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Sample records for copper phthalocyanine derivative

  1. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  2. Effect of annealing on bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine and perylene derivative

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on device performances of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and N,N′-3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI-C6). Blended films of CuPc and PTCDI-C6 with annealing at elevated temperature were characterized by measuring optical absorption, photoluminescence, and X-ray diffraction. Enhanced molecular ordering and increments in domain sizes of donor and acceptor for the blended films were observed, and their influences on device performances were discussed. Annealing led to substantial improvements in photocurrent owing to enhanced molecular ordering and formation of percolation pathways. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Copper phthalocyanine and metal free phthalocyanine bulk heterojunction photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Amjad, E-mail: amjad.farooq1212@hotmail.com [Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt. 47040 (Pakistan); GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Karimov, Kh.S. [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Physical Technical Institute, Aini St. 299/1, Dushanbe 734063 (Tajikistan); Ahmed, Nisar; Ali, Taimoor [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, Swabi (Pakistan); Khalid Alamgir, M. [National Institute of Vacuum Science and Technology, NCP complex, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Usman, Muhammad [Experimental Physics Laboratories, National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-01-15

    In this study we present the dependence of electrical properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) bulk heterojunction structure under different illumination levels. To fabricate the device on ITO coated glass substrate the bulk heterojunction thin film of CuPc and H{sub 2}Pc with thickness varying from 100 nm to 300 nm are deposited by thermal evaporator. Aluminum thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation as a top contact. The optical properties of the fabricated device are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The current-voltage characteristics in dark and under illumination show that the device is sensitive towards visible light. The absorption spectrum describes its photo sensitivity in the range of wavelength from 200 nm to 850 nm. Simulation of current-intensity of light curve is carried out and experimental results are found in good agreement with simulated ones.

  4. Copper phthalocyanine and metal free phthalocyanine bulk heterojunction photodetector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Amjad; Karimov, Kh.S.; Ahmed, Nisar; Ali, Taimoor; Khalid Alamgir, M.; Usman, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present the dependence of electrical properties of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and metal free phthalocyanine (H 2 Pc) bulk heterojunction structure under different illumination levels. To fabricate the device on ITO coated glass substrate the bulk heterojunction thin film of CuPc and H 2 Pc with thickness varying from 100 nm to 300 nm are deposited by thermal evaporator. Aluminum thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation as a top contact. The optical properties of the fabricated device are investigated using UV–vis spectroscopy. The current-voltage characteristics in dark and under illumination show that the device is sensitive towards visible light. The absorption spectrum describes its photo sensitivity in the range of wavelength from 200 nm to 850 nm. Simulation of current-intensity of light curve is carried out and experimental results are found in good agreement with simulated ones

  5. Comparison of interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine thin films with chemical vapours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Singh, Sukhdeep; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with comparing interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine with versatile chemical vapours: reducing, stable aromatic and oxidizing vapours namely; diethylamine, benzene and bromine. The variation in electrical current of phthalocyanines with exposure of chemical vapours is used as the detection parameter for studying interaction behaviour. Nickel phthalocyanine is found to exhibit anomalous behaviour after exposure of reducing vapour diethylamine due to alteration in its spectroscopic transitions and magnetic states. The observed sensitivities of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalcyanine films are different in spite of their similar bond numbers, indicating significant role of central metal atom in interaction mechanism. The variations in electronic transition levels after vapours exposure, studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed our electrical sensing results. Bromine exposure leads to significant changes in vibrational bands of metal phthalocyanines as compared to other vapours.

  6. Interfacial Engineering of Perovskite Solar Cells by Employing a Hydrophobic Copper Phthalocyanine Derivative as Hole-Transporting Material with Improved Performance and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ze; Lai, Jianbo; Zhang, Yuchen; Hu, Maowei; Lei, Ning; Wang, Dongping; Yang, Xichuan; Sun, Licheng

    2017-04-22

    In high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play an important role in extracting and transporting the photo-generated holes from the perovskite absorber to the cathode, thus reducing unwanted recombination losses and enhancing the photovoltaic performance. Herein, solution-processable tetra-4-(bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino)phenoxy-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc-OTPAtBu) was synthesized and explored as a HTM in PSCs. The optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties were fully characterized for this organic metal complex. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs employing this CuPc derivative as a HTM was further investigated, in combination with a mixed-ion perovskite as a light absorber and a low-cost vacuum-free carbon as cathode. The optimized devices [doped with 6 % (w/w) tetrafluoro-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ)] showed a decent power conversion efficiency of 15.0 %, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 21.9 mA cm -2 , and a fill factor of 0.68. Notably, the PSC devices studied also exhibited excellent long-term durability under ambient condition for 720 h, mainly owing to the introduction of the hydrophobic HTM interlayer, which prevents moisture penetration into the perovskite film. The present work emphasizes that solution-processable CuPc holds a great promise as a class of alternative HTMs that can be further explored for efficient and stable PSCs in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hole Mobility of Molecular β-Copper Phthalocyanine Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengmanayol, S.; Osotchan, T.; Suewattana, M.; Ingadapa, N.; Girdpun, J.

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo approach is used to estimate hole mobilities in molecular β-copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) crystal for different applied electric field directions. Due to the crystal symmetry, the twelve neighboring molecules in the three-dimensional crystal are selected in the hopping rate calculation. Density functional theory is employed to derive the molecular interaction between the central and neighboring molecules for various applied electric fields. The derived molecular hopping rate is applied to 80 × 80 × 80 lattice sites under periodic boundary conditions. In order to achieve accurate statistics, each calculation includes 6561 particles with more than 10000 hopping steps under an applied electric field of 0.5–3.5 MV/cm. The results indicate that the molecular hopping strongly depends on the molecular orientation and neighboring sites related to the applied electric field direction. The estimated carrier mobility can be described by the percentage occupation in each neighboring site and the obtained hole mobility value is in the same range of the measured values of single crystal CuPc. The calculated mobility for applied electric field along the c crystal axis exhibits the highest values while the mobility along the b axis has the smallest value. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  8. Effect of thickness and temperature of copper phthalocyanine films on their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva Kh. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has shown that copper phthalocyanine films, having a set of unique properties, can be successfully used as gas-sensitive coating of resistive structures. The thickness of the film, in contrast to its temperature, is not the determining factor for high sensitivity. Low operating temperature of structures with copper phthalocyanine films allows to exploit them in economy mode.

  9. The beneficial effects of mixing spiro-OMeTAD with n-butyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine for perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouri, Esmaiel; Wang, Yu-Long; Chen, Qian; Xu, Jia-Ju; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Sygellou, Lamprini; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Soluble n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine. • Mixture with spiro-OMeTAD and employment in perovskite solar cells. • Impressive improvement of perovskite solar cell efficiency. • n-Butyl derivative gives better results than tert-butyl derivative - Abstract: Perovskite solar cells have been constructed under ambient conditions by using 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) mixed with a small quantity of soluble tetra-n-butyl substituted copper phthalocyanine as hole transporting material. The introduction of the phthalocyanine derivative resulted in an impressive increase of cell efficiency, which changed from 10.4% in the absence to 15.4% in the presence of phthalocyanine. This effect is related to the creation of deep traps in the hole transporting phase which block back-travelling electrons as well as to the improvement of the structural quality of the spiro-OMeTAD film in the presence of phthalocyanine. Both functionalities decrease shunt paths within the hole transporting phase resulting in increasing the fill factor and the open-circuit voltage of the cell.

  10. Synthesis and photophysical properties of indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özceşmeci, İbrahim, E-mail: ozcesmecii@itu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gelir, Ali [Department of Physics, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey); Gül, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-03-15

    Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives bearing four aromatic (naphthalene or pyrene) or aliphatic (hexylthio) groups were prepared from corresponding phthalonitrile compounds. The indium(III) phthalocyanine derivatives were characterized with elemental analyses, mass, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) techniques. Quantum yields and the energy transfer from the substituents to phthalocyanine core were examined. No energy transfer was observed for 5. The energy transfer efficiency from pyrene units to indium phthalocyanine core was calculated as 0.27 for 6. Quantum yields of all samples were very small due to heavy atom effect of indium atom in the core. It was also observed that upon binding of pyrene and naphthalene units to indium phthalocyanine as substituents, the quantum yields of indium phthalocyanine parts of 5 and 6 decreased. -- Highlights: • Three chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were prepared and characterized. • Aggregation properties of these compounds were investigated. • The energy transfer efficiency was examined. • Quantum yield of these systems were calculated.

  11. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  12. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (INDIA) Fax: +91-172-2783336; Tel.:+91-172-2544362 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposure with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.

  13. Structural templating in a nonplanar phthalocyanine using single crystal copper iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Rochford, L. A. (Luke A.); Ramadan, Alexandra J.; Keeble, Dean S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, T. S. (Tim S.)

    2015-01-01

    Solution-grown copper iodide crystals are used as substrates for the templated growth of the nonplanar vanadyl phthalocyanine using organic molecular beam deposition. Structural characterization reveals a single molecular orientation produced by the (111) Miller plane of the copper iodide crystals. These fundamental measurements show the importance of morphology and structure in templating interactions for organic electronics applications.

  14. Film formation of non-planar phthalocyanines on copper(i) iodide

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadan, A. J.; Fearn, S.; Jones, T. S. (Tim S.); Heutz, S.; Rochford, L. A. (Luke A.)

    2016-01-01

    Structural templating is frequently used in organic photovoltaic devices to control the properties of the functional layers and therefore improve efficiencies. Modification of the substrate temperatures has also been shown to impact the structure and morphology of phthalocyanine thin films. Here we combine templating by copper iodide and high substrate temperature growth and study its effect on the structure and morphology of two different non-planar phthalocyanines, chloroaluminium (ClAlPc) ...

  15. Decolorization Treatment of Copper Phthalocyanine Textile Dye Wastewater by Electrochemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dermentzis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical decolorization and degradation treatment of aqueous copper phthalocyanine reactive dye solutions was comparatively studied by electrocoagulation, electrooxidation and electro-Fenton processes. In the electrocoagulation process with aluminum electrodes the colored aqueous solutions of initial pH 6.4 containing 50 mg L-1 copper phthalocyanine and 6 g L-1 NaCl were treated at applied current densities of 2.5 and 5 mA cm-2. Fast and 100% decolorization was achieved in 4 and 2 minutes of electroprocessing respectively. The indirect electrooxidation process was conducted in acidic electrolyte solutions containing 50 mg L-1 copper phthalocyanine and 6 g L-1 NaCl with Ti/Pt and graphite plate electrodes at the applied current density of 10 mA cm-2. Even after 90 minutes of electrolysis time the dye remained by 23 and 18.8 % respectively undegradable. By the direct and indirect electrooxidation with the same amount of Na2SO4 electrolyte and added H2O2 respectively and using the same electrodes, the copper phthalocyanine dye was not or was only barely degraded respectively. In the electro-Fenton process with Fe electrodes and added amounts of H2O2 at pH 3 and an applied current density of 5 mA/cm2 complete degradation of copper phthalocyanine occurred in 15 minutes.

  16. Multi-polar resistance switching and memory effect in copper phthalocyanine junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Shi-Zhu; Kang Shi-Shou; Li Qiang; Zhong Hai; Kang Yun; Yu Shu-Yun; Han Guang-Bing; Yan Shi-Shen; Mei Liang-Mo; Qin Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Copper phthalocyanine junctions, fabricated by magnetron sputtering and evaporating methods, show multi-polar (unipolar and bipolar) resistance switching and the memory effect. The multi-polar resistance switching has not been observed simultaneously in one organic material before. With both electrodes being cobalt, the unipolar resistance switching is universal. The high resistance state is switched to the low resistance state when the bias reaches the set voltage. Generally, the set voltage increases with the thickness of copper phthalocyanine and decreases with increasing dwell time of bias. Moreover, the low resistance state could be switched to the high resistance state by absorbing the phonon energy. The stability of the low resistance state could be tuned by different electrodes. In Au/copper phthalocyanine/Co system, the low resistance state is far more stable, and the bipolar resistance switching is found. Temperature dependence of electrical transport measurements demonstrates that there are no obvious differences in the electrical transport mechanism before and after the resistance switching. They fit quite well with Mott variable range hopping theory. The effect of Al 2 O 3 on the resistance switching is excluded by control experiments. The holes trapping and detrapping in copper phthalocyanine layer are responsible for the resistance switching, and the interfacial effect between electrodes and copper phthalocyanine layer affects the memory effect. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Spontaneous Adsorption of a Co-Phthalocyanine Ionic Derivative on HOPG. An In Situ EPR Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tarábek, Ján; Klusáčková, Monika; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Plšek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 8 (2014), s. 4198-4206 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : scanning tunneling microscopy * electron paramagnetic resonance * metal phthalocyanine s * copper phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.772, year: 2014

  18. Hindered rotation of a copper phthalocyanine molecule on C60 : Experiments and molecular mechanics calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fendrich, M.; Wagner, Th.; Stöhr, M.; Möller, R.

    2006-01-01

    If copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules are deposited on a Au(111) surface covered with a monolayer of C60, the molecules are found to adsorb individually onto the close-packed layer of C60. As the adsorption site of the CuPc is not symmetric with respect to the underlying C60 layer, the CuPc

  19. Dynamics of copper-phthalocyanine molecules on Au/Ge(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotthewes, Kai; Heimbuch, Rene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved current-time scanning tunneling spectroscopy combined with current-distance spectroscopy has been used to characterize the dynamic behavior of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules adsorbed on a Au-modified Ge(001) surface. The analyzed CuPc molecules are adsorbed in a “molecular

  20. Binary molecular layers of C-60 and copper phthalocyanine on Au(111) : Self-organized nanostructuring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöhr, Meike; Wagner, Thorsten; Gabriel, Markus; Weyers, Bastian; Möller, Rolf

    The binary molecular system of C-60 and copper phthalocyanine(CuPc) molecules has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at room temperature and at 50 K. As substrate Au(111) was chosen. When C-60 and CuPc molecules are sequentially deposited, it is found that well-ordered domains

  1. Electronic properties and orbital-filling mechanism in Rb-intercalated copper phthalocyanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, F.; Gotter, R.; Mahne, N.; Nannarone, S.; Ruocco, A.; Rudolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the electronic properties of a thin film of copper phthalocyanine deposited on Al(100) and progressively intercalated with rubidium atoms was followed by photoemission and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. Electron donation from the Rb atoms to the C32H16N8Cu molecules results in the

  2. Electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine : An experimental and theoretical study of occupied and unoccupied levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evangelista, Fabrizio; Carravetta, Vincenzo; Stefani, Giovanni; Jansik, Branislav; Alagia, Michele; Stranges, Stefano; Ruocco, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule is presented. We performed x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and photoabsorption [x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES)] gas phase experiments and we compared the results with

  3. Dry Etching of Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films: Effects on Morphology and Surface Stoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Brett

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the evolution of copper phthalocyanine thin films as they are etched with argon plasma. Significant morphological changes occur as a result of the ion bombardment; a planar surface quickly becomes an array of nanopillars which are less than 20 nm in diameter. The changes in morphology are independent of plasma power, which controls the etch rate only. Analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that surface concentrations of copper and oxygen increase with etch time, while carbon and nitrogen are depleted. Despite these changes in surface stoichiometry, we observe no effect on the work function. The absorbance and X-ray diffraction spectra show no changes other than the peaks diminishing with etch time. These findings have important implications for organic photovoltaic devices which seek nanopillar thin films of metal phthalocyanine materials as an optimal structure.

  4. Hybrid Solar Cell with TiO2 Film: BBOT Polymer and Copper Phthalocyanine as Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadip Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An organic-inorganic hybrid solar cell was fabricated using Titanium dioxide (TiO2: 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-2-benzoxazolyl thiophene (BBOT film and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc as a sensitizer. BBOT was used in photodetector in other reported research works, but as per best of our knowledge, it was not implemented in solar cells till date. The blend of TiO2: BBOT blend was used to fabricate the film on ITO-coated glass and further a thin layer of CuPc was coated on the film. This was acted as photoanode and another ITO coated glass with a platinum coating was used as a counter electrode (cathode. An optimal blend of acetonitrile (solvent (50-100%, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium iodide (10-25%, iodine (2.5-10% and lithium iodide, pyridine derivative and thiocyanate was used as electrolytes in the hybrid solar cell. The different structural, optical and electrical characteristics were measured. The Hybrid solar cell showed a maximum conversion efficiency of 6.51%.

  5. Electronic and magnetic coupling of iron and copper phthalocyanine to ferromagnetic Co(100) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Felix; Sauther, Jens; Lach, Stefan; Ziegler, Christiane [Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Str. 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Ali, Ehesan; Oppeneer, Peter [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Metallo-phthalocyanines are organic semiconductors which show in certain cases promising magnetic properties, advertising them for use in organic spintronics. Here, copper (CuPc) and iron phthalocyanine (FePc) were grown on ultra thin layers of Co(100) substrates with well known highly spin-polarized electron injection capability. Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals different interactions between the pyrolytic nitrogen atoms and the cobalt surface for the two phthalocyanines. The analysis of the different multiplet structures appearing for the nitrogen core levels in the submonolayer regime and UPS investigations of the valence band electronic structure of the Co dominated region near the Fermi level indicates a particularly electronic coupling and a rehybridisation of the molecular orbitals with the cobalt orbitals. In order to clarify the influence of the two different central atoms on the electronic- and subsequently the magnetic coupling to the Co substrate, theoretical calculations using the GGA and GGA+U methodologies on a structure of Fe/Cu-phthalocyanine adsorbed on a 3-layered cobalt surface were performed indicating a ferromagnetic coupling between FePc and Co.

  6. Optical limiting properties of optically active phthalocyanine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shuang; Wu, Peiji; Ye, Cheng; Liu, Hongwei; Xi, Fu

    2001-06-01

    The optical limiting properties of four optically active phthalocyanine derivatives in chloroform solutions and epoxy resin thin plates were measured at 532 nm with 10 ns pulses. The excited state absorption cross-section σex and refractive-index cross-section σr were determined with the Z-scan technique. These chromophores possess larger σex than the ground state absorption cross-section σ0, indicating that they are the potential materials for reverse saturable absorption (RSA). The negative σr values of these chromophores add to the thermal contribution, producing a larger defocusing effect, which may be helpful in further enhancing their optical limiting performance. The optical limiting responses of the thin plate samples are stronger than those of the chloroform solutions.

  7. Structural and magnetic characterization of copper sulfonated phthalocyanine grafted onto treated polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reznickova, A., E-mail: alena.reznickova@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kolska, Z. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyne University, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Orendac, M.; Cizmar, E. [Faculty of Science, P.J. Safarik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04013 Kosice (Slovakia); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Svorcik, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Polyethylene (PE) surface was activated by argon plasma discharge. • Monolayer of copper phthalocyanine was achieved. • ESR proved that CuPc coated PE surface exhibits magnetic properties. • The studied structures may have potential application in spintronics and data storage. - Abstract: This study focuses on high density polyethylene (HDPE) activated by Ar plasma treatment, subsequently grafted with copper sulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPc) especially pointing out to the surface and magnetic properties of those composites. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy, zeta potential and by electron spin resonance (ESR). XPS analysis confirmed the successful grafting of phthalocyanine. The highest absorption was found for the sample grafted with {sup b}CuPc for 1 h. Electrokinetic analysis also confirmed the plasma treatment and also subsequent CuPc grafting influence significantly the surface chemistry and charge. These results correspond well with XPS determination. ESR studies confirmed the presence of CuPc grafted on HDPE. It was found, that grafting is mediated by magnetically inactive functional groups, rather than radicals. Magnetic properties of CuPc do not seem to change significantly after grafting CuPc on polyethylene surface.

  8. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuo, E-mail: zchen@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Linsen [Department of Biochemistry, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning 110034 (China); Hu, Ping; Chen, Song [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Mingdong, E-mail: mhuang@fjirsm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5}) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys){sub 5} is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases.

  9. An effective zinc phthalocyanine derivative for photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Li, Linsen; Hu, Ping; Chen, Song; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common clinical problem. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria posts a severe challenge to medical practice worldwide. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) uses laser light at specific wavelength to activate oxygen molecule in the human tissue into reactive oxygen species as antimicrobial agent. This activation of oxygen by laser light is mediated through a photosensitizer. Two key properties for potent photosensitizer are its absorbance of light in the infrared region (630–700 nm), which promotes tissue penetration depth, and the selective accumulation on bacteria instead of human tissue. We herein report a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys) 5 ) and its antimicrobial effects in vitro and in an animal infection model. This photosensitizer has strong capability to kill bacteria at 670 nm. Chemically, it is a water-soluble and cationic photosensitizer carrying positive charge under physiological pH, and can specifically target to bacteria which usually bears negative charges on its surface. Compared with anionic ZnPc counterparts, ZnPc-(Lys) 5 shows a higher phototoxicity toward bacteria. PACT studies of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 in experimental infection animal model showed a significant bacteria inhibition compared to controls, and high selectivity of ZnPc-(Lys) 5 toward bacteria. These findings suggest ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases. - Highlights: • Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) with water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine derivative offers a promising measure to deal with antibiotic resistance of bacteria. • The use of portable LED light sources that are battery-powered and with low cost may make possible the deployment of systems that can be used for wound decontamination. • ZnPc-(Lys) 5 is a potent photosensitizer for treatment of infectious diseases

  10. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Wei-Dong [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Huang, Shu-Ping [Department of Chemistry, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States); Lee, Chun-Sing, E-mail: apcslee@cityu.edu.hk [Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Material Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-10-07

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π–π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  11. Pinning of fullerene lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge at the interface with standing up copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenggong; Irfan, Irfan; Turinske, Alexander J.; Gao, Yongli

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure evolution of interfaces of fullerene (C 60 ) with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and on native silicon oxide has been investigated with ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C 60 was found to be pinned at the interface with CuPc on SiO 2 . A substantial difference in the electron affinity of CuPc on the two substrates was observed as the orientation of CuPc is lying flat on HOPG and standing up on SiO 2 . The ionization potential and electron affinity of C 60 were not affected by the orientation of CuPc due to the spherical symmetry of C 60 molecules. We observed band bending in C 60 on the standing-up orientation of CuPc molecules, while the energy levels of C 60 on the flat lying orientation of CuPc molecules were observed to be flat. - Highlights: ► Orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on ordered graphite and silicon oxide. ► Pinning of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital edge of C60 to the Fermi level on CuPc. ► No C60 pinning or band bending was observed on flat laying CuPc. ► Results are useful for organic photovoltaic and organic light emitting diode research.

  12. Optical and infrared spectroscopic studies of chemical sensing by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Tripathi, S.K.; Saini, G.S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by thermal evaporation method and characterized by the X-ray diffraction and optical absorption techniques. The observed X-ray pattern suggests the presence of α crystalline phase of copper phthalocyanine in the as-deposited thin films. Infrared spectra of thin films on the KBr pallet before and after exposure to the vapours of ammonia and methanol have been recorded in the wavenumber region of 400-1650 cm -1 . The observed infrared bands also confirm the α crystalline phase. On exposure, change in the intensity of some bands is observed. A new band at 1385 cm -1 , forbidden under ideal D 4h point group symmetry, is also observed in the spectra of exposed thin films. These changes in the spectra are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D 4h to C 4v . Axial ligation of the vapour molecules on fifth coordination site of the metal ion is responsible for lowering of the molecular symmetry

  13. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  14. Sodium doping in copper-phthalocyanine/C{sub 60} heterojunction for organic photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Hung, Kuang-Teng; Fu, Sheng-Wen [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chuan-Feng, E-mail: cfshih@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    Sodium was incorporating at the copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C{sub 60} interface in CuPc/C{sub 60}-based small-molecular solar cells to enhance their power conversion efficiency. C{sub 60} was deposited on slightly sodium-doped CuPc. Post-annealing improved the cell properties. Post-annealing doubled the conversion efficiency of the least sodium-doped devices (75 °C, 40 min). The electron/hole mobility ratio gradually approached unity as the annealing time increased, indicating that a reduction in the space charge accumulation was the main cause of the increase of the short-circuit current. The mechanism of enhancement of carrier transport by annealing was investigated by making capacitance–voltage measurements and performing corresponding depth-profile analyses. - Highlights: • Incorporate Na at copper-phthalocyanine/C{sub 60} interface • Annealing importantly improved the cell efficiency of Na-doped devices. • Change in the carrier mobility and concentration was investigated.

  15. Sodium doping in copper-phthalocyanine/C60 heterojunction for organic photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Hung, Kuang-Teng; Fu, Sheng-Wen; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Sodium was incorporating at the copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C 60 interface in CuPc/C 60 -based small-molecular solar cells to enhance their power conversion efficiency. C 60 was deposited on slightly sodium-doped CuPc. Post-annealing improved the cell properties. Post-annealing doubled the conversion efficiency of the least sodium-doped devices (75 °C, 40 min). The electron/hole mobility ratio gradually approached unity as the annealing time increased, indicating that a reduction in the space charge accumulation was the main cause of the increase of the short-circuit current. The mechanism of enhancement of carrier transport by annealing was investigated by making capacitance–voltage measurements and performing corresponding depth-profile analyses. - Highlights: • Incorporate Na at copper-phthalocyanine/C 60 interface • Annealing importantly improved the cell efficiency of Na-doped devices. • Change in the carrier mobility and concentration was investigated

  16. Ab initio electronic structure and correlations in pristine and potassium-doped molecular crystals of copper phthalocyanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giovannetti, G.; Brocks, G.; van den Brink, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect that potassium intercalation has on the electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecular crystals by means of ab initio density functional calculations. Pristine CuPc (in its alpha and beta structures) is found to be an insulator containing local magnetic

  17. Reactive oxygen species produced by irradiation of some phthalocyanine derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušan, J.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 1 (2010), s. 82-88 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : singlet oxygen * photosensitizer * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2010

  18. Synchrotron-based measurements of the electronic structure of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downes, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is a prototypical molecular organic semiconductor that is currently used in the construction of many organic electronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Although the material is currently being used, and despite many experimental and theoretical studies, it's detailed electronic structure is still not completely understood. This is likely due to two key factors. Firstly, the interaction of the Cu 3d and phthalocyanine ligand 2p electrons leads to the formation of a complex arrangement of localized and delocalized states near the Fermi level. Secondly, thin films of the material are subject to damage by the photon beam used to make measurements of their electronic structure. Using the synchrotron-based techniques of soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), we have measured the detailed electronic structure of in-situ grown thin film samples of CuPc. Beam damage was minimized by continuous translation of the sample during data acquisition. The results obtained differ significantly from previous XES and ultraviolet photoemission measurements, but are in excellent agreement with recent density functional calculations. The reasons for these discrepancies will be explained, and their implications for future measurements on similar materials will be explored

  19. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  20. Marine sponge skeleton photosensitized by copper phthalocyanine: A catalyst for Rhodamine B degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined approach to photo-assisted degradation processes, in which a catalyst, H2O2 and UV irradiation are used together to enhance the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RB. The heterogeneous photocatalyst was made by the process of adsorption of copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (CuPC onto purified spongin-based Hippospongia communis marine sponge skeleton (HcS. The product obtained, CuPC-HcS, was investigated by a variety of spectroscopic (carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance 13C NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS and microscopic techniques (scanning electron microscopy SEM, fluorescent and optical microscopy, as well as thermal analysis. The study confirms the stable combination of the adsorbent and adsorbate. For a 10 mg/L RB solution, the percentage degradation reached 95% using CuPC-HcS as a heterocatalyst. The mechanism of RB removal involves adsorption and photodegradation simultaneously.

  1. Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory devices based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidan; Su, Zisheng; Wang, Cheng

    2012-05-01

    Nonvolatile organic write-once-read-many-times memory device was demonstrated based on hexadecafluoro-copper-phthalocyanine (F16CuPc) single layer sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and Al cathode. The as fabricated device remains in ON state and it can be tuned to OFF state by applying a reverse bias. The ON/OFF current ratio of the device can reach up to 2.3 × 103. Simultaneously, the device shows long-term storage stability and long retention time in air. The ON/OFF transition is attributed to the formation and destruction of the interfacial dipole layer in the ITO/F16CuPc interface, and such a mechanism is different from previously reported ones.

  2. Corrections to the density-functional theory electronic spectrum: Copper phthalocyanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez, Hector; Jelinek, P.; Brandbyge, Mads

    2009-01-01

    A method for improving the electronic spectrum of standard Density-Functional Theory (DFT) calculations (i.e., LDA or GGA approximations) is presented, and its application is discussed for the case of the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule. The method is based on a treatment of exchange...... and correlation in a many-body Hamiltonian, and it leads to easy-to-evaluate corrections to the DFT eigenvalues. Self-interaction is largely corrected, so that the modified energy levels do not suffer from spurious crossings, as often encountered for CuPc in DFT, and they remedy the standard underestimation...... or semiempirical functionals for molecular levels, it can be easily applied to any local-orbital DFT approach, improving on several important limitations of standard DFT methods....

  3. Revisiting the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) including van der Waals corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüder, Johann; Eriksson, Olle; Sanyal, Biplab; Brena, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the adsorption of copper-phthalocyanine on Au(111) by means of van der Waals corrected density functional theory using the Tkatchenko-Scheffler method. We have compared the element and site resolved adsorption distances to recent experimental normal-incident X-ray standing wave measurements. The measured adsorption distances could be reproduced within a deviation of 1% for the Cu atom, 1% for the C atoms, and 2% for the N atoms. The molecule was found to have a magnetic moment of 1 μ B distributed over the Cu and the N atoms of the pyrrole ring. Simulated scanning tunnel microscopy images based on the total and on the spin-resolved differential charge densities are provided for bias voltages of −1.45 and 1.45 eV

  4. Effect of oxide insertion layer on resistance switching properties of copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil G.; Pandya, Nirav C.; Joshi, U. S.

    2013-02-01

    Organic memory device showing resistance switching properties is a next-generation of the electrical memory unit. We have investigated the bistable resistance switching in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diode based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film sandwiched between aluminum (Al) electrodes. Pronounced hysteresis in the I-V curves revealed a resistance switching with on-off ratio of the order of 85%. In order to control the charge injection in the CuPc, nanoscale indium oxide buffer layer was inserted to form Al/CuPc/In2O3/Al device. Analysis of I-V measurements revealed space charge limited switching conduction at the Al/CuPc interface. The traps in the organic layer and charge blocking by oxide insertion layer have been used to explain the absence of resistance switching in the oxide buffer layered memory device cell. Present study offer potential applications for CuPc organic semiconductor in low power non volatile resistive switching memory and logic circuits.

  5. High-mobility solution-processed copper phthalocyanine-based organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu B Chaure, Andrew N Cammidge, Isabelle Chambrier, Michael J Cook, Markys G Cain, Craig E Murphy, Chandana Pal and Asim K Ray

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed films of 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octakis(hexyl copper phthalocyanine (CuPc6 were utilized as an active semiconducting layer in the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs in the bottom-gate configurations using chemical vapour deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2 as gate dielectrics. The surface treatment of the gate dielectric with a self-assembled monolayer of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS resulted in values of 4×10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1 and 106 for saturation mobility and on/off current ratio, respectively. This improvement was accompanied by a shift in the threshold voltage from 3 V for untreated devices to -2 V for OTS treated devices. The trap density at the interface between the gate dielectric and semiconductor decreased by about one order of magnitude after the surface treatment. The transistors with the OTS treated gate dielectrics were more stable over a 30-day period in air than untreated ones.

  6. Controllable preparation of copper phthalocyanine single crystal nano column and its chlorine gas sensing properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc single crystal nano columns were fabricated for the first time as chlorine (Cl2 gas sensors in this paper. The nano columns of CuPc have been prepared on different substrates via template-free physical vapor deposition (PVD approach. The growth mechanism of CuPc nano column on quartz was explored and the same condition used on other substrates including glass, sapphire (C-plane, M-plane, R-plane, Si and SiO2/Si came to a same conclusion, which confirmed that the aligned growth of CuPc nano column is not substrate-dependent. And then the CuPc nano column with special morphology was integrated as in-situ sensor device which exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cl2 at room temperature with a minimum detection limit as low as 0.08 ppm. The response of sensor was found to increase linearly (26∼659% with the increase for Cl2 within concentration range (0.08∼4.0ppm. These results clearly demonstrate the great potential of the nano column growth and device integration approach for sensor device.

  7. Thermal Annealing Effect on Poly(3-hexylthiophene: Fullerene:Copper-Phthalocyanine Ternary Photoactive Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Derouiche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc/fullerene (C60 ternary blend films. This photoactive layer is sandwiched between an indium tin oxide (ITO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrene sulfonate (PEDOT/PSS photoanode and a bathocuproine (BCP/aluminium photocathode. The thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy in order to study the influence of P3HT doping on the morphological and optical properties of the photoactive layer. We have also compared the characteristics of three different organic solar cells: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CuPc0.5:C600.5/BCP/Al and ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT0.3:CuPc0.3:C600.4/BCP/Al with and without annealing. Both structures show good photovoltaic behaviour. Indeed, the incorporation of P3HT into CuPc:C60 thin film improves all the photovoltaic characteristics. We have also seen that thermal annealing significantly improves the optical absorption ability and stabilizes the organic solar cells making it more robust to chemical degradation.

  8. Change spectroscopic studies and optimization electrical properties of PVP/PEO doped copper phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragab, H.M., E-mail: yara20092009@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754 (Egypt); Basic Science Department, Faculty of Preparatory Year, Hail University (Saudi Arabia); Ahmad, F.; Radwan, Sh.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Girls Branch, Cairo 11754 (Egypt)

    2016-12-01

    Composite films of polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Polyethylene oxide (PVP/PEO) blend doped with 1, 4 and 12 wt% of copper Phthalocyanines (CuPc) were prepared by casting method. The samples were studied using different techniques. The X-ray (XRD) revealed average crystallite size and X-ray intensity decrease at 1 CuPc %; this implies to an increase on the degree of amorphousity, then increase at CuPc >1%. The change in both the intensity and position of some absorption peaks of the blend with CuPc content were observed in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggest the complexation of polymer blend. The UV–Vis spectroscopy revealed that the optical band gap decreases as well as band tail width increases with increasing CuPc concentration. It may be reflect the role of CuPc in modifying the electronic structure of the polymeric matrix. The charge carrier concentration is responsible for conductivity improvement in electrolytes rather than the mobility.

  9. Controlling molecular condensation/diffusion of copper phthalocyanine by local electric field induced with scanning tunneling microscope tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Katsumi; Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2018-02-01

    We have discovered the condensation/diffusion phenomena of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules controlled with a pulsed electric field induced by the scanning tunneling microscope tip. This behavior is not explained by the conventional induced dipole model. In order to understand the mechanism, we have measured the electronic structure of the molecule by tunneling spectroscopy and also performed theoretical calculations on molecular orbitals. These data clearly indicate that the molecule is positively charged owing to charge transfer to the substrate, and that hydrogen bonding exists between CuPc molecules, which makes the molecular island stable.

  10. Synthesis, aggregation and spectroscopic studies of novel water soluble metal free, zinc, copper and magnesium phthalocyanines and investigation of their anti-bacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Rıza; Akçay, Hakkı Türker; Beriş, Fatih Şaban; Şahin, Ertan; Bayrak, Hacer; Demirbaş, Ümit

    2014-12-01

    In this study, novel phthalonitrile derivative (3) was synthesized by the reaction between 4-nitrophthalonitrile (2) and a triazole derivative (1) containing pyridine moiety. Crystal structure of compound (3) was characterized by X-ray diffraction. New metal free and metallo-phthalocyanine complexes (Zn, Cu, and Mg) were synthesized using the phthalonitrile derivative (3). Cationic derivatives of these phthalocyanines (5, 7, 9, and 11) were prepared from the non-ionic phthalocyanines (4, 6, 8, and 10). All proposed structures were supported by instrumental methods. The aggregation behaviors of the phthalocyanines (4-11) were investigated in different solvents such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water. Water soluble cationic Pcs (5, 7, 9, and 11) aggregated in water and sodium dodecyl sulfate was used to prevent the aggregation. The second derivatives of the UV-Vis spectra of aggregated Pcs were used for analyzing the Q and B bands of aggregated species. Thermal behaviors of the phthalocyanines were also studied. In addition, anti-bacterial properties of the phthalocyanines were investigated. We used four gram negative and two gram positive bacteria to determine antibacterial activity of these compounds. Compound 7 has the best activity against the all bacteria with 125 μg/mL of MIC value. Compounds 4, 6, and 10 have the similar effect on the bacteria with 250 μg/mL of MIC value.

  11. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivatives in treatment of bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Wang, Dong; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Huang, Joy H.; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is an effective method for killing bacterial cells in view of the increasing problem of multiantibiotic resistance. We herein reported the PACT effect on bacteria involved in skin infections using a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-Lys). Compared with its anionic ZnPc counterpart, ZnPc-Lys showed an enhanced antibacterial efficacy in vitro and in an animal model of localized infection. Meanwhile, ZnPc-Lys was observed to significantly reduce the wound skin blood flow during wound healing, indicating an anti-inflammation activity. This study provides new insight on the mechanisms of PACT in bacterial skin infection.

  12. Femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission study of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Tohoku University; University of Rochester, NY; Yan, L.; Watkins, N.J.; Gao, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Organic semiconductors are recently attracting much interest from the viewpoints of both device and fundamental physics. These organic semiconductors are considered to be important constituents of the future devices, such as organic light-emitting diode, organic field effect transistor, and organic solid-state injection laser. In order to elucidate their detailed physical properties and to develop the future devices, it is indispensable to understand their excited-state dynamics as well as their electronic structures. The femtosecond time-resolved two-photon photoemission (TR-2PPE) spectroscopy is attracting much interest because of its capability to observe the energy-resolved excited electron dynamics. In this work, we have carried out a TR-2PPE study of the organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film. Furthermore, we have investigated the detailed electronic structure of CuPc film using the photoemission (PES) and inverse photoemission (IPES) spectroscopies. From the simultaneous PES and IPES measurements for CuPc film with a thickness of 100 nm, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), highest occupied molecular orbital, and ionization potential of CuPc film have been directly determined. The observed two-photon photoemission (2PPE) spectrum of the present CuPc film, measured with photon energy of about hv=3.3 eV, exhibits a broad feature. From the energy diagram of CuPc film determined by the PES and IPES measurements, the intermediate state observed in the present 2PPE spectrum of CuPc film corresponds to the energy region between about 0.4 and 1.7 eV above the LUMO energy. From the time-resolved pump-probe measurements, it is found that the relaxation lifetimes of excited states in the present CuPc films are very short (all below 50 fs) and monotonously become faster with increasing excitation energy. We attribute this extremely fast relaxation process of photoexcitation to a rapid internal conversion process. From these results

  13. Interaction of tricyclic drugs with copper phthalocyanine dye immobilized on magnetic carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafaříková, Miroslava; Šafařík, Ivo

    3(Suppl.2), - (2002), s. 188-191 ISSN 1473-2262. [International Conference on the Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers /4./. Tallahassee, 09.05.2002-11.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 523.80; GA AV ČR IBS6087204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : magnetic * tricyclic drugs * phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy in superfluid helium droplets. Investigation of vibrational fine structures in electronic spectra of phthalocyanine and porphyrin derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechers, Ricarda Eva Friederike Elisabeth

    2011-03-22

    Since a considerably large variety of substituted compounds is commercially available and the electronic excitation spectra fit well into the spectral range covered by the continuous wave dye laser used for this study several porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives substituted with different types and numbers of alkyl and aryl groups were chosen as molecular probes. Recording fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra revealed exclusively sharp transitions for all species. A change of the molecule's electrostatic moments, primarily and most effectively, a change of the molecular dipole moment regarding both magnitude and orientation, was identified as the main contribution for line broadening effects. Apart from the sharp lines presented in their fluorescence excitation spectra, the phthalocyanine derivatives investigated for this study, namely chloro-aluminium-phthalocyanine (AlClPc) and tetra-tertbutyl-phthalocyanine (TTBPc), exhibited more than one emission spectrum.

  15. High-resolution spectroscopy in superfluid helium droplets. Investigation of vibrational fine structures in electronic spectra of phthalocyanine and porphyrin derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riechers, Ricarda Eva Friederike Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    Since a considerably large variety of substituted compounds is commercially available and the electronic excitation spectra fit well into the spectral range covered by the continuous wave dye laser used for this study several porphyrin and phthalocyanine derivatives substituted with different types and numbers of alkyl and aryl groups were chosen as molecular probes. Recording fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra revealed exclusively sharp transitions for all species. A change of the molecule's electrostatic moments, primarily and most effectively, a change of the molecular dipole moment regarding both magnitude and orientation, was identified as the main contribution for line broadening effects. Apart from the sharp lines presented in their fluorescence excitation spectra, the phthalocyanine derivatives investigated for this study, namely chloro-aluminium-phthalocyanine (AlClPc) and tetra-tertbutyl-phthalocyanine (TTBPc), exhibited more than one emission spectrum.

  16. Influence of Exchange-Correlation Functional in the Calculations of Vertical Excitation Energies of Halogenated Copper Phthalocyanines using Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Uck

    2013-01-01

    The accurate prediction of vertical excitation energies is very important for the development of new materials in the dye and pigment industry. A time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach coupled with 22 different exchange-correlation functionals was used for the prediction of vertical excitation energies in the halogenated copper phthalocyanine molecules in order to find the most appropriate functional and to determine the accuracy of the prediction of the absorption wavelength and observed spectral shifts. Among the tested functional, B3LYP functional provides much more accurate vertical excitation energies and UV-vis spectra. Our results clearly provide a benchmark calibration of the TD-DFT method for phthalocyanine based dyes and pigments used in industry

  17. Electrodeposition of zinc oxide/tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine hybrid thin film for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Xinze [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); College of Chemistry and Biological Science, Yili Normal University, Yining 835000, (China); Xu Lin, E-mail: linxu@nenu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Xu Bingbing; Li Fengyan [Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalates Science of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Hybrid film of zinc oxide (ZnO) and tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine (TSPcCu) was grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by one-step cathodic electrodeposition from aqueous mixtures of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, TSPcCu and KCl. The addition of TSPcCu strongly influences the morphology and crystallographic orientation of the ZnO. The nanosheets stack of ZnO leads to a porous surface structure which is advantageous to further adsorb organic dyes. The photovoltaic properties were investigated by assembling the DSSC device based on both the only ZnO film and the ZnO/TSPcCu hybrid films. Photoelectrochemical analysis revealed that the optimized DSSC device with TSPcCu represented a more than three-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency than the device without TSPcCu. The DSSC based on ZnO/TSPcCu hybrid films demonstrates an open circuit voltage of 0.308 V, a short circuit current of 90 {mu}A cm{sup -2}, a fill factor of 0.26, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.14%.

  18. Electrodeposition of zinc oxide/tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine hybrid thin film for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xinze; Xu Lin; Xu Bingbing; Li Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid film of zinc oxide (ZnO) and tetrasulfonated copper phthalocyanine (TSPcCu) was grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by one-step cathodic electrodeposition from aqueous mixtures of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 , TSPcCu and KCl. The addition of TSPcCu strongly influences the morphology and crystallographic orientation of the ZnO. The nanosheets stack of ZnO leads to a porous surface structure which is advantageous to further adsorb organic dyes. The photovoltaic properties were investigated by assembling the DSSC device based on both the only ZnO film and the ZnO/TSPcCu hybrid films. Photoelectrochemical analysis revealed that the optimized DSSC device with TSPcCu represented a more than three-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency than the device without TSPcCu. The DSSC based on ZnO/TSPcCu hybrid films demonstrates an open circuit voltage of 0.308 V, a short circuit current of 90 μA cm -2 , a fill factor of 0.26, and a power conversion efficiency of 0.14%.

  19. Fluorinated copper-phthalocyanine-based n-type organic field-effect transistors with a polycarbonate gate insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethuraman, Kunjithapatham; Kumar, Palanisamy; Santhakumar, Kannappan; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Shin, Paikkyun

    2012-01-01

    Fluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc) thin films were prepared by using a vacuum evaporation technique and were applied to n-type organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as active channel layers combined with a spin-coated polycarbonate thin-film gate insulator. The output characteristics of the resulting n-type OFET devices with bottom-gate/bottom-contact structures were investigated to evaluate the performances such as the field effect mobility (μ FE ), the on/off current ratio (I on/off ), and the threshold voltage (V th ). A relatively high field effect mobility of 6.0 x 10 -3 cm 2 /Vs was obtained for the n-type semiconductor under atmospheric conditions with an on/off current ratio of 1 x 10 4 and a threshold voltage of 5 V. The electron mobility of the n-type semiconductor was found to depend strongly on the growth temperature of the F 16 CuPc thin films. X-ray diffraction profiles showed that the crystallinity and the orientation of the F 16 CuPc on a polycarbonate thin film were enhanced with increasing growth temperature. Atomic force microscopy studies revealed various surface morphologies of the active layer. The field effect mobility of the F 16 CuPc-OFET was closely related to the crystallinity and the orientation of the F 16 CuPc thin film.

  20. Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of water–soluble phthalocyanines bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonicacid derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günsel, Armağan; Kocabaş, Sibel; Bilgiçli, Ahmet T. [Department of Chemistry, Sakarya University, 54140 Esentepe, Sakarya (Turkey); Güney, Sevgi [Department of Chemistry, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Kandaz, Mehmet, E-mail: mkandaz@sakarya.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Sakarya University, 54140 Esentepe, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    We have presented in this paper, the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties and electrochemical characterization of water soluble phthalocyanines (Pcs) bearing 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonicacid conjugates and their cationic quaternized counterpart that play important roles their application in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The periphery and non-periphery substituted phthalocyanines show high solubility and low aggregation tendency due to bulky 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonicacid steric hindrance moieties and axially bound counter chlorine anion. Singlet oxygen quantum yields, photodegradation quantum yields, photophysical properties and also the nature of the substituent and solvent effect on the photophysical and photochemical parameters of α-ZnPc and β-ZnPc are reported. In electrovalent cobalt (II) and manganese (III) compounds, metal based electron transfer reactions have been observed in addition to the common phthalocyanine ring-based electron transfer processes. The effect of point of substitution on the electrochemical properties of newly synthesized phthalocyanines substituted with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonicacid group were evaluated.

  1. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy using zinc phthalocyanine derivative for bacterial skin infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Yaxin; Li, Linsen; Zhou, Shanyong; Chen, Jincan; Hu, Ping; Huang, Mingdong

    2014-09-01

    Folliculitis, furunculosis and acne vulgaris are very common skin disorders of the hair follicles and are associated with large grease-producing (sebaceous) glands. Although the detailed mechanisms involved these skin disorders are not fully understood, it is believed that the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are the key pathogenic factors involved. Conventional treatments targeting the pathogenic factors include a variety of topical and oral medications such as antibiotics. The wide use of antibiotics leads to bacterial resistance, and hence there is a need for new alternatives in above bacterial skin treatment. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on an initial photosensitization of the infected area, followed by irradiation with visible light, producing singlet oxygen which is cytotoxic to bacteria. Herein we reported a zinc phthalocyanine derivative, pentalysine β-carbonylphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-(Lys)5) and its PACT effect for the bacteria involved in these skin infections. Our results demonstrated strong bactericidal effects of this photosensitizer on both strains of the bacteria, suggesting ZnPc-(Lys)5 as a promising antimicrobial photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these bacteria.

  2. Synthesis and Anchoring of Antineoplastic Ferrocene and Phthalocyanine Derivatives on Water-Soluble Polymeric Drug Carriers Derived from Lysine and Aspartic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, M. David; Neuse, Eberhard W.; Erasmus, Elizabeth; Swarts, Jannie C.

    2007-01-01

    The general synthetic strategy towards water-soluble biodegradable drug carriers and the properties that they must have are discussed. The syntheses of water-soluble biodegradable copolymers of lysine and aspartic acid as potential drug-delivering devices, having amine-functionalised side chains are then described. Covalent anchoring of carboxylic acid derivatives of the antineoplastic ferrocene and photodynamically active phthalocyanine moieties to the amine-containing drug carrier copolymer...

  3. Optical Absorption and Visible Photoluminescence from Thin Films of Silicon Phthalocyanine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez Gómez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest of microelectronics industry in new organic compounds for the manufacture of luminescent devices has increased substantially in the last decade. In this paper, we carried out a study of the usage feasibility of three organic bidentate ligands (2,6-dihydroxyanthraquinone, anthraflavic acid and potassium derivative salt of anthraflavic acid for the synthesis of an organic semiconductor based in silicon phthalocyanines (SiPcs. We report the visible photoluminescence (PL at room temperature obtained from thermal-evaporated thin films of these new materials. The surface morphology of these films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. AFM indicated that the thermal evaporation technique is an excellent resource in order to obtain low thin film roughness when depositing these kinds of compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy was employed to investigate possible changes in the intra-molecular bonds and to identify any evidence of crystallinity in the powder compounds and in the thin films after their deposition. FTIR showed that there was not any important change in the samples after the thermal deposition. The absorption coefficient (α in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. Furthermore, the PL of all the investigated samples were observed with the naked eye in a bright background and also measured by a spectrofluorometer. The normalized PL spectra showed a Stokes shift ≈ 0.6 eV in two of our three samples, and no PL emission in the last one. Those results indicate that the Vis PL comes from a recombination of charge carriers between conduction band and valence band preceded by a non-radiative relaxation in the conduction band tails.

  4. Ambipolar carrier transport properties and molecular packing structure of octahexyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Watanabe, Koichi; Tohnai, Norimitsu; Itani, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-04-01

    The charge carrier mobility of a solution-processable low-molecular-weight organic semiconductor material, i.e., 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine copper complex (C6PcCu), was investigated by the time-of-flight technique. The anomalous ambipolar carrier mobility was discussed from the viewpoint of the molecular packing structure, which was clarified by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. In the comparison between the molecular packing structures of C6PcCu and its metal-free-type homologue, it was found that the difference in carrier mobility originates from the rotation of the molecule, which is caused by the steric hindrance due to the introduction of a center metal and the interpenetration of the nonperipheral alkyl chains.

  5. Molecular structure effects in photodegradation of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives with phthalocyanines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, P.; Drobek, M.; Krejčíková, S.; Krýsa, J.; Kalaji, A.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Rakušan, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, 3-4 (2008), s. 321-326 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Grant - others:CZ(CZ) GD203/03/H140; Mšk(CZ) IM4531433201 Program:GD Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : phthalocyanines * phenol * chlorophenols Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.853, year: 2008

  6. Phase and Texture of Solution-Processed Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Films Investigated by Two-Dimensional Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The phase and texture of a newly developed solution-processed copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film have been investigated by two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. The results show that it has β phase crystalline structure, with crystallinity greater than 80%. The average size of the crystallites is found to be about 24 nm. There are two different arrangements of crystallites, with one dominating the diffraction pattern. Both of them have preferred orientation along the thin film normal. Based on the similarities to the vacuum deposited CuPc thin films, the new solution processing method is verified to offer a good alternative to vacuum process, for the fabrication of low cost small molecule based organic photovoltaics.

  7. Layer-by-layer self-assembling copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine on carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for electro-oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Mahabul; Rao, V.K.; Gupta, Manish; Pandey, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the electrocatalytic activity of layer-by-layer self-assembled copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. CuPcTS is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) layer and a CuPcTS layer. UV–vis absorption spectra and electrochemical measurements suggested the successive linear depositions of the bilayers of CuPcTs and PDDA on CNT. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The viability of this CuPcTS/PDDA/CNT modified GC electrode as a redox mediator for the anodic oxidation and sensitive amperometric determination of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) in alkaline conditions is described. The effect of number of bilayers of CuPcTS/PDDA and pH on electrochemical oxidation of 2-ME was studied. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed excellent characteristics towards the determination of 2-ME in 0.1 M NaOH; such as low overpotentials (− 0.15 V vs Ag/AgCl), linear concentration range of 3 × 10 −5 M to 6 × 10 −3 M, and with a detection limit of 2.5 × 10 −5 M using simple amperometry. - Highlights: ► Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were drop-dried on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). ► Copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) was deposited on CNT/GCE. ► Layer-by-layer self-assembling method is used for depositing CuPcTS. ► Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) was studied at this electrode ► The detection limit of ME at modified electrode was 25 μM by amperometry.

  8. Photophysicochemical, calf thymus DNA binding and in vitro photocytotoxicity properties of tetra-morpholinoethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and their water-soluble quaternized derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçan, Halit; Kaya, Kerem; Özçeşmeci, İbrahim; Sesalan, B Şebnem; Göksel, Meltem; Durmuş, Mahmut; Burat, Ayfer Kalkan

    2017-12-01

    In this study, morpholinoethoxy-substituted metal-free (3), zinc(II) (4) and indium(III) (5) phthalocyanines were synthesized. These phthalocyanines were converted to their water-soluble quaternized derivatives (3Q-5Q) using excess methyl iodide as a quaternization agent. All these phthalocyanines (Pcs) were characterized by elemental analysis and different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1 H NMR, UV-Vis and mass spectrometry. The photophysical and photochemical properties such as fluorescence and generation of singlet oxygen were investigated for determination of these phthalocyanines as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications. The binding properties of quaternized phthalocyanines (3Q-5Q) to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectrophotometric methods. The quenching effect of all quaternized phthalocyanines on the fluorescence intensity of SYBR Green-DNA complex was determined. The mixtures of 3Q, 4Q or 5Q and DNA solutions were used to determine the change in T m of double helix DNA with thermal denaturation profile. In addition, thermodynamic parameters considering their aggregation in buffer solution, which shows the spontaneity of the reactions between DNA and quaternized Pcs were investigated. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and cytotoxicity behavior of the quaternized water-soluble phthalocyanine photosensitizers (3Q-5Q) were tested against the cervical cancer cell line named HeLa for evaluation of their suitability for treatment of cancer by PDT method. Peripherally tetra-substituted neutral and quaternized metal-free and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) (Zn, In) bearing morpholinoethoxy groups were prepared. The binding of quaternized compounds (3Q-5Q) to CT-DNA were examined using UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra, thermal denaturation profiles and K SV values. Besides, thermodynamic studies indicated that binding of 3Q-5Q to DNA was spontaneous. On the other hand, in vitro phototoxicity and

  9. Effects of spin–orbit coupling and many-body correlations in STM transport through copper phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Siegert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of exchange correlations and spin–orbit interaction (SOI on the many-body spectrum of a copper phtalocyanine (CuPc molecule and their signatures in transport are investigated. We first derive a minimal model Hamiltonian in a basis of frontier orbitals that is able to reproduce experimentally observed singlet–triplet splittings. In a second step SOI effects are included perturbatively. Major consequences of the SOI are the splitting of former degenerate levels and a magnetic anisotropy, which can be captured by an effective low-energy spin Hamiltonian. We show that scanning tunneling microscopy-based magnetoconductance measurements can yield clear signatures of both these SOI-induced effects.

  10. Tetra-methyl substituted copper (II phthalocyanine as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Long Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We have enhanced hole injection and lifetime in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs by incorporating the isomeric metal phthalocyanine, CuMePc, as a hole injection enhancer. The OLED devices containing CuMePc as a hole injection layer (HIL exhibited higher luminous efficiency and operational lifetime than those using a CuPc layer and without a HIL. The effect of CuMePc thickness on device performance was investigated. Atomic force microscope (AFM studies revealed that the thin films were smooth and uniform because the mixture of CuMePc isomers depressed crystallization within the layer. This may have caused the observed enhanced hole injection, indicating that CuMePc is a promising HIL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  11. Tetra-methyl substituted copper (II) phthalocyanine as a hole injection enhancer in organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Long; Xu, Jia-Ju; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chen, Qian; Shan, Hai-Quan; Xu, Zong-Xiang, E-mail: xu.zx@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: val.roy@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, Guangdong, P. R. China, 518055 (China); Yan, Yan; Roy, V. A. L., E-mail: xu.zx@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: val.roy@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (Hong Kong)

    2015-10-15

    We have enhanced hole injection and lifetime in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by incorporating the isomeric metal phthalocyanine, CuMePc, as a hole injection enhancer. The OLED devices containing CuMePc as a hole injection layer (HIL) exhibited higher luminous efficiency and operational lifetime than those using a CuPc layer and without a HIL. The effect of CuMePc thickness on device performance was investigated. Atomic force microscope (AFM) studies revealed that the thin films were smooth and uniform because the mixture of CuMePc isomers depressed crystallization within the layer. This may have caused the observed enhanced hole injection, indicating that CuMePc is a promising HIL material for highly efficient OLEDs.

  12. Cobalt-phthalocyanine-derived ultrafine Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Heng-guo, E-mail: wanghengguo@cust.edu.cn; Zhu, Yanjie; Yuan, Chenpei; Li, Yanhui; Duan, Qian, E-mail: duanqian88@hotmail.com

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Transition-metal oxides nanoparticles are prepared by deriving from metal-phthalocyanine. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO nanoparticles can be prepared due to the adjustability of central metals. • This present strategy is simple, general, effective yet mass-production. • The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibit good lithium storage performances. - Abstract: In this work, we present a simple, general, effective yet mass-production strategy to prepare transition-metal oxides (TMOs) nanoparticles using the metal-phthalocyanine as both the precursor and the starting self-sacrificial template. As the central metals of metal-phthalocyanine are easily tunable, various TMOs nanoparticles including Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO have been successfully prepared by deriving from the corresponding metal-phthalocyanine. As a proof-of-concept demonstration of the application of such nanostructured TMOs, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were evaluated as anode materials for LIBs, which show high initial capacity (1132.9 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.05 A g{sup −1}), improved cycling stability (585.6 mAh g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at 0.05 A g{sup −1}), and good rate capability (238.1 mAh g{sup −1} at 2 A g{sup −1}) due to the unique properties of the ultrafine Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. This present strategy might open new avenues for the design of a series of transition metal oxides using organometallic compounds for a range of applications.

  13. Improvement of the photovoltaic parameters of perovskite solar cells using a reduced-graphene-oxide-modified titania layer and soluble copper phthalocyanine as a hole transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Esmaiel; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2018-01-24

    Functional perovskite solar cells can be made by using a simple, inexpensive and stable soluble tetra-n-butyl-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuBuPc) as a hole transporter. In the present study, TiO 2 /reduced graphene oxide (T/RGO) hybrids were synthesized via an in situ solvothermal process and used as electron acceptor/transport mediators in mesoscopic perovskite solar cells based on soluble CuBuPc as a hole transporter and on graphene oxide (GO) as a buffer layer. The impact of the RGO content on the optoelectronic properties of T/RGO hybrids and on the solar cell performance was studied, suggesting improved electron transport characteristics and photovoltaic parameters. An enhanced electron lifetime and recombination resistance led to an increase in the short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and fill factor. The device based on a T/RGO mesoporous layer with an optimal RGO content of 0.2 wt% showed 22% higher photoconversion efficiency and higher stability compared with pristine TiO 2 -based devices.

  14. Synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Mori

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phthalocyanines and subphthalocyanines are attracting attention as functional dyes that are applicable to organic solar cells, photodynamic therapy, organic electronic devices, and other applications. However, phthalocyanines are generally difficult to handle due to their strong ability to aggregate, so this property must be controlled for further applications of phthalocyanines. On the other hand, trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines are known to suppress aggregation due to repulsion of the trifluoroethoxy group. Furthermore, the electronic characteristics of phthalocyanines are significantly changed by the strong electronegativity of fluorine. Therefore, it is expected that trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanines can be applied to new industrial fields. This review summarizes the synthesis and application of trifluoroethoxy-substituted phthalocyanine and subphthalocyanine derivatives.

  15. Improved Performance of Fluorinated Copper Phthalocyanine Thin Film Transistors Using Para-hexaphenyl as the Inducing Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Feng; Wang Shi-Rong; Li Xiang-Gao; Yan Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate n-type organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) employing copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (CuPcF 16 ) as the active layer and para-hexaphenyl (p-6p) as the inducing layer. Compared with the CuPcF 16 -based OTFTs without the p-6p inducing layer, the performance of the CuPcF 16 /p-6p OTFTs is greatly improved. The charge carrier field-effect mobility μ, on-off current ratio I on /I off and threshold voltage V T of the CuPcF 16 /p-6p OTFTs are 0.07 cm 2 /V·s, 1.61 × 10 5 and 6.28 V, respectively, approaching the level of a single crystal device. The improved performance is attributed to the introduction of p-6p to form a highly oriented and continuous film of CuPcF 16 with the molecular π-π stack direction parallel to the substrate. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Energy level alignment at the Si(1 1 1)/RCA–SiO2/copper(II) phthalocyanine ultra-thin film interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzywiecki, Maciej; Grządziel, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The interface formation studies between CuPc and Si by photoemission methods. • Charge rearrangement detected at the inorganic/organic interface. • Existence of disordered/polarization layer at the initial stages of CuPc deposition. • Examined structures applicable for organic transistors development. - Abstract: The photoemission experimental techniques (i.e. ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy—UPS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy—XPS) were used to investigate the charge–rearrangement–related phenomena occuring at organic–inorganic semiconductor interface. Examined samples were copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) ultra-thin (up to 16 nm) layers deposited onto oxidized silicon Si(1 1 1) of n- and p-type of conductivity. The 1.3-nm-thick silicon oxide was prepared by means of RCA wet cleaning procedure. The analysis of the photoemission data (mainly UPS) suggested the existance of the polarization layer within first 3 nm of CuPc layer thickness. Basing on the UPS and XPS results the energy level diagrams of examined structures have been constructed. In present paper it is suggested that the existance of the polarization layer could be assigned to the disordered adsorption and continous molecular reorientation of the CuPc molecules during the interface formation process. In the terms of the lack of the charge transfer via substrate/organic overlayer interface and disordered adsorption the fluctuations of CuPc electronic parameters were detected. Moreover the ionization energy and the work function parameters of final CuPc layer were affected. The values were more consistent with those obtained for much thicker (over 500 nm) CuPc layers. Performed studies showed that contrary to CuPc layers deposited on native substrates (where the charge transfer via tunnelable oxide – determined as dipole effect – has been detected), the thicker RCA-prepared oxide seems to be non-tunnelable hence the possibility for Si(1 1 1

  17. A thiourea derivative as potential ionophore for copper sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kook Shih; Heng, Lee Yook; Hassan, Nurul Izzaty; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah

    2018-04-01

    A new thiourea derivative, N1,N3-bis[[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamothioyl]isophthalamide (TPC), as a potential copper ionophore was investigated. TPC was immobilized via drop casting method into poly(n-butyl acrylate) pBA membrane and the sensor was characterized by potentiometric method. The sensor fabricated based on TPC showed a Nernstian response towards copper ion with the slope of 27.07±2.84 mV/decade in the range of 1.0×10-6 - 1.0-10-4 M and limit of detection of 6.24 × 10-7 M. In addition, based on the separate solution method (SSM), the logarithm selectivity coefficients were less than -3.00 for monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations that are present in the environmental water samples such as K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+. This confirmed that the sensor fabricated with TPC exhibited good sensitivity and selectivity towards copper ion.

  18. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  19. Electrochemical Sensors Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes: The Use of Phthalocyanine Derivatives for Application in VFA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadou L. Ndiaye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report on the use of electrochemical methods for the detection of volatiles fatty acids (VFAs, namely acetic acid. We used tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (PcH2-tBu as the sensing material and investigated its electroanalytical properties by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. To realize the electrochemical sensing system, the PcH2-tBu has been dropcast-deposited on carbon (C orgold (Auscreen-printed electrodes (SPEs and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM analysis reveals that the PcH2-tBu forms mainly aggregates on the SPEs. The modified electrodes are used for the detection of acetic acid and present a linear current increase when the acetic acid concentration increases. The Cmodified electrode presents a limit of detection (LOD of 25.77 mM in the range of 100 mM–400 mM, while the Aumodified electrode presents an LOD averaging 40.89 mM in the range of 50 mM–300 mM. When the experiment is realized in a buffered condition, theCmodified electrode presents a lower LOD, which averagesthe 7.76 mM. A pronounced signal decay attributed to an electrode alteration is observed in the case of the gold electrode. This electrode alteration severely affects the coating stability. This alteration is less perceptible in the case of the carbon electrode.

  20. Hyperbranched Polyglycerol Derivatives as Prospective Copper Nanotransporter Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohiuddin Quadir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG has been used as a multivalent scaffold to develop a series of nanocarriers capable of high-affinity encapsulation of copper (Cu. A rationally selected set of Cu-complexing motifs has been conjugated to hPG hydroxyl groups to render the constructs potentially usable as exogenous sources of Cu for addressing different pathological conditions associated with Cu-deficiency. We have utilized a newly discovered route to attach Cu-binding domains exclusively within a hPG core by selective differentiation between the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups of the polyol. These hPG-derivatives were found to form a stable complex with Cu ions depending on the type of immobilized ligands and corresponding degree of functionalization. In addition, these Cu-bearing nano-complexes demonstrated moderately cationic surface charge resulting in adjustable protein-binding characteristics and low cellular toxicity profile. We envision that these Cu-loaded hPG nanocarriers can be used as a stable platform to transport the metal ion across the systemic circulation to supply bioavailable quantity of Cu in disease-afflicted tissues.

  1. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy of magnetic nanostructures at the example of bcc-Co/Fe(110), Fe/Mo(110), and copper phthalocyanine/Fe(1110); Spinpolarisierte Rastertunnelmikroskopie magnetischer Nanostrukturen am Beispiel von bcc-Co/Fe(110), Fe/Mo(110) und Kupfer-Phthalocyanin/Fe(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methfessel, Torsten

    2010-12-09

    This thesis provides an introduction into the technique of spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy as an experimental method for the investigation of magnetic nanostructures. Experimental results for the spin polarized electronic structure depending on the crystal structure of ultrathin Co layers, and depending on the direction of the magnetization for ultrathin Fe layers are presented. High-resolution measurements show the position-dependent spin polarization on a single copper-phthalocyanine molecule deposited on a ferromagnetic surface. Co was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on the (110) surface of the bodycentered cubic metals Cr and Fe. In contrast to previous reports in the literature only two layers of Co can be stabilized in the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. The bcc-Co films on the Fe(110) surface show no signs of epitaxial distortions. Thicker layers reconstruct into a closed-packed structure (hcp / fcc). The bcc structure increases the spin-polarization of Co to P=62 % in comparison to hcp-Co (P=45 %). The temperature-dependent spin-reorientation of ultrathin Fe/Mo(110) films was investigated by spin-polarized spectroscopy. A reorientation of the magnetic easy axis from the [110] direction along the surface normal to the in-plane [001] axis is observed at T (13.2{+-}0.5) K. This process can be identified as a discontinuous reorientation transition, revealing two simultaneous minima of the free energy in a certain temperature range. The electronic structure of mono- and double-layer Fe/Mo(110) shows a variation with the reorientation of the magnetic easy axis and with the direction of the magnetization. The investigation of the spin-polarized charge transport through a copper-phthalocyanine molecule on the Fe/Mo(110) surface provides an essential contribution to the understanding of spin-transport at the interface between metal and organic molecule. Due to the interaction with the surface of the metal the HOMO-LUMO energy

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer between benzyloxy dendrimer phthalocyanine and benzoquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiantian; Ma, Dongdong; Pan, Sujuan; Wu, Shijun; Jiang, Yufeng; Zeng, Di; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-10-01

    Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is an important and fundamental process in natural photosynthesis. To mimic such interesting PET process, a suitable donor and acceptor couple were properly chosen. Dendrimer phthalocyanines and their derivatives have emerged as promising materials for artificial photosynthesis systems. In this paper, the electron transfer between the light harvest dendrimer phthalocyanine (donor) and the 1,4-benzoquinone (acceptor) was studied by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. It was found that fluorescence of phthalocyanine was quenched by benzoquinone (BQ) via excited state electron transfer, from the phthalocyanine to the BQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was calculated. Our study suggests that this dendritic phthalocyanine is an effective new electron donor and transmission complex and could be used as a potential artificial photosynthesis system.

  3. Derivation of Soil Ecological Criteria for Copper in Chinese Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Wei, Dongpu; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2015-01-01

    Considerable information on copper (Cu) ecotoxicity as affected by biological species and abiotic properties of soils has been collected from the last decade in the present study. The information on bioavailability/ecotoxicity, species sensitivity and differences in laboratory and field ecotoxicity of Cu in different soils was collated and integrated to derive soil ecological criteria for Cu in Chinese soils, which were expressed as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). First, all ecotoxicity data of Cu from bioassays based on Chinese soils were collected and screened with given criteria to compile a database. Second, the compiled data were corrected with leaching and aging factors to minimize the differences between laboratory and field conditions. Before Cu ecotoxicity data were entered into a species sensitivity distribution (SSD), they were normalized with Cu ecotoxicity predictive models to modify the effects of soil properties on Cu ecotoxicity. The PNEC value was set equal to the hazardous concentration for x% of the species (HCx), which could be calculated from the SSD curves, without an additional assessment factor. Finally, predictive models for HCx based on soil properties were developed. The soil properties had a significant effect on the magnitude of HCx, with HC5 varying from 13.1 mg/kg in acidic soils to 51.9 mg/kg in alkaline non-calcareous soils. The two-factor predictive models based on soil pH and cation exchange capacity could predict HCx with determination coefficients (R2) of 0.82-0.91. The three-factor predictive models--that took into account the effect of soil organic carbon--were more accurate than two-factor models, with R2 of 0.85-0.99. The predictive models obtained here could be used to calculate soil-specific criteria. All results obtained here could provide a scientific basis for revision of current Chinese soil environmental quality standards, and the approach adopted in this study could be used as a pragmatic framework for

  4. Phthalocyanines as sensitizers for photodynamic water disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, N.; Slivka, L.; Kaliya, O.; Lukyanets, E.; Negrimovsky, V.; Vorozhtsov, G. [Organic Intermediates and Dyes Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Nedachin, E.; Artemova, T.; Ivanova, L.; Lavrova, D. [A.N. Sysin Research Inst. of Human Ecology and Environmental Health of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    New octapyridiniomethyl-substituted phthalocyanines of Al and Zn have been synthesized. These octacationic complexes are readily soluble in water, show monomeric behavior and sensitize formation of singlet oxygen efficiently. They are of high photodynamic potential in killing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in contrast to negatively charged sulfonated derivatives, which are substantially less effective, particularly towards coliform bacteria in natural or sewage water. The present study confirms that cationic phthalocyanines represent a class of photosensitizing agents with an efficient antibacterial activity. (orig.)

  5. Adsorption of copper onto char derived macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hye Jung; Ko, Jeong Huy; Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hye Jin; BAe, Yoon Ju; Kim, Jung Hwan; Park, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Full text: A release of heavy metals into the environment by industrial activities raises much environmental problems because they tend to remain indefinitely, circulating and eventually accumulating throughout the food chain. Copper is essential to human life and health but, like all heavy metals, is potentially toxic as well. The excessive intakes of copper result in its accumulation in the liver and produce gastrointestinal problems, kidney damage, anemia, and continued inhalation of copper-containing sprays is linked with an increase in lung cancer among exposed people. Consequently, we need to eliminate the copper in drinking water. Also, growth rates of marine macro algae far exceed those of terrestrial biomass, without water limitations, so annual primary production rates are higher for the major marine macro algae than for most terrestrial biomass. According to these reasons, we try to use the macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida. Adsorption of heavy metals is one of the possible technologies involved in the removal of toxic metals from industrial waste streams and mining waste water using low-cost adsorbents. In recent years, many low-cost adsorbents such as seaweeds, activated carbon, etc. have been investigated, but the char by macro alga, Undaria pinnatifida, have not proven to be the most effective and promising substrates. The aim of this study is to remove copper from its aqueous solution by Undaria pinnatifida char for various parameters like pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration. The adsorption capacity of Cu(II) by Undaria pinnatifida char was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and Cu(II) concentration at room temperature. And it was verified using equilibrium studies. (author)

  6. Structure, transport and photoconductance of PbS quantum dot monolayers functionalized with a copper phthalocyanine derivative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, A.; Theurer, C.; Lauth, J.D.; Maiti, S.; Hodas, M.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Kinge, S; Meixner, A. J.; Schreiber, F.; Siebbeles, L.D.A.; Braun, K; Scheele, M.

    2017-01-01

    We simultaneously surface-functionalize PbS nanocrystals with Cu 4,4′,4′′,4′′′-tetraaminophthalocyanine and assemble this hybrid material into macroscopic monolayers. Electron microscopy and X-ray scattering reveal a granular mesocrystalline structure with strong coherence between the atomic

  7. Controlling the Orbital Sequence in Individual Cu-Phthalocyanine Molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhlmann, C.; Swart, I.; Repp, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the controlled change of the energetic ordering of molecular orbitals. Negatively charged copper(II)phthalocyanine on NaCl/Cu(100) undergoes a Jahn–Teller distortion that lifts the degeneracy of two frontier orbitals. The energetic order of the levels can be controlled by Au and Ag

  8. Low voltage operating OFETs based on solution processed metal phthalocyanines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaidogiannos, G.; Petraki, F.; Glezos, N.; Kennou, S.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2009), s. 763-767 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : field-effect transistors * thin-film transistors * copper phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2009

  9. Electrical and gas sensing properties of novel cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(III) phthalocyanines carrying ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethylcoumarin-3-propanoate moieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, Baybars; Aygün, Meryem; Çapkin, Aylin; Dumludağ, Fatih; Bulut, Mustafa

    The synthesis of metallophthalocyanines (M = Co, Cu, Mn) bearing four ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethylcoumarin-3-propanoate moieties was performed. These novel compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, UV-vis and mass spectral data. DC and AC electrical properties of the films of metallophthalocyanines were investigated in the temperature range of 295-523 K. AC measurements were performed in the frequency range of 40-105 Hz. Activation energy values of the films took place between 0.55 eV-0.93 eV. Impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that bulk resistance decreases with increasing temperature, indicating semiconductor properties. DC conductivity results also supported this result. Their gas sensing properties were also investigated for the vapors of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), n-butyl acetate (200-3200 ppm) and ammonia (7000-56000 ppm) between temperatures 25-100°C. Sensitivity and response times of the films for the tested vapors were reported. The results were found to be reversible and sensitive to the vapors of n-butyl acetate and ammonia. It was found that Mn(OAc)Pc showed better sensitivity than CoPc and CuPc for n-butyl acetate vapors at all measured vapor concentrations and temperatures. Mn(OAc)Pc also showed better sensitivity than CoPc and CuPc for ammonia vapors at 22°C. Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(III)OAc phthalocyanines bearing four ethyl 7-oxy-4,8-dimethyl-coumarin-3-propanoate moieties were prepared and characterized. DC and AC (40-105 Hz) electrical properties of the films of metallophthalocyanines were investigated in the temperature range of 295-523 K. Impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that bulk resistance decreases with increasing temperature indicating semiconductor property. Their gas sensing properties were also investigated for the vapors of VOCs, n-butyl acetate (200-3200 ppm) and ammonia (7000-56000 ppm) between temperatures 25-100°C.

  10. Some Phthalocyanine and Naphthalocyanine Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminium in Acidic Medium: Experimental, Quantum Chemical Calculations, QSAR Studies and Synergistic Effect of Iodide Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masego Dibetsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of seven macrocyclic compounds comprising four phthalocyanines (Pcs namely 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc1, 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc2, 2,9,16,23-tetra-tert-butyl-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc3 and 29H,31H-phthalocyanine (Pc4, and three naphthalocyanines namely 5,9,14,18,23,27,32,36-octabutoxy-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc1, 2,11,20,29-tetra-tert-butyl-2,3-naphthalocyanine (nPc2 and 2,3-naphthalocyanine (nP3 were investigated on the corrosion of aluminium (Al in 1 M HCl using a gravimetric method, potentiodynamic polarization technique, quantum chemical calculations and quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR. Synergistic effects of KI on the corrosion inhibition properties of the compounds were also investigated. All the studied compounds showed appreciable inhibition efficiencies, which decrease with increasing temperature from 30 °C to 70 °C. At each concentration of the inhibitor, addition of 0.1% KI increased the inhibition efficiency compared to the absence of KI indicating the occurrence of synergistic interactions between the studied molecules and I− ions. From the potentiodynamic polarization studies, the studied Pcs and nPcs are mixed type corrosion inhibitors both without and with addition of KI. The adsorption of the studied molecules on Al surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, while the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters revealed that the adsorption of the studied compounds on Al surface is spontaneous and involves competitive physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The experimental results revealed the aggregated interactions between the inhibitor molecules and the results further indicated that the peripheral groups on the compounds affect these interactions. The calculated quantum chemical parameters and the QSAR results revealed the possibility of strong interactions between the studied inhibitors and metal surface. QSAR

  11. Thermosetting Phthalocyanine Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlen, G.; Parker, J.; Achar, B.

    1985-01-01

    Group of phthalocyanine polymers resist thermal degradation. Polymers expected semiconducting. Principal applications probably in molded or laminated parts that have to withstand high temperatures. Polymers made from either of two classes of monomer: Bisphthalonitriles with imide linkages or Bisphthalonitriles with ester-imide linkages.

  12. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...... 1 the methodology appears to be limited to reaction with more stable acid chlorides, providing the desired products in moderate yields. When applied to organozinc reagent 3, however, the protocol is more general and provides the products in good yields in all but one of the cases tested....

  13. Lead and copper removal from aqueous solutions by porous glass derived calcium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wen; Zhan Lei; Piao Longhua; Ruessel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: . Adsorption of Pb 2+ increases with the increase in NaCl volume percentage (1:0%, 2:30%, 3:40%, 4:40%) of the Glass Derived Hydroxyapatite and reaches equilibrium after 24 h. Highlights: → Novel porous glass derived hydroxyapatite matrix is prepared. → Glass derived hydroxyapatite matrix adsorbs lead and copper ions in solutions effectively. → Two adsorption mechanisms including ion exchange theory and the dissolution and precipitation theory are involved in removal of the heavy metal ions from the solutions. - Abstract: A porous glass was prepared by sintering Na 2 O-CaO-B 2 O 3 glass powder with powdered sodium chloride. Subsequently, the sodium chloride was dissolved in water resulting in a highly porous material. A sample was prepared consisting of 60 vol% glass and 40 vol% salt which both had particle sizes 2 HPO 4 solutions at room temperature for 1 day. The porous glass derived hydroxyapatite matrix was then processed for removing lead and copper ions from aqueous solutions. The results showed that the glass derived calcium hydroxyapatite matrix effectively immobilizes lead and copper ions in solution. The adsorption mechanism was investigated by the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy including Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX).

  14. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  15. Fabrication and characterization of tetracyanoquinodimethane/phthalocyanine solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Oku, Takeo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Heterojunction solar cells of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were fabricated and characterized. ► The light-induced charge separation with charge transfer was investigated by light-induced current density and optical absorption.. ► In both solar cells of TCNQ/CuPc and TCNQ/ZnPc, the TCNQ thin film worked for strong electron-accepting layer. ► These behaviors would be originated in charge transfer of excited electron from CuPc and ZnPc to TCNQ. ► The photovoltaic mechanism was discussed by the experimental results. - Abstract: Fabrication and characterization of heterojunction solar cells of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) were carried out. The light-induced charge separation with charge transfer was investigated by light-induced current density and optical absorption. In both cases of the TCNQ/CuPc and TCNQ/ZnPc solar cells, the TCNQ thin film worked for strong electron-accepting layer as n-type semiconductor. These behaviors would be originated in charge transfer of excited electron from CuPc and ZnPc to TCNQ. The photovoltaic mechanism was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  16. Kinetic response study in chemiresistive gas sensor based on carbon nanotube surface functionalized with substituted phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anshul Kumar; Saini, Rajan; Bedi, R. K.; Mahajan, Aman, E-mail: dramanmahajan@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: anshulsharma.phy@gmail.com [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Kumar, Pankaj [Department of Applied Sciences, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala 144601 (India)

    2016-05-06

    A kind of hybrid material is prepared by functionalizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) with substituted copper phthalocyanine and the formation of CuPcOC{sub 8}/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that on the surface of nanotubes substituted CuPcOC{sub 8} derivatives has been successfully anchored through π-π stacking interaction. The gas sensing application of the fabricated hybrid material is tested upon exposure to different hazardous species, specifically NO{sub 2}, NO, Cl{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} at operating temperature of 150°C. It has been demonstrated that for Cl{sub 2} minimum detection limit of CuPcOC{sub 8}/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is 100 ppb. The response of hybrid sensor is found to be increased with increase in the concentration of Cl{sub 2}.

  17. Kinetic response study in chemiresistive gas sensor based on carbon nanotube surface functionalized with substituted phthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshul Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj; Saini, Rajan; Bedi, R. K.; Mahajan, Aman

    2016-05-01

    A kind of hybrid material is prepared by functionalizing multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-COOH) with substituted copper phthalocyanine and the formation of CuPcOC8/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that on the surface of nanotubes substituted CuPcOC8 derivatives has been successfully anchored through π-π stacking interaction. The gas sensing application of the fabricated hybrid material is tested upon exposure to different hazardous species, specifically NO2, NO, Cl2 and NH3 at operating temperature of 150˚C. It has been demonstrated that for Cl2 minimum detection limit of CuPcOC8/MWCNTs-COOH hybrid is 100 ppb. The response of hybrid sensor is found to be increased with increase in the concentration of Cl2.

  18. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj; Ray, Asim K.

    2010-01-01

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  19. Spectroscopic investigation of sulfonate phthalocyanine to probe enzyme reactions for heavy metals detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaure, Shweta; Paul, Deepen; Vadagma, Pankaj [School of Engineering and Material Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ray, Asim K., E-mail: a.k.ray@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Material Science, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Optical absorption and Raman spectra of the sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuTsPc) layer were exploited for detection of cadmium (Cd) contaminants in water. Acetylcholine esterase was immobilized by freely suspending them in calcium alginate microbeads and this gel was then spincoated on the drop cast sulfonated copper phthalocyanine film on a glass substrate to form a bilayer. The inhibition of catalytic reaction between acetylcholine chloride and enzyme due to Cd contaminants was monitored by recording changes in spectra of drop cast CuTsPc as an indicator. The detection limit of cadmium content in water was found to be 1 ppm.

  20. Tetra- and octa-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenoxy bearing novel metal-free and zinc(II) phthalocyanines: Synthesis, characterization and investigation of photophysicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köksoy, Baybars [Marmara University, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadıköy, Istanbul (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bulut, Mustafa, E-mail: mbulut@marmara.edu.tr [Marmara University, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadıköy, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, four novel phthalonitriles (1–4) and their corresponding metal-free (5–8) and zinc(II) phthalocyanine derivatives (9–12) bearing 4-(hydroxyethyl)phenoxy groups were synthesized. These novel compounds were characterized by IR, elemental analyses, {sup 1}H-NMR, UV–vis, and MALDI-TOF spectral data. Furthermore, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical properties (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation quantum yields) of these phthalocyanines were investigated in dimethylsulfoxide. The studied zinc(II) phthalocyanines generated highly singlet oxygen which is very important for the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The fluorescence quenching behaviour of the newly synthesized phthalocyanine compounds were also investigated using 1,4-benzoquinone. - Highlights: • Octa and tetra 4-(hydroxyethyl)phenoxy substituted metal-free and zinc(II) phthalocyanines. • Study of photophysicochemical properties of eight new phthalocyanines. • Highly singlet oxygen generation for novel zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers.

  1. Covalentely Attached Multilayer Films Comprising Phthalocyanine and Their Photoelectron Conversion Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Mao-feng; YAO Qiao-hong; YANG Zhao-hui; HUANG Chun-hui; CAO Wei-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The photosensitive multilayer films from sulfonated metal-free, sulfonated copper-, and sulfonated nickel-phthalocyanines were fabricated with diazoresin layer by layer on a substrate via electrostatic interaction by the self-assembly technique. Under UV irradiation, the linkage nature between the layers of the film is converted from the electrostatic bonding to covalent bonding. The covalently attached multilayer films are very stable towards polar solvents and salt aqueous solutions. The photovoltaic properties of the covalently attached film can be determined by means of a traditional three-electrode photoelectrochemical cell in aqueous solutions with KCl as the supporting electrolyte. The photocurrent determination has shown that the sulfonated copper-containing phthalocyanine films possess a higher photocurrent value than sulfonated metalfree and sulfonated nickel-containing phthalocyanine films.

  2. Synthesis and Supramolecular Chemistry of Novel Liquid Crystalline Crown Ether-Substituted Phthalocyanines : Toward Molecular Wires and Molecular Ionoelectronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nostrum, Cornelus F. van; Picken, Stephen J.; Schouten, Arend-Jan; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The synthesis of the metal-free and the dihydroxysilicon derivatives of tetrakis[4’,5’-bis(decoxy)benzo-18-crown-6]phthalocyanine is described. The metal-free phthalocyanine is liquid crystalline and exhibits a crystalline phase to mesophase transition at 148 °C. The structures of the crystalline

  3. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-H functionalization of substituted pyridines: synthesis of imidazopyridine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jipan; Jin, Yunhe; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Xiaobo; Fu, Hua

    2013-12-02

    A novel, efficient, and practical method for the synthesis of imidazopyridine derivatives has been developed through the copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative C-H functionalization of substituted pyridines with N-(alkylidene)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines. The procedure occurs by cleavage of the N-N bond in the N-(alkylidene)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-amines and activation of an aryl C-H bond in the substituted pyridines. This is the first example of the preparation of imidazopyridine derivatives by using pyridines as the substrates by transition-metal-catalyzed C-H functionalization. This method should provide a novel and efficient strategy for the synthesis of other nitrogen heterocycles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Copper-promoted methylene C-H oxidation to a ketone derivative by O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Claire; McKee, Vickie; McKenzie, Christine J

    2017-01-17

    The methylene group of the ligand 1,2-di(pyridin-2-yl)-ethanone oxime (dpeo) is slowly oxygenated by the O 2 in air under ambient conditions when [Cu(dpeo) 2 ](ClO 4 ) 2 is dissolved in ethanol or acetonitrile. An initial transient ketone product, 2-(hydroxyimino)-1,2-di(pyridine-2-yl)ethanone, (hidpe) was characterized in the heteroleptic copper(ii) complex [Cu(bpca)(hidpe)](ClO 4 ). The co-ligand in this complex, N-(2'-pyridylcarbonyl)pyridine-2-carboximidate (bpca - ), is derived from a copper-promoted Beckmann rearrangement of hidpe. In the presence of bromide only [Cu(bpca)Br] is isolated. When significant water is present in reaction mixtures copper complexes of dpeo, hidpe and bpca - are not recovered and [Cu(pic) 2 H 2 O] is isolated. This occurs since two equivalents of picolinate are ultimately generated from one equivalent of oxidized and hydrolysed dpeo. The copper-dependent O 2 activation and consequent stoichiometric dpeo C-H oxidation is reminiscent of the previously observed catalysis of dpeo oxidation by Mn(ii) [C. Deville, S. K. Padamati, J. Sundberg, V. McKee, W. R. Browne, C. J. McKenzie, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2016, 55, 545-549]. By contrast dpeo oxidation is not observed during complexation reactions with other late transition metal(ii) ions (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) under aerobic conditions. In these cases bis and tris complexes of bidentate dpeo are isolated in good yields. It is interesting to note that dpeo is not oxidised by H 2 O 2 in the absence of Cu or Mn, suggesting that metal-based oxidants capable of C-H activation are produced from the dpeo-Cu/Mn systems and specifically O 2 . The metastable copper complexes [Cu(dpeo) 2 ](ClO 4 ) 2 and [Cu(bpca)(hidpe)](ClO 4 ), along with [NiX 2 (dpeo) 2 ] (X = Cl, Br), [Ni(dpeo) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 2 , [Co(dpeo) 3 ](ClO 4 ) 3 and the mixed valence complex [Fe III Fe(dpeo-H) 3 (dpeo) 3 ](PF 6 ) 4 , have been structurally characterized.

  5. Adsorption of Cu phthalocyanine on Pt modified Ge(001): A scanning tunneling microscopy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saedi, A.; Berkelaar, Robin P.; Kumar, Avijit; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption configurations of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules on platinum-modified Ge(001) have been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. After deposition at room temperature and cooling down to 77 K the CuPc molecules are still dynamic. However, after annealing at 550±50 K, the

  6. Ambipolar Cu- and Fe-phthalocyanine single-crystal field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, R.W.I.; Stassen, A.F.; Craciun, M.F.; Mulder, C.L.; Molinari, A.; Rogge, S.; Morpurgo, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation of ambipolar transport in field-effect transistors fabricated on single crystals of copper- and iron-phthalocyanine, using gold as a high work-function metal for the fabrication of source and drain electrodes. In these devices, the room-temperature mobility of holes reaches

  7. Short-lived γ-emitting metal isotopes phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lier, J. Van; Rousseau, J.; Autenrieth, D.

    1981-01-01

    New phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid metal complexes selected from technetium-99m, gallium-67, gallium-68, copper-64, chromium-51, cobalt-57, indium-111, mercury-197 and zinc-62 have been found to have affinity for malignant growth and thus are useful in detecting the presence, size and location thereof with radiation imaging device. (author)

  8. Molecular mechanics calculations on cobalt phthalocyanine dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, J.P.A.; Schipper, E.T.W.M.; Piet, P.; German, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    In order to obtain insight into the structure of cobalt phthalocyanine dimers, molecular mechanics calculations were performed on dimeric cobalt phthalocyanine species. Molecular mechanics calculations are first presented on monomeric cobalt(II) phthalocyanine. Using the Tripos force field for the

  9. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  10. Functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films with phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petkov, Christo [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reintanz, Philipp M. [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Kulisch, Wilhelm [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Degenhardt, Anna Katharina [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Weidner, Tobias [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz (Germany); Baio, Joe E. [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Merz, Rolf; Kopnarski, Michael [Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik (IFOS), Kaiserslautern (Germany); Siemeling, Ulrich [Institute of Chemistry, Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Reithmaier, Johann Peter [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany); Popov, Cyril, E-mail: popov@ina.uni-kassel.de [Institute of Nanostructure Technologies and Analytics (INA), Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), University of Kassel (Germany)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Grafting of phthalocyanines on nanocrystalline diamond films with different terminations. • Pc with different central atoms and side chains synthesized and characterized. • Attachment of Pc on H- and O-terminated NCD studied by XPS and NEXAFS spectroscopy. • Orientation order of phthalocyanine molecules on NCD surface. - Abstract: Phthalocyanine (Pc) derivatives containing different central metal atoms (Mn, Cu, Ti) and different peripheral chains were synthesized and comprehensively characterized. Their interaction with nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films, as-grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition or after their modification with oxygen plasma to exchange the hydrogen termination with oxygen-containing groups, was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The elemental composition as determined by XPS showed that the Pc were grafted on both as-grown and O-terminated NCD. Mn, Cu and Ti were detected together with N stemming from the Pc ring and S in case of the Ti-Pc from the peripheral ligands. The results for the elemental surface composition and the detailed study of the N 1s, S 2p and O 1s core spectra revealed that Ti-Pc grafted better on as-grown NCD but Cu-Pc and Mn-Pc on O-terminated films. Samples of Mn-Pc on as-grown and O-terminated NCD were further investigated by NEXAFS spectroscopy. The results showed ordering of the grafted molecules, laying flat on the H-terminated NCD surface while only the macrocycles were oriented parallel to the O-terminated surface with the peripheral chains perpendicular to it.

  11. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor...

  12. Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Phthalocyanines Modified with Optically Active Alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three phthalocyanine derivatives were synthesized and characterized: one modified with a racemic mixture of 1-(4-bromophenylethanol and two other macrocycles modified with each one of the enantioenriched isomers (R-1-(4-bromophenylethanol and (S-1-(4-bromophenylethanol. The compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV-Vis absorption, and excitation and emission spectra. Additionally, partition coefficient values and the quantum yield of the generation of oxygen reactive species were determined. Interestingly, the phthalocyanine containing a (R-1-(4-bromophenylethoxy moiety showed higher quantum yield of reactive oxygen species generation than other compounds under the same conditions. In addition, the obtained fluorescence microscopy and cell viability results have shown that these phthalocyanines have different interactions with mammary MCF-7 cells. Therefore, our results indicate that the photochemical and biological properties of phthalocyanines with chiral ligands should be evaluated separately for each enantiomeric species.

  13. Graphene and Carbon-Nanotube Nanohybrids Covalently Functionalized by Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines for Optoelectronic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijian; Ye, Jun; Humphrey, Mark G; Zhang, Chi

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth in studies of the optoelectronic properties of graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and their derivatives. The chemical functionalization of graphene and CNTs is a key requirement for the development of this field, but it remains a significant challenge. The focus here is on recent advances in constructing nanohybrids of graphene or CNTs covalently linked to porphyrins or phthalocyanines, as well as their application in nonlinear optics. Following a summary of the syntheses of nanohybrids constructed from graphene or CNTs and porphyrins or phthalocyanines, explicit intraconjugate electronic interactions between photoexcited porphyrins/phthalocyanines and graphene/CNTs are introduced classified by energy transfer, electron transfer, and charge transfer, and their optoelectronic applications are also highlighted. The major current challenges for the development of covalently linked nanohybrids of porphyrins or phthalocyanines and carbon nanostructures are also presented. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Voltammetric, in-situ spectroelectrochemical and in-situ electrocolorimetric characterization of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Atif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Marmara University, Goeztepe, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey)], E-mail: akoca@eng.marmara.edu.tr; Bayar, Serife; Dincer, Hatice A. [Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Istanbul, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey); Gonca, Erguen [Department of Chemistry, Fatih University, TR34500 B.Cekmece, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-04-01

    In this work, electrochemical, and in-situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of the metallophthalocyanines bearing tetra-(1,1-(dicarbethoxy)-2-(2-methylbenzyl))-ethyl 3,10,17,24-tetra chloro groups were performed. Voltammetric and in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements show that while cobalt phthalocyanine complex gives both metal-based and ring-based redox processes, zinc and copper phthalocyanines show only ring-based reduction and oxidation processes. The redox processes are generally diffusion-controlled, reversible and one-electron transfer processes. Differently lead phthalocyanine demetallized during second oxidation reaction while it was stable during reduction processes. An in-situ electrocolorimetric method, based on the 1931 CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) system of colorimetry, has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for the first time in this study.

  15. Recent Studies in Phthalocyanine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    desulfurisation ) etc. Many of the uses cited In the preceding sentence involve a redox process in which two or more electrons are exchanged per reaction...phthalocyanine as a catalyst for desulfurisation of residues, effluents etc 144]. Acknowledgmnts We ars Indebted to the Natural Sciences and Engineering

  16. Phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oni, J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available of their lower cost. This review article looks through a very narrow window of the applications of phthalocyanines in batteries and supercapacitors as a means of improving the qualities such as cycle property, energy density, capacity, open circuit voltage, etc...

  17. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  18. The photophysical and photochemical properties of new unmetallated and metallated phthalocyanines bearing four 5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy substituents on peripheral sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nas, Asiye; Demirbaş, Ümit [Department of Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Pişkin, Mehmet [Marmara University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadıkoy-Istanbul (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400 Kocaeli (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit, E-mail: halit@ktu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetrakis-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy) substituted metal-free (4), zinc(II) (5), lead(II) (6), cobalt(II) (7), copper(II) (8) and nickel(II) (9) phthalocyanines are described for the first time in this study. The spectroscopic, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical properties (singlet oxygen production and photodegradation under light irradiation) of metal-free (4), zinc(II) (5) and lead(II) (6) phthalocyanines are investigated in N,N-dimetilformamid (DMF). The newly synthesized cobalt(II) (7), copper(II) (8) and nickel(II) (9) phthalocyanine compounds were not evaluated for this purpose due to open shell nature of these central metals in the phthalocyanine cavity. The influence of various the nature of the central metal ion (zinc, lead or without metal) on these properties has also been investigated and compared. -- Highlights: • The synthesis and characterization of novel peripherally tetrakis-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy) substituted metal-free (4), zinc(II) (5), lead(II) (6), cobalt(II) (7), copper(II) (8) and nickel(II) (9) phthalocyanines. • The spectroscopic, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical properties of metal-free (4), zinc(II) (5) and lead(II) (6)phthalocyanines in N, N-dimetilformamid (DMF). • The influence of various the nature of the central metal ion (zinc, lead or without metal) on these properties.

  19. Adsorption of copper (II) by using derived-farmyard and poultry manure biochars: Efficiency and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Saima; Idrees, Muhammad; Hussain, Qaiser; Kong, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Biochar (BC) has recently become an attractive adsorbent for the removal of toxic metals from aqueous media. In this study, the adsorption efficiency of BCs derived through farmyard and poultry manure (DBC-FYM, DBC-PM) for the removal of copper (Cu2+) from water was evaluated. The porosity, surface structure, internal morphology, thermal stability and functional groups of the DBCs were analyzed using different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Kinetics and isothermal data were acquired by batch adsorption mode. The isothermal sorption data was well correlated (R2 > 0.98) with the Freundlich model describing multilayer sorption of Cu2+ on heterogeneous DBCs surface. The maximum Cu2+ sorption was estimated as 44.50 mg/g for DBC-FYM and 43.68 mg/g for DBC-PM. The sorption data followed the pseudo-second order kinetics, indicating the chemical interaction between Cu2+ and the negative charged surface of DBCs. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the reaction was exothermic and spontaneous. Post-sorption analysis of the DBCs by XPS suggested the formation of CuO and carbonate dihydroxide. The outcomes of the present study indicated that DBCs could be valuable green sorbents for removing Cu2+ from contaminated aqueous media.

  20. A NEW COPPER (II)-IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVE EFFECTIVELY INHIBITS REPLICATION OF DENV-2 IN VERO CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucipto, Teguh Hari; Churrotin, Siti; Setyawati, Harsasi; Martak, Fahimah; Mulyatno, Kris Cahyo; Amarullah, Ilham Harlan; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Yotopranoto, Subagyo; Soegijanto, and Soegeng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Dengue is a kind of infectious disease that was distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. To date, there is no clinically approved dengue vaccine or antiviral for humans, even though there have been great efforts towards this end. Therefore, finding the effective compound against dengue virus (DENV) replication is very important. Among the complex compounds, copper(II)-imidazole derivatives are of interest because of their biological and medicinal benefits. Materials and Methods: In the present study, antiviral activity of [Cu(2,4,5-triphenylimidazole)2]n, was evaluated against different stages of dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) replication in Vero cell using focus forming unit reduction assay and quantitative ELISA. Results: [Cu(2,4,5-triphenylimidazole)2]n inhibited DENV-2 replication in Vero cells with IC50 = 2.3 μg/ml and SI= 19.42 when cells were treated 2 days after virus infection, whereas its CC50 for cytotoxicity to Vero cells was 44.174 μg/ml. Conclusion: The compound has high anti-DENV2 activity, less toxicity, and a high possibility to be considered a drug candidate. PMID:29619441

  1. Benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derived from limonene complexed with copper induced mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizandra Aparecida Britta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a major health problem that affects more than 12 million people. Treatment presents several problems, including high toxicity and many adverse effects, leading to the discontinuation of treatment and emergence of resistant strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the in vitro antileishmanial activity of benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derived from limonene complexed with copper, termed BenzCo, against Leishmania amazonensis. BenzCo inhibited the growth of the promastigote and axenic amastigote forms, with IC(50 concentrations of 3.8 and 9.5 µM, respectively, with 72 h of incubation. Intracellular amastigotes were inhibited by the compound, with an IC(50 of 10.7 µM. BenzCo altered the shape, size, and ultrastructure of the parasites. Mitochondrial membrane depolarization was observed in protozoa treated with BenzCo but caused no alterations in the plasma membrane. Additionally, BenzCo induced lipoperoxidation and the production of mitochondrial superoxide anion radicals in promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies indicated that the antileishmania activity of BenzCo might be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage, leading to parasite death.

  2. Synthesis of mesogenic phthalocyanine-C60 donor–acceptor dyads designed for molecular heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Henri Geerts

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of phthalocyanine-C60 dyads 2a–d was synthesized. Key steps in their synthesis are preparation of the low symmetry phthalocyanine intermediate by the statistical condensation of two phthalonitriles, and the final esterification of the fullerene derivative bearing a free COOH group. Structural characterization of the molecules in solution was performed by NMR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Preliminary studies suggest formation of liquid crystalline (LC mesophases for some of the prepared dyads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of LC phthalocyanine-C60 dyads.

  3. Removal of Copper ions from aqueous solutions using polymer derivations of poly (styrene-alt-maleic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study chelating resins have been considered to be suitable materials for the recovery of Copper (II ions in water treatments. Furthermore, these modified resins were reacted with 1,2-diaminoethane in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation for the preparation of a tridimensional chelating resin on the Nano scale for the recovery of Copper (II ions from aqueous solutions. This method which is used for removing and determining Copper (II ions using copolymers derived resins of poly (styrene-alternative-maleic anhydride (SMA and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The method is simple, sensitive, inexpensive and fast. The various parameters such as pH, contact time, concentrations of metal ions, mass of resin, and agitation speed were investigated on adsorption effect. The adsorption behavior of Copper (II ions were investigated by the synthesis of chelating resins at various pHs. The prepared resins showed a good tendency for removing the selected metal ions from aqueous solution, even at an acidic pH. Also, the prepared resins were examined for the removal of Copper (II ions from real samples such as industrial wastewater and were shown to be very efficient at adsorption in the cases of Copper (II ions. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion kinetics equations were used for modeling of adsorption data and it was shown that pseudo-second-order kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics. The intra-particle diffusion study revealed that external diffusion might be involved in this case. The resins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide-Derived Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a mino...... solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results represent an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes....

  5. Synthesis, photophysical and photochemical properties of zinc phthalocyanines bearing fluoro-functionalized substituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaş, Ayşe [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Pişkin, Mehmet [Marmara University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 34722 Kadikoy-Istanbul (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-01-15

    In this study, the synthesis of phthalonitrile derivatives bearing fluoro-functionalized groups and their peripherally-tetra substituted zinc phthalocyanine complexes were reported. The phthalonitrile derivatives 2a–5a were prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]ethanol, 2-{2-[3-(trifluoromethyl) phenoxy]ethoxy}ethanol, 2-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenoxy)ethanol, 2-[2-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenoxy)ethoxy]ethanol, respectively. Zinc phthalocyanines bearing fluoro-functionalized groups (2b–5b) were obtained from the corresponding phthalonitrile derivatives. The newly synthesized phthalocyanines displayed good solubility in organic solvents such as chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}), dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). On the other hand, the singlet oxygen, photodegradation, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetime of these complexes were determined in DMSO. The effects of the substitution with fluoro-functionalized groups on these parameters were also compared. -- Highlights: • Synthesis of peripherally substituted zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties in DMSO for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  6. Synthesis, photophysical and photochemical properties of zinc phthalocyanines bearing fluoro-functionalized substituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaş, Ayşe; Pişkin, Mehmet; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the synthesis of phthalonitrile derivatives bearing fluoro-functionalized groups and their peripherally-tetra substituted zinc phthalocyanine complexes were reported. The phthalonitrile derivatives 2a–5a were prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 4-nitrophthalonitrile with 2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]ethanol, 2-{2-[3-(trifluoromethyl) phenoxy]ethoxy}ethanol, 2-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenoxy)ethanol, 2-[2-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenoxy)ethoxy]ethanol, respectively. Zinc phthalocyanines bearing fluoro-functionalized groups (2b–5b) were obtained from the corresponding phthalonitrile derivatives. The newly synthesized phthalocyanines displayed good solubility in organic solvents such as chloroform (CHCl 3 ), dichloromethane (DCM), tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). On the other hand, the singlet oxygen, photodegradation, fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetime of these complexes were determined in DMSO. The effects of the substitution with fluoro-functionalized groups on these parameters were also compared. -- Highlights: • Synthesis of peripherally substituted zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties in DMSO for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies

  7. Influence of feedstock on the copper removal capacity of waste-derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arán, Diego; Antelo, Juan; Fiol, Sarah; Macías, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    Biochar samples were generated by low temperature pyrolysis of different types of waste. The physicochemical characteristics of the different types of biochar affected the copper retention capacity, by determining the main mechanism involved. The capacity of the biochar to retain copper present in solution depended on the size of the inorganic fraction and varied in the following order: rice biochar>chicken manure biochar>olive mill waste biochar>acacia biochar>eucalyptus biochar>corn cob biochar. The distribution of copper between the forms bound to solid biochar, dissolved organic matter and free organic matter in solution also depended on the starting material. However, the effect of pH on the adsorption capacity was independent of the nature of the starting material, and the copper retention of all types of biochar increased with pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antibacterial activity of agricultural waste derived wollastonite doped with copper for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeena, S; Subhapradha, N; Selvamurugan, N; Narayan, S; Srinivasan, N; Murugesan, R; Chung, T W; Moorthi, A

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive ceramic materials with metal ions generation brought great attention in the class of biomaterials development and widely employed as a filler material for bone tissue regeneration. The present study aimed to fabricate calcium silicate based ceramic material doped with copper metal particles by sol-gel method. Rice straw of agricultural waste was utilized as a source material to synthesize wollastonite, then wollastonite was doped with copper to fabricate copper doped wollastonite (Cu-Ws) particles. The synthesized materials were subjected to physio-chemical characterization by TEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD and DSC analysis. It was found that the sizes of the WS particles was around 900nm, while adding copper the size was increased upto 1184nm and the addition of copper to the material sharpening the peak. The release of Cu ions was estimated by ICP analysis. The anti-bacterial potentiality of the particles suggested that better microbial growth inhibition against E. coli (Gram negative) and S. aureus (Gram positive) strains from ATCC, in which the growth inhibition was more significant against S. aureus. The biocompatibility in mouse Mesenchymal Stem cells (mMSC) showed the non-toxic effect up to 0.05mg/ml concentration while the increase in concentration was found to be toxic to the cells. So the particles may have better potential application with the challenging prevention of post implantation infection in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The derivation of water quality criteria of copper in Biliu River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongbo; Jia, Xinru

    2018-03-01

    Excessive copper in water can be detrimental to the health of human and aquatic life. China has promulgated Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water to control water pollution, but uniform standard values may cause under-protection or over-protection. Therefore, the basic research work on water quality criteria of water source or reservoir is urgently needed. This study deduces the acute and chronic Water Quality Criteria (WQC) of copper in Biliu River by Species Sensitivity Distribution method (SSD). The result shows that BiDoseResp is the most suitable model and the acute and chronic water quality benchmark of copper are 10.72 µg•L-1 and 5.86 µg•L-1. This study provides basis for the construction of water quality standard of Liaoning and the environmental management of Biliu River.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of near-IR absorbing metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanines modified with aromatic azo groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Özçeşmeci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanine complexes bearing peripheral (E-4-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yldiazenyl units have been synthesized. Novel phthalonitrile derivative required for the preparation of phthalocyanine complexes was prepared by coupling 4-aminophthalonitrile and 2-naphthol. The structures of these new compounds were characterized by using elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In the UV-Vis spectra a broad absorption band appears for phthalocyanine complexes at around 450–500 nm resulting from azo-group introduced onto the phthalocyanine ring. The photophysical properties of metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanines were studied in tetrahydrofuran.

  11. Novel non-symmetrical bifunctionally-substituted phthalonitriles and corresponding d-metal phthalocyaninates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashurin, Artur; Maizlish, Vladimir; Tikhomirova, Tatiyana; Nemtseva, Marina; Znoyko, Serafima; Aleksandriiskii, Viktor

    2018-05-01

    The work reports synthesis of 4-(2-tert-butyl-4,5-dicyanophenylsulfonyl)benzene and its analogue containing carboxyl group in phenyl fragment by nucleophilic substitution of nitro-group of 4-tert-butyl-5-nitrophthalonitrile. Unique structure of the obtained compounds is explained by presence of bulky tert-butyl substituent in combination with carboxyl group, which being part of phthalocyanine molecule impart it higher solubility within different solvents (organic and water mediums) and act as anchoring groups. Based on obtained nitriles phthalocyanine complexes of copper, nickel, cobalt and magnesium are synthesized with good yields. Demetallization of initial magnesium phthalocyanine by hydrochloric acid was performed in order to obtain ligand of phthalocyanine. Synthetic and purification techniques are described in detail. Obtained substances are of specific structure making them to be applied in sensorics for smart materials production, as sensitizers or part of molecular magnets. The structure, NMR and IR spectra are modeled using special software. Resulting experimental and theoretical data are compared. The results show sufficient correlation that confirms correctness of chosen methods and its applicability for theoretical studying compounds related to investigated ones.

  12. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  13. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Dilek; Göl, Cem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies

  14. Antibacterial effect of cationic porphyrazines and anionic phthalocyanine and their interaction with plasmid DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Leila; Hakimian, Fatemeh; Safaei, Elham; Fazeli, Zahra

    2013-11-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a public health issue and identification of new antibacterial agents is one of the most important goals of pharmacological research. Among the novel developed antibacterial agents, porphyrin complexes and their derivatives are ideal candidates for use in medical applications. Phthalocyanines differ from porphyrins by having nitrogen atoms link the individual pyrrol units. The aza analogues of the phthalocyanines (azaPcs) such as tetramethylmetalloporphyrazines are heterocyclic Pc analogues. In this investigation, interaction of an anionic phthalocyanine (Cu(PcTs)) and two cationic tetrapyridinoporphyrazines including [Cu(2,3-tmtppa)]4+ and [Cu(3,4-tmtppa)]4+ complexes with plasmid DNA was studied using spectroscopic and gel electrophoresis methods. In addition, antibacterial effect of the complexes against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria was investigated using dilution test method. The results indicated that both porphyrazines have significant antibacterial properties, but Cu(PcTs) has weak antibacterial effect. Compairing the binding of the phthalocyanine and the porphyrazines to DNA demonstrated that the interaction of cationic porphyrazines is stronger than the anionic phthalocyanine remarkably. The extent of hypochromicity and red shift of absorption spectra indicated preferential intercalation of the two porphyrazine into the base pairs of DNA helix. Gel electrophoresis result implied Cu(2,3-tmtppa) and Cu(3,4-tmtppa) are able to perform cleavage of the plasmid DNA. Consequently, DNA binding and cleavage might be one of the antibacterial mechanisms of the complexes.

  15. Conducting Polymers Functionalized with Phthalocyanine as Nitrogen Dioxide Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Deshpande

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole and polythiophene were functionalized with copper phthalocyanine using chemical oxidation method. The obtained polymers viz. PANI-CuPc, PPy-CuPc and PT-CuPc were studied as chemical sensors by their response characteristics after exposure to various chemical vapors such as methanol, ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The results obtained showed that these polymers have moderate sensitivity towards the methanol as well as ammonia vapors whereas they show tremendous sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide vapors. The sensitivity factor of as high as 50,000 was obtained for PT-CuPc polymers in nitrogen dioxide. In comparison to this, the sensitivity factors of about 100 and 40 were obtained, when these polymers were exposed to ammonia and methanol vapors. The very high selectivity towards the nitrogen dioxide was explained on the basis of charge transfer complex formed between, the phthalocyanine donor and nitrogen dioxide acceptor molecules. On the other hand, ammonia becomes a competing electron donor in CuPc containing conducting polymers. The very low response towards the methanol may be explained on the basis very little charge transfer / interaction between CuPc containing polymers and methanol. Thus, CuPc incorporated conducting polymers have much higher selectivity than their original homopolymer.

  16. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one.

  17. Pharmacological and spectral studies of synthetic biomimetic copper complexes derived from 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagashri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel biomimetic ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 3-hydroxyflavone, 2-aminophenol(L1/2-aminobenzoic acid (L2 and-aminothiazole (L3. Their Cu(II complexes have also been synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1H NMR, IR, UV–Vis spectra, elemental analyses, molar conductivity, ESR, electrochemical behaviour and thermal analyses. The antimicrobial activities (MIC values of the ligands, copper complexes and standard drugs have been evaluated using the serial dilution technique against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory and SOD activities of the investigated compounds are also promising and allow the selection of a lead compound for further biological studies.

  18. Preferential cross-coupling of naphthol derivatives mediated by copper(II)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koščová, Simona; Roithová, J.; Hodačová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 9 (2013), s. 715-723 ISSN 0894-3230 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1356; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0338 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : BINOL * copper * cross-coupling * DFT calculations * mass spectrometry * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.229, year: 2013

  19. Mesocosm validation of the marine No Effect Concentration of dissolved copper derived from a species sensitivity distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foekema, E M; Kaag, N H B M; Kramer, K J M; Long, K

    2015-07-15

    The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for dissolved copper based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) of 24 marine single species tests was validated in marine mesocosms. To achieve this, the impact of actively maintained concentrations of dissolved copper on a marine benthic and planktonic community was studied in 18 outdoor 4.6m(3) mesocosms. Five treatment levels, ranging from 2.9 to 31μg dissolved Cu/L, were created in triplicate and maintained for 82days. Clear effects were observed on gastropod and bivalve molluscs, phytoplankton, zooplankton, sponges and sessile algae. The most sensitive biological endpoints; reproduction success of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule, copepod population development and periphyton growth were significantly affected at concentrations of 9.9μg Cu/L and higher. The No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC) derived from this study was 5.7μg dissolved Cu/L. Taking into account the DOC concentration of the mesocosm water this NOEC is comparable to the PNEC derived from the SSD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Water soluble peripheral and non-peripheral tetrasubstituted zinc phthalocyanines: Synthesis, photochemistry and bovine serum albumin binding behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Volkan; Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Pişkin, Mehmet [Department of Food Technology, Çanakkale Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Çanakkale (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-10-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-1,3-bis[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes (2a and 3a) and their quaternized amphiphilic derivatives (2b and 3b) have been synthesized and characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, MS spectroscopic data and elemental analysis for the first time. The quaternized complexes (2b and 3b) show excellent solubility in water and DMSO which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of these novel phthalocyanines are investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for non-quaternized complexes and in DMSO, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) or PBS+triton X-100 (TX) solution for quaternized complexes. In this study, the effects of the aggregation of the molecules, quaternization, position of the substituents (peripherally or non-peripherally) and nature of the solvents (DMSO, PBS or PBS+triton X-100) on the photochemical parameters of the zinc (II) phthalocyanines are also reported. In addition, a spectroscopic investigation of the binding behavior of the quaternized zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is also presented in this work. - Highlights: • Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanines is performed. • Photophysical and photochemical properties of phthalocyanines are studied. • Photodynamic therapy studies are performed.

  1. Water soluble peripheral and non-peripheral tetrasubstituted zinc phthalocyanines: Synthesis, photochemistry and bovine serum albumin binding behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Volkan; Çakır, Dilek; Pişkin, Mehmet; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya

    2014-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-1,3-bis[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes (2a and 3a) and their quaternized amphiphilic derivatives (2b and 3b) have been synthesized and characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, MS spectroscopic data and elemental analysis for the first time. The quaternized complexes (2b and 3b) show excellent solubility in water and DMSO which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of these novel phthalocyanines are investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for non-quaternized complexes and in DMSO, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) or PBS+triton X-100 (TX) solution for quaternized complexes. In this study, the effects of the aggregation of the molecules, quaternization, position of the substituents (peripherally or non-peripherally) and nature of the solvents (DMSO, PBS or PBS+triton X-100) on the photochemical parameters of the zinc (II) phthalocyanines are also reported. In addition, a spectroscopic investigation of the binding behavior of the quaternized zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is also presented in this work. - Highlights: • Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanines is performed. • Photophysical and photochemical properties of phthalocyanines are studied. • Photodynamic therapy studies are performed

  2. A new approach to ferrocene derived alkenes via copper-catalyzed olefination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily M. Muzalevskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to ferrocenyl haloalkenes and bis-alkenes was elaborated. The key procedure involves copper catalyzed olefination of N-unsubstituted hydrazones, obtained from ferrocene-containing carbonyl compounds and hydrazine, with polyhaloalkanes. The procedure is simple, cheap and could be applied for the utilization of environmentally harmful polyhalocarbons. The cyclic voltammetry study of the representative examples of the synthesized ferrocenyl alkenes shows the strong dependence of the cathodic behavior on the amount of vinyl groups: while for the monoalkene containing molecules no reduction is seen, the divinyl products are reduced in several steps.

  3. A new approach to ferrocene derived alkenes via copper-catalyzed olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzalevskiy, Vasily M; Shastin, Aleksei V; Demidovich, Alexandra D; Shikhaliev, Namiq G; Magerramov, Abel M; Khrustalev, Victor N; Rakhimov, Rustem D; Vatsadze, Sergey Z; Nenajdenko, Valentine G

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to ferrocenyl haloalkenes and bis-alkenes was elaborated. The key procedure involves copper catalyzed olefination of N-unsubstituted hydrazones, obtained from ferrocene-containing carbonyl compounds and hydrazine, with polyhaloalkanes. The procedure is simple, cheap and could be applied for the utilization of environmentally harmful polyhalocarbons. The cyclic voltammetry study of the representative examples of the synthesized ferrocenyl alkenes shows the strong dependence of the cathodic behavior on the amount of vinyl groups: while for the monoalkene containing molecules no reduction is seen, the divinyl products are reduced in several steps.

  4. Framework for Derivation of Water Quality Criteria Using the Biotic Ligand Model: Copper as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondek, John C; Gensemer, Robert W; Claytor, Carrie A; Canton, Steven P; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2018-06-01

    Acceptance of the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) to derive aquatic life criteria, for metals in general and copper in particular, is growing amongst regulatory agencies worldwide. Thus, it is important to ensure that water quality data are used appropriately and consistently in deriving such criteria. Here we present a suggested BLM implementation framework (hereafter referred to as "the Framework") to help guide the decision-making process when designing sampling and analysis programs for use of the BLM to derive water quality criteria applied on a site-specific basis. Such a framework will help inform stakeholders on the requirements needed to derive BLM-based criteria, and thus, ensure the appropriate types and amount of data are being collected and interpreted. The Framework was developed for calculating BLM-based criteria when data are available from multiple sampling locations on a stream. The Framework aspires to promote consistency when applying the BLM across datasets of disparate water quality, data quantity, and spatial and temporal representativeness, and is meant to be flexible to maximize applicability over a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, the Framework allows for a certain level of interpretation and adjustment to address the issues unique to each dataset. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical and in situ spectroelectrochemical characterization of manganese, vanadyl, and cobalt phthalocyanines with 2-naphthoxy substituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcesmeci, Ibrahim; Koca, Atif; Guel, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Metallo (Mn, Co, VO) phthalocyanines bearing peripheral 2-naphthoxy-groups were synthesized by cyclotetramerisation of the corresponding phthalonitrile derivative. → Incorporation of the redox active metal ions into the phthalocyanine core extends the redox capabilities of the Pc ring. → The presence of O 2 in the electrolyte system influences both oxygen reduction reaction and the electrochemical and spectral behaviors of the complexes. → Homogeneous catalytic ORR process occurs via an 'inner sphere' chemical catalysis process. - Abstract: Metallo (Mn, Co, VO) phthalocyanines bearing peripheral 2-naphthoxy groups were synthesized by cyclotetramerisation of the corresponding phthalonitrile derivative. The phthalocyanine compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, mass, FT-IR and UV-vis spectral data. Three intense bands in the electronic spectra clearly indicate the absorptions resulting from naphthyl groups along with the Q and B bands of the phthalocyanines. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements exhibit that incorporation of redox active metal ions, Co II and Mn III , into the phthalocyanine core extends the redox capabilities of the Pc ring including the metal-based reduction and oxidation couples of the metal. Presence of molecular oxygen in the electrolyte system affects the voltammetric and spectroelectrochemical responses of the cobalt and manganese phthalocyanines due to the interaction between the complexes and molecular oxygen. Interaction reaction of oxygen with CoPc occurs via an 'inner sphere' chemical catalysis process. While CoPc gives the intermediates [O 2 - -Co II Pc -2 ] - and [O 2 2 -Co II Pc -2 ] 2- , MnPc forms μ-oxo MnPc species. An in situ electrocolorimetric method has been applied to investigate the color of the electro-generated anionic and cationic forms of the complexes for possible electrochromatic applications.

  6. Copper (II) and zinc (II) complexes with flavanone derivatives: Identification of potential cholinesterase inhibitors by on-flow assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Vilela, Adriana Ferreira Lopes; Frugeri, Bárbara Mammana; Fernandes, João Batista; Carlos, Rose Maria; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Cass, Quezia Bezerra; Cardoso, Carmen Lúcia

    2016-11-01

    Metal chelates strongly influence the nature and magnitude of pharmacological activities in flavonoids. In recent years, studies have shown that a promising class of flavanone-metal ion complexes can act as selective cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), which has led our group to synthesize a new series of flavanone derivatives (hesperidin, hesperetin, naringin, and naringenin) complexed to either copper (II) or zinc (II) and to evaluate their potential use as selective ChEIs. Most of the synthesized complexes exhibited greater inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) than against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Nine of these complexes constituted potent, reversible, and selective ChEIs with inhibitory potency (IC 50 ) and inhibitory constant (K i ) ranging from 0.02 to 4.5μM. Copper complexes with flavanone-bipyridine derivatives afforded the best inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE. The complex Cu(naringin)(2,2'-bipyridine) (11) gave IC 50 and K i values of 0.012±0.002 and 0.07±0.01μM for huAChE, respectively, which were lower than the inhibitory values obtained for standard galanthamine (IC 50 =206±30.0 and K i =126±18.0μM). Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of this complex against butyrylcholinesterase from human serum (huBChE) gave IC 50 and K i values of 8.0±1.4 and 2.0±0.1μM, respectively. A Liquid Chromatography-Immobilized Capillary Enzyme Reactor by UV detection (LC-ICER-UV) assay allowed us to determine the IC 50 and K i values and the type of mechanism for the best inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Copper complexes containing thiosemicarbazones derived from 6-nitropiperonal: Antimicrobial and biophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, Floyd A.; Webb, Kelsey R.

    2017-08-01

    A series of four thiosemicarbazones from 6-nitropiperonal along with the corresponding copper complexes were synthesized. The biophysical characteristics of the complexes were investigated by the binding to DNA and human serum albumin. The binding to DNA is moderate; the binding constants run from (0.49-7.50) × 104 M- 1. In relation to HSA, the complexes interact strongly with binding constants on the order of 105 M- 1. The complexes also display antioxidant behavior as determined by the ability to scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (dpph) and nitric oxide radicals. The antimicrobial profiles of the compounds, tested against a panel of microbes including five of the ESKAPE pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two yeasts (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii), are also described. The compounds contain a core moiety that is similar to oxolinic acid, a quinolone antibiotic that targets DNA gyrase and topoisomerase (IV). The binding interaction between the complexes and these important antibacterial targets were studied by computational methods, chiefly docking studies. The calculated dissociation constants for the interaction with DNA gyrase B (from Staphylococcus aureus) range from 4.32 to 24.65 μM; the binding was much stronger to topoisomerase IV, with dissociation constants ranging from 0.37 to 1.27 μM.

  8. Catalytic and recyclability properties of phytogenic copper oxide nanoparticles derived from Aglaia elaeagnoidea flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manjari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The phytogenic synthesis method to highly active, recoverable and recyclable heterogeneous copper oxide nanocatalyst and encapsulated within biomaterial that acts as a nontoxic and renewable source of reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesized CuO NPs were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and thermo gravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TGA–DSC, techniques. The formation of CuO NPs with the size 20–45 nm range is shown in TEM image. Significantly, in aqueous phase CuO NPs have high catalytic activity for the reduction of Congo red (CR, methylene blue (MB and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP in the presence of the sodium borohydride (NaBH4 at room temperature. In addition, CuO NPs catalyst can be easily recovered by centrifugation and reused for 6 cycles with more than 90% conversion efficiency. CuO nanocatalyst, leaching after catalytic application was investigated by ICPAES (Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. CuO NPs possess great prospects in reduction of pernicious dyes and nitro organic pollutants in water.

  9. Cyclam Derivatives with a Bis(phosphinate) or a Phosphinato-Phosphonate Pendant Arm: Ligands for Fast and Efficient Copper(II) Complexation for Nuclear Medical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, T.; Kubíček, V.; Gutten, Ondrej; Lubal, P.; Kotek, J.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 24 (2015), s. 11751-11766 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31419S Grant - others:COST(XE) TD1004 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclam derivatives * radiolabelling * quantum chemical calculations * copper(II) chelation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.820, year: 2015

  10. Synthesis, spectral and photophysical properties of novel phthalocyanines bearing bulky phenantroxy moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogmuş, Ali; Lütfi Ugur, Ahmet; Memişoglu, Abdussamed; Erden, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, spectral and photophysical properties of soluble 9-Phenanthroxy substituted oxo-titanium (IV), zinc, magnesium and nickel phthalocyanines (1a, 1b, 1c and 1d) are reported for the first time. The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1 H–NMR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy and mass spectra. General trends are described for spectral, fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of these compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and toluene. All phthalocyanine complexes (1a to 1d) exhibited excellent solubility in organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, THF, toluene, DMF and DMSO. - Highlights: ► New metallophthalocyanines (1a–1d) were synthesized. ► These new phthalocyanine derivatives show the enhanced solubility in organic solvents. ► The spectral and photophysical properties of TiO(IV), zinc (II) and Mg(II) phthalocyanine (1a–1c) are investigated in DMSO and toluene. ► Ground state electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra.

  11. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga, 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  12. Probing the Active Surface Sites for CO Reduction on Oxide-Derived Copper Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdaguer Casadevall, Arnau; Li, Christina W.; Johansson, Tobias Peter

    2015-01-01

    CO electroreduction activity on oxide-derived Cu (OD-Cu) was found to correlate with metastable surface features that bind CO strongly. OD-Cu electrodes prepared by H-2 reduction of Cu2O precursors reduce CO to acetate and ethanol with nearly 50% Faradaic efficiency at moderate overpotential. Tem...

  13. An Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Multisensor System Based on Phthalocyanine Nanostructured Films: Discrimination of Musts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Garcia-Hernandez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An array of electrochemical quartz crystal electrodes (EQCM modified with nanostructured films based on phthalocyanines was developed and used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes. Nanostructured films of iron, nickel and copper phthalocyanines were deposited on Pt/quartz crystals through the Layer by Layer technique by alternating layers of the corresponding phthalocyanine and poly-allylamine hydrochloride. Simultaneous electrochemical and mass measurements were used to study the mass changes accompanying the oxidation of electroactive species present in must samples obtained from six Spanish varieties of grapes (Juan García, Prieto Picudo, Mencía Regadío, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha and Tempranillo. The mass and voltammetric outputs were processed using three-way models. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC was successfully used to discriminate the must samples according to their variety. Multi-way partial least squares (N-PLS evidenced the correlations existing between the voltammetric data and the polyphenolic content measured by chemical methods. Similarly, N-PLS showed a correlation between mass outputs and parameters related to the sugar content. These results demonstrated that electronic tongues based on arrays of EQCM sensors can offer advantages over arrays of mass or voltammetric sensors used separately.

  14. Asymmetric Response toward Molecular Fluorination in Binary Copper–Phthalocyanine/Pentacene Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oteyza, D. G.; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Goiri, E.

    2014-01-01

    We report a didactic and simple example of the subtleness in the balance of intermolecular and molecule–substrate interactions and its effect on molecular self-assembly. The study is performed on two closely related molecular blends of copper phthalocyanines and pentacene, in each of which one of...... intermolecular interactions and a larger corrugation in the molecule–substrate interaction potential, results in a disordered layer. However, the difference between the two blend’s structures vanishes when substrates with less corrugated interaction potentials are used....

  15. Synthesis, characterization, MCD spectroscopy, and TD-DFT calculations of copper-metalated nonperipherally substituted octaoctyl derivatives of tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin, cis- and trans-tetrabenzodiazaporphyrin, tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrin, and tetrabenzoporphyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, John; Sosa-Vargas, Lydia; Coles, Simon J; Tizzard, Graham J; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cammidge, Andrew N; Cook, Michael J; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2012-12-03

    Synthesis of the title compounds has been achieved through refinement of a recently reported synthetic protocol whereby varying equivalents of MeMgBr are reacted with 1,4-dioctylphthalonitrile to produce mixtures favoring specific hybrid structures. The initially formed magnesium-metalated compounds are obtained as pure materials and include, for the first time, both isomers (cis and trans) of tetrabenzodiazaporphyrin. The compounds were demetalated to the metal-free analogues, which were then converted into the copper-metalated derivatives. The X-ray structure of the copper tetrabenzotriazaporphyrin derivative is reported. The metal-free and copper-metalated macrocycles exhibit columnar mesophase behavior, and it is found that the mesophase stability is unexpectedly reduced in the diazaporphyrin derivatives compared to the rest of the series. The results of time-dependent density functional theory calculations for the copper complexes are compared to the observed optical properties. Michl's perimeter model was used as a conceptual framework for analyzing the magnetic circular dichroism spectral data, which predicted and accounted for trends in the observed experimental spectra.

  16. Copper-free click reactions with polar bicyclononyne derivatives for modulation of cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, E H P; Meuleners, M H L; Verkade, J M M; Dommerholt, J; Hoenderop, J G J; van Delft, F L

    2014-07-07

    The ability of cells to incorporate azidosugars metabolically is a useful tool for extracellular glycan labelling. The exposed azide moiety can covalently react with alkynes, such as bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN), by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC). However, the use of SPAAC can be hampered by low specificity of the cycloalkyne. In this article we describe the synthesis of more polar BCN derivatives and their properties for selective cellular glycan labelling. The new polar derivatives [amino-BCN, glutarylamino-BCN and bis(hydroxymethyl)-BCN] display reaction rates similar to those of BCN and are less cell-permeable. The labelling specificity in HEK293 cells is greater than that of BCN, as determined by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Interestingly, amino-BCN appears to be highly specific for the Golgi apparatus. In addition, the polar BCN derivatives label the N-glycan of the membrane calcium channel TRPV5 in HEK293 cells with significantly enhanced signal-to-noise ratios. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Soluble substituted phthalocyanines for OFET applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chaidogiannos, G.; Petraki, F.; Glezos, N.; Kennou, S.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 152, - (2008), s. 105-108 ISSN 0921-5107. [International Workshop on Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies. Thessaloniki, 16.08.2007-18.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic electronic transistors * phthalocyanines Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  18. Soluble phthalocyanines - new materials for optoelectronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biler, M.; Zhivkov, I.; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.; Pochekailov, S.; Wang, G.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2005), s. 1365-1370 ISSN 1454-4164 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA/036; GA MŠk ME 700 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phthalocyanine * poly[3,4-(ethylenedioxy)thiophene] * electrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Thiourea Derivatives and Their Nickel and Copper Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Akbay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five thiourea derivative ligands and their Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes have been synthesized. The compounds were screened for their in vitro anti-bacterial activity using Gram-positive bacteria (two different standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus and Gram-negative bacteria (Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter aerogenes and in vitro anti-yeast activity (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all ligands and their complexes. In vitro anti-yeast activity of both ligands and their metal complexes is greater than their in vitro anti-bacterial activity. The effect of the structure of the investigated compounds on the antimicrobial activity is discussed.

  20. Self-Assembly of Individually Addressable Complexes of C-60 and Phthalocyanines on a Metal Surface : Structural and Electronic Investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuely, Tomas; Liu, Shi-Xia; Haas, Marco; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A.; Stoehr, Meike

    2009-01-01

    The hosting properties of a close-packed layer of phenoxy-substituted phthalocyanine derivatives adsorbed on Ag(III) were investigated for the adsorption of C-60 molecules. The C-60 molecules bind to two clearly distinguishable sites, namely, to the underlying metal substrate in between two adjacent

  1. Mesocosm validation of the marine No Effect Concentration of dissolved copper derived from a species sensivity distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Kramer, K.J.M.; Long, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for dissolved copper based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) of 24 marine single species tests was validated in marine mesocosms. To achieve this, the impact of actively maintained concentrations of dissolved copper on a marine benthic and

  2. Structure-Stability Relationships of Phthalocyanine Copper Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Shaposhnikov

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of NO2, Br, and COOH function substituents in various positions of Cu(IIPc on the reactivity of the latter concerning the dissociation of the metal - nitrogen bonds in proton donor solvents is discussed.

  3. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  4. Thermal, dielectric characteristics and conduction mechanism of azodyes derived from quinoline and their copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghamaz, N A; Diab, M A; El-Bindary, A A; El-Sonbati, A Z; Nozha, S G

    2015-05-15

    A novel series of (5-(4'-derivatives phenyl azo)-8-hydroxy-7-quinolinecarboxaldehyde) (AQLn) (n=1, p-OCH3; n=2, R=H; and n=3; p-NO2) and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O are synthesized and investigated. The optimized bond lengths, bond angles and the calculated quantum chemical parameters for AQLn are investigated. HOMO-LUMO energy gap, absolute electronegativities, chemical potentials, and absolute hardness are also calculated. The thermal properties, dielectric properties, alternating current conductivity (σac) and conduction mechanism are investigated in the frequency range 0.1-100kHz and temperature range 293-568K for AQL1-3 and 318-693K for [Cu(AQL1-3)2]·5H2O complexes. The thermal properties are of ligands (AQLn) and their Cu(II) complexes investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The temperature and frequency dependence of the real and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant are studied. The values of the thermal activation energy of conduction mechanism for AQLn and their complexes [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O under investigation are calculated at different test frequencies. The values of thermal activation energies ΔE1 and ΔE2 for AQLn and [Cu(AQLn)2]·5H2O decrease with increasing the values of frequency. The ac conductivity is found to be depending on the chemical structure of the compounds. Different conduction mechanisms have been proposed to explain the obtained experimental data. The small polaron tunneling (SPT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL1 and its complex [Cu(AQL1)2]·5H2O. The quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL2 and its complex [Cu(AQL2)2]·5H2O. The correlated barrier hopping (CBH) is the dominant conduction mechanism for AQL3 and its complex [Cu(AQL3)2]·5H2O, and the values of the maximum barrier height (Wm) are calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis of Imidazopyridines via Copper-Catalyzed, Formal Aza-[3 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Pyridine Derivatives with α-Diazo Oxime Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangjune; Kim, Hyunseok; Son, Jeong-Yu; Um, Kyusik; Lee, Sooho; Baek, Yonghyeon; Seo, Boram; Lee, Phil Ho

    2017-10-06

    The Cu-catalyzed, formal aza-[3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of pyridine derivatives with α-diazo oxime ethers in trifluoroethanol was used to synthesize imidazopyridines via the release of molecular nitrogen and elimination of alcohol. These methods enabled modular synthesis of a wide range of N-heterobicyclic compounds such as imidazopyridazines, imidazopyrimidines, and imidazopyrazines with an α-imino Cu-carbenoid generated from the α-diazo oxime ethers and copper.

  6. Ordering of Zn-centered porphyrin and phthalocyanine on TiO2(011: STM studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Olszowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn(IIphthalocyanine molecules (ZnPc were thermally deposited on a rutile TiO2(011 surface and on Zn(IImeso-tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP wetting layers at room temperature and after elevated temperature thermal processing. The molecular homo- and heterostructures were characterized by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM at room temperature and their geometrical arrangement and degree of ordering are compared with the previously studied copper phthalocyanine (CuPc and ZnTPP heterostructures. It was found that the central metal atom may play some role in ordering and growth of phthalocyanine/ZnTPP heterostructures, causing differences in stability of upright standing ZnPc versus CuPc molecular chains at given thermal annealing conditions.

  7. Sulphonated metal phthalocyanine complexes as redox indicators in micro titrations with cerium(IV) sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, H S; Achar, B N [Mysore Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1980-01-01

    Tetrasodium salts of copper(II) 4,4', 4'', 4'''-tetrasulphophthalocyanine 2-hydrate, nickel(II) 4,4', 4'', 4'''-tetrasulphophthalocyanine, nickel(II) 3,3', 3'', 3'''-tetrasulphophthalocyanine and cobalt(II) 4,4', 4'', 4'''-tetrasulphophthalocyanine 2-hydrate, and copper phthalocyanine trisulphonic acid are prepared in pure state. The molar absorptivity and formal redox potentials of the complexes are determined. The complexes are proposed as sensitive redox indicators in the micro determination of iron(II), arsenic(III), molybdenum(V), uranium(IV) and hydroquinone with 0.001-0.0005N cerium(IV) sulphate in sulphuric, hydrochloric and acetic acid media. They give sharp colour change from light turquoise blue to pale purple colour at the equivalence point. They have advantages over a few existing redox indicators.

  8. Synthesis of phthalocyanine doped sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The synthesis of sol-gel silica materials doped with three different types of metallophthalocyanines has been studied. Homogeneous materials of good optical quality were prepared and the first optical limiting measurements of dyes in sol-gel hosts were carried out. The properties of these solid state limiters are similar to limiters based on phthalocyanine (Pc) in solution. Sol-gel silica materials containing copper, tin and germanium phthalocyanines were investigated. The initial step in all cases was to prepare silica sols by the sonogel method using tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), HCl and distilled water. Thereafter, the synthesis depended upon the specific Pc and its solubility characteristics. Copper phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt (CuPc4S) is soluble in water and various doping levels (1 x 10 (exp -4) M to 1 x 10 (exp -5) M) were added to the sol. The group IV Pc's, SnPc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2 and GePc(OSi(n-hexyl)3)2, are insoluble in water and the process was changed accordingly. In these cases, the compounds were dissolved in THF and then added to the sol. The Pc concentration in the sol was 2 x 10(exp -5)M. The samples were then aged and dried in the standard method of making xerogel monoliths. Comparative nanosecond optical limiting experiments were performed on silica xerogels that were doped with the different metallophthalocyanines. The ratio of the net excited state absorption cross section (sigma(sub e)) to the ground state cross section (sigma(sub g)) is an important figure of merit that is used to characterize these materials. By this standard the SnPc sample exhibits the best limiting for the Pc doped sol-gel materials. Its cross section ratio of 19 compares favorably with the value of 22 that was measured in toluene. The GePc materials appear to not be as useful as those containing SnPc. The GePc doped solids exhibit a higher onset energy (2.5 mj and lower cross section ratio, 7. The CuPc4S sol-gel material has a still lower cross

  9. Electronic structures and magnetic/optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Shintaro; Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture. 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic / optical properties of metal phthalocyanine complexes were studied by quantum calculations using density functional theory. Effects of central metal and expansion of π orbital on aromatic ring as conjugation system on the electronic structures, magnetic, optical properties and vibration modes of infrared and Raman spectra of metal phthalocyanines were investigated. Electron and charge density distribution and energy levels near frontier orbital and excited states were influenced by the deformed structures varied with central metal and charge. The magnetic parameters of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C-NMR), principle g-tensor, A-tensor, V-tensor of electric field gradient and asymmetry parameters derived from the deformed structures with magnetic interaction of nuclear quadruple interaction based on electron and charge density distribution with a bias of charge near ligand under crystal field.

  10. Derivation of ecological criteria for copper in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Li, Jumei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Yibing; Smolders, Erik; Zhu, Nanwen

    2016-12-01

    The difference in availability between soil metals added via biosolids and soluble salts was not taken into account in deriving the current land-applied biosolids standards. In the present study, a biosolids availability factor (BAF) approach was adopted to investigate the ecological thresholds for copper (Cu) in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agricultural soils. First, the soil property-specific values of HC5 add (the added hazardous concentration for 5% of species) for Cu 2+ salt amended were collected with due attention to data for organisms and soils relevant to China. Second, a BAF representing the difference in availability between soil Cu added via biosolids and soluble salts was estimated based on long-term biosolid-amended soils, including soils from China. Third, biosolids Cu HC5 input values (the input hazardous concentration for 5% of species of Cu from biosolids to soil) as a function of soil properties were derived using the BAF approach. The average potential availability of Cu in agricultural soils amended with biosolids accounted for 53% of that for the same soils spiked with same amount of soluble Cu salts and with a similar aging time. The cation exchange capacity was the main factor affecting the biosolids Cu HC5 input values, while soil pH and organic carbon only explained 24.2 and 1.5% of the variation, respectively. The biosolids Cu HC5 input values can be accurately predicted by regression models developed based on 2-3 soil properties with coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of 0.889 and 0.945. Compared with model predicted biosolids Cu HC5 input values, current standards (GB4284-84) are most likely to be less protective in acidic and neutral soil, but conservative in alkaline non-calcareous soil. Recommendations on ecological criteria for Cu in land-applied biosolids and biosolid-amended agriculture soils may be helpful to fill the gaps existing between science and regulations, and can be useful for Cu risk assessments in

  11. Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine effectively catalyzes water electrooxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez

    2014-12-08

    Efficient electrocatalysis of water oxidation under mild conditions at neutral pH was achieved by a fluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine immobilized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) surfaces with an onset potential at 1.7 V vs. RHE. Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and inhibition studies indicate that phthalocyanine molecular species are the operational active sites. Neither free cobalt ions nor heterogeneous cobalt oxide particles or films were observed. During long-term controlled-potential electrolysis at 2 V vs. RHE (phosphate buffer, pH 7), electrocatalytic water oxidation was sustained for at least 8 h (TON ≈ 1.0 × 105), producing about 4 μmol O2 h-1 cm-2 with a turnover frequency (TOF) of about 3.6 s-1 and no measurable catalyst degradation.

  12. Sulphonated Phthalocyanines as Effective Oxidation Photocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, P.; Drobek, M.; Strašák, Tomáš; Krýsa, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 272, 1-2 (2008), s. 213-219 ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phthalocyanines * 4-Chlorophenol * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.814, year: 2008

  13. An ultrafast study of Zinc Phthalocyanine in DMSO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ombinda-Lemboumba, Saturnin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafast dynamics of Zinc Phthalocyanine was studied using trasient absorption pump probe spectroscopy. Zinc Phthalocyanine was excited (pumped) at 672nm and probed by a white light continuum. The pump-probe technique used in this study...

  14. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Z.; Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N.; Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T c  = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material

  15. Room temperature ferromagnetism in a phthalocyanine based carbon material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Z., E-mail: honda@fms.saitama-u.ac.jp; Sato, K.; Sakai, M.; Fukuda, T.; Kamata, N. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hagiwara, M.; Kida, T. [KYOKUGEN (Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Conditions), Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-02-07

    We report on a simple method to fabricate a magnetic carbon material that contains nitrogen-coordinated transition metals and has a large magnetic moment. Highly chlorinated iron phthalocyanine was used as building blocks and potassium as a coupling reagent to uniformly disperse nitrogen-coordinated iron atoms on the phthalocyanine based carbon material. The iron phthalocyanine based carbon material exhibits ferromagnetic properties at room temperature and the ferromagnetic phase transition occurs at T{sub c} = 490 ± 10 K. Transmission electron microscopy observation, X-ray diffraction analysis, and the temperature dependence of magnetization suggest that the phthalocyanine molecules form three-dimensional random networks in the iron phthalocyanine based carbon material.

  16. Photodynamics of charge separation and recombination in solid alternating films of phthalocyanine or phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad and perylene dicarboximide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehtivuori, Heli; Kumpulainen, Tatu; Hietala, Matti; Efimov, Alexander; Helge, Lemmetyinen; Kira, Aiko; Imahori, Hiroshi; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.

    2009-01-01

    Alternate bilayer structures of N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4,9,10- perylene dicarboximide (PDI), freebase phthalocyanines (Pc), and double-linked free-base phthalocyanine-fullerene dyad (Pc-C 60) were prepared by the Langmuir-Schäfer method and studied using a range of optical spectroscopy

  17. Synthesis of Copper-Chelates Derived from Amino Acids and Evaluation of Their Efficacy as Copper Source and Growth Stimulator for Lactuca sativa in Nutrient Solution Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchangwat, Narongpol; Dueansawang, Sattawat; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Suttisintong, Khomson

    2017-11-15

    Five tetradentate ligands were synthesized from l-amino acids and utilized for the synthesis of Cu(II)-chelates 1-5. The efficacy of Cu(II)-chelates as copper (Cu) source and growth stimulator in hydroponic cultivation was evaluated with Lactuca sativa. Their stability test was performed at pH 4-10. The results suggested that Cu(II)-chelate 3 is the most pH tolerant complex. Levels of Cu, Zn, and Fe accumulated in plants supplied with Cu(II)-chelates were compared with those supplied with CuSO 4 at the same Cu concentration of 8.0 μM. The results showed that Cu(II)-chelate 3 significantly enhanced Cu, Zn, and Fe content in shoot by 35, 15, and 48%, respectively. Application of Cu(II)-chelate 3 also improved plant dry matter yield by 54%. According to the results, Cu(II)-chelate 3 demonstrated the highest stimulating effect on plant growth and plant mineral accumulation so that it can be used as an alternative to CuSO 4 for supplying Cu in nutrient solutions and enhancing the plant growth.

  18. Resonance Raman spectra of phthalocyanine monolayers on different supports. A normal mode analysis of zinc phthalocyanine by means of the MNDO method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palys, Barbara J.; van den Ham, Dirk M.W.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; Briels, Willem J.; Feil, D.; Feil, Dirk

    1995-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of monolayers of transition metal phthalocyanines reveal specific interaction with the support. To elucidate its mechanism, Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers were studied. The analysis was based largely on the results of MNDO calculations. Calculated wavenumbers

  19. New hyperbranched polytriazoles containing isolation chromophore moieties derived from AB4 monomers through click chemistry under copper(I) catalysis: improved optical transparency and enhanced NLO effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenbo; Ye, Cheng; Yu, Gui; Liu, Yunqi; Qin, Jingui; Li, Zhen

    2012-04-02

    By modifying a synthetic procedure, two new hyperbranched polytriazoles (HP1 and HP2) containing isolation chromophores were synthesized successfully through click chemistry reactions under copper(I) catalysis. For the first time, these two polymers were derived from an AB(4)-type monomer, although they contain different end-capping chromophores. They are soluble in normal polar organic solvents and are well characterized. Thanks to the presence of the isolation chromophore, the two polymers demonstrate good nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and optical transparency, making them promising candidates for practical applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Complexes cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with some newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of some complexes of cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with several newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives (L are reported. The complexes, of the general formula [MCl2L2] (M=Co(II, Zn(II and [CuCl2L(H2O], have a tetrahedral structure. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR and absorption electronic spectra. The antibacterial activitiy of the benzimidazoles and their complexes was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia amylovora. The complexes were found to be more toxic than the ligands.

  1. Side chain polysiloxanes with phthalocyanine moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ganicz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Side chain polysiloxane with 5-(pentyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine moieties is synthesized by hydrosilylation reaction. The phase behavior and thermooptical properties of the polysiloxane and starting 2-(pent-4-enyloxy-3-methyloxy-9,10,16,17,23,24-hexakis(octenyloxyphthalocyanine is examined by POM (Polarizing optical microscopy, TOA (thermooptical analysis, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, AFM (atomic force microscopy and SAXS (small angle X-ray scattering studies. The effect of the attachment of phthalocyanine to polysiloxane chains over phase transitions and phase morphology is discussed in details.

  2. Immobilization of Zinc Phthalocyanines in Silicate Matrices and Investigation of Their Photobactericidal Effect on E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spas Artarsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to immobilize zinc phthalocyanines in a silicate matrix and to test the photobactericidal properties of the matrices so prepared toward Esherichia coli in model aqueous media. For the purpose, tetra tertiary butyl zinc phthalocyanine (TBZnPc and zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcTS were used. The abilities of these two photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen in solution were compared by following the rate of photobleaching of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF at 430 nm in dimethylformamide (DMF.The results of this study show clearly that, under the conditions used here, the TBZnPc is the more effective generator of singlet oxygen; with it the DPBF was virtually completely photobleached in 4 min, while with the ZnPcTS under the same conditions, it took 12 min to reach this point. Glass conjugates with the two phthalocyanines were obtained by the sol-gel technique and were characterized by a well-defined color due to the phthalocyanine incorporated in the silicate matrix. Glasses with an intense, but inhomogeneous, green color were obtained when the tetrasulfonic derivative of the zinc phthalocyanine was used, while blue glasses of evenly distributed coloration were formed from the tetra tertiary butyl derivative.The ZnPcTS conjugate demonstrates more effective singlet oxygen evolution than is the case with the TBZnPc conjugate. These results are the opposite of those obtained for the free phthalocyanines in solution. The structural formulae of the compounds show that TBZnPc has a more pronounced hydrophobic character than the sulfonic derivative. In our view, the relative reactivities of the conjugates can be explained by the tetrasulfonic derivative being situated mainly in the surface parts of the glass matrix where the hydrophilic character is prevailing, while the tertiary butyl derivative is mainly present in the internal parts of the matrix as a result of which it is less accessible and

  3. The composite phthalocyanine-based Langmuir-Blodgett films: structural peculiarities and NO-sensitive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, I.L.; Khatko, V.V. [Nat. Acad. of Sci., Minsk (Belarus). Phys. Tech. Inst.

    1999-10-08

    Surface pressure versus area per molecule isotherms of the Langmuir monolayers of copper tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine (abbreviated as CuTTBPc), arachidic acid (abbreviated as AA), and their mixtures were measured depending upon the film component ratio and ionic content of the subphase. Substantial deviations of the mixed monolayer behaviour from an ideal one, which is characteristic of fully immiscible compounds forming separate surface domains on the liquid subphase, were observed if the molar fraction of AA in mixed monolayers exceeded 50%. This abnormality in the monolayer behaviour correlated with the drastic changes in the kinetics responses to NO gas of the sensors based on the mixed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. The comparison and analysis of the results obtained suggest that the gas-sensitive properties of the two-component LB films are determined by two features of their structure, namely, hole-like defects existing in the AA matrix and interlayer cavities. The corresponding structure model of the mixed films is proposed. The results obtained may be useful for understanding the gas-sensitive mechanism of the composite phthalocyanine-based LB films. (orig.)

  4. Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hutzler, Christoph; Laux, Peter; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Luch, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace—gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS—GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC—ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm2 skin.

  5. Photoinduced electron transfer between the dendritic zinc phthalocyanines and anthraquinone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuizhi; Wen, Junri; Liu, Jiangsheng; Chen, Zhenzhen; Pan, Sujuan; Huang, Zheng; Peng, Yiru

    2015-03-01

    The intermolecular electron transfer between the novel dendritic zinc (II) phthalocyanines (G1-DPcB and G2-DPcB) and anthraquinone (AQ) was studied by steady-state fluorescence and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopic methods. The effect of dendron generation on intermolecular electron transfer was investigated. The results showed that the fluorescence emission of these dendritic phthalocyanines could be greatly quenched by AQ upon excitation at 610 nm. The Stern- Volmer constant (KSV) of electron transfer was decreased with increasing the dendron generations. Our study suggested that these novel dendritic phthalocyanines were effective new electron donors and transmission complexes and could be used as a potential artifical photosysthesis system.

  6. Photophysical studies of zinc phthalocyanine and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine incorporated into liposomes in the presence of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.T. Nunes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The photophysical properties of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPC and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlPHCl incorporated into liposomes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine in the presence and absence of additives such as cholesterol or cardiolipin were studied by time-resolved fluorescence, laser flash photolysis and steady-state techniques. The absorbance of the drugs changed linearly with drug concentration, at least up to 5.0 µM in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, indicating that aggregation did not occur in these media within this concentration range. The incorporation of the drugs into liposomes increases the dimerization constant by one order of magnitude (for ZnPC, 3.6 x 10(4 to 1.0 x 10(5 M-1 and for AlPHCl, 3.7 x 10(4 to 1.5 x 10(5 M-1, but this feature dose does not rule out the use of this carrier, since the incorporation of these hydrophobic drugs into liposomes permits their systemic administration. Probe location in biological membranes and predominant positions of the phthalocyanines in liposomes were inferred on the basis of their fluorescence and triplet state properties. Both phthalocyanines are preferentially distributed in the internal regions of the liposome bilayer. The additives affect the distribution of these drugs within the liposomes, a fact that controls their delivery when both are used in a biological medium, retarding their release. The addition of the additives to the liposomes increases the internalization of phthalocyanines. The interaction of the drugs with a plasma protein, bovine serum albumin, was examined quantitatively by the fluorescence technique. The results show that when the drugs were incorporated into small unilamellar liposomes, the association with albumin was enhanced when compared with organic media, a fact that should increase the selectivity of tumor targeting by these phthalocyanines (for ZnPC, 0.71 x 10(6 to 1.30 x 10(7 M-1 and for AlPHCl, 4.86 x 10(7 to 3.10 x 10(8 M-1.

  7. The effect of the triblock properties on the morphologies and photophysical properties of nanoparticle loaded with carboxylic dendrimer phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Huafei; Chen, Zhe; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Zhang, Tiantian; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging alternative treatment for various cancers and age-related macular degeneration. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) and their substituted derivatives are under intensive investigation as the second generation photosensitizers. A big challenge for the application of Pcs is poor solubility and limited accumulation in the tumor tissues, which severely reduced its PDT efficacy. Nano-delivery systems such as polymeric micelles are promising tools for increasing the solubility and improving delivery efficiency of Pcs for PDT application. In this paper, nanoparticles of amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) were developed to encapsulate 1-2 generation carboxylic poly (benzyl aryl ether) dendrimer. The morphologies and photophysical properties of polymeric nanoparticles loaded with 1-2 generation dendritic phthalocyanines (G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m) were studied by AFM, UV/Vis and fluorescent spectroscopic method. The morphologies of self-assembled PLL-PEG-PLL aggregates exhibited concentration dependence. Its morphologies changed from cocoon-like to spheral. The diameters of G1-ZnPc(COOH)8/m and G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m were in the range of 33-147 nm, increasing with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. The morphologies of G2-ZnPc(COOH)16/m also changed from cocoon-like to sphere with the increase of the concentration of PLL-PEG-PLL. It was found that, the no obviously Q change was observed between the free phthalocyanines and nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity of polymer nanoparticles were higher enhanced compared with free dendritic phthalocyanines. The dendrimer phthalocyanine loaded with poly(L-lysine)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(L-lysine) presented suitable physical stability, improved photophysical properties suggesting it may be considered as a promising formulation for PDT.

  8. Specific anion effects on copper surface through electrochemical treatment: Enhanced photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction activity of derived nanostructures induced by chaotropic anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaee, Aso; Salimi, Abdollah

    2018-05-01

    Copper derivatives are the most prominent CO2 reduction electrocatalyst. Herein, the metallic copper has been electrochemically treated with some of common ionic salts such as N3bar, HPO2bar, S2bar, Fbar, Clbar, Brbar and Ibar based on the dissolution of a metallic working electrode in an aqueous solution to derive the surface roughness incorporated with nanostructures. Diverse surface morphology can be obtained when the ionic radii of anions are changed. Surface study reveals various roughness shapes based on the size and polarity of the anions, where the ions with higher ionic radii have higher impact on the Cu surface. In comparison, polyatomic oxyanion such as HPO2bar even with large ionic radii do not have enough strength to create the surface roughness than that of oxygen-free anions with large ionic radii. The photoelectrochemical behavior of the modified surfaces toward CO2 reduction is studied at a wide potential window in bicarbonate aqueous solution. Based on our investigations, treated surfaces by Ibar, Clbar and S2bargive a more surface roughness, while Ibar and N3bar offer higher catalytic activity toward CO2 reduction due to possible complexing ability of these anions with Cu cations, followed by formation of the co-catalyst semiconductor and facilitate electron transfer. This methodology can be applied to investigate the effect of ions on transition metals along with obtaining different surface morphologies tailored to different applications.

  9. Interface properties of Fe/MgO/Cu-phthalocyanine metal-insulator-organic semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nyunjong; Bae, Yujeong; Kim, Taehee; Ito, Eisuke; Hara, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid interface structures consisting of organic copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ferromagnetic metal Fe(001) with and without a MgO(001) cover were investigated by using surface sensitive techniques of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. A systematic study of the energy level alignment at the interfaces was carried out. For the hybrid interfaces considered here, our results indicate that the insertion of an artificially-grown ultra-thin oxide layer MgO(001) can prevent Femi level pinning and induce a rather large interface dipole, thereby resulting in remarkable CuPc Fermi level shifts when the thickness of the CuPc film is less than 3 nm. This study provides a better understanding of spin filtering in MgO-based organic spin devices and a new way to alter the interface electronic structure of metal/organic semiconductor hybrid systems.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of silver(I) and copper(II) complexes of phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowska-Lis, Urszula; Szewczyk, Eligia M; Chęcińska, Lilianna; Wojciechowski, Jakub M; Wolf, Wojciech M; Ochocki, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    Two silver(I) complexes--[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}(n) and [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃--and three copper(II) complexes--[Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄], [CuCl₂(4-pmOpe)₂], and [CuCl₂(2-bis(pm)Ope]--were synthesized by reaction of silver(I) nitrate or copper(II) chloride with phosphate derivatives of pyridine and benzimidazole, namely diethyl (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)phosphate (4-pmOpe), 1H-benzimidazol-2-ylmethyl diethyl phosphate (2-bimOpe), and ethyl bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)phosphate (2-bis(pm)Ope). These compounds were characterized by ¹H, ¹³C, and ³¹P NMR as well as IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and ESIMS spectrometry. Additionally, molecular and crystal structures of {[Ag(4-pmOpe)]NO₃}n and [Cu₄Cl₆O(2-bimOpe)₄] were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The antimicrobial profiles of synthesized complexes and free ligands against test organisms from the ATCC and clinical sources were determined. Silver(I) complexes showed good antimicrobial activities against Candida albicans strains (MIC values of ∼19 μM). [Ag(2-bimOpe)₂]NO₃ was particularly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, with MIC values of ∼5 and ∼10 μM, respectively. Neither copper(II) complexes nor the free ligands inhibited the growth of test organisms at concentrations below 500 μg mL⁻¹. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M M; Eckern, U; Romero, A H; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S–Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  12. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    KAUST Repository

    Fadlallah, M M

    2015-12-21

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S–Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  13. Exciplex mediated photoinduced electron transfer reactions of phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Efimov, Alexander; Lehtivuori, Heli; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Evidences of an intramolecular exciplex intermediate in a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction of double-linked free-base and zinc phthalocyanine-C-60 dyads were found. This was the first time for a dyad with phthalocyanine donor. Excitation of the phthalocyanine moiety of the dyads results

  14. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich [Moscow, RU; Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich [Moscow, RU; Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich [Moscow, RU; Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich [Moscow, RU; Tilkunova, Nataliya Alexandrovna [Moscow, RU; Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna [Moscow, RU

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  15. Selective adsorption of silver(I) ions over copper(II) ions on a sulfoethyl derivative of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Yulia S; Pestov, Alexandr V; Usoltseva, Maria K; Neudachina, Ludmila K

    2015-12-15

    This study presents a simple and effective method of preparation of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan (NSE-chitosan) that allows obtaining a product with a degree of modification up to 1.0. The chemical structure of the obtained polymers was confirmed by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopies. Cross-linking of N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosans by glutaraldehyde allows preparation of sorbents for removal and concentration of metal ions. Capacity of sorbents towards hydroxide ions was determined depending on the degree of sulfoethylation under static and dynamic conditions. Dissociation constants of functional amino groups of the analyzed sorbents were determined by potentiometric titration. It was shown that basicity of the amino groups decreased (wherein pKa decreased from 6.53 to 5.67) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation. It explains the significant influence of sulfo groups on selectivity of sorption of metal ions on N-(2-sulfoethyl) chitosan-based sorbents. The investigated substances selectively remove copper(II) and silver(I) ions from solutions of complex composition. Wherein the selectivity coefficient KAg/Cu increased to 20 (pH 6.5, ammonium acetate buffer solution) with increase in degree of sulfoethylation of the sorbent up to 1.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iron Oxide-Supported Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (Nanocat-Fe-CuO): Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts for the Synthesis of Pyrazole Derivatives, 4-Methoxyaniline, and Ullmann-type Condensation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient and benign protocol is reported for the synthesis of 4-methoxyaniline, medicinally important pyrazole derivatives, and Ullmann-type condensation reaction using magnetically separable and reusable magnetite-supported copper (nanocat-Fe-CuO) nanoparticles under mild co...

  17. Photoelectric characteristics of lead phthalocyanine/titanium oxide structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, A K; Hodgson, S N B

    2003-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the conduction, charge transfer/electron injection and photovoltaic conversion properties of TiO sub 2 -lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) heterojunctions. The results indicate that although the heterojunction area, and hence overall conversion efficiency, was low for the planar device structures used in the investigation, electron injection and effective charge separation across the dye-TiO sub 2 interface was achieved, with open circuit voltages in the region of 0.3 V. The conversion efficiency was found to be a function of the thickness of the phthalocyanine layer, increasing by a factor of more than 30 times as the thickness of the dye layer was reduced from 500 to 100 nm. The results suggest that under appropriate deposition conditions, to ensure effective coating of the inorganic phase, such phthalocyanine dyes may offer potential for use in dye sensitized photovoltaic cells.

  18. Enhancement of device performance of organic solar cells by an interfacial perylene derivative layer

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho; Haverinen, Hanna M.; Li, Jian; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2010-01-01

    We report that device performance of organic solar cells consisting of zinc phthalocyanine and fullerene (C60) can be enhanced by insertion of a perylene derivative interfacial layer between fullerene and bathocuproine (BCP) exciton blocking layer

  19. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  20. On the role of a solvent in complexing of copper (1) and cadmium(2) with thiourea derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movchan, V.V.; Tulyupa, F.M.; Bajbarova, E.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Potentometric method has been employed to study the complex formation of Cu(1) and Cd(2) with certain thiourea derivatiVes in water mixtures with formamide and dimethylsulfoxide. The stepwise constants of formation are calculated. Complex compounds in the solid state were isolated from dimethylsulfoxide and formamide solutions. Their composition and thermal stability were determined and infrared spectra recorded. The effect of the solvent on the composition and stability of the forming complexes is not simple, and involves essential stages of solvatation of the complex particle and formation of mixed complexes [Me(Lsub(n)Sm]sup(k+)

  1. The use of chloroaluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS) for time-delayed fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundy, Sarah; Putten, Wil van der; Shearer, Andy; Buckton, Daniel; Ryder, Alan G; Ball, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Phthalocyanine derivatives are currently under investigation for use in photodynamic therapy, which is a promising cancer treatment. These materials, which display preferential uptake in cancerous cells, also exhibit high fluorescence yields and can be used for tumour detection. Problems with steady-state fluorescence techniques such as excitation scatter and background autofluorescence can be eliminated by using time-resolved imaging techniques without the need for filters. A tissue phantom was assembled to test a constructed time-gated imaging system by drilling 36 wells of varying diameter and depth (10 mm to 1 mm) into a block of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The system was used to record images of chloroaluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcTS) at differing concentrations in neat aqueous solvent and cell suspensions within the wells. A mixture of Intralipid (to mimic tissue scatter) and Evan's blue (to mimic tissue absorption) of depths ranging from 1 mm to 10 mm was placed on top of the PMMA block. The ensuing images were analysed using signal-to-noise ratios and contrast-detail curves. The results indicate that the time-gated imaging system can prevent background excitation scatter from distorting the fluorescence signal from a longer-lived photosensitizer without the need for filters

  2. A novel colorimetric probe derived from isonicotic acid hydrazide for copper (II) determination based on internal charge transfer (ICT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Fei, Qiang; Fei, Yanqun; Fan, Qian; Shan, Hongyan; Feng, Guodong; Huan, Yanfu

    2015-12-05

    A novel isonicotic acid hydrazide Schiff base derivative N'-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-benzylidene) isonicotinohydrazide (DHIH) has been synthesized and developed as a high selective and sensitive colorimetric probe for Cu(2+) determination. Addition of Cu(2+) to the solution of DHIH resulted in a rapid color change from colorless to yellow together with an obvious new absorption band appeared at the range of 400-440 nm by forming a 1:1 complex. Experimental results indicated that the DHIH could provide absorption response to Cu(2+) with a linear dynamic range from 1.0×10(-5) to 1.0×10(-4)mol/L. The detection limit of Cu(2+) was 5.24×10(-7)mol/L with good tolerance of other metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Schiff base-derived copper (II) complex is a potent inducer of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by activating the intrinsic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Zahedifard, Maryam; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Metal-based drugs with extensive clinical applications hold great promise for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the last few decades, Schiff bases and their complexes have become well known for their extensive biological potential. In the present study, we examined the antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.87  μg/ml after 72 h of treatment. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death, as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell population. At a concentration of 6.25  μg/ml, the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex-induced apoptosis, which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, there was no significant activation of caspase-8. Taken together, these results imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from metal-based agents.

  4. Active and passive control of zinc phthalocyanine photodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Divya; Huijser, Jannetje Maria; Savolainen, Janne; Steen, Gerrit Willem; Herek, Jennifer Lynn

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report on the ultrafast photodynamics of the photosensitizer zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and manipulation thereof. Two approaches are followed: active control via pulse shaping and passive control via strategic manipulation in the periphery of the molecular structure. The objective of

  5. Unsymmetrical extended π-conjugated zinc phthalocyanine for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    mental compatibility compared to the ruthenium dyes. 2–6 ... for the development of efficient light-to-energy con- version devices. .... solution and compared to that of the phthalocyanine adsorbed onto 2 μm .... of dark current. 25. In this study ...

  6. Environmentally Friendly Phthalocyanine Catalysts for Water Decontamination - Non Photocatalytic Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klusoň, Petr; Drobek, M.; Zsigmond, A.; Baranyi, J.; Bata, P.; Zárubová, Š.; Kalaji, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 91, 3-4 (2009), s. 605-609 ISSN 0926-3373 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/03/H140; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : phthalocyanines * phenol * chlorophenols Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.252, year: 2009

  7. Photosensitive heterostructures made of sulfonamide zinc phthalocyanine and organic semiconductor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lutsyk, P.; Vertsimakha, Ya.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Pomaz, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 535, - (2011), s. 18-29 ISSN 1542-1406 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : heterostructure * reversal of sign in photovoltage spectra * sulphonamide-substituted phthalocyanine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.580, year: 2011

  8. Covalent Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube by Tetrasubtituted Amino Manganese Phthalocyanine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Long YANG; Hong Zheng CHEN; Lei CAO; Han Yin LI; Mang WANG

    2004-01-01

    The multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) bonded to 2, 9, 16, 23-tetraamino manganese phthalocyanine (TAMnPc) was obtained by covalent functionalization, and its chemical structure was characterized by TEM. The photoconductivity of single-layered photoreceptors, where MWCNT bonded by TAMnPc (MWCNT-b-TAMnPc) served as the charge generation material (CGM), was also studied.

  9. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H(sub 2) separation. These membranes consist of a thin ((approx)10(micro)m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H(sub 2) separation, and resist poisoning by H(sub 2)S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) alloy membranes on porous supports for H(sub 2) separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H(sub 2) flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H(sub 2) flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems

  10. Development of Smart Phthalocyanine-based Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yun Sang

    Phthalocyanines are versatile functional dyes that have shown great potential in cancer theranostics, especially in photodynamic therapy (PDT). This research work aims to develop "smart" phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers for targeted PDT. This thesis describes the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of carefully designed phthalocyanine-based photosensitizers. Chapter 1 presents an overview of PDT, including its historical development, photophysical mechanisms, and biological mechanisms. Various classes of photosensitizers are introduced with emphasis putting on phthalocyanines, which exhibit ideal characteristics of photosensitizers for PDT. In recent years, several approaches have been used to develop photosensitizers with higher tumor selectivity and minimal skin photosensitivity after PDT. Activatable photosensitizers can provide a "turn on" mechanism to offer an additional control of the specificity of treatment. Photosensitizers can also work cooperatively with the tumor-targeting groups or anticancer drugs so as to achieve targeted or dual therapy, which can enhance the efficacy of PDT. The novel approaches mentioned above have been widely used and combined to form multi-functional photosensitizing agents. These novel concepts and development of PDT are discussed and illustrated with relevant examples at the end of this chapter. To minimize the prolonged skin photosensitivity, photosensitizers that can only be activated by tumor-associated stimuli have been developed. Due to the abnormal metabolism in tumor tissues, their surface usually exhibits a lower pH compared to that of the normal tissues. Also, the pH difference between the intracellular and the physiological environment provides a pH-activation mechanism. Chapter 2 presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of a pH-responsive zinc(II) phthalocyanine tetramer, in which the phthalocyanine units

  11. Control of in-plane orientation of phthalocyanine molecular columns using vicinal Si(001)-(2x1)-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Matsunobe, Takeshi; Tokumoto, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    In-plane crystal orientation of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) films formed by organic molecular-beam epitaxy have been successfully controlled by using vicinal Si(001)-(2x1)-H as a substrate, containing atomic steps of an approximately 4 nm period. A continuous film was grown at 60 degree C and the film thickness ranged between 5 and 8 molecular layers. By observing a frictional force image of the film, 90% of the molecular columns were found to align across the substrate step rows. The preferential orientation is considered to be induced by artificial surface lattices, which result from the striped effective contact area between the rigid CuPc crystals and the stair-like surfaces. The anisotropic optical properties of the film have been also confirmed by polarized reflection measurements. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Layer-by-layer assembled highly absorbing hundred-layer films containing a phthalocyanine dye: Fabrication and photosensibilization by thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, Alena S.; Volkova, Elena K.; Bratashov, Daniil N.; Shishkin, Mikhail I.; Atkin, Vsevolod S.; Markin, Aleksey V.; Skaptsov, Aleksandr A.; Volodkin, Dmitry V.; Gorin, Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Highly absorbing hundred-layer films based on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) of various molecular weights and on sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcTs) were prepared using layer-by-layer assembly. The multilayer films grew linearly up to 54 bilayers, indicating that the same amount of CuPcTs was adsorbed at each deposition step. This amount, however, was dependent on the molecular weight of PDADMAC in the range 100-500 kDa: the higher the molecular weight, the more CuPcTs molecules were adsorbed. This can be explained by the larger surface charge number density specific to longer polymer chains. Domains of pure PDADMAC and of the PDADMAC/CuPcTs complex were formed in the films during the assembly. Uniform distribution of CuPcTs over the films could be achieved by thermal treatment, leading to an α → β phase transition in phthalocyanine at 300 °C. Annealing caused changes in the film absorbance spectra, resulting in a 30-nm red shift of the peak maxima and in a strong (up to 62%) decrease in optical density. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed thermodegradation of PDADMAC during annealing above 270 °C, giving rise to micrometer-sized cracks within the films, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • The films exhibit the linear dependence of the adsorption on the bilayer number varied from 2 until 54. • Polyelectrolyte of the highest MW shows the maximal adsorption of copper phthalocyanine molecules. • Annealing of the films causes a red-shift of the maxima in the absorbance spectra. • Cracks and micropores emerged in the multilayer films during the annealing

  13. Some features of the molecular assembly of copper porphyrazines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkova, L.; Borovkov, N.; Kopranenkov, V.; Pisani, M.; Bossi, M.; Rustichelli, F.

    2002-01-01

    Floating layers and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of copper porphyrazine (CuPaz) and its tetra-tert-butyl-substituted homologue (CuPaz') are studied. Contrary to phthalocyanines, the monolayer phase in the porphyrazine layers is metastable and transforms directly into the tetralayer one under moderate compression. In diffraction patterns and electronic spectra of the LB films, supramolecular peaks indicating collectivizing of the molecular electron density in direction perpendicular to the main axis of the macrocycle are found. The data obtained indicate the prismatic 3-D supermolecule to be the simplest structural unit of the porphyrazine assembly

  14. Dynamical propagation of nanosecond pulses in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Quan, E-mail: qmiao2013@yahoo.com [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Liang, Min; Liu, Qixin [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Wang, Jing-Jing [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); Sun, Erping; Xu, Yan [College of Electronics, Communication and Physics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China); College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, Shandong (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We study the dynamical processes of nanoseconds lasers in Naphthalocyanines and Phthalocyanines. • We provide theoretical evidences of the main mechanism of optical power limiting. • The central metals play more important roles in the dynamical processes. • The main reason is the central metals enhance the spin–orbit coupling. - Abstract: Dynamical propagation and optical limiting of nanosecond pulses in peripherally substituted Naphthalocyanines (Npcs) and Phthalocyanines (Pcs) with central metals gallium and indium were theoretically studied using paraxial field and rate equations. The results demonstrated that both Npcs and Pcs have good optical limiting performances, and Npc with heavier central mental indium shows better optical limiting properities due to the stronger reverse saturable absorption, which is mainly strengthened by the larger one-photo absorption cross section of excited state and the faster intersystem crossing rate.

  15. Characterization of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of an octasubstituted zinc phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrent-Burgués, J.; Cea, P.; Giner, I.; Guaus, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of a substituted ZnPc (octakis(oxyoctyl)phthalocyanine of zinc), and their characterization by means of several techniques. These characterization techniques include surface pressure (π-A) and surface potential (ΔV-A) isotherms as well as UV–vis Reflection spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) for the films at the air–water interface together with UV–vis absorption and IR spectroscopies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for the LB films. The π-A and ΔV-A isotherms and BAM images indicate a phase transition at a surface pressure of ca. 9 mN/m and a multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m; at a surface pressure around 27 mN/m a disordered collapse of the film occurs. In addition, AFM images of LB films at π = 10 mN/m and π = 20 mN/m show a monomolecular and a multilayered film, respectively. The comparison of the UV–vis spectrum of ZnPc in solution, the reflection spectra of the Langmuir films and UV–vis spectra of LB films reveals a significant reduction in the Q band intensity for the films, indicative of an organization of ZnPc in the Langmuir and LB films versus the random distribution in solution. The UV–vis Reflection spectra are also consistent with multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m. The relative intensities of the IR spectrum bands change from the KBr pellet to the LB film which is also attributable to orientation effects in the film. Cyclic voltammetric experiments of LB films incorporating the ZnPc derivative show peaks that can be correlated with redox processes occurring in the phthalocyanine ring. A small but significant influence of the surface pressure and the number of deposited layers in the electrochemical behaviour is observed. The electrochemical response of cast films exhibits some differences with respect to that of LB films which have been attributed to their different molecular

  16. Characterization of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett films of an octasubstituted zinc phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent-Burgués, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Bioenginyeria de Catalunya (IBEC), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cea, P. [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA) y Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Edificio i+d, Campus Rio Ebro, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor, s/n, 50017 Zaragoza (Spain); Giner, I. [Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Guaus, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C/Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    In this work we report the fabrication of Langmuir and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of a substituted ZnPc (octakis(oxyoctyl)phthalocyanine of zinc), and their characterization by means of several techniques. These characterization techniques include surface pressure (π-A) and surface potential (ΔV-A) isotherms as well as UV–vis Reflection spectroscopy and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) for the films at the air–water interface together with UV–vis absorption and IR spectroscopies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for the LB films. The π-A and ΔV-A isotherms and BAM images indicate a phase transition at a surface pressure of ca. 9 mN/m and a multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m; at a surface pressure around 27 mN/m a disordered collapse of the film occurs. In addition, AFM images of LB films at π = 10 mN/m and π = 20 mN/m show a monomolecular and a multilayered film, respectively. The comparison of the UV–vis spectrum of ZnPc in solution, the reflection spectra of the Langmuir films and UV–vis spectra of LB films reveals a significant reduction in the Q band intensity for the films, indicative of an organization of ZnPc in the Langmuir and LB films versus the random distribution in solution. The UV–vis Reflection spectra are also consistent with multilayer formation at surface pressures around 19–20 mN/m. The relative intensities of the IR spectrum bands change from the KBr pellet to the LB film which is also attributable to orientation effects in the film. Cyclic voltammetric experiments of LB films incorporating the ZnPc derivative show peaks that can be correlated with redox processes occurring in the phthalocyanine ring. A small but significant influence of the surface pressure and the number of deposited layers in the electrochemical behaviour is observed. The electrochemical response of cast films exhibits some differences with respect to that of LB films which have been attributed to their different molecular

  17. Synthesis and spectral properties of europium phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, K.N.; Bazyakina, N.L.; Kutyreva, V.V.; Suvorova, O.N.; Domrachev, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of europium monophthalocyanic complexes with thenoyltrifluroacetonate (tta) and ferrocenoyltrifluoroacetate (fta) ligands has been considered. Spectral characteristics of complexes PcEu(tta)(ttaH) and PcEu(fta)(ftaH) (Pc - phthalocyanine ligand) have been investigated. One of β-diketonate ligand is proposed to bind with europium ion covalently, and the second ligand saturates coordination sphere of europium due to donor-acceptor binding [ru

  18. Laser deposition of sulfonated phthalocyanines for gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, Přemysl; Vrňata, M.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Škodová, J.; Bulíř, Jiří; Novotný, Michal; Pokorný, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 302, MAY (2014), s. 37-41 ISSN 0169-4332. [European-Materials-Research-Society Symposium on Laser Material Interactions for Micro- and Nano- Applications /5./. Strasbourg, 27.05.2013-31.05.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation * substituted phthalocyanine s * gas sensors * impedance measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  19. Electronic and gas sensing properties of soluble phthalocyanines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pochekaylov, Sergey; Rais, David; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2009), s. 781-795 ISSN 0137-1339. [International Conference on Electtrical and Related Properties of Organic Solids /11./. Wroclaw, 13.07.2008-17.07.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : substituted phthalocyanine * nitrogen dioxide sensor * optical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.384, year: 2009

  20. Supramolecular assemblies of pyridyl porphyrin and diazadithia phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OZER BEKAROGLU

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report for the first time on a mixed complex between the cationic porphyrin 5, 10, 15, 20-tetra-N- -methyl-pyrydinium-p-il porphyrin (TMPyP and a new metal phthalocyanine with four 16-membered diazadithia macrocycles (denoted here as Pc16, in order to obtain an active complex with an intense absorption on the lower energy side of the visible spectrum and with a higher sensitivity in photodynamic therapy of cancer. The dimerization constant for Pc16 and also the ratio between the oscillator strengths for monomeric and dimeric forms of this compound, were evaluated. The ratio between these oscillator strengths was 2.01 showing a certain dimerization process. The Job mathematical method allowed the establishment of the stoichiometry and the formation constants for the heteroaggregates between the porphyrin and the phthalocy- anine (a diad between one phthalocyanine molecule and one porphyrin molecule and a triad between two phthalocyanine molecules and only one porphyrin molecule. The coulombic attraction resulting from the p-p interaction of the two highly conjugated macrocycles and from the interaction between the substituents, favors a face-to-face geometry.

  1. Photophysical properties of a novel axially substituted tetra-α-(pentyloxy) Titanium(IV) Phthalocyanine - Hematoxylin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yufeng; Lv, Huafei; Yu, Xinxin; Pan, Sujuan; Zhang, Tiantian; Huang, Yide; Wang, Yuhua; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2017-06-01

    Metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) are a very important class of widespread application compounds. They are not only used as dyes but also used as catalysts, data storage, electron charge carriers in photocopiers, photoconductors in chemical sensors, and photo-antenna devices in photosysthesis, photovoltaic cells. A particular application of Pcs is that it was used as a photosensitizers (PS) for treatment of certain cancer by photodynamic therapy of cancer and non-cancer diseases. However, the molecular aggregation of phthalocyanines, which is an intrinsic property of these large π-π conjugated systems, provides an efficient non-radioactive energy relaxation pathway, thereby shortening the excited state lifetimes, and reducing the photosensitizing and target efficiency. To overcome these problems, the introduction of axial ligands to phthalocyanine can prevent the formation of aggregation to some extend. In this paper, hematoxylin axially substituted tetra-α-(pentoxy) titanium (IV) phthalocyanine (TiPc(OC5H11)4-Hematoxylin) were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, fluorescence spectra. No obviously Q band change was observed after the hematoxylin was substituted at the peripheral position of substituted phthalocyanine ring. Because of the rigidity structure of the hematoxylin, the fluorescence intensity of hematoxylin peripheral substituted phthalocyanine decreased compared with free substituted phthalocyanines. The fluorescence lifetimes of axially substituted phthalocyanine was fitted to be 3.613 ns. This compound may be considered as a promising photosensitizer for PDT.

  2. Localization Study of Co-Phthalocyanines in Cells by Raman Micro(spectro)scopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzhantsev, S.Y.; Arzhantsev, S.Y.; Chikishev, A.Y.; Chikishev, A.Y.; Koroteev, N.I.; Greve, Jan; Otto, Cornelis; Sijtsema, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of intracellular localization of Co-phthalocyanines is reported. The Raman images of K562 cells stained with phthalocyanine were acquired. To understand the peculiarities of the Raman images, measurements were performed at different z-axis positions. The intracellular concentration

  3. Localization study of Co-phthalocyanines in cells by Raman micro(spectro)scopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arzhantsev, S Y; Chikishev, A Y; Koroteev, N I; Greve, J; Otto, C; Sijtsema, N M

    An investigation of intracellular localization of Co-phthalocyanines is reported. The Raman images of K562 cells stained with phthalocyanine were acquired. To understand the peculiarities of the Raman images, measurements were performed at different z-axis positions. The intracellular concentration

  4. Photoinduced charge and energy transfer in phthalocyanine-functionalized gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotiaho, Anne; Lahtinen, Riikka; Efimov, Alexander; Metsberg, Hanna Kaisa; Sariola, Essi; Lehtivuori, Heli; Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Photoinduced processes in phthalocyanine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (Pc-AuNPs) have been investigated by spectroscopic measurements. The metal-free phthalocyanines used have two linkers with thioacetate groups for bonding to the gold nanoparticle surface, and the attachment was achieved using

  5. Synthesis of phthalocyanine conjugates with gold nanoparticles and liposomes for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nombona, N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available -damage of cancer cells. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phototoxicity of the photosensitizer were assessed. Healthy fibroblast cells and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells were treated with either free phthalocyanine or phthalocyanine bound to either...

  6. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  7. Negative differential resistance in nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine and nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine/graphene oxide ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arup; Suresh, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    We find negative differential resistance (NDR) at room temperature in ultrathin films of nickel (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine [NiPc(OBu)8] deposited on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrate [NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG] and NiPc(OBu)8 on graphene oxide (GO) deposited on HOPG [NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG]. For the NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG system, NiPc(OBu)8 was transferred four times onto HOPG by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. We have prepared a stable Langmuir monolayer of amphiphilic GO at the air-water interface and transferred it onto HOPG by the LB technique. Further, the monolayer of NiPc(OBu)8 was transferred four times for good coverage on GO to obtain the NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG system. The current-voltage characteristics were carried out using a current sensing atomic force microscope (CSAFM) with a platinum (Pt) tip that forms Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/HOPG and Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG junctions. The CSAFM, UV-visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry studies show that the NDR effect occurs due to molecular resonant tunneling. In the Pt/NiPc(OBu)8/GO/HOPG junction, we find that due to the presence of GO, the features of NDR become more prominent. Also, GO causes a shift in NDR voltage towards a lower value in the negative bias direction. We attribute this behavior to the role of GO in injecting holes into the NiPc(OBu)8 film.

  8. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K.; Sithambaresan, M.; Aiswarya, N.; Kurup, M. R. Prathapachandra

    2015-03-01

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N4-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ = 0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)sbnd I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the dx2-y2 ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined.

  9. Synthesis and spectral characterization of mono- and binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from 2-benzoylpyridine-N⁴-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: crystal structure of a novel sulfur bridged copper(II) box-dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, K; Sithambaresan, M; Aiswarya, N; Kurup, M R Prathapachandra

    2015-03-15

    Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of 2-benzoylpyridine-N(4)-methyl thiosemicarbazone (HL) were prepared and characterized by a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Structural evidence for the novel sulfur bridged copper(II) iodo binuclear complex is obtained by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex [Cu2L2I2], a non-centrosymmetric box dimer, crystallizes in monoclinic C2/c space group and it was found to have distorted square pyramidal geometry (Addison parameter, τ=0.238) with the square basal plane occupied by the thiosemicarbazone moiety and iodine atom whereas the sulfur atom from the other coordinated thiosemicarbazone moiety occupies the apical position. This is the first crystallographically studied system having non-centrosymmetrical entities bridged via thiolate S atoms with Cu(II)I bond. The tridentate thiosemicarbazone coordinates in mono deprotonated thionic tautomeric form in all complexes except in sulfato complex, [Cu(HL)(SO4)]·H2O (1) where it binds to the metal centre in neutral form. The magnetic moment values and the EPR spectral studies reflect the binuclearity of some of the complexes. The spin Hamiltonian and bonding parameters are calculated based on EPR studies. In all the complexes g||>g⊥>2.0023 and the g values in frozen DMF are consistent with the d(x2-y2) ground state. The thermal stabilities of some of the complexes were also determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a 4,4'-bipyridine Linked Dinuclear Copper(II) Complex Derived from 2-{[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)ethylimino]methyl}-6-methylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Gu, Yitong; Li, Yuntong; Liu, Andong; Liu, Fuyao; You, Zhonglu; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2016-12-01

    A novel 4,4'-bipyridine linked dinuclear copper(II) complex, [Cu2L2(bipy)](NO3)2·bipy (L = 2-[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylimino]methyl-6-methylphenol; bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine), was prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cu···Cu distance is 11.129(2) Å. The CuII atom is coordinated by one phenolate O, one imine N, and one amine N atoms of a Schiff base ligand, and one N atom of the bridging 4,4'-bipyridine ligand, forming a square planar geometry. In the crystal structure of the complex, the dinuclear copper complex cations are linked by 4,4'-bipyridine molecules through intermolecular O-H···N hydrogen bonds, to form 1D chains running in the [2 0 -1] direction.

  11. Plasmon-enhanced photocurrent generation from self-assembled monolayers of phthalocyanine by using gold nanoparticle films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawazumi, Hirofumi; Yamada, Sunao

    2009-04-09

    The effect of localized electric fields on the photocurrent responses of phthalocyanine that was self-assembled on a gold nanoparticle film was investigated by comparing the conventional and the total internal reflection (TIR) experimental systems. In the case of photocurrent measurements, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a thiol derivative of palladium phthalocyanine (PdPc) were prepared on the surface of gold-nanoparticle film that was fixed on the surface of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate via a polyion (PdPc/AuP/polyion/ITO) or on the ITO surface (PdPc/ITO). Photocurrent action spectra from the two samples were compared by using the conventional spectrometer, and were found that PdPc/AuP/polyion/ITO gave considerably larger photocurrent signals than PdPc/ITO under the identical concentration of PdPc. In the case of the TIR experiments for the PdPc/AuP/polyion/ITO and the PdPc/AuP/Glass systems, incident-angle profiles of photocurrent and emission signals were correlated with each other, and they were different from that of the PdPc/ITO system. Accordingly, it was demonstrated that the photocurrent signals were certainly enhanced by the localized electric fields of the gold-nanoparticle film.

  12. Molecular structure, spectroscopic studies, and coppersbnd oxygen bond strength of α-methyl and α-ethyl derivatives of copper (II) acetylacetonate; Experimental and theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedkatouli, Seyedabdollah; Vakili, Mohammad; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz; Afzali, Raheleh

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the Cusbnd O bond strength of copper (II) α-methylacetylacetonate, Cu(3-Meacac)2, and copper (II) α-ethylacetylacetonate, Cu(3-Etacac)2, complexes in comparison to that in copper (II) acetylacetonate, Cu(acac)2. For this purpose, the molecular structure, UV spectra, and complete vibrational assignment of target molecules were investigated by DFT, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) theory, and Atoms-in-Molecules (AIM) analysis at the B3LYP/6-311G* level of theory. The mentioned results are compared with those in Cu(acac)2. Fourier transform-Raman, IR, and UV spectra of these complexes have been also recorded. A complete assignment of the observed band frequencies has been done. All theoretical and experimental spectroscopic results are consisting with a stronger metal-oxygen bond in Cu(3-Meacac)2 and Cu(3-Etacac)2 complexes compared with Cu(acac)2. In addition, these results confirm that there is no significant difference between the Cusbnd O bond strength of the Cu(3-Meacac)2 and Cu(3-Etacac)2 complexes.

  13. Synthesis, Structure and Electrochemistry of Tetranuclear Oxygen-Centered Copper(II) Clusters with Acetylacetone and Benz-pyrazole Hydrolyzed Derivatives as Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafazadeh, Rasoul; Willis, Anthony C

    2016-01-01

    Two copper(II) clusters Cu(4)OCl(6)(pyrazole)4, 1, and Cu(4)OBr(6)(Br-pyrazole)4, 2, have been synthesized by reacting acetylacetone and benzohydrazide (1:1 ratio) with CuX(2) (X = Cl for 1 and X= Br for 2) in methanol solutions. The structures of both clusters have been established by X-ray crystallography. The clusters contain four Cu, one O, six μ(2)-X atoms, and four pyrazole ligands. The pyrazoles was prepared in situ by the reaction of acetylacetone with benzohydrazide in methanol under reflux. In 2, the methine hydrogens of the pyrazole ligands have been replaced by bromine atoms. The four copper atoms encapsulate the central O atom in a tetrahedral arrangement. All copper atoms are five-coordinate and have similar coordination environments with slightly distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The cyclic voltammogram of the clusters 1 and 2 show a one-electron quasi-reversible reduction wave in the region 0.485 to 0.731 V, and a one-electron quasi-reversible oxidation wave in the region 0.767 to 0.898 V. In 1, one irreversible oxidative response is observed on the positive of side of the voltammogram at 1.512 V and this can be assigned to Cu(II) to Cu(III) oxidation.

  14. The complex nature of phthalocyanine/gold interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Susi; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We compare the electronic properties of the interface between Au(1 0 0) and cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), fluorinated F 16 CoPc as well as CuPc using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and valence band ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy. Our results show that in addition to the formation of an interface dipole at the interfaces of CoPc and F 16 CoPc to gold, there is a local charge transfer to the central Co ion, which as a result is reduced to Co(I).

  15. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sukhwinder, E-mail: ss7667@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana (India); Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy.

  16. An application of the coincidence Doppler spectroscopy for substances of chemical interest: phthalocyanine and acetylacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence Doppler spectroscopy, which is particularly powerful when one is concerned with high momentum components of positron annihilation gamma-rays, has been applied to two different kinds of organo-metallic ligands: metal phthalocyanines and metal acetylacetonates. The energy (momentum) profiles of the annihilation gamma-rays were the same for metal phthalocyanines indicating that positron and/or positronium are not interacting with the metal ions. However, the profiles for the metal acetylacetonates evidently showed a dependence on the kind of metal ions. Discussion is made on the features of positron interaction which are different for phthalocyanines and acetylacetonates.

  17. Effect of iodine doping of phthalocyanine on the photocurrent generation in a phthalocyanine/C_<60> heterojunction

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuta, Shinsei; Iyota, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Senku; Hiromitsu, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Photocurrent generation in an indium?tin oxide (ITO)/iodine-doped Ni-phthalocyanine (NiPc-I_x)/C_/In/Al heterojunction device with x~1 was studied. By keeping the device in air after preparation, the device slowly reached a stationary state in which the sign of the photocurrent is opposite to that of a non-doped ITO/NiPc/C_/In/Al device although the rectification direction for the dark current is the same. By a simulation of incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra and a measu...

  18. Interaction between metals and nucleic acids. Part 3. Synthesis and structural studies of copper(II) complexes with Schiff base ligands derived from barbituric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, I.; Gaudemer, A.; Chiaroni, A.; Riche, C.

    1986-02-17

    Schiff bases have been prepared from 5-formylbarbituric acid and 5-formyl-1,3-dimethyl-barbituric acid and various di- or tri-amines. The structure of the corresponding copper(II) complexes have been established by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of one of the complexes, Cu(DiMeBardpt), was determined by X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical study shows that these complexes are reduced at slightly more negative potentials than the corresponding complexes obtained from uracil, which suggests that these new ligands are better electron-donors.

  19. Vibrational spectra of charge transfer complexes of lead phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, A.T.; Patel, S.G.; Patel, R.G.; Prajapati, S.M.; Vaidya, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    Infrared spectra of six charge transfer complexes of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc), namely, PbPc-I 2 , PbPc-TCNQ, PbPc-DDQ, PbPc-chloranil, PbPc-TCNE and PbPc-TNF, where TCNQ=7,7,8,8-tetracyano-1,4-quinodimethane, DDQ=2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinone, TCNE=tetracyano-p-ethylene and TNF=2,4,5,7-tetranitro-9-fluorenone have been studied in the range of 400-4000 cm -1 . The analysis of featureless absorption is carried out for studying transition across the Peierls gap of 0.225 eV. The electronic absorption envelopes at 1500, 1100 and 3400 cm -1 are found to have Gaussian shapes and not the degenerate oscillators, as found in purely organic conductors. There is a pairing of two electrons on phthalocyanine ligand as required in Little's model, and consequently, the electronic absorption envelope is a doublet. Electronic absorption envelope is a doublet showing two peaks at 1500 and 1100 cm -1 , indicating a two-electron problem in PbPc. Metal-ligand vibrations between 400 and 700 cm -1 lead to indirect transition between the valence and conduction bands and phonon-mediated coupling between metal chains and the side chains

  20. Phthalocyanine doping to improve critical current densities in MgB2 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianping; Ma Yanwei; Wang Dongliang; Gao Zhaoshun; Wang Lei; Qi Yanpeng; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Mossang, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes were prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. The relationships between the critical current properties, crystallinity and microstructure were studied as a function of the phthalocyanine doping level. It is found that both H irr and H c2 were improved when MgB 2 samples were doped with phthalocyanine, which are mainly attributed to the effective carbon substitution and enhanced flux pinning strength caused by very fine grain sizes. Furthermore, compared to pure samples, the MgO content remained almost unchanged in all doped tapes, which is very beneficial to having better grain connectivity in MgB 2 . Significantly improved J c was obtained in the phthalocyanine-doped MgB 2 tapes, especially under high magnetic fields.

  1. Photophysical, Photochemical, and BQ Quenching Properties of Zinc Phthalocyanines with Fused or Interrupted Extended Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Gümrükçü

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substituents and solvents on the photophysical and photochemical parameters of zinc(II phthalocyanines containing four Schiff’s base substituents attached directly and through phenyleneoxy-bridges on peripheral positions are reported. The group effects on peripheral position and the continual and intermittent conjugation of the phthalocyanine molecules on the photophysical and photochemical properties are also investigated. General trends are described for photodegradation, singlet oxygen, and fluorescence quantum yields of these compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, dimethylformamide (DMF, and tetrahydrofurane (THF. Among the different substituents, phthalocyanines with cinnamaldimine moieties (1c and 2c have the highest singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ and those with nitro groups (1a and 2a have the highest fluorescence quantum yields in all the solvents used. The fluorescence of the substituted zinc(II phthalocyanine complexes is effectively quenched by 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ in these solvents.

  2. Permanent antistatic phthalocyanine/epoxy nanocomposites – Influence of crosslinking agent, solvent and processing temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, M.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; With, de G.

    2010-01-01

    Cross-linked epoxy matrices containing small amounts of semi-conductive phthalocyanine (Phthalcon) nanoparticles were prepared using different crosslinking agents and processing temperatures. A starting mixture containing an optimum dispersion of these nanoparticles and with an almost equal and

  3. Enhancing photophysical and photochemical properties of zinc(II) phthalocyanine dyes by substitution of triptycene moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sohaimi, Bander Roshadan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, P.O. Box 344, Al-Madinah Al Munawwrah (Saudi Arabia); Pişkin, Mehmet [Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Department of Food Technology, Çanakkale 17100 (Turkey); Aljuhani, Ateyatallah; Al-Raqa, Shaya Y. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, P.O. Box 344, Al-Madinah Al Munawwrah (Saudi Arabia); Durmuş, Mahmut, E-mail: durmus@gtu.edu.tr [Gebze Technical University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    The symmetrical zinc(II) phthalocyanines conjugated with 9,10-dioctyl-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dioxytriptycene or 9,10-diundecyl-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dioxytriptycene moieties were synthesized in this study. These novel phthalocyanines were characterized by standard characterization techniques such as {sup 1}H-NMR, FT-IR, UV–vis, Mass and Elemental Analysis. All these phthalocyanines showed highly solubility and formed non-aggregated monomeric species in most of the organic solvents. Their photochemical properties such as singlet oxygen, and photodegradation quantum yields, and photophysical properties including fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes were investigated in toluene. The fluorescence quenching behavior of the studied zinc(II) phthalocyanines by the addition of 1,4-benzoquinone were also described in toluene.

  4. Enhancing photophysical and photochemical properties of zinc(II) phthalocyanine dyes by substitution of triptycene moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sohaimi, Bander Roshadan; Pişkin, Mehmet; Aljuhani, Ateyatallah; Al-Raqa, Shaya Y.; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    The symmetrical zinc(II) phthalocyanines conjugated with 9,10-dioctyl-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dioxytriptycene or 9,10-diundecyl-6,7-dimethoxy-2,3-dioxytriptycene moieties were synthesized in this study. These novel phthalocyanines were characterized by standard characterization techniques such as 1 H-NMR, FT-IR, UV–vis, Mass and Elemental Analysis. All these phthalocyanines showed highly solubility and formed non-aggregated monomeric species in most of the organic solvents. Their photochemical properties such as singlet oxygen, and photodegradation quantum yields, and photophysical properties including fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes were investigated in toluene. The fluorescence quenching behavior of the studied zinc(II) phthalocyanines by the addition of 1,4-benzoquinone were also described in toluene.

  5. Ratiometric Fluorescent Detection of Pb2+ by FRET-Based Phthalocyanine-Porphyrin Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongli; Zhu, Mengliang; Zhao, Luyang; Zhang, Jinghui; Wang, Kang; Qi, Dongdong; Zhou, Yang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2017-12-04

    Sensitive and selective detection of Pb 2+ is a very worthwhile endeavor in terms of both human health and environmental protection, as the heavy metal is fairly ubiquitous and highly toxic. In this study, we designed phthalocyanine-porphyrin (Pc-Por) heterodyads, namely, H 2 Pc-α-ZnPor (1) and H 2 Pc-β-ZnPor (2), by connecting a zinc(II) porphyrin moiety to the nonperipheral (α) or peripheral (β) position of a metal-free phthalocyanine moiety. Upon excitation at the porphyrin Soret region (420 nm), both of the dyads exhibited not only a porphyrin emission (605 nm) but also a phthalocyanine emission (ca. 700 nm), indicating the occurrence of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) processes from the porphyrin donor to the phthalocyanine acceptor. The dyads can selectively bind Pb 2+ in the phthalocyanine core leading to a red shift of the phthalocyanine absorption and thus a decrease of spectral overlap between the porphyrin emission and phthalocyanine absorption, which in turn suppresses the intramolecular FRET. In addition, the binding of Pb 2+ can highly quench the emission of phthalocyanine by heavy-metal ion effects. The synergistic coupled functions endow the dyads with remarkable ratiometric fluorescent responses at two distinct wavelengths (F 605 /F 703 for 1 and F 605 /F 700 for 2). The emission intensity ratio increased as a linear function to the concentration of Pb 2+ in the range of 0-4.0 μM, whereas the detection limits were determined to be 3.4 × 10 -9 and 2.2 × 10 -8 M for 1 and 2, respectively. Furthermore, by comparative study of 1 and 2, the effects of distance and relative orientation between Pc and ZnPor fluorophores on the FRET efficiency and sensing performance were highlighted, which is helpful for further optimizing such FRET systems.

  6. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of a substituted nickel phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Prabhjot, E-mail: prabhphysics@gmail.com; Sachdeva, Ritika [Department of Physics, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014, Chandigarh (India); Singh, Sukhwinder [Department of Physics, Govt. College for Girls, Ludhiana-141008, Ludhiana (India)

    2016-05-23

    The optimized geometry and electronic structure of an organic compound nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt have been investigated using density functional theory. We have also optimized the structure of nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra sodium salt in dimethyl sulfoxide to study effects of solvent on the electronic structure and transitions. Experimentally, the electronic transitions have been studied using UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. It is observed that the electronic transitions obtained from the theoretical studies generally agree with the experiment.

  7. Photovoltaic conversion efficiency in copper-phthalocyanine/perylenetetracarboxylic acid benzimidazole heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsui, Tetsuo [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Nakashima, Takuya [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fujita, Yoshimasa [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Saito, Shogo [Dept. of Materials Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Energy conversion efficiency of organic heterojuction-type solar cells was analyzed based on a simplified model. Energy conversion efficiency was expressed by four terms, a proton collection factor, a voltage output factor, an average quantum efficiency of photo-carrier generation and a fill factor. Meanings of low values of former two terms were discussed. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  9. Synthesis of Two Potentially Heptadentate (N4O3 Schiff-base Ligands Derived from Condensation of Tris(3-aminopropyl-amine and Salicylaldehyde or 4-Hydroxysalicylaldehyde. Nickel(II and Copper(II Complexes of the Former Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Two potentially heptadentate (N4O3 tripodal Schiff-base ligands: tris(3-(salicylideneiminopropylamine (H3L1 and tris(3-(4’-hydroxysalicylideneimino-propylamine (H3L2 have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, FAB-MS, NMR. They are derived from the condensation reactions of tris(3-aminopropylamine (tpt, with 3 equivalents of either salicylaldehyde or the ringsubstituted salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxysalicylaldehyde. The nickel(II and copper(II complexes of H3L1 were obtained from the its reactions Ni(II and Cu(II salts in absolute methanol. These complexes were studied by IR and FAB-Mass spectrometry.

  10. Organic thin film transistors using a liquid crystalline palladium phthalocyanine as active layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Tejada, Juan A.; Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Chaure, Nandu B.; Chambrier, Isabelle; Cammidge, Andrew N.; Cook, Michael J.; Jafari-Fini, Ali; Ray, Asim K.

    2018-03-01

    70 nm thick solution-processed films of a palladium phthalocyanine (PdPc6) derivative bearing eight hexyl (-C6H13) chains at non-peripheral positions have been employed as active layers in the fabrication of bottom-gate bottom-contact organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) deposited on highly doped p-type Si (110) substrates with SiO2 gate dielectric. The dependence of the transistor electrical performance upon the mesophase behavior of the PdPc6 films has been investigated by measuring the output and transfer characteristics of the OTFT having its active layer ex situ vacuum annealed at temperatures between 500 °C and 200 °C. A clear correlation between the annealing temperature and the threshold voltage and carrier mobility of the transistors, and the transition temperatures extracted from the differential scanning calorimetric curves for bulk materials has been established. This direct relation has been obtained by means of a compact electrical model in which the contact effects are taken into account. The precise determination of the contact-voltage drain-current curves allows for obtaining such a relation.

  11. Capacitance measurements and AC conductivity of Nickel Phthalocyanine films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.

    2005-01-01

    A C dark Current measurements of nickel phthalocyanine thin films using ohmic gold electrodes are investigated in the frequency range 30-10 Hz and within the temperature range 295-385 K. The A C conductivity as D Ac is found to vary as within the index s < 1, indicating a dominant hopping process at low temperatures. From the temperature dependence of A C conductivity, free carrier conduction with mean activation energy of 0.31 eV is observed at higher temperatures. Capacitance and loss tangent are found to be decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. Such characteristics are found to be in good qualitative agreement with existing equivalent circuit model assuming ohmic contacts

  12. Adsorption energy of iron-phthalocyanine on crystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struzzi, C.; Scardamaglia, M.; Angelucci, M; Massimi, L.; Mariani, C.; Betti, G.

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption energy of iron-phthalocyanine (FePc) deposited on different crystal surfaces is studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy. A thin film of molecules has been absorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), on graphene epitaxially grown on Ir(111), and on Au(110). Activation energies for the desorption of a molecular thin film and for the FePc single layer are determined at the three surfaces. The desorption temperature measured for the thin films is only slightly dependent on the substrate, since it is mostly dominated by molecule-molecule interactions. A definitely different desorption temperature is found at the single-layer coverage: we find an increasing desorption temperature going from HOPG, to graphene/Ir, to the Au(110) surface. The different adsorption energies of the first FePc layer in contact with the substrate surface are discussed taking into account the interaction and the growth morphology.

  13. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy of zinc phthalocyanine by conjugating to heptalysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linsen; Luo, Zhipu; Chen, Zhuo; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Shanyong; Xu, Peng; Hu, Ping; Wang, Jundong; Chen, Naisheng; Huang, Jinling; Huang, Mingdong

    2012-11-21

    Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a promising photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy, but faces some challenges: ZnPc is insoluble in water and thus requires either special formulation of ZnPc by, e.g., liposome or Cremophor EL, or chemical modification of Pc ring to enhance its bioavailability and photodynamic efficacy. Here, we conjugated monosubstituted ZnPc-COOH with a series of oligolysine moieties with different numbers of lysine residues (ZnPc-(Lys)(n) (n = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) to improve the water solubility of the ZnPc conjugates. We measured the photosensitizing efficacies and the cellular uptakes of this series of conjugates on a normal and a cancerous cell line. In addition, we developed a sensitive in situ method to distinguish the difference in photodynamic efficacy among conjugates. Our results showed that ZnPc-(Lys)(7) has the highest photodynamic efficacy compared to the other conjugates investigated.

  14. Characterization of manganese tetraarylthiosubstituted phthalocyanines self assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matemadombo, Fungisai; Durmus, Mahmut; Togo, Chamunorwa; Limson, Janice; Nyokong, Tebello

    2009-01-01

    Manganese tetraarylthiosubstituted phthalocyanines (complexes 1-5) have been deposited on Au electrode surfaces through the self assembled monolayer (SAM) technique. SAM characteristics reported in this work are: ion barrier factor (∼1); interfacial capacitance (303-539 μF cm -2 ) and surface coverage (1.06 x 10 -10 -2.80 x 10 -10 mol cm -2 ). Atomic force microscopy was employed in characterizing a SAM. SAMs of complexes 1-5 were employed to detect L-cysteine (with limit of detection ranging from 2.83 x 10 -7 to 3.14 x 10 -7 M at potentials of 0.68-0.75 V vs. Ag|AgCl) and nitrite (limit of detection ranging from 1.78 x 10 -7 to 3.02 x 10 -7 M at potentials of 0.69-0.76 V vs. Ag|AgCl).

  15. Thermal conductivity of glass copper-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Terai, Ryohei; Haidai, Haruki

    1980-01-01

    Glass-metal composites are to be one of the answers for promoting thermal conduction in the glassy solids containing high-level radioactive wastes. In order to investigate the effect of metal addition on thermal conductivity of glasses, glass-copper composites were selected, and the conductivities of the composites were measured and discussed in regards to copper content and microstructure. Fully densified composites were successfully prepared by pressure sintering of the powder mixtures of glass and copper at temperatures above the yield points of the constituent glasses if the copper content was not so much. The conductivity was measured by means of a comparative method, in which the thermal gradient of the specimen was compared with that of quartz glass as standard under thermally steady state. Measurements were carried out at around 50 0 C. The thermal conductivity increased with increasing content of copper depending on the kind of copper powder used. The conductivities of the composites of the same copper content differed considerably each another. Fine copper powder was effective on increasing conductivity, and the conductivity became about threefold of that of glass by mixing the fine copper powder about 10 vol%. For the composites containing the fine copper powder less than 5 vol%, the conductivity obeyed so-called logarithmic rule, one of the mixture rules of conductivity, whereas for composites containing more than 5 vol%, the conductivity remarkably increased apart from the rule. This fact suggests that copper becomes continuous in the composite when the copper content increased beyond 5 vol%. For the composites containing coarse copper powder, the conductivity was increased not significantly, and obeyed an equation derived from the model in which conductive material dispersed in less conductive one. (author)

  16. Improved selectivity towards NO₂ of phthalocyanine-based chemosensors by means of original indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Pauly, A; Dubois, M; Rodriguez-Mendez, M L; Ndiaye, A L; Varenne, C; Guérin, K

    2014-09-01

    A new and original gas sensor-system dedicated to the selective monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in air and in the presence of ozone, has been successfully achieved. Because of its high sensitivity and its partial selectivity towards oxidizing pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone), copper phthalocyanine-based chemoresistors are relevant. The selectivity towards nitrogen dioxide results from the implementation of a high efficient and selective ozone filter upstream the sensing device. Thus, a powdered indigo/nanocarbons hybrid material has been developed and investigated for such an application. If nanocarbonaceous material acts as a highly permeable matrix with a high specific surface area, immobilized indigo nanoparticles are involved into an ozonolysis reaction with ozone leading to the selective removal of this analytes from air sample. The filtering yields towards each gas have been experimentally quantified and establish the complete removal of ozone while having the concentration of nitrogen dioxide unchanged. Long-term gas exposures reveal the higher durability of hybrid material as compared to nanocarbons and indigo separately. Synthesis, characterizations by many complementary techniques and tests of hybrid filters are detailed. Results on sensor-system including CuPc-based chemoresistors and indigo/carbon nanotubes hybrid material as in-line filter are illustrated. Sensing performances will be especially discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface properties of self-assembled monolayer films of tetra-substituted cobalt, iron and manganese alkylthio phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinbulu, Isaac Adebayo; Khene, Samson [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.z [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2010-09-30

    Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) films of iron (SAM-1), cobalt (SAM-2) and manganese (SAM-3) phthalocyanine complexes, tetra-substituted with diethylaminoethanethio at the non-peripheral positions, were formed on gold electrode in dimethylformamide (DMF). Electrochemical, impedimentary and surface properties of the SAM films were investigated. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the films. Ability of the films to inhibit common faradaic processes on bare gold surface (gold oxidation, solution redox chemistry of [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 3+}/[Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} and underpotential deposition (UDP) of copper) was investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), using [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3-/4-} redox process as a probe, offered insights into the electrical properties of the films/electrode interfaces. Surface properties of the films were probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The films were employed for the electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide, carbofuran. Electrocatalysis was evidenced from enhanced current signal and less positive oxidation potential of the pesticide on each film, relative to that observed on the bare gold electrode. Mechanism of electrocatalytic oxidation of the pesticide was studied using rotating disc electrode voltammetry.

  18. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the grap...

  19. Effect of iodine doping of phthalocyanine on the photocurrent generation in a phthalocyanine/C{sub 60} heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, Shinsei; Iyota, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Senku; Hiromitsu, Ichiro, E-mail: hiromitu@riko.shimane-u.ac.jp

    2012-06-30

    Photocurrent generation in an indium-tin oxide (ITO)/iodine-doped Ni-phthalocyanine (NiPc-I{sub x})/C{sub 60}/In/Al heterojunction device with x {approx} 1 was studied. By keeping the device in air after preparation, the device slowly reached a stationary state in which the sign of the photocurrent is opposite to that of a non-doped ITO/NiPc/C{sub 60}/In/Al device although the rectification direction for the dark current is the same. By a simulation of incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra and a measurement of internal electric field by electroabsorption spectroscopy, it was elucidated that, in the doped device, the band bending near the phthalocyanine/C{sub 60} interface is absent and the photocurrent is generated by a weak Schottky barrier at the C{sub 60}/In interface. It is also shown that the C{sub 60} film encapsulates the doped iodine into the NiPc-I{sub x} layer to stabilize the doping level and prevent the reaction of iodine with In. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C{sub 60} film deposited on a NiPc-I{sub x} film encapsulates the doped iodine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An iodine-doped device generates a photocurrent of inverted direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The internal electric field is also inverted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activity of photocurrent generation at the heterojunction is quenched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocurrent is generated at the C{sub 60}/In interface.

  20. Self-assembled copper(II) metallacycles derived from asymmetric Schiff base ligands: efficient hosts for ADP/ATP in phosphate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Pandey, Rampal; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mrigendra; Mohammed, Akbar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2015-10-21

    Novel asymmetric Schiff base ligands 2-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-phenol (H2L(1)) and 1-{[3-(3-hydroxy-1-methyl-but-2-enylideneamino)-2,4,6-trimethylphenylimino]-methyl}-naphthalen-2-ol (H2L(2)) possessing dissimilar N,O-chelating sites and copper(ii) metallacycles (CuL(1))4 (1) and (CuL(2))4 (2) based on these ligands have been described. The ligands and complexes have been thoroughly characterized by satisfactory elemental analyses, and spectral (IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, ESI-MS, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies. Structures of H2L(2) and 1 have been unambiguously determined by X-ray single crystal analyses. The crystal structure of H2L(2) revealed the presence of two distinct N,O-chelating sites on dissimilar cores (naphthalene and β-ketoaminato groups) offering a diverse coordination environment. Metallacycles 1 and 2 having a cavity created by four Cu(ii) centres coordinated in a homo- and heteroleptic fashion with respective ligands act as efficient hosts for adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) respectively, over other nucleoside polyphosphates (NPPs). The disparate sensitivity of these metallacycles toward ADP and ATP has been attributed to the size of the ligands assuming diverse dimensions and spatial orientations. These are attuned for π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions suitable for different guest molecules under analogous conditions, metallacycle 1 offers better orientation for ADP, while 2 for ATP. The mechanism of the host-guest interaction has been investigated by spectral and electrochemical studies and supported by molecular docking studies.

  1. Supramolecular Structure, Physical Properties, and Langmuir-Blodgett Film Formation of an Optically Active Liquid-Crystalline Phthalocyanine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nostrum, Cornelus F. van; Bosman, Anton W.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Schouten, Pieter G.; Warman, John M.; Devillers, Marinus A.C.; Meijerink, Andries; Picken, Stephen J.; Sohling, Ulrich; Schouten, Arend-Jan; Nolte, Roeland J.M.

    The structure and physical properties of optically active, metal-free 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(S-3,7-dimethyloctoxy)phthalocyanine ((S)-Pc(8,2)) are reported and compared with those of the phthalocyanine with (R,S) side chains (mixture of 43 stereoisomers). Unlike the latter compound, (S)-Pc(8,2)

  2. Synthesis of the iron phthalocyaninate radical cation μ-nitrido dimer and its interaction with hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. S.; Makarova, A. S.; Kudrik, E. V.; Makarov, S. V.; Koifman, O. I.

    2016-03-01

    The iron phthalocyaninate μ-nitrido dimer radical cation, as well as the μ-nitrido dimer complexes of iron phthalocyaninate, was found to have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of organic compounds. It was concluded that this compound is of interest as a model of active intermediates—catalase and oxidase enzymes.

  3. Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanine with large steric hindrance and its photovoltaic performance for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Peng, Bosi; Shi, Wenye; Guo, Yingying; Li, Renjie

    2015-03-28

    A zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) derivative (Zn-tri-PcNc-8) containing tri-benzonaphtho-condensed porphyrazine with one carboxylic and six diphenylphenoxy peripheral substitutions was designed and synthesized as a sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). For the purpose of extending the absorption spectra while minimizing the formation of ZnPc molecular aggregates, bulky 2,6-diphenylphenoxy groups were used as electron donor moieties, and the carboxylic group as an anchoring group to graft the sensitizer onto the semiconductor. It was found that a TiO2-based solar cell sensitized by Zn-tri-PcNc-8 shows a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency in the red/near-IR light range (650-750 nm), and a solar cell sensitized at near room temperature (30 °C) for 48 h exhibits the best efficiency (3.01%). The efficiency was much higher than that (1.96%) for a solar cell sensitized by its analogue (Zn-tri-PcNc-2) having one carboxyl and three tert-butyl groups without chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), indicating that the introduction of six bulky diphenylphenoxy substitutions with large steric hindrance in the ZnPc macrocycle can effectively suppress the molecular aggregates, thus resulting in an improved conversion efficiency. The present results shed light on an effective solution to adjust the ZnPc property via chemical modification such as changing the "push-pull" effect and adding large steric hindrance substituents to further improve the efficiency of the phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cell.

  4. Realisation and study of poly-phthalocyanine thin films grafted on solid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop thin films of phthalocyanines covalently grafted to solid substrates. These thin films are formed of successive monomolecular layers of macrocycles, deposited on the substrate by a 'Merrifield' sequential method. These phthalocyanines have in their centre a metallic ion (such as ruthenium) which ensures the bonding of phthalocyanines on the substrate and the assembling of monolayers consecutive together. The deposition of these monolayers is provided by a succession of two spontaneous exchange ligands reactions between the labile groups L initially bound to ruthenium and to those present on the substrate (preliminary functionalized). The repetition of these two steps allows to consider the controlled formation of phthalocyanines multilayers by self-assembling. The main substrates used are the silicon oxide and the gold. Their different characteristics have imposed the development of separate functionalization and characterization methods. The results obtained with these two substrates are separately described. A second method of construction of successive monolayers of phthalocyanines is described involving a chemical coupling between an amine function carried out by the substrate and an aldehyde function present on the ligands bound on ruthenium. (author) [fr

  5. Zinc phthalocyanine thin film and chemical analyte interaction studies by density functional theory and vibrational techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, G S S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Kumar, Ranjan; Tripathi, S K; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Sathe, Vasant

    2009-01-01

    Thin films of zinc phthalocyanine have been deposited on KBr and glass substrates by the thermal evaporation method and characterized by the x-ray diffraction, optical, infrared and Raman techniques. The observed x-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectra of as-deposited thin films suggest the presence of an α crystalline phase. Infrared and Raman spectra of thin films after exposure to vapours of ammonia and methanol have also been recorded. Shifts in the position of some IR and Raman bands in the spectra of exposed films have been observed. Some bands also show changes in their intensity on exposure. Increased charge on the phthalocyanine ring and out-of-plane distortion of the core due to interaction between zinc phthalocyanine and vapour molecules involving the fifth coordination site of the central metal ion may be responsible for the band shifts. Changes in the intensity of bands are interpreted in terms of the lowering of molecular symmetry from D 4h to C 4v due to doming of the core. Molecular parameters and Mulliken atomic charges of zinc phthalocyanine and its complexes with methanol and ammonia have been calculated from density functional theory. The binding energy of the complexes have also been calculated. Calculated values of the energy for different complexes suggest that axially coordinated vapour molecules form the most stable complex. Calculated Mulliken atomic charges show net charge transfer from vapour molecules to the phthalocyanine ring for the most stable complex.

  6. Exciplex mediated photoinduced electron transfer reactions of phthalocyanine-fullerene dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Marja; Tkachenko, Nikolai V; Efimov, Alexander; Lehtivuori, Heli; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2008-07-31

    Evidences of an intramolecular exciplex intermediate in a photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reaction of double-linked free-base and zinc phthalocyanine-C60 dyads were found. This was the first time for a dyad with phthalocyanine donor. Excitation of the phthalocyanine moiety of the dyads results in rapid ET from phthalocyanine to fullerene via an exciplex state in both polar and nonpolar solvents. Relaxation of the charge-separated (CS) state Pc(*+)-C60(*-) in a polar solvent occurs directly to the ground state in 30-70 ps. In a nonpolar solvent, roughly 20% of the molecules undergo transition from the CS state to phthalocyanine triplet state (3)Pc*-C60 before relaxation to the ground state. Formation of the CS state was confirmed with electron spin resonance measurements at low temperature in both polar and nonpolar solvent. Reaction schemes for the photoinduced ET reactions of the dyads were completed with rate constants obtained from the time-resolved absorption and emission measurements and with state energies obtained from the fluorescence, phosphorescence, and voltammetric measurements.

  7. Enhancement in photovoltaic performance of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells by attapulgite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ling; Chen Dajun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dye-sensitized solar cells sensitized by zinc octacarboxylic phthalocyanine. ► Attapulgite nanoparticles have been used to suppress phthalocyanine aggregation. ► Adding attapulgite improves the photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Attapulgite nanoparticles were used to improve photovoltaic performance of phthalocyanine-sensitized solar cells. The effects of attapulgite on the devices were investigated in details. Adding of attapulgite into TiO 2 electrodes not only reduced the adsorption of zinc octacarboxylic phthalocyanine but also prevented phthalocyanine aggregation effect, which greatly improved photovoltaic performance of the dye-sensitized solar cell. The solar cell with 10 mg attapulgite nanoparticles dispersed in the dye solution exhibited nearly three times larger photoelectric conversion efficiency under simulated AM 1.5 G irradiation (100 mW cm −2 ) when compared to the pure dye, which was further characterized by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS studies showed that attapulgite decreased the charge-transfer resistances at the TiO 2 /dye/electrolyte interface, which can promote electron transport.

  8. Fluorescence behavior and singlet oxygen generating abilities of aluminum phthalocyanine in the presence of anisotropic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mthethwa, Thandekile; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za

    2015-01-15

    Gold nanoparticles (spheres, rods and bipyramids) were synthesized. The nanocrystals were characterized by UV–visible spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The as prepared gold nanoparticles were then conjugated to a quaternized 2,(3)-tetra [2-(dimethylamino) ethanethio] substituted Al(OH) phthalocyanine (complex 1). The conjugation of phthalocyanines with gold nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes. Conversely, an increase in the singlet oxygen quantum yields was observed for the conjugated complex 1 in the presence of AuNPs. - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (spheres, rods and bipyramids) were synthesized. • Gold nanoparticles were then conjugated to a quaternized ClAl phthalocyanine. • Conjugation of phthalocyanines with gold nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence quantum yields. • An increase in the singlet oxygen quantum yields was observed for the phthalocyanine in the presence of nanoparticles.

  9. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  10. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  11. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Bender, Timothy P. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X){sub n}-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N′-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (NPB) or (X){sub n}-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m{sup 2} at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl{sub 2}-SiPc, Cl{sub 2}-GePc, and Cl{sub 2}-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m{sup 2} (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m{sup 2} (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m{sup 2} (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl{sub 2}-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F{sub 10}-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m{sup 2} (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  12. Assessing the potential of group 13 and 14 metal/metalloid phthalocyanines as hole transport layers in organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have assessed the potential application of group 13 and 14 metal and metalloid phthalocyanines ((X)n-MPcs) and their axially substituted derivatives as hole-transporting layers in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs studied herein have the generic structure of glass/ITO/(N,N'-di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine (NPB) or (X)n-MPc)(50 nm)/Alq3 (60 nm)/LiF (1 nm)/Al (80 nm), where X is an axial substituent group. OLEDs using chloro aluminum phthalocyanine (Cl-AlPc) showed good peak luminance values of 2620 ± 113 cd/m2 at 11 V. To our knowledge, Cl-AlPc has not previously been shown to work as a hole transport material (HTL) in OLEDs. Conversely, the di-chlorides of silicon, germanium, and tin phthalocyanine (Cl2-SiPc, Cl2-GePc, and Cl2-SnPc, respectively) showed poor performance compared to Cl-AlPc, having peak luminances of only 38 ± 4 cd/m2 (12 V), 23 ± 1 cd/m2 (8.5 V), and 59 ± 5 cd/m2 (13.5 V), respectively. However, by performing a simple axial substitution of the chloride groups of Cl2-SiPc with pentafluorophenoxy groups, the resulting bis(pentafluorophenoxy) silicon phthalocyanine (F10-SiPc) containing OLED had a peak luminance of 5141 ± 941 cd/m2 (10 V), a two order of magnitude increase over its chlorinated precursor. This material showed OLED characteristics approaching those of a baseline OLED based on the well-studied triarylamine NPB. Attempts to attach the pentafluorophenoxy axial group to both SnPc and GePc were hindered by synthetic difficulties and low thermal stability, respectively. In light of the performance improvements observed by simple axial substitution of SiPc in OLEDs, the use of axially substituted MPcs in organic electronic devices remains of continuing interest to us and potentially the field in general.

  13. Charge transfer from and to manganese phthalocyanine: bulk materials and interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rückerl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc is a member of the family of transition-metal phthalocyanines, which combines interesting electronic behavior in the fields of organic and molecular electronics with local magnetic moments. MnPc is characterized by hybrid states between the Mn 3d orbitals and the π orbitals of the ligand very close to the Fermi level. This causes particular physical properties, different from those of the other phthalocyanines, such as a rather small ionization potential, a small band gap and a large electron affinity. These can be exploited to prepare particular compounds and interfaces with appropriate partners, which are characterized by a charge transfer from or to MnPc. We summarize recent spectroscopic and theoretical results that have been achieved in this regard.

  14. Spectral characterization of a newly synthesized fluorescent semicarbazone derivative and its usage as a selective fiber optic sensor for copper(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oter, Ozlem; Ertekin, Kadriye; Kirilmis, Cumhur; Koca, Murat

    2007-02-19

    In this work photoluminescent properties of highly Cu(2+) selective organic fluoroionophore, semicarbazone derivative; bis(naphtho[2,1-b]furan-2-yl)methanone semicarbazone (BNF) was investigated in different solvents (dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, toluene and ethanol) and in polymer matrices of polyvinylchloride (PVC) and ethyl cellulose (EC) by absorption and emission spectrometry. The BNF derivative displayed enhanced fluorescence emission quantum yield, Q(f)=6.1 x 10(-2) and molar extinction coefficient, epsilon=29,000+/-65 cm(-1)M(-1) in immobilized PVC matrix, compared to 2.6 x 10(-3) and 24,573+/-115 in ethanol solution. The offered sensor exhibited remarkable fluorescence intensity quenching upon exposure to Cu(2+) ions at pH 4.0 in the concentration range of 1.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-4)M [Cu(2+)] while the effects of the responding ions (Ca(2+), Hg(+), Pb(2+), Al(3+), Cr(3+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Sn(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+)) were less pronounced.

  15. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mahtab [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung [Agricultural Microbiology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 565-851 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Han [Division of Plant Environment Research, Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Service, Jinju 660-360 (Korea, Republic of); Al-Wabel, Mohammad I [Soil Sciences Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, PO Box 2460, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Sung-Eun, E-mail: selpest@knu.ac.kr [School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Soo, E-mail: sslee97@kangwon.ac.kr [Korea Biochar Research Center & Department of Biological Environment, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  16. Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: Chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mahtab; Ok, Yong Sik; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Young Han; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar immobilizes Pb and Cu in a contaminated shooting range soil. • Soybean stover-biochar is an efficient metal immobilizer than pine needle-biochar. • Biochar produced at 700 °C showed significant potential of sequestering C in soil. • Biochar showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass. - Abstract: Biochar (BC) could be a potential candidate for the remediation of metal contaminated soil. Mechanistic understandings are needed for the appropriate selection of BC and investigating molecular microbial ecological interactions. The soybean stover-derived BCs were more effective in immobilizing Pb (88%) and Cu (87%) than the pine needle-derived BCs in a contaminated shooting range soil. The sequential chemical extractions indicated that BCs stimulated the geochemical transformation of metal species. Spectroscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopic elemental dot mapping and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic measurements showed that Pb in the BCs amended soils was immobilized by the formation of stable chloropyromorphite. Soil organic C and microbial activity were also enhanced by BC. The non-labile C fraction in the soil amended with BCs produced at 700 °C was increased. Biochars showed less impact on the bacterial community than feedstock biomass as promulgated by the pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The feedstock type (namely soybean stover and pine needles) was the main factor influencing the BCs efficacy on metals’ (im) mobilization and bacterial health in soils.

  17. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, J. O.; Makarov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented.

  18. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, J O; Makarov, V I

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented. (paper)

  19. Metal-phthalocyanine functionalized carbon nanotubes as catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Walter

    2012-07-01

    The covalent functionalization of metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with transition metal phthalocyanines (MPc, with M = Mn, Fe and Co) are addressed by density functional calculations. The CNT-MPc catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated through the O2 stretching frequency adsorbed on the phthalocyanine metal center. We find better reduction abilities when the CNT functionalization occurs through sp2-like bonds. Multiple stable-spin states for the M-O2 adduct are also found for M = Mn and Fe, suggesting higher ORR rates. The CNT-MPc complexes show metallic characteristics, suggesting favorable conditions to work as ORR cathode catalysts in fuel cells.

  20. Photoemission from valence bands of transition metal-phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Ming-Hui; Nagaosa, Mayumi; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Kera, Satoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The HOMO mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc rings and the central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) distribution of CoPc as well as NiPc. → Influence by central metal atom on the photoemission intensities from the HOMO of two single molecule systems is negligible for the major. → The modification of the distribution for π-orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major. - Abstract: Angular dependencies of ultraviolet photoelectron spectrum of transition metal-phthalocyanines (TM-Pcs), NiPc and CoPc, have been studied by using multiple-scattering theory to explore the electronic structure of the organometallic complexes influenced by central metal atom. The calculated angular distributions of photoelectrons for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) from the two single systems are nearly the same and represent well the experimental results obtained for the well-ordered monolayer on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate. The central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the HOMO distribution, which mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc ring. Moreover, the modification of the distribution for π orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major.

  1. Photoconductivity study of acid on Zinc phthalocyanine pyridine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhwinder; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The Metal Phthalocyanine (MPc) have attracted much interest because of chemical and high thermal stability. Molecules forming a crystal of MPc are held together by weak attractive Vander Waals forces. Organic semiconductors have π conjugate bonds which allow electrons to move via π-electron cloud overlaps. Conduction mechanisms for organic semiconductor are mainly through tunneling; hopping between localized states, mobility gaps, and phonon assisted hopping. The photo conductivity of thin films of these complexes changes when exposed to oxidizing and reducing gases. Arrhenius plot is used to find the thermal activation energy in the intrinsic region and impurity scattering region. Arrhenius plotsare used to find the thermal activation energy. The original version of this article supplied to AIP Publishing contained erroneous text at the end of the abstract. "Arrhenius plots are used to find the thermal activation energy." was deleted as it does not pertain to the article. In addition, a figure citation was cited incorrectly and an equation was missing. This has been corrected in the updated version republished on 4 December 2017.

  2. Tissue Distribution Of Chloroaluminium Sulfonated Phthalocyanine In Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M.; H. C.; Newman

    1989-06-01

    Chloroaluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine (A1PCS) was administered intravenously to clinically normal dogs, and A1PCS levels were determined in tissues using a sensitive assay. A1PCS accumulated to high levels in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, and lung. These tissue levels confirm previous determinations in mice and rats. Only a small amount of dye was retained in skin and very small amounts in muscle and brain. A1PCS was cleared from the blood within 24 h, and excreted primarily by urine. Serum clearance was faster in males than in females. There were also significant tissue distribution differences between the genders, particularly during the first 12 h. The low levels of A1PCS in skin suggest that cutaneous photosensitivity and toxic skin reactions using this photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy of cancer may be eliminated. The difference in tissue distribution between genders is not only intriguing, but indicates that the optimal time window for treatment of various tissue sites may vary by gender.

  3. Copper(II Complexes with Ligands Derived from 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cernat

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Cu(II complexes derived from Schiff base ligands obtainedby the condensation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or terephtalic aldehyde with 4-amino-antipyrine (4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one is presented. The newlyprepared compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, UV-VIS, IR and ESRspectroscopy. The determination of the antimicrobial activity of the ligands and of thecomplexes was carried out on samples of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,Acinetobacter boumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candidasp. The qualitative and quantitative antimicrobial activity test results proved that all theprepared complexes are very active, especially against samples of Ps. aeruginosa, A.Boumanii, E. coli and S. aureus.

  4. Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria and viruses using two monosubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei-Rong; Eastel, Jennifer Mary; Ngai, Karry L K; Cheung, Yuk-Yam; Chan, Paul K S; Hui, Mamie; Ng, Dennis K P; Lo, Pui-Chi

    2014-09-12

    A zinc(II) phthalocyanine substituted with a triamino moiety and its tri-N-methylated analogue have been prepared and characterized with various spectroscopic methods. Both compounds remain non-aggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide and in water containing 0.05% Cremophor EL (v/v), and can generate singlet oxygen effectively. The photodynamic activities of these compounds have been examined against a range of bacterial strains, including the Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-43, and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Both photosensitizers are highly cytotoxic, particularly for the two Gram-positive strains, for which as low as 5 nM of dye is required to induce a 4-log reduction of their viability. The tri-N-methylated derivative has also been shown to be able to effectively inhibit the growth of a series of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and biofilms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 67928 and ATCC 68507, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984. In addition, the photodynamic inactivation of a range of viruses using these two compounds has also been investigated. Both compounds are highly photocytotoxic against the enveloped viruses influenza A virus (H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), but exhibit no significant cytotoxicity toward the non-enveloped viruses adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) and coxsackievirus (Cox B1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface chemistry and electrocatalytic behaviour of tetra-carboxy substituted iron, cobalt and manganese phthalocyanine monolayers on gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashazi, Philani N.; Westbroek, Philippe; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.; Nyokong, Tebello

    2007-01-01

    Surface chemistry and electrocatalytic properties of self-assembled monolayers of metal tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine complexes with cobalt (Co), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) as central metal ions have been studied. These phthalocyanine molecules are immobilized on gold electrode via the coupling reaction between the ring substituents and pre-formed mercaptoethanol self-assembled monolayer (Au-ME SAM). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy confirmed chemisorption of mercaptoethanol via sulfur group on gold electrode and also coupling reaction between phthalocyanines and Au-ME SAM. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized molecules show that these molecules are densely packed with a perpendicular orientation. The potential applications of the gold modified electrodes were investigated towards L-cysteine detection and the analysis at phthalocyanine SAMs. Cobalt and iron tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine monolayers showed good oxidation peak for L-cysteine at potentials where metal oxidation (M III /M II ) takes place and this metal oxidation mediates the catalytic oxidation of L-cysteine. Manganese tetra-carboxylic acid phthalocyanine monolayer also exhibited a good catalytic oxidation peak towards L-cysteine at potentials where Mn IV /Mn III redox peak occurs and this redox peak mediates L-cysteine oxidation. The analysis of cysteine at phthalocyanine monolayers displayed good analytical parameters with good detection limits of the orders of 10 -7 mol L -1 and good linearity for a studied concentration range up to 60 μmol L -1

  6. The Synthesis And Characterization Of Wolfram Phthalocyanine For The Target Material Of High Specific Activity Radioisotope Wolfram - 188 (188W)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, Duyeh

    2000-01-01

    The application of 188 Re radioisotope separation on aluminia column through elution solution has increased significantly since the last two decades. The 188 Re radioisotope has been done fram 188 Re beta-decay through a neutron capture radiation on wolfram -186 target. In trhe column separation, high specific activity of 188 W radioisotope is required to get sufficient activity in small quality 188 W radioisotope has been carried out in this research. Wolfram-phthalocyanine compound was prepared by refluxing a mixture of wolfram trioxyde, (WO 3 ) and phthalonitrile, (C 8 H 4 N 2 ) at 250 o C for two hours. The synthesis of wolfram phthalocyanine is 70% purity yield, the product are green crystals, have a 193,0-193,8 o C melting points, and has a molecular formula C 3 2H 1 6 N8 WO 2 . The infra red spectrum of wolfram-phthalocyanine was the absorption band at 964,3 cm - 1 was due to the vibration of W=O bond of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine. The x-ray diffraction of the wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine was similar with molybdenum dioxy-phthalocyanine compound. This fact showed that the product was wolfram dioxy-phthalocyanine

  7. Lanthanum-promoted copper-based hydrotalcites derived mixed oxides for NO{sub x} adsorption, soot combustion and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongpeng [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Yan, Xiaotong; Bi, Xinlin; Wang, Liguo [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Zhang, Zhaoliang, E-mail: chm_zhangzl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, 106 Jiwei Road, Jinan 250022 (China); Jiang, Zheng; Xiao, Tiancun [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Umar, Ahmad [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Tsinghua East Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The addition of La in Cu-based oxides increased the types of active oxygen. • NO{sub x} adsorption, soot oxidation and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal were enhanced. • The possible catalytic mechanism was studied via in situ FTIR analysis. • Soot oxidation was promoted by the NO{sub 2} intermediate. - Abstract: La-promoted Cu-based hydrotalcites derived mixed oxides were prepared and their catalytic activities for NO{sub x} adsorption, soot oxidation, and simultaneous NO{sub x}-soot removal were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, DTG, BET, FTIR, H2-TPR, TPD and TPO techniques. The oxides catalysts exhibited mesoporous properties with specific surface area of 45–160 m{sup 2}/g. The incorporation of La and Cu decreased the amount of basic sites due to the large decrease in surface areas. Under O{sub 2} atmosphere, La incorporation is dominant for soot oxidation activity, while Cu favors high selectivity to CO{sub 2} formation. A synergetic effect between La and Cu for catalyzed soot oxidation lies in the improved redox property and suitable basicity. The presence of NO in O{sub 2} significantly promoted soot oxidation on the catalysts with the ignition temperature decreased to about 300 °C. In O{sub 2}/NO atmosphere, NO{sub 2} acts as an intermediate which oxidizes soot to CO{sub 2} at a lower temperature with itself reduced to NO or N{sub 2}, contributing to the high catalytic performance in simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and soot.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, photophysical, and photochemical properties of novel zinc(II) and indium(III) phthalocyanines containing 2-phenylphenoxy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Haytham Elzien Alamin; Pişkin, Mehmet; Altun, Selçuk; Durmuş, Mahmut; Odabaş, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of highly soluble and non-aggregated peripherally/non-peripherally Zn and In(OAc) phthalocyanines was achieved by 3-/ and 4-(2-phenylphenoxy)phthalonitrile as starting materials. The novel compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1 H-NMR (for phthalonitriles), UV–vis and MALDI-TOF mass (for Pcs) spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, photophysical, photochemical and spectral properties of the phthalocyanines were reported. Especially, the indium(OAc) phthalocyanines showed good singlet oxygen quantum yields in DMSO and they can be appropriate candidates as Type II photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, photophysical, and photochemical properties of novel zinc(II) and indium(III) phthalocyanines containing 2-phenylphenoxy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Haytham Elzien Alamin [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); University of Khartoum, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 321, Khartoum, 11115 (Sudan); Pişkin, Mehmet [Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Department of Food Technology, Çanakkale 17100 (Turkey); Altun, Selçuk [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Technical University, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 141, Gebze, Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey); Odabaş, Zafer, E-mail: zodabas@marmara.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    The synthesis of highly soluble and non-aggregated peripherally/non-peripherally Zn and In(OAc) phthalocyanines was achieved by 3-/ and 4-(2-phenylphenoxy)phthalonitrile as starting materials. The novel compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, {sup 1}H-NMR (for phthalonitriles), UV–vis and MALDI-TOF mass (for Pcs) spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, photophysical, photochemical and spectral properties of the phthalocyanines were reported. Especially, the indium(OAc) phthalocyanines showed good singlet oxygen quantum yields in DMSO and they can be appropriate candidates as Type II photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications.

  10. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  11. Oligolysine-conjugated zinc(II) phthalocyanines as efficient photosensitizers for antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei-Rong; Eastel, Jennifer Mary; Ngai, Karry L K; Cheung, Yuk-Yam; Chan, Paul K S; Hui, Mamie; Ng, Dennis K P; Lo, Pui-Chi

    2014-07-01

    A series of zinc(II) phthalocyanines conjugated with an oligolysine chain (n=2, 4, and 8) were synthesized and characterized by using various spectroscopic methods. As shown by using UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods, these compounds were nonaggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide, and gave a weak fluorescence emission and high singlet oxygen quantum yield (Φ(Δ) =0.86-0.89) as a result of their di-α-substitution. They became slightly aggregated in water with 0.05 % Cremophor EL, but they could still generate singlet oxygen effectively. The antimicrobial photodynamic activities of these compounds were then examined against various bacterial strains, including the Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC BAA-43, and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Generally, the dyes were much more potent toward the Gram-positive bacteria. Only 15 to 90 nM of these photosensitizers was required to induce a 4 log reduction in the cell viability of the strains. For Escherichia coli, the photocytotoxicity increased with the length of the oligolysine chain. The octalysine derivative showed the highest potency with a 4 log reduction concentration of 0.8 μM. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most resistant to the photodynamic treatment. The potency of the tetralysine derivative toward a series of clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus was also examined and found to be comparable with that toward the nonclinical counterparts. Moreover, the efficacy of these compounds in photodynamic inactivation of viruses was also examined. They were highly photocytotoxic against the enveloped viruses influenza A virus (H1N1) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), but exhibited no significant cytotoxicity against the nonenveloped viruses adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) or coxsackievirus (Cox B1). The octalysine derivative also showed the highest potency with

  12. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  13. Synthesis of phthalocyanines-ALA conjugates: water-soluble compounds with low aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Kleber T; de Assis, Francisco F; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Neri, Claudio R; Fernandes, Adjaci U; Baptista, Mauricio S; Lopes, Norberto P; Serra, Osvaldo A; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2009-10-16

    Syntheses of two water-soluble phthalocyanines (Pc) containing 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) linked to the core structure are described. These compounds were prepared by using original functionalizations, and they present remarkable structural and photophysical features, indicating that they could be applied to photodynamic therapy (PDT).

  14. Filler size effects on the conductivity of polymer nanocomposites: semiconductive phthalocyanine nanoparticles in epoxy matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, M.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Huijbregts, L.J.; With, de G.

    2008-01-01

    Three Cobalt(III) phthalocyanine (Phthalcon) powders with different particle sizes and chemical compositions, but almost equal XRD spectra and powder conductivity were synthesized and used as conductive fillers in crosslinked epoxy matrices. Two of these Phthalcons are new compounds. The relation

  15. Direct observation of hindered eccentric rotation of an individual molecule : Cu-phthalocyanine on C60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöhr, Meike; Wagner, T; Gabriel, M; Weyers, B; Moller, R

    2002-01-01

    Individual Cu-phthalocyanine molecules have been investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy on a closed packed film of C-60 at various temperatures. The molecules are found to bind asymmetrically to one C-60. While they remain in one position at low temperature, they can hop between six equivalent

  16. Solvent Effect, Photochemical and Photophysical Properties of Phthalocyanines with Different Metallic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Biral Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photophysical and photochemical properties of lithium phthalocyanine (1, gallium(III phthalocyanine chloride (2, titanium(IV phthalocyanine dichloride (3 and iron(II phthalocyanine (4 were investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, tetrahydrofuran (THF and DMSO-THF mixtures. The influence of the central metal on these properties was analyzed according to solvent type, axial ligands and their paramagnetic and diamagnetic effect. Fluorescence lifetimes were recorded using a time correlated single photon counting setup (TCSPC technique. In order to demonstrate the generation of reactive oxygen species under light irradiation, the indirect method (applying 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF as chemical suppressor and the direct method (analyzing the phosphorescence decay curves of singlete oxygen at 1270 nm were employed. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed a monomeric behavior in all media while compound 4 presented low aggregation in DMSO, but a very pronounced aggregation behavior in THF. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy was compared with emission spectra and complex 4 presented values beyond the expected limits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i5.1047 

  17. Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using metal complex of phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Tomoyasu, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Fabrication and characterization of organic solar cells using shuttle-cock-type phthalocyanines were carried out. Photovoltaic properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by current density-voltage characteristics. Effects of phase transition between H and J aggregates on the photovoltaic and optical properties were investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed.

  18. Phthalocyanine as Sensitive Coatings for QCM Sensors-Experimental and Computational Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbahar, D. D.; Harbeck, M.; Guerol, I.; Musluoglu, E.; Oeztuerk, Z. Z.; Berber, S.

    2011-01-01

    Sorption of organic compounds from aqueous phase into phthalocyanines (Pc) is studied using QCM sensors and Density Functional Theory (DFT) for the first time. The focus is set on the influence of substitution type and central metal atom on the liquid sensing properties of the Pcs.

  19. In search of the main properties of phthalocyanines participating in toxicity against cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Novotná, Zlatica; Černý, J.; Karásková, M.; Rakušan, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 11 (2009), s. 1520-1525 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phthalocyanine s * cyanobycteria * toxicity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.253, year: 2009

  20. Interaction of nitrogen dioxide with sulfonamide-substituted phthalocyanines: Towards NO2 gas sensor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pochekailov, Sergii; Nožár, Juraj; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 169, 5 July (2012), s. 1-9 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA MPO FR-TI1/144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : phthalocyanine * sulfonamide * nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  1. Optical properties of zinc phthalocyanine thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Michal; Bulíř, Jiří; Bensalah-Ledoux, A.; Guy, S.; Fitl, P.; Vrňata, M.; Lančok, Ján; Moine, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2014), 377-381 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101271 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optical properties * zinc phthalocyanine * laser deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.704, year: 2014

  2. Photodynamic effects of 31 different phthalocyanines on a human keratinocyte cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Babica, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2013), s. 870-874 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010356 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) FP/2007-2013 no.2SGA2858 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : phthalocyanine s * photodynamics * toxicity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.499, year: 2013

  3. Degradation of natural toxins by phthalocyanines-example of cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, D.; Blahová, L.; Karásková, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2010), s. 273-278 ISSN 0273-1223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : microcystin * phthalocyanine * singled oxygen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2010

  4. Effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine on human skin fibroblasts for photodynamic therapy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available of the study was to evaluate the effect of mixed-sulfonated aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPcSmix) used as photosensitizers for PDT, determined by changes in cell morphology and cell viability of human skin fibroblasts (WS1). Methods. Cells incubated with 5, 10...

  5. Optical-limiting response of rare-earth metallo-phthalocyanine-doped copolymer matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Gopinath, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, J.

    2003-01-01

    The nanosecond optical-limiting characteristics (at 532 nm) of some rare-earth metallo-phthalocyanines (Sm(Pc)2, Eu(Pc)2, and LaPc) doped in a copolymer matrix of poly(Me methacrylate) and Me-2-cyanoacrylate were studied for the 1st time to the authors' knowledge. The optical-limiting response is

  6. Spectroscopic studies of copper enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.M.; Moog, R.; Zumft, W.; Koenig, S.H.; Scott, R.A.; Cote, C.E.; McGuirl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Several spectroscopic methods, including absorption, circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, NMR, and quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, have been used to probe the structures of copper-containing amine oxidases, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The basic goals are to determine the copper site structure, electronic properties, and to generate structure-reactivity correlations. Collectively, the results on the amine oxidases permit a detailed model for the Cu(II) sites in these enzymes to be constructed that, in turn, rationalizes the ligand-binding chemistry. Resonance Raman spectra of the phenylhydrazine and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine derivatives of bovine plasma amine oxidase and models for its organic cofactor, e.g. pyridoxal, methoxatin, are most consistent with methoxatin being the intrinsic cofactor. The structure of the Cu(I) forms of the amine oxidases have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS); the copper coordination geometry is significantly different in the oxidized and reduced forms. Some anomalous properties of the amine oxidases in solution are explicable in terms of their reversible aggregation, which the authors have characterized via light scattering. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases display several novel spectral properties. The data suggest that new types of copper sites are present

  7. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  8. Layered composites of PEDOT/PSS/nanoparticles and PEDOT/PSS/phthalocyanines as electron mediators for sensors and biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia García-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensing properties of electrodes chemically modified with PEDOT/PSS towards catechol and hydroquinone sensing have been successfully improved by combining layers of PEDOT/PSS with layers of a secondary electrocatalytic material such as gold nanoparticles (PEDOT/PSS/AuNPs, copper phthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/CuPc or lutetium bisphthalocyanine (PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2. Layered composites exhibit synergistic effects that strongly enhance the electrocatalytic activity as indicated by the increase in intensity and the shift of the redox peaks to lower potentials. A remarkable improvement has been achieved using PEDOT/PSS/LuPc2, which exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of catechol. The kinetic studies demonstrated diffusion-controlled processes at the electrode surfaces. The kinetic parameters such as Tafel slopes and charge transfer coefficient (α confirm the improved electrocatalytic activity of the layered electron mediators. The peak currents increased linearly with concentration of catechol and hydroquinone over the range of 1.5 × 10−4 to 4.0 × 10−6 mol·L−1 with a limit of detection on the scale of μmol·L−1. The layered composite hybrid systems were also found to be excellent electron mediators in biosensors containing tyrosinase and laccase, and they combine the recognition and biocatalytic properties of biomolecules with the unique catalytic features of composite materials. The observed increase in the intensity of the responses allowed detection limits of 1 × 10−7 mol·L−1 to be attained.

  9. Kinetic of the Intracellular Incorporation of New Phthalocyanines Synthesized in mexico and Its Potential as Photosensibilizers in the Photodynamic Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon-Aguilar, Hector; Ramon-Gallegos, Eva; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco Jesus; Contreras-Ramos, Alejandra; Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Sosa-Sanchez, Jose Luis; Garcia Miranda, Maribel

    2008-01-01

    The search of more specific and efficient photosensitizer in low oxygen tensions is a need in the Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Phthalocyanines have demonstrated to have the above mentioned activity. The aim of this work was to determine the efficiency of PDT using two phthalocyanines synthesized in Mexico to eliminate melanoma cells. B16F0 melanoma mouse cells were exposed to concentrations from 8.95x10 -5 to 0.733 m/mL of F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 during 24h, afterwards cellular mortality was measured. One kinetic was realized to determine the intracellular incorporation of phthalocyanines by confocal microscopy at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24 h of exposition. The PDT was applied exposing the cells to innocuous concentration (that does not provoke cellular death with out irradiation) and irradiating with an argon laser at 100 J/cm 2 . For each phthalocyanine a control group was used; one group was not treated neither with light nor with phthalocyanine, the other group it was only irradiated. 24 h after treatment the citotoxicity was measured by Alamar blue assay. The innocuous concentration found for the phthalocyanines F16VoPc and F16NbPcC13 were 4.58x10-2 and 2.29xl0 -2 mg/mL, respectively. The time of maximum intracellular accumulation for both phthalocyanines was 24 h. Only the F16VoPc had anticancerous activity and induced 31.7% of cellular death. The PDT might offer a potential alternative to the treatment of this cancer when is used the phthalocyanine F16VoPc

  10. Scientific Opinion on dietary reference values for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for copper. Owing to the absence of appropriate biomarkers of copper status and the limitations of available balance studies, the Panel...

  11. Investigation of interaction between alkoxy substituted phthalocyanines with different lengths of alkyl residue and bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedeva, Natalya Sh., E-mail: nsl@isc-ras.ru [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya, 1, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Gubarev, Yury A.; Vyugin, Anatoly I. [G.A. Krestov Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya, 1, 153045 Ivanovo (Russian Federation); Koifman, Oscar I. [Research Institute of Macroheterocycles of Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, 153000 Ivanovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Interaction between bovine serum albumin and alkoxy substituted phthalocyanines was studied by means of electron absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosimetry. The binding constants and binding distance were calculated. It was found that ZnPc(4-NH-CO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OC{sub 10}H{sub 21}){sub 4} prevents twisting of BSA molecule and localizes between subdomains IB and IIA in protein globule. ZnPc(4-NH-CO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OC{sub 6}H{sub 13}){sub 4} and ZnPc(4-NH-CO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OC{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4} are located on the outer surface of the protein globule. In the case of ZnPc(4-NH-CO-C{sub 6}H{sub 4}-OC{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 4} it can be assumed that the phthalocyanine molecule is in the immediate vicinity of the subdomains IB and IIA. - Highlights: • Interaction between bovine serum albumin and alkoxy substituted phthalocyanines was studied by means of electron absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosimetry. • The binding constants and binding distance were calculated by using the Scatchard method. • Photochemical characteristics of phthalocyanines of studied phthalocyanines are defined. • Localization of phthalocyanines on the protein globule is defined.

  12. Light-harvesting dendrimer zinc-phthalocyanines chromophores labeled single-wall carbon nanotube nanoensembles: Synthesis and photoinduced electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hongqin [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Pan, Sujuan; Ma, Dongdong; He, Dandan; Wang, Yuhua [College of Chemistry & Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Xie, Shusen [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education and Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Peng, Yiru, E-mail: yirupeng@fjnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry & Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2016-11-15

    A novel series of light-harvesting dendrimer zinc-phthalocyanines chromophores labeled-single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) nanoparticles, in which 0–2 generations dendrimer zinc phthalocyanines covalently linked with SWNTs using either ethylenediamine or hexamethylenediamine as the space linkers were prepared. The structures and morphologies of these nanoconjugates were comprehensively characterized by Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis methods. Their photophysical properties were investigated by fluorescence and time-resolved spectroscopic methods. The photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer occurred from phthalocyanines (donors) to SWNTs (acceptors). Besides, the electron transfer exchange rates and exchange efficacies between the dendritic phthalocyanines and single-wall carbon nanotubes increased as the length of spacer linker decreased, or as the dendritic generation increased. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) method further confirmed thermodynamics possibility of the electron transfer from phthalocyanines to single-wall carbon nanotubes. These new nanoconjugates are fundamentally important due to the synergy effects of both carbon nanotubes and dendrimer phthalocyanines, which may find potential applications in the fields of drug delivery, biological labeling, or others.

  13. Molecular models of zinc phthalocyanines: semi-empirical molecular orbital computations and physicochemical properties studied by molecular mechanics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantchev, Tsvetan G.; van Lier, Johan E.; Hunting, Darel J.

    2005-01-01

    To build 3D-molecular models of Zinc-phthalocyanines (ZnPc) and to study their diverse chemical and photosensitization properties, we performed quantum mechanical molecular orbital (MO) semi-empirical (AM1) computations of the ground, excited singlet and triplet states as well as free radical (ionic) species. RHF and UHF (open shell) geometry optimizations led to near-perfect symmetrical ZnPc. Predicted ionization potentials (IP), electron affinities (EA) and lowest electronic transitions of ZnPc are in good agreement with the published experimental and theoretical data. The computation-derived D 4h /D 2h -symmetry 3D-structures of ground and excited states and free radicals of ZnPc, together with the frontier orbital energies and Mulliken electron population analysis enabled us to build robust molecular models. These models were used to predict important chemical-reactivity entities such as global electronegativity (χ), hardness (η) and local softness based on Fukui-functions analysis. Examples of molecular mechanics (MM) applications of the 3D-molecular models are presented as approaches to evaluate solvation free energy (ΔG 0 ) solv and to estimate ground- and excited- state oxidation/reduction potentials as well as intermolecular interactions and stability of ground and excited state dimers (exciplexes) and radical ion-pairs

  14. A carboxylated Zn-phthalocyanine inhibits fibril formation of Alzheimer's amyloid β peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shatera; Sheikh, Abdullah M; Yano, Shozo; Ikeue, Takafumi; Handa, Makoto; Nagai, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ), a 39-42 amino acid peptide derived from amyloid precursor protein, is deposited as fibrils in Alzheimer's disease brains, and is considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease. We have investigated the effects of a water-soluble Zn-phthalocyanine, ZnPc(COONa)₈, a macrocyclic compound with near-infrared optical properties, on Aβ fibril formation in vitro. A thioflavin T fluorescence assay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ significantly inhibited Aβ fibril formation, increasing the lag time and dose-dependently decreasing the plateau level of fibril formation. Moreover, it destabilized pre-formed Aβ fibrils, resulting in an increase in low-molecular-weight species. After fibril formation in the presence of ZnPc(COONa)₈, immunoprecipitation of Aβ₁₋₄₂ using Aβ-specific antibody followed by near-infrared scanning demonstrated binding of ZnPc(COONa)₈ to Aβ₁₋₄₂. A study using the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid showed that ZnPc(COONa)8 decreased the hydrophobicity during Aβ₁₋₄₂ fibril formation. CD spectroscopy showed an increase in the α helix structure and a decrease in the β sheet structure of Aβ₁₋₄₀ in fibril-forming buffer containing ZnPc(COONa)₈. SDS/PAGE and a dot-blot immunoassay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ delayed the disappearance of low-molecular-weight species and the appearance of higher-molecular-weight oligomeric species of Aβ₁₋₄₂. A cell viability assay showed that ZnPc(COONa)₈ was not toxic to a neuronal cell line (A1), but instead protected A1 cells against Aβ₁₋₄₂-induced toxicity. Overall, our results indicate that ZnPc(COONa)₈ binds to Aβ and decreases the hydrophobicity, and this change is unfavorable for Aβ oligomerization and fibril formation. © 2014 FEBS.

  15. Optical spectra of phthalocyanines and related compounds a guide for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Isago, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This book displays how optical (absorption, emission, and magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of phthalocyanines and related macrocyclic dyes can be varied from their prototypical ones depending on conditions. As these compounds can be involved in colorful chemistry (which might be driven by impurities in solvents), their spectra behave like the sea-god Proteus in their mutability. Therefore, those who have been engaged with phthalocyanines for the first time, including even educated professional researchers and engineers, may have been embarrassed by the deceptive behavior of their compounds and could have, in the worst cases, given up their projects. This book is aimed not merely at reviewing the optical spectra, but also at helping such people, particularly beginners, to figure them out by showing some examples of their prototypical spectra and their variations in several situations. For the purpose of better understanding, the book also provides an introduction to their theoretical backgrounds as graphic...

  16. Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldi, G.; Caglio, S.

    2013-06-01

    The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

  17. Photochemical oxygen reduction by zinc phthalocyanine and silver/gold nanoparticle incorporated silica thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Manas; Ganesan, Vellaichamy, E-mail: velganesh@yahoo.com; Azad, Uday Pratap

    2012-12-15

    Silver or gold nanoparticles are synthesized using a borohydride reduction method and are anchored simultaneously into/onto the mercaptopropyl functionalized silica. Later, zinc phthalocyanine is adsorbed onto the above materials. Thin films of these materials are prepared by coating an aqueous colloidal suspension of the respective material onto glass plates. Visible light irradiation of these films in oxygen saturated, stirred aqueous solutions effectively reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalytic reduction of oxygen is explained on the basis of the semiconducting properties of the silica films. The back electron transfer reaction is largely prevented by means of a sacrificial electron donor, triethanolamine. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc phthalocyanine adsorbed silica materials were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin films of these materials photocatalytically reduce oxygen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalysis is explained based on semiconductor properties of the materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticles increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the materials.

  18. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; John, E.K.; Barnhart, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several isotopes of gallium and copper exhibit nuclear properties that make them attractive for applications in nuclear medicine, most notably Ga-67, Ga-68, Cu-67 and Cu-62. Of these, gamma-emitting Ga-67 has historically found the greatest clinical use, based on the observation that tracer gallium(III) citrate rapidly produces Ga-67 transferrin upon intravenous injection and then slowly affords selective Ga-67 localization in sites of abscess and certain tumors. Copper-67 has received attention as a potential label for tissue-selective monoclonal antibodies, since its associated γ-photons can be used for external imaging and its β - -emissions could be used for radiation therapy. Positron-emitting gallium-68 and copper-62, being available from parent/daughter generator systems, have attracted interest as potential labels for radiopharmaceuticals used in positron emission tomography (PET) because they could reduce the dependence of this imaging technology on hospital-based cyclotrons. The 10 min. half-life of Cu-62 is particularly well-suited to the time frame of PET studies of tissue perfusion, an application for which Cu(II)-bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives appear promising. The 68 min. half-life of Ga-68 makes it appropriate for PET studies over longer imaging time spans

  19. Phthalocyanine-nanocarbon ensembles: From discrete molecular and supramolecular systems to hybrid nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Bottari, Giovanni; De La Torre, Gema; Torres, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Accounts of Chemical Research, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar5004384 Conspectus Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are macrocyclic and aromatic compounds that present unique electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry, and...

  20. Preparation of new phthalocyanine complexes of some rare-earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Higashi, Teruaki; Mori, Masayasu

    1982-01-01

    The reaction of tris(1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedionato) complexes of heavier rare-earth elements, M 3+ (dbm) 3 and lithium phthalocyaninato (2-), Li 2 (pc) gave two types of new stable phthalocyanine complexes, [M 3+ (pc)(dbm)(dbmH)] and [M 3+ (pc)(dbm)] depending on the solvents used for the preparation. The structure of both types of complexes are tentatively proposed. (author)

  1. Annealing assisted structural and surface morphological changes in Langmuir–Blodgett films of nickel octabutoxy phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilpa Harish, T.; Viswanath, P., E-mail: viswanath@cnsms.res.in

    2016-01-01

    We report our studies on thin films of metallo-phthalocyanine (MPc), Nickel(II)1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (NiPc(OBu){sub 8}) transferred in a well defined thermodynamic state over a self assembled monolayer (octadecyl trichlorosilane)/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) method. The films are characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. DSC studies on powdered samples in the bulk indicate enantiotropic solid–solid phase transition. GIXD studies on the as-deposited LB film show a Bragg peak indicating crystallinity of the thin film. Annealing (373 K) results in reduction of lattice spacing (1.21 Å) signifying changes in molecular packing within the unit cell. At this stage, an additional Bragg peak is observed which grows at the expense of the former one and they coexist between 373 K and 423 K. A discontinuity in lattice spacing from 20.73 to 15.12 Å with annealing indicates clearly a structural change of the underlying crystalline lattice. Correspondingly, the surface morphology images obtained using AFM show, with annealing, a transformation from spherical granular morphology to elongated, flat crystallites suggesting asymmetric growth process. Statistical parameters of the grain extracted from the AFM images show that the size, fractal dimension and circularity are affected by annealing. Based on these studies, we infer the structural and surface morphological changes of the meta-stable phase (Form I) to the stable phase (Form II) in annealed LB films of phthalocyanine. - Highlights: • Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of phthalocyanine subjected to thermal annealing. • Structural transformation and coexistence of polymorphs in LB films • Surface morphology changes from nanoscale grains to elongated crystallites. • Reduction of fractal dimension and circularity index reveals asymmetric growth.

  2. Novel Topical Photodynamic Therapy of Prostate Carcinoma Using Hydroxy-aluminum Phthalocyanine Entrapped in Liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sutoris, K.; Rakušan, J.; Karásková, M.; Mattová, J.; Beneš, J.; Nekvasil, Miloš; Ježek, Petr; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.; Větvička, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2013), s. 1563-1568 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/026; GA MŠk(CZ) OE09026; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01010781 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : PC prostate carcinomas * LNCaP * liposomes * hydroxy-aluminum phthalocyanine * photodynamic therapy Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.872, year: 2013

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of novel phthalocyanines against Escherichia coli - comparison of analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, Přemysl; Kalhotka, L.; Jančula, Daniel; Zezulka, Štěpán; Kořínková, R.; Černý, J.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Toman, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, Sep 2014 (2014), s. 230-239 ISSN 1011-1344 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010356; GA MPO FR-TI3/196; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/10/2280 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : phthalocyanine s * photosensitizers * antibacterial effect Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.960, year: 2014

  4. Interaction of selected gases with zinc phthalocyanine thin films: theoretical and experimental studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebera, Jakub; Fitl, P.; Vlček, J.; Vrňata, M.; Fendrych, František; Kopeček, Jaromír; Kratochvílová, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2013), "10202-p1"-"10202-p6" ISSN 1286-0042 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011165; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Zinc phthalocyanine * charge transport * sensor * DFT Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.789, year: 2013

  5. Organic phthalocyanine films with high mobilities for efficient field-effect transistor switches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, F.; Zhivkov, I.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    266-269, 1-3 (2000), s. 999-1003 ISSN 0022-3093. [International Conference on Amorphous and Microcrystalline Semiconductors /18./. Snowbird, 23.08.1999-27.08.1999] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 518.10; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phthalocyanine * charge mobility * field-effect transistor Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2000

  6. Spectroscopic insights on selfassembly and excited state interactions between rhodamine and phthalocyanine molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hao; Zhang, Xian-Fu

    2015-03-15

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra as well as fluorescence lifetimes of tetrasulfonated zinc phthalocyanine ZnPc(SO3Na)4 were measured in the absence and presence of four rhodamine dyes, Rhodamine B (RB), Ethyl rhodamine B (ERB), Rhodamine 6G (R6G), Rhodamine 110 (R110), and Pyronine B (PYB). The ground state complexes of phthalocyanine-(Rhodamine)2 were observed which exhibit new absorption bands. The binding constants are all very large (0.86×10(5)-0.22×10(8) M(-1)), suggesting rhodamine-phthalocyanine pairs are very good combinations for efficient selfassembly. Both the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime values of ZnPc(SO3Na)4 were decreased by the presence of rhodamines. The structural effect of rhodamines on selfassembly is significant. The ground state binding and dynamic quenching capability is PYB>R6G>ERB>RB>R110. The dynamic fluorescence quenching is due to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET). The PET rate constant is very large and in the order of 10(13) M(-1) s(-1), much greater than kf and kic (in the order of 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)), which means that the PET efficiency is almost 100%. Therefore the non-covalent Pc-rhodamine is a very good pair of donor/acceptor for potential efficient solar energy conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of chemical changes during photooxidation of polypropylene film and filament containing phthalocyanine pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Z.; Haghighat Kish, M.; Kotak, R.; Katbab, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypropylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10 min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of film and filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation

  8. Electrocatalytic behavior of carbon paste electrode modified with metal phthalocyanines nanoparticles toward the hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Norouz-sarvestani, Fatemeh; Mirahmadi, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The new construction of a carbon paste electrode impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). ► The decrease overpotential and higher current value obtained in nano ZnPc and nano NiPc compared to bulky ZnPc and bulky NiPc, respectively. ► Types of the catalyst and pH of the solution affect the electro catalytic proton reduction reaction considerably. - Abstract: This paper describes the construction of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) impregnated with nanoparticles of Zn and Ni phthalocyanine (nano ZnPc and nano NiPc). These new electrodes (nano ZnPc-CPE and nano NiPc-CPE) reveal interesting electrocatalytic behavior toward hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Voltammetric characteristics indicated that the proposed electrodes display better electrocatalytic activity compared to their corresponding bulky modified metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) in minimizing overpotential and increasing the reduction current of HER. Electrocatalytic activities irregularly change with the pH of the solution. However by increasing the pH while nano MPcs are still active, bulky MPcs are almost inactive, and their corresponding ΔE increase by increasing the pH.

  9. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79 % incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1 % energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Metal-phthalocyanine ordered layers on Au(110): Metal-dependent adsorption energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.massimi@uniroma1.it; Angelucci, Marco; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy); Montoro, Silvia [IFIS Litoral, CONICET-UNL, Laboratorio de Fisica de Superficies e Interfaces, Güemes 3450, Santa Fe (Argentina); Mariani, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.mariani@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, Università di Roma La “Sapienza,” 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-06-28

    Iron-phthalocyanine and cobalt-phthalocyanine chains, assembled along the Au(110)-(1×2) reconstructed channels, present a strong interaction with the Au metallic states, via the central metal ion. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy from the metal-2p core-levels and valence band high-resolution ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy bring to light signatures of the interaction of the metal-phthalocyanine single-layer with gold. The charge transfer from Au to the molecule causes the emerging of a metal-2p core level component at lower binding energy with respect to that measured in the molecular thin films, while the core-levels associated to the organic macrocycle (C and N 1s) are less influenced by the adsorption, and the macrocycles stabilize the interaction, inducing a strong interface dipole. Temperature Programmed Desorption experiments and photoemission as a function of temperature allow to estimate the adsorption energy for the thin-films, mainly due to the molecule-molecule van der Waals interaction, while the FePc and CoPc single-layers remain adsorbed on the Au surface up to at least 820 K.

  11. Comparison of Chemical Changes During Photooxidation of Polypropylene Film and Filament Containing Phthalocyanine Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation as an important process, which significantly affects the service life of the polypropylene products, has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental study. Pigments used often change the light stabilities of polypropylene. Out-door applications of pigmented polypr-opylene are now increasingly developed in products such as artificial grass. The aim of this work is to examine the effect of photo-oxidation on the structure of isotactic polypropylene (iPP in film and filament forms, where phthalocyanine pigment is used. For production of films and filaments, iPP granules with MFI 25 g/10min were used, with and without phthalocyanine pigment. Samples were exposed to xenon lamp for various time lengths. The extent of the changes in chemical and structural parameters was examined by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The results show that carbonyl and hydroperoxide indices increase during the exposure to the radiation. The changes in melting points of the samples were not significant after irradiation process. The effects of phthalocyanine pigment in the photooxidation of filmand filament were different. Crystalline fractions of the non-pigmented filament samples decreased during the irradiation time while increased in film samples. Build up of hydroperoxide and carbonyl group in filament was higher than in film samples; that could be due to the differences in structural parameters. Crystallinity variations during photooxidation are related to the nucleation effect of the pigment, chemical crystallization and phase transformation.

  12. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lupo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100 and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process.

  13. The effect of NO2 on spectroscopic and structural properties of evaporated ruthenium phthalocyanine dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagna, Lucilla; Capobianchi, Aldo; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Rossi, Gentilina; Casaletto, Maria Pia; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Albertini, Valerio Rossi

    2006-01-01

    The chemical interaction between NO 2 gas and dimeric ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) 2 (Pc = phthalocyanine ligand) films has been investigated by different techniques: UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The optical spectra in the Q band region (700-500 nm) registered 'in situ' enabled to follow the evolution of the process in real time indicating that a two steps reaction, showing two clear isosbestic points, occurs. The first phase was essentially characterised by: (a) the rapid disappearance of the 608 and 420 nm shoulders; (b) the intensity decrease of the main absorption peak and (c) the appearance of a new adsorption band centred around 510 nm. In the second step the remarkable feature is a further lowering of the main peak with the simultaneous decrease of the new 510 nm absorption. These spectral changes suggested that a chemical reaction occurred between NO 2 and ruthenium phthalocyanine with the formation of a radical species due to the macrocycle oxidation. The kinetics indicates that the adsorption of gas by the evaporated (RuPc) 2 film is a complex process involving more than one independent mechanism. XPS and EXAFS spectra collected before and after gas exposure showed that the central metals (Ru) were also involved in the oxidation process. The reversibility of the process has been also tested by treating the films at different temperatures, the original optical spectrum being not completely recovered

  14. Extent of Intramolecular p-Stacks in Aqueous Solution in Mixed-Ligand Copper(II) Complexes Formed by Heteroaromatic Amines and Several 2-Aminopurine Derivatives of the Antivirally Active Nucleotide Analog 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gómez-Coca, R. B.; Blindauer, C. A.; Sigel, A.; Operschall, B. P.; Holý, Antonín; Sigel, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2012), s. 2008-2034 ISSN 1612-1872 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : copper complexes * nucleotides * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * ANPs * antiviral activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.808, year: 2012

  15. Impact of the Anchoring Ligand on Electron Injection and Recombination Dynamics at the Interface of Novel Asymmetric Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanines and TiO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Divya; Steen, Gerrit Willem; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Garcia-Iglesias, M.; Vazquez, P; Torres, T.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Huijser, Jannetje Maria

    2013-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are promising photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A parameter that has been problematic for a long time involves electron injection (EI) into the TiO2. The development of push-pull phthalocyanines shows great potential to improve the ratio of EI to back electron

  16. Enhanced power conversion efficiency of p-i-n type organic solar cells by employing a p-layer of palladium phthalocyanine

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Inho; Haverinen, Hanna M.; Li, Jian; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an enhancement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of p-i-n type organic solar cells consisting of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and fullerene (C60) using a p-layer of palladium phthalocyanine (PdPc). Solar cells employing three

  17. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  18. Point defect relaxation volumes for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1979-11-01

    The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)

  19. Zinc(II) phthalocyanines immobilized in mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 and their applications in photocatalytic degradation of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.; Calvete, M.J.F.; Gonçalves, N.P.F.; Burrows, H.D.; Sarakha, M.; Fernandes, A.; Ribeiro, M.F.; Azenha, M.E.; Pereira, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Complete immobilization of zinc(II) phthalocyanines accomplished in Al-MCM-41. ► Efficient photodegradation of model pesticides achieved using 365 nm irradiation. ► Sodium azide experiments showed the involvement of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). - Abstract: In the present study the authors investigated a set of three new zinc(II) phthalocyanines (zinc(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnTNPc), zinc(II) tetra(phenyloxy)phthalocyanine (ZnTPhOPc) and the tetraiodide salt of zinc(II)tetra(N,N,N-trimethylaminoethyloxy) phthalocyaninate (ZnTTMAEOPcI)) immobilized into Al-MCM-41 prepared via ship-in-a-bottle methodology. The samples were fully characterized by diffuse reflectance-UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS-UV–vis), luminescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DSC), N 2 adsorption techniques and elemental analysis. A comparative study was made on the photocatalytic performance upon irradiation within the wavelength range 320–460 nm of these three systems in the degradation of pesticides fenamiphos and pentachlorophenol. ZnTNPc-Al-MCM-41 and ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41 were found to be the most active systems, with the best performance observed with the immobilized cationic phthalocyanine, ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41. This system showed high activity even after three photocatalytic cycles. LC–MS product characterization and mechanistic studies indicate that singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), produced by excitation of these immobilized photosensitizers, is a key intermediate in the photocatalytic degradation of both pesticides.

  20. Electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of tert-butylcalix[4]arene bridged bis double-decker lutetium(III) phthalocyanine, Lu2Pc4 and dimeric lutetium(III) phthalocyanine, Lu2Pc2(OAc)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, Atif; Ceyhan, Tanju; Erbil, Mehmet K.; Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Bekaroglu, Ozer

    2007-01-01

    In this study, electrochemical, electrochromic and spectroelectrochemical properties of a tert-butylcalix[4]arene bridged bis double-decker lutetium(III) phthalocyanine (Lu 2 Pc 4 2) were investigated explicitly as compared with a tert-butylcalix[4]arene bridged dimeric lutetium(III) phthalocyanine [Lu 2 Pc 2 (OAc) 2 1]. Distinctive differences between electrochemical and electrochromic properties of 1 and 2 were detected. Moreover, the properties of 1 and 2 were compared with previously reported S 4 (CH 2 ) 4 bridged Lu 2 Pc 2 (OAc) 2 and Lu 2 Pc 4 . The calixarene bridged phthalocyanine (Pc) compounds, 1 and 2 showed well-defined electrochromic behaviour with green-blue and blue-purple colour transitions. The enhanced electrochromic properties of 2, as compared to 1, were attributed to its double-decker structure, probably allowing the formation of suitable ion channels for the counter ion movement in the solid film

  1. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  2. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  3. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  4. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level.

  5. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  6. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the graphene substrate plays an important role in the nucleation process of the crystalline phase. Graphene flakes on Ir(111) feature regions that are under more tensile stress than others. We observe that the CuPc molecules form ordered domains initially on those graphene regions that are closest to the fully relaxed lattice. We attribute this effect to a stronger influence of the underlying Ir(111) substrate for molecules adsorbed on those relaxed regions.

  7. Towards functionalization of graphene: in situ study of the nucleation of copper-phtalocyanine on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Daniel; Henneke, Caroline; Kumpf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Molecular films present an elegant way for the uniform functionalization or doping of graphene. Here, we present an in situ study on the initial growth of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). We followed the growth up to a closed monolayer with low energy electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (μLEED). The molecules coexist on graphene in a disordered phase without long-range order and an ordered crystalline phase. The local topography of the graphene substrate plays an important role in the nucleation process of the crystalline phase. Graphene flakes on Ir(111) feature regions that are under more tensile stress than others. We observe that the CuPc molecules form ordered domains initially on those graphene regions that are closest to the fully relaxed lattice. We attribute this effect to a stronger influence of the underlying Ir(111) substrate for molecules adsorbed on those relaxed regions. (paper)

  8. Hexagonal mesoporous silica modified with copper phthalocyanine as a photocatalyst for pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeOliveira, Edimar; Neri, Cláudio R; Ribeiro, Anderson O; Garcia, Vinícius S; Costa, Leonardo L; Moura, Aline O; Prado, Alexandre G S; Serra, Osvaldo A; Iamamoto, Yassuko

    2008-07-01

    A new mesoporous catalyst was prepared by the reaction between 3-aminopropyltrimethoxisylane and Cu(II)-hexadecafluorophthalocyanine, followed by co-condensation of tetraethylorthosilicate around a micelle formed by n-dodecylamine. The surfactant was removed from the pores by continuous extraction with ethanol, giving the Si-CuF16Pc catalyst. This catalyst was characterized by SEM, FTIR, TGA, 29Si NMR, N2 adsorption and X-ray diffraction. SEM images confirmed that the catalyst material is formed by nanoaggregates with a diameter of 100 nm. N2 adsorption isotherms showed that Si-CuF16Pc has a surface area of approximately 200 m2 g(-1) and a porous diameter of 7.7 nm, characterizing the mesoporosity of this product. This novel material shows an excellent photocatalytic activity, degrading almost 90% of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) up to 30 min, while only approximately 40% of photodegradation was obtained in its absence.

  9. Towards the anti-fibrillogenic activity of phthalocyanines with out-of-plane ligands: correlation with self-association proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalska V. B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The activity of five hafnium phthalocyanines containing out-of-plane ligands as inhibitors of reaction of insulin fibril formation is studied and correlation between their inhibitory properties and tendency to self-association is discussed. Methods. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Results. For the complexes with weak proneness to self-association PcHfDbm2, PcHfPyr2, and PcHfBtfa2 the values of inhibitory activity were estimated as 60–73 %. For phthalocyanines with the pronounced tendency to self-association PcHfPiromelit and PcHfCl2 the noticeably higher inhibitory activity values (about 95 % were shown. In the presence of native or fibrilar insulin the destruction of self-associates of metal complex occurs in buffer pH 7.9, Besides upon the conditions of insulin fibrillization reaction (0.1 M HCl phthalocyanines exist predominantly as monomers. Conclusions. The phthalocyanines with out-of-plane ligands with higher tendency to self-association have shown higher inhibitory activity in the insulin fibril formation comparing with the poorly aggregated metal complexes. At the same time low-order self-associates are not involved directly in the mechanism of inhibition of insulin fibrillization and the phthalocyanines bind with protein in monomeric form. Tendency of phthalocyanines to self-association in aqueous media seems to be an «indicator» of their proneness to stack with protein aromatic amino-acids and thus of anti-fibrilogenic properties.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Cu and Ni on Alumina Supports and Their Use in the Synthesis of Low-Temperature Metal-Phthalocyanine Using a Parallel-Plate Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Lucio-Ortiz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ni- and Cu/alumina powders were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electronic microscope (SEM, and N2 physisorption isotherms were also determined. The Ni/Al2O3 sample reveled agglomerated (1 μm of nanoparticles of Ni (30–80 nm however, NiO particles were also identified, probably for the low temperature during the H2 reduction treatment (350 °C, the Cu/Al2O3 sample presented agglomerates (1–1.5 μm of nanoparticles (70–150 nm, but only of pure copper. Both surface morphologies were different, but resulted in mesoporous material, with a higher specificity for the Ni sample. The surfaces were used in a new proposal for producing copper and nickel phthalocyanines using a parallel-plate reactor. Phthalonitrile was used and metallic particles were deposited on alumina in ethanol solution with CH3ONa at low temperatures; ≤60 °C. The mass-transfer was evaluated in reaction testing with a recent three-resistance model. The kinetics were studied with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The activation energy and Thiele modulus revealed a slow surface reaction. The nickel sample was the most active, influenced by the NiO morphology and phthalonitrile adsorption.

  11. Synthesis and spectral properties of axially substituted zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) water soluble phthalocyanines in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasymchuk, Y.S.; Volkov, S.V.; Chernii, V.Ya.; Tomachynski, L.A.; Radzki, St.

    2004-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of novel water soluble axially substituted Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines with gallic, 5-sulfosalicyllic, oxalic acids, and methyl ester of gallic acid as axial ligands coordinated to the central atom metal of phthalocyanine are presented. The absorption spectra of complex solutions in various solvents were characterized. The dependence of the spectral red shift from Reichardt's empirical polarity parameter is described. The deviation from the linearity of Beer-Bouguer-Lambert law was investigated for the range of concentration 5x10 -6 to 10x10 -5 M. Fluorescent properties of axially substituted phthalocyaninato metal complexes in DMSO solutions were investigated

  12. Improved syntheses of high hole mobility phthalocyanines: A case of steric assistance in the cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Tate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the base-initiated cyclo-oligomerisation of phthalonitriles is favoured by bulky α-substituents making it possible to obtain the metal-free phthalocyanine directly and in high yield. The phthalocyanine with eight α-isoheptyl substituents gives a high time-of-flight hole mobility of 0.14 cm2·V−1·s−1 within the temperature range of the columnar hexagonal phase, that is 169–189 °C.

  13. Investigation of copper nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive study has been performed on copper isotopes in the mass region A=63-66. The results of a precise measurement are presented on the properties of levels of 64 Cu and 66 Cu. They were obtained by bombarding the 63 Cu and 65 Cu nuclei with neutrons. The gamma spectra collected after capture of thermal, 2-keV, 24-keV neutrons have been analysed and combined to give a rather extensive set of precise level energies and gamma transition strengths. From the angular distribution of the gamma rays it is possible to obtain information concerning the angular momentum J of several low-lying states. The level schemes derived from such measurements have been used as a test for calculations in the framework of the shell model. The spectral distributions of eigenstates in 64 Cu for different configuration spaces are presented and discussed. In this study the relative importance of configurations with n holes in the 1f7/2 shell with n up to 16, are investigated. It is found that the results strongly depend on the values of the single-particle energies. The results of the spectral-distribution method were utilized for shell-model calculations. From the information obtained from the spectral analysis it was decided to adopt a configuration space which includes up to one hole in the 1f7/2 shell and up to two particles in the 1g9/2 shell. Further, restrictions on seniority and on the coupling of the two particles in the 1g9/2 orbit have been applied and their effects have been studied. It is found that the calculated excitation energies reproduce the measured values in a satisfactory way, but that some of the electromagnetic properties are less well in agreement with experimental data. (Auth.)

  14. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  15. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  16. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  17. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  18. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  19. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and investigation of the spectroscopic properties of novel peripherally 2,3,5-trimethylphenoxy substituted Cu and Co phthalocyanines, the computational and experimental studies of the 4-(2,3,5-trimethylphenoxyphthalonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesuhi Akdemir

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 4-(2,3,5-trimethylphenoxyphthalonitrile (3 was firstly prepared via aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction and characterized by FT-IR, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The molecular structure of the compound (3 was optimized using Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p basis set in the ground state. The molecular geometric parameters which were obtained by X-ray single crystal diffraction method and the spectral results were compared with computed bond lengths and angles, vibrational frequencies and 1H, 13C NMR chemical shifts values of the compound (3. Also, Cu(II and Co(II phthalocyanines were synthesized by the treatment of dinitrile derivative with anhydrous CuCl2 or CoCl2 under N2 atmosphere in dry n-pentanol at 140oC. The new compounds have been determined by elemental analysis, FT-IR and electronic absorption. The UV-Vis spectra of the Cu(II and Co(II phthalocyanines were recorded with different concentration in THF and also with different solvents as DMF, DMSO, DCM, CHCl3, toluene.

  1. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  2. Copper Coordination in the Full-Length, Recombinant Prion Protein†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Colin S.; Aronoff-Spencer, Eliah; Legname, Giuseppe; Prusiner, Stanley B.; Antholine, William E.; Gerfen, Gary J.; Peisach, Jack; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2010-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) binds divalent copper at physiologically relevant conditions and is believed to participate in copper regulation or act as a copper-dependent enzyme. Ongoing studies aim at determining the molecular features of the copper binding sites. The emerging consensus is that most copper binds in the octarepeat domain, which is composed of four or more copies of the fundamental sequence PHGGGWGQ. Previous work from our laboratory using PrP-derived peptides, in conjunction with EPR and X-ray crystallography, demonstrated that the HGGGW segment constitutes the fundamental binding unit in the octarepeat domain [Burns et al. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 3991–4001; Aronoff-Spencer et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 13760–13771]. Copper coordination arises from the His imidazole and sequential deprotonated glycine amides. In this present work, recombinant, full-length Syrian hamster PrP is investigated using EPR methodologies. Four copper ions are taken up in the octarepeat domain, which supports previous findings. However, quantification studies reveal a fifth binding site in the flexible region between the octarepeats and the PrP globular C-terminal domain. A series of PrP peptide constructs show that this site involves His96 in the PrP(92–96) segment GGGTH. Further examination by X-band EPR, S-band EPR, and electron spin–echo envelope spectroscopy, demonstrates coordination by the His96 imidazole and the glycine preceding the threonine. The copper affinity for this type of binding site is highly pH dependent, and EPR studies here show that recombinant PrP loses its affinity for copper below pH 6.0. These studies seem to provide a complete profile of the copper binding sites in PrP and support the hypothesis that PrP function is related to its ability to bind copper in a pH-dependent fashion. PMID:12779334

  3. Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation due phthalocyanine agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Bezdekova, E.; Louckova, E.; Nekovarova, J.

    2007-01-01

    From 2004, in the laboratory of The Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague is being solved the project FT-TA/034 'Environmentally friendly inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and algae propagation in the circulatory cooling systems of nuclear power stations and in other similar technological facilities' to determine effects of phthalocyanine agents. The project bearer is VUOS, Inc. in Rybitvi (Research Institute for Organic Synthesis Inc.), where are the new phthalocyanines synthesized. The aimed goal of the research is environmentally friendly liquidation of bacteria and algae by means of photodynamic generated singlet oxygen through impact of solar radiation in the circulation cooling waters of various technical and technological systems. The principle of the problem outlined is the applying of phthalocyanine agents on samples of pure bacterial, anabaenas and algae cultures to estimate the inhibition effect on the organism exposed. In the course of solution, it is assumed that in such way conducted inhibition of bacteria, anabaenas and algae as well of their proliferation would replace routinely used bactericidal and algicidal preparations, which demand permanent dosing into circulating waters or perhaps from time to time an application of shocking doses. The particular algicidal and bactericidal agents represents in this case in situ emerging singlet oxygen, that is harmless to water biocenoses and whose presence in the water is no reason to ban the outflow of waters treated in such a way into water streams. The goal should be also a direct estimation of the effect those agents on cooling waters samples e. g. from the nuclear power plant systems. The purpose of the tests performance is also elimination of filamentous green algae, emerging in the systems cooling towers. The applied preparations are not toxic and do not burden the living environment, they contain no substances interacting with surface materials of structures in the circulatory cooling circuit

  4. Atomic contributions to the valence band photoelectron spectra of metal-free, iron and manganese phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidermane, I., E-mail: ieva.bidermane@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7588, F-75005 Paris (France); Brumboiu, I.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Totani, R. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Grazioli, C. [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Departement of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste (Italy); Shariati-Nilsson, M.N.; Herper, H.C.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ressel, B. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska Cesta 11c, 5270 Ajdovščina (Slovenia); Simone, M. de [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Lozzi, L. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Brena, B.; Puglia, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • In detail comparison between the valence band structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. • Comparison between the gas phase samples and thin evaporated films on Au (1 1 1). • Detailed analysis of the atomic orbital contributions to the valence band features. • DFT/HSE06 study of the valence band electronic structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. - Abstract: The present work reports a photoelectron spectroscopy study of the low-energy region of the valence band of metal-free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) compared with those of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc). We have analysed in detail the atomic orbital composition of the valence band both experimentally, by making use of the variation in photoionization cross-sections with photon energy, and theoretically, by means of density functional theory. The atomic character of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO), reflected on the outermost valence band binding energy region, is different for MnPc as compared to the other two molecules. The peaks related to the C 2p contributions, result in the HOMO for H{sub 2}Pc and FePc and in the HOMO-1 for MnPc as described by the theoretical predictions, in very good agreement with the experimental results. The DFT simulations, discerning the atomic contribution to the density of states, indicate how the central metal atom interacts with the C and N atoms of the molecule, giving rise to different partial and total density of states for these three Pc molecules.

  5. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola ePeñarrubia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalisation, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signalling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signalling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency.

  6. Photovoltaic behaviour of titanyl phthalocyanine thin films and titania bilayer films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drabik, M.; Zachary, A. M.; Choi, Y.; Hanuš, J.; Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Cimrová, Věra; Slavinská, D.; Biederman, H.; Hanley, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2008), s. 57-60 ISSN 1022-1360. [Microsymposium on Advanced Polymer Materials for Photonics and Electronics /47./. Prague, 15.07.2007-19.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) CHE0241425; GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05ME754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conjugated polymers * photovoltaics * phthalocyanine * thin films * titania Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Microscopic study of carrier transport in the organic semiconductor zinc-phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Joao Piroto [ESTeSC, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, 3040-854 Coimbra (Portugal); CEMDRX, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Alberto, Helena Vieira; Vilao, Rui Cesar; Gil, Joao M.; Weidinger, Alois; Campos, Nuno Ayres de [CEMDRX, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-04-15

    Nominally undoped zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was investigated using Muon Spin Rotation ({mu}SR) to probe microscopic carrier transport properties. The study focused on the relaxation of the positive muon's polarisation produced by spin-flip scattering with charge carriers. An energy of 71(8) meV was found for the temperature activation of carrier jumps, a value that does not match the activation energies known in ZnPc from electrical measurements, and that was attributed to a fast transport component in this material. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Energy-level alignment at interfaces between manganese phthalocyanine and C60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Waas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the energy-level alignment at organic heterojunctions made of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc and the fullerene C60. We show that this energy-level alignment depends upon the preparation sequence, which is explained by different molecular orientations. Moreover, our results demonstrate that MnPc/C60 interfaces are hardly suited for application in organic photovoltaic devices, since the energy difference of the two lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs is rather small.

  9. Electrical Properties of Zn-Phthalocyanine and Poly (3-hexylthiophene Doped Nematic Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Karakuş

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An E7 coded nematic liquid crystal was doped with zinc phthalocyanine and poly (3-hexylthiophene. A variety of properties including relaxation time, absorption coefficient, and critical frequency of this doped system were investigated using impedance spectroscopy. The doped systems displayed increased absorption coefficients in the range 0.22–0.55 and relaxation times from 5.05×10−7 s to 3.59×10−6 s with a decrease in the critical frequency from 3.54 MHz to 2.048 MHz.

  10. Preparation of thin phthalocyanine layers and their structural and absorption properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kment, Štěpán; Klusoň, Petr; Drobek, M.; Kužel, R.; Gregora, Ivan; Kohout, Michal; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 517, č. 17 (2009), s. 5274-5279 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : vacuum sublimation * phthalocyanine s * sensors * thin fims Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.727, year: 2009

  11. Nanostructuring on zinc phthalocyanine thin films for single-junction organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, Dhirendra K.; Kumar, Lokendra, E-mail: lokendrakr@allduniv.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211 002 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Vertically aligned and random oriented crystalline molecular nanorods of organic semiconducting Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) have been grown on ITO coated glass substrate using solvent volatilization method. Interesting changes in surface morphology were observed under different solvent treatment. Vertically aligned nanorods of ZnPc thin film were observed in the films treated with acetone, where as the random oriented nanorods were observed in the films treated with chloroform. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used for characterization of nanostructures. The optical properties of the nanorods have been investigated by UV-Vis. absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Charge carrier mobility in sulphonated and non-sulphonated Ni phthalocyanines: experiment and quantum chemical calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebera, Jakub; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Kratochvílová, Irena; Záliš, Stanislav; Chaidogiannos, G.; Glezos, N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 3 (2009), s. 385-395 ISSN 1434-6028 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 139; GA MŠk OC 137; GA AV ČR KAN401770651; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR GA203/08/1594; GA MŠk OC 138 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Ni Phthalocyanines * chemical calculations * polymers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.466, year: 2009

  13. Evaluation of biocidal efficacy of copper alloy coatings in comparison with solid metal surfaces: generation of organic copper phosphate nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, H; Portman, T; Pershin, V; Ringuette, M

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the biocidal efficacy of thermal sprayed copper surfaces. Copper alloy sheet metals containing >60% copper have been shown to exhibit potent biocidal activity. Surface biocidal activity was assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. After 2-h exposure at 20 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), contact killing of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis by brass sheet metal and phosphor bronze was 3-4-times higher than that by stainless steel. SEM observations revealed that the surface membranes of both bacterial strains were slightly more irregular when exposed to brass sheet metal than stainless steel. However, when exposed to phosphor bronze coating, E. coli were 3-4 times larger with irregular membrane morphology. In addition, the majority of the cells were associated with spherical carbon-copper-phosphate crystalline nanostructures characteristic of nanoflowers. The membranes of many of the S. epidermidis exhibited blebbing, and a small subset was also associated with nanoflowers. Our data indicate that increasing the surface roughness of copper alloys had a pronounced impact on the membrane integrity of Gram-positive and, to a lesser degree, Gram-negative bacteria. In the presence of PBS, carbon-copper-phosphate-containing nanoflowers were formed, likely nucleated by components derived from killed bacteria. The intimate association of the bacteria with the nanoflowers and phosphor bronze coating likely contributed to their nonreversible adhesion. Thermal spraying of copper alloys provides a strategy for the rapid coating of three-dimensional organic and inorganic surfaces with biocidal copper alloys. Our study demonstrates that the macroscale surface roughness generated by the thermal spray process enhances the biocidal activity of copper alloys compared with the nanoscale surface roughness of copper sheet metals. Moreover, the coating surface topography provides conditions for the rapid formation of organic copper

  14. Fabrication and characterization of inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type metal phthalocyanine and PCBM:P3HT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Atsushi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Furukawa, Ryo, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp; Oku, Takeo, E-mail: suzuki@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type phthalocyanine, semiconducting polymer and fullerenes were fabricated and characterized. Photovoltaic and optical properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by optical absorption, current density-voltage characteristics. The photovoltaic properties of the tandem organic solar cell using titanyl phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were improved. Effect of annealing and solvent treatment on surface morphologies of the active layer was investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed for improvement of the photovoltaic performance.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type metal phthalocyanine and PCBM:P3HT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Furukawa, Ryo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Inverted organic solar cells using shuttle cock-type phthalocyanine, semiconducting polymer and fullerenes were fabricated and characterized. Photovoltaic and optical properties of the solar cells with inverted structures were investigated by optical absorption, current density-voltage characteristics. The photovoltaic properties of the tandem organic solar cell using titanyl phthalocyanine, vanadyl phthalocyanine, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were improved. Effect of annealing and solvent treatment on surface morphologies of the active layer was investigated. The photovoltaic mechanisms, energy levels and band gap of active layers were discussed for improvement of the photovoltaic performance

  16. Calibration equations for energy-dispersive XRF determination of copper, iron and lead in copper ore slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakosz, M.

    1976-01-01

    Calibration equations for the X-ray fluorescence analysis determination of copper, iron and lead in copper ore slurries have been derived and tested. The measurement of Ksub(α) lines of copper and iron and Lsub(α) line of lead excited by rays from 238 Pu source have been used. Si/Li detector coupled to multichannel analyzer and minicomputer have been applied in measurements. The matrix and density effect have been eliminated by additional measurement of back-scattered primary radiation. (author)

  17. Optimized adsorption of sulfonated phthalocyanines on ZnO electrodes and their characterization in dye- sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falgenhauer, Jane; Loewenstein, Thomas; Schlettwein, Derck [Institute of Applied Physics, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Phthalocyanines belong to the most stable industrial dyes and show some of the highest molar extinction coefficients in the visible range. ZnO is known as a wide band gap semiconductor material which can be conveniently prepared as a porous electrode from solution-based processes. Sulfonated phthalocyanines were adsorbed at such electrodeposited porous ZnO thin films to work as a photosensitizer in a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The adsorption solution of the phthalocyanine was modified in its composition and by adding different detergents in different concentrations. The adsorption solutions and the sensitized ZnO films were investigated by UV/Vis spectroscopy to characterize the aggregation of the dye molecules. Most of the detergents used could minimize the aggregation of the dye molecules in the adsorption solution without hindering the adsorption of the phthalocyanine on the ZnO surface. The photoelectrochemical characteristics of the resulting test cells were determined using a standard liquid electrolyte. The efficiency of the cells did not reach the expected level and reasons for this are discussed based on film morphology, amount of adsorbed dye molecules, competition by detergent adsorption, the optical absorbance of the dyes in the film and aggregate formation.

  18. Simultaneous Reduction of CO 2 and Splitting of H 2 O by a Single Immobilized Cobalt Phthalocyanine Electrocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Rodionov, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated cobalt phthalocyanine (CoFPc) immobilized on carbon electrodes was found to electrocatalyze the reduction of CO2 selectively to CO in an aqueous solution. The conversion of CO2 became apparent at -0.5 V vs RHE, and the Faradaic

  19. Iron phthalocyanine supported on amidoximated PAN fiber as effective catalyst for controllable hydrogen peroxide activation in oxidizing organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Zhenbang; Han, Xu; Zhao, Xiaoming; Yu, Jiantao; Xu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine was immobilized onto amidoximated polyacrylonitrile fiber to construct a bioinspired catalytic system for oxidizing organic dyes by H 2 O 2 activation. The amidoxime groups greatly helped to anchor Iron(II) phthalocyanine molecules onto the fiber through coordination interaction, which has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analyses. Electron spin resonance studies indicate that the catalytic process of physically anchored Iron(II) phthalocyanine performed via a hydroxyl radical pathway, while the catalyst bonded Iron(II) phthalocyanine through coordination effect could selectively catalyze the H 2 O 2 decomposition to generate high-valent iron-oxo species. This may result from the amidoxime groups functioning as the axial fifth ligands to favor the heterolytic cleavage of the peroxide O−O bond. This feature also enables the catalyst to only degrade the dyes adjacent to the catalytic active centers and enhances the efficient utilization of H 2 O 2 . In addition, this catalyst could effectively catalyze the mineralization of organic dyes and can be easily recycled without any loss of activity.

  20. Iron phthalocyanine supported on amidoximated PAN fiber as effective catalyst for controllable hydrogen peroxide activation in oxidizing organic dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Zhenbang, E-mail: hzbang@aliyun.com [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin 300387 (China); Han, Xu [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhao, Xiaoming, E-mail: zhaoxiaoming@tjpu.edu.cn [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Composite Materials, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin 300387 (China); Yu, Jiantao; Xu, Hang [School of Textiles, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Iron(II) phthalocyanine was immobilized onto amidoximated polyacrylonitrile fiber to construct a bioinspired catalytic system for oxidizing organic dyes by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activation. The amidoxime groups greatly helped to anchor Iron(II) phthalocyanine molecules onto the fiber through coordination interaction, which has been confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analyses. Electron spin resonance studies indicate that the catalytic process of physically anchored Iron(II) phthalocyanine performed via a hydroxyl radical pathway, while the catalyst bonded Iron(II) phthalocyanine through coordination effect could selectively catalyze the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition to generate high-valent iron-oxo species. This may result from the amidoxime groups functioning as the axial fifth ligands to favor the heterolytic cleavage of the peroxide O−O bond. This feature also enables the catalyst to only degrade the dyes adjacent to the catalytic active centers and enhances the efficient utilization of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, this catalyst could effectively catalyze the mineralization of organic dyes and can be easily recycled without any loss of activity.

  1. Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers absorbed on glassy carbon and gold electrodes by application of a confocal Raman microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palys-Staron, B.J.; Palys, B.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1992-01-01

    Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers, adsorbed on gold and on glassy carbon surfaces (electrodes), are presented. These spectra have been recorded with the electrodes inside and outside an electrochemical cell filled with an aqueous electrolyte. A confocal Raman microspectrometer was

  2. Novel homo- and heterobinuclear ball-type phthalocyanines: synthesis and electrochemical, electrical, EPR and MCD spectral properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabaş, Zafer; Dumludağ, Fatih; Ozkaya, Ali Riza; Yamauchi, Seigo; Kobayashi, Nagao; Bekaroğlu, Ozer

    2010-09-21

    The mononuclear Fe(II) phthalocyanine 2 and ball-type homobinuclear Fe(II)-Fe(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(II) phthalocyanines, 3 and 4 respectively, were synthesized from the corresponding 4,4'-[1,1'-methylenebis-(naphthalene-2,1-diyl)]bis(oxy)diphthalonitrile 1, and then ball-type heterobinuclear Fe(II)-Cu(II) phthalocyanine 5 was synthesized from 2. The novel compounds 4 and 5 have been characterized by elemental analysis, UV/vis, IR and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopies. Electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic circular dichroism measurements of 3, 4 and 5 were also examined. The voltammetric measurements of the complexes showed the formation of various electrochemically stable ligand- and metal-based mixed-valence species, due to the intramolecular interactions between the two MPc units, especially in ball-type binuclear iron(II) phthalocyanine. Impedance spectroscopy and d.c. conductivity measurements of 4 and 5 were performed as a function of temperature (295-523 K) and frequency (40-10(5) Hz). While room temperature impedance spectra consist of a curved line, a transformation into a full semicircle with increasing temperature was observed for both compounds.

  3. Copper : recession and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick-Ching, T.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the world output for copper will fall for the first time in nearly a decade because of financial pressure and voluntary constraints. Cutbacks at copper mines amount to 760,000 tonnes per year. These cutbacks have occurred mostly in the United States which holds the largest share of high cost mines. This paper discussed recent developments in both copper supply and demand. The United States is unique as both a large consumer and producer of copper. At 1.35 million tonnes, US mine output in 2001 was at its lowest since 1987. The cutbacks in mining in general were described in this paper with particular reference to the huge loss of mining and metallurgical activity in the United States during a prolonged period of low prices in the mid 1980s. The author noted that this period was followed by an exceptional decade when much of the industry rebounded. Only 8 mines closed outright in the United States and a handful in Canada since the recession of the 1980s, but that is partly because mines got bigger and there are fewer small mines in North America. There are only 4 electrolytic refineries and 3 smelters still active in the entire United States, of which 2 are operating at a fraction of capacity. It was noted that only the buoyancy of China prevented a much bigger decline in copper demand on a global scale

  4. Absorption Spectroscopy, Molecular Dynamics Calculations, and Multivariate Curve Resolution on the Phthalocyanine Aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajloo, Davood; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Shaheri, Freshte; Zarei, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Co(II)-tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTSP) is known to be aggregated to dimer at high concentration levels in water. A study on the aggregation of CoTSP using multivariate curve resolution analysis of the visible absorbance spectra over a concentration range of 30, 40 and 50 μM in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl formamide (DMF), acetonitrile (AN) and ethanol (EtOH) in the concentration range of 0 to 3.57 M is conducted. A hard modeling-based multivariate curve resolution method was applied to determine the dissociation constants of the CoTSP aggregates at various temperatures ranging from 25, 45 and 65 .deg. C and in the presence of various co-solvents. Dissociation constant for aggregation was increased and then decrease by temperature and concentration of phthalocyanine, respectively. Utilizing the vant Hoff relation, the enthalpy and entropy of the dissociation equilibriums were calculated. For the dissociation of both aggregates, the enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and negative, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation of cosolvent effect on CoTSP aggregation was done to confirm spectroscopy results. Results of radial distribution function (RDF), root mean square deviation (RMSD) and distance curves confirmed more effect of polar solvent to decrease monomer formation

  5. Type II photoinitiator substituted zinc phthalocyanine: Synthesis, photophysical and photopolymerization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkut, Sibel Eken [Department of Chemistry, Yıldız Technical University, 34210 Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey); Temel, Gokhan [Department of Polymer Engineering, Yalova University, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Balta, Demet Karaca [Department of Chemistry, Yıldız Technical University, 34210 Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey); Arsu, Nergis, E-mail: narsu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Yıldız Technical University, 34210 Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey); Şener, M. Kasım, E-mail: mkasimsener@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Yıldız Technical University, 34210 Davutpaşa, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    The novel 4-(9-oxo-9 H-thioxanthen-2yloxy) phthalonitrile (TX-Pht) and its peripherally tetra substituted zinc phthalocyanine complex (TX-ZnPc) have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and elemental analysis techniques. Photoinitiated polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) with TX-ZnPc has been investigated in the presence and absence of a co-initiator. Fluorescence and phosphorescence measurements have been also performed to determine the photophysical properties. Low fluorescence quantum yield (Φ{sub F}=0.08) compared to the unsubstituted ZnPc has been found. This allows initiator to undergo intersystem crossing into the triplet state and the lowest triplet state possesses π-π{sup ⁎} configuration. Highlights: ► Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), peripherally functionalized with photoactive thioxanthone (TX) groups was synthesized. ► The photophysical and photochemical properties of resulting photoinitiator were studied in DMF. ► Photoinitiated polymerization of MMA with TX-ZnPc was investigated in the presence and absence of co-initiator.

  6. Sulphonated cobalt phthalocyanine-MCM-41: An active photocatalyst for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanjanchi, M.A., E-mail: zanjanchi@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Namjoo St., Rasht 41335 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimian, A.; Arvand, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Namjoo St., Rasht 41335 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The photocatalytic activity of sulphonated cobalt phthalocyanine immobilized onto MCM-41 was investigated for decomposition of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solutions. Immobilization of anion sulpho-cobalt phthalocyanine to the walls of MCM-41 was performed by pre-anchorage of 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES) onto MCM-41 via post-synthesis method. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray and FT-IR methods were used to characterize the product. Photocatalytic efficiency of the prepared catalyst for degradation of 2,4-DCP was tested under illumination of UV-A and visible light. The results obtained reveal that the photocatalyst is very active in degradation of 2,4-DCP. The photodegradation process is completed within 3 h using a dose of 0.6 g/L of the catalyst under UV irradiation. The reactions follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics and the observed rate constant values change with 2,4-DCP concentrations. The reproducibility of the catalyst was tested. The reaction intermediates were identified by gas chromatoghraphy-mass spectrometery (GC-MS) technique.

  7. Absorption Spectroscopy, Molecular Dynamics Calculations, and Multivariate Curve Resolution on the Phthalocyanine Aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajloo, Davood; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Shaheri, Freshte; Zarei, Kobra [Damghan Univ., Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Co(II)-tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTSP) is known to be aggregated to dimer at high concentration levels in water. A study on the aggregation of CoTSP using multivariate curve resolution analysis of the visible absorbance spectra over a concentration range of 30, 40 and 50 μM in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl formamide (DMF), acetonitrile (AN) and ethanol (EtOH) in the concentration range of 0 to 3.57 M is conducted. A hard modeling-based multivariate curve resolution method was applied to determine the dissociation constants of the CoTSP aggregates at various temperatures ranging from 25, 45 and 65 .deg. C and in the presence of various co-solvents. Dissociation constant for aggregation was increased and then decrease by temperature and concentration of phthalocyanine, respectively. Utilizing the vant Hoff relation, the enthalpy and entropy of the dissociation equilibriums were calculated. For the dissociation of both aggregates, the enthalpy and entropy changes were positive and negative, respectively. Molecular dynamics simulation of cosolvent effect on CoTSP aggregation was done to confirm spectroscopy results. Results of radial distribution function (RDF), root mean square deviation (RMSD) and distance curves confirmed more effect of polar solvent to decrease monomer formation.

  8. Effect of diblock copolymer properties on the photophysical properties of dendrimer silicon phthalocyanine nanoconjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuizhi; Pan, Sujuan; Zhuang, Xuemei; Lv, Hafei; Que, Shoulin; Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin; Peng, Yiru

    2016-07-01

    1-2 generation poly(benzyl aryl ether) dendrimer silicon phthalocyanines with axially disubstituted cyano terminal functionalities (G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n , (G n = n-generation dendrimer, n = 1-2)) were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, and ESI-MS. Polymeric nanoparticles (G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n /m) were formed through encapsulating G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n into three monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) diblock copolymers (MPEG-PCL) with different hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion, respectively. The effect of dendritic generation and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion of diblock copolymers on the UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n and G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n /m were studied. The photophysical properties of polymeric nanoparticles exhibited dendritic generation and hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion dependence. The fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n /m were lower than the corresponding free dendrimer phthalocyanines. G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n encapsulated into MPEG-PCL with hydrophilic/hydrophobic molecular weight ratio 2000:4000 exhibited excellent photophysical property. The mean diameter of MPEG2000-PCL2000 micelles was about 70 nm, which decreased when loaded with G n -DSiPc(CN)4 n .

  9. Physical and photophysical properties of mixed double- and triple-decker sandwiches of porphyrins and phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabert, Isabelle

    1995-01-01

    The study of electron transfer and charge recombination processes in various oligomers of porphyrins and phthalocyanines is reported. Our objective is to determine the nature of processes which compete with electron transfer in such Systems. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the study of mixed double- and triple-decker sandwich compounds of porphyrins and phthalocyanines of cerium and praseodymium. The charge transfer reaction and geminated recombination from excited complexes in solution and in sublimated film are investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time scale resolution. These results show the influence of the magnetic nature of the metal ion and of the relative position of the chromophores in the complex on the photophysical processes. The physical and photophysical properties of complexes formed by pairing in solution porphyrins and porphyrazines bearing oppositely charged substituent are reported in the second part. The formation of mixed aggregates of high order (2 to 5) is observed and their nature are spectrally characterized. The photoproducts issued from these complexes are extremely stable. (author) [fr

  10. Unexpected Rotamerism at the Origin of a Chessboard Supramolecular Assembly of Ruthenium Phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Giuseppe; Larciprete, Rosanna; Alippi, Paola; Bonapasta, Aldo Amore; Filippone, Francesco; Lacovig, Paolo; Lizzit, Silvano; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Pennesi, Giovanna; Ronci, Fabio; Zanotti, Gloria; Colonna, Stefano

    2017-11-16

    We have investigated the formation and the properties of ultrathin films of ruthenium phthalocyanine (RuPc) 2 vacuum deposited on graphite by scanning tunneling microscopy and synchrotron photoemission spectroscopy measurements, interpreted in close conjunction with ab initio simulations. Thanks to its unique dimeric structure connected by a direct Ru-Ru bond, (RuPc) 2 can be found in two stable rotameric forms separated by a low-energy barrier. Such isomerism leads to a peculiar organization of the molecules in flat, horizontal layers on the graphite surface, characterized by a chessboard-like alternation of the two rotamers. Moreover, the molecules are vertically connected to form π-stacked columnar pillars of akin rotamers, compatible with the high conductivity measured in (RuPc) 2 powders. Such features yield an unprecedented supramolecular assembly of phthalocyanine films, which could open interesting perspectives toward the realization of new architectures of organic electronic devices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  12. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syamal, A.; Maurya, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis of a new Schiff base derived from salicylaldehyde and 5-methylpyrazole-3-carbohydrazide, and its coordination compounds with nickel(II), cobalt(II), copper(II), manganese(II), zinc(II), zirconium(IV), dioxouranium(VI) and dioxomolybdenum(VI) are described. The ligand and the complexes have been characterized on the basis of analytical, conductance, molecular weight, i.r., electronic and n.m.r. spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The stoichiometries of the complexes are represented as NiL . 3H 2 O, CoL . 2H 2 O, CuL, MnL . 2H 2 O, ZnL . H 2 O, Zr(OH) 2 (LH) 2 , Zr(OH) 2 L . 2MeOH, UO 2 L . MeOH and MoO 2 L . MeOH (where LH 2 =Schiff base). The copper(II) complex shows a subnormal magnetic moment due to antiferromagnetic exchange interaction while the nickel(II), cobalt(II) and manganese(II) complexes show normal magnetic moments at room temperature. The i.r. and n.m.r. spectral studies show that the Schiff base behaves as a dibasic and tridentate ligand coordinating through the deprotonated phenolic oxygen, enolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen. (orig.)

  14. Zinc(II) phthalocyanines immobilized in mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 and their applications in photocatalytic degradation of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratoire de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, UMR CNRS 6505, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere cedex (France); Calvete, M.J.F.; Goncalves, N.P.F.; Burrows, H.D. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Sarakha, M. [Laboratoire de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, UMR CNRS 6505, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere cedex (France); Fernandes, A.; Ribeiro, M.F. [Instituto para a Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro para a Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico - Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Azenha, M.E., E-mail: meazenha@ci.uc.pt [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, M.M., E-mail: mmpereira@qui.uc.pt [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete immobilization of zinc(II) phthalocyanines accomplished in Al-MCM-41. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient photodegradation of model pesticides achieved using 365 nm irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium azide experiments showed the involvement of singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}). - Abstract: In the present study the authors investigated a set of three new zinc(II) phthalocyanines (zinc(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnTNPc), zinc(II) tetra(phenyloxy)phthalocyanine (ZnTPhOPc) and the tetraiodide salt of zinc(II)tetra(N,N,N-trimethylaminoethyloxy) phthalocyaninate (ZnTTMAEOPcI)) immobilized into Al-MCM-41 prepared via ship-in-a-bottle methodology. The samples were fully characterized by diffuse reflectance-UV-vis spectroscopy (DRS-UV-vis), luminescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DSC), N{sub 2} adsorption techniques and elemental analysis. A comparative study was made on the photocatalytic performance upon irradiation within the wavelength range 320-460 nm of these three systems in the degradation of pesticides fenamiphos and pentachlorophenol. ZnTNPc-Al-MCM-41 and ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41 were found to be the most active systems, with the best performance observed with the immobilized cationic phthalocyanine, ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41. This system showed high activity even after three photocatalytic cycles. LC-MS product characterization and mechanistic studies indicate that singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}), produced by excitation of these immobilized photosensitizers, is a key intermediate in the photocatalytic degradation of both pesticides.

  15. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  16. Micronized copper wood preservatives: An efficiency and potential health risk assessment for copper-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; Wick, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential biocide for wood protection, but fails to protect wood against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi. Recently Cu particles (size range: 1 nm–25 μm) were introduced to the wood preservation market. The new generation of preservatives with Cu-based nanoparticles (Cu-based NPs) is reputedly more efficient against wood-destroying fungi than conventional formulations. Therefore, it has the potential to become one of the largest end uses for wood products worldwide. However, during decomposition of treated wood Cu-based NPs and/or their derivate may accumulate in the mycelium of Cu-tolerant fungi and end up in their spores that are dispersed into the environment. Inhaled Cu-loaded spores can cause harm and could become a potential risk for human health. We collected evidence and discuss the implications of the release of Cu-based NPs by wood-destroying fungi and highlight the exposure pathways and subsequent magnitude of health impact. - Highlights: • We compared copper particulate wood preservatives with conventional ones. • We assessed the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives. • We reviewed the Cu-tolerance mechanisms of some wood-destroying fungi. • Fungi colonizing wood treated with particulate copper may release Cu-loaded spores. - We assess the fungicidal activity of particulate copper wood preservatives and their possible release in the air by Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi

  17. Synergistic enhancement of supercapacitance upon integration of nickel (II) octa[(3,5-biscarboxylate)-phenoxy] phthalocyanine with SWCNT-phenylamine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Agboola, BO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitive behaviour of a novel functional material, nickel (II) octa [(3,5-biscarboxylate)-phenoxy] phthalocyanine (NiOBCPPc) upon covalent integration with phenylamine functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT...

  18. Nanostructured nickel (II) phthalocyanine-MWCNTs as viable nanocomposite platform for electrocatalytic detection of asulam pesticide at neutral pH conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siswana, MP

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work reports for the first time that nanostructured nickel (II) phthalocyanine/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite supported on a basal plane pyrolytic electrode (NiPcNP/MWCNT-BPPGE) could potentially serve as a viable platform...

  19. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. The influence of phthalocyanine aggregation in complexes with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on the photophysical properties of the complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Martynenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The formation of nonluminescent aggregates of aluminium sulfonated phthalocyanine in complexes with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots causes a decrease of the intracomplex energy transfer efficiency with increasing phthalocyanine concentration. This was confirmed by steady-state absorption and photoluminescent spectroscopy. A corresponding physical model was developed that describes well the experimental data. The results can be used at designing of QD/molecule systems with the desired spatial arrangement for photodynamic therapy.

  1. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  2. Ligand-Doped Copper Oxo-hydroxide Nanoparticles are Effective Antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Carlos A. P.; Faria, Nuno; Ivask, Angela; Bondarenko, Olesja M.; Kahru, Anne; Powell, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial therapies is an increasing clinical problem. This is as true for topical applications as it is for systemic therapy. Topically, copper ions may be effective and cheap antimicrobials that act through multiple pathways thereby limiting opportunities to bacteria for resistance. However, the chemistry of copper does not lend itself to facile formulations that will readily release copper ions at biologically compatible pHs. Here, we have developed nanoparticulate copper hydroxide adipate tartrate (CHAT) as a cheap, safe, and readily synthesised material that should enable antimicrobial copper ion release in an infected wound environment. First, we synthesised CHAT and showed that this had disperse aquated particle sizes of 2-5 nm and a mean zeta potential of - 40 mV. Next, when diluted into bacterial medium, CHAT demonstrated similar efficacy to copper chloride against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with dose-dependent activity occurring mostly around 12.5-50 mg/L of copper. Indeed, at these levels, CHAT very rapidly dissolved and, as confirmed by a bacterial copper biosensor, showed identical intracellular loading to copper ions derived from copper chloride. However, when formulated at 250 mg/L in a topically applied matrix, namely hydroxyethyl cellulose, the benefit of CHAT over copper chloride was apparent. The former yielded rapid sustained release of copper within the bactericidal range, but the copper chloride, which formed insoluble precipitates at such concentration and pH, achieved a maximum release of 10 ± 7 mg/L copper by 24 h. We provide a practical formulation for topical copper-based antimicrobial therapy. Further studies, especially in vivo, are merited.

  3. Creative Copper Crests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  4. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  5. Novel zinc(II)phthalocyanines bearing azo-containing schiff base: Determination of pKa values, absorption, emission, enzyme inhibition and photochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Cihan; Mavi, Vildan; Baltaş, Nimet; İslamoğlu, Fatih; Şaşmaz, Selami

    2016-10-01

    Azo-containing schiff bases are well known and there are many studies about their various properties in literature. However, phthalocyanines bearing azo-containing schiff bases, their spectral, analytical and biological properties are unknown. Therefore, new zinc (II) phthalocyanines bearing azo-containing schiff base were synthesized and investigated to determine pKa values, absorption, emission, enzyme inhibition and photochemical properties. Emission spectra were reported and large Stokes shift values were determined for all compounds, indicating that all molecules exhibit excited state intramolecular proton transfer. These phthalocyanines were the first examples of phthalocyanine showing excited state intramolecular proton transfer. Singlet oxygen quantum yields of zinc (II) phthalocyanines were determined. pKa values and indicator properties of all compounds were investigated by potentiometry. All compounds were assayed for inhibitory activity against bovine milk xanthine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme in vitro. Compound 2 showed the high inhibitory effect against xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 0.24 ± 0.01 μM). However, phthalocyanine compounds did not show enzyme inhibitor behavior.

  6. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  7. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  8. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  9. Nature and Distribution of Stable Subsurface Oxygen in Copper Electrodes During Electrochemical CO2 Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo Carlo; Ferragut, Rafael; Aghion, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit higher activity than pristine copper during the carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) and higher selectivity towards ethylene. The presence of residual subsurface oxygen in OD-Cu has been proposed to be responsible for such improvements, although...

  10. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  11. Adsorption of phthalocyanines on noble metal surfaces; Adsorption von Phthalocyaninen auf Edelmetalloberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Ingo

    2011-05-20

    In this thesis the adsorbate systems CuPc/Ag(111), CuPc/Au(111), CuPc/Cu(111), H2Pc and TiOPc/Ag(111) were investigated and characterized in great detail using complementary methods. The focus of the experiments was the determination of lateral geometric structures with spot-profile-analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), as well as the measurement of adsorption heights using the method of normal incidence X-ray standing waves (NIXSW). High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) was used to characterize the vibronic properties of the molecule and the interface dynamical charge transfer (IDCT). The electronic structure and the charge transfer into the molecule were investigated with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The most important results of this work are related with the interplay between adsorbate-substrate and adsorbate-adsorbate interaction of Phthalocyanines in the submonolayer regime. (orig.)

  12. On the mechanism of pulsed laser ablation of phthalocyanine nanoparticles in an aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Boris; Malimonenko, Nicholas; Butenin, Alexander; Novoseletsky, Nicholas; Chizhikov, Sergei

    2018-06-01

    Laser ablation of phthalocyanine nanoparticles has potential for cancer treatment. The ablation is accompanied by the formation of microbubbles and the sublimation of nanoparticles. This was investigated in a liquid medium simulating tissue using optical-acoustic and spectral-luminescent methods. The thresholds for the appearance of microbubbles have been determined as a function of nanoparticle size. For the minimal size particles (80 nm) this threshold is equal to about 20–25 mJ cm‑2 and for the maximal size particles (230 nm) this threshold is equal to about 7 mJ cm‑2. It was estimated that the particle temperature at which bubbles arise is near 145 °С.

  13. Studies on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Magnesium Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Gopinathan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Magnesium Phthalocyanine (MgPc are prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar on thoroughly cleaned glass substrates kept at different constant temperatures. Films of thickness 2400 A.U. coated at room temperature are subjected to post deposition annealing in air by keeping them in a furnace at different constant temperatures, for one hour. The electrical conductivity studies are conducted in the temperature range 300 K to 525 K. The electrical conductivity is plotted as a function of absolute temperature. The conduction mechanism is observed to be hopping. The thermal activation energy is calculated in different cases and is observed to vary with substrate temperature and annealing temperature. A phase change is observed due to post-deposition annealing at around 523 K. The optical absorption studies are done in the UV-Visible region. The optical band gap energies of the samples are calculated.

  14. Nanocrystalline Axially Bridged Iron Phthalocyanine Polymeric Conductor: (μ-Thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiza Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skewered Iron(III phthalocyanine conducting polymer can be constructed with the utilization of axial thiocyanato ligands ((μ-thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III; (FeIII(Pc(SCNn thereby creating additional avenues for electron transport through a linear SCN bridge, apart from the intermolecular π-π orbital overlap between the Pc molecules. In this paper, we report on the conversion of bulk FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymeric organic conductor into crystalline nanostructures through horizontal vapor phase growth process. The needle-like nanostructures are deemed to provide more ordered and, thus, more π-π interactive interskewer FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymer orientation, resulting in a twofold increase of its electrical conductivity per materials density unit.

  15. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Valitova, Irina; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs.

  16. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Valitova, Irina; Cicoira, Fabio; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear optical properties of systems based on ruthenium(II) tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyaninate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishina, A.D.; Gorbunova, Yu.G.; Enakieva, Yu.Yu.; Krivenko, T.V.; Savel'ev, V.V.; Vannikov, A.V.; Tsivadze, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The third-order nonlinear optical properties of the ruthenium (II) complex with tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyanine and axially coordinated triethylenediamine molecules (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 were analyzed by means of the z-scanning technique. A solution of (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 in tetrachloroethane was exposed to nanosecond laser pulses at a wavelength of 1064 nm. It was found that the third-order molecular polarizability of the Ru(II) complex is 4.5 x 10 -32 cm 4 /C (esu). The polarizability per molecule increases by a factor of 3.6 when the single molecule occurs in a supramolecular assembly of (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 complexes. The photoelectric and photorefractive properties at 1064 nm of polymer composites, determined by the supramolecular assemblies that exhibits optical absorption and photoelectric sensitivity in the near IR region, are reported [ru

  18. High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ting; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Jingling; Zang, Mengdi; Chen, Tianji; Hu, Yufeng; Hou, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    We report a high efficiency, broadband terahertz (THz) modulator following a study of phthalocyanine-compound organic films irradiated with an external excitation laser. Both transmission and reflection modulations of each organic/silicon bilayers were measured using THz time-domain and continuous-wave systems. For very low intensities, the experimental results show that AlClPc/Si can achieve a high modulation factor for transmission and reflection, indicating that AlClPc/Si has a superior modulation efficiency compared with the other films (CuPc and SnCl 2 Pc). In contrast, the strong attenuation of the transmitted and reflected THz waves revealed that a nonlinear absorption process takes place at the organic/silicon interface

  19. Application of aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles for fluorescent diagnostics in dentistry and skin autotransplantology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, Sergey Yu; Volkova, Anna I; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Loschenov, Victor B; Konov, Vitaly I; Mamedov, Adil A; Kuzmin, Sergey G; Lukyanets, Evgeniy A

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the possibility of application of aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) nanoparticles in clinical practice. AlPc fluoresces in the molecular form but in the form of nanoparticles it does not. Separation of molecules from an AlPc nanoparticle and therefore the appearance of fluorescence occurs under the effect of a number of biochemo-physical factors. Owing to this feature the application of AlPc nanoparticles followed by the measurement of fluorescence spectra is proposed as a diagnostics method. It was shown that after AlPc nanoparticle application on a tooth surface the fluorescence intensity in the enamel microdamage area is 2-3 times higher than that in the normal enamel area. The appearance of fluorescence after application of AlPc nanoparticles on skin autografts testifies to the presence of inflammation. (c) 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On-surface manipulation of atom substitution between cobalt phthalocyanine and the Cu(111) substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Kongchao; Narsu, Bai; Ji, Gengwu

    2017-01-01

    On-surface fabrication of controllable nanostructures is an appealing topic in the field of molecular electronics. Herein, the adsorption of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) on a Cu(111) surface is investigated utilizing a combination of photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory ...... state environment may offer an encouraging approach towards the artificial engineering of organometallic nanostructures and related properties for surface catalysts, molecular electronics and so on....... and thermal annealing, and the tendency to form Co–Cu alloy at the interface. While CoPc has been successfully utilized in electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications and CuPc is commonly used as a leading material in organic solar cells, this report of interface transmetalation from CoPc to CuPc in a solid...

  1. Quinoline-substituted Zinc(II) phthalocyanine for the dual detection of ferric and zinc ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ankush [Lyallpur Khalsa College of Engineering, Jalandhar (India); Kim, A Rong [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Sub; Na, Kun [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myung Seok [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong S. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Here we present the synthesis and properties of quinoline-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine, Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ]. Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] can function as a highly selective chemosensor against Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions, exhibiting efficient fluorescence quenching and enhancement, respectively. Various characterization techniques were employed to investigate the intermolecular interactions of Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] with metal ions. A double-electron exchange and a forbidden photoinduced electron transfer behavior in Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] were attributed to such opposite responses. Furthermore, by taking advantage of selectivity, we successfully employed Zn[Pc(O-QN)-4 ] to stain and record confocal fluorescence microscopy images of Chang liver cells in the presence of metal ions.

  2. Micro-Encapsulated Porphyrins and Phthalocyanines - New Formulations in Photodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), as an innovative method for cancer tretament is based on a concerted action of some drugs, called sensitizers, which generate reactive oxygen species via a photochemical mechanism, leading to cellular necrosis or apoptosis. The present work aims at loading some sensitizers, as porphyrins (P) and phthalocyanines (Pc) into alginate particles. Particles were prepared by dropping alginate into an aqueous solution containing P or Pc and CaCl2, which allows the formation of particles through ionic crosslinking. It was obtained P or Pc loaded alginate beads with an average diameter of about 100 μm. For these systems, this paper analyses the spectroscopic properties, encapsulation into microcapsules, controlled releasing action and their photosensitizer capacity (singlet oxygen generation).

  3. Phthalocyanine-loaded graphene nanoplatform for imaging-guided combinatorial phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taratula O

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Olena Taratula,1 Mehulkumar Patel,2 Canan Schumann,1 Michael A Naleway,1 Addison J Pang,1 Huixin He,2 Oleh Taratula1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University-Newark, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: We report a novel cancer-targeted nanomedicine platform for imaging and prospect for future treatment of unresected ovarian cancer tumors by intraoperative multimodal phototherapy. To develop the required theranostic system, novel low-oxygen graphene nanosheets were chemically modified with polypropylenimine dendrimers loaded with phthalocyanine (Pc as a photosensitizer. Such a molecular design prevents fluorescence quenching of the Pc by graphene nanosheets, providing the possibility of fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, the developed nanoplatform was conjugated with poly(ethylene glycol, to improve biocompatibility, and with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH peptide, for tumor-targeted delivery. Notably, a low-power near-infrared (NIR irradiation of single wavelength was used for both heat generation by the graphene nanosheets (photothermal therapy [PTT] and for reactive oxygen species (ROS-production by Pc (photodynamic therapy [PDT]. The combinatorial phototherapy resulted in an enhanced destruction of ovarian cancer cells, with a killing efficacy of 90%–95% at low Pc and low-oxygen graphene dosages, presumably conferring cytotoxicity to the synergistic effects of generated ROS and mild hyperthermia. An animal study confirmed that Pc loaded into the nanoplatform can be employed as a NIR fluorescence agent for imaging-guided drug delivery. Hence, the newly developed Pc-graphene nanoplatform has the significant potential as an effective NIR theranostic probe for imaging and combinatorial phototherapy. Keywords: graphene nanosheets, phthalocyanine, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, theranostic 

  4. Development and evaluation of zinc phthalocyanine nanoemulsions for use in photodynamic therapy for Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler de Oliveira de Siqueira, Luciana; da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Lúcia Vazquez-Villa, Ana; Pereira dos Santos, Elisabete; da Costa Leal Ribeiro Guimarães, Bruno; dos Santos Cerqueira Coutinho, Cristal; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ricci Junior, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) combines light with photosensitizers (PS) for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill infectious microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The application of nanotechnology has enabled the advancement of PDT because many PS are insoluble in water, necessitating a nanocarrier as a physiologically acceptable carrier. Nanoemulsions are efficient nanocarriers for solubilizing liposoluble drugs, like the PS, in water. Cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) are caused by different species of the genus Leishmania, transmitted to humans by sandfly bites. Parasites are hosted in skin macrophages producing ulcerative lesions. Thus, a topical treatment, effective and inexpensive, for CL and ML is preferable to systemic interventions. There are topical treatments like paromomycin and amphotericin B, but they have many local side effects or a very high cost, limiting their use. This work aimed to develop a zinc phthalocyanine (photosensitizer) oil-in-water nanoemulsion, essential clove oil and polymeric surfactant (Pluronic® F127) for the formulation of a topical delivery system for use in PDT against Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania infantum. The nanoemulsion was produced by a high-energy method and characterized by size, polydispersity, morphology, pH, content and stability studies. The toxicity in the dark and the photobiological activity of the formulations were evaluated in vitro for Leishmania and macrophages. The formulation presented was pH compatible with topical use, approximately 30 nm in size, with a polydispersity index ≤0.1 and remained stable at room and refrigerator temperature during the stability study (60 days). The zinc phthalocyanine nanoemulsion is effective in PDT against Leishmania spp.; use against skin infections can be a future application of this topical formulation, avoiding the use of oral or injectable medications, decreasing systemic adverse effects.

  5. Facile synthesis of pegylated zinc(II) phthalocyanines via transesterification and their in vitro photodynamic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ming; Lo, Pui-Chi; Ye, Jing; Wu, Chi; Fong, Wing-Ping; Ng, Dennis K P

    2011-10-21

    Treatment of 4,5-bis[4-(methoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]phthalonitrile and 4,5-bis[3,5-bis(methoxycarbonyl)phenoxy]phthalonitrile with an excess of 1,3-diiminoisoindoline in the presence of Zn(OAc)(2)·2H(2)O and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene in triethylene glycol monomethyl ether or polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (with an average molecular weight of 550) led to "3 + 1" mixed cyclisation and transesterification in one pot, affording the corresponding di-β-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanines in 7-23% yield. As shown by absorption spectroscopy, these compounds were essentially non-aggregated in N,N-dimethylformamide and could generate singlet oxygen effectively. The singlet oxygen quantum yields (Φ(Δ) = 0.53-0.57) were comparable with that of the unsubstituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine (Φ(Δ) = 0.56). These compounds in Cremophor EL emulsions also exhibited photocytotoxicity against HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells with IC(50) values in the range of 0.25-3.72 μM. The analogue with four triethylene glycol chains was the most potent photosensitiser and localised preferentially in the mitochondria of HT29 cells. The bis(polyethylene glycol)-counterpart could form surfactant-free nanoparticles both in water and in the culture medium. The hydrodynamic radii, as determined by dynamic laser light scattering, ranged from 6.3 to 79.8 nm depending on the preparation methods and conditions. The photocytotoxicity of these nanoparticles (IC(50) = 0.43-0.56 μM) was comparable with that of the Cremophor EL-formulated system (IC(50) = 0.34 μM).

  6. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socol, M., E-mail: cela@infim.ro [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Preda, N.; Rasoga, O. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Breazu, C. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stavarache, I. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, Université d’Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-36, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Organic heterostructures prepared by MAPLE having a large absorbtion domain. • Photogeneration process is evidenced in the structure with ZnPc:TPyP mixed layer. • An increase in current value is observed in the structure with MgPc:TPyP mixed layer. - Abstract: Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current–voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  7. Effect of diblock copolymer properties on the photophysical properties of dendrimer silicon phthalocyanine nanoconjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kuizhi [Fujian Normal University, College of Materials Science & Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials (China); Pan, Sujuan [Fujian Normal University, College of Chemistry & Engineering (China); Zhuang, Xuemei [Fuzhou No.2 Hospital (China); Lv, Hafei; Que, Shoulin [Fujian Normal University, College of Chemistry & Engineering (China); Xie, Shusen; Yang, Hongqin, E-mail: hqyang@fjnu.edu.cn [Fujian Normal University, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education (China); Peng, Yiru, E-mail: yirupeng@fjnu.edu.cn [Fujian Normal University, College of Chemistry & Engineering (China)

    2016-07-15

    1–2 generation poly(benzyl aryl ether) dendrimer silicon phthalocyanines with axially disubstituted cyano terminal functionalities (G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n}, (G{sub n} = n-generation dendrimer, n = 1–2)) were synthesized. Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, and ESI-MS. Polymeric nanoparticles (G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n}/m) were formed through encapsulating G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n} into three monomethoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) diblock copolymers (MPEG–PCL) with different hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion, respectively. The effect of dendritic generation and the hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion of diblock copolymers on the UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra of G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n} and G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n}/m were studied. The photophysical properties of polymeric nanoparticles exhibited dendritic generation and hydrophilic/hydrophobic proportion dependence. The fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n}/m were lower than the corresponding free dendrimer phthalocyanines. G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n} encapsulated into MPEG–PCL with hydrophilic/hydrophobic molecular weight ratio 2000:4000 exhibited excellent photophysical property. The mean diameter of MPEG{sub 2000}–PCL{sub 2000} micelles was about 70 nm, which decreased when loaded with G{sub n}-DSiPc(CN){sub 4n}.Graphical abstract .

  8. Flexible heterostructures based on metal phthalocyanines thin films obtained by MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socol, M.; Preda, N.; Rasoga, O.; Breazu, C.; Stavarache, I.; Stanculescu, F.; Socol, G.; Gherendi, F.; Grumezescu, V.; Popescu-Pelin, G.; Girtan, M.; Stefan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic heterostructures prepared by MAPLE having a large absorbtion domain. • Photogeneration process is evidenced in the structure with ZnPc:TPyP mixed layer. • An increase in current value is observed in the structure with MgPc:TPyP mixed layer. - Abstract: Heterostructures based on zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyrydil)21H,23H-porphine (TPyP) were deposited on ITO flexible substrates by Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique. Organic heterostructures containing (TPyP/ZnPc(MgPc)) stacked or (ZnPc(MgPc):TPyP) mixed layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction-XRD, photoluminescence-PL, UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. No chemical decomposition of the initial materials was observed. The investigated structures present a large spectral absorption in the visible range making them suitable for organic photovoltaics applications (OPV). Scanning electron microscopy-SEM and atomic force microscopy-AFM revealed morphologies typical for the films prepared by MAPLE. The current–voltage characteristics of the investigated structures, measured in dark and under light, present an improvement in the current value (∼3 order of magnitude larger) for the structure based on the mixed layer (Al/MgPc:TPyP/ITO) in comparison with the stacked layer (Al/MgPc//TPyP/ITO). A photogeneration process was evidenced in the case of structures Al/ZnPc:TPyP/ITO with mixed layers.

  9. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment, where fishes are found, stuns them ... of earthen ponds are springing up near cocoa ... farm, which posses toxicological risk to farmed ... Veg. oil. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. Copper sulphate 0. 1.0. 2.5. 5.0. 7.5. Total ..... Cellulase Production by Wild Strains of Aspergillus Niger, ... Mangrove Area of Lagos, Nigeria.

  10. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesized hydrothermally in a 23-mL Teflon lined stainless steel bomb by heating copper(II) 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (31 mg, 0.1 mmol) and tin(II) iodide (75 mg, 0.2 mmol) in 4 mL water at 150±C for 24 h. The reaction vessel was subsequently cooled to 70±C at 1±C/min and held at that temperature for 6 h before returning ...

  11. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  12. Importance of semicore states in GW calculations for simulating accurately the photoemission spectra of metal phthalocyanine molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Fabris, S

    2012-05-07

    The quasi-particle energy levels of the Zn-Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) molecule calculated with the GW approximation are shown to depend sensitively on the explicit description of the metal-center semicore states. We find that the calculated GW energy levels are in good agreement with the measured experimental photoemission spectra only when explicitly including the Zn 3s and 3p semicore states in the valence. The main origin of this effect is traced back to the exchange term in the self-energy GW approximation. Based on this finding, we propose a simplified approach for correcting GW calculations of metal phthalocyanine molecules that avoids the time-consuming explicit treatment of the metal semicore states. Our method allows for speeding up the calculations without compromising the accuracy of the computed spectra.

  13. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  14. Antimicrobial photodisinfection with Zn(II) phthalocyanine adsorbed on TiO2 upon UVA and red irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantareva, Vanya; Eneva, Ivelina; Kussovski, Vesselin; Borisova, Ekaterina; Angelov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The light exposure on a daily basis has been well accepted as a competitive method for decontamination of wastewater. The catalytic properties of TiO2 offer a great potential to reduce the transmission of pathogens in the environment. Although the titanium dioxide shows high activity against pathogens, its general usage in water cleaning is limited due to the insufficient excitation natural light (about 3% of the solar spectrum). A hydrophobic dodecylpyridyloxy Zn(II)-phthalocyanine with four peripheral hydrocarbon chains of C12 (ZnPcDo) was immobilized on a photocatalyst TiO2 anatase (P25). The resulted greenish colored nanoparticles of phthalocyanine were characterized by the means of absorption, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy. The laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize the phthalocyanine dye by the red fluorescence emission (650 - 740 nm). The intensive Q-band in the far red visible spectral region (~ 690 nm) suggested a monomeric state of phthalocyanine on TiO2 nanoparticles. Two pathogenic bacterial strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA and Salmonella enteritidis) associated with wastewater were photoinactivated with the suspension of the particles. The effective photoinactivation was observed with 1 g.L-1 TiO2 anatase at irradiation with UVA 364 nm as with UVA 364 nm and LED 643 nm. The gram-negative Salmonella enteritidis was fully photoinactivated with ZnPcDo-TiO2 and TiO2 alone at UVA 346 nm and at irradiation with two light sources (364 nm + 643 nm). The proposed conjugate appears as an useful composite material for antibacterial disinfection.

  15. Combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy on mesenchymal stem cell line treated with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine magnetic-nanoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Leonardo B. de; Primo, Fernando L.; Pinto, Marcelo R.; Morais, Paulo C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the preparation and the cell viability assay of two nanoemulsions loaded with magnetic nanoparticle and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine. The preparations contain equal amount of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (0.05 mg/mL) but different contents of magnetic nanoparticle (0.15×10 13 or 1.50×10 13 particle/mL). The human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line was used as the model to assess the cell viability and this type of cell can be used as a model to mimic cancer stem cells. The cell viability assays were performed in isolated as well as under combined magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. We found from the cell viability assay that under the hyperthermia treatment (1 MHz and 40 Oe magnetic field amplitude) the cell viability reduction was about 10%, regardless the magnetic nanoparticle content within the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation. However, cell viability reduction of about 50% and 60% were found while applying the photodynamic therapy treatment using the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation containing 0.15×10 13 or 1.50×10 13 magnetic particle/mL, respectively. Finally, an average reduction in cell viability of about 66% was found while combining the hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. - Highlights: • Current protocols in nanotechnology allow for biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles being associated with photosensitizer photoactive drugs, which could lead to perfectly controlled drug release. • The combination of the HPT and PDT therapies can be useful to develop further protocols for both advanced in vitro and in vivo assays. • Magnetic nanodevices associated with therapies have led to the decreased of proliferation of cell population that provides a favorable environment for tumor progression

  16. Combination of hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy on mesenchymal stem cell line treated with chloroaluminum phthalocyanine magnetic-nanoemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Leonardo B. de [Departamento de Química, Centro de Nanotecnologia e Engenharia Tecidual, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Departamento de Genética, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14049-900 (Brazil); Primo, Fernando L. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Nanotecnologia e Engenharia Tecidual, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Nanophoton Company, SUPERA Innovation and Technology Park, Av. Doutora Nadir de Aguiar, 1805, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, P 14056-680 (Brazil); Pinto, Marcelo R. [Departamento de Química, Laboratório de Enzimologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Morais, Paulo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); and others

    2015-04-15

    The present study reports on the preparation and the cell viability assay of two nanoemulsions loaded with magnetic nanoparticle and chloroaluminum phthalocyanine. The preparations contain equal amount of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (0.05 mg/mL) but different contents of magnetic nanoparticle (0.15×10{sup 13} or 1.50×10{sup 13} particle/mL). The human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line was used as the model to assess the cell viability and this type of cell can be used as a model to mimic cancer stem cells. The cell viability assays were performed in isolated as well as under combined magnetic hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. We found from the cell viability assay that under the hyperthermia treatment (1 MHz and 40 Oe magnetic field amplitude) the cell viability reduction was about 10%, regardless the magnetic nanoparticle content within the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation. However, cell viability reduction of about 50% and 60% were found while applying the photodynamic therapy treatment using the magnetic nanoparticle/chloroaluminum phthalocyanine formulation containing 0.15×10{sup 13} or 1.50×10{sup 13} magnetic particle/mL, respectively. Finally, an average reduction in cell viability of about 66% was found while combining the hyperthermia and photodynamic therapy treatments. - Highlights: • Current protocols in nanotechnology allow for biocompatible magnetic nanoparticles being associated with photosensitizer photoactive drugs, which could lead to perfectly controlled drug release. • The combination of the HPT and PDT therapies can be useful to develop further protocols for both advanced in vitro and in vivo assays. • Magnetic nanodevices associated with therapies have led to the decreased of proliferation of cell population that provides a favorable environment for tumor progression.

  17. Evaluation of Topical Photodynamic Therapy of Mammary Carcinoma with an Experimental Gel Containing Liposomal Hydroxyl-aluminium Phthalocyanine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sutoris, K.; Větvička, D.; Horák, L.; Beneš, J.; Nekvasil, Miloš; Ježek, Petr; Zadinová, M.; Poučková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 9 (2012), s. 3769-3774 ISSN 0250-7005 R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) 2A-1TP1/026; GA MŠk(CZ) OE09026; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01010781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : photodynamic therapy * phthalocyanine * liposomal sensitizer Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2012

  18. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  19. Copper tolerance in Becium homblei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C; Stone, J

    1971-04-09

    Analyses show that Becium homblei has apparently no mechanism for limiting copper uptake. As growth proceeds, the concentration of metal increases in leaves and stems. Much of the copper is bound to structural material of the cells. There is a significant difference between the amount of extractable material in root and leaf tissues. These differences, in conjunction with the extrinsic factor of regular bush fires, were important factors in the evolution of this copper-resistant species of Becium. 9 references.

  20. Generation of Transparent Oxygen Evolution Electrode Consisting of Regularly Ordered Nanoparticles from Self-Assembly Cobalt Phthalocyanine as a Template

    KAUST Repository

    Ziani, Ahmed

    2016-11-04

    The decoration of (photo)electrodes for efficient photoresponse requires the use of electrocatalysts with good dispersion and high transparency for efficient light absorption by the photoelectrode. As a result of the ease of thermal evaporation and particulate self-assembly growth, the phthalocyanine molecular species can be uniformly deposited layer-by-layer on the surface of substrates. This structure can be used as a template to achieve a tunable amount of catalysts, high dispersion of the nanoparticles, and transparency of the catalysts. In this study, we present a systematic study of the structural and optical properties, surface morphologies, and electrochemical oxygen evolution reaction (OER) performance of cobalt oxide prepared from a phthalocyanine metal precursor. Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) films with different thicknesses were deposited by thermal evaporation on different substrates. The films were annealed at 400 °C in air to form a material with the cobalt oxide phase. The final Co oxide catalysts exhibit high transparency after thermal treatment. Their OER measurements demonstrate well expected mass activity for OER. Thermally evaporated and treated transition metal oxide nanoparticles are attractive for the functionalization of (photo)anodes for water oxidation.

  1. The electrochemical behavior of cobalt phthalocyanine/platinum as methanol-resistant oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts for DMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuhao; Reddy, Ramana G. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, The University of Alabama, P.O. Box 870202, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2007-02-01

    The electrochemical behavior of cobalt phthalocyanine/platinum as methanol-resistant oxygen-reduction electrocatalyst for DMFC was investigated. Platinum was chemically deposited on the carbon-supported cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc), and then it was heat-treated in high purity nitrogen at 300 C, 635 C and 980 C. In order to evaluate the electrocatalytic behavior of CoPc-Pt/C, the PtCo/C and Pt/C as reference catalysts were employed. TGA, XRD, EDAX, XPS and electrochemical experiments were used to study the thermal stability, crystal structure, physical characterization and electrochemical behavior of these catalysts. These catalysts exhibited similar electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reaction in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. In methanol tolerance experiments, Pt/C, PtCo/C and CoPc-Pt/C heated at 980 C were active for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR). The presence of Co did not improve resistance to methanol poisoning. However, the CoPc-Pt/C after 300 C or 635 C heat-treatment demonstrated significant inactivity for MOR, hence they have a good ability to resist methanol poisoning. The current study indicated that the macrocyclic structure of phthalocyanine is the most important factor to improve the methanol tolerance of CoPc-Pt/C as the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst. The CoPc-Pt based catalyst should be a good alternation for oxygen electro-reduction reaction in DMFC. (author)

  2. Study of charge transfer processes in porphyrins- and phthalocyanins-based materials: from the liquid phase to the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Thierry

    1994-01-01

    In order to efficiently conceive and build supramolecular materials for molecular electronics and optoelectronics, one need to have access to a large data base on the interactions between the elementary pieces of the material. Such a data base can be established only through the study of model Systems and model media. Oligomers of porphyrins and phthalocyanines constitute models of choice: due to the chemical versatility of the compounds, their physical and photophysical properties can be adjusted to produce a targeted function. The first part of this thesis is concerned with double- and triple-Decker mixed porphyrin and Phthalocyanines sandwich compounds of cerium. Then we study the photophysical properties of complexes formed by pairing in solution porphyrins and phthalocyanines bearing oppositely charged substituents. The charge transfer reactions and geminated recombinations are investigated by time-resolved absorption spectroscopy (from the femto- to millisecond time scales) for excited complexes either in solution, or confined in sol-gel matrices or in Langmuir-Blodgett films. The results obtained in the various media are compared and analysed by the Marcus theory. They allow to show that, for strongly coupled complexes, the solvent does not play any key role in the forward and backward electron transfer. We conclude this work by introducing a few targeted projects based on of the photophysical properties of these complexes, namely photodynamic therapy of cancers, nonlinear optics and the generation of photovoltage. (author) [fr

  3. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  4. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  5. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  6. Thermal interaction of molten copper with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyszkowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental work was performed to study the thermal interaction between molten copper particles (in the range of temperature from the copper melting point to about 1800 0 C) and water from about 15-80 0 C. The transient temperatures of the copper particles and water before and during their thermal interaction were measured. The history of the phenomena was filmed by means of a high speed FASTAX camera (to 8000 f/s). Classification of the observed phenomena and description of the heat-transfer modes were derived. One among the phenomena was the thermal explosion. The necessary conditions for the thermal explosion are discussed and their physical interpretation is given. According to the hypothesis proposed, the thermal explosion occurs when the molten metal has the temperature of its solidification and the heat transfer on its surface is sufficiently intensive. The 'sharp-change' of the crystalline structure during the solidification of the molten metal is the cause of the explosion fragmentation. (author)

  7. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  8. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  9. Layer-by-layer construction of graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite film on activated GCE for application as a nitrite sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Lili; Pu, Tao; Liu, Ying; He, Xingquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel nitrite sensor was prepared by using LBL technique which for the first time used the activated positively charged glassy carbon electrode (A-GCE) as the substrate. The nitrite sensor shows super stability for consecutive CV testing and rather low detection limit. -- Abstract: In this paper, a novel graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite film was prepared by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique which for the first time used the activated positively charged glassy carbon electrode (A-GCE) as the substrate. The surface morphology of graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). It is found that graphene/cobalt phthalocyanine composite film modified GCE exhibits good catalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite. The oxidation current barely decreases in consecutive CV test. Furthermore, the modified GCE shows long-term stability after 70 days. The super good stability can be attributed to the immobilization and dispersion of electroactive cobalt phthalocyanine by graphene, and using A-GCE as substrate which can enhance the interaction force between GCE and electroactive cobalt phthalocyanine. The nitrite sensor shows rather low detection limit of 0.084 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio = 3 (S/N = 3)

  10. Zinc Phthalocyanine Labelled Polyethylene Glycol: Preparation, Characterization, Interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin and Near Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol was prepared to track and monitor the in vivo fate of polyethylene glycol. The chemical structures were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Their light stability and fluorescence quantum yield were evaluated by UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy methods. The interaction of zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol with bovine serum albumin was evaluated by fluorescence titration and isothermal titration calorimetry methods. Optical imaging in vivo, organ aggregation as well as distribution of fluorescence experiments for tracking polyethylene glycol were performed with zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol as fluorescent agent. Results show that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol has good optical stability and high emission ability in the near infrared region. Imaging results demonstrate that zinc phthalocyanine labelled polyethylene glycol can track and monitor the in vivo process by near infrared fluorescence imaging, which implies its potential in biomaterials evaluation in vivo by a real-time noninvasive method.

  11. Synergetic Enhancement of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 with Visible Light by Sensitization Using a Novel Push-Pull Zinc Phthalocyanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luna-Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new one-pot synthesis of a novel A3B-type asymmetric zinc phthalocyanine (AZnPc was developed. The phthalocyanine complex was characterized unambiguously and used to prepare a TiO2 hybrid photocatalyst to enhance its photocatalytic activity in the visible range. Different compositions of the phthalocyanine dye were tested in order to find the optimum amount of sensitizer to get the highest activity during the photocatalytic tests. The hybrid photocatalyst was characterized by UV-Vis diffuse reflectance (DRS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and its photocatalytic activity was compared with that of the individual components considering the effects of sensitization on their efficiency to degrade Rhodamine B as a model reaction. A synergic improvement of the photocatalytic activity for the hybrid system was explained in terms of an improved electron injection from the photo-activated phthalocyanine to the TiO2. Considering the structural features of the phthalocyanine sensitizer and their effect on aggregation, some mechanistic aspects of its binding to TiO2 are suggested to account for the photocatalytic activity enhancement. Finally, the inhibitory effect on the sprouting of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica was evaluated in order to test the toxicity of the water effluent obtained after the photodegradation process. According to our growth inhibition assays, it was found that the Rh-B degradation by-products do not lead to an acute toxicity.

  12. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z.M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •An optimized design of HTS binary current leads is proposed. •Temperature distributions of two different current leads are calculated. •Experiments are done to certify the calculated temperature distributions. •The experiments proved that the copper wires increase security margins. -- Abstract: Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current

  13. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J., E-mail: fangseer@sina.com [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Yu, T. [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Li, Z.M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H.J. [China Electric Power Research Institute, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •An optimized design of HTS binary current leads is proposed. •Temperature distributions of two different current leads are calculated. •Experiments are done to certify the calculated temperature distributions. •The experiments proved that the copper wires increase security margins. -- Abstract: Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  14. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Fieten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional

  15. Bis[2-(cyclopentyliminomethyl-5-methoxyphenolato]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Ji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu(C13H16NO22], is a mononuclear copper(II complex derived from the Schiff base ligand 2-(cyclopentyliminomethyl-5-methoxyphenol and copper acetate. The CuII atom is four-coordinated by the phenolate O atoms and imine N atoms from two Schiff base ligands, in a highly distorted square-planar geometry. The O- and N-donor atoms are mutually trans and the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 55.8 (3°.

  16. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  17. Advanced Copper Composites Against Copper-Tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and Tomato Bacterial Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer-Scherer, A; Liao, Y Y; Young, M; Ritchie, L; Vallad, G E; Santra, S; Freeman, J H; Clark, D; Jones, J B; Paret, M L

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a widespread and damaging bacterial disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). For disease management, growers rely on copper bactericides, which are often ineffective due to the presence of copper-tolerant Xanthomonas strains. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the new copper composites core-shell copper (CS-Cu), multivalent copper (MV-Cu), and fixed quaternary ammonium copper (FQ-Cu) as potential alternatives to commercially available micron-sized copper bactericides for controlling copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans. In vitro, metallic copper from CS-Cu and FQ-Cu at 100 μg/ml killed the copper-tolerant X. perforans strain within 1 h of exposure. In contrast, none of the micron-sized copper rates (100 to 1,000 μg/ml) from Kocide 3000 significantly reduced copper-tolerant X. perforans populations after 48 h of exposure compared with the water control (P copper-based treatments killed the copper-sensitive X. perforans strain within 1 h. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all copper composites significantly reduced bacterial spot disease severity when compared with copper-mancozeb and water controls (P copper composites significantly reduced disease severity when compared with water controls, using 80% less metallic copper in comparison with copper-mancozeb in field studies (P copper composites have the potential to manage copper-tolerant X. perforans and tomato bacterial spot.

  18. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  19. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Shoshani-Dror, Dana; Guillemin, Claire; Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza; Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K.; Ornoy, Asher

    2012-01-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  20. Unexpected role of the copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced vascular smooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashino, T.; Varadarajan, S.; Urao, N.; Oshikawa, J.; Chen, G. -F.; Wang, H.; Huo, Y.; Finney, L.; Vogt, S.; McKinney, R. D.; Maryon, E. B.; Kaplan, J. H.; Ushio-Fukai, M.; Fukai, T. (Biosciences Division); ( XSD); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Illinois at Chicago); (Univ. of Minnesota)

    2010-09-09

    Copper, an essential nutrient, has been implicated in vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis with unknown mechanism. Bioavailability of intracellular copper is regulated not only by the copper importer CTR1 (copper transporter 1) but also by the copper exporter ATP7A (Menkes ATPase), whose function is achieved through copper-dependent translocation from trans-Golgi network (TGN). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key component of neointimal formation. To determine the role of copper transporter ATP7A in PDGF-induced VSMC migration. Depletion of ATP7A inhibited VSMC migration in response to PDGF or wound scratch in a CTR1/copper-dependent manner. PDGF stimulation promoted ATP7A translocation from the TGN to lipid rafts, which localized at the leading edge, where it colocalized with PDGF receptor and Rac1, in migrating VSMCs. Mechanistically, ATP7A small interfering RNA or CTR small interfering RNA prevented PDGF-induced Rac1 translocation to the leading edge, thereby inhibiting lamellipodia formation. In addition, ATP7A depletion prevented a PDGF-induced decrease in copper level and secretory copper enzyme precursor prolysyl oxidase (Pro-LOX) in lipid raft fraction, as well as PDGF-induced increase in LOX activity. In vivo, ATP7A expression was markedly increased and copper accumulation was observed by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy at neointimal VSMCs in wire injury model. These findings suggest that ATP7A plays an important role in copper-dependent PDGF-stimulated VSMC migration via recruiting Rac1 to lipid rafts at the leading edge, as well as regulating LOX activity. This may contribute to neointimal formation after vascular injury. Our findings provide insight into ATP7A as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling and atherosclerosis.

  1. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Shinji; Miyagawa, Koichiro; Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  2. Copper induces hepatocyte injury due to the endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured cells and patients with Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oe, Shinji, E-mail: ooes@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Miyagawa, Koichiro, E-mail: koichiro@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Honma, Yuichi, E-mail: y-homma@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Harada, Masaru, E-mail: msrharada@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp

    2016-09-10

    Copper is an essential trace element, however, excess copper is harmful to human health. Excess copper-derived oxidants contribute to the progression of Wilson disease, and oxidative stress induces accumulation of abnormal proteins. It is known that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an important role in proper protein folding, and that accumulation of misfolded proteins disturbs ER homeostasis resulting in ER stress. However, copper-induced ER homeostasis disturbance has not been fully clarified. We treated human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) and immortalized-human hepatocyte cell line (OUMS29) with copper and chemical chaperones, including 4-phenylbutyrate and ursodeoxycholic acid. We examined copper-induced oxidative stress, ER stress and apoptosis by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses. Furthermore, we examined the effects of copper on carcinogenesis. Excess copper induced not only oxidative stress but also ER stress. Furthermore, excess copper induced DNA damage and reduced cell proliferation. Chemical chaperones reduced this copper-induced hepatotoxicity. Excess copper induced hepatotoxicity via ER stress. We also confirmed the abnormality of ultra-structure of the ER of hepatocytes in patients with Wilson disease. These findings show that ER stress plays a pivotal role in Wilson disease, and suggests that chemical chaperones may have beneficial effects in the treatment of Wilson disease.

  3. Crystal structures, DFT calculations, and Hirshfeld surface analyses of two new copper(II) and nickel(II) Schiff base complexes derived from meso-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethylenediamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifikar Ghomi, Leila; Behzad, Mahdi; Tarahhomi, Atekeh; Arab, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Two new Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of a tetradentate Schiff base ligand (1 and 2, respectively), derived from the condensation of meso-1,2-diphenyl-1,2-ethylenediamine with 2-hydroxy-6-methoxy benzaldehyde, were synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and X-Ray crystallography. The central metal ions in both complexes are coordinated via the N2O2 coordination sphere of the ligand with square-planar geometry. DFT results revealed that the Msbnd N and Msbnd O interactions (M = Ni, Cu) are weaker than the typical covalent single bond indicating that ionic and electrostatic interactions are dominated in Msbnd N and Msbnd O bonds. Hirshfeld surface (HS) analyses of the studied structures 1 and 2 have been performed. The study using 3D HSs and 2D fingerprint plots (FPs) highlighted the dominant contacts H⋯H, C⋯H/H⋯C and O⋯H/H⋯O in both structures, and H⋯Cl in 2. The molecular assemblies held by C⋯O/O⋯C (in 1) and C⋯C (in 1 and 2) type dipole-dipole interactions are also found in the crystal packing contributing towards stability. The significant contributions arising from the mentioned interactions in crystal packing are also revealed from the Hirshfeld surface FPs showing a major contribution to total HS area for the H⋯H contacts for both structures.

  4. Copper Powder and Chemicals: edited proceedings of a seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Various papers are presented covering the following topics: Status of Copper Chemical Industry in India, Copper Powder from Industrial Wastes, Manufacture of Copper Hydroxide and High Grade Cement Copper from Low Grade Copper Ore, Manufacture of Copper Sulphate as a By-Product, Hydrometallurgical Treatments of Copper Converter and Smelter Slage for Recovering Copper and other Non-Ferrous Metals, Recovery of Copper from Dilute Solutions, Use of Copper Compounds as Fungicides in India, Copper in Animal Husbandry, and Use of Copper Powder and Chemicals for Marine Applications. The keynote paper given at the Seminar was on Conservation of Copper for Better Use.

  5. Effects of analytes on the fluorescence properties of CdTe@ZnS quantum dots decorated with cobalt tetraamino-phthalocyanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adegoke, Oluwasesan; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za

    2014-02-15

    In this work, we have carried out an investigation on the effects of different biologically active analytes on the fluorescence response of glutathione-capped CdTe@ZnS quantum dots (QDs)-colbalt tetraamino-phthalocyanine nanoconjugate system. Firstly, fluorescence quenching occurred. Experimental results showed that some analytes either “turned on”, others further quenched or showed no effect on the fluorescence emission of the nanoprobe. -- Highlights: • A conjugate between CdTe@ZnS quantum dots and cobalt tetraamino-phthalocyanine is formed. • The fluorescence of quantum dots is quenched on coordination. • The fluorescence is enhanced by analytes such as cystamine, hydroxyl radical, glutathione, and perchlorate.

  6. ELECTROCATALYTIC ACTIVITY FOR O2 REDUCTION OF UNSUBSTITUTED AND PERCHLORINATED IRON PHTHALOCYANINES ADSORBED ON AMINO-TERMINATED MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES DEPOSITED ON GLASSY CARBON ELECTRODES

    OpenAIRE

    CAÑETE, PAULINA; SILVA, J. FRANCISCO; ZAGAL, JOSÉ H

    2014-01-01

    Amino-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-NH2) were modified with Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) and perchlorinated Fe phthalocyanine (16(Cl)FePc) and deposited on glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). The electrocatalytic activity of these hybrid electrodes was examined for the reduction of molecular oxygen in alkaline media (0.2 M NaOH) using stationary and rotating disk electrodes. Electrodes containing 16(Cl)FePc are more active than those containing FePc. Electrodes containing CNTs ar...

  7. Changes in the Spectral Features of Zinc Phthalocyanine Induced by Nitrogen Dioxide Gas in Solution and in Solid Polymer Nanofiber Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugle, Ruphino; Tetteh, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    The changes in the spectral features of zinc phthalocyanine in the visible domain as a result of its interaction with nitrogen dioxide gas were assessed in this work. This was done both in solution and when the phthalocyanine was incorporated into a solid polystyrene polymer nanofiber matrix. The spectral changes were found to be spontaneous and marked in both cases suggesting a rapid response criterion for the detection of the gas. In particular, the functionalised nano-fabric material could serve as a practical fire alarm system as it rapidly detects the nitrogen dioxide gas generated during burning.

  8. Photorefractive IR-spectrum composites prepared from polyimide and ruthenium(II) tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyaninate with axially coordinated triethylenediamine molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannikov, A.V.; Grishina, A.D.; Gorbunova, Yu.G.; Enakieva, Yu.Yu.; Krivenko, T.V.; Savel'ev, V.V.; Tsivadze, A.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    Photoelectric, non-linear optical, and photorefractive properties of aromatic polyimine doped with ruthenium(II) complex with tetra-15-crown-5-phthalocyanine and axially coordinated triethylenediamine molecules, (R 4 Pc)Ru(TED) 2 , where R 4 Pc 2- and TED denote 4,5,4',5',4'',5'',4''',5'''-tetrakis-(1,4,7,10,13- pentaoxatridecamethylene)phthalocyaninate ion and triethylenediamine molecule, respectively, were studied. It is established that supramolecular ensembles on the basis of the complex make an aromatic polyimide layer photoelectrically sensitive to 1064-nm Nd : YAG laser radiation, exhibit third-order susceptibility, and, consequently, impart photorefractive properties to the polymer layer at this wavelength [ru

  9. Highly active Pt nanoparticles on nickel phthalocyanine functionalized graphene nanosheets for methanol electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jing-Ping; Fan, You-Jun; Wang, Hui; Wang, Rui-Xiang; Fan, Li-Li; Shen, Xing-Can; Shi, Zu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Pt-based catalyst using TSNiPc functionalized graphene as support is reported. • Pt nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed on the functionalized graphene surface. • The Pt/TSNiPc–graphene shows excellent catalytic performance for methanol oxidation. -- Abstract: A novel electrocatalyst using nickel (II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (TSNiPc) functionalized graphene (TSNiPc–graphene) composite as catalyst support for Pt nanoparticles is reported. The surface morphology, composition and structure of the prepared nanocomposites as well as their electrocatalytic properties toward methanol oxidation are characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical tests. Pt nanoparticles are found uniformly dispersed on the surface of TSNiPc–graphene composite, with the small particle size of about 3.1 nm. Studies of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry demonstrate that the Pt/TSNiPc–graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity and stability than the Pt/graphene catalyst for methanol oxidation

  10. Influence of axial and peripheral ligands on the electronic structure of titanium phthalocyanines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickup, David F.; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Rogero, Celia

    2013-01-01

    core-level binding energy was observed in the bidentate complex and compared to a calculated core-level stabilization. DFT predicts a change of the LUMO from the inner phthalocyanine ring to the Ti dxy orbital and a reversal of the high-lying dx2-y2 and d z2 orbitals. The N 1s edge was calculated using......-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy were combined with density functional theory (DFT) and crystal-field multiplet calculations to characterize the Ti 3d and N 2p valence electrons that form the frontier orbitals. When a monodentate oxo axial ligand was replaced by a bidentate catechol...... ligand, the multiplet structure of the Ti 2p-to-3d transitions was found to change systematically. The most noticeable change was an additional transition into the low-lying 3dxy level, which is attributed to a reduction in local symmetry from 4-fold to 2-fold at the Ti center. An increase of the Ti 2p...

  11. Characterization of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin films by microscopic and spectroscopic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonieczny, R.; Makowiecki, J.; Bursa, B.; Krzykowski, A.; Szybowicz, M.

    2018-02-01

    The titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) thin film deposited on glass, silicon and gold substrate have been studied using Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), absorption and profilometry measurements. The TiOPc thin layers have been deposited at room temperature by the quasi-molecular beam evaporation technique. The Raman spectra have been recorded using micro Raman system equipped with a confocal microscope. Using surface Raman mapping techni que with polarized Raman spectra the polymorphic forms of the TiOPc thin films distribution have been obtained. The AFM height and phase image were examined in order to find surface features and morphology of the thin films. Additionally to compare experimental results, structure optimization and vibrational spectra calculation of single TiOPc molecule were performed using DFT calculations. The received results showed that the parameters like polymorphic form, grain size, roughness of the surface in TiOPc thin films can well characterize the obtained organic thin films structures in terms of their use in optoelectronics and photovoltaics devices.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulations of H2 adsorption in tetramethyl ammonium lithium phthalocyanine crystalline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonte, Kevin; Gómez Gualdrón, Diego A; Cabrales-Navarro, Fredy A; Scanlon, Lawrence G; Sandi, Giselle; Feld, William; Balbuena, Perla B

    2008-12-11

    Tetramethyl ammonium lithium phthalocyanine is explored as a potential material for storage of molecular hydrogen. Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the molecular structure and the dimer conformation. Additional scans performed to determine the interactions of a H2 molecule located at various distances from the molecular sites are used to generate a simple force field including dipole-induced-dipole interactions. This force field is employed in molecular dynamics simulations to calculate adsorption isotherms at various pressures. The regions of strongest adsorption are quantified as functions of temperature, pressure, and separation between molecules in the adsorbent phase, and compared to the regions of strongest binding energy as given by the proposed force field. It is found that the total adsorption could not be predicted only from the spatial distribution of the strongest binding energies; the available volume is the other contributing factor even if the volume includes regions of much lower binding energy. The results suggest that the complex anion is primarily involved in the adsorption process with molecular hydrogen, whereas the cation serves to provide access for hydrogen adsorption in both sides of the anion molecular plane, and spacing between the planes.

  13. Ac conductivity and dielectric properties of bulk tin phthalocyanine dichloride (SnPcCl 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Farid, A. M.; Abd El-Rahman, K. F.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2008-07-01

    The ac conductivity, σac( ω), has been measured for bulk tin phthalocyanine dichloride (SnPcCl 2) in the form of compressed pellet with evaporated ohmic Au electrodes in a temperature range 303-403 K. Ac conductivity, σac( ω), is found to vary as ωs in the frequency range 42 Hz-5×10 6 Hz. At low range of frequency, s<1 and it decreases with the increase in temperature indicating a dominant hopping process. At high range of frequency, s is found to be equal to ≈1.09 and is temperature independent. The dielectric constant, ε1, and dialectic loss, ε2, have been determined for bulk SnPcCl 2. Both ε1 and ε2 decrease with the increase in frequency and increase with the increase in temperature. The Cole-Cole types have been used to determine some parameters such as; the macroscopic relaxation time ( τo), the molecular relaxation time ( τ), the activation energy for relaxation ( Eo) and the distribution parameter ( α). The temperature dependence of τ is expressed by a thermally activated process with the activation energy of 0.299 eV.

  14. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shivesh; Rodríguez-Fernández, Carlos; de Lima, Mauricio M.; Cantarero, Andres; Dhar, Subhabrata

    2015-12-01

    Catalyst free methods have usually been employed to avoid any catalyst induced contamination for the synthesis of GaN nanowires with better transport and optical properties. Here, we have used a catalytic route to grow GaN nanowires, which show good optical quality. Structural and luminescence properties of GaN nanowires grown by vapor-liquid-solid technique using cobalt phthalocyanine as catalyst are systematically investigated as a function of various growth parameters such as the growth temperature and III/V ratio. The study reveals that most of the nanowires, which are several tens of microns long, grow along [ 10 1 ¯ 0 ] direction. Interestingly, the average wire diameter has been found to decrease with the increase in III/V ratio. It has also been observed that in these samples, defect related broad luminescence features, which are often present in GaN, are completely suppressed. At all temperatures, photoluminescence spectrum is found to be dominated only by a band edge feature, which comprises of free and bound excitonic transitions. Our study furthermore reveals that the bound excitonic feature is associated with excitons trapped in certain deep level defects, which result from the deficiency of nitrogen during growth. This transition has a strong coupling with the localized vibrational modes of the defects.

  15. Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes Modified with Cobalt Phthalocyanine for Selective Sulfur Detection in Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shih

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc films were deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode using a simple drop coating method. The cyclic voltammogram of the resulting CoPc modified screen-printed electrode (CoPc/SPE prepared under optimum conditions shows a well-behaved redox couple due to the (CoI/CoII system. The CoPc/SPE surface demonstrates excellent electrochemical activity towards the oxidation of sulfur in a 0.01 mol·L−1 NaOH. A linear calibration curve with the detection limit (DL, S/N = 3 of 0.325 mg·L−1 was achieved by CoPc/SPE coupled with flow injection analysis of the sulfur concentration ranging from 4 to 1120 mg·L−1. The precision of the system response was evaluated (3.60% and 3.52% RSD for 12 repeated injections, in the range of 64 and 480 mg·L−1 sulfur. The applicability of the method was successfully demonstrated in a real sample analysis of sulfur in anti-acne creams, and good recovery was obtained. The CoPc/SPE displayed several advantages in sulfur determination including easy fabrication, high stability, and low cost.

  16. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization.

  17. Electronic Tongue Based on Nanostructured Hybrid Films of Gold Nanoparticles and Phthalocyanines for Milk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza A. Mercante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gold nanoparticles combined with other organic and inorganic materials for designing nanostructured films has demonstrated their versatility for various applications, including optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. In this study, we reported the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles stabilized with poly(allylamine hydrochloride (Au@PAH NPs, as well as the capability of this material to form multilayer Layer-by-Layer (LbL nanostructured films with metal tetrasulfonated phthalocyanines (MTsPc. Film growth was monitored by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Once LbL films have been applied as active layers in chemical sensors, Au@PAH/MTsPc and PAH/MTsPc LbL films were used in an electronic tongue system for milk analysis regarding fat content. The capacitance data were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA, revealing the role played by the gold nanoparticles on the LbL films electrical properties, enabling this kind of system to be used for analyzing complex matrices such as milk without any prior pretreatment.

  18. l-Tyrosine Contained in Dietary Supplement by Chemiluminescence Reaction of an Iron-Phthalocyanine Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ohtomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemiluminescence (CL signal immediately appeared when a hydrogen peroxide solution was injected into an iron-phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (Fe-PTS aqueous solution. Moreover, the CL intensity of Fe-PTS decreased by adding L-tyrosine. Based on these results, the determination of trace amounts of L-tyrosine was developed using the quenching-chemiluminescence. The calibration curve of L-tyrosine was obtained in the concentration range of 2.0×10−7 M to 2.0×10−5 M. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD was 1.63 % (=5 for 2.0×10−6 M L-tyrosine, and its detection limits (3σ were 1.81×10−7 M. The spike and recovery experiments for L-tyrosine were performed using a soft drink. Furthermore, the determination of L-tyrosine was applied to supplements containing various kinds of amino acids. Each satisfactory relative recovery was obtained at 98 to 102%.

  19. Studies on the Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Cobalt Phthalocyanine Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cobalt Phthalocyanine (CoPc are fabricated at a base pressure of 10-5 m.bar using Hind-Hivac thermal evaporation plant. The films are deposited on to glass substrates at various temperatures 318, 363, 408 and 458K. The optical absorption spectra of these thin films are measured. The present studies reveal that the optical band gap energies of CoPc thin films are almost same on substrate temperature variation. The structure and surface morphology of the films deposited on glass substrates of temperatures 303, 363 and 458K are studied using X-ray diffractograms and Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM, which show that there is a change in the crystallinity and surface morphology due to change in the substrate temperatures. Full width at half maximum (FWHM intensity of the diffraction peaks is also found reduced with increasing substrate temperatures. Scanning electron micrographs show that these crystals are needle like, which are interconnected at high substrate temperatures. The optical band gap energy is almost same on substrate temperature variation. Trap energy levels are also observed for these films.

  20. The significant role of covalency in determining the ground state of cobalt phthalocyanines molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To shed some light on the metal 3d ground state configuration of cobalt phthalocyanines system, so far in debate, we present an investigation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS at Co L2,3 edge and theoretical calculation. The density functional theory calculations reveal highly anisotropic covalent bond between central cobalt ion and nitrogen ligands, with the dominant σ donor accompanied by weak π-back acceptor interaction. Our combined experimental and theoretical study on the Co-L2,3 XAS spectra demonstrate a robust ground state of 2A1g symmetry that is built from 73% 3d7 character and 27% 3 d 8 L ¯ ( L ¯ denotes a ligand hole components, as the first excited-state with 2Eg symmetry lies about 158 meV higher in energy. The effect of anisotropic and isotropic covalency on the ground state was also calculated and the results indicate that the ground state with 2A1g symmetry is robust in a large range of anisotropic covalent strength while a transition of ground state from 2A1g to 2Eg configuration when isotropic covalent strength increases to a certain extent. Here, we address a significant anisotropic covalent effect of short Co(II-N bond on the ground state and suggest that it should be taken into account in determining the ground state of analogous cobalt complexes.

  1. Synthesis, structure, and optical properties of manganese phthalocyanine thin films and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Meng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc nanostructures with different morphologies were prepared on porous anodic alumina oxide (AAO at different substrate temperature (Ts=50 ℃, 80 ℃, 120 ℃, 180 ℃, 240 ℃ in an organic molecular beam deposition (OMBD system. The nanostructures morphologies were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the results showed that the nanostructures morphologies could be modulated by the control of Ts, as a result, the continuous film was obtained at 50 ℃, whereas the nanorods (NRs, nanoribbons (NBs, nanowires (NWs, nanosheets (NSs and nanoparticles (NPs were facilely generated as Ts increased. At the same time, the density and the uniformity of the nanostructures decreased. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD indicated that only the β-phase polymorph formed throughout the growth process irrelevant to the Ts. Additionally, the ultraviolet visible (UV–Vis absorption spectra demonstrated that the main absorption bands of MnPc nanostructures showed a remarkable band broadening as the Ts was increased.

  2. The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Araki, Yasuyuki; Dini, Danilo; Liu Ying; Ito, Osamu; Fujitsuka, Mamoru

    2006-01-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photophysical properties and some molecular orbital calculation results of a dimeric indium phthalocyanine complex with an indium-indium bond, i.e., [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed, have been described. The results regarding triplet excited state lifetimes can be ascribed to strong intramolecular interactions existing only in the excited state of this dimer because no significant difference in the absorption spectra of the tBu 4 PcInCl monomer and the [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed dimer is observed, suggesting that no ground-state interaction can be assessed. The deactivation processes of the excited singlet state of [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 .2tmed are apparently faster than that of μ-oxo-bridged PcIn dimer [tBu 4 PcIn] 2 O. Molecular orbital calculation on the PcIn dimer shows no node between two indium atoms was found in the HOMO - 2 of the PcIn-InPc dimer, suggesting that bonding electrons distribute between two indium atoms

  3. Valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine from an optimally tuned range-separated hybrid functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumboiu, Iulia Emilia; Prokopiou, Georgia; Kronik, Leeor; Brena, Barbara

    2017-07-28

    We analyse the valence electronic structure of cobalt phthalocyanine (CoPc) by means of optimally tuning a range-separated hybrid functional. The tuning is performed by modifying both the amount of short-range exact exchange (α) included in the hybrid functional and the range-separation parameter (γ), with two strategies employed for finding the optimal γ for each α. The influence of these two parameters on the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of CoPc is thoroughly investigated. The electronic structure is found to be very sensitive to the amount and range in which the exact exchange is included. The electronic structure obtained using the optimal parameters is compared to gas-phase photo-electron data and GW calculations, with the unoccupied states additionally compared with inverse photo-electron spectroscopy measurements. The calculated spectrum with tuned γ, determined for the optimal value of α = 0.1, yields a very good agreement with both experimental results and with GW calculations that well-reproduce the experimental data.

  4. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Luis; Berrios, Cristhian; Yanez, Mauricio; Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  5. Influence of iodine on the electrical and photoelectrical properties of zinc phthalocyanine thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.D. [Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Sangodkar, S.G. [Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Roy, M.S. [Camouflage Division, Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (Raj.) (India)

    1996-11-01

    The electrical and photovoltaic properties of the zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and I{sub 2} doped ZnPc thin films, sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al electrodes, were investigated. Doping with iodine brings adequate changes in the characteristics of the device. The devices constitute a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure, in which depletion layer is formed in ZnPc, near Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnPc. The depletion layer width and potential barrier height decrease with I{sub 2} doping. The charge transport phenomenon at higher voltage range appears to be space charge limited conduction (SCLC), in the presence of the discrete trapping level. The position of Fermi level shifts toward the valence band edge, which indicates that I{sub 2} doping increases the P-type conductivity. Various electrical and photovoltaic parameters were determined from the J-V and C-V analysis. The influence of the I{sub 2} doping has been discussed in detail. (orig.)

  6. The Influence of Substituent Orientation on the Photovoltaic Performance of Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerina, Lara; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Torres, Tomas

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their stability and intense absorption in the red and near-IR regions. Impressive progress has been made in photovoltaic efficiencies by introduction of bulky peripheral substituents to help suppress macrocycle aggregation. To reach benchmark efficiencies reported for other related dyes, new designs need to be explored. Single carboxy-ZnPc regioisomers substituted at the non-peripheral positions by rigid aryl groups have now been studied, which has shed light on the influence of steric hindrance and/or orientation of the substituent around the anchoring group on the photovoltaic response. The regioisomer bearing the aryl group far away from the anchoring group produces a more effective sensitization of the TiO2 films and higher short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc). Taking advantage of the good photovoltaic performance in the near-IR region of this ZnPc, it was combined with another appropriate dye for panchromatic sensitization of the mesoporous photoelectrode and an increase of the overall device efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Structural and electrical studies on tetrameric cobalt phthalocyanine and polyaniline composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, S.; Anantharaman, M.R.; Venkatachalam, S.

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline and oligomeric cobalt phthalocyanine are blended in different proportions by chemical methods. These blends are characterised by spectroscopic methods and dielectric measurements. Dielectric studies on the conducting polymer blends are carried out in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz from room temperature (300 K) to 373 K. Dielectric permittivity and dielectric loss of these blends are explained on the basis of interfacial polarisation. From the dielectric permittivity studies, ac conductivity of the samples were calculated and the results are correlated. In order to understand the exact conduction mechanism of the samples, dc electrical conductivity of the blends is carried out in the temperature range of 70-300 K. By applying Mott's theory, it is found that the conducting polymer composites obey a 3D variable range hopping mechanism. The values of Mott's temperature (T 0 ), density of states at the Fermi energy (N(E F )), range of hopping (R) and hopping energy (W) for the composites are calculated and presented

  8. Manipulating individual dichlorotin phthalocyanine molecules on Cu(100) surface at room temperature by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chao; Xiang, Feifei; Wang, Zhongping; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Danfeng; Wang, Li; Wang, Guang; Zhang, Xueao; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Single molecule manipulations have been achieved on dichlorotin phthalocyanine(SnCl 2 Pc) molecules adsorbed on Cu (100) at room temperature. Scanning tunneling microscopy observations directly demonstrate that the individual SnCl 2 Pc molecules can be moved along the [100] direction on Cu(100) surface by employing a scanning tunneling microscope tip fixed at the special position of the molecules. The orientation of the molecule can be switched between two angles of ±28° with respect to the [011] surface direction in the same way. Dependences of the probability of molecular motion on the distances between the tip and the molecules reveal that the mechanism for such manipulation of a SnCl 2 Pc molecule is dominated by the repulsive interactions between the tip and the molecules. With the assistance of this manipulation process, a prototype molecular storage array with molecular orientation as information carrier and an artificial hydrogen bonded supramolecular structure have been constructed on the surface. (paper)

  9. Microscopic and Macroscopic Structures of Carbon Nanotubes Produced by Pyrolysis of Iron Phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shaoming; Dai Liming

    2002-01-01

    By pyrolysis of iron phthalocyanine (FePc), either in a patterned or non-patterned fashion, under an Ar/H 2 atmosphere, we have demonstrated the large-scale production of aligned carbon nanotubes perpendicular to the substrate surface useful for building devices with three-dimensional structures. Depending on the particular pyrolytic conditions used, carbon nanotubes with a wide range of microscopic structures having curved, helical, coiled, branched, and tube-within-tube shapes have also been prepared by the pyrolysis of FePc. This, coupled with several microfabrication methods (photolithography, soft-lithography, self-assembling, micro-contact transfer, etc.), has enabled us to produce carbon nanotube arrays of various macroscopic architectures including polyhedral, flower-like, dendritic, circular, multilayered, and micropatterned geometries. In this article, we summarize our work on the preparation of FePc-generated carbon nanotubes with the large variety of microscopic and macroscopic structures and give a brief overview on the perspectives of making carbon nanotubes with tailor-made microscopic/macroscopic structures, and hence well-defined physicochemical properties, for specific applications

  10. Theoretical study of the binding nature of glassy carbon with nickel(II) phthalocyanine complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Luis [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Berrios, Cristhian [Laboratorio de Electrocatalisis, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Yanez, Mauricio [Laboratorio de Recursos Renovables, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla-160 C, Concepcion (Chile); Cardenas-Jiron, Gloria I., E-mail: gloria.cardenas@usach.cl [Laboratorio de Quimica Teorica, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-26

    A theoretical study at the semiempirical RHF/PM3(tm) level (tm: transition metal) of the binding nature between a glassy carbon (GC) cluster and a nickel(II) complex (nickel(II) phthalocyanine NiPc, nickel(II) tetrasulphophthalocyanine NiTSPc) was performed. Three types of interactions for GC...NiPc (NiTSPc) were studied: (a) through an oxo (O) bridge, (b) through an hydroxo (OH) bridge, and (c) non-bridge. One layer (NiPc, NiTSPc) and two layers (NiPc...NiPc) of complex were considered. The binding energy calculated showed that in both cases NiPc and NiTSPc, the oxo structures are more stable than the hydroxo ones, and than the non-bridge systems. Charge analysis (NAO) predicted that GC gained more electrons in an oxo structure than in the analogues hydroxo. The theoretical results showed an agreement with the experimental data available, an oxo binding between GC and a nickel complex (NiPc, NiTSPc) in aqueous alkaline solutions is formed.

  11. Mechanism of photodynamic inactivation of hepatocarcinoma cells with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Yu; Dong, Rong-Chun; Chen, Ji-Yao; Cai, Huai-Xin

    1993-03-01

    The mechanism of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AlSPC) studied with the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in culture is reported herein. Photofrin II (PII) was chosen as the control photosensitizer of AlSPC. Deuterium oxide (D2O), an enhancer of singlet oxygen (1O2); 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF), a quencher of 1O2: glycerol, a quencher of OH radical (OH(DOT)); superoxide dismutase (SOD), a quencher of O2- radical (O2-(DOT)); diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), an inhibitor of SOD and glutathione peroxidase; were introduced into both the processes of photodynamic inactivation of human liver cancer cells in culture with AlSPC (AlSPC-PDT) and with PII (PII-PDT). The results suggest that: 1O2 is dominantly involved in both PII-PDT and AlSPC-PDT; O2-(DOT) is involved in AlSPC-PDT in a lower degree than 1O2, while almost not involved in PII-PDT; OH(DOT) is involved in PII-PDT in a lower degree than 1O2, while almost not involved in AlSPC-PDT.

  12. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  13. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  14. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  15. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  16. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium and copper radionuclides have a long history of use in nuclear medicine. Table 1 presents the nuclear properties of several gallium and copper isotopes that either are used in the routine practice of clinical nuclear medicine or exhibit particular characteristics that might make them useful in diagnostic or therapeutic medicine. This paper will provide some historic perspective along with an overview of some current research directions in gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry. A more extensive review of gallium radiopharmaceutical chemistry has recently appeared and can be consulted for a more in-depth treatment of this topic

  17. Copper complexes as 'radiation recovery' agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copper and its compounds have been used for their remedial effects since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 3000 BC the Egyptians used copper as an antiseptic for healing wounds and to sterilise drinking water; and later, ca 1550 BC, the Ebers Papyrus reports the use of copper acetate, copper sulphate and pulverised metallic copper for the treatment of eye infections. These historical uses of copper and its compounds are particularly interesting in the light of modern evidence concerning the use of certain copper complexes for the treatment of radiation sickness and more recently as an adjunct to radiotherapy for cancer patients. (author)

  18. Properties of uncharged water-soluble tetra({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine free base: Viable switching of the optical response by means of H{sub 3}O{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Placido [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici - CNR, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D' Alcontres, 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Lupo, Fabio; Fragala, Ignazio; Scamporrino, Emilio [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Gulino, Antonino, E-mail: agulino@unict.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    An uncharged water-soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis and luminescence measurements. The polyether substituents render water soluble this uncharged phthalocyanine. Relevant changes are observed in emission measurements upon protonation. The phthalocyanine free base and its protonated forms can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions as inputs, being the intensity of the luminescence spectra the output. Binary codes 1 or 0 can be assigned to the high luminescent phthalocyanine free base state or to the low luminescent protonated state, respectively. The read-out procedure is fast and the system is reversible. In addition, the exploiting of the luminescent properties of the present water soluble phthalocyanine could be of relevance also for biological applications (photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An uncharged water soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalocyanine protonation changes the luminescence output. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} as inputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The read-out procedure is fast and reversible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binary codes are assigned to the high and low luminescent states, respectively.

  19. Supramolecular architectures in layer-by-layer films of single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and cobalt (II) phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Luz, Roberto A. de; Martins, Marccus Victor A.; Magalhaes, Janildo L.; Siqueira, Jose R.; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.; Crespilho, Frank N.; Cantanhede da Silva, Welter

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Platforms were assembled from cobalt phthalocyanine, chitosan and carbon nanotubes. → Supramolecular organization of multilayer films was investigated. → Increase of the supramolecular charge transfer after carbon nanotube incorporation. → Functional modulation based on constitutional dynamic chemistry was achieved. - Abstract: The building of supramolecular structures in nanostructured films has been exploited for a number of applications, with the film properties being controlled at the molecular level. In this study, we report on the layer-by-layer (LbL) films combining cobalt (II) tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CoTsPc), chitosan (Chit) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in two architectures, {Chit/CoTsPc} n and {Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc} n (n = 1-10). The physicochemical properties of the films were evaluated and the multilayer formation was monitored with microgravimetry measurements using a quartz microbalance crystal and an electrochemical technique. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) results, the incorporation of SWCNTs caused the films to be thicker, with a thickness ca. 3 fold that of a 2-bilayer LbL film with no SWCNTs. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a quasi-reversible, one electron process with E 1/2 at -0.65 V (vs SCE) and an irreversible oxidation process at 0.80 V in a physiological medium for both systems, which can be attributed to [CoTsPc(I)] 5- /[CoTsPc(II)] 4- and CoTsPc(II) to CoTsPc(III), respectively. The {Chit-SWCNTs/CoTsPc} 5 multilayer film exhibited an increased faradaic current, probably associated with the supramolecular charge transfer interaction between cobalt phthalocyanine and SWCNTs. The results demonstrate that an intimate contact at the supramolecular level between functional SWCNTs immobilized into biocompatible chitosan polymer and CoTsPc improves the electron flow from CoTsPc redox sites to the electrode surface.

  20. Radiation synthesis and characterization of zinc phthalocyanine composite based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A.M., E-mail: am_abdelghaffar@yahoo.com [Radiation Research of Polymer Chemistry Department, Industrial Irradiation Division, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Youssef, Tamer E. [Applied Organic Chemistry Department, Chemical Industries Research Division, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, 12622 (Egypt); Chemical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, Hanan H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of new 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate/zinc phthalocyanine composite Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) is described for the first time in this study. The aim of this research is to present possibility of radiation synthesis of the newly zinc phthalocyanine composites as potential candidates for wide range of applications. Gel (%) and swelling for Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) Poly(HEMA) and the based Poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate) copolymer Poly(HEMA/MMA) with different composition 100/0, 95/5, 90/10 and 80/20 wt % were evaluated. It was found that Poly(HEMA/MMA) copolymer with composition 95/5 wt % characterized by its high swelling property at pH 7.4. The prepared composites I and II Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) with composition (95/5/1 wt%) and (95/5/1.5 wt%) respectively have been characterized by FTIR and TGA. The effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical properties of composite I was described. It is observed that the Zinc phthalocyanine with low concentration 1 wt % enhance chemical, thermal properties and stabilization against gamma radiation of the prepared composite I. - Highlights: • The preparation of Poly(HEMA/MMA/ZnPc) by radiation forming modified composites. • The low concentration of ZcPc (1 or 1.5 wt %) lead to form outstanding properties. • These composites are a potential candidate for wide range of applications.