfation inhibitor was found to prevent recurrence of stone formation and inhibit growth of existing stones. The inclusion of various sulfur-containing functions in organic molecules yielded compounds having whole-body radiation protection from lethal doses of gamma-radiation in animals. The presence of electron-attracting sulfur functions in amphetamine gave derivatives that retained appetite-suppressant effects and eliminated most adverse behavioral effects.

  6. Using Response Surface Methodology in Synthesis of Ultrafine Copper Nanoparticles by Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilvanan, A.; Balamurugan, K.; Ponappa, K.; Madhan Kumar, B.

    2016-02-01

    Electrolysis is a method used for producing copper (Cu) nanoparticles at faster rate and at low cost in ambient conditions. The property of Cu nanoparticles prepared by electrolysis depends on their process parameters. The influence of selected process parameters such as copper sulfate (CuSo4) concentration, electrode gap and electrode potential difference on particle size was investigated. To optimize these parameters response surface methodology (RSM) was used. Cu nanoparticles prepared by electrolysis were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). After reviewing the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), mathematical equation was created and optimized parameters for producing Cu nanoparticles were determined. The results confirm that the average size of Cu particle at the optimum condition was found to be 17nm and they are hexagonal in shape.

  7. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  8. Preparation of Pure Copper Powder from Acidic Copper Chloride Waste Etchant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The method for the recycling of copper from copper chloride solution was developed. This process consists of extraction of copper, purification and particle size reduction. In the first step, reductive metal scraps were added to acidic copper chloride waste enchants produced in the PCB industry to obtain copper powder.Composition analysis showed that this powder contained impurities such as Fe, Ni, and water. So, drying and purification were carried out by using microwave and a centrifugal separator. Thereby the copper powder had a purity of higher than 99% and spherical form in morphology. The copper powder size was decreased by ball milling.

  9. Utilization of sulfate additives in biomass combustion: fundamental and modeling aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Jespersen, Jacob Boll; Grell, Morten Nedergaard;

    2013-01-01

    Sulfates, such as ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate, are effective additives for converting the alkali chlorides released from biomass combustion to the less harmful alkali sulfates. Optimization of the use of these additives requires knowledge on their decomposition rate...... and product distribution under high temperature conditions. In the present work, the decomposition of ammonium sulfate, aluminum sulfate and ferric sulfate was studied respectively in a fast-heating rate thermogravimetric analyzer for deriving a kinetic model to describe the process. The yields of SO2 and SO3...... of different sulfates indicated that ammonium sulfate has clearly strongest sulfation power towards KCl at temperatures below 800oC, whereas the sulfation power of ferric and aluminum sulfates exceeds clearly that of ammonium sulfate between 900 and 1000oC. However, feeding gaseous SO3 was found to be most...

  10. Coating of a steel wire with copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vdovin, K. N.; Dubskii, G. A.; Nefed'ev, A. A.; Derevyanko, D. V.

    2016-03-01

    The process of coating of a steel wire with liquid copper at a high speed (>1 m/s) is considered. The results of long-term studies of copperizing under laboratory conditions and electron-microscopic investigation of the copper-steel adhesion are used to develop a mathematical model for coating of a steel wire with copper and to create a commercial setup to implement this process.

  11. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wu; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper me...

  12. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or... heavier wall pipe listed in Table C1 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. [Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989, as...

  13. Modulation of tau phosphorylation by environmental copper

    OpenAIRE

    Voss, Kellen; Harris, Christopher; Ralle, Martina; Duffy, Megan; Murchison, Charles; Joseph F. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition metal copper enhances amyloid β aggregation and neurotoxicity, and in models of concomitant amyloid and tau pathology, copper also promotes tau aggregation. Since it is not clear if the effects of environmental copper upon tau pathology are dependent on the presence of pathological amyloid β, we tested the effects of copper overload and complexing in disease models which lack pathological amyloid β. Methods We used cell culture and transgenic murine models to test th...

  14. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wu; Leegwater, Peter A.J.; Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper me...

  15. Effects of sulfate deprivation on the production of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate by cultures of skin fibroblasts from normal and diabetic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silbert, C.K.; Humphries, D.E.; Palmer, M.E.; Silbert, J.E. (Veterans Administration Outpatient Clinic, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-15

    Human skin fibroblast monolayer cultures from two normal men, three Type I diabetic men, and one Type I diabetic woman were incubated with (3H)glucosamine in the presence of diminished concentrations of sulfate. Although total synthesis of (3H)chondroitin/dermatan glycosaminoglycans varied somewhat between cell lines, glycosaminoglycan production was not affected within any line when sulfate levels were decreased from 0.3 mM to 0.06 mM to 0.01 mM to 0 added sulfate. Lowering of sulfate concentrations resulted in diminished sulfation of chondroitin/dermatan in a progressive manner, so that overall sulfation dropped to as low as 19% for one of the lines. Sulfation of chondroitin to form chondroitin 4-sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate was progressively and equally affected by decreasing the sulfate concentration in the culture medium. However, sulfation to form dermatan sulfate was preserved to a greater degree, so that the relative proportion of dermatan sulfate to chondroitin sulfate increased. Essentially all the nonsulfated residues were susceptible to chondroitin AC lyase, indicating that little epimerization of glucuronic acid residues to iduronic acid had occurred in the absence of sulfation. These results confirm the previously described dependency of glucuronic/iduronic epimerization on sulfation, and indicate that sulfation of the iduronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of dermatan can take place with sulfate concentrations lower than those needed for 6-sulfation and 4-sulfation of the glucuronic acid-containing disaccharide residues of chondroitin. There were considerable differences among the six fibroblast lines in susceptibility to low sulfate medium and in the proportion of chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. However, there was no pattern of differences between normals and diabetics.

  16. Tensile behavior of nanocrystalline copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, P.G.; Weertman, J.R. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Eastman, J.A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.

    1995-11-01

    High density nanocrystalline copper produced by inert gas condensation was tested in tension. Displacements were measured using foil strain gauges, which greatly improved the accuracy of the strain data. The Young`s modulus of nanocrystalline copper was found to be consistent with that of coarse-grained copper. Total elongations of {approx} 1% were observed in samples with grain sizes less than 50 nm, while a sample with a grain size of 110 nm exhibited more than 10% elongation, perhaps signifying a change to a dislocation-based deformation mechanism in the larger-grained material. In addition, tensile tests were performed as a function of strain rate, with a possible trend of decreased strength and increased elongation as the strain rate was decreased.

  17. Monitoring copper in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, J M

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring copper metabolism in patients with Wilson's disease is not an exact science. At present, there are no simple methods of estimating the total body load of this metal. Indirect methods must therefore be used. A survey of the current literature shows that most approaches rely on the determination of blood and urine copper concentration. Both these should decrease with treatment. In parallel with decreased copper concentration, there should be subsequent improvement in more routine laboratory tests including liver and renal function, blood count parameters, and clotting factors. Lack of compliance is revealed by a reversal of this trend. This chapter critically reviews current testing methods and describes other approaches that may be helpful.

  18. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  19. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  20. Development of novel copper-based sorbents for hot-gas cleanup. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Hill, A.H. [Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Li, Z. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this investigation is to evaluate two novel copper-based sorbents, namely copper-chromium and copper-cerium, for their effectiveness in removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas in the temperature range of 650 to 850 C. Such high temperatures will be required for the new generation of gas turbines (inlet > 750 C) in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Results of fixed-bed reactor tests conducted in this quarter, indicate that, at 750 C, pre-reduction with H{sub 2} in the presence of H{sub 2}O does not effect the performance of either sorbent for H{sub 2}S removal. For the pre-reduced CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sorbent, copper utilization before the first H{sub 2}S breakthrough is substantially higher in synthesis feed gas mixture than in feed gas containing 30 Vol% H{sub 2}, and slightly lower than in 10 vol% H{sub 2}. In sulfidation-regeneration testing of copper- and additive-rich sorbents, chromium-rich CuO-3Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} sorbent demonstrated very high H{sub 2}S removal efficiency and high copper conversion levels (comparable to that of the 1:1 molar composition sorbent). Similar results were obtained with the cerium-rich CuO-3CeO{sub 2} sorbent, but only for the first cycle. The H{sub 2}S removal performance of both copper-rich sorbents was inferior to that of the respective 1:1 molar compositions. CuO-CeO{sub 2} sorbent testing in a TGA indicates no appreciable decrease in the sulfidation rate over 5 1/2 cycles. However, weight changes during regeneration of the CuO-CeO{sub 2} suggest that some copper or cerium sulfates formed.

  1. LIWU Copper Plans to Get Listed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to recently-released "Notice con-cerning Environmental Protection Checks for IPO of Sichuan LIWU Copper Co., Ltd.", Sichuan LIWU Copper Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as LIWU Copper) plans to issue 68 million shares, and all the funds raised will be

  2. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074236539; Fieten, Hille|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurolog

  3. Extra-Hepatic Storage of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else; Horn, N.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of copper among the organs of an aborted, male foetus, expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, was entirely different from the distribution in 4 normal foetuses. Copper concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis showed a considerably reduced content in the liver......, but increased concentrations in the other organs analysed; total foetal copper was normal....

  4. Quanwei Copper Processing Base Put Into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Quanwei (Tongling) Copper Co.,Ltd’s copper processing base in Tongling of Anhui Province has been put into operation at the end of De- cember last year. It is reported that the copper processing project, invested by Zhengwei (Shenzhen) Technology

  5. Study on copper adsorption on olivine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The copper adsorption on olivine supplied by A/S Olivine production plant at Aheim in western Norway has been studied. The factors which affect the uptake of copper have been evaluated. The results reveal that the equilibrium pH in aqueous solution has the greatest influence on the copper adsorption thanks to the competitive adsorption between proton and copper ions, and the adsorption of copper to olivine increases rapidly with the pH increasing from 4 to 6. The initial copper concentration and olivine dose also possess significant effect on copper adsorption. The adsorption efficieny of copper increases with the increase of olivine dose or the decrease of initial copper concentration at the same pH. The ionic strength effect on the adsorption has also been investigated, but it owns little effect on the adsorption process of copper due to the formation of inner sphere surface complexation of copper on olivine. The experimental data show that olivine has a high acid buffer capacity and is an effective adsorbent for copper.

  6. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurolog

  7. Preparation of Copper-loaded Microcapsule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jalšenjak

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel copper-loaded chitosan or chitosan/alginate based microcapsules formulations have been presented. It was shown that prolonged release of copper from microcapsules accompanied with possible prolonged presence of copper on leaves is useful in crop protection.

  8. Preparation of Copper-loaded Microcapsule Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Jalšenjak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel copper-loaded chitosan or chitosan/alginate based microcapsules formulations have been presented. It was shown that prolonged release of copper from microcapsules accompanied with possible prolonged presence of copper on leaves is useful in crop protection.

  9. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and

  10. Copper coating specification for the RHIC arcs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Copper coating specifications for the RHIC arcs are given. Various upgrade scenarios are considered and calculations of resistive wall losses in the arcs are used to constrain the necessary quality and surface thickness of a copper coating. We find that 10 {mu}m of high purity copper will suffice.

  11. Distribution of Copper in Rats Submitted to Treatment With Copper Aspirinate

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, Weiping; Yang, Yikun; Xiong, Huizhou; Lu, Ying; Yang, Rong

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of copper in Sprague – Dawley rats following a three month oral administration of 0,10 or 50mg/kg copper aspirinate has been investigated. Metal content was determined by ICP – AES in blood, brain, kidney, liver, lung, spleen, and dejection. The results show that treatment with copper aspirinate did not cause accumulation of copper in rats and excess ingested copper was excreted through feces.

  12. Chinalco Straightened Out Copper Assets, and Delegated Stock Equity of Yunnan Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Immediately after the news that Chinalco transferred 58%stock equity of Yunnan Copper Group to its wholly-owned subsidiary China Copper Corporation Limited free of charge was disclosed on July 9,many individual investors couldn’t help but to think:Does it mean China Copper Corporation Limited will assemble assets for overall listing?At present,among main copper business companies under China Copper Corporation

  13. A copper vapor laser by using a copper-vapor-complex reaction at a low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser performance by using ametal-vapor-complex reaction (Cu+AlBr3) is reported. The laser operation is obtained at a low temperature without externalheating because of the AlBr3 vapors evaporating at a room temperature. The copper vapor laser using this metal-vapor-complex reaction has an advantage of deposition-free of a metallic copper to the laser tube wall, which is different from the copper halide and the organometallic copper lasers.

  14. Copper metabolism and copper-mediated alterations in the metabolism of cultured astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheiber, Ivo Florin

    2012-01-01

    Copper is an essential element that is required for a variety of important cellular functions. Since not only copper deficiency, but also excess of copper can seriously affect cellular functions, cellular copper metabolism is tightly regulated. Disturbances of copper homeostasis are the underlying defect of the inherited diseases Menkes and Wilson s disease and have also been linked to several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer s disease and Parkinson s disease. Known astrocytes f...

  15. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  16. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol by Chemical Reduction with Vanadium (+2 Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pietro Reverberi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, giving a size distribution in the range of 40–50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.

  17. Sulfated fucan as support for antibiotic immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, P M; Oliveira, G B; Córdula, C R; Leite, E L; Carvalho Jr, L B; Silva, M P C

    2004-03-01

    Xylofucoglucuronan from Spatoglossum schröederi algae was tested as a support for antibiotic immobilization. The polysaccharide (20 mg in 6 ml) was first activated using carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodiimide methiodide (20 mg in 2 ml), under stirring for 1 h at 25 masculine C and pH from 4.5 to 5.0. After adjusting the pH to 8.0, either gentamicin or amikacin (62.5 mg in 1.25 ml) was then immobilized on this chemically modified polysaccharide with shaking for 24 h in a cold room. Infrared spectra of the activated carbodiimide xylofucoglucuronan showed two bands to carbonyl (C=O at 1647.9 and 1700.7 cm(-1)) and to amide (C-NH2) groups (1662.8 and 1714.0 cm(-1)). Microbial characterization of the derivatives was carried out by the disk diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae incorporated in Müller Hinton medium. Inhibition halos of bacterial growth were observed for the antibiotics immobilized on this sulfated heteropolysaccharide before and after dialysis. However, the halos resulting from the samples after dialysis were much smaller, suggesting that dialysis removed either non-covalently bound antibiotic or other small molecules. In contrast, bacterial growth was not inhibited by either xylofucoglucuronan or its activated form or by gentamicin or amikacin after dialysis. An additional experiment was carried out which demonstrated that the sulfated heteropolysaccharide was hydrolyzed by the microorganism. Therefore, the antibiotic immobilized on xylofucoglucuronan can be proposed as a controlled drug delivery system. Furthermore, this sulfated heteropolysaccharide can be extracted easily from sea algae Spatoglossum schröederi.

  18. Sulfated fucan as support for antibiotic immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Xylofucoglucuronan from Spatoglossum schröederi algae was tested as a support for antibiotic immobilization. The polysaccharide (20 mg in 6 ml was first activated using carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propylcarbodiimide methiodide (20 mg in 2 ml, under stirring for 1 h at 25ºC and pH from 4.5 to 5.0. After adjusting the pH to 8.0, either gentamicin or amikacin (62.5 mg in 1.25 ml was then immobilized on this chemically modified polysaccharide with shaking for 24 h in a cold room. Infrared spectra of the activated carbodiimide xylofucoglucuronan showed two bands to carbonyl (C = O at 1647.9 and 1700.7 cm-1 and to amide (CÝ-NH2 groups (1662.8 and 1714.0 cm-1. Microbial characterization of the derivatives was carried out by the disk diffusion method using Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae incorporated in Müller Hinton medium. Inhibition halos of bacterial growth were observed for the antibiotics immobilized on this sulfated heteropolysaccharide before and after dialysis. However, the halos resulting from the samples after dialysis were much smaller, suggesting that dialysis removed either non-covalently bound antibiotic or other small molecules. In contrast, bacterial growth was not inhibited by either xylofucoglucuronan or its activated form or by gentamicin or amikacin after dialysis. An additional experiment was carried out which demonstrated that the sulfated heteropolysaccharide was hydrolyzed by the microorganism. Therefore, the antibiotic immobilized on xylofucoglucuronan can be proposed as a controlled drug delivery system. Furthermore, this sulfated heteropolysaccharide can be extracted easily from sea algae Spatoglossum schröederi.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose ether sulfates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohowsky, Juta; Heise, Katja; Fischer, Steffen; Hettrich, Kay

    2016-05-20

    The synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose sulfate derivatives was reported. Various cellulose ethers were prepared in a homogeneous reaction with common sulfating agents. The received product possess different properties in dependence on the reaction conditions like sulfating agent, solvent, reaction time and reaction temperature. The cellulose ether sulfates are all soluble in water, they rheological behavior could be determined by viscosity measurements and the determination of the sulfur content by elemental analysis lead to a resulting degree of substitution ascribed to sulfate groups (DSSul) of the product. A wide range of products from DSSul 0.1 to DSSul 2.7 will be obtained. Furthermore the cellulose sulfate ethers could be characterized by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Chemical leukoderma induced by dimethyl sulfate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozali, Maya Valeska; Zhang, Jia-an; Yi, Fei; Zhou, Bing-rong; Luo, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Chemical leukoderma occurs due to the toxic effect of a variety of chemical agents. Mechanisms include either destruction or inhibition of melanocytes. We report two male patients (36 and 51 years old) who presented with multiple hypopigmented macules and patches on the neck, wrist, and legs after exposure to dimethyl sulfate in a chemical industry. Physical examination revealed irregular depigmentation macules with sharp edges and clear hyperpigmentation around the lesions. History of repeated exposure to a chemical agent can help the clinical diagnosis of chemical leukoderma. This diagnosis is very important for prognosis and therapeutic management of the disease.