WorldWideScience

Sample records for copper ores

  1. The Revovery of Copper and Cobalt from Oxidized Copper Ore and Converter Slag

    OpenAIRE

    ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Berrin; ZİYADANOĞULLARI, Recep

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for obtaining copper and cobalt from oxidized copper ore and converter slag. In order to convert the copper and cobalt into sulfate compounds the main step was to roast the samples obtained by sulfurization and transfer the samples into solution. First the oxidized copper ore was roasted, followed by the mixture of converter slag and oxidized copper ore. Since the levels of copper and cobalt were low, the sulfurization process was carri...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE IN COPPER ORE FLOTATION BY XANTHATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoran Markovic

    2015-01-01

      This paper presents some investigation results about potassium ethyl xanthate (PEX) stability in water solution at higher pH and in presence of mineral chalcopyrite, related to flotation of copper minerals from copper ore...

  3. Bacterial leaching of discarded copper ores from Yongping, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The elementary and phase analysis of discarded copper ores from Yongping of China has been performed. The experiments of extracting copper from the discarded copper ores were done with the mixed bacteria obtained through a series of enrichment,separation, domestication and combination tests. The results show that in the process of bioleaching, the pH value rises at first and drops gradually. The Eh value keeps rising along with the time and the appropriate Eh value varying between 750 and 800 mV will benefit the bioleaching copper. The high concentration of ferric ions is detrimental to the bioleaching copper. The results of bioleaching copper are good. That is, the copper recovery is 31.8% after 27 days.

  4. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

  5. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by P seudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shabani; M Irannajad; AR Azadmehr; M Meshkini

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53%of copper was extracted.

  6. A Simulator for Copper Ore Leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, B.

    1999-05-14

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Copper is a strategic metal and the nation needs a secure supply both for industrial use and military needs. However, demand is growing worldwide and is outstripping the ability of the mining industry to keep up. Improved recovery methods are critically needed to maintain the balance of supply and demand. The goal of any process design should be to increase the amount of copper recovered, control movement of acid and other environmentally harmful chemicals, and reduce energy requirements. To achieve these ends, several improvements in current technology are required, the most important of which is a better understanding of, and the ability to quantify, how fluids move through heterogeneous materials in a complex chemical environment. The goal of this project is create a new modeling capability that couples hydrology with copper leaching chemistry . once the model has been verified and validated, we can apply the model to specific problems associated with heap leaching (flow channeling due to non-uniformities in heap structure, precipitation/dissolution reactions, and bacterial action), to understand the causes of inefficiencies, and to design better recovery systems. We also intend to work with representatives of the copper mining industry to write a coordinated plan for further model development and application that will provide economic benefits to the industry and the nation.

  7. Bioprocessing low grade copper ores - a promising alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Guezennec, Anne-Gwenaëlle; d'Hugues, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview of the work performed by the BRGM team in the last 10 years on the development of bio-hydrometallurgy dedicated to the processing of low-grade copper ores from the Kupferschiefer deposits. It covers selection and adaptation of microbial consortia, optimization of process operating parameters such as solid contents, the relationship between bioleaching performance and mineralogy, testing operating parameters to overcome chalcopyrite recal...

  8. Extracting copper from copper oxide ore by a zwitterionic reagent and dissolution kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiu-shuai Deng; Shu-ming Wen; Jian-ying Deng; Dan-dan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Sulfamic acid (SA), which possesses a zwitterionic structure, was applied as a leaching reagent for the first time for extracting copper from copper oxide ore. The effects of reaction time, temperature, particle size, reagent concentration, and stirring speed on this leach-ing were studied. The dissolution kinetics of malachite was illustrated with a three-dimensional diffusion model. A novel leaching effect of SA on malachite was eventually demonstrated. The leaching rate increased with decreasing particle size and increasing concentration, reac-tion temperature and stirring speed. The activation energy for SA leaching malachite was 33.23 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the effectiveness of SA as a new reagent for extracting copper from copper oxide ore was confirmed by experiment. This approach may provide a solution suitable for subsequent electrowinning. In addition, results reported herein may provide basic data that enable the leaching of other carbonate miner-als of copper, zinc, cobalt and so on in an SA system.

  9. Rock Smelting of Copper Ores with Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgate, Terry; Jahanshahi, Sharif; Haque, Nawshad

    It is generally recognised that the grades of metallic ores are falling globally. This trend can be expected to increase the life cycle-based energy requirement for primary metal production due to the additional amount of material that must be handled and treated in the mining and mineral processing stages of the metal production life cycle. Rock (or whole ore) smelting has been suggested as a possible alternative processing route for low grade ores with a potentially lower energy intensity and environmental impact than traditional processing routes. In this processing route, the beneficiation stage is eliminated along with its associated energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, but this is partially offset by the need for more solid material to be handled and heated up to smelting temperatures. A life cycle assessment study was carried out to assess the potential energy and greenhouse gas benefits of a conceptual flowsheet of the rock smelting process, using copper ore as an example. Recovery and utilisation of waste heat in the slag (via dry slag granulation) and offgas streams from the smelting step was also included in the study, with the waste heat being utilised either for thermal applications or electricity generation.

  10. Thermal Decomposition of Copper Ore Concentrate and Polyethylene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Wieckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    Thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) of the composite, comprised of 10% polyethylene (PE) scrap and 90% copper ore concentrate, enabled determination of the temperature range and decomposition degree of the organic matters in argon atmosphere. Products of pyrolysis were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The results were compared to those obtained for products of pyrolysis of the composite in air. Products of pyrolysis were identified by means of the gas chromatography (GC) method alone or supported with results of mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS).

  11. Molybdenum removal from copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Youcai; Zhong Hong; Cao Zhanfang

    2011-01-01

    The removal of molybdenum from a copper ore concentrate by sodium hypochlorite leaching was investigated. The results show that leaching time, liquid to solid ratio, leaching ternperature, agitation speed, and sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide concentrations all have a significant effect on the removal of molybdenum. The optimum process operating parameters were found to be: time, 4 h: sodium hydroxide concentration, 10%; sodium hypochlorite concentration, 8%; liquid to solid ratio, 10:1; temperature, 50℃; and,agitation speed, 500 r/min. Under these conditions the extraction of molybdenum is greater than 99.9% and the extraction of copper is less than 0.01%. A shrinking particle model could be used to describe the leaching process. The apparent activation energy of the dissolution reaction was found to be approximately 8.8 kJ/mol.

  12. Accelerating column leaching trial on copper sulfide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongjiang; WU Aixiang; ZHOU Xun; WANG Shaoyong; ZHANG Jie

    2008-01-01

    The main measures to accelerate leaching sulfide ore are large spraying intensity,manual oxygen supply,temperature control and acclimated bacteria.The indoor experiment accelerating sulfide ore leaching detected the temperature during leaching process,dissolvability of oxygen,bacterial concentration,Cu concentration and slag grade.At the same time,this paper also analyzed the effect of four factors,which are bacterial diversity cultivation stage,spraying intensity,air supply,and whether to control temperature,on the leaching efficiency of copper.The results indicate that the oxygen content of leach solution has a close relationship with temperature but it is rarely affected by air supply.The bacterial concentration preserves from 106 to 107 mL-1,and temperature has a great effect on the bacterial activity under the condition of proper temperature and oxygen supply,and the lack of nutrition prevents the bacterial concentration from rising in the late stage.The relationships of the copper leaching efficiency to temperature,air feed,and spraying intensity are directly proportional.The leaching efficiencies of the cultivated bacteria and acclimation bacteria are 1.2 and 1.4 times as large as that of the original bacteria.

  13. Flotation of cobalt bearing minerals from a mixed copper-cobalt oxidized ore

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. (Extraction Metallurgy) The techniques for the flotation of mixed copper and cobalt bearing oxide ores using the sulphidization method in order to recover the oxidized copper and cobalt bearing minerals have been well documented by previous researchers. These processes have been successfully implemented in many of the metallurgical plant operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The mixed copper and cobalt oxidised ores from this region present significant chal-lenges t...

  14. Extraction of copper from an oxidized (lateritic) ore using bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined.

  15. Simulated small-scale pilot heap leaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore with selective extraction of copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Wen-qing; ZHANG Yan-sheng; LI Wei-zhong; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    The bioleaching of low-grade copper sulfide ore and the selective extraction of copper were investigated.Lix984 dissolved in kerosene was used as extractant.The results show that it is possible to selectively leach copper from the ores by heap leaching.The copper concentration of leaching liquor after 250 d is 2.17 g/L,and the copper concentration is 0.27 g/L after solvent extraction.The leach liquor was subjected to solvent extraction,scrubbing and selective stripping for the enrichment of copper and the removal of impurities.The pregnant copper sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for copper electro-winning.

  16. Catalytic effect of activated carbon on bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The catalytic effect of activated carbon on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores using mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was investigated. The results show that the addition of activated carbon can greatly accelerate the rate and efficiency of copper dissolution from low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The solution with the concentration of 3.0 g/L activated carbon is most beneficial to the dissolution of copper. The resting time of the mixture of activated carbon and ores has an impact on the bioleaching of low-grade primary copper sulfide ores. The 2 d resting time is most favorable to the dissolution of copper. The enhanced dissolution rate and efficiency of copper can be attributed to the galvanic interaction between activated carbon and chalcopyrite. The addition of activated carbon obviously depresses the dissolution of iron and the bacterial oxidation of ferrous ions in solution. The lower redox potentials are more favorable to the copper dissolution than the higher potentials for low-grade primary copper sulfide ores in the presence of activated carbon.

  17. Copper Recovery from Yulong Complex Copper Oxide Ore by Flotation and Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Xiao, Jun; Qin, Wenqing; Chen, Daixiong; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A combined process of flotation and high-gradient magnetic separation was proposed to utilize Yulong complex copper oxide ore. The effects of particle size, activators, Na2S dosage, LA (a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ethylenediamine) dosage, activating time, collectors, COC (a combination collector of modified hydroxyl oxime acid and xanthate) dosage, and magnetic intensity on the copper recovery were investigated. The results showed that 74.08% Cu was recovered by flotation, while the average grade of the copper concentrates was 21.68%. Another 17.34% Cu was further recovered from the flotation tailing by magnetic separation at 0.8 T. The cumulative recovery of copper reached 91.42%. The modifier LA played a positive role in facilitating the sulfidation of copper oxide with Na2S, and the combined collector COC was better than other collectors for the copper flotation. This technology has been successfully applied to industrial production, and the results are consistent with the laboratory data.

  18. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C.

  19. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, E; Weinacker, D F; Zepeda, A B; Figueroa, C A; Chavez-Crooker, P; Farias, J G

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  20. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  1. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251

  2. Characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids of Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit (s) in Xiangyun, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; LIU Jiajun; LI Chaoyang

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of results of the studies of primary fluid inclusions, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data, the authors concluded that the early-stage ore-forming fluid from the Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit is a kind of sulfate type hot brine characterized by medium temperature and salinity, genetically related to the late-stage ore-forming fluid derived from an acidic and more reductive environment. However, the late-stage ore-forming fluid is a sort of low temperature and low salinity chloride-type hot brine which originated from a lower pressure, acidic and more oxidative environment. In general, the ore fluids were derived from the late-stage, or largely from the early-stage groundwater-derived meteoric water, which has a 12‰-17‰ heavier oxygen isotopic composition than the original rain water (δ 18 O= -15.3‰ ), and were formed during gold mineralization as a product of oxygen isotope exchange during the reaction between ore-forming fluid and wall rocks under a lower water/rock ratio condition.

  3. Technology of Polish copper ore beneficiation – perspectives from the past experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieniewski Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main types of existing copper deposits in the world and the most common enrichment technologies. The characteristic elements of the current flowsheet of the Polish ore beneficiation were discussed together with the reasons for using them. The paper presents a perspective flowsheet based on more than 50-years of experience in beneficiation of Polish copper ore. The main elements of proposed technology are: leaving in justified cases the division of ore into fractions of increased sandstone and carbonate ores content, flotation in the milling circuit as part of the effective preparation of the ore to rougher flotation, intensive rougher flotation, classic cleaning system, processing of the middlings with grinding system in new type mills, classification and flotation with outlet of final tailings.

  4. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  5. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  6. Acid leaching of oxide-sulphide copper ore prior the flotation: A way for an increased metal recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokić Miroslav D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper mine "Cerovo"- East Serbia as well as the other ore bodies in its vicinity contain a significant amount of oxide copper minerals in their uper layers (>40%. Processing of such mixed ores by the existing concentration technologies leads to a substantial copper losses (<60%. Reduction of "oxide copper", by acid leaching prior the flotation concentration, can increase the overall copper efficiency up to more than 70% in the single-stage leaching, achieving an efficiency in the flotation concentration stage higher than 75%. Based on the performed experimental results the flow sheet for processing of the mixed oxide-sulphide copper ore is proposed.

  7. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  8. Idea of Identification of Copper Ore with the Use of Process Analyser Technology Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdziak, Leszek; Kaszuba, Damian; Kawalec, Witold; Król, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The Polish resources of the copper ore exploited by the KGHM S.A. underground mines are considered as one of the most complex in the world and - consequently - the most difficult to be processed. The ore consists of three lithology forms: dolomites, shales and sandstones but in different proportions which has a significant impact on the effectiveness of the grinding and flotation processes. The lithological composition of the ore is generally recognised in-situ but after being mined it is blended on its long way from various mining fields to the processing plant by the complex transportation system consisting of belt conveyors with numerous switching points, ore bunkers and shafts. Identification of the lithological composition of the ore being supplied to the processing plant should improve the adjustments of the ore processing machinery equipment aiming to decrease the specific processing (mainly grinding) energy consumption as well as increase the metal recovery. The novel idea of Process Analyser Technology (PAT) sensors - information carrying pellets, dropped into the transported or processed bulk material which can be read directly when needed - is investigated for various applications within the DISIRE project (a part of the SPIRE initiative, acting under the Horizon2020 framework program) and here is adopted for implementing the annotation the transported copper ore for the needs of ore processing plants control. The identification of the lithological composition of ore blended on its way to the processing plant can be achieved by an information system consisting of pellets that keep the information about the original location of the portions of conveyed ore, the digital, geological database keeping the data of in-situ lithology and the simulation models of the transportation system, necessary to evaluate the composition of the blended ore. The assumptions of the proposed solution and the plan of necessary in-situ tests (with the special respect to harsh

  9. Improvement of copper-molybdenum ore beneficiation using a combined flotation and biohydrometallurgy method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina Pestryak; Valery Morozov; Jamsranjav Baatarhuu

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the results of analysis of material composition and experimental investigations of acid and biohydrometallurgical leaching of middlings on grain size,pH level,leaching process duration,temperature and slurry density.The rational parameters of flotation and acid-bacterial leaching of middlings providing an efficient release of valuable components from mineral complexes and recovery to flotation concentrate and leaching solution have been determined.A combined flowsheet and a beneficiation process for bulk flotation middlings of copper-molybdenum ore have been suggested,which include middlings grinding,sulfide minerals flotation,bacterial leaching of sulfide flotation tailings,liquid-phase extraction of dissolved copper and electrolysis of re-extraction eluates.The suggested combined method of cleaning of middlings of copper-molybdenum ores beneficiation provides the total copper recovery increase by 0.8% with a reduction of the cost price of saleable material by 0.5%.

  10. Utilization of Polyethylene Waste and Polypropylene Wastes for Formation of Fine Copper Ore Concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Więckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    The possibilities for utilization of polyethylene waste and polypropylene waste as a binding material for formation of fine grain of copper ore concentrate in Hake Rheomix were examined. The optimum parameters of the formation processes were established. Strength, thermal and microscopic properties the products obtained were determined.

  11. China has proven 2974 iron ore reserve and 1248 copper reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently national mineral resource evaluation has achieved preliminary progress. At present a total of 2974 iron ore reserves have been proven, including 121 large-scale reserves; as well as 1248 copper reserves, including 37 large-scale reserves. Preliminary findings of the evaluation have indicated that retained iron re-

  12. The flotation of Roşia Poieni copper ore in column machine, with non-polar oils addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocani V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important natural resource of copper in Romania is the ore deposit of Roşia Poieni. At present, the utilization of Roşia Poieni poorphyry copper ore is possible by extraction in quarry of the mass ore and mineral processing into a technological flux with modest results for the value of metal recovery in concentrate 70-72 % and an average contents of 16,5 % Cu. Our researches were directed to studies regarding test and utilisation of special procedure of flotation – addition of the non-polar oil – applied to advanced grinding ore with column type machines.

  13. A predictive model for the transport of copper by HCl-bearing water vapour in ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems: Implications for copper porphyry ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdisov, Art. A.; Bychkov, A. Yu.; Williams-Jones, A. E.; van Hinsberg, V. J.

    2014-03-01

    divalent copper dichloride (CuCl2). The model developed in this study was used to evaluate the solubility of chalcopyrite in HCl-bearing, low density aqueous fluids for temperatures ranging between 300 and 800 °C. This evaluation showed that, even for a relatively modest proportion of HCl (0.5 vol%), the concentration of copper in low-density fluids in equilibrium with this mineral can reach thousands of ppm at temperatures between 550 and 700 °C and fO2 conditions similar to those of porphyry copper ore-forming systems.

  14. Silver-catalyzed bioleaching for raw low-grade copper sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianlong DENG; Yafei GUO; Mengxia LIAO; Dongchan LI

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the biooxidation and copper dissolution from raw low-grade refractory copper sulphide ores located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China using adapted Thiobacillus ferrooxidans bacteria. In order to accelerate the bioleach-ing rate, the adapted mixed bacteria and silver ion catalyst were tested in the leach columns at laboratory scale. The overall acid consumption was 4.3 kg sulphuric acid per kg of dissolved copper and was linearly related to the percent copper dissolution. The calculated copper dissolution rates obey the Shrinking Core Model. The relative activation energy of the whole biooxidative leaching stages was calculated to be 48.58 kJ/mol.

  15. World production and possible recovery of cobalt from the Kupferschiefer stratiform copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazik Paulina M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt is recognized as a strategic metal and also E-tech element, which is crucial for worlds development. An increasing demand for cobalt forces for searching of new resources that could be explored in European countries. There are many examples of cobalt recoveries, mostly from laterite and sulphide deposits. However, the accurate choice of the technology depends on many factors. The Kupferschiefer stratiform copper ore located in Poland is the biggest deposit of cobalt in Europe. Although KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. recovers many precious metals from this ore, cobalt is not recovered yet. This metal occurs as an accompanying element, mostly in the form of cobaltite (CaAsS, with the average content of 50–80 g/Mg. In this paper a possible recovery of cobalt from the Kupferschiefer ore, with the use of hydrometallurgical methods, was investigated.

  16. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  17. Dominance of Acidithiobacillus at ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-yu; CHEN Bo-wei; WEN Jian-kang

    2008-01-01

    The microbial community structure in the ore surface of Zijinshan commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap was investigated by 16S rRNA gene clone library.For both bacteria and Archaea,105 clones were sequenced.The dominant bacteria species present in the ore surface were Acidithiobacillus and Leptospirillum,accounting for 51.42% and 48.57%,respectively.However,for the Archaea,only one operational taxonomic unit (OUT) belonged to Ferroplasma acidiphilum.These results indicate that function of genus Acidithiobacillus in the commercial low-grade copper bioleaching heap may be underestimated.More detailed and quantitative information on microbial community structure over time are now under investigation.

  18. A statistical approach to the experimental design of the sulfuric acid leaching of gold-copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high grade of copper in the Igarapé Bahia (Brazil gold-copper ore prevents the direct application of the classic cyanidation process. Copper oxides and sulfides react with cyanides in solution, causing a high consumption of leach reagent and thereby raising processing costs and decreasing recovery of gold. Studies have showm that a feasible route for this ore would be a pretreatment for copper minerals removal prior to the cyanidation stage. The goal of this experimental work was to study the experimental conditions required for copper removal from Igarapé Bahia gold-copper ore by sulfuric acid leaching by applying a statistical approach to the experimental design. By using the Plackett Burman method, it was possible to select the variables that had the largest influence on the percentage of copper extracted at the sulfuric acid leaching stage. These were temperature of leach solution, stirring speed, concentration of sulfuric acid in the leach solution and particle size of the ore. The influence of the individual effects of these variables and their interactions on the experimental response were analyzed by applying the replicated full factorial design method. Finally, the selected variables were optimized by the ascending path statistical method, which determined the best experimental conditions for leaching to achieve the highest percentage of copper extracted. Using the optimized conditions, the best leaching results showed a copper extraction of 75.5%.

  19. [Leaching of copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit at low temperatures by an association of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, T F; Pivovarova, T A; Krylova, L N; Melamud, V S; Adamov, E V; Karavaĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    Pure cultures of indigenous microorganisms Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain TFUd, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans strain LUd, and Sulfobacillus thermotolerans strain SUd have been isolated from the oxidation zone of sulfide copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit. Regimes of bacterial-chemical leaching of ore have been studied over a temperature range from -10 to +20 degrees C. Effects of pH, temperature, and the presence of microorganisms on the extraction of copper have been shown. Bacterial leaching has been detected only at positive values of temperature, and has been much more active at +20 than at +4 degrees C. The process of leaching was more active when the ore contained more hydrophilic and oxidized minerals. The possibility of copper ore leaching of the Udokanskoe deposit using sulfuric acid with pH 0.4 at negative values of temperature and applying acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms at positive values of temperature and low pH values was shown.

  20. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  1. Ore grade decrease as life cycle impact indicator for metal scarcity: the case of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marisa D M; Goedkoop, Mark J; Storm, Per; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-12-04

    In the life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, the increasing scarcity of metal resources is currently addressed in a preliminary way. Here, we propose a new method on the basis of global ore grade information to assess the importance of the extraction of metal resources in the life cycle of products. It is shown how characterization factors, reflecting the decrease in ore grade due to an increase in metal extraction, can be derived from cumulative ore grade-tonnage relationships. CFs were derived for three different types of copper deposits (porphyry, sediment-hosted, and volcanogenic massive sulfide). We tested the influence of the CF model (marginal vs average), mathematical distribution (loglogistic vs loglinear), and reserve estimate (ultimate reserve vs reserve base). For the marginal CFs, the statistical distribution choice and the estimate of the copper reserves introduce a difference of a factor of 1.0-5.0 and a factor of 1.2-1.7, respectively. For the average CFs, the differences are larger for these two choices, i.e. respectively a factor of 5.7-43 and a factor of 2.1-3.8. Comparing the marginal CFs with the average CFs, the differences are higher (a factor 1.7-94). This paper demonstrates that cumulative grade-tonnage relationships for metal extraction can be used in LCA to assess the relative importance of metal extractions.

  2. Remote-sensing ore prediction in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal deposit, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Zhao, B.; Wu, J. J.; Liao, Y. Z.; Zhang, T.

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the band-ratioing operation, principal component analysis (PCA), and multifractal model, the OLI image was employed to extract iron - stained and hydroxyl alteration in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal mine. Findings showed that the extraction results successfully bypassed the interferences caused by the quite thick vegetational and sedimentary covers, and can accurately locate the Linghou diggings, as well as several suspected ore spots. This study may have contributed a useful case study for in-depth geological remote-sensing analysis.

  3. Application of Mathematical Modeling on Copper Recovery Optimization of Oxide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinian, Fatemeh Sadat; Bahadori, Moein; Hashemzadeh, Mohsen; Rezai, Bahram; Soltani-Mohammadi, Saeed

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a mathematical modeling method was used to predict the optimum conditions of column leaching of copper oxide ore. Important parameters such as column height (m), particle sizes (m), acid rate (kg/ton) and leaching time (day) were studied and their impacts on copper recovery were investigated. Experiments were performed on samples with particle size distributions of -25.4 mm and -50.8 mm in six columns with the heights of 2 m, 4 m and 6 m. The results showed that the copper recovery has an inverse relation with column height and particle sizes, and direct relation with leaching time and acid rate. According to the results, the mathematical models based on the macro model predict the copper recovery based on operation conditions. The obtained values of determination coefficient (0.97), root mean square error (2.86) and relative error (0.089) testing datasets, showed the capability of the model in predicting the copper recovery.

  4. Theoretical calculation of equilibrium copper (I) isotope fractionations in ore-forming fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, J.; Lee, I.; Lee, S.

    2006-05-01

    Equilibrium isotope fractionation of Cu (I) complexes in hydrothermal ore-forming fluid is calculated. Ab-initio quantum calculation of molecular structures and vibrational frequencies is conducted by Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock Self Consistent Field (HF-SCF) method. Cu isotope (65Cu, 63Cu) exchange is expressed as reduced partition function ratios, 103·ln(β65-63), for liquid phase complexes (copper chlorides, copper hydrosulfides), and vapor phase complexes (hydrated copper chloride). Isodensity Polarizable Continuum Model (IPCM) is applied to the liquid complexes, whereas the vapor complexes are calculated in vacuo. Large fractionation (more than 2‰ at 25°C) is predicted between coexisting phases without changing oxidation state. CuCl(H2O)2 (vapor phase) is enriched in 65Cu better than any other studied complexes, whereas [CuCl3]2- (liquid phase) is mostly depleted. Heavy copper isotope is favor to partition into vapor phase complexes than coexisting liquid phase complexes. In the sea-floor hydrothermal system, after separation of phases into vapor and brine, vapor phase (CuCl(H2O)2) and chlorine-rich brine ([CuCl3]2-) will show +0.418‰ and -0.688‰ deviation from [CuCl2]1- at 150°C, respectively. However, most of the dominant copper-bearing species in hydrothermal condition, [CuCl2]1- and [Cu(HS)2]1-, fractionate at almost the same degree. Possible ranges of copper isotope ratio, δ65Cu, can be constrained from the calculated equilibrium isotope fractionation. Changes of oxidation state in low-temperature (e.g. supergene formation) have been thought to trigger most copper isotope fractionations, so far. However, measurable Cu isotope fractionation (1.106‰ at 150°C and 0.615‰ at 300°C) in hydrothermal ore-forming fluid is predicted within +1 valence state by theoretical study. Molecular structures and vibrational frequencies are compared with measured data. However, there is no experimental or theoretical work of some molecules

  5. Pretreatment of copper-bearing refractory gold ores by bio-heap leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The refractory gold ores associated with rich copper and trapped in pyrite and quartz were studied. With conventional technique (all-sliming cyanidation), the gold recovery rate is only 51.78%. To eliminate the negative effects of copper and pyrite on cyanidation and increase the gold recovery rate, the investigation on bio-heap leaching pretreatment was made, by which Cu would be dissolved and gold would be liberated from pyrite. The experiment adopted mixed bacteria, mainly Thiobacillus ferrooxidan (named T. f1), as the bacterial catalyst for bio-preconditioning and was carried out in a PVC column with a diameter of 20 cm and a height of 1.3 m loaded with gold ores. The temperature was controlled between 28 and 30℃, the pH value was kept between 2.0-2.5,and the flux of sprinkling bacterial liquid was maintained 0.80 L/h. After 45-day's bio-oxidization, among the samples sizing from 0to 5 mm, the oxidation rates of Cu, Fe and S were respectively 44.62%, 28.16% and 25.46%, and the gold recovery rate by cyaniding increased to 80.35%. The bio-heap leaching pretreatment can therefore effectively dissolve Cu and liberate gold from pyrite and lead to the increase of gold extraction.

  6. Mathematical models of hydrocyclone performance in various copper ores preparation circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedoba Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper ores located in the Lubin-Glogow Copper Basin contain three main lithological fractions: sandstone, carbonate and shale. This fact is the basic problem of organization and conducting ore preparation to flotation. The existing circuit of feed preparation contains (in ZG Rudna five classification nodes of hydrocyclones which fit for various purposes. The elaboration of concept of monitoring work of these nodes should be based on appropriate mathematical models of process. It was decided that either regressive or non-dimensional models that is classification according to Svarovsky, and particularly Plitt’s, will be suitable, in the aspects of d50 and partition sharpness. Errors resulting from determination of the features being part of the equations were also important. In this paper the errors were divided into technical and technological. The issue of experiments organization (mineralogical investigation connected with each classification node was also addressed. It is obvious that each classification node must obtain its characteristics because of various comminution products directed to classification.

  7. Effect of desliming on the flotation of a complax copper ore from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex copper oxide ore sample was taken from Deerni copper deposit, Qinghai Province of China. Batch flotation tests had been conducted to upgrade the copper concentrate by conventional amyl xanthate reagents under 73% -74 μm of the particle size; however, the unsatisfied results (Cu grade of 18.21% and recovery of 59.25% were obtained. Also there are a large amount of slimes trapped in the concentrate and high-dosages consumption of reagents, for example, more than 2.5 kg/t sodium sulfide and 1.5 kg/t sodium silicate at only one-staged roughing. Based on the analysis of the sample, most of gangues are clay, feldspar and mica, which may easy to over-grind and deteriorate the flotation process either on reagents consumption or slurry fluidity or viscosity. A hydro-cyclone had been introduced to pre-concentrate the oxide ore by scrubbing the slime before flotation, which can result obviously in reducing the dosages of sodium sulfide from 2.5 Kg/t to 1 Kg/t, and raising the grade of Cu in the concentrate from 18.21% to 26.65% at the expense of about 1% recovery of Cu. In this paper, the effects on the recovery of Cu by the different dosages of flotation reagents with or without de-sliming were studied, with the objective of determining the different effects on the functions of flotation reagents by slime during flotation.

  8. Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Chongjiang copper deposit in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Guangming Li; Zhiming Yang; Longsheng Yi

    2007-01-01

    Petrography, microthermometry, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) studies were performed on the fluid inclusions in the ore-bearing quartz veins and quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry of the Chongjiang porphyry copper deposit. The analyses of the fluid inclusions indicate that the ore-forming fluids were exsolved from magma. They are near-saturated, supercritical, rich in volatile constituents, and have the capture temperature of 362-389°C and salinities of 17.7wt%-18.9wt% NaCl eq. With the decreasing of temperature and pressure, the supercritical fluids were separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. During quartz-sericitization, the high salinity fluid boiled and separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. The high salinity inclusions that formed in the boiling process had daughter mineral melting temperatures higher than the homogenization temperatures of the vapor and liquid phases. The late fluids that are responsible for argillization are of lower temperature and salinity.

  9. A New Heterotrophic Strain for Bioleaching of Low Grade Complex Copper Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijian Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new heterotrophic strain, named Providencia sp. JAT-1, was isolated and used in bioleaching of low-grade complex copper ore. The strain uses sodium citrate as a carbon source and urea as a nitrogen source to produce ammonia. The optimal growth condition of the strain is 30 C, initial pH 8, sodium citrate 10 g/L and urea 20 g/L, under which the cell density and ammonia concentration in the medium reached a maximum of 4.83 × 108 cells/mL and 14 g/L, respectively. Ammonia produced by the strain is used as the main lixiviant in bioleaching. Bioleaching results revealed that higher strain growth led to a higher copper recovery, while higher pulp density will cause a greater inhibitory effect on strain growth and ammonia production. The copper extraction reached the highest value of 54.5% at the pulp density of 1%. Malachite, chrysocolla and chalcocite are easy to leach out in this bioleaching system while chalcopyrite is difficult. Results of comparative leaching experiments show that bioleaching using JAT-1 is superior to ammonia leaching at the same condition. The metabolites produced by the strain other than ammonia are also involved in bioleaching.

  10. A Methodology to Estimate Ores Work Index Values, Using Miduk Copper Mine Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noaparast

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is always attempted to reduce the costs of comminution in mineral processing plants. One of thedifficulties in size reduction section is not to be designed properly. The key factor to design size reductionunits such as crushers and grinding mills, is ore’s work index. The work index, wi, presents the oregrindability, and is used in Bond formula to calculate the required energy. Bond has defined a specificrelationship between some parameters which is applied to calculate wi, which are control screen, fineparticles produced, feed and product d80.In this research work, a high grade copper sample from Miduk copper concentrator was prepared, and itswork index values were experimentally estimated, using different control screens, 600, 425, 212, 150, 106and 75 microns. The obtained results from the tests showed two different behaviors in fine production.According to these two trends the required models were then defined to present the fine mass calculationusing control screen. In next step, an equation was presented in order to calculate Miduk copper ore workindex for any size. In addition to verify the model creditability, a test using 300 microns control screenwas performed and its result was compared with calculated ones using defined model, which showed agood fit. Finally the experimental and calculated values were compared and their relative error was equalto 4.11% which is an indication of good fit for the results.

  11. Influence of a High-Pressure Comminution Technology on Concentrate Yields in Copper Ore Flotation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saramak D.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the issues of flotation process effectiveness in relationship to the operating conditions of a high-pressure comminution process course. Experimental programme covering a flotation laboratory batch tests was a verification technique of a high-pressure crushing operations course. The most favorable values of flotation concentrate weight recoveries were obtained for the pressing force 6 kN and 4% of the feed moisture. It was also determined the model of the concentrate weight recovery as a function of pressing force in the press and feed moisture content. This model was the basis for the optimization of effects of copper ore flotation processes preceded in high-pressure crushing operation in roller presses.

  12. Seismic hazard related to rate of face advance in Lubin copper ore mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gogolewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard was depicted by means of seismic activity. The rate of face advance was defined as the output-energy ratio (J/kg and as the distance in meters, which the face overcomes in a given time (for example six months. Seismic activity was analyzed in relation to such the rates of face advance. The analyses were performed for two mining districts (G-7 and G-8 of Lubin copper ore mine. The period of 2008-2009 years was taken into account. In both mining districts the outputenergy ratio did not show any strict connection between the rate of face advance and seismic activity. Whilst seismic hazard increased with increasing rate of face advance defined as the distance between two sequential positions of face in most panels of the two mining districts.

  13. Intermetallic compounds, copper and palladium alloys in Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard pluton, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudashevsky, N. S.; Rudashevsky, V. N.; Nielsen, T. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Copper-palladium intermetallic compounds and alloys (2314 grains) from the Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard layered gabbroic pluton have been studied. Skaergaardite PdCu, nielsenite PdCu3, (Cu,Pd)β, (Cu,Pd)α, (Pd,Cu,Au,Pt) alloys, and native palladium have been identified as a result of 1680 microprobe analyses. The average compositions and various chemical varieties of these minerals are characterized, as well as vertical and lateral zoning in distribution of noble metals. The primary Pd-Cu alloys were formed within a wide temperature interval broadly synchronously with cooling and crystallization of host gabbro and in close association with separation of Fe-Cu sulfide liquid. In the course of crystallization of residual gabbroic melt enriched in iron, noble and heavy metals and saturated with the supercritical aqueous fluid, PGE and Au are selectively concentrated in the Fe-Cu sulfide phase as Pd-Cu and Cu-Au alloys.

  14. Rapid Analysis of Copper Ore in Pre-Smelter Head Flow Slurry by Portable X-ray Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Brandon J; Lawrence, Neil J; Abourahma, Jehad N; Walker, Edward B

    2016-05-01

    Copper laden ore is often concentrated using flotation. Before the head flow slurry can be smelted, it is important to know the concentration of copper and contaminants. The concentration of copper and other elements fluctuate significantly in the head flow, often requiring modification of the concentrations in the slurry prior to smelting. A rapid, real-time analytical method is needed to support on-site optimization of the smelter feedstock. A portable, handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was utilized to determine the copper concentration in a head flow suspension at the slurry origin. The method requires only seconds and is reliable for copper concentrations of 2.0-25%, typically encountered in such slurries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Geochemistry and S, Pb isotope of the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan, China: Implication for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Cao, Ye; Han, Si-Yu; Gao, Bing-yu; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yue-Dong

    2012-07-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, situated in the middle section of Jinshajiang tectonic belt between Zhongza-Zhongdian block and Changdu-Simao block, is a representative and giant copper deposit that has been discovered in Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region in recent years. There are coupled relationships between Yangla granodiorite and copper mineralization in the Yangla copper deposit. Five molybdenite samples yielded a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 233.3 ± 3 Ma, the metallogenesis is therefore slightly younger than the crystallization age of the granodiorite. S, Pb isotopic compositions of the Yangla copper deposit indicate that the ore-forming materials were derived from the mixture of upper crust and mantle, also with the magmatic contributions. In the late Early Permian, the Jinshajiang Oceanic plate was subducted to the west, resulting in the formation of a series of gently dipping thrust faults in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, meanwhile, accompanied magmatic activities. In the early Late Triassic, which was a time of transition from collision-related compression to extension in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, the thrust faults were tensional; it would have been a favorable environment for forming ore fluids. The ascending magma provided a channel for the ore-forming fluid from the mantle wedge. After the magma arrived at the base of the early-stage Yangla granodiorite, the platy granodiorite at the base of the body would have shielded the late-stage magma from the fluid. The magma would have cooled slowly, and some of the ore-forming fluid in the magma would have entered the gently dipping thrust faults near the Yangla granodiorite, resulting in mineralization.

  16. Determination of gold in copper-bearing sulphide ores and metallurgical flotation products by atomic-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, B; Murray-Smith, R

    1974-12-01

    A method is described which is specific for the determination of gold in sulphide copper ores and concentrates. Direct decomposition with aqua regia was found to be incomplete. A carefully controlled roasting stage followed by treatment with hydrochloric acid and then aqua regia was effective for dissolving all the gold. The gold is extracted into 4-methylpentan-2-one (methyli-sobutylketone) then aspirated into a very lean air-acetylene flame and the gold determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry. No interferences were observed from large concentrations of copper, iron or nickel.

  17. Research of leaching of disseminated copper-nickel ores in their interaction with mine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlov A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of mine waste creates serious problems for economy and ecology in mining regions. Keeping of dumps and tailings storages requires huge capital costs and material inputs. Removal of overburden volumes cause ecological disequilibrium, ingress of chemical agents and heavy metals in ground and surface water have an adverse influence on eco-systems and human health. These hazards are particularly high under extreme climatic conditions, when mines create vast desert lands around themselves. Foreign researchers use the terms "acid mine drainage" (AМD and "acid rock drainage" (ARD when speaking on mine water oxidation and contamination of the environment with heavy metals. AMD is induced by underground mine drainage, natural sulfide-bearing rock exposures, etc. The processes occurring in the interaction the mine water with fine dust particles, as well as water filtering through the thick sulfide rocks have been studied. It has been shown that the reduction in potential environmental hazard of mine water of JSC "Kola MMC" is achieved through precipitation of heavy metals by iron hydroxide and magnesium hydrosilicate. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processing of disseminated copper-nickel ores has been made

  18. Scale up and simulation of Vertimill™ pilot test operated with copper ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertimill™ has been used in regrind circuits during the past years due to its greater efficiency when compared to the conventional tube ball mill. This paper presents the Vertimill™ pilot grinding tests with a sample of copper ore carried out in closed circuit with a high frequency screen. The sample was crushed 100% to <6 mm. All operating variables were measured under controlled conditions to produce a mass balance of the test. A laboratory batch ball mill was used to characterize the sample in order to determine the energy specific selection function and the breakage function. Previous studies have shown that the Vertimill™ produces larger values of the selection function and a constant scaling factor can be used to simulate the product particle size distribution of the Vertimill™ from the batch ball mill grinding tests. The results of the simulations showed that it is possible to estimate the product particle size distribution of the Vertimill™ pilot scale from breakage parameters determined from a lab-scale batch ball mill. These results confirm that the Vertimill™ and the conventional ball mill use similar mechanisms of impact and that the main difference between them is the intensity and frequency of the impacts.

  19. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  20. Up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-Young, Lee; Jyothi Rajesh, Kumar; Ho-Seok, Jeon; Joon-Soo, Kim, E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com, E-mail: rkumarphd@kigam.re.kr [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO{sub 3} as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 Degree-Sign C for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 Degree-Sign C for 360 min. (author)

  1. Isolation and characterization of lost copper and molybdenum particles in the flotation tailings of Kennecott copper porphyry ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserendavga, Tsend-Ayush

    The importance of flotation separation has long been, and continues to be, an important technology for the mining industry, especially to metallurgical engineers. However, the flotation process is quite complex and expensive, in addition to being influenced by many variables. Understanding the variables affecting flotation efficiency and how valuable minerals are lost to the tailings gives metallurgists an advantage in their attempts to increase efficiency by designing operations to target the areas of greatest potential value. A successful, accurate evaluation of lost minerals in the tailings and appropriate solutions to improve flotation efficiency can save millions of dollars in the effective utilization of our mineral resources. In this dissertation research, an attempt has been made to understand the reasons for the loss of valuable mineral particles in the tailings from Kennecott Utah Copper ores. Possibilities include liberation, particle aggregation (slime coating) and surface chemistry issues associated with the flotation separation. This research generally consisted of three main aspects. The first part involved laboratory flotation experiments and factors, which affect the flotation efficiency. Results of flotation testing are reported that several factors such as mineral exposure/liberation and slime coating and surface oxidation strongly affect the flotation efficiency. The second part of this dissertation research was to develop a rapid scan dual energy (DE) methodology using 2D radiography to identify, isolate, and prepare lost sulfide mineral particles with the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, statistically reliable accuracy and confident identification. The third part of this dissertation research was concerned with detailed characterization of lost particles including such factors as liberation, slime coating, and surface chemistry characteristics using advanced analytical techniques and instruments. Based on the

  2. Simulation of a high-pressure water jet structure as an innovative tool for pulverizing copper ore in KGHM Polska Miedź S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Józef Borkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective comminution of copper ore for further processing during flotation is still a challenge, both as a technological problem as well as for the high energy costs of such processing.A high-pressure water jet is one alternative method of preparing copper ore for final flotation, causing distinct enlargement of the surface of micronized particles, which could be profitable for copper production.As a consequence of such innovative processing, particles of copper ore become micronized, ensuring grain fractions directly useful for flotation at the exit of the pulverizing apparatus (the hydro-jetting mill.The paper presents some results of simulation as well as describing an analysis of the phenomena occurring inside the high-pressure water and abrasive-water jets of specific structures, elaborated in the aspect of developing hybrid jets of maximum erosive efficiency, potentially useful for effective pulverization.

  3. The shift of microbial communities and their roles in sulfur and iron cycling in a copper ore bioleaching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jiaojiao; Deng, Jie; Xiao, Yunhua; He, Zhili; Zhang, Xian; Van Nostrand, J D; Liang, Yili; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-10-04

    Bioleaching has been employed commercially to recover metals from low grade ores, but the production efficiency remains to be improved due to limited understanding of the system. This study examined the shift of microbial communities and S&Fe cycling in three subsystems within a copper ore bioleaching system: leaching heap (LH), leaching solution (LS) and sediment under LS. Results showed that both LH and LS had higher relative abundance of S and Fe oxidizing bacteria, while S and Fe reducing bacteria were more abundant in the Sediment. GeoChip analysis showed a stronger functional potential for S(0) oxidation in LH microbial communities. These findings were consistent with measured oxidation activities to S(0) and Fe(2+), which were highest by microbial communities from LH, lower by those from LS and lowest form Sediment. Moreover, phylogenetic molecular ecological network analysis indicated that these differences might be related to interactions among microbial taxa. Last but not the least, a conceptual model was proposed, linking the S&Fe cycling with responsible microbial populations in the bioleaching systems. Collectively, this study revealed the microbial community and functional structures in all three subsystems of the copper ore, and advanced a holistic understanding of the whole bioleaching system.

  4. High-performance reagent modes for flotation recovery of platiniferous copper and nickel sulfides from hard-to-beneficiate ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T. N.; Chanturiya, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of the recent research performed in IPKON Russian Academy of Sciences that deals with development and substantiation of new selective reagents for effective flotation recovery of non-ferrous and noble metals from refractory ores. The choice and development of new selective reagents PTTC, OPDTC, modified butylxanthate (BXm) and modified diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DEDTCm) to float platiniferous copper and nickel sulfide minerals from hard-to-beneficiate ores is substantiated. The mechanism of reagents adsorption and regulation of minerals floatability is discussed. The study of reagent modes indicates that by combining PTTC with the modified xanthate results in 6 - 7 % increase in the recovery of copper, nickel and PGM in the flotation of the low-sulfide platiniferous Cu-Ni ore from the Fedorovo-Panskoye deposit. The substitution of OPDTC for BX makes it possible to increase recovery of Pt by 13 %, Pd by 9 % and 2 - 4 times the noble metal content in the flotation concentrate.

  5. The 982 Ma Re-Os age of copper-nickel sulfide ores in the Baotan area, Guangxi and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景文; 杜安道

    2002-01-01

    Re-Os dating on copper-nickel sulfide ores from the Baotan area, Guangxi, yielded an ore-forming age of 982±21 Ma(2σ), which demonstrates that copper-nickel sulfide deposits and their related mafic-ultramafic rocks occurred in the same period of time with the ophiolites in northeastern Jiangxi. Both of them are the products of collision-convergence between the Cathaysian plate and Yangtze plate and the subsequent extensional environment. Calculation of the γOs of the 982 Ma copper-nickel sulfide ores and its correlation with Re/Os indicate that injection-type massive ores display lower γOs values(-15.6 to -8.2) and lower Re/Os ratios(0.32 to 0.43), while basal liquation-type ores have γOs= -27.9 to -7.3 and Re/Os=5.36 to 11.24. This suggests that these copper-nickel sulfide ores and their related mafic-ultramafic rocks were derived from a Re-depleted mantle source and that contamination with some crustal material occurred during their intrusion.

  6. Site Assessment for Astroparticle Detector Location in Evaporites of the Polkowice-Sieroszowice Copper Ore Mine, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Slizowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to evaluate the possibilities of excavating a chamber for the Glacier detector, a cylinder with a 74 m diameter and 38 m height filled with 100 kT of liquid argon, in the Polkowice-Sieroszowice copper ore mine in the Legnica-Glogow Copper Area (LGOM. Two potential locations were analyzed in a rock salt layer more than 100 m thick at the depth of 1000 m and in the anhydrite layer of about 100 m thick at the depth of 650 m, both lying above the copper ore deposit. The numerical analyses, based on geological, geophysical, and geomechanical research, were carried out to determine the behavior of the system of the chamber and surrounding rock mass. Two creep laws have been adopted for rock salt in the numerical models, Norton and Lubby2. Their coefficients have been adjusted for in situ measurements of the mine galleries convergence starting from the results of laboratory tests. Displacement and stresses of the rock salt in the chamber vicinity are much greater for the Lubby2 law. The displacements indicated at the chamber contour are the reason that the alternative location in the anhydrite layer was more advantageous.

  7. Assessment of the flotability of chalcopyrite, molybdenite and pyrite using biosolids and their main components as collectors for greening the froth flotation of copper sulphide ores.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobarzo, Francisco; Herrera Urbina, Ronaldo; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Sáez Navarrete, César; Godoy Faúndez, Alex; Reyes Bozo, Lorenzo; Vásquez Bestagno, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biosolids and representative compounds of their main components ? humic acids, sugars, and proteins ? have been tested as possible environment-friendly collectors and frothers for the flotation of copper sulphide ores. The floatability of chalcopyrite and molybdenite ? both valuable sulphide minerals present in these ores ? as well as non-valuable pyrite was assessed through Hallimond tube flotation tests. Humic acids exhibit similar collector ability for chalcopyrite and molybdenite as that ...

  8. Indicators for the feasibility of WEEE processing plants in brazil: a relationship between virgin mineral copper ore and the recycling of consumer electronic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Alves Cândido

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the economic analysis of the implementation of WEEE – Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive – processing plants in Brazil, through the study of potential copper extraction from this secondary source. A comparative approach was performed on its copper grade related to levels of its virgin ore mineral extracted from mines located in Brazil, in the United States and through a global average. The results demonstrate that the amount of copper mass originated from the recycling of disassembly of twenty electronic products ranges from 0.24% to 17.83% of its total mass, with an average of 3.63% of copper. In eighteen of these products, values greater than 0.4% were found, which surpass current levels of copper in ore mines in the USA. In fourteen products, these rates exceed the index of 1.5% copper in the ore, considered the minimum rate for the feasibility of opening new units of copper underground mining in Brazil. Thus, this paper shows the economic analysis that aims to guide on the viability of deploying WEEE processing plants, focusing on the expansion of recycling and reuse of copper by the processing industry.

  9. Copper Selection Experiment on a Copper Bearing Magnetite Ore%某含铜磁铁矿石选铜试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金军

    2016-01-01

    针对某低铜磁铁矿石开展了选铜试验。结果表明:在磨矿细度为-0.074 mm 占75.43%的情况下,以水玻璃+六偏磷酸钠为脉石矿物的抑制剂,MA 为铜矿物的捕收剂,MIBC 为起泡剂,采用1粗2精2扫闭路浮选流程处理矿石,可获得铜品位为19.51%、铜回收率为69.20%的铜精矿。%Copper selection experiment was conducted on a low copper content magnetite ore.The results show that:at the grinding fineness of 75.43% passing 0.074 mm,sodium silicate and sodium hexametaphosphate as gangue inhibitor,MA as copper collector,MIBC as frother,via one roughing-two cleaning -two scavenging closed circuit flotation process,copper concentrate with 19.51% copper and recovery of 69.20% was obtained.

  10. 某细粒浸染铜锌矿选矿工艺研究%The Mineral Processing Technology forone Fine-grained Disseminated Copper-zinc Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晋勇; 陆长龙; 肖骏

    2016-01-01

    The mineral processing technology investigation is conducted on one fine-grained disseminated copper-zinc ore in Yunnan. The sulphide minerals have a complex metasomatic embedded relationship in this copper-zinc ore. The mineral processing flow that copper differential flotation, regrinding of copper rough concentrate, activation flotation of zinc from copper tailings is adopted, which improved the single separation degree of fine-grained disseminated and embedded copper pyrites and sphalerite. Meanwhile, by using BP+ ethyl xanthogenate as the collecting agent of copper ore, Na2S+Na2SO3+ZnSO4 as the combined depressants of zinc ore, therefore the effective separation between fine-grained disseminated copper-zinc ore was achieved. Under the conditions that in the raw ore, copper content is 0.82%, zinc content is 2.21%, we can get the indexes that copper concentrate with Cu 20.92%, Zn 2.89%, the recovery rate of Cu is 87.41% in the copper concentrate, the Cu content is 1.24% in zinc concentrate, The Zn recovery rate is 89.15% in the zinc concentrate.%针对云南某细粒浸染铜锌矿开展了选矿工艺研究.该铜锌矿中的硫化矿物具有复杂的交代嵌生关系,本研究采用优先浮铜-铜粗精矿再磨-铜尾矿活化浮选锌的工艺流程,提高了细粒浸染交代嵌生的黄铜矿、闪锌矿的单体解离度.同时,使用BP+乙黄药做铜矿物的组合捕收剂, Na2S+Na2SO3+ZnSO4做锌矿物组合抑制剂,实现了细粒浸染铜锌矿的有效分离.在原矿含铜0.82%、锌2.21%的情况下,获得了铜精矿含Cu 20.92%、Zn 2.89%,铜精矿中Cu回收率87.41%,锌精矿含Cu 1.24%、Zn 43.34%,锌精矿中Zn回收率89.15%的指标.

  11. Physico-chemical properties studies of Co-Cu oxide ores and their impacts on the dissolution of cobalt and copper bearing minerals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Sc. (Chemistry) Cobalt is mainly associated with copper, both in the primary ores and in the oxidation zone. In Southern Africa cobalt metal is produced as a by-product of the extraction of copper, nickel and platinum group metals. The hydrometallurgical route is commonly used, since cobalt bearing materials are acid leached prior to the clarification and impurity removal process preceding the electrowinning of the value. In order to understand the dissolution behaviour of cobalt and cop...

  12. Extraction and determination of molybdenum with tributyl phosphate Application to analysis of copper-molybdenum ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzi, M; Zunino, H; Sepúlveda, L

    1969-12-01

    A differential spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of molybdenum by means of solvent extraction with tributylphosphate of the peroxymolybdate complex formed with H(2)O(2) in 3.5N H(2)SO(4). The extraction parameters are studied, and the behaviour of some other ions is reported. The method is used for ore analysis.

  13. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  14. PROSPECTING FOR COPPER (GOLD )-POLYMETAL ORES FROM THE LANCANGJIANG TECTONIC ZONE IN WESTERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Bin; DAI Ta-gen; XIE Li-hua

    2001-01-01

    @@ The Lancangjiang tectonic zone in Western Yunnan is an important magmatic,metamorphic and tectonic mobile zone of Southwestern China,whose geotectonic location is very unique.It is characterized by complex geological structures,perfectly developed strata,frequent magmatic activities,,various degrees of metamorphism,rich ore resources and lots of metal deposits,thus formed a centralized zone of mineralization and also constituted one of the important metallogenic belts of noble and nonferrous metal deposits.

  15. Multiple Sulfate Isotopic Evidence on the Formation of Oxide Copper Ore at Spence, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.; Palacios, C.

    2007-12-01

    In the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, one of the world's richest metallogenic provinces, porphyry copper deposits are characterized by the unique occurrence of atacamite in their oxidized zones. The origin and formation of the oxide zone of these copper deposits is, however, controversial. It was proposed that Cl-rich deep formation water pumping-up events along faults by earthquakes, after onset of the hyperaridity, were required (Cameron et al., 2007). Their model would imply that supplies of saline deep formation water from fractures to the surface should have left behind a homogeneous or fracture-controlled salt profile from surface down to the oxide zone. While no excluding the deep formation water model in other deposit, here we propose that, in our sampling region, the alternative saline source, which is critical for atacamite formation, could be locally evaporated groundwater, Cl-rich salts leached from arid surface by meteoric water, or brines from eastern salar basins at a time when the climate in northern Chile was changing from arid to hyperarid. At this climate transition, arid- requiring minerals such as atacamite in the oxide zone were formed and, more importantly, preserved upon evaporation beneath the surface alluvial deposits. Since salt accumulation at the surface remain active during hyperarid condition, our model would predict that water-soluble salt profile from surface to the oxide zone should have a characteristic pattern: salts with an atmospheric component on the surface gradually transitioning to salts of the oxide ore zone on the bottom and a mixing zone in between. To test these two alternative models, we focus on sulfate salts, one of the common water-soluble salts in arid environments. An added advantage is that sulfate accumulated on desert surface has a secondary atmospheric component that bears a unique triple oxygen isotope signature, easily distinguishable from sulfate formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals at the oxide

  16. The Application of Microbe in the Solution Mining of Copper Ore%微生物在铜矿溶浸开采中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙业志; 吴爱祥; 黎剑华

    2001-01-01

    微生物浸矿技术开采低品位、复杂和难选铜矿,近几十年来,在很多国家和地区得到了应用和发展。阐述了铜矿溶浸开采中所用细菌的种类和培养方法,细菌浸出的机理,生物浸出过程数学模型和影响浸出的因素。%Microbe solution mining technology for low grade,complicated and refractory copper ore has been applied and developed in many countries and regions in recent decades.The bacteria types and their culture,the mechanism of biological leaching,the mathematical model of leaching processing and the factors influencing the leaching involved in the solution mining of copper ore are described.

  17. Beneficiation Study on A Copper Oxide Ore from Indonesia%印尼某氧化铜矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊文良

    2011-01-01

    Based on mineralogy study on a copper oxide ore from Indonesia, research on process conditions of sul-phidizing flotation has been carried out The reseach results indicated that synchronous flotation of copper oxide and copper sulfide was a effective way to process this ore. A close circuit test showed that with a raw ore assaying copper grade of 1. 69% and silver grade of 64. 88 g/t, a copper concentrate assaying copper grade of 18. 64% .silver grade of 843.00 g/t with coppe and silver recovery of 77. 86% and 91. 86% respectively ,was obtained by using flow sheet of one roughing,one cleaning and three scavenging and sequential return of middlings.%在对印尼某氧化铜矿进行工艺矿物学特性分析的基础上,开展了硫化浮选工艺条件研究,结果表明,氧化铜、硫化铜矿物同步浮选是处理该矿石的有效途径,对铜品位为1.69%、含银64.88 g/t的原矿,采用1粗1精3扫、中矿顺序返回的闭路试验流程,可获得铜品位为18.64%、铜回收率77.98%、银品位843.00 g/t、银回收率91.86%的铜精矿.

  18. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel from ore samples by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) as complexing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Muhammed Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of dioxouranium(VI), iron(III), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), cobalt(III), palladium(II), and thorium(IV) by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) (H(2)SA(2)en) as a complexing reagent with total runtime ore samples indicating its presence within 103-1789 microg/g with RSD within 0.79-1.87%. Likewise copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were also simultaneously determined with RSD 0.4-1.6% (n = 6).

  19. Determination of sulphide concentrates of ore copper by XRPD and chemical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Roasting process of sulphide copper concentrates in fluo-solid reactor is an oxidation process, and presents the first stage of copper concentrate processing in Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor, RTB Bor. Therefore, the importance of accurate and up to date process control is an apparent precondition for the correct treatment in the following stages and also for of high grade cathode copper. As concentrate is fed into the roaster, it is heated by a stream of hot air to about 590°C. The process takes place between solid and gaseous phases without the appearance of a liquid phase. The heat generated by the exothermic oxidation reaction of sulphur from cooper and iron minerals (chalcopyrite and pyrite is sufficient to carry out the entire process autogenously at temperature from 620 to 670°C. The temperature of sulphur firing which defines the start of roasting depends on physical traits, particle size of sulfides and characteristic product of oxidation. The obtained products of the roasting process are: calcine, ready for smelting in the furnace and gas-rich sulphure dioxide (SO2, well suited for the production of sulfuric acid. The relationship between the quantitative mineral composition of the charge and of the calcine directly points out to the efficiency of the roasting process in fluo-solid reactor. The amount of bornite and magnetite, resulting from the sulfide oxidation is the most important parameter. Hence, quantitative determination of mineral composition is of great interest. In this work, the results of the determination of quantitative mineral composition of the copper sulphide concentrate (charge and products of their roasting (calcine and overflow in fluo-solid reactor in the RTB Bor are presented. The aim was to compare the results of the iron, copper, sulfur and oxygen contents determined by two independent techniques, the chemical (HA and X-ray powder diffraction analysis (XRPD that is based on the quantitative mineral

  20. Application of 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy as a tool for mining exploration of bornite (Cu5FeS4) copper ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainov, R. R.; Vagizov, F. G.; Golovanevskiy, V. A.; Ksenofontov, V. A.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Klekovkina, V. V.; Shumilova, T. G.; Pen'kov, I. N.

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear resonance methods, including Mössbauer spectroscopy,are considered as unique techniques suitable for remote on-line mineralogical analysis. The employment of these methods provides potentially significant commercial benefits for mining industry. As applied to copper sulfide ores, Mössbauer spectroscopy method is suitable for the analysis noted. Bornite (formally Cu5FeS4) is a significant part of copper ore and identification of its properties is important for economic exploitation of commercial copper ore deposits. A series of natural bornite samples was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Two aspects were considered: reexamination of 57Fe Mössbauer properties of natural bornite samples and their stability irrespective of origin and potential use of miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometers MIMOS II for in-situ bornite identification. The results obtained show a number of potential benefits of introducing the available portative Mössbauer equipment into the mining industry for express mineralogical analysis. In addition, results of some preliminary 63,65Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) studies of bornite are reported and their merits with Mössbauer techniques for bornite detection discussed.

  1. 循环利用氯化铵从氧化铜钴矿中回收铜钴%Recovery of Copper and Cobalt from Oxide Copper-cobalt Ore with Ammonium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明珠; 朱国才

    2012-01-01

    Based on the investigation of roasting oxide copper-cobalt ore with ammonium chloride, leaching, precipitating and recycling ammonium chloride, a new method of recovery of Co and Cu from oxide copper-cobalt ore was proposed to achieve the goal of reducing costs and emission. The results indicate that 90% copper and cobalt are recovered under the optimal condition. Ammonium chloride crystals obtained by cooling and crystallizing of the filtrate are reused for the process. Therefore, the technique achieved highly utilization of oxide copper-cobalt ore under low temperature and less emission.%通过对氯化铵焙烧转化氧化铜钴矿—浸出—沉淀铜钴—氯化铵回收过程的研究,实现氯化铵的循环利用,达到回收富集铜钴及减少排放的目的.试验研究表明:在最佳工艺技术条件下,铜、钴回收率均达90%左右:氯化铵可从饱和的沉淀母液中冷却结晶出来,循环用于氧化铜钴矿的处理.因此,可实现氧化铜钴矿的低温、少废、高效开发利用.

  2. Development and functioning of microorganisms in concentration cycles of sulfide copper-nickel and non-sulfide apatite-nepheline ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number and trophic diversity of bacteria in flotation samples of apatite-nepheline and sulfide copper-nickel ores at the concentration plants of JSC "Apatite" and Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The study of the size and diversity of the microbiota has been conducted by culture on selective nutrient media. The total number and biomass of bacteria have been considered by fluorescence microscopy using Cyclopore polycarbonate membrane filters. Bacteria have been identified by molecular genetic methods. The least amount of both saprotrophic and other trophic groups of bacteria has been observed in the samples of ore and recycled water as at the concentrating factory of Apatit JSC, and also at the plant "Pechenganikel". It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the nutrients with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Strains which occurrence is more than 60 % have been extracted from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. Two strains with occurrence of more than 60 % have been discovered at Apatit JSC and classified as Stenotrophomonas and Acinetobacter. The number of fungi in the cycle of apatite-nepheline ore enrichment at the factories is very low (1 to 24 CFU / 1 ml or 1 g of ore. Fungi of the genus Penicillium have been dominated, fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Chaetomium have also been detected. At the plant "Pechenganikel" species Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. glabrum have been extracted. It has been shown that the bacteria deteriorate the apatite flotation as a result of their interaction with active centers of calcium-containing minerals and intensive flocculation decreasing the floatation selectivity. Also some trend of copper and nickel recovery change has been

  3. Preliminary mineralogical data on epithermal ore veins associated with Rosia Poieni porphyry copper deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatan, E. L.; Popescu, Gh. C.

    2012-04-01

    Rosia Poieni is the largest porphyry copper (±Au±Mo) deposits associated with Neogene magmatic rocks from the South Apuseni Mountains, being located approximately 8 km northeast of the town of Abrud. During a recent examination of some epithermal mineralized veins, crosscutting the porphyry mineralization from the Roşia Poieni deposit, two species of tellurides and one tellurosulfide minerals were identified. The studied samples were collected from the + 1045 m level, SW side of the open pit and are represented by epithermal veins, crosscutting the porphyry copper mineralized body. The thickness of the veins is almost 4 cm. Following reflected-polarized light microscopy to identify the ore-mineral assemblages, the polished sections were studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scattered electron (BSE) detector to study fine-sized minerals. Quantitative compositional data were determined using a Cameca SX 50 electron microprobe (EMP). Based on optical microscopy, SEM and EMPA three mineral associations have been separated inside the epithermal vein, from the margins to the centre: 1. quartz+tennantite-tetrahedrite+goldfieldite+pyrite+sphalerite; 2. quartz+pyrite+tellurobismutite; 3. chalcopyrite+hessite+vivianite. Goldfieldite occurs in anhedral grains and it is associated with tennantite-tetrahedrite and quartz. The electron microprobe analysis gave a variable content in Te between 13.28-13.39 wt.%, 43.34 wt.% Cu, 0.1 wt. % Fe, 0.2 wt.% Zn, 14.68 wt.% As, 4.35 wt.% Sb and 24.84 wt.% S. The calculated formula for the goldfieldite is Cu11.8Te1.8(Sb,As)4S13.4. The EPM analyses on tetrahedrite-tennantite revealed a low content in Te (0.02-0.03 wt.%) and 42.23 wt.% Cu, 2.67 wt.% Fe, 7.34 wt.% Zn, 0.04 wt.% Sb, 19.28 wt.% As and 28.4 wt.% S. The calculated formula is Cu9.8(Fe,Zn)2.4(Sb,As,Te)3.8S13. The variable ratio of the Te content may reflect a variable content of Te in the hydrothermal fluids from which the tellurian tetrahedrite

  4. Research on Flotation of a Oxide Copper Silver Ore%某氧化铜银矿浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兵

    2012-01-01

    对云南某氧化铜银矿实验室小型试验研究表明,采用新型捕收剂LW61作为氧化铜捕收剂浮选,铜精矿中铜回收率为74.59%,铜品位15.21%,含银1 035.24 g/t,银回收率65.29%,该指标比较理想.%Small experiment study in a Laboratory was carried out on an oxide copper silver ore in Yunnan province. With new collector LW61 to float copper, copper concentrate of Cu 15. 21% with a recovery of 74. 59% and of Ag 1035. 24 g/t with a recovery of 65. 29% was obtained.

  5. 某铜铅锌矿石浮选试验研究%Floatation experimental research on a copper-lead-zinc ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晗; 张海鹏; 郑晔; 赵明福

    2011-01-01

    According to the ore characteristics, the combination of XY - 09 non-poisonous depressor and XYB -09 collecting agent is used in copper-lead bulk floatation. The restraint of blende is strengthened and the blende acti vation problem caused by secondary-originated copper is soloved basically. The research provides favorable conditions to ensure the efficient division of copper-lead mixed concentrate, zinc concentrate quality and recovery rate.%根据矿石性质,铜铅混合浮选采用XY - 09型抑制剂和XYB - 09型捕收剂,强化抑制闪锌矿,基本解决次生铜活化闪锌矿问题,为保证铜铅混合精矿有效分离、锌精矿质量及回收率创造了有利条件.

  6. Chemical and stable isotopic geochemical characteristics of ore-forming fluid of the Shizishan copper and gold ore-field, Tongling, China%铜陵狮子山铜金矿田成矿流体成分及稳定同位素地球化学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆三明; 徐晓春; 谢巧勤; 楼金伟; 储国正; 熊亚平

    2007-01-01

    Shizishan ore-field is a nonferrous and noble metal ore-field which is most rich in copper and gold. There are many types of fluid inclusions in minerals of the deposits. The homogeneous temperatures and the salinities of the fluid inclusions in main mineralization stages have wide ranges, while the different types of the fluid inclusions existed together and their homogeneous temperatures are almost identical in the same mineralization stage, which indicates that the ore-forming process has great relation with the fluid boiling. The gas and liquid chemical compositions and the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the fluid inclusions show that the ore-forming fluids of copper-gold deposits have the same characteristics and evolution tendency, which reflects that the ore-forming material mainly came from the magmatism. The stratigraphic component and the meteoric water may mix in oreforming fluids in the later mineralization stages. Furthermore, with the fall of the ore-forming temperature the ratios of water and rock decreased. The characteristics of chemical composition and carbon isotopic composition of fluid inclusions indicate that CH4 may play an important role for separating copper and gold in the ore-forming process.

  7. Two stage leaching process of copper-cobalt oxide ore in Central Africa%中非铜-钴氧化矿两段浸出过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑梅; 刘凯华; 李辉; 丛自范

    2015-01-01

    A two stage leaching process of the copper-cobalt oxide ore from Africa was investigated. The two stage leaching process was used to realize selective leaching of copper and cobalt in the ore. The first stage was the leaching of copper in ore using sulfuric acid, and the second stage was the leaching of cobalt using sulfuric acid and reductant. The optimum conditions for the first stage are as follows: the ratio of ore less than 75μm is 89%, sulfuric acid mass fraction of the ore is 13%, liquid-solid ratio is 4:1, leaching time is 60 min and temperature is 25℃. The optimum conditions for the second stage are follows: liquid-solid ratio is 4:1, temperature is 65℃, time is 150 min, initial acid concentration is 20 g/L and reductant dosage is 1.5 times of the theory amount. The results show that the leaching efficiencies of copper and cobalt in two stage leaching process reach 97.13% and 96.05%, respectively.%研究一种非洲铜−钴氧化矿两段浸出过程。采取两段浸出的目的是实现矿石中铜和钴的选择性浸出。第一段主要用硫酸浸出矿石中的铜,第二段用硫酸和还原剂浸出矿石中的钴。第一段浸出的最佳技术条件:矿石粒度小于75μm的比例占89%,硫酸加入量为铜−钴氧化矿质量的13%,液固比为4:1,浸出时间为60 min,温度为常温(25℃);第二段浸出的最佳技术条件:浸铜渣液固比为4:1,温度为65℃,时间为150 min,初始酸浓度为20 g/L,还原剂加入量为理论量的1.5倍。结果表明:两段浸出过程铜和钴的浸出率分别达到97.13%和96.05%。

  8. Experimental research on ore dressing of one complex copper and zinc polymetallic ore from Inner Mongolia%内蒙古某铜锌复杂多金属矿石选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先鹏; 刁玉东; 董丽梅

    2016-01-01

    A flotation experimental research is carried out according to the property of the ores from one complex copper and zinc polymetallic mine in Inner Mongolia.Through a preferential flotation flowsheet,that is to recover cop-per prior to zinc,a fairly good closed circuit test index is obtained:the copper grade in copper concentrate is 26.98%with the recovery rate of 83 .56%;the zinc grade in zinc concentrate is 50 .59%with the recovery rate of 76 .84%.%针对内蒙古某铜锌复杂多金属矿矿石性质,进行了浮选试验研究。通过采用优先浮选流程,即先选铜,再选锌,获得了较好的试验指标:铜精矿铜品位26.98%、铜回收率83.56%,锌精矿锌品位50.59%、锌回收率76.84%。

  9. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  10. Current methods and possibilities to determine the variability of Cu content in the copper ore on a conveyor belt in one of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurdziak Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the methodology of ore sampling on a belt conveyor in one of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. mines was presented together with the results of analysis of the variation of ore tonnage and quality. The ore was transferred from one mine to another one through the analysed transfer conveyor on the route from the mine Division of Mining to copper plants. The transported ore was sampled in person from Division of Concentrators on a regular basis for metal accounting purposes between both mines. The ore quality control became a significant problem since it is impossible to predict with satisfactory advance both Cu content in the feed as well as its lithology composition which is required to improve and optimise the enrichment efficiency.

  11. 赞比亚某铜钴硫化矿浮选工艺研究%A Flotation Process for a Copper-Cobalt Sulfide Ore from Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱景和; 陈新林; 马忠臣

    2014-01-01

    赞比亚某铜钴硫化矿含铜1.25%、钴0.088%。针对该矿石的工艺矿物学特征,进行了不同药剂种类及用量的条件试验,确定了铜钴混合浮选-铜钴分离的工艺流程。闭路试验获得了含铜31.52%、铜回收率为92.32%、含钴0.232%的铜精矿和含钴2.12%、钴回收率67.56%、含铜1.48%的钴精矿的较好指标。%A Copper-Cobalt sulfide ore in Zambia containing 1 .25% Cu , 0 .088% Co , based on the charac-teristic of process mineralogy of the ore , the reagent sieving and dosage tests were carried out , and finally the process combination flowsheet of Cu -Co bulk flotation , followed by Cu -Co separation flotation was determined . Good indexes were achieved by the closed -circuit test , and the concentrates of copper and co-balt was obtained , while copper concentrate containing 31 .52% Cu and 0 .232% Co with copper recovery of 92 .32% and cobalt concentrate containing 2 .12% Co and 1 .48% Cu with cobalt recovery of 67 .56% .

  12. Study on Sulfuric Acid Reduction Leaching on Copper-Cobalt Ore%某铜钴矿的硫酸还原浸出研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大学; 王云; 袁朝新; 郭持皓; 李云; 孙聪

    2013-01-01

    The sulfuric acid reduction leaching on copper-cobalt ore of Congo (DRC) was investigated.The results show that the leaching rate of copper and cobalt reaches 93.35 % and 90.13% respectively under the following conditions including ore particle size of sample of 90%-0.074 mm,terminal pH value of 1.5,dosage of SO2 of 1.5 times of theoretical amount,reaction temperature of 80 ℃,reaction time of 120min,and ratio of liquid to solid of 4 ∶ 1.Based on the above results,the column leaching test to simulate heap leaching is conducted.The multistage leaching process is adopted to leach copper firstly and then reduction leach cobalt by column leaching process.The leaching rate of copper and cobalt reaches 72% and 66 % respectively.%研究了刚果(金)某铜钴矿的硫酸还原浸出.结果表明,在矿样粒度为-0.074 mm占90%、终点pH为1.5、SO2用量为理论量的1.5倍(4 kg/t)、浸出温度80℃、浸出时间120 min、液固比4∶1的条件下,铜、钴浸出率分别达到了93.35%和90.13%.在此基础上进行了模拟堆浸的柱浸试验,柱浸采用先浸铜再还原浸钴的分步浸出方式,铜浸出率达72%,钴浸出率为66%.

  13. Use of high-resolution X-ray computed tomography and 3D image analysis to quantify mineral dissemination and pore space in oxide copper ore particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-hua; Wu, Ai-xiang; Narsilio, Guillermo A.; Miao, Xiu-xiu; Wu, Shu-yue

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dissemination and pore space distribution in ore particles are important features that influence heap leaching performance. To quantify the mineral dissemination and pore space distribution of an ore particle, a cylindrical copper oxide ore sample (ϕ4.6 mm × 5.6 mm) was scanned using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), a nondestructive imaging technology, at a spatial resolution of 4.85 μm. Combined with three-dimensional (3D) image analysis techniques, the main mineral phases and pore space were segmented and the volume fraction of each phase was calculated. In addition, the mass fraction of each mineral phase was estimated and the result was validated with that obtained using traditional techniques. Furthermore, the pore phase features, including the pore size distribution, pore surface area, pore fractal dimension, pore centerline, and the pore connectivity, were investigated quantitatively. The pore space analysis results indicate that the pore size distribution closely fits a log-normal distribution and that the pore space morphology is complicated, with a large surface area and low connectivity. This study demonstrates that the combination of HRXCT and 3D image analysis is an effective tool for acquiring 3D mineralogical and pore structural data.

  14. Study on the process mineralogy of Xiarihamu copper-nickel ore in Qinghai%青海夏日哈木铜镍矿石工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长征; 杨启安; 吴树宽; 谢海林; 徐修生; 于传兵; 王治安

    2016-01-01

    青海夏日哈木铜镍矿石属硫化镍矿石,含镍0.63%~0.80%,铜0.14%~0.20%,钴0.025%~0.028%,是主要回收对象.矿石矿物组成复杂,铜矿物以黄铜矿为主,少量的墨铜矿和微量的方黄铜矿及铜蓝;镍矿物以镍黄铁矿为主,有微量的紫硫镍矿、砷镍矿、辉砷镍矿及含钴的辉砷镍矿等;铁矿物主要为磁铁矿,微量赤铁矿及菱铁矿.铜、镍矿物嵌布特征复杂、嵌布粒度细微,普遍被脉石矿物包裹,同时铜、镍矿物自身相互紧密连生;矿石中含镁脉石矿物较多,具有质地柔软,容易泥化,自然可浮性好,吸附能力强的特点,将给铜、镍矿物的分选带来不利的影响.%Qinghai Xiarihamu deposit copper-nickel ore belongs to the nickel sulfide ore ,nickel 0 .63% ~0.80% ,copper 0 .14% ~0 .20% ,cobalt containing 0 .025% ~0 .028% ,is the main object of recycling .The deposit of copper-nickel ore mineral composition complex ,copper content is given priority to with chalcopyrite ,a small amount of the ink copper and Party chalcopyrite and copper blue;Nickel mineral is given priority to with nickel pyrite ,there are traces of purple sulfur nickel ,nickel arsenic ,fai arsenic nickel and fai arsenic containing cobait nickel ore ,etc .Iron ore are mainly magnetite ,trace hematite and siderite . The disseminated characteristics of copper and nickel minerals are complicated which embedded in superfine particle and are generally packed by the gangue minerals .Meanwhile the copper and nickel minerals are closely associated .There are amounts of magnesium gangue minerals in ores with characteristics of soft texture ,easily sliming ,good floatability high adsorption ability .These will bring seriously bad impact to the separation of copper and nickel ore .

  15. 某低品位铜锌矿浮选分离试验研究%Flotation Experimental Study on a Copper-zinc Sulfide Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹登国; 吴明海

    2014-01-01

    In view of the problem of low grade copper and zinc , the good floatability of zinc mineral and the difficult in separation of copper and zinc in tailings somewhere in Hunan , the test adopted the process of copper -zinc mixed flotation -flotation separation of copper -zinc mixed concen-trate.Copper-zinc flotation separation used lime , zinc sulfate and sodium sulfite as the inhibitors of zinc sulfur minerals , and diethyldithiocarbamate as the collector of copper mineral , which real-ized the effective separation of copper -zinc minerals , as well as the maximum utilization of re-sources .Through closed-circuit experiment the copper concentrate with the grade of 17 .94%and the recovery of 61 .47% and the zinc concentrate with the grade of 45 .43% and the recovery of 59 .73%were obtained respectively .This process provided the technical direction for the reasona -ble development of this type of copper -zinc ore, at the same time put forward the effective recover-y approach of low-grade copper zinc mine of the tailings .%针对湖南某地尾砂中铜、锌品位低,锌矿物可浮性好,铜锌分离难的问题,采用铜锌混合浮选、铜锌分离的工艺流程,以石灰、硫酸锌、亚硫酸钠为锌硫矿物的抑制剂,乙硫氮为铜矿物的捕收剂,实现了铜锌矿物的有效分离,以及资源的最大化利用,闭路试验获得了含 Cu 17.94%、回收率61.47%的铜精矿,含 Zn 45.43%、回收率59.73%的锌精矿,该工艺为合理开发此类铜锌矿提供了技术支持。

  16. Selective Leaching Process of Low-grade Copper-Cobalt Ore%低品位铜钴矿选择性浸出工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春祥

    2015-01-01

    随着铜钴矿物的不断开采,高品位、易处理铜钴矿资源的日益减少,低品位铜钴矿的开发利用越来越受到重视.低品位铜钴矿中有较多杂质金属离子,为了提高有价金属浸出率的同时抑制杂质金属离子的浸出,实验探讨温度、酸量、固液比、反应时间等因素对各金属离子浸出率的影响.最佳浸出工艺为:以盐酸为浸出液,盐酸总酸量为理论量的1倍,矿物粒度100目,固液比为S/L=1∶4,浸出时间为1 h,温度30℃.%With the exploitation of Copper-Cobalt minerals,the Copper-Cobalt ore resources of high quality and easy processing have been declining. Developing low-grade Copper-Cobalt ore is payed more attention. However ,the low-grade Copper-Cobalt ore contains impurity metal ions. In order to improve the leaching of valuable metals and suppress the leaching of impurity metal ions,the experiments of the temperature,the amount of acid,solid-liquid ratio,reaction time were explored. The optimal conditions are as follows:the leaching solution is hydrochloric acid,the total amount of hydrochloric acid is one times of the theoretical amount,mineral particle size is 100 mesh,solid-liquid ratio of S/L is 1∶4,the leaching time is one hour,and the leaching temperature is 30℃.

  17. Beneficiation Experimental Investigation on Copper-Tungsten Ore in Maguan, Yunnan%云南马关铜钨矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈保梁; 聂琪; 朱超; 李青; 冯允

    2013-01-01

    云南马关铜钨矿含铜0.197%,含钨0.212%,含硫6.32%.为进行选厂工艺改造及工业生产提供依据,对选矿工艺方案及选别工艺影响因素进行了考察.研究结果表明,采用石灰和水玻璃作抑制剂,硫酸铜作活化剂,丁基黄药和733作捕收剂的优先浮选工艺能够适应矿石性质及生产要求.采用该工艺可以获得铜精矿含铜20.613%,铜回收率82.88%;硫精矿含硫42.63%,硫回收率80.29%;钨精矿含W03 56.58%,钨回收率91.00%的指标.%The copper - tungsten ore in Maguan, Yunnan contains copper 0. 197% , tungsten 0. 212% , sulfur 6. 32%. The influence factors of beneficiation technology scheme and mineral processing technology are investigated in order to provide the foundation for technology transformation and industrial production of dressing plant. The research results show, the selective flotation process can adapt the ore properties and meet the production requirements under such conditions: use the lime and sodium silicate as the depressor, use the copper sulfate as the activator, and the sodium n-butylxanthate and 733 can be used for collector. The production results show that the copper concentrate contains copper 20. 613% , copper recovery is 82. 88% ; sulfur concentrate contains sulfur 42. 63% , sulfur recovery is 80. 29% , tungsten concentrate contains W03 56. 58% , tungsten recovery is 91. 00% by using these technologies.

  18. Source of Ore-Forming Materials of Tongchang Copper Ore Deposit in Southern Shaanxi Province, China%陕南铜厂铜矿床成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶霖; 杨玉龙; 高伟; 刘铁庚

    2012-01-01

    albite rocks in the mine. There are two kinds of chalcopyrites with different REE patterns, one is enriched in LREE and the other has relatively flat REE pattern. The pyrite grains hosted in internal and external contact zones of the diorite intrusion have different Co/Ni ratios, suggesting multiple sources of ore-forrning materials. Analyzing on the background values of those ore-forming elements in various geological bodies indicates that ore-forming material is mainly from the spilite and minor from the diorite. Secondly, the chalcopyrite is characterized by obvious negative Eu anomalies and its δEu value is much lower than those of the diorite and spilite. The depletion of Eu is likely related to greisenization and albitization caused by volatile fluids during mineralization. Furthermore, Y/Ho ratios of the chalcopyrite are similar to those of albite rocks, implying the close relationship between copper mineralization and Na replacement. Thirdly, due to the inheritance of the trace elements feature from source of ore-forming mineralizing materials, the Ni and Co content in the chalcopyrite is n-n×10 times than in the pyrite, corresponding to that in Cu - Ni sulfide type deposit and different from that in skarn-type, porphyry-type, volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal type as well as VMS Cu deposit. The metallogenic model of Tongchang copper deposit can be listed as following. During the Hercynian period, with the closure, subduction and collision of Mian-Lue ancient oceanic basin, the dutile-brittle thrusting nappe structure and strike-slip fault were formed in Mian-Lue-Ning area. The metasomatism of mixed hydrothermal by regional metamorphic fluid and rainwater, which rich in Na+ , K+ and CO2, resulted in the translation of ore-forming materials (e. G. Cu and Ni) from strata of Guojiagou Group and spilite (and diorite) to form the metallogenic hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluid was characterized by low temperature and salinity, and enriched in ore

  19. 难处理含铜氧化金矿抑铜浸金试验研究%Study on Copper Inhibition-Gold Leaching from Copper-Bearing Gold Refractory Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏

    2013-01-01

    提出一种新型的选择性抑铜浸金新工艺处理含铜氧化金矿,该工艺加入抑浸剂(MZY)后进行氰化浸出,可达到抑铜浸金的效果,并对工艺参数进行优化.结果表明,当石灰、MZY和氰化钠用量分别为18、0.5和1.2 kg/t时,金、铜浸出率分别为83%~84%和4%~5%,新工艺的金浸出率高、铜抑制效果好、操作简单.%Abstract:A new process to leach gold from copper-bearing gold refractory ore was put forward.Copper was inhibited with depressant (MZY) and gold was selectively cyaniding leached.The technical parameters were optimized.The results show that the leaching rate of gold and copper is 83 %~84% and 4%~5 % respectively when the dosage of lime,MZY and sodium cyanide is 18,0.5 and 1.2 kg/t respectively.The new process has the advantages of high gold leaching rate,good copper inhibitory effect,and easy operation.

  20. Development of working reference materials of copper ore material%铜矿石二级标准物质的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅连平; 云天化

    2011-01-01

    介绍了铜矿石二级标准物质的研制方法.进行了均匀性检验和稳定性检验并对其定值,结果显示该二级标准物质均匀性和稳定性以及定值准确性均达到国家标准物质的性能指标,符合国家计量技术规范的要求.%This paper introduced the development of working reference materials of copper ore material through the uniformity and stability testing and value definiting.The results showed that this working reference material's uniformity, stability and the accuracy of fixed value have reached the performance index of national standard materials, which have been up to the national metrological verification technical specification's requirements.

  1. Selenium and its redox speciation in rainwater from sites of Valparaiso region in Chile, impacted by mining activities of copper ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Gregori Ida; Lobos, Maria G; Pinochet, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the total concentration of selenium does not provide sufficient information about its toxicity and its bioavailability. The determination of its chemical forms is the basis for understanding the biogeochemical cycle in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and for detecting the species which might be toxic to biota. In this work we describe an analytical procedure to carry out the redox speciation of selenium present at ultratrace levels in rainwater from sites of Valparaiso region in Chile, impacted by mining activities of copper ores. A simple preconcentration step of the rainwater sample on a rotavapor system, in vacuum at low temperature permits the concentration of the different redox selenium species until levels quantifiable by sensitive techniques such as differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry or by spectrometric techniques, based on the hydride generation and detection by atomic absorption or atomic fluorescence spectrometry. These techniques coupled to redox chemical reactions allow the redox speciation of selenium. The results show that the open evaporation system can be used to concentrate water samples when the aim of the analysis is the determination of the total selenium concentration. On the contrary, to carry out its redox speciation only the preconcentration performed on rotavapor system, in vacuum can be used. When synthetic solutions containing different redox species of selenium, at ultratrace levels, were slowly evaporated on open system, Se(II) and Se(IV) were oxidized. The optimized procedure was then applied to the selenium determination and its redox speciation in rainwater samples collected in sites impacted by mining activities of copper ores. It was found that the amounts of total selenium in rainwater, as copper, from Puchuncavi valley decrease exponentially with the distance from the source, indicating that these elements in this region arise from the industrial complex Las Ventanas. In the redox

  2. The technical and economic efficiency in the mineral processing for lead-zinc and copper ores by Microsoft excel

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Dejan; Vuckovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The comparisons between economical and technical efficiency for lead flotation indicators, zinc flotation indicators in Sasa mine, Toranica and Zletovo mine. The comparisons for economic and technical efficiency for copper flotation indicators in Bucim mine. The possibility of equaled between both efficiencies for flotation indicators from mentioned mines using Microsoft Excel 2010.

  3. PROCESS MINERALOGY OF A PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM ORE CONTAINING ARSENIC IN PERU%秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宏东; 金建文

    2012-01-01

    This paper performs a research on process mineralogy of a porphyry copper-molybdenum ore containing arsenic in Peru, by which the mode of occurrence of arsenic, copper, molybdenum in the ore is investigated, thus the mineralogy material for the ore of this type is enriched and an analysis on the mineralogy factors which influence the mineral processing targets is carried on. The results of process mineralogy show that the oxidation rate is quite low in the ore of this type, and the copper and molybdenum are easy to acquire a high recovery during mineral processing circuit, thus it is easy to achieve more ideal mineral processing targets. However, the arsenic in the ore is also of remarkable concentration in the copper-concentrated ore, more attention should be paid on the trend of tennantite in mineral separation process and produce copper concentrate with high and low arsenic by take full advantage of the small difference in the floatable property between the tennantite and chalcopyrite.%对秘鲁某斑岩型含砷铜钼矿进行了工艺矿物学研究,查明了矿石中砷、铜、钼等元素的赋存状态,丰富了该类型矿石的矿物学资料,并就影响选矿指标的矿物学因素进行了分析.工艺矿物学研究结果表明,该类型矿石的氧化率比较低,铜钼应具有较高的选矿回收率,选别作业时容易获得较理想的选矿指标,但矿石中的砷会在铜精矿中有显著的富集,应该重视砷黝铜矿在选矿流程中的走向,充分利用砷黝铜矿与黄铜矿之间浮游性的微小差异生产高、低砷铜精矿.

  4. 赞比亚某铜钴矿选矿工艺技术研究%Research into the beneficiation technology of the copper-cobalt ore in Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敏; 叶岳华

    2016-01-01

    The copper-cobalt ore in Zambia,which containing Cu 1. 57% and Co 0. 14%. The copper mineral in the ore is mainly chalcopyrite,followed by bornite and chalcocite,etc. ,and the cobalt mineral is mainly carrollite,other sulfide minerals are mainly pyrite,etc. This paper introduced the mineralogy research and beneficiation research on the copper-cobalt ore. According to the ore charateristics,using the bulk flotation process,the final results of laboratory close circuit are:the copper-cobalt bulk concentrate assaying Cu 23. 02%,recovery of Cu 94. 34%;and assaying Co 1. 98%,recovery of Co 90. 09%.%赞比亚某铜钴矿含铜1.57%,钴0.14%.矿石中主要含铜矿物为黄铜矿,其次为斑铜矿、辉铜矿等,钴矿物主要为硫铜钴矿,其他硫化矿物主要为黄铁矿等.本文对该铜钴矿进行了工艺矿物学以及选矿试验研究.根据矿石特性,采用混合浮选工艺流程,最终获得实验室小型闭路试验结果为:铜钴混合精矿含铜23.02%,回收率94.34%;含钴1.98%,回收率90.09%.

  5. The Cretaceous sediment-hosted copper deposits of San Marcos (Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico): An approach to ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Donají; Canet, Carles; González-Partida, Eduardo; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; Alfonso, Pura; Caballero-Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Santa Cruz, Rufino

    2011-04-01

    In the San Marcos ranges of Cuatrociénegas, NE Mexico, several sediment-hosted copper deposits occur within the boundary between the Coahuila Block, a basement high mostly granitic in composition and Late Paleozoic to Triassic in age, and the Mesozoic Sabinas rift basin. This boundary is outlined by the regional-scale synsedimentary San Marcos Fault. At the basin scale, the copper mineralization occurs at the top of a ˜1000 m thick red-bed succession (San Marcos Formation, Berrisian), a few meters below a conformable, transitional contact with micritic limestones (Cupido Formation, Hauterivian to Aptian). It consists of successive decimeter-thick roughly stratiform copper-rich horizons placed just above the red-beds, in a transitional unit of carbonaceous grey-beds grading to micritic limestones. The host rocks are fine- to medium-grained arkoses, with poorly sorted and subangular to subrounded grains. The detrital grains are cemented by quartz and minor calcite; besides, late iron oxide grain-coating cement occurs at the footwall unmineralized red-beds. The source area of the sediments, indicated by their modal composition, is an uplifted basement. The contents of SiO 2 (40.70-87.50 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (5.91-22.00 wt.%), K 2O (3.68-12.50 wt.%), Na 2O (0.03-2.03 wt.%) and CaO (0.09-3.78 wt.%) are within the ranges expected for arkoses. Major oxide ratios indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic setting was a passive margin. The outcropping copper mineralization essentially consists in a supergene assemblage of chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. All that remains of the primary mineralization are micron-sized chalcocite grains shielded by quartz cement. In addition, pyrite subhedral grains occur scattered throughout the copper-mineralized horizons. In these weathered orebodies copper contents range between 4.24 and 7.72 wt.%, silver between 5 and 92 ppm, and cobalt from 8 to 91 ppm. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite crystals from

  6. Experiment Study on a Low Grade Copper-molybdenum Ores%某低品位铜钼矿石选矿试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 代淑娟; 孟宇群; 邵坤

    2012-01-01

    Molybdenum and copper content in a copper-molybdenum ores is low, Cu-content is 0.081% and Mo-content is 0.19%. The disseminated size of Cu minerals is fine and symbiosis with molybdenum ores, that lake difficult to separation of Cu and Mo. By using the flowsheet of bulk flotation of Cu and Mo, regrinding and re-concentrantion after mixed concentrate cleaned, and then separation of Cu and Mo, the experiment index of concentrate grade of Mo at 45.30% , the recovery of Mo at 84. 16% , the concentrate grade of Cu at 14.28% , die recovery of Cu at 89. 59% were got on the condition of the size of the first and the second grinding each - 0.074 mm 70% , -0.045 mm 95% , using lime, sodium silicate as modifier, using butylamine black agent and kerosene as collector in the mix-flotation, using lime, water glass and SK as the modifier, using kerosene as collector in the separation flowsheet of Cu and Mo.%某铜钼矿石中钼和铜含量较低,分别为0.081%和0.19%,且铜矿物嵌布粒度较细并与钼矿物密切共生,给两者分离带来一定困难.采用钼铜混合浮选—混合精矿精选1次后再磨再精选—铜钼分离流程对该矿石进行选矿试验,混合浮选时以石灰和水玻璃为调整剂、煤油和丁铵黑药为捕收剂,铜钼分离时以石灰、水玻璃和SK为调整剂、煤油为捕收剂,在1段和2段磨矿细度分别为-0.074 mm占70%和-0.045 mm占95%条件下,获得了钼品位为45.30%、钼回收率为84.16%的钼精矿和铜品位为14.28%、铜回收率为89.59%的铜精矿,为该矿石的开发提供了技术依据.

  7. Two series of copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and the hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotopes of their ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛发; 袁峰; 岳书仓; 赵勇

    2000-01-01

    Based on studies on the geological characteristics of the copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and their hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotope compositions, it is concluded that there existed two series of copper-gold deposits. They are evolutional products of two ore-forming hydrothermal systems in different geodynamic settings and geological era. Series I is stratiform or stratabound copper-gold deposits. These deposits were formed by submarine exhalation and sedimentation of hydrothermal solutions in Her-cynian tensional tectonic environment after bot brine ascending along contemporaneous faults and exhaled into the sea-floor. Series II consists of copper-gold deposits related to medium and acidic magmatic intrusions. Their mineralizations took place in Yanshanian in a tensional or a transitional period to the tensional tectonic environment from the composite of the tethys tectonic regime and the Paleo-Pacific ocean tectonic regime, as well as in

  8. 多聚磷酸钠掩蔽-碘滴定法测定铜矿石中铜%Determination of copper in copper ore by iodimetry after masking with sodium polyphosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵树宝; 赵剑文

    2013-01-01

    The sample was dissolved in hydrochloric acid-nitric acid.After heating in sulfuric acid medium until white fume disappeared,the metal ions such as Fe3+ were masked with sodium polyphosphate at pH3.0-4.0.The starch was used as indicator.In thiocyanate medium,excessive sodium thiosulfate standard solution was added to reduce Cu2+ to cuprous thiocyanate precipitation.Then,the excessive sodium thiosulfate standard solution was back titrated with iodine standard solution.The rapid determination method of copper content in copper ore by iodimetry was established.This method was applied to the determination of copper content in cupper ore standard sample with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.39 %-1.0 %.The determination results were consistent with the certified values.This method could remain the accuracy of classical method and did not use the potassium iodide and fluoride,which could eliminate the influences of iodine volatilizing and cuprous iodine precipitate on the titration of iodine and the pollution of fluoride to environment.%样品经盐酸-硝酸溶解,硫酸加热至白烟冒尽,然后控制溶液的酸度,在pH 3.0~4.0的条件下,以多聚磷酸钠掩蔽溶液中的Fe3+等金属离子,用淀粉作指示剂,在有硫氰酸盐介质中,加入过量硫代硫酸钠标准溶液,使溶液中的Cu2+作还原生成硫氰化亚铜沉淀,然后再用碘标准溶液回滴过量的硫代硫酸钠标准溶液,建立了用碘滴定法快速测定铜矿石中铜含量的方法.方法用于铜矿石标准样品中铜含量的测定,其相对标准偏差在0.39%~1.0%之间,结果与认定值相符.方法既保持经典方法准确性,又没有使用碘化钾和氟盐,这可以消除了在滴定过程中碘的挥发及碘化亚铜沉淀对碘滴定的影响和氟盐对环境的污染.

  9. 刚果(金)氧化铜矿硫酸浸出的研究%Study on Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ore f rom Congo (DRC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 胡重; 刘岩

    2014-01-01

    研究了刚果(金)Shamitunba氧化铜矿的浸出过程。详细考察了矿石粒度、初始酸浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间、还原剂加入量及其它因素对铜和钴浸出率的影响。考察了浸出矿浆沉降、过滤和洗涤的效果。试验结果表明,在最佳试验条件下,铜、钴的浸出率分别为95.32%,41.99%。浸出液含铜4.47 g/L ,浸出液含钴0.032 g/L。%Leaching process of oxidized copper ore from Shamitunba in Congo(DRC)was studied .Influences of ore size 、initial acid concentration、leaching temperature、leaching time、dosage of reductant and others on the leaching rate of copper and cobalt were investigated in detail .Effect of settling 、filtration and washing of leaching pulp were examined . Experimental resalts indicated that the leaching rate of copper and cobalt is 95 .32% and 41 .99% respectively under the optimum conditions . The copper content in leaching solution is 4 .47 g/L ,and cobalt is 0 .032 g/L .

  10. 内蒙古某低品位铜铅锌矿石中金银回收工艺研究%Technologic Study of Mineral Processing on Recovering Some Gold and Silver Ore from Low Grade Copper, Lead and Zinc Ore in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新林

    2011-01-01

    在对内蒙古某低品位铜铅锌矿石工艺矿物学研究的基础上,结合矿石中主要有价组分——金银的计价结算体系,确立了将金银富集到铜铅精矿中的流程思路,进行了铜铅混合浮选、后选锌、再铜铅分离流程的工艺技术条件研究,采用试验确定的磨矿、1粗2扫1精铜铅混浮、磨矿、2次混合精选、1粗1扫1精铜铅分离、1粗2扫4精浮锌、中矿顺序返回闭路流程,可以获得金回收率达85.92%、银回收率达50.99%的铜精矿和金回收率达5.50%、银回收率达17.49%的铅精矿,金总回收率高达91.42%、银总回收率高达68.48%.%Based on the research of process mineralogy to some low grade copper, lead and zincores containing gold and silver ore in Inner Mongolia,combining the value system of gold and silver,the main value component in the ore,the flow project of concentrating gold and silver to copper and lead concentrates is confirmed. According to the technical study of bulk flotation of copper-lead,copper-lead separation,flotation of zinc later,the closed circuit,ore grinding,mixed flotation of copper,lead of one roughing, two scavenging, one concentrate,another grinding, two bulk concentrate,separate of copper, lead of one roughing,one scavenging,one concentrate,zinc flotation of one roughing,two scavenging,four concentrate,middling return in sequencers determined. The copper concentrate of gold recovery 85.92% .silver recovery 50. 99% ,and the lead concentrate of gold recovery 5. 50% .silver recovery 17.49% are gained. The total recovery of gold is 91.42% ,the total recovery of silver is 68.48% in copper concentrate and lead concentrate.

  11. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of granitoids in the Yulekenhalasu copper ore district, northern Junggar, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhixin; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    The Yulekenhalasu porphyry copper deposit is located in the Kalaxiange'er metallogenic belt in northern Junggar, China. We present the results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the granitoids associated with the ore deposits with a view to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The granitoids consist of quartz diorite, diorite porphyry, porphyritic monzonite, and quartz porphyry, emplaced at 382, 379, 375-374, and 348 Ma, respectively, which span Late Devonian to early Carboniferous ages. The ore-bearing intrusion is mainly diorite porphyry, with subordinate porphyritic monzonite. The Late Devonian intrusions are characterized by SiO2 contents of 54.5-64.79 wt.%, Na2O contents of 3.82-8.24 wt.%, enrichment in Na, light rare-earth elements (LREEs), and large ion lithophile elements. They also display relative depletion in Y, Ba, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.6-0.87). The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 content (72.26-73.35 wt.%), enrichment in LREEs, K, and Sr, and relative depletion in Y (10.82-12.52 ppm) and Yb (1.06-1.15 ppm). The Late Devonian and early Carboniferous granitoids are characterized by positive ɛNd(t) values (5.2-10.1, one sample at - 1.9), positive ɛHf(t) values (7.46-18.45), low (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.70363-0.70476), and young crustal residence ages. These data indicate that the sources of the granitoids were mainly mantle-derived juvenile rocks. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the Late Devonian granitoids formed in an oceanic island arc, and they were formed from different sources, among which the mineralized diorite porphyry might have originated from a mixed slab-derived and mantle wedge melt source. The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry was likely emplaced in a mature island arc environment, and was probably derived from juvenile crust.

  12. Mineralogical Study on Iron Copper Polymetallic Ore of a Volcano Rock Type Originated from QingHai Province%青海某火山岩型铁铜多金属矿工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延照; 黄碧云; 曹成刚

    2014-01-01

    T he iron and copper polymetallic ore is a typical mineral deposit of volcano rock type ,the main characteristic is that the deposit is large in size and low in grade .Optional study on mineral is carried out by process mineralogy in order to comprehend performance of milling of ore ,on the other hand ,the develop-ment and utilization can be done early .The conclusion is that the ore is refractory .More than anything , it can provide reference to milling of similar ore .%某铁铜多金属矿为典型的火山岩型矿床,其主要的特点是矿床规模大、品位低,为了解其矿石的选矿性能,及早开发利用,进行了可选性试验,得出该矿床矿石属难选矿石,为相似矿石的选矿提供参考。

  13. Ammonia Leaching Study on Lanping Carbonate Containing Silver Oxidised Copper Ores in Yunnan%兰坪燕子洞含银氧化铜矿常温常压氨浸试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁民; 方建军; 蒋太国; 毛莹博

    2014-01-01

    The effects of oxidized copper ores which came from Lanping of Yunnan Province were studied using agitation leaching methods in laboratory in order to find out the optimum leaching conditions under normal temperature and pressure .Silver content of the ores was high .The ores belonged to typical carbonate minerals .The optimum conditions obtained were as follows:ammonia concentration 1.5 mol/L, granding fineness about 85% -0.074 mm, liquid -solid ratio 2.5∶1 and leching time 3 h.The leaching rate of this ore could reach 70%.%针对兰坪燕子洞碳酸盐型含银氧化铜矿石高碱性、高砷、高结合率的特点,进行了常温常压氨浸试验研究。研究表明:常温常压,在氨水浓度1.5 mol/L,碳酸氢铵浓度1.5 mol/L,磨矿细度-0.074 mm占85%,液固比2.5∶1,浸出时间3 h条件下,铜浸出率可达70%。氨浸液经萃取-电积可得到99.95%的电积铜,有效地实现了铜元素的回收利用。

  14. 西藏雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区Ⅰ号矿体的硫、铅同位素特征及其对成矿物质来源的指示%Sulfur and Lead Isotope Characteristics of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Ore Concentration Area of Tibet:Implications for the Source of Metals in the Ore Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎兴海; 唐菊兴; 李志军; 黄勇; 丁枫; 王成辉; 张丽; 周云

    2012-01-01

    The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area, one of the large-size metallogenic areas discovered along the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, occurs in an island arc environment associated with northward intra-oceanic subduction of Neo-Tethys oceanic crust. The ore-forming age of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area is middle Jurassic. It is located in the middle of the southern margin of the Gangdise orogenic belt, and its south margin is Shigatse forearc basin. The latest exploration data indicate that there are several potential mineralization-alteration areas and three large-size copper-gold ore bodies (No. I, II and Ⅲ) in the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold ore concentration area. In this paper, Xiongcun No. I ore body was chosen as the research object. According to sulfur and lead isotope composition of ore-baring porphyry, tuff and main sulfides of the ore, the authors have reached the following two conclusions: 1) Sulfur isotopic compositions vary in a narrow range of δ34S values from -3.5‰ to +2.7‰ (-1.07‰ on average) and are close to zero, indicating a mantle sulfur signature. 2) They have uniform Pb isotope compositions with low content of radiogenic Pb. The 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary in the ranges of 18.104-18.432, 15.473-15.533 and 37.918-38.3072, respectively. They are located in the transition zone of mantle Pb and orogen Pb but are closer to the former, reflecting a mixing between the mantle material and minor crust material. Through a comparative study of sulfur and lead isotopes of porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment (e.g., Xiongcun No. I ore body) and those of the collisional orogenic environment in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, the authors found that they have similar metal sources, but porphyry copper deposits of the island arc environment have experienced weak contamination of crust materials, whereas porphyry copper deposits of the coilisional orogenic

  15. Research into the mineral processing on the complex copper-cobalt ore in Zambia%赞比亚某复杂铜钴矿选矿工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钦印; 叶岳华; 王立刚

    2014-01-01

    本文针对赞比亚某铜钴矿进行了工艺矿物学研究,在其基础上进行了详细的选矿试验研究。根据矿石中铜、钴矿物的可浮性差异,通过使用高效选择性捕收剂BK404,采用优先选铜‐尾矿选钴的工艺流程,最终获得实验室小型闭路试验结果为:铜精矿含铜32.48%,回收率89.75%;钴精矿含钴1.58%,回收率46.75%。%The paper researched the process mineralogy on the copper‐cobalt ore in Zambia ,based on which the experimental research has been done particularly .According to the different flotability between copper and cobalt ore ,by using high selective collector BK404 ,with preferential separation process of copper and then float cobalt ,the final results of laboratory close circuit are:copper concentrate assaying Cu 32.48% ,recovery of Cu 89 .75% ;and cobalt concentrate assaying Co 1 .58% ,recovery of Co 46 .75% .

  16. 金川三矿区低品位铜镍矿石工艺矿物学研究%Study on the Process Mineralogy of Low-grade Copper-nickel Ore in Jinchuan No.3 Deposit Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程少逸; 赵礼兵; 袁致涛; 赵毕文

    2011-01-01

    The prooess mineralogy study was made to identify the mineral composition, occurrence forms of coppernickel, and the dissemination characteristics of main minerals in low-grade copper-nickel ores of Jinchuan No. 3 deposit.The results showed that copper and nickel ores mainly occurs in form of pentlandite, violarite, chalcopyrite and wallerite,but other sulfides and gangues have close and complex dissemination relation with these minerals.Serpentine has a critical argillic alteration, which brings unfavorable effect on the separation of copper and nickel.%通过工艺矿物学研究,查明了金川二矿区低品位铜镍矿石的矿物组成、铜镍的赋存形式及主要有用矿物的嵌布特性.研究结果表明:矿石中的铜、镍主要以镍黄铁矿、紫硫镍铁矿、黄铜矿、墨铜矿形式存在,但其他硫化矿物及脉石矿物与它们嵌布关系密切而复杂;矿石蛇纹石蚀变严重,易于泥化.这些将给铜、镍的分选带来不利影响.

  17. Metallogenetic epoch of the Almalyk porphyry copper ore field, Uzbekistan.and its geological significance%乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田成矿时代及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛春纪; 段士刚; 柴凤梅; 木合塔尔·买买提; A.X.TypeceóekoB; 屈文俊

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Tianshan. Xinjiang, had attracted much attentions. The Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan. Uzbekistan, is one of the largest porphyry copper deposits in Asia, but has not well been dated. The Almalyk copper ore field is located in the southern part of Caledonian-Hercynian central I lanshan fold belt, and includes four copper deposits: Kalmakyr. Dalneye. Sarcheku and Kyzata. Copper mineralization occurred within the porphyries. The primary ores are characterized mainly by stockwork and disseminated structures, and the major metallic minerals are in assemblage of py-rite. chalcopyrite. molybdenite, hematite, magnetite, nature gold and bornite. The present paper obtains the weighted model age of 320. 1 ± 2. 3 Ma and an isochron age of 317.6±2. 5 Ma based on the Re-Os isotopic method by using the molybdenites from the Sarcheku copper-molybdenum ores. On the basis of the sequence of magmatic formation in this area, it is suggested that the tectonomagmatic hydrothermal process in Almalyk ore field started at the early Carboniferous, developed during the late Carboniferous, and finished at the early Permian, and the porphyry copper mineralization mainly occurred during the late Carboniferous. The world-class large and supper large porphyry copper mineralization including the Almalyk copper deposit in western Tianshan is closely related to the complex arc magmatic geological processes resulted from the sulxluction of paleo-Asia ocean crust under Kazakhstan-Yili plate, which happened mainly from the middle Devonian to the late Carboniferous (D2 - C2).%新疆西天山斑岩铜矿找矿勘查备受关注.乌兹别克斯坦Almalyk斑岩铜矿田处在西天山西段,铜矿规模属亚洲第二大,但其成矿时代还没有准确厘定.在区域地质构造中,Almalvk铜矿田位于中天山加里东 华力西褶皱带南部边缘,包括Kalmakyr、Dalneye、Sarcheku和Kyzata等4个铜矿床,铜成矿主要发生

  18. Research on the Characteristics of Wall Rock Alteration and Ore Fabric of Shizishan Copper Deposit, Yimeng, Yunnan%云南易门狮子山铜矿床围岩蚀变岩相与矿石组构特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪山

    2013-01-01

    云南省易门狮子山铜矿床为昆阳裂谷典型的沉积-改造型铜矿床之一.矿床深部铜矿化与围岩蚀变有关,碳酸岩化与铜矿化关系密切.硅质白云岩类型铜矿体,矿石构造以脉状构造、浸染状构造为主;飘带矿矿石构造以层状构造为主.白云岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较细,为斑铜矿和黄铜矿;板岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较粗,为黄铜矿和黄铁矿.矿石化学成分具有高Si、Ca、Mg的特点,落雪组与鹅头厂组接触部位是重要的找矿地段.%Shizishan copper deposit,Yimeng,Yunnan is one of the typical sedimentary-reformed copper deposit in Kunyang rift valley.The Cu mineralization at the deep part of the deposit is relative to wall rock alteration,the carbonation has close relations with Cu mineralization.The ores in siliceous dolomite type copper ore body are mainly of vein structure,disseminated structure; the ribbon ore is mainly of layer structure.The mineral particle in dolomite type copper ore is finer,which is bornite and copper pyrites; the mineral particle in slate type copper ore is coarser,which is copper pyrites and pyrite.The chemical composition of ore has the features of high Si,Ca and Mg,the important prospecting area is the contact zone of Luoxue and Etouchang formations.

  19. Relationship between magmatic carbonatite and copper mineralization in the Ruina copper ore field, central province of Zambia%赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区碳酸岩及其与成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙希文; 边千韬; 王作琦

    2013-01-01

    通过对赞比亚中央省瑞娜铜矿区钻孔岩芯的系统研究,作者认为该区的含矿围岩为典型的火成碳酸岩,详细的岩矿相学研究也揭示瑞娜铜矿为碳酸岩岩浆型铜矿床.岩浆发生液态不混溶作用,溶离出碱性硅酸盐熔体、金属硫化物熔体和挥发份(CO2、H2O、F、Cl、B、P等)等流体,岩浆所携带的碱质使接触带地层交代蚀变成霓长岩,挥发份以络合物的形式携带部分Cu、Au、Ag、Ga、Co、REE、Ni等金属元素在外接触带地层碎裂岩和内接触带处成矿.%Through the systematic observation of drill core samples collected from Ruina copper ore field in central province of Zambia,the authors conclude that the copper-bearing country rock is a typical carbonatite with magnetic origin.The detailed study of mineral assemblages and petrographical characteristics also indicate that the Ruina copper deposit is a magmatic carbonatite-type cooper mineralization.When the magma evolved into the immiscible stage,the alkali-containing silicate melt,sulfides melt and volatile components (including CO2,H2O,F,Cl,B,P)are dissolved.The alkali compositions accompanying the magma reacted with the contact host rock,then the fenite was formed; and the volatile components which contain mineralization elements such as Cu,Au,Ag,Ga,Co,REE and Ni in the form of chemical complex deposited in the fractures of host rocks within the outlier contact zone as well as inner contact zone.The result of this study will be useful and meaningful for mineral prospecting in this region.

  20. Inhibiting Approaches of Magnesium Silicate Minerals in Copper-nickel Sulfide Ore Floatation%铜镍硫化矿浮选中镁质硅酸盐矿物的抑制途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹钊; 张亚辉; 孙传尧; 曹永丹

    2012-01-01

    分析了铜镍硫化矿中MgO脉石矿物的晶体结构、理化性质及其与可浮性的关系,总结了铜镍硫化矿浮选中含镁脉石矿物进入浮选精矿的可能途径及对策,着重介绍了含镁脉石矿物表面活化离子的作用及消除机理,最终得出采用高效金属离子络合剂对矿物表面进行清洗预处理,恢复矿物的原本浮游性,再用选择性抑制剂抑制含镁脉石矿物,将是处理含镁硅酸盐铜镍硫化矿物的有效途径的结论.%The relationship of crystal structure, physico-chemical properties and ftoatability of MgO-containing silicate gangue minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ores was analyzed, possible ways of magnesium silicate mixed into flotation concentrate in copper-nickel sulfids ores flotation and corresponding coun term easu res were summarized, the activating mechanism of metal ions on magnesium silicate and deactivating methods were emphatically researched. Finally an effective method was obtained. In this method, an efficient metal ions complexing agent is used to clean the surfaces of minerals, which will recover their original floatability. In the meantime, a selective depressant is applied to depress magnesium-containing gangue minerals. This may be the effective approach for depressing magnesium-containing silicate minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ore floatation.

  1. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  2. 青海省兴海县铜峪沟铜矿床成矿物质和流体来源的地球化学探讨%Geochemistry Constraint on Ore-forming Material and Ore-forming Fluids of Tongyugou Copper Deposit in Xinghai County,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小华; 周宗桂

    2014-01-01

    青海铜峪沟铜矿床位于祁漫塔格-鄂拉山成矿亚带鄂拉山多金属矿带东南段。通过对铜峪沟铜矿床的矿石矿物微量元素地球化学研究及矿石矿物的稳定同位素研究,探讨该矿床的成矿物质及流体来源,确定矿床的成因。从测试结果来看,稀土元素配分模式为轻稀土较富集、重稀土亏损、分馏程度较高、Eu中度-强烈亏损,显示矿石物质来源为混合来源;硫同位素δ34 S测试结果全为负值,属轻硫型,总体上揭示出硫主要来自地层的沉积硫;铅同位素测试数据表明矿石铅部分来自沉积成岩阶段,部分与印支期造山运动有关,表明成矿物质混合来源的特征,富成矿流体在成矿之前存在均一化过程。氢、氧、硅同位素研究表明成矿热液为原生岩浆水和变质热液水,反映成矿物质来源与岩浆热液活动有关。通过研究认为,铜峪沟铜矿床为矽卡岩型铜矿床。%Tongyugou copper deposit is located in the southeast segment of the Elashan polymetallic belt in Qimantage-Elashan ore-forming subzone.Based on the trace element geochemistry and the stable isotopes of Tonyugou copper deposit,this paper studied the source of ore-forming material and ore-forming fluids,identified the genesis of Tongyugou copper deposit.From the test results,the rare earth element distribution patterns are approximately consistent,the REE patterns are enriched in LREE and are depleted in HREE with high fraction-ation and negative Eu anomaly,demonstrating that the ore material comes from multi-source;sulfur isotope compositions δ34S measurement are full-negative,belong to light sulfur type,revealing that the whole S was from the sedimentary sulfur;the demographics of Pb isotopic compositions showing that the lead was mainly from the ore deposition diagenetic stage,and partly from the Indosinian orogeny,which is closely related to Indo-Chinese orogenic movement

  3. 某含铜氧化金矿石氨氰法浸金工艺试验研究%Study on gold extraction from an oxidized gold ore with copper by ammonia cyanide leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹来昌

    2014-01-01

    Gold extraction was studied from a gold ore with copper by ammonia cyanide leaching in the paper as well as copper removal from pregnant solutions .The leaching results showed that in certain conditions ,satisfactory tech-nical indexes could be obtained ,with leaching residues grade of 0.38 g/t,average mass concentration of gold and copper in leaching pregnant solutions respectively are 2.27 mg/L and 61.94 mg/L,gold leaching rate according to residues is 89.44 %.Hydrogen peroxide is used for copper removal ,gaining a copper precipitation rate of 85.85 %,and copper grade in the oxidation precipitation slags is over 50 %,making it possible to sell them as copper concentrates .%针对某含铜金矿石进行了氨氰法浸金及浸出贵液脱铜试验研究。其结果表明:在一定条件下,可获得较好的技术指标,浸渣金品位0.38 g/t,浸出贵液金、铜平均质量浓度分别为2.27 mg/L、61.94 mg/L,渣计金浸出率为89.44%;采用双氧水除铜,铜沉淀率为85.85%,氧化沉淀渣铜品位超过50%,可以铜精矿出售。

  4. Experiment Study on Mineral Processing on One kind of Low-Grade Copper-Nickel Ore in Xinjiang%新疆某低品位铜镍矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建芬; 余江鸿

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the low grade copper-nickel ore in Xinjiang,adopt a closed circuit test flowsheet which have one roughing,two scavenging and two concentrating copper-nickel mixed floating;and one roughing, one scavenging copper-nickel separation, middlings order returned."Reagents used in copper-nickel mixed flotation are the combined depressants of CMC and Sodium silicate, collecter iso-butyle Xanthate and assistant collecter A8. Copper-nickel separation medicament is conducted; using Activated Carbon to remove reagents,lime and T12 as the Inhibitors,Z-200 for collector. The Copper concentrate is obtained with Copper grade of 27. 03% , nickel grade of 0. 93% and Copper recovery of 67. 79%. The mixed concentrate of copper and nickel is obtained with nickel grade of 5. 59% .copper grade of 3. 79% and nickel recovery of 70. 82% , copper recovery of 29. 14%.%针对新疆某低品位铜镍矿矿石性质的特点,采用1粗2扫2精铜镍混浮、1粗1扫铜镍分离、中矿顺序返回的闭路试验流程,铜镍混浮以CMC与水玻璃的组合为脉石矿物抑制剂、异丁基黄药为捕收剂、A8为辅助捕收剂,铜镍分离以活性炭为脱药剂、石灰与T12的组合为镍矿物抑制剂、Z- 200为捕收剂,获得了铜品位为27.03%、铜回收率为67.79%、含镍0.93%的铜精矿,以及铜品位为3.79%、镍品位为5.59%、铜回收率29.14%、镍回收率70.82%的铜镍混合精矿.

  5. Origin of the ore-forming matter from the Liwu copper orefield in Jiulong, Sichuan%四川省九龙县里伍铜田成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏华; 丁俊; 陈道前

    2011-01-01

    本文通过氢氧同位素、硫同位素及微量元素的测试分析,结合矿田地质背景对成矿物质来源进行了分析,认为里伍铜矿田成矿物质主要与燕山期"S"型花岗岩的侵入作用有关.在岩浆侵入过程中,由于热作用的驱动,岩浆热液携带部分成矿物质,沿一定的通道上升或运移,并不断与围岩发生物质的带出和带入,成矿流体是以岩浆热液为主的多组份的热液体系.%The Liwu copper orefield in Jiulong, Sichuan tectonically lies in the Jianglang metamorphic core complexes. The detailed examination has been made for the origins of the ore-forming matter from the Liwu copper orefield on the basis of hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopes, trace elements and geological background. The origins of the ore-forming matter are believed to be associated with the intrusion of the Yanshanian "S"-type granites. The magmatic hydrothermal fluids with the ore-forming matter migrated upwards along the pathways due to the thermal effect during the magmatic intrusion. Meanwhile, the repeated reaction between the magmatic hydrothermal fluids and wall rocks once occurred and resulted in the formation of the multicomponent hydrothermal systems.

  6. 从某铀矿石硫酸浸出液中回收铀、铜试验研究%Experiment Research on Recovery of Uranium and Copper From Leaching Solution of Uranium Ore With Sulfuric Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘辉; 周根茂; 孟运生; 郑英; 师留印; 程浩

    2013-01-01

      某铀矿石硫酸浸出液中含有铀和铜,研究了从中综合回收铀和铜。试验结果表明:采用201×7树脂吸附铀,用酸性氯化钠溶液淋洗负载树脂,然后用氢氧化钠溶液从淋洗液中沉淀铀,铀回收率为98.4%;对铀的吸附尾液,采用循环铁粉置换法回收铜,铜回收率为90%。采用该方法可实现铀、铜的综合回收。%Recovery of uranium and copper from sulfuric acid leaching solution of a uranium ore has been studied .The results showed that uranium recovery was 98 .4% by adsorption uranium using 201 × 7 resin from the leaching solution ,and desorption uranium using acidic sodium chloride solution from loaded resin ,then precipitating uranium from the stripping liquid .The copper in the adsorption tail liquid was be replaced using iron powder ,recovery of copper was 90% .Comprehensive recovery of uranium and copper can be realized by the method .

  7. Research on the Occurrence of Cu & Co and Process Mineralogy of Copper-Cobalt Ore of Shuixie-Changjie Copper-Cobalt Mine in Yongping County, Yunnan%云南永平县水泄-厂街铜钴矿铜钴的赋存状态与选矿工艺学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昭啟

    2012-01-01

    Shuixie-Changjie copper-cobalt mine is a typical copper and cobalt sulfide deposit in Yunnan. The occurrence of Cu and Co has been studied by rock-mineral identification and beneficiation test. Copper occurred in independent minerals while no independent cobalt minerals occurred. The complex structure of copper minerals and cobalt minerals brings about difficulty to beneficiation of the ore. Process mineralogy research would be a guide for industrial beneficiation of the ore.%云南永平县水泄-厂街铜钴矿是云南一典型的铜钴硫化矿床.通过岩矿鉴定和选矿试验查定了铜钴的赋存状态,矿床铜矿物呈独立矿物存在,钴矿物未见独立矿物存在.铜矿物和含钴矿物之间结构具复杂多样性,给选矿工艺带来较大困难.矿石选矿工艺学研究对工业选矿有指导意义.

  8. Kellad orelis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    18. VI Tallinna toomkirikus organist Ines Maidre (kaastegev Kristjan Mäeots) kontsert "Kellad orelis". Kontserdiga esitleb I. Maidre ka oma samanimelist CD-d (kujundaja Margus Haavamägi), mis on osaliselt sisse mängitud Tallinna toomkiriku Ladegasti-Saueri orelil. Tänavu tähistatakse toomkiriku Maarja kella ja Lunastaja kella 315. aastapäeva.

  9. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms.

  10. Experimental Study on the Cyclonic Static Micro-bubble Flotation Column for a Copper ore%某铜矿旋流-静态微泡浮选柱试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令同; 曹亦俊; 徐宏祥; 孙永峰

    2011-01-01

    就某地微细粒含量高、易泥化的难选铜矿石,提出部分优先浮选新工艺,即原矿经破碎磨矿后采用高效、节能的微细粒分选设备旋流-静态微泡浮选柱进行分选,直接得到部分最终合格精矿,解决了该铜矿中微细粒级浮选机回收能力差造成金属流失的问题.在最优参数条件下进行了连选试验.研究结果表明,采用该工艺流程可以优先得到铜品位21.46%,回收率30.04%的铜精矿.%For a refractory copper ore with feature of fine particle and ease-to-slime, a new flow-sheet of partially preferential flotation was proposed, that is, raw ores are separated after crushing and grinding by the high efficiency and energy-saying micro-fine separator with cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column to directly get some final qualified concentrate. By this way, the problem of low recovery capacity by micro-fine flotation machine for a copper mine which result in metal loss are resolved. And the pilot experiments are carried out by adopting the optimum conditions. The results show that the high quality copper concentrates are obtained by this flow-sheet, which contain Cu of 21.46% with a 30.04% of recovery rate.

  11. Study on Green Beneficiation of a Low Grade Silver-bearing Copper-lead-zinc Ore%某地低品位铜铅锌银矿绿色环保选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱一民

    2011-01-01

    Mineral processing tests on a low grade silver-bearing copper-lead-zinc ore from Qinghai Province were carried out. The results show that, adopting a copper-lead-zinc selective flotation technique and using non-toxic (low toxic) agents, three silver-bearing concentrates can be reclaimed from the raw ore with the corresponding copper, lead, zinc grade as 0.16%, 2.60% and 3.84%, and with a silver content of 61 g/t. The copper concentrate is obtained with a copper grade and recovery of 16.37% and 49.07%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 1 231 g/t and 9.67%, respectively; the lead concentrate is obtained with a lead grade and recovery of 55.06% and 86.81%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 769 g/t and 51.69%, respectively; and the zinc concentrate is obtained with a zinc grade and recovery of 46.80% and 81.65%, respectively, and a silver content and recovery of 206 g/t and 22. 64%, respectively. The total silver recovery for these three concentrates accounts for 84.00%.%对青海某地低品位铜铅锌银矿体进行了选矿试验研究.研究结果表明,采用铜-铅-锌优先浮选方案和无毒(低毒)选矿药剂,可从含铜0.16%、含铅2.60%、含锌3.84%、含银61 g/t的试样中获得含铜16.37%、铜回收率为49.07%、含银1231 g/t、银回收率为9.67%的铜精矿,含铅55.06%、铅回收率为86.81%、含银769g/t、银回收率为51.69%的铅精矿和含锌46.80%、锌回收率为81.65%、含银206 g/t、银回收率为22.64%的锌精矿,铜精矿、铅精矿和锌精矿中银的总回收率为84.00%.

  12. 安徽铜陵矽卡岩型铜多金属矿科学基地建设%SKARN COPPER POLYMETALLIC ORE SCIENTIFIC BASE CONSTRUCTION IN TONGLING, ANHUI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宏杰; 张宇

    2014-01-01

    The skarn copper polymetallic ore deposit in Tongling, Anhui is a major typical skarn deposit of its kind in China. Tongling County has superior metallogenic conditions, rich resources and reserves and prospect for exploration. Early back in the East Han Dynasty, copper production was begun here, with copper smelter being established as well. Copper has been mined over many dynasties from Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing to now. Tongling has abundant and complete historic geological prospecting data, mature techniques of mining, dressing and smelting and all conditions for establishment of scientific research base. Through comprehensive analysis, it is thought feasible to set an example here for skarn copper polymetallic ore research for the province and even the whole country and make it a base for scientific research, personnel fostering, teaching, scientific popularization and touring.%安徽铜陵矽卡岩型铜多金属矿是我国典型矽卡岩型铜多金属矿重要产地,铜陵具有的优越的成矿条件、丰富的资源储量及找矿前景;最早在东汉时期,这里便开始了铜的生产,并设有炼铜场。唐、宋、元、明、清历代至现在一直在开采,具备丰富历史和完整地质勘查资料和成熟采、选、冶理论技术,具备了建立科学基地研究的各项条件。通过对安徽铜陵典型矽卡岩型铜多金属矿科学基地各项综合因素分析,在矿产最丰富的长江中下游成矿带中建立安徽铜陵矽卡岩型-层控矽卡岩型-斑岩型铜多金属矿科学基地,为安徽甚至全国矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床研究树立了一个典范,成为具有科学研究、人才培养、专业教学、科普旅游及发展经济的综合性科研基地。

  13. 云南某高碳低铜碳质银矿综合回收试验研究%Experimental Research on Comprehensive Recovery of a High-Carbon Low-Copper Carbonaceous Silver Ore in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭远伦

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problem that a high-carbon low-copper carbonaceous silver mineral in Yunnan can not be recovered with cyanidation due to its high-carbon content, by conducting notation test research, optimization of flotation principle process on " two roughing, two scavenging and three cleaning", regrinding of primary concentrate, and using carbonaceous gangue depressant, the experimental results that the recoveries of silver and copper are 63. 58% and 62. 93% respectively have been obtained to recover comprehensively silver and copper in the mentioned ore.%针对云南某高碳低铜碳质银矿因含碳高,无法氰化浸出回收的问题.通过浮选试验研究,优选“两粗两扫三精”浮选原则流程,再辅以粗精矿再磨、碳质脉石抑制剂的使用等措施,取得浮选银回收率63.58%、铜回收率62.93%的试验结果,达到综合回收该类矿物铜、银资源的目的.

  14. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  15. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  16. 红透山铜矿外围隐伏矿体三维定量预测%3D quantitative prediction of concealed ore-body in surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝一; 吴湘滨; 王丽芳; 刘文玉; 杜方

    2012-01-01

    The systematic techniques and methods of concealed ore-body 3D quantitative prediction in the surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit of Liaoning province were introduced. Firstly, the 3D geological entity model of Hongtoushan copper deposit, including the terrain surface, ore-body, strata, and fault surface, was built in the 3D visualization circumstance. Secondly, through the integration of fields of mineralization information, strata's morphology, fault influence and geophysical attributes in the framework of 3D geological space, the comprehensive analysis of multiple disciplinary of geosciences was achieved. Thirdly, based on 3D geological correlation field analysis, a set of geological ore-controlling quantitative factors and the 3D quantitative prediction model were proposed. Finally, the 3D location and distribution of concealed ore-body in the surrounding areas of Hongtoushan copper deposit were predicted to delineate the target regions. The technology of 3D geological modeling, visualization, correlation field supports the 3D quantitative prediction of concealed ore-body.%介绍红透山铜矿外围隐伏矿体三维定量预测的技术组合和方法体系.首先,借助三维可视化仿真环境,实现红透山铜矿的地表面、矿体、断层、地层实体模型的三维可视化.其次,将成矿信息场、地层形态场、断裂影响场、地球物理场等多元地学空间数据在统一的三维空间数据场构架下有效集成,实现了三维空间信息的综合研究和地学多专业的有机结合.其次,基于三维地质空间相关场分析,为三维定量预测提取定量指标集和建立预测模型.最后,使用三维定量预测模型对红透山矿外围的矿化位置与分布规律进行预测和评价,圈定找矿靶区.三维地质建模与可视化及三维地质空间相关场等技术的使用,为进行红透山矿外围隐伏矿体在三维空间中的分布及形态的定量预测提供支撑.

  17. Construction Technology for 45°Slant-hole in Conymecar Copper Ore District of Peru%秘鲁 Conymecar 铜矿区45°斜孔施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小沛; 徐力生; 牛素甫

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the drilling equipment, construction process, borehole structure, bit selection and the ap-plication of flushing fluid for 45°slant-hole construction in Conymecar copper ore district of Peru.The difficulties in the drilling process were analyzed with the treatment measures presenting and the experiences of the high angle slant-hole drill-ing construction were summed up.%介绍了秘鲁Conymecar铜矿区45°斜孔施工采用的钻探机具、施工工艺、钻孔结构、钻头的选择以及冲洗液的使用情况,并分析了钻探过程中的施工难点及其处理措施。总结了本次大斜度深孔钻探施工的经验。

  18. 高效捕收剂ZA在铜硫分离浮选中的应用%Application of High Efficient Collector ZA in Separation of Copper from Sulfur Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹坚坚; 胡真; 李汉文

    2015-01-01

    Main valuable elements of a polymetallic sulphide ore in Southwest China is mainly copper, tin and sulphur with grade of 1. 05%, 0. 28% and 7. 19%, respectively, associated silver grade is 13. 20 g/t. Copper mainly exists in form of copper sulfide, accounted for 93. 60%. Copper and sulphur bulk flotation-copper and sulphur separation, tin concentration from tailings of flotation by shaking table was used by on-site process, all of copper, sulfur, silver and tin were comprehen-sively recovered ( silver went with copper) . The process comes with large consumption of lime, high alkalinity, low recovery of copper and silver. In order to find the possibility of effective recover copper and silver with low alkalinity, compound new type ZA collector for copper mineral flotation collector were studied The results show that:copper-sulphur rough concentrate can be obtained at the grinding fineness of 75% passing 0. 074 mm, with copper sulfate as activator, butyl xanthate as collector, via one roughing, two cleaning, two scavenging copper-sulphur bulk flotation. After reground the rough concentrate to 85%-0. 043 mm, using compound collector ZA as copper collector, lime as inhibitor, with low alkalinity conditions of pH=10. 5 through one roughing, three cleaning, three scavenging copper and sulphur separation process, copper concentrate assaying 25. 16% Cu and 212. 2 g/t Ag at the recoveries of 91. 75% and 61. 18%, respectively; and the sulphur concentrate contai-ning 35. 32% S and recovery of 79. 06% can be obtained. The results realize the separation and enrichment recovery of cop-per, sulphur and silver in the ore, especially intensify beneficiation enrichment of free silver. The test results can provide technique basis for beneficiation of minerals associated precious metals.%西南某多金属硫化矿主要有价元素为铜、锡、硫,铜品位为1.05%、锡品位为0.28%、硫品位为7.19%,伴生银品位为13.20 g/t。铜主要以硫化

  19. 内蒙古某氧硫混合铜矿选矿试验研究%Study on the Beneficiation of a Sulfide - oxidized Copper Ore in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾凤梅; 王林祥; 任大鹏

    2012-01-01

    针对内蒙古氧硫混合铜矿高氧化率、高碱性脉石、高含泥量等特点,着重对控泥、强化活化、强化捕收以及浮选流程进行了系统的研究.在硫酸铵、硫化钠的联合作用下,在捕收剂强化捕收作用下,当磨矿细度-0.074 mm至85%时,采用一次粗选、三次扫选、两次精选、中矿顺序返回的闭路流程,取得了铜精矿品位20.65%、铜回收率85.49%的较好技术指标.%In light of the characteristics of a sulfide - oxidized copper ore in Inner Mongolia, such as high oxidation rate, high alkali gangue, and high content of slime, a systematic study was made for the ore on controlling mud, strengthening activation and collecting. Under the combined action of the ammonium sulfate, sodium sulfide and the action of strengthening collecting, when the percentage of the grinding particle less than 0.074 mm was over 85% , copper concentrate of Cu 20. 65% with a recovery of 85.49% was obtained through the closed circuit process of once roughing, three times scavenging, twain cleaning and middlings returned in order.

  20. Experimental Study on Recovery of Copper Oxide Ore from a Tailing in Yunnan Province%云南某尾矿中氧化铜矿回收试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋禄; 戈保梁; 伏彦雄; 冯致; 杨春刚; 王显强; 郑明峰

    2015-01-01

    After preconcentration , the grade of Cu of a copper oxide ore from Yunnan Province was 2 .70%, and the oxidation rate of copper was 32 .22%.According to ore properties , two stages flo-tation were applied and influence of flotation parameters such as fine grinding , types and dosages of reagents were investigated .The results showed that optimum grinding fineness was 90% -0 .074 mm by using xanthate as collector , sodium sulfide as activating agent , sodium silicate and sodium hexametaphosphate as depressant , respectively .The suitable flotation flowsheet was: three rough-ings, one scavenging and two cleanings .The obtained concentrate contained 15.21%Cu with re-covery of 83 .19%.%云南某地区铜尾矿经预先富集后,含铜2.70%,氧化率为32.22%,属氧化铜矿。根据矿石特点,采用硫化铜与氧化铜分选工艺流程,研究结果表明,在磨矿细度-0.074 mm含量为90%、丁黄药为捕收剂、硫化钠为活化剂、水玻璃和六偏磷酸钠为抑制剂的条件下,采用三次粗选一次扫选二次精选的浮选流程获得了铜精矿品位为15.21%、回收率为83.19%的选别指标。

  1. Study on Separating Technology of a Congo(Kinshasa) Refractory Copper-cobalt Oxide Ore%刚果(金)某难选氧化铜钴矿选矿工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧乐明; 胡本福; 段景文

    2011-01-01

    针对刚果(金)某难选氧化铜钴矿高氧化率、高结合率、泥化严重、有害杂质钙镁含量高的特点,制定了不经脱泥,先浮选硫化铜钴矿、后硫化浮选氧化铜钴矿的原则流程,对易给氧化铜钴矿闭路选别带来中矿累积的微细粒中矿制定了选冶联合处理工艺.对含铜3.10%的原矿,采用最终闭路试验流程处理,获得了铜品位31.52%、回收率33.25%的硫化矿精矿和铜品位23.76%、回收率47.14%的氧化矿精矿,稀硫酸浸出中矿,可以回收6.64%的铜,总铜回收率达到87.03%,同时回收53.96%的伴生金属钴.%Aiming at such characteristics of the Congo( Kinshasa) refractory copper-cobalt oxide ore as high oxygena-tion,high binding rate,serious sliming and high content of deleterious impurity(Ca.Mg) ,a flowsheet in principle was formulated,I. E. Preferential flotation of copper-cobalt sulfide and subsequent flotation of copper-cobalt oxide without desliming, and a dressing-metallurgy combination process was drawn up to deal with the micro-fine middlings accumulating easily in the closed beneficiation of copper-cobalt oxide. Raw ore( Cu 3. 10% ) was finally treated by closed test process. Then sulfide concentrator with Cu grade 31. 52% and recovery 33. 25% and oxide concentrator with Cu grade 23. 76% and recovery 47. 14% were achieved. By leaching metallurgy middlings in dilute sulfuric acid,6. 64% Cu could by recovered and total recovery reached 87.03%. Meanwhile,53. 96% associated metal Co was recovered.

  2. Flotation Experimental Study On a Low Grade Copper-Nickel Ore Containing Talc%某含滑石低品位铜镍矿浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽平; 谈伟军

    2014-01-01

    某含滑石低品位铜镍矿有用矿物共生关系密切且嵌布不均匀,滑石等层状硅酸盐矿物含量高而易泥化,分选难度较大。通过系统的工艺矿物学研究和探索试验,针对含镍0.78%,铜0.16%的原矿,最终采用滑石、铜镍等可浮-铜镍分离浮选-尾矿强化回收镍的试验流程,试验获得铜精矿含铜24.41%、铜回收率47.50%,镍精矿含镍8.20%、镍回收率77.43%的选别指标。试验获得的技术指标稳定可靠,可以作为矿山开发利用的初步依据。%Minerals in a low -grade copper -nickel polymetallic sulfide ore are closely associated with each other and disseminated unevenly , talc and other layered silicate are in high content and they are easy to slime , which results in sorting difficult .For this raw ore containing 0.78%of Ni and 0.16% of Cu, through systematical mineralogical study and flotation experiments , the test process of talc and copper -nickel iso-flotation, copper-nickel separation flotation and enhanced recovery of Ni in tailings were carried out .Then copper concentrate with Cu grade of 24 .41%at an 47.50%recovery, nickel concentrate with Ni grade of 8.20% at an 77.43% recovery were ob-tained .The technical indicators can be used as a preliminary basis for mining exploitation .

  3. Flotation Experiment Study on a Copper-Lead-Zinc Complex Polymetallic Ore in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古某铜铅锌复杂多金属矿的浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 洪家薇; 刘宸婷

    2011-01-01

    试验矿样取自内蒙古某地的铜铅锌复杂多金属矿,原矿含Cu 0.25%、Pb 2.53%、Zn 4.47%,并且伴生Ag 92.5 g/t、In 42.5 g/t,研究了该矿石的浮选工艺以及在浮选过程中各种药剂的用量,最终得到铜精矿中含Cu 17.62%、回收率达到58.26%;铅精矿含Pb 66.55%、回收率高达90.39%;锌精矿含Zn 48.12%,回收率90.29%;与此同时,铅精矿含Ag达到1 642.0 g/t、回收率60.3%,锌精矿含In达到248.7 g/t、回收率达到53.5%.结果表明,此浮选工艺可有效处理该复杂多金属矿.%The experiment sample is taken from a copper-lead-zinc complex polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia, there are 0. 25 % Cu, 2. 53 % Pb, 4.47% Zn in the raw ore, and it also associated with 92. 5 g/t Ag and 42. 5 g/t In, the flotation process of this ore and also the dosage of agents which used in the flotation process is researched, the copper concentrate contents Cu 17.6% , and the recovery can be reached to 58. 26% ; the lead concentrate contents Pb 66. 55% , the recovery reach up to 90. 39% ; the zinc concentrate contents Ag 1 642.0 g/t, the recovery is 60. 3% ; the zinc concentrate contents In 248. 7 g/t, the recovery is 53.5%. The results showed that this flotation process can treat this complex polymetallic ore effectively.

  4. Metallogenic age and ore genesis of the Badaguan porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古八大关斑岩型铜钼矿床形成时代与成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春风; 柳振江; 宓奎峰; 王建平; 刘瑞斌; 邹君宇; 王忠宝

    2014-01-01

    八大关铜钼矿床是内蒙古德尔布干成矿带中段的一个典型斑岩型矿床,绢英岩化、青磐岩化等蚀变分带明显,矿体呈条带状赋存于印支期石英闪长岩中。笔者通过运用Re-Os同位素年代学、元素地球化学以及硫同位素等测试手段,初步分析了该矿床的成矿过程。辉钼矿Re-Os同位素加权平均模式年龄为(226.7±2.4) Ma,表明该矿床形成于晚三叠世早期;元素地球化学分析显示含矿岩体属于中钾含量的钙碱性岩石系列,为I型花岗岩,产于火山弧构造环境,具有活动板块边缘的特征,矿化过程中,成矿母岩的稀土元素总量逐渐降低,轻重稀土发生明显分异;金属硫化物的δ34S值介于+0.5‰~+4.8‰,具有幔源硫的特征。综合分析认为八大关铜钼矿床形成于晚三叠世,蒙古-鄂霍茨克洋向南俯冲过程中,深部岩浆活动带来了大量成矿物质,洋壳部分熔融侵位到额尔古纳地块之上,随热液流体迁移的Cu、Mo等元素与源自地幔的硫相结合,最终富集成矿。%Located in the middle of Derbugan metallogenic belt in Inner Mongolia, the Badaguan copper-molybdenum deposit is a typical porphyry deposit with obvious phyllic and propylitic alteration zones. The banded orebodies occur in Triassic quartz diorite. By such means as Re-Os isotope geochronology, element geochemistry and sulfur isotope geochemistry, the authors preliminarily analyzed the ore-forming process of the deposit. Re-Os dating of molybdenite gave a weighted average model age of (226.7 ± 2.4) Ma, implying that the deposit was formed in the early Late Triassic. Element geochemical analysis shows that the ore-bearing rocks were I-type granites and belonged to calc-alkaline rock series with moderate content of potassium, which were produced in a volcanic arc environment with characteristic active plate edges. During the ore-forming process, ΣREE in ore-bearing rock gradually

  5. The Ministry of Land and Resources Published the “ThreeRate” Indicator for Seven Minerals Including Iron Ore and Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>In order to strengthen the supervision and administration of rational exploitation of mineral resources including iron,copper,lead,zinc,rare earth,sylvine and fluorite,the Ministry of Land and Resources has published the Minimum Three-rate Requirements for the Rational Exploitation of Mineral Resources including Iron,Copper,Lead,Zinc,Rare Earth,Sylvine and Fluorite(for trial implementation).

  6. Arsenic bioleaching in medical realgar ore and arsenic- bearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medical realgar ore that allowed much higher leaching rates ... bioleaching behavior between mixed unadapted ... Acid drainage from copper mine, Zhongtiao Mountain, Shanxi,. China ..... during high temperature bioleaching of gold-bearing.

  7. 青海德尔尼铜矿床成因最新研究进展%New Progress on the Ore-Genesis of the De'erni Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董富权; 钱壮志; 王建中; 仲佳鑫; 孙涛; 徐刚; 段俊

    2012-01-01

    德尔尼铜矿床位于青海省玛沁县积石山中段德尔尼山南坡,是一个以铜为主,钴、锌等多元素可以综合利用的大型矿床.矿床成因存在较大分歧,因此,笔者运用宏观观察、矿相学研究及电子探针测试分析相结合的方法,重点对该矿床金属矿物矿相学、矿石矿物组合及矿床成因进行了系统研究,首次在德尔尼铜矿床中发现重晶石和石膏.石英-碳酸盐-重晶石-石膏为海底热液矿床的典型低温矿物组合.通过构造成矿环境、成矿物质来源研究,结合草莓状结构、矿体顶部的硅质岩、重晶石和石膏的发现等,种种迹象表明该矿床为海底热液喷流沉积矿床.%De' erni copper deposit, located in the southern slope of De' erni, in the middle of Jishi Mountain, Maqin country, Qinghai Province, is a comprehensive utilization deposit which is dominated by copper. Because there are considerable differences in its ore-genesis, we have studied its ore-genesis by macro-observation, mineralogical studies and electron probe analysis in detail. This is the first time that barite and gypsum were discovered. Quartz-carbonate-barite-gypsum is not only a low-temperature mineral assemblage but also is a typical mineral composition of submarine hydrothermal deposit. By mineral environment of structure, material source, strawberry-like structure, siliceous rocks lying at the top of the orebodies, the discovery of barite and gypsum, we suggest that De'erni copper deposit is hydrothermal ex-halative-sedimentary deposit in seafloor.

  8. 多金属复杂硫化铜矿中有价金属的分离研究现状与进展%Valuable metals extraction from complex multi-metal copper sulfide ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娟; 廖亚龙; 李冰洁; 黄斐荣

    2015-01-01

    综述了复杂铜铅硫化矿中铜锌及铅等有价金属的分离回收技术。通过阐述最近的几种处理复杂硫化铜矿的方法,分析和比较了各处理方法的特点,展望了研究趋势。指出:氧化焙烧预处理-浸出法和硫酸化焙烧-水浸法尽管工艺流程短且简单,但焙烧过程产生的SO2气体对环境污染严重;硫化焙烧-酸浸法能有效降低SO2气体的排放量,但其焙烧条件苛刻,难以实现工业化;高价铁盐浸出法存在高价铁盐损耗大、再生难的问题;使用氯盐体系直接浸出时还存在Cl−对设备腐蚀严重等问题;而氧压浸出和微生物浸出虽然也存在一些不足,但在处理复杂硫化铜矿过程中无有害废气产生,环境友好并且硫以单质硫的形式回收,能有效解决硫酸储存难问题,相信其在今后处理复杂多金属硫化矿中具有广阔的发展前景。%The development of metal extraction from complex sulfide ore containing lead,copper and zinc is reviewed. Several processes for treating complex copper sulfide ore are introduced,and the characteristics of the methods are analyzed and compared. The trend of copper extraction from this kind of ore is also indicated. Although the methods of copper extraction by roasting pretreatment-leaching process,and sulfation roasting-leaching process are simple and straightforward,serious environmental pollution is caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2)emission in these processes. Emission of SO2 can be reduced in the sulfidation roasting-leaching process,but the conditions of the method are demanding and it is difficult to realize industrialization. The method of ferric salts leaching also has lots of problems,such as big loss of leaching agent and difficulty in regeneration of ferric saltsp. The corrosion originated from Cl− limits the application of leaching with ferric chloride. There are also some defects with pressurized oxygen leaching process and bioleaching

  9. Affirmation of the Method that Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt and Nickel in Copper, Lead and Zinc Ores by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素方法确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊英; 王晓雁; 胡建平

    2011-01-01

    文章在修订GB/T 14353-1993研究工作中,建立了电感耦合等离子体发射光谱同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素的标准分析方法.通过控制试样量和制备试样溶液的体积,可实现主量元素铜、铅、锌与次量元素钴、镍的同时测定.测定范围为铜0.002%~8.5%,铅0.01%~5%,锌0.005%~3%,钴0.001 5%~0.5%,镍0.003%~0.5%.按照相关国家标准对测量方法与结果的准确度进行8个实验室协同参加的准确度试验,统计参数结果表明在限定水平范围内方法偏倚不显著;利用方法重复性限参数,计算可能产生的最大相对偏差.分析方法精密度满足的要求.%A standard analysis method for simultaneous detecting copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel and other elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was developed when improving GB/T 14353-1993 , the method for chemical analysis of copper ore, lead ore and zinc ore. The major elements such as copper, lead, zinc and the minor elements of cobalt and nickel can be simultaneous detected by adjusting the test portion amounts and reagent solution volumes. The determination ranges of copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and nickel are respectively 0.002% -8.5% , 0. 01% - 5% , 0. 005% - 3% , 0. 001 5% - 0. 5% and 0. 003% - 0. 5%. According to relevant national standards, this method was tested by eight cooperation laboratories. Statistical results indicated that the method is impartial within a definitive range. The repeatability limit parameter was used to calculate the possible maximum deviations. The precision of the method satisfied the requirement of "The specification of testing quality management for geological laboratoris".

  10. Research on flotation process of micro-fine particle copper-zinc ores containing gold and silver and high content of sulfur%含金银高硫微细粒铜锌矿石浮选工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万宏民; 吴天骄; 靳建平

    2014-01-01

    The useful mineral particles in one gold and silver contained copper-zinc ore are micro-fine with high content of sulfur,chalcopyrite is closely related to sphalerite,galena,and arsenopyrite,and the content of sulfur is as high as 21.44%.In this paper,according to the characteristics of the ore properties,five processes are explored inclu-ding selective flotation of copper and zinc,the flotation capacity of copper and zinc,the flotation capacity of copper, zinc and sulfur,mixed flotation of copper and zinc-regrinding of copper and zinc concentrates-separation of copper and zinc,mixed flotation of copper,zinc and sulfur-regrinding of concentrates-separation of copper,zinc and sulfur. The results show that the process of mixed flotation of copper,zinc and sulfur-regrinding of concentrates-separation of copper,zinc and sulfur is well suited for the treatment of the ore with good technical indexes;at the same time it a-chieves good technical indexes with sulfide concentrates( gold and silver roughing concentrates) subject to metallurgi-cal treatment method.%某含金银高硫微细粒铜锌矿石中有用矿物粒度微细,黄铜矿与闪锌矿、方铅矿、毒砂关系密切,且硫高达21.44%。针对该矿石性质特点,试验探索了铜锌优先浮选、铜锌等可浮浮选、铜锌硫等可浮浮选、铜锌混浮—铜锌精矿再磨—铜锌分离、铜锌硫混浮—精矿再磨—铜锌硫分离等5种选别流程。试验结果表明:铜锌硫混浮—精矿再磨—铜锌硫分离流程适宜处理该矿石,其技术指标较好;同时,硫精矿(金银粗精矿)采用湿法工艺进行处理,也取得了良好的技术指标。

  11. 云南某氧化铜矿石选矿试验%Beneficiation Tests of a Copper Oxide Ore from Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘豹; 孙乾予; 刘淼

    2013-01-01

    云南某难选氧化铜矿石氧化程度高、泥化严重,有用矿物嵌布粒度粗细不均,其中硫化铜矿嵌布粒度较粗.按先浮硫化铜矿物,再浮氧化铜矿物的原则流程进行了选矿工艺技术条件研究.结果表明,氧化铜矿物采用分级分选工艺可以有效解决矿泥通过中矿返回不断循环、积累的问题;闭路流程最终获得了铜品位为21.43%、回收率为47.73%的硫化铜精矿和铜品位为17.41%、回收率为19.39%的氧化铜精矿,综合精矿的铜品位为20.09%、回收率为67.12%.%A refractory copper oxide in Yunnan with high degree of oxidation,serious mudding,fine or uneven disseminated size of useful minerals,and coarse disseminated copper sulfide,etc.Technical condition tests for beneficiation are made by the principle of firstly floating copper sulphide minerals and then floating copper oxide minerals.The results show that for copper oxide minerals,the grading separation process can effectively resolve the sludge constantly circulating and accumulating problems during the whole flow-sheet.Through the closed circuit,copper sulfide concentrate with Cu grade of 21.43%,and recovery of 47.73%,copper oxide concentrate with Cu grade of 17.41% and recovery of 19.39%,are gained respectively.In total concentrates,Cu grade is 20.09% and Cu recovery is 67.12%.

  12. Productive practice and technology optimization of mineral processing for copper-nickel ore in Hami%哈密铜镍矿选矿工艺优化与生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立群; 李金良; 黄红

    2014-01-01

    针对哈密某铜镍矿选矿生产实践中浮选泡沫较粘、跑槽现象严重、药剂成本高等问题,对比研究了入选矿石的物化性质,通过适当粗磨、取消预选滑石、调整流程结构等优化工艺的措施;同时筛选药剂种类、调整药剂的配伍、细化药剂的使用,以强化对镍连生体的回收,经技术改造后取得了显著成效。研究表明:试样属轻微氧化的高氧化镁、中低品位铜镍硫化矿石,综合硬度系数为6.7,相对可磨度为1.26;矿石为星散浸染状构造,结构较为松疏,易生成细泥恶化分选环境,适宜的磨矿细度为78%左右。实践表明采用模数为3.1的水玻璃替代六偏磷酸钠与常规水玻璃(模数2.7)强化矿泥分散效果,以高醚化度的M IBC增强对滑石和高氧化镁矿物的抑制,取消BK-204优化了药剂用量、添加少量Y89-2加强捕收剂的协同作用是成功的。技术改造后生产过程稳定、经济技术指标优良,新增经济效益2172万多元。%Some problems ,such as high flotation froth viscosity ,foam overflow seriously ,higher cost of flotation reagents ,etc .had usually appeared on flotation practice of copper-nickel ore in Hami ,Xinjiang . remarkable results have been achieved by optimization of process like maintaining coaser particles size , cancelled talc flotation in advance and adjusting flotation flowsheets ,after comparatively studied physical and chemical charactietics on copper-nickle ore samples .In the meantime ,measures were taked to select flotation reageats ,refine of combined use and compatibility in order to recover nickle-containing intergrow th straightly .Results show that a middle to low-grade copper-nickel ore contenting high magnesium oxide is mildly oxidized ,according to the comprehensive hardness coefficient of 6 .7 and the grindability of 1 .26 . Meanwhile ,the sample is comprised of diffuse disseminated and loose structure .As

  13. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) ore deposits of the Blackbird district, east-central Idaho, have previously been classified as Besshi-type VMS, sedex, and IOCG deposits within an intact stratigraphic section. New studies indicate that, across the district, mineralization was introduced into the country rocks as a series of structurally controlled vein and alteration systems. Quartz-rich and biotite-rich veins (and alteration zones) and minor albite and siderite veinlets maintain consistent order and sulfide mineral associations across the district. Both early and late quartz veins contain chalcopyrite and pyrite, whereas intermediate-stage tourmaline-biotite veins host the cobaltite. Barren early and late albite and late carbonate (generally siderite) form veins or are included in the quartz veins. REE minerals, principally monazite, allanite, and xenotime, are associated with both tourmaline-biotite and late quartz veins. The veins are in mineralized intervals along axial planar cleavage, intrafolial foliation, and shears.

  14. Method for determining microamounts of uranium in solutions from copper ores, by liquid-liquid extraction and spectrophotometry with arsenazo III.; Metodo para determinar microcantidades de uranio en disoluciones de minerales de cobre, por extraccion liquido-liquido y espectrofotometria con arsenazo III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, B.

    1972-07-01

    A spectrophotometric method is described for determining small amounts of uranium in aqueous solutions from copper ores. Uranium is quantitatively separated in a single extraction by a solution of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide in benzene, using ethylendiaminetetracetic acid and sodium fluoride as complexing agents, for improving the selectivity of the procedure. An aliquot of the extract is diluted with a hydrocolloidal solution of arsenazo III. Optical density is measured at 650 nm. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Experimental Study on a Low Grade Copper-nickel ore from Sichuan%四川某低品位硫化铜镍矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟; 王昌良; 赵开乐; 饶系英

    2011-01-01

    A low grade copper-nikel ore in sichuan contains Cu 0. 18% , Ni 0.43%. Gangue minerals mostly is magnesium silicate,for example,talc and serpentine. Based on process mineralogy characteristics of this special low grade ore.a-dopting the closed circuit flowsheet by no removing talc in advance one roughing,two cleaning and four stages of scavenging for bulk flotation of Cu and Ni,one roughing,one cleaning and three scavenging for separating Cu and Ni returning of middling in turn,and a new special depressant WL-001 was added. Then,copper concentrate with Cu and Ni grade of 20. 11% and 0.67% at a 55. 86% Cu recovery,nickel concentrate with Ni and Cu grade of 5. 57% and 0. 60% at a 73. 96% Ni recovery were respectively achieved by laboratory test.%四川某低品位铜镍矿含铜0.18%、含镍0.43%,脉石以蛇纹石、滑石类的含镁矿物为主.在对矿石进行充分的工艺矿物学研究的基础上,针对性地选用脉石矿物的有效抑制剂WL - 001,在实验室不预先脱泥的条件下,采用1粗2扫4精铜镍混浮、1粗1扫3精铜镍分离、中矿顺序返回闭路流程处理该矿石,可以获得铜品位20.11%、含镍0.67%、铜回收率55.86%的铜精矿和镍品位5.57%、含铜0.60%、镍回收率73.96%的镍精矿.

  16. Effects of Sintering Temperature on the Physical Properties of Porosity Ceramics Based on Copper Ore Tailings%烧结温度对铜尾矿多孔陶瓷物理性能的影响研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官钰洁

    2016-01-01

    In this article,a kind of porosity ceramics was prepared using copper ore tailings and potassium feldspar with adding CaCO3 as the pore-forming materials.The effects of sintering temperature on the crystallization phase,shore hard-ness,density,water absorption of the porosity ceramics were investigated systematically.The results indicate that the main crystalline phases of the porosity ceramics are leucite,wollastonite and akermanite.The increasing temperature favors the formation of leucite.The hardness of the porosity ceramics drops with the rise of temperature when the temperature above 1 160 ℃.The density of the porosity ceramics exhibits rather temperature independent behaviors in the range of 1 150 ℃ to 1 180 ℃.However,it changes obviously when further raising the temperature.For the porous ceramics with different con-tent of copper ore tailings,the water absorption reaches maximum at 1 180 ℃.%以铜尾矿和钾长石为主要原料,添加CaCO3为发泡剂,制备多孔陶瓷。研究了烧结温度对尾矿多孔陶瓷晶相、硬度、密度和吸水率的影响。结果表明:尾矿多孔陶瓷的主晶相为白榴子石,硅灰石和镁黄长石。烧结温度升高有利于白榴子石相的形成,当烧结温度>1160℃后,多孔陶瓷的硬度总体上随着烧结温度的升高而降低。尾矿多孔陶瓷的密度在1150~1180℃,随着烧结温度的变化不大。进一步提高烧结温度,但密度变化则非常明显。对于不同尾矿含量的多孔陶瓷,其吸水率都在1180℃烧结温度时达到最大。

  17. Environmental nuclear-geophysical ore monitoring in mines of Corporation Kazakhmys PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefimenko, Sergei; Yefimenko, Olga; Makarov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    An environmental monitoring of ore composition in complex deposits of Kazakhstan (the Zhezkazgan, Kusmuryn, Artemjevsk, Kounrad, Taskura and Zhaman-Aibat deposits) is carried out using EDXRF spectrometers RPP-12, RLP-21 and RLP-21T. The monitoring of ore concentrates in Satpaev, Balkhashsk and Zhezkazgan processing plants and in Zhezkazgan copper smelter continues at present time. The monitoring suggests data on new promising elements and environmental pollutants in ores and new trends in distribution of bound elements in ores.

  18. Monzonitoid magmatism of the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (South Primor'e): U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology and peculiarities of ore-bearing magma genesis by the data of isotopic-geochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhno, V. G.; Kovalenko, S. V.; Alenicheva, A. A.

    2011-05-01

    Magmatic rocks from the copper-porphyritic Lazurnoe deposit (Central Primor'e) have been studied. It has been found that rocks from the Lazurnyi massif are referred to gabbro-monzodiorites, monzodiorites, and monzo-granodiorites formed during two magmatic phases of different ages. The earlier phase is represented by gabbro-monzodiorites and diorites of the North Stock, and the later one, by gabbro-monzodiorites and monzo-grano-diorites of the South Stock. On the basis of isotopic dating by the U-Pb (SHRIMP) method for zircon and by the K-Ar method for hornblendes and biotites, the age of magmatic rocks is determined at 110 ± 4 for the earlier phase and at 103.5 ± 1.5 for the later one. Examination of the isotopic composition for Nd, Sr, Pb, Hf, δ18O, and REE spectra has shown that melts of the first phase are contaminated with crustal rocks and they are typical for a high degree of secondary alterations. Potassiumfeldspar, biotite, propylitic alterations, and sulfidization are manifested in these rocks. The rocks of the later stage of magmatism are characteristic for a primitive composition of isotopes and the absence of secondary alterations. They carry the features of adakite specifics that allows us to consider them derivatives of mantle generation under high fluid pressure. The intrusion of fluid-saturated melts of the second phase into the magmatic source of the first phase caused both an alteration pattern of rocks and copper-porphyritic mineralization. Isotopes of sulfur and oxygen allow us to consider the ore component to be of magmatic origin.

  19. Origin and evolution of ore-forming fluids from Jiama copper polymetallic deposit in Tibet%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床成矿流体来源及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云; 张继超; 汪雄武; 唐菊兴; 秦志鹏; 彭惠娟; 李爱国; 杨科; 王华; 李炯

    2011-01-01

    A study of the homogenization temperature and characteristics of melt inclusions and fliud inclusions in the Jiama copper polymetallic deposit shows that the formation temperature of the porphyry body was 634~887℃,and the exsolution pressure of the fluids was 59.1 MPa.The temperature of five ore-forming stages was 170~540℃, the salinity concentration was 15%~50%, and the density was 0.9233~1.0805 g/cm3.The oreforming fluids were mainly of the NaCl-H2O system.The early ore pressure was higher than 31.8 MPa, and the early mineralization occurred below 1.1778 km.The ratios and illustration diagrams of ion compositions and gas compositions and the analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate that the ore-forming fluids of the Jiama copper polymetallic deposit were derived from magma, with the mixing of precipitated water in the late period.The formation and evolution of the ore-forming fluids experienced exsolution of magma, phase separation of supercritical fluid, decompression and boiling, the filling or metasomatism between magmatic hydrothermalvolatile fluids and carbonate wall rocks.The metallogenic elements selectively entered the volatile and were transported.The decompression, boiling and mixing resulted in the eventual precipitation of metallogenic elements.The ore deposit is genetically of magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization in the unified porphyry-skam-epithermal ore-forming system.%对斑岩、矽卡岩及角岩矿物中石英的熔融包裹体和流体包裹体进行测温,得到甲玛铜多金属矿床斑岩体形成温度为634~887℃,斑岩体中流体开始出溶的压力为59.1 MPa.从岩浆阶段、岩浆-热液阶段、矽卡岩阶段、矽卡岩退变质阶段到石英-硫化物阶段,温度范围为170~540℃,盐度集中在15%~50%范围内,密度为0.9233~1.0805 g/cm3,成矿流体主要为NaCl-H2O体系.早期最低成矿压力为31.8MPa,最浅成矿深度为1.1778 km.通过流体包裹体的离子成分、气相成

  20. Characteristics of Fluid Inclusions in Jiama Copper-Pollymetallic Ore Deposit, Tibet and Its Geological Significance%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床流体包裹体特征及地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 赵财胜; 吕志成; 严光生; 甄世民

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered Jiama super large copper-polymetallic deposit is located in the middle section of Gangdese metallogenic belt, Tibet. Systematic studies including petrography, microthermometry, laser Raman microprobe and SEM/EDS were carried out on the primary fluid inclusions in metallogentic granite and major ore bodies. The analytical results show that dominant fluid inclusions from skarn ore related to metallogensis include liquid-rich, gas-rich two-phase and daughterminerals bearing polyphase types. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions range from 225 ℃ to 500 ℃. The average of the salinities of ore-forming fluid is 36. 2% NaCleq and the densities vary from 0.89 to 0.98 g/cm3. The ore-forming fluids belong to NaCl - H2O type characterized by highmoderate temperature, high salinity, low density and strong reduction. Besides H2O, the gas compositions are immiscible system rich in CH4, H2S, CO2 and N2 etc. The occurrence of organic matter, such as CH4, C2H4 and C3H6, suggests that the ore-forming materials were formed in a reduced environment. Based on estimation of mineralization pressure and the relationship between pressure and depth in fracture zones, the mineralization depth is considered to be at 2.2 - 8.3 km. The analytical results of hydrogen and oxygen isotopic elements show that ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from magmatic water mixed with meteoric water later. The coexistence of daughter-minerals bearing multiphase inclusions and those liquid-and gas-rich inclusions with different filling degrees, together with their similar homogenization temperatures and much different salinities, indicates that ore-forming fluids had experienced boiling.%甲玛矿床是位于西藏冈底斯成矿带中段的超大型铜多金属矿床.成矿相关岩体和主矿体中的流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温、激光拉曼探针及扫描电镜/能谱分析结果表明:与成矿有关的流体包裹体主要有富液相、富气相

  1. Transformation of Melting Electric Furnace for Copper-Cobalt Ore Reduction%铜钴矿还原熔炼电炉的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宇

    2013-01-01

    The structure and smelting process of the reduction melting electric furnace at one FEZ A cobalt-copper smelting plant in D. R. Congo, was introduced. Furnace leakage is investigated and transformation measurement is introduced.%介绍刚果(金)富利铜钴冶炼厂还原熔炼电炉的构造和冶炼工艺,分析了电炉渗漏的原因,并介绍了改造的措施和方法.

  2. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  3. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  4. A tentative discussion on zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of ore-bearing intermediate-acid intrusive rocks in the Bainaimiao copper ore district and the metallogen-ic epoch%内蒙古白乃庙铜矿区含矿中酸性侵入岩LA-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄、地球化学特征及成矿时代

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利刚; 李承东; 常青松; 高学生; 许雅雯; 樊建廷; 张阔

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine the metallogenic epoch and ore-forming environment of the Bainaimiao copper deposit, the au⁃thors carried out research on isotope geochronology and geochemistry of ore-bearing intermediate-acid rocks. LA-MC-ICPMS zir⁃con U-Pb dating shows that the ages of three ore-bearing granodiorites samples are 421.5±1.8Ma, 438.6±3.4Ma and 459.3±3.6Ma respectively. These rocks have peraluminous calc-lkaline characteristics, and are enriched in LREE. There is a weak positive anomaly of Eu. The trace elements are obviously depleted in Ta and Nb. According to comprehensive ages and geochemical characteristics of ore-bearing granodiorites and the regional tectonic background, the authors consider that the Bainaimiao copper deposit was on the whole formed in the early Paleozoic and characterized by multi-period mineralization. In addition, the metallogenesis was related to the subduction event of ancient Mongolia Ocean in the Early Paleozoic.%为了限定白乃庙铜矿的成矿时代和成矿环境,对含矿中酸性岩类进行同位素年龄和岩石地球化学研究。获得的3个含矿花岗闪长岩样品的LA-MC-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb年龄分别为421.5±1.8Ma、438.6±3.4Ma和459.3±3.6Ma。含矿中酸性岩类属于过铝质钙碱性系列岩石,稀土元素曲线显示为轻稀土元素富集型,具有弱正Eu异常,微量元素曲线表现为明显的Ta、Nb亏损。综合含矿中酸性岩类时代、地球化学特征及区域构造背景,认为白乃庙铜矿总体形成于早古生代,具有多期成矿的特点,成矿作用与古蒙古洋早古生代俯冲消减事件有关。

  5. 西藏雄村铜金矿Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩成因探讨:来自岩石地球化学、Sr-Nd-Pb同位素地球化学特征的证据%The Genesis of Mineralized Tuff of No.Ⅰ Ore Body in the Xiongcun Porphyry Copper-Gold Metallogenic Ore District, Tibet: Evidence from Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁枫; 郎兴海; 胡正华; 杨欢欢; 王子正; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    雄村斑岩型铜金矿集区位于冈底斯造山带中段南缘,目前发现的Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ号主矿体均产于含矿斑岩体及其接触带附近的凝灰岩中,本文主要对雄村Ⅰ号矿体赋矿凝灰岩开展岩石地球化学特征研究.赋矿凝灰岩显示出与岛弧火山岩相似的地球化学特征,如相对富集LREE、LILE而亏损HREE、HFS以及低的I(sr)值(变化范围为0.704163~0.705369,均值0.704907)和正的εNd(t)值(变化范围为3.7805~7.6286,均值5.904121)等,其形成与印度-亚洲大陆碰撞造山之前的新特提斯洋俯冲作用有关,产于新特提斯洋向北的洋内俯冲作用而形成的岛弧环境.赋矿凝灰岩起源于岛弧底部的新生玄武质岩层的部分熔融,源岩主要由角闪石、斜长石和少量石榴子石组成.赋矿凝灰岩、含矿斑岩体和成矿作用同属一个火山-岩浆-热液系统,赋矿凝灰岩为成矿提供了必要的围岩外部因素,是矿区重要的控矿因素,也是一个重要的找矿地质条件.在雄村矿区及其外围,侵位于凝灰岩中的斑岩体应该是今后找矿评价的重点区域.%The Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold metallogenic ore concentration area is located in the north of the middle Gangdise orogenic belt. No. Ⅰ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ main ore bodies of Xiongcun area are hosted in ore-bearing porphyries and tuff along the contact zone. This paper mainly studied geochemistry of mineralized tuff in Xiongcun No. I ore body. The mineralized tuff is similar to volcanic rocks in island arc in such geochemical characteristics as relative enrichment of LREE and LILE, depletion of HREE and HFS, low I(Sr) values (raning from 0.704163 to 0.705369, 0.704907 on average), and positive εNd(t) values (ranging from 3.7805~7.6286, 5.904121 on average). Mineralized tuff was formed in an island arc environment and was related to northwards subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean which occurred before India - Asian continental collision, and its source

  6. Amelioration of Ore Dressing Flowsheet for Zhengnanfang Copper Mine in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古正南房铜矿选矿流程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小彬; 戴子林

    2016-01-01

    对内蒙古正南房铜矿选矿旧流程进行了技术改造,将第二段磨矿改为精选1尾矿分级后再磨,既可防止矿石过磨,又可使精选1尾矿充分单体解离,减少了磨矿处理量,大幅度降低了生产成本,同时大大降低了操作难度,提高了各项生产技术指标,为企业和社会创造了较大经济效益。%In the technical reconstruction for the dressing process of Zhengnanfang Copper Mine in Inner Mongolia, the second stage of direct grinding was replaced by a regrinding for underflow of classified tailings from the first stage of cleaning, which can not only prevent overgrinding, but also ensure the sufficient liberation of minerals. With the reduction in the load for grinding, the production cost and the operation difficulty are significantly reduced, while the processing index is obviously improved, bringing more economic benefits to the enterprise and society.

  7. Study on Determination of copper ores by atomic absorption spectrometry%原子吸收光谱分析测定铜矿石成分探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖淑珍

    2016-01-01

    In 1950s,China began to use atomic spectroscopy to analyze various elements,such as metallurgy, geology and machinery and other industries.With the development of the atomic spectrum analysis technology,a lot of new analytical techniques are derived. At present,the combination of atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry has become the main means of atomic spectrum analysis in China. In this paper,we study the chemical analysis of silver,copper,zinc and other elements in the samples of the mine.%20世纪50年代,我国开始应用原子光谱对各种元素进行分析,诸如,冶金、地质和机械等行业.随着原子光谱分析技术的不断发展,衍生出很多新的分析技术,使样品元素的研究更加清晰.目前,原子吸收和原子荧光光谱分析的结合,成为我国原子光谱分析的主要手段.本文以此为切入点,研究矿山样品中的银、铜、锌等元素的化学分析.

  8. Evolution of Ore-forming Fluids in the Anqing Copper-iron Deposit, Anhui Province, and Its Ore-forming Implications%安徽安庆铜铁矿床成矿流体演化特征及其成矿意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      安庆铜铁矿床是长江中下游成矿带内重要的矽卡岩型矿床之一。本文对该矿床中的成矿流体进行了系统研究,分析了成矿流体性质、来源及其演化过程,探讨了成矿机制。流体包裹体岩相学观察显示,矿床中的包裹体类型有Ⅰ型含子矿物三相包裹体(L+V+S)、Ⅱ型气液两相包裹体(L+V)及少量Ⅲ型气相包裹体(V);气成-高温热液期的透辉石与石榴子石中流体包裹体数量相对较少,以Ⅰ型包裹体为主;而热液期的石英与方解石中流体包裹体大量发育,以Ⅱ型包裹体为主。激光拉曼探针分析和流体包裹体显微测温结果表明,成矿流体可近似地看作不饱和的NaCl-H2O体系。从早矽卡岩阶段至碳酸盐阶段,成矿流体经历了从高温(456.1~578.1℃)、高盐度(39.37%~54.58% NaCleq)向低温(112.3~312.4℃)、低盐度(7.59%~31.75% NaCleq)的持续演化。演化过程中经历了流体沸腾作用和岩浆热液与大气降水的混合作用,其中,早矽卡岩阶段的水-岩作用、沸腾作用与矽卡岩成岩作用有关,水-岩作用,而石英-硫化物阶段的沸腾作用与混合作用可能是铜矿形成的重要机制。氢、氧同位素研究表明气成-高温热液期的成矿流体以岩浆水为主,而在热液期中石英-硫化物阶段至碳酸盐阶段大气降水在成矿流体中的比重逐渐增大。%Anqing copper-iron deposit is one of the most important skarn-type deposits along the Middle and Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. In this study, the ore-forming fluids of this deposit are systematically researched by analyzing their properties, and evolution, and discussing the ore-forming mechanism. The petrographic observation of fluid inclusions shows that inclusions of the deposit consist of I-type daughter mineral-bearing three-phase inclusions (L+V+S), II-type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions (L+V), and a few

  9. Geological characteristics and ore-searching directions of copper-cobalt deposit KS in Katanga province of Congo(King)%刚果(金)加丹加省堪苏祁铜钴矿床地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 陈玉华; 付小锦; 张启军; 张宝华; 宋小军; 陈怀亮; 陈丹明

    2012-01-01

    copper-cobalt deposit KS in Katanga province of Congo(King) is located in Katanga copper-cobalt belt in the NW-trending branch of the west part of the middle Great Eastern Africa Rift Valley. Genetically, there are two types of ore. One is sedimentary copper-cobalt ore similar to the regional copper-cobalt deposit with Cu dominant and controlled by early sedmentary sandy shale and Co by-product occurring maily at foliation in the ductile-brittle shear zone and controled by late tectonics. The other is hydro-thermal copper-cobalt ore resulted from hydrothermal fluid which is companied by the ductile-brittle shear zone. Co is in high grade in such ore. Based on the geological condition and EH4 dada interpretation it is potential for further exploration to depth and surroundings of the Cu-Co deposit.%刚果(金)堪苏祁铜钴矿床位于东非大裂谷中段西侧NW向分支内,属于加丹加铜钴铀矿带一部分.该矿床具有2种成矿类型:一种是沉积岩型铜钴矿,以铜为主,伴生钴,铜矿早期受沉积型砂页岩地层的控制,钴矿赋存于韧脆性剪切构造带中,受后期构造的控制,剪切构造面理是钴矿的主要富集场所;另一种是后期伴随韧脆性剪切带生成的热液型钴铜矿,以钴的品位较高为特征.根据成矿地质条件及EH4物探解译成果分析,矿区深部及外围尚有该类型矿床的找矿潜力.

  10. Role of ore mineralogy in optimizing conditions for bioleaching low-grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. A. OLUBAMBI; S. NDLOVU; J. H. POTGIETER; J. O. BORODE

    2008-01-01

    The role that ore mineralogy plays in understanding and optimizing the conditions favouring the bioleaching of complex sulphide ore containing high amounts of siderite was studied using mixed cultures of mesophilic bacteria, with emphasis on zinc,lead and copper recoveries. The influencing parameters investigated include particle size, stirring speed, volume of inoculum, pulp density, and pH. The results show that the mixed mesophilic cultures can extract about two and a half times the amount of zinc than copper over an equivalent period of time. The highest zinc and copper recoveries of 89.2% and 36.4% respectively are obtained at particle size of 75 μm, stirring speed of 150 r/min, pulp density of 10% (w/v), 12% (v/v) inoculum concentration, and a pH of 1.6. Variations in elemental composition within different particle sizes resulting from the mineralogy of the ore account for the bioleaching behaviour at varying particle sizes. The dissolution at varying pulp density, volume of inoculum, solution pH and the low solution potential observed are also influenced by ore mineralogy.

  11. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  12. Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Potential of the Copper and Zinc Ore Deposits in the Sinian and Cambrian Systems of the Northern Daba Shan%北大巴山震旦寒武系中铜锌矿特征及找矿前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚银杰; 邹先武; 崔森; 夏杰; 张遵遵; 刘小龙; 刘劲松

    2013-01-01

    北大巴山属南秦岭造山带,在震旦-寒武纪形成一套以深水滞流盆地相为主的硅质炭质碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩沉积.自开展地质大调查工作以来,该区域发现大量的铜锌矿点.根据矿体赋存位置、成因及矿石类型,铜锌矿可分为韧性剪切带型、石英脉型及岩浆岩接触变质型三种类型.通过对区内铜锌矿成矿规律的总结及成矿条件的分析,认为北大巴山具有良好的矿源层、完善的输导系统、丰富的储矿空间,因而具有较大的找矿潜力.指出深大断裂带附近的庄子沟组中碳酸盐岩为有利的赋矿部位.%The northern Daba Shan is part of the South Qinling orogenic belt, where deposited a set of siliceous - carbonaceous clastic rocks interbed-ded with carbonate sediments dominated by deep stagnant basin facies formed in the Sinian - Cambrian epoch. Previous exploration has discovered a large number of copper and zinc mineral occurrences or ore deposits, which are classified into the ductile shear zone type, quartz vein type and magmatic rocks contact metamorphic type according to the occurrence location, genesis of ore - bodies and types of the ores. Studies on the metallogenic conditions and regularities of these copper and zinc ore deposits suggest that the northern Daba Shan owns good source beds,perfect transporting and conducting systems and rich ore - storage space,indicating its large prospecting potential. It is pointed out that the of Zhuangzigou Fm. carbonate rocks adjacent to the deep and large faults are favorable ore - bearing loci.

  13. Water leaching of titanium from ore flotation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Malgorzata M; Guibal, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Copper ore tailings were tested for the stability of titanium submitted to water leaching in three different reactor systems (agitated vessel, bioreactor and percolated fixed-bed column). For each of these systems, titanium extraction did not exceed 1% of the available metal. Biomass removed from ore residue adsorbed a small part of the titanium with sorption capacities below 20-30 mg g(-1), but most of this biomass was sequestered in the ore residue. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored and changes in concentration correlated with bacteria development at the initial stage of the process and to fungal development in the latter stages.

  14. ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVE APPROACHES FOR DEPRESSING MgO-CONTAINING GANGUE MINERALS IN COPPER-NICKEL SULFIDE ORE FLOATATION%铜镍硫化矿浮选过程中MgO脉石矿物的抑制途径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚辉; 孟凡东; 孙传尧

    2012-01-01

    Nickel ore resources in China are mostly low-grade copper-nickel sulfide ores with high percentage of MgO-containing silicate gangue minerals. Major copper-nickel mines in China, such as Jinchuan Group Ltd. , have been striving to lower the magnesium content of floatation concentrate. Although lots of researches have been done, the depressing of MgO-containing gangue minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ore floatation is not technically controllable. Related literatures on depressing of MgO-conVaining gangue minerals have been reviewed. It is suggested that highly effective composite depressant, that is, a completing agent - depressant combination, should be employed to depress MgO-containing silicate gangue minerals. A complexing agent is used to clean the surfaces of valuable minerals and gangue minerals, which will increase their floatability difference. In the meantime, a selective depressant is applied to depress MgO-containing gangue minerals. This will be the effective approach for depressing MgO-containing silicate minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ore floatation.%我国镍矿石资源主要为富含MgO硅酸盐脉石矿物的低品位铜镍硫化矿.长期以来,以金川公司为代表的主要铜镍矿山,一直将浮选精矿降镁作为选矿技术攻关的重点.尽管国内外研究人员开展了大量的研究工作,铜镍硫化矿浮选过程中MgO脉石矿物的抑制至今未能在技术上找到可控的解决方法.文章对MgO脉石矿物抑制研究的相关文献进行了综述分析,提出采用复合抑制剂,即络合剂-抑制剂组合,先对有用矿物和脉石矿物进行表面清洗以扩大其可浮性差异,再选择性抑制MgO脉石矿物,这将是铜镍硫化矿浮选过程中抑制MgO硅酸盐脉石矿物的有效途径.

  15. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of

  16. Study on isotope geochemistry compositions of the Baiyangping silver-copper polymetallic ore deposit area, Yunnan Province%云南白秧坪银铜多金属矿集区成矿流体的稳定同位素地球化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志超; 胡瑞忠; 毕献武; 武丽艳; 冯彩霞; 唐永永

    2012-01-01

    白秧坪银铜多金属矿集区位于滇西兰坪中-新生代沉积盆地中北部,由东矿带(上三叠统碳酸盐岩建造内的铅锌银铜矿床)和西矿带(下白垩统碎屑岩建造内的银铜钴铅锌矿床)两部分组成.本研究对该矿集区东、西矿带不同矿段、不同矿化类型矿石样品进行了硫-碳-氧同位素的研究.硫同位素研究表明,东矿带硫主要为地层硫,西矿带热液硫为沉积地层硫、有机硫及深源硫或地幔硫的混合.碳同位素显示,东矿带碳酸盐矿物δ13CPDB值为-3.0‰~+3.1‰,接近于海相碳酸盐,明显区别于其他各类地质体,暗示成矿流体的碳应来自碳酸盐岩;西矿带各矿段的δ13CpDB值变化范围小,除白秧坪少量样品外,其余均为负值(-5.1‰~-1.5‰),表明该区热液流体中碳的来源复杂,存在有机碳、地壳碳酸盐的碳及深源(地幔)碳.综合分析表明,西矿带成矿流体是一种混入深源流体的盆地热卤水,形成了下白垩统碎屑岩建造内的银铜钴铅锌矿床;东矿带成矿流体则是源于大气降水的盆地热卤水,形成了上三叠统碳酸盐岩建造内的铅锌银铜矿床.%Baiyangping silver-copper polymetallic ore-concentration area were developed on the northern border of the Lanping Basin, Yunnan Province. S-C-O isotopic compositions were analyzed to trace sources of ore-forming materials of the eastern ore-belt (limestone and dolomite of Upper Triassic Sanhedong Formation) and the western ore-belt (sandstone and fine-grained sandstone of Lower Cretaceous Jingxing Formation). Sulfur isotope analysis shows that the reduced sulfur of the eastern ore-belt mainly comes from the strata sulfate. The sulfur in the western ore-belt is derived from deep-seated mantle sufur mixed by crustal sufur. C and O isotopic analyses of silver-copper polymetallic ore concentration area show that the δ13CPDB values range from -3.0‰ to +3.1‰ in hydrothermal minerals such as calcite and

  17. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  18. Summary of the mineralogy of the Colorado Plateau uranium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Alice D.; Coleman, Robert Griffin; Thompson, Mary E.

    1956-01-01

    In the Colorado Plateau uranium has been produced chiefly from very shallow mines in carnotite ores (oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores) until recent deeper mining penetrated black unoxidized ores in water-saturated rocks and extensive exploration has discovered many deposits of low to nonvanadiferous ores. The uranium ores include a wide range from highly vanadiferous and from as much as one percent to a trace of copper, and contain a small amount of iron and traces of lead, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, silver, manganese, and other metals. Recent investigation indicates that the carnotite ores have been derived by progressive oxidation of primary (unoxidized) black ores that contain low-valent uranium and vanadium oxides and silicates. The uranium minerals, uraninite and coffinite, are associated with coalified wood or other carbonaceous material. The vanadium minerals, chiefly montroseite, roscoelite, and other vanadium silicates, occur in the interstices of the sandstone and in siltstone and clay pellets as well as associated with fossil wood. Calcite, dolomite, barite and minor amounts of sulfides, arsenides, and selenides occur in the unoxidized ore. Partially oxidized vanadiferous ore is blue black, purplish brown, or greenish black in contrast to the black or dark gray unoxidized ore. Vanadium combines with uranium to form rauvite. The excess vanadium is present in corvusite, fernandinite, melanovanadite and many other quadrivalent and quinquevalent vanadium minerals as well as in vanadium silicates. Pyrite and part or all of the calcite are replaced by iron oxides and gypsum. In oxidized vanadiferous uranium ores the uranium is fixed in the relatively insoluble minerals carnotite and tyuyamunite, and the excess vanadium commonly combines with one or more of the following: calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, manganese, or barium, or rarely it forms the hydrated pentoxide. The relatively stable vanadium silicates are little

  19. 云南某铜铅锌混合矿降硅试验研究%Silicon Removal Study on a Copper-Lead-Zinc Composite Ore from Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德海; 李福兰

    2016-01-01

    A copper-lead-zinc composite ore from Yunnan is quite uneven in terms of particle size distribution and close in-tergrowth, and is rich in lead and zinc.After grinding, as a copper-lead-zinc concentrate, it can be sold directly to the Third Smelting Plant of Baiyin Nonferrous Metallic Group.But this concentrate contains 7.51%silicon dioxide, resulting in difficulties for the smelting process.To reduce the silicon content of this product, bulk flotation of copper-lead-zinc, water removal and second bulk flotation is adopted.Under the condition of grinding fineness of 85%-0.074 mm, a composite con-centrateⅠis obtained after the first bulk flotation.A certain amount of water is removed from the corresponding tailings to increase its pulp density.After two roughings and one concentration treatment of this dense pulp, a composite concentrateⅡis obtained.The resulting tailings is the final.Sodium silicate, copper sulfate, butyl xanthate and pine oil were used in the process.The final composite concentrate contains 2.95%copper, 20.68%lead and 24.17%zinc and the corresponding recovery was 95.26%, 93.12%and 96.15%respectively.The concentrate also contains silver 147.22g/t and its recovery is 92.79%.The content of silicon dioxide in the concentrate is reduced to 4.25%, which meets the requirements of smelting operation.This beneficiation process is relatively simple, easy to operate.%云南某铜铅锌混合矿矿石各矿物嵌布粒度不均匀,共生关系密切,铅锌含量较高,经磨矿后即可作为铜铅锌混合精矿直接销售给白银集团公司第三冶炼厂,由于铜铅锌混合精矿中二氧化硅高达7.51%,给冶炼工艺造成了一定的困难,为降低铜铅锌混合精矿中二氧化硅的含量,采用铜铅锌混合浮选-脱水再混合浮选的工艺对该矿石进行了选矿试验研究。结果表明,在磨矿细度为-0.074 mm占85%的情况下,采用铜铅锌混合粗选Ⅰ直接选出混合精矿1,再

  20. Influence of Determination Method of Volumetric Weight of Ore on Reserves Estimation:Taking an Iron & Copper Mine as a Case%矿石体重取值方法对储量估算的影响--以某铁铜矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宇辰; 刘占宁; 孟海东; 张朋伟

    2015-01-01

    为了提高资源储量估算的准确性,分析矿石体重取值方法对资源储量估算的影响,提出了一种基于插值方式的矿石体重赋值方法。首先基于某铁铜矿的勘探数据和勘探线剖面图,经过图形格式转换和坐标变换,构建了部分矿体的三维地质模型及地质数据库;其次进行矿石样品组合,采用距离幂次反比法推估矿体品位;然后依据矿石样品体重与品位的测试值,建立了矿石体重与品位的线性、二次、三次及对数回归模型,经过分析比较,确定二次回归模型为矿石体重插值模型;最后在矿体三维地质模型内对矿石体重进行插值并估算储量,分析储量估算结果并与传统矿石体重取值方法估算的资源储量进行比较。结果表明:上述2种方法估算的资源储量相差较小,采用基于插值方式估算的矿石平均品位稍高于传统方法,对于提高资源储量的估算精度具有一定的参考价值。%In order to enhance the accuracy of reserves estimation,analyze the influence of the determination method vol-umetric weight of ore on reserves estimation, a new determination method of volumetric weight of ore based on interpolation method is proposed. Firstly, based on the prospecting data and prospecting line profile maps of an iron & copper mine, by graphics format conversion and coordinate transformation,the three dimensional geological model of part of the orebody of the i-ron &copper and the geological database are established;secondly,the ore samples are grouped,and the distance power inverse ratio method is adopted to estimate the grade of orebody;thirdly,based on the test values of orebody samples weight and grade, the linear regression model,quadratic regression model,cubic regression model and logistic regression model interpolation mod-el of volumetric weight of ore and grade are established. Through analysis and comparison,the quadratic regression

  1. Stable isotope characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids in copper-gold-polymetallic deposits within strike-slip pull-apart basin of Weishan-Yongping continental collision orogenic belt, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; HOU Zengqian; MO Xuanxue; DONG Fangliu; BI Xianmei; ZENG Pusheng

    2007-01-01

    More than 140 middle-small sized deposits or minerals are present in the Weishan-Yongping ore concentra-tion area which is located in the southern part of a typical Lanping strike-slip and pull-apart basin. It has plenty of mineral resources derived from the collision between the Indian and Asian plates. The ore-forming fluid system in the Weishan-Yongping ore concentration area can be divided into two subsystems, namely, the Zijinshan subsystem and Gonglang arc subsystem. The ore-forming fluids of Cu, Co deposits in the Gonglang arc fluid subsystem have δD values between -83.8‰ and -69%0, δ18O values between 4.17‰ and 10.45‰, and δ13C values between -13.6‰ and 3.7‰,suggesting that the ore-forming fluids of Cu, Co deposits were derived mainly from magmatic water and partly from formation water. The ore-forming fluids of Au, Pb, Zn, Fe deposits in the Zijinshan subsystem have δD values between-117.4‰ and-76‰, δ18O values between 5.32‰ and 9.56‰,and δ13C values between -10.07‰ and -1.5‰. The ore-forming fluids of Sb deposits have 6D values between -95%0 and -78‰, δ18O values between 4.5‰ and 32.3‰, and δ13 Cvalues between -26.4‰ and -1.9‰. Hence, the ore-forming fluids of the Zijinshan subsystem must have been derived mainly from formation water and partly from magmatic water.Affected by the collision between the Indian and Asian plates,ore-forming fluids in Weishan-Yongping basin migrated con-siderably from southwest to northeast. At first, the Gonglang arc subsystem with high temperature and high salinity was formed. With the development of the ore-forming fluids, the Zijinshan subsystem with lower temperature and lower salinity was subsequently formed.

  2. 云南马厂箐铜多金属矿床的成岩成矿时代及成矿动力学背景%Diagenetic and metallogenic epoch and ore-forming dynamic setting of Machangqing copper-polymetallic deposit, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王治华; 郭晓东; 葛良胜; 范俊杰; 徐涛

    2011-01-01

    The Machangqing copper-polymetallic deposit in Yunnan Province is a well-known typical ore deposit related to alkaline porphyry of the Himalayan epoch. Intimately relevant to the polymetallic mineralization of copper,molybdenum and gold, the Machangqing complex alkaline-rich rock body has experienced several magmatic activities: the earliest one began at 54 ~ 56 Ma, the middle one occurred at 45~49 Ma, the late one (the most vident one) at 29~37 Ma, and the last one at 23~25 Ma. Re-Os dating of molybdenite from the copper-molybdenum-type ore in the Machangqing deposit yields precise Re-Os model age of (35.3 ± 0.7) Ma. 40 Ar-39 Ar dating of hydrothermal muscovite from the skarn-type copper-molybdenum ore in the Luandongshan ore segment and alteration-type gold ore in the Rentouqing ore segment yields plateau age of (35.25 ± 0.36) Ma, isochron and reverse isochron ages of (35.0±1.8) Ma and (34.8±1.9) Ma for the first type ore, and (35.35±0.32)Ma, (34.44±0.99) Ma and (34.4±1.2) Ma for the second type ore, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralization of copper, molybdenum and gold deposit occurred in the same diagenetic-metallogenic geological event, and the ore-forming process was closely related to late magmatic activity, under the global dynamic background of the late collision-slip stage after collisional orogeny between Indian and Eurasian continents, thus overall belonging to the first summit of mineralization in Sanjiang region of southwestern China, i.e., the oreforming peak of copper-molybdeunm porphyry(65~35 Ma).%云南马厂箐铜多金属矿床是西南三江成矿带上著名的与喜马拉雅期富碱斑岩有关的典型矿床.与铜、钼、金等多金属成矿关系密切的马厂箐富碱斑岩为一复式岩体,存在多期次岩浆侵入活动,早期岩浆活动始于54~56 Ma,中期岩浆活动时间为45~49 Ma,晚期岩浆活动最强烈,发生在29~37 Via,末期岩浆活动时间为23~25Ma.采用辉钼矿Re

  3. Complex sulphide-barite ore leaching in ferric chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sokić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the leaching process of complex sulphide-barite ore were presented in this paper. The leaching process was carried out in a laboratory autoclave by ferric chloride solution. Considering that those minerals are represented in complex structural-textural relationships, it is not possible to extract lead, zinc and copper minerals from ore by flotation methods. The obtained results confirmed possibility of the ore processing directly, by chemical methods. The effect of temperature, time and oxygen partial pressure on the lead, zinc and copper dissolution was studied. The maximal leaching degree was achieved at 100 °C and amount of 91.5 % for Pb, 96.1 % for Zn and 60.7 % for Cu. Leaching at temperatures above 100 °C is impractical.

  4. KEY ROLE OF METALLOGENIC THEORY OF POLYGENETIC COMPOUND ORE DEPOSITS IN LOCATION PREDICTION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN DIWA REGIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG; Sheng-lin; LIU; Liang-ming; LAI; Jian-qing

    2001-01-01

    The metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposit is the Important basis for location prediction of hidden ore deposits in diwa regions.It can play an important role in each step of prediction research,targeting procedure,acquiring information and integrating information.In this paper,the authors discusses how to construct geological concept by using of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic ore deposits for predicting targeting area,to arrange investigation and detection for getting enough useful information,and to analyze and integrate information for reaching a trustful prediction conclusion.According to these strategies,we conduct a successful prediction of location of hidden ore bodies in the outer of the Fenghuangshan copper mine,a principal producing mine in Tongling Cu-Au district.

  5. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  6. Reseach on Acid Leaching Processes of A Nickel-copper Laterite Silicate Ore From Qinghai%用硫酸从青海含铜红土型硅酸镍矿石浸出镍、铜试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓鸣; 张昱; 王春梅; 严鹏; 陈力行

    2014-01-01

    研究了青海某含铜红土型硅酸镍矿石的常压和加压酸浸。试验结果表明:对于常压酸浸,在磨矿粒度-0.15 mm占95%、硫酸用量80%、浸出温度90℃、液固质量比2.3∶1、浸出时间3 h条件下,镍、铜浸出率分别为86.8%和92.6%;对于加压酸浸,在磨矿细度-0.15 mm占95%、硫酸用量60%、浸出温度120℃、液固体积质量比1.5∶1、浸出时间2h条件下,镍、铜浸出率分别为92.4%和94.0%。常压酸浸与加压酸浸均可得到较高的金属浸出率,但加压酸浸效率更高,且对杂质金属铁的浸出有一定抑制作用。%T he comparison tests for atmosphere leaching and pressure leaching of a nickel-copper laterite silicate ore from Qinghai were conducted .The results showed that both atmosphere leaching and pressure leaching can gain high leaching rate .At the conditions of atmosphere ,temperature of 90℃ ,ore granularity of -100 mesh accounting for 95% ,acid usage of 800 kg/t ores ,pulp density of 30% and agitation time of 3 h ,the leaching rate of Ni and Cu is 86 .8% and 92 .6% ,respectively .While at the conditions of pressure (202 kPa ) ,temperature of 120 ℃ ,ore granularity of - 100 mesh accounting for 95% ,acid usage of 600 kg/t ores ,pulp density of 40% ,and agitation leaching time of 2h ,the leaching rate of Ni and Cu is 92 .4% and 94 .0% ,respectively .However ,compared with the atmosphere leaching ,the pressure leaching can gain a higher leaching rate ,w hat is more important that it would have some inhibiting effect for Fe leaching .

  7. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  8. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  9. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Plawski Michal; Bakalarz Alicja

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equ...

  10. Chemical composition of the ore and occurrence state of the elements in Jingbaoshan platinum- palladium deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Huanbin; HE Mingqin; ZHANG Shangzhong; YI Fenghuang

    2008-01-01

    The Jingbaoshan platinum-palladium deposit is China's largest independent PGM (platinum-group metals) deposit so far discovered. There are eleven kinds of useful components in the ore: Pt, Pd, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Co. The platinum-group elements, gold and silver occur in the form of minerals in ores. twenty-five kinds of precious metal minerals have been found, of which twenty one belong to the platinum-group minerals. The minerals are very small in grain size. Copper occurs mainly as copper sulfide with a small amount of free copper oxide, and the beneficiated copper accounts for 95.21%. Nickel occurs mainly as nickel sulfide, and some nickel silicate and nickel oxide occur in the ore. The beneficiated nickel accounts for 72.03%. Cobalt occurs mainly as cobalt sulfide, and there are some cobalt oxide and other kinds of cobalt. The beneficiated cobalt accounts for 77.58%.

  11. Element geochemical characteristics of No.Ⅱ ore body of the Xiongcun porphyry copper-gold deposit in Tibet%西藏雄村斑岩铜金矿床Ⅱ号矿体元素地球化学特征及其指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄勇; 唐菊兴; 丁俊; 郎兴海; 李志军; 张丽

    2012-01-01

    雄村铜金矿是冈底斯成矿带上新发现的岛弧型斑岩铜金矿床,矿床由3个矿体组成,Ⅱ号矿体位于Ⅰ号矿体北西侧3km处.Ⅱ号矿体中铜、金、银矿化主要分布在早期钾-硅酸盐化带以及绢云母白云母-石英硫化物带中,早期钾-硅酸盐化的典型矿物组合为黑云母+磁铁矿±钾长石+黄铜矿+黄铁矿,热液磁铁矿含量较高.元素空间分布特征以及相关性分析表明,Cu和Au、Ag呈显著正相关,黄铜矿是Au和Ag的主要载体,分布在矿体中心.Cu与K、Rb呈正相关,而与Na呈负相关的特点表明矿化与钾质交代关系密切,晚期矿化以分布在外围的细脉状、脉状方铅矿和闪锌矿化为主.由矿体中心向外,与矿化有关的16种元素构成Cu、Au、Ag、K、Rb、Ba-Mo-Co、Ni-Pb、Zn、Mn、Ag、Sb-Na元素分带,元素带状分布特征与蚀变矿化分带吻合.分布在外围的Na同时受钾质交代过程中Na元素向外迁移作用以及早期深部高温环境下的钠质-钙质蚀变共同控制.元素空间分带特征与蚀变与矿化分带机理类似,受热液流体演化、运移、温压条件和原岩组分等综合因素控制,分带特征对今后的找矿与勘探工作具有一定的指示意义.%The Xiongcun copper-gold deposit is an island arc porphyry copper-gold deposit newly discovered in the Gangdise metallogenic belt. It consists of three ore bodies. No. Ⅱ ore body is located 3 km northwest of No. I ore body. Cu, Au, and Ag mineralizations occur in early K-silicate alteration zone and sericite-muscovite-quartz-sulphide zone. Early K-silicate alteration is characterized by biotite + magnetite ± K-feldspar + chalcopy-rite+ pyrite, and is rich in magnetite. Element distribution characteristics and correlation analysis show that Cu is well correlated to Au and Ag. Au- and Ag-bearing chalcopyrite is mainly distributed at the center of the ore deposit. Cu is positively related to K, Rb and negatively related to Na

  12. Determination of Ruthenium, Rhodium, Palladium, Iridium and Platinum in Copper-Nickel Sulfide Ores by Bismuth-Antimony Fire Assay%铋锑试金测定硫化铜镍矿中钌铑钯铱铂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可及; 刘淑君; 邵坤

    2014-01-01

    建立了用于预富集硫化铜镍矿中钌铑钯铱铂5种铂族元素的铋锑试金方法。40.0 g 氧化铋、25.0 g硼酸、10.0 g 碳酸钠、1.00 g 淀粉与10.0 g 待测样品于120 mL 瓷皿中,充分混匀,850℃入炉,20 min 后升至1000℃,保留40 min,出炉后趁热倾倒熔渣,使铋试金于空气中自然冷却。设计两段灰吹流程,铋试金先在镁砂灰皿内灰吹,直至剩余直径约5 mm,而后直接转入盛有20 g 熔融锑粉的坩埚盖中继续灰吹,获得直径约1 mm 的试金合粒。所得合粒经微波消解,冷却后定容至10 mL。铂钯用 ICP-OES 分析;钌铑铱质量数选择99 Ru,103 Rh 和191 Ir,以115 In 和185 Re 为内标,应用 ICP-MS 分析。对标准物质 GBW07196平行测定12次,铂族元素相对标准偏差为7.0%~9.5%。在10 g 取样量条件下,方法对 Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir 和 Pt 的检出限分别为0.027,0.016,0.11,0.10和0.11 ng/ g。应用本方法处理标准物质 GBW07194,GBW07195和 GBW07196均获得了满意的结果。%A bismuth-antimony fire assay method for the preconcentration of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, iridium and platinum in copper-nickel sulfide ores was developed. 40. 0 g bismuth trioxide, 25. 0 g boric acid, 10. 0 g sodium carbonate and 1. 00 g starch were mixed with 10. 0 g sample in a 120 mL porcelain bowl, which was put in a furnace at 850 ℃. After 20 min the temperature was raised to 1000 ℃ and held for another 40 min, and then the bowl was taken out, with the slag poured, which left the bismuth button to air cooling. A two-step cupellation procedure was developed. During the first step, the bismuth button was cupellated in a magnesia cupel until its diameter reached 5 mm or so, then it was transferred to a crucible cover containing 20 g melting antimony and kept cupellating, at last a bead with a diameter of 1 mm was obtained. The bead was microwave-digested, after cooling down to room temperature, the solvent of which was transferred to a volumetric flask and

  13. Research on Low-Grade and High Combination Ratio Copper Oxide Ore from Yunnan by United Technology of Beneficiation and Metallurgy%云南某低品位高结合率氧化铜矿选冶联合试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔毅琦; 王飞旺; 孟奇; 童雄; 王凯; 杨波

    2015-01-01

    云南某难选铜矿石属低品位高结合率氧化铜矿,采用选冶联合工艺实现了对该铜矿的高效回收.浮选试验研究表明,磨矿细度为-0.074 mm 占80%,调整剂水玻璃用量800 g/t,组合捕收剂丁黄药+异戊黄(1∶1)用量240 g/t,铜回收指标最佳,经二粗二精闭路试验获得的铜精矿中铜品位9.17%,回收率17.76%.浮选尾矿经磁选除铁,磁选尾矿采用硫酸浸出,当磨矿细度为-0.045 mm 占54%,硫酸用量60 kg/t,液固比3∶1,转速250 r/min,浸出温度45℃,浸出时间2 h 时,铜浸出率为81.88%,铜的综合回收率达86.55%.%A refractory low-grade oxide copper ore from Yunnan which contains large amounts of combined cop-per is studied.Efficient recovery of copper is obtained by united technology of beneficiation and metallurgy.Flo-tation experiments show that with the grinding fineness of -0.074 mm 80%,the sodium silicate dosage 800 g/t,the combination collector of butyl xanthate and isoamyl xanthate (1 ∶1 )dosage 240 g/t,the optimal copper re-covery and grade of the concentrate are 1 7.76% and 9.1 7%,respectively.Iron in flotation tailings is removed by magnetic separation,and the tailings are leaching with sulfuric acid.The copper leaching rate of 81 .88% is obtained with the grinding fineness of -0.045 mm 54%,the sulfuric acid dosage 60 kg/t,the liquid -solid ra-tio 3∶1 ,the speed 250 r/min,the temperature 45℃,the leaching time 2 h,and the total recovery of copper is 86.55%.

  14. Lead isotope studies of the Guerrero composite terrane, west-central Mexico: implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, Adriana; Macfarlane, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    New thermal ionization mass spectrometry and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry Pb isotope analyses of three Cenozoic ores from the La Verde porphyry copper deposit located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane of the Guerrero composite terrane are presented and the metal sources are evaluated. Lead isotope ratios of 3 Cenozoic ores from the El Malacate and La Esmeralda porphyry copper deposits located in the Zihuatanejo-Huetamo subterrane and of 14 ores from the Zimapan and La Negra skarn deposits from the adjoining Sierra Madre terrane are also presented to look for systematic differences in the lead isotope trends and ore metal sources among the proposed exotic tectonostratigraphic terranes of southern Mexico. Comparison among the isotopic signatures of ores from the Sierra Madre terrane and distinct subterranes of the Guerrero terrane supports the idea that there is no direct correlation between the distinct suspect terranes of Mexico and the isotopic signatures of the associated Cenozoic ores. Rather, these Pb isotope patterns are interpreted to reflect increasing crustal contribution to mantle-derived magmas as the arc advanced eastward onto a progressively thicker continental crust. The lead isotope trend observed in Cenozoic ores is not recognized in the ores from Mesozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide and sedimentary exhalative deposits. The Mesozoic ores formed prior to the amalgamation of the Guerrero composite terrane to the continental margin, which took place during the Late Cretaceous, in intraoceanic island arc and intracontinental marginal basin settings, while the Tertiary deposits formed after this event in a continental arc setting. Lead isotope ratios of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic ores appear to reflect these differences in tectonic setting of ore formation. Most Pb isotope values of ores from the La Verde deposit (206Pb/204Pb = 18.674-18.719) are less radiogenic than those of the host igneous rocks, but plot within the

  15. The Chahe Copper Deposit—Its Age and Genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉学; 邵树勋; 等

    1995-01-01

    The Chahe copper deposit occurs in the Early Proterozoic metamorphic series in the area of Chahe and its chalcopyrite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron age of 951±36 Ma ,providing evidence for copper mineralization at the early stage of the Jinning movement. The ore -forming material came from terrestrial clastic sediments and marine volcamic eruption and the ores were deposited in a relatively open beach environment. The Jinning movement led to folding and metamorphism of country strata, as well as to the rebomilization and transport of copper ,resulting in ore deposition in structurally weak locations. This deposit is a volcano-sedimentary metamorphic deposit.

  16. Processing of lateritic ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, D.E.; Ring, R.J. [Environment Division, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales (Australia); McGill, J.; Russell, H. [Energy Resources of Australia Ltd., Ranger Mine, Jabiru, Northern Territory (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    Highly weathered or lateritic ores that contain high proportions of fine clay minerals present specific problems when they are processed to extract uranium. Of perhaps the greatest significance is the potential of the fine minerals to adsorb dissolved uranium (preg-robbing) from leach liquors produced by processing laterites or blends of laterite and primary ores. These losses can amount to 25% of the readily soluble uranium. The clay components can also restrict practical slurry densities to relatively low values in order to avoid rheology problems in pumping and agitation. The fine fractions also contribute to relatively poor solid-liquid separation characteristics in settling and/or filtration. Studies at ANSTO have characterised the minerals believed to be responsible for these problems and quantified the effects of the fines in these types of ores. Processing strategies were also examined, including roasting, resin-in-leach and separate leaching of the laterite fines to overcome potential problems. The incorporation of the preferred treatment option into an existing mill circuit is discussed. (author)

  17. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  18. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore

  19. Isotopic characteristics of S,Pb,H and O of Jiama copper-polymetallic ore deposit,Tibet and their significance%西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床S、Pb、H、O同位素特征及其指示意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永胜; 吕志成; 严光生; 甄世民; 杜泽忠

    2012-01-01

    西藏甲玛铜多金属矿床是中国近年来发现的特大型铜铅锌多金属矿床之一,其产出的环境和形成机理为国内外矿床学家所关注。对甲玛铜多金属矿床中代表性岩(矿)石样品进行了S、Pb、H和O同位素分析,并从成矿系统中"源"的角度对其变化规律和成因意义进行了探讨。研究结果表明,甲玛铜多金属矿床的围岩和矿石中δ34S值变化于-4.9‰~0.5‰,在硫同位素直方图上呈塔式分布,成矿热液δ34SΣS在0值附近,与矿区内斑岩体的δ34S组成(-0.2‰~-0.7‰)十分接近。表明了矿石中硫的来源单一,主要来源于岩浆。矿石铅同位素变化范围较大,明显分为两组:第一组样品富放射性成因铅,其206 Pb/204 Pb变化范围为18.603~18.752,207Pb/204Pb变化范围为15.610~15.686,208 Pb/204 Pb变化范围为38.910~39.135;第二组样品具有低放射性成因铅特征,其206 Pb/204 Pb变化范围为18.130~18.270,207 Pb/204 Pb变化范围为15.470~15.480,208Pb/204Pb变化范围为38.140~38.850。各同位素比值相对稳定,变化范围较小。将含矿斑岩的岩石铅与矿石铅进行综合投图,两种类型的铅并非单阶段正常铅,而是混合铅,有放射性成因铅的加入。可能存在不同的源区或在演化过程中有不同源区物质的混入。氢氧同位素研究结果显示,氢同位素的来源主要为深部的花岗岩体,而氧同位素由于后期大气降水增多、水/岩比值升高,导致含矿石英脉中δ18 OH2O降低。因此推断甲玛铜多金属矿床成矿流体早期以深源流体为主,随着成矿过程的演化,大气降水所占的比例也越来越大。%Jiama copper-polymetallic deposit,discovered in recent years,is one of the giant Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in China.Its geological setting and metallogenic mechanism caused serious concern from the economic geologists.This paper analyzed S,Pb,H and O isotope of the representative rock

  20. Complexing and hydrothermal ore deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Helgeson, Harold C

    1964-01-01

    Complexing and Hydrothermal Ore Deposition provides a synthesis of fact, theory, and interpretative speculation on hydrothermal ore-forming solutions. This book summarizes information and theory of the internal chemistry of aqueous electrolyte solutions accumulated in previous years. The scope of the discussion is limited to those aspects of particular interest to the geologist working on the problem of hydrothermal ore genesis. Wherever feasible, fundamental principles are reviewed. Portions of this text are devoted to calculations of specific hydrothermal equilibriums in multicompone

  1. The Risk Analysis of Solid Waste of the Fujawu Copper Ore District Based on GeoEye -1 and DEM%基于GeoEye-1和DEM的富家坞铜矿区固体废弃物危险性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丹; 张志; 冯稳

    2011-01-01

    The flow accumulation and catchment watershed of the Dexing copper ore district and the Fujawu copper ore district in Jiangxi Province were simulated by using 1: 50 000 DEM with the support of ArcGIS in this paper.Firstly, the authors divided the area into 2 watersheds named a and b respectively, then divided the watershed a into 3 small catchment watersheds. Supported by metallogeny and mining science, the authors used GeoEye - 1 data of American satellite to make a quick survey of the solid waste in Fujawu copper ore district with the method of human -computer interaction, and found that the area is 2. 105 km2. Then the authors made a spatial overlap on the distribution of solid waste and watershed delineation and found that, as the original topography of the site of solid waste has a large slope and a large thickness of accumulation, it poses a threat of debris flow to the residents in downstream areas like Yangcun and, what is more, because of the corrosion of surface water, the exposed wastes make a serious impact on the water quality of Jishui River as well as residents' drinking water in downstream areas.%在ArcGIS支持下,利用1:5万.DEM对江西德兴富家坞铜矿区与铜厂矿区的汇流累积量和集水流域进行模拟,将该区划分为a、b两个流域,分水岭方向为NEE-SWW;将富家坞矿区所在流域a进一步划分为3个小的集水流域.在矿床学及采矿学等理论的支持下,利用美国GeoEye-1卫星数据,采用人机交互解译方式,对富家坞铜矿区固体废弃物分布进行了快速调查,查得其分布面积为2.105 km2.将固体废弃物分布与小流域划分结果进行空间叠置分析后认为:由于固体废物所在地段原始地形坡度陡,堆积厚度大,对下游的杨村等居民地构成泥石流灾害威胁;废弃物及裸露采场在地表水溶蚀下将对德兴市及其下游洎水的主要生活用水的水质产生严重影响.

  2. Discussion on the Ore-Forming Material Sources of Mujicun Copper (Molybdenum)Polymetallic Orefield in Laiyuan County,Hebei Province,China%河北省涞源县木吉村铜(钼)多金属矿田成矿物质来源探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建珍; 张福祥; 马宝军; 孙爱群; 王海涛; 马国玺; 陈志宽; 王自力; 陈超; 王宝德; 牛树银

    2015-01-01

    The Mujicun copper (molybdenum)polymetallic orefield in the Taihang Mountains,is located in the secondary faulted basin developed in the upper block of detachment zone on the west side of the neck of the dumbbell shaped Laiyuan igneous complex,the northeastern pitching end of the Fuping mantle branch structure.It is composed of porphyry copper (molybdenum)deposit,skarn iron-copper deposit and hydrothermal vein lead-zinc-silver deposit in periphery, and become the most perspective large-scale copper (molybdenum ) polymetallic orefield in Hebei Province at present. Considering the study of ore-forming material sources is crucial for further understanding the metallogenesis of the deposit and the direction of ore-prospecting,authors tested and analyzed sulfur, lead,carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,silicon,and rhenium isotopic compositions in such minerals from the ore as chalcopyrite,galena,pyrite,molybdenite,magnetite,quartz and gypsum.The data showed that the major value ofδ34 S changes from - 3.5‰ to 3.2‰,with the average of 0.3‰;206 Pb/204 Pb from 15.566 0 to 17.072 0,with the average of 1 6.547 0;207 Pb/204 Pb from 15.031 0 to 15.523 0,with the average of 15.258 0;208 Pb/204 Pb from 36.292 0 to 37.375 0,with the average of 36.721 0;δ1 3 C from-2.94‰ to -2.18‰,with the average of -2.62‰;δ30 Si from -0.3 ‰ to 0.2 ‰,with the average of 0.0‰;w (Re)from 23.65 μg/g to 266.50 μg/g,with the average of 142.33 μg/g;δ1 8 OH2 O from-10.64‰ to 7.70‰,with the average of -1.47%,δD from -148.4‰ to -89.0‰,with the average of -1 13.7‰ which is less than that of the standard magmatic water.These isotopic data mentioned above show that the ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the deep source and the ore-forming solutions are mainly composed of magmatic water and partly of atmospheric water.%木吉村铜(钼)矿田位于太行山脉中、北段阜平幔枝构造的北东倾伏端,涞源哑铃状杂岩体连接处西侧上盘拆离带的次级断

  3. Hunting for Iron Ore Bargains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    One of China’s leading steel mills has turned to smaller mines for long-term, lowcost iron ore supplies china’s oldest steel producer is looking to South America to fulfill its iron ore needs in the face of rising prices from

  4. Massive deep-sea sulphide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francheteau, Jean; Needham, H.D.; Choukroune, P.; Juteau, Tierre; Seguret, M.; Ballard, Richard D.; Fox, P.J.; Normark, William; Carranza, A.; Cordoba, D.; Guerrero, J.; Rangin, C.; Bougault, H.; Cambon, P.; Hekinian, R.

    1979-01-01

    Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no supporting observational evidence. The East Pacific Rise deposits represent a modern analogue of Cyprus-type sulphide ores associated with ophiolitic rocks on land. They contain at least 29% zinc metal and 6% metallic copper. Their discovery will provide a new focus for deep-sea exploration, leading to new assessments of the concentration of metals in the upper layers of the oceanic crust. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  5. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  6. 干矿回旋筛在铜精矿筛分过程的故障及处理%The Failure and its Treatment of Dry Ore Rotary Screen in Screening Copper Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高坤

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of industrial technology, impurities screening degree of copper concentrate becomes higher and higher. Taking copper concentrate as the screening material,the problems existed in the application of 220T steam drying system in the smelting workshop of Guixi smelter are analyzed.From the point of view of equipment management, we should analyze the cause of failure, put forward the improvement measures, summarize the effect after the implementationand promote it.%随着工业化技术的不断发展,对铜精矿中杂质筛分程度越来越高。以铜精矿为筛分介质,分析了贵溪冶炼厂熔炼车间220T蒸汽干燥系统回旋筛应用过程中存在的问题。从设备管理角度出发,分析故障原因并提出改进措施,总结实施后的效果,并加以推广。

  7. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. The Shilu Iron Ore Deposit in Hainan Province, South China: A Structurally and Hydrothermally Reworked and Re-Enriched Lake-Superior-Type BIF Iron Deposit%The Shilu Iron Ore Deposit in Hainan Province,South China: A Structurally and Hydrothermally Reworked and Re-Enriched Lake-Superior-Type BIF Iron Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU De-ru; WANG Zhi-lin; XIAO Yong; Bakun-Czubarow Nonna; LIU Zhao-lu; WANG Li; FU Qi-ji; WU Jun; Kusiak Monika Agnieszka

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Shilu iron ore deposit, located in the western Hainan Province, South China, is one of the most important iron-ore mining districts in China not only for its huge reserves of hematite- rich ores, but also for its potentially economic significance of associated metals of copper, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead and zinc, and of non-metals of dolomite, quartzite,barite,gypsum and sulfur.

  9. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  10. Flotation of indium-beard marmatite from multi-metallic ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Xiong; SONG Shaoxian; HE Jian; Alejandro Lopez-Valdivieso

    2008-01-01

    Flotation of indium-beard marmatite from Dulong multi-metallic ore in Yunnan Province of China was studied to improve the grades and recoveries of zinc and indium of the zinc concentrate in Dulong concentration plant.The experimental results indicated that copper sulfate mixed with a chemical reagent X-1 as the activator in the marmatite flotation produced a much better beneficiation than copper sulfate alone,increasing the zinc and indium recoveries of 10% and 6%,respectively,while the concentrate grades remained unchanged.Also,the new activator acted well around pH 10,allowing large savings on lime consumption in the rnarmatite flotation.In addition,it has been found that a sufficient activated lime of activator with ore slurry in the flotation is needed to achieve good beneficiation of the marmatite ore.

  11. U-Pb Chronology of the Granites in the Shilu Copper Ore Deposit and its Geological Significance%广东阳春盆地石菉铜矿床U-Pb年代学及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段瑞春; 杨红梅; 张利国; 刘重芃; 蔡应雄; 张富铁; 林伟鹏; 梅玉萍

    2013-01-01

    菉广东阳春石铜矿区位于北东向吴川-四会断裂西南端,对矿床中黄铁(铜)矿化的花岗闪长岩进行锆石 U-Pb 年代学研究,获得了107.2±2.0 Ma的206Pb/238U加权平均年龄,菉与区内石岩体中两件非矿化花岗闪长岩的形成时代(分别为106.7±1.4 Ma和104.1±2.0 Ma)在误差内一致;石菉岩体侵入寒武系、泥盆系和石炭系,在接触带形成的矽卡岩发育程度与矿化程度具有明显的相关性,菉指示了石铜矿床的成矿作用与花岗闪长岩体的侵位密切相关。矿区内分布有燕山早期至燕山晚期的侵入岩,岩性由钾玄质系列过渡到钙碱性系列,反映了区域岩石圈伸展-菉拉张的构造背景。石铜矿床应是区域岩石圈伸展-拉张背景下岩浆作用的产物。%The Shilu copper deposit in Yangchun city, Guangdong province is located at southwest of the NNE-strike Wuchuan-Sihui fault. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons from a pyrite (-chalcopyrite)-mineralized granodiorite sample from the Shilu Copper deposit yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 107.2±2.0 Ma, consistent with the results obtained from two non-mineralized granodiorite samples of the Shilu pluton (106.7±1.4 Ma and 104.1±2.0 Ma, respectively) within analytical errors. This indicates that the mineralization was closely related to the emplacement of the granodiorite pluton. Early to Late Yanshanian shoshonitic to calc-alkaline intrusive rocks are widespread in the Shilu area, suggestive of a lithospheric extension tectonic setting. Accordingly, the formation of the Shilu copper deposit might have resulted from the magmatic activity induced by this lithospheric extension.

  12. The source of ore-forming fluids in the Bolong copper mine area, Tibet%西藏波龙铜矿区成矿流体来源示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉; 多吉; 温春齐; 费光春; 何阳阳

    2015-01-01

    波龙铜矿床是西藏地质五队近年来在青藏高原中部发现的最大的斑岩型矿床。为了查明波龙铜矿区成矿流体来源,对采自矿区的黄铁矿及石英流体包裹体样品进行了 He、Ar同位素与气相成分测试。测试结果显示黄铁矿流体包裹体3 He/4 He分别为3.03和8.51,40 Ar/36 Ar为214.94和284.23,表明成矿流体可能来源于壳幔混源;石英包裹体气相成分以H2 O为主,次为CO2,还有少量的N2、C H4、C2 H6、H2 S及A r气体,部分样品中还含有O2成分,表明成矿流体中混有高氧逸度组分;结合矿区石英包裹体H‐O同位素显示成矿流体以岩浆源为主、并混有大气成分分析,波龙铜矿区成矿流体应属壳幔混源,早期成矿流体以深源为主,晚期随着流体的演化有部分大气降水的加入。具高氧逸度特征的怒江洋壳俯冲板片携带大量成矿物质俯冲进入羌塘‐三江复合板片南缘深部,熔融交代上覆地幔楔,发生壳幔混合,形成初始岩浆,在上升过程中混染下地壳物质,并受到深循环大气降水的影响最终侵位到上部地壳形成波龙铜矿床。%The Bolong porphyry copper deposit was founded the largest copper deposits in central Tibet Plateau in recent years by No .5 Geological Party ,Tibet Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development .In order to identify Source of Ore‐Forming Fluids in the Bolong copper mine and samples of fluid inclusions in pyrite and quartz form Copper Mine Area were Sampled to test their noble gas isotope or gas composition .Testing has shown that 3 He/4 He were 3 .03 and 8 .51 ,and 40 Ar/36 Ar were 214 .94 and 284 .23 ,it showed that ore‐forming fluid may be come from the crust‐mantle mixed source .Gaseous composition of fluid inclusion mainly composed of H 2 O ,followed by CO2 ,in addition to a small amount of N2 ,CH4 ,C2 H6 ,H2 S and Ar ,Portion of the sample composition also contains

  13. Water requirements of the copper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1961-01-01

    The copper industry in 1955 used about 330 million gallons of water per day in the mining and manufacturing of primary copper. This amount is about 0.3 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1955. These facts were determined by a survey, in 1956, of the amount and chemical quality of the water used by the copper industry. A large part of this water was used in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, where about five-sixths of the domestic copper is mined. Much of the remaining water use was near New York City where most of the electrolytic refineries are located, and the rest of the water was used in widely scattered places. A little more than 100,000 gallons of water per ton of copper was used in the production of copper from domestic ores. Of this amount about 70,000 gallons per ton was used in mining and concentrating the ore, and about 30,000 gallons per ton was used to reduce the concentrate to refined copper. In areas where water was scarce or expensive, the unit water use was a little more than half the average. About 60 mgd (million gallons per day) or 18 percent of the water was used consumptively, and nearly all of the consumptive use occurred in the water-short areas of the West. Of the water used in mining and manufacturing primary copper 75 percent was surface water and 25 percent was ground water, 89 percent of this water was self-supplied by the copper companies and 11 percent came from public supplies. Much of the water used in producing primary copper was of comparatively poor quality; about 46 percent was saline containing 1,000 ppm (parts per million) or more of dissolved solids and 54 percent was fresh. Water that is used for concentration of copper ores by flotation or even any water that comes in contact with the ore at any time before it reaches the flotation plant must be free of petroleum products because they interfere with the flotation process. The water used in mining and ore concentration

  14. Copper hydrometallurgy-current status,preliminary economics,future direction and positioning versus smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Peacey; GUO Xian-jian; E.Robles

    2004-01-01

    The heap leaching of oxide copper ores with copper cathode recovery by solvent extraction and electrowinning is now well established as a low-cost method of copper recovery. This technology has recently been applied successfully to mixed oxide and chalcocite ores, notably in Chile at Cerro Colorado, Quebrada Blanca and Zaldivar.Currently, there are significant development efforts underway to try to extend heap leaching to chalcopyrite ores.The success of heap leaching/SX/EW has also led to a revival in the development of hydrometallurgical processes to recover copper from chalcopyrite and other copper concentrates. The current status of copper hydrometallurgy is reviewed and the most commercially attractive potential applications are explored. The advantages and disadvantages of the hydrometallurgical treatment of chalcopyrite concentrates and its preliminary economics are compared with those for the current best practices in copper smelting and refining.

  15. The Application of Modern Techniques and Measurement Devices for Identification of Copper Ore Types and Their Properties / Wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technik i urządzeń pomiarowych do identyfikacji typów rud miedzi i ich właściwości

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczykowska, Aldona; Trybalski, Kazimierz; Krawczykowski, Damian

    2013-06-01

    The paper concerns the application of modern methods and research techniques for investigations of copper ore properties. It presents the procedure and tools which, when put together, can constitute a source of information on properties of different products of processing and, simultaneously, can be used in the process control and optimization. The copper ore of one of the branches of the KHGM Polska Miedz plc was investigated. The ore samples represented each of the three lithological types occurring in the Polish deposits, i.e. carbonate, shale and sandstone ores. The paper presents the results of microscopic analyses, image analysis of scanning photographs and application procedures of the obtained information for the identification of ore types (application of neuron networks to the recognition of lithological compositions). The present publication will present sample results of modelling of classification identifying two types of ores, i.e. carbonate-shale and sandstone. Summing up the predictions of ore type fractions in respective mixtures for the considered problem of classification it can be stated that the prediction results are good and confirm the lithological predominance of certain ore types in the investigated mixtures. The experimental part comprised the determination of mineralogical and lithological composition of ores (optical microscope) and also elemental composition in the microareas of analysed samples (scanning microscope). Next, the image analysis was performed and subsequently the models classifying the ore types were made. W rudzie miedzi przerabianej w zakładach wzbogacania O/ZWR KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. można wyróżnić trzy typy litologiczne: rudę węglanową, łupkową i piaskowcową. Typy te różnią się właściwościami między innymi takimi jak: rodzaj i zawartość minerałów miedzi, rodzaj minerałów nieużytecznych, zawartość miedzi, twardość i podatność na rozdrabnianie, ale także wielkością i kształtem ziaren

  16. China’s Largest Copper Smelter by SX/EW Starts Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> The construction of China’s largest coppersmelter by SX/EW was started in Hami,a cityof Xinjiang Autonomous Region.The area hasa multi-metal deposit belt in Eastern Tianshan.In January 2002,Shanghai Xinfengneng Indus-trial Co.,Ltd.purchased the prospecting rightof the deposit bed that extends from Tuwu toYandong,an area of 7.97 square kilometers,and made an extensive exploration of the No.2ore body of the Tuwu-Yandong copper deposit.According to the prospecting data and designreport,the No.2 ore body contains 100 milliontons of copper ores,with 0.65 percent copper,and the total copper content is 600,000 tons.Asthe Tuwu copper deposit is classified as a low-grade ore body,Shanghai Xinfengneng Com-pany decided to adopt the SX/EW smelting

  17. 熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷%Determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese,copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠; 李卫刚; 褚宁; 蒋晓光; 孙涛; 林志伟; 王艳君

    2012-01-01

    A wavelength dispersive X - ray fluorescence spectrometry with fusion sample preparation has been developed for determination of iron, nickel, silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, titanium, manganese, copper and phosphorus in laterite nickel ores. Calibration samples were prepared by adding high pure oxides and standard solutions of pending elements into iron ore standards, which were applied as matrix and ignited in 1000 ℃. The experimental conditions including of fluxing agent, fusion time, dilution ratios, doffing membrane reagent and matrix effects were determined. The analytical results were proposed by loss on ignition calibration, which were agreement with those obtained by wet method analysis, and the relative standard deviation was between 0. 219 % and 2. 817 %. The method was satisfied the request of laterite nickel ores test.%建立了熔融制样-波长色散X射线荧光光谱法测定红土镍矿中铁、镍、硅、铝、镁、钙、钛、锰、铜和磷含量的方法.采用经1000℃灼烧后的铁矿标准样品为基体,添加相关待测元素的高纯氧化物和标准溶液制作校准曲线用的校准样品,确定了助熔剂、熔融时间、稀释比、脱模剂和基体效应校正方式等试验条件.样品分析结果进行烧失量校正,与湿法分析结果的相对标准偏差介于0.219%~2.817%之间,满足红土镍矿检测需要.

  18. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  19. 滇西北红山铜矿床成矿流体地球化学特征及矿床成因%Geochemical characteristics of ore-forming fluids and genesis of Hongshan copper deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文昌; 王可勇; 尹光侯; 秦丹鹤; 余海军; 薛顺荣; 万多

    2013-01-01

    The Hongshan copper deposit is a large porphyry-skarn type polymetallic deposit in northwestern Yunnan Province. It occurred in quartz diorite porphyry of Indo-Chinese Period and quartz monzonite porphyry of Yanshanian Period as well as their neighbouring wall rocks. The formation of it experienced superimposition of mutiphases/stages hydrothermal mineralization. Comprehensive study on petrography, microthermometry and carbon-hydrogen-oxygen isotope of fluid inclusions showed that the ore-forming fluids of early metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-H2 O type solutions and mainly came from arc magmatism of Indo-Chinese Period, they were responsible for the formation of skarn type mineralization. The ore-forming fluids of later metallogenic stages are of medium to high temperature, high salinity NaCl-CO2 -H2 O type solutions and mainly came from the buried granitic magmatism of post orogenic extension environment, and they played important role in the formation of porphyry type Cu, Mo and relevant Pb, Zn mineralization. So the Hongshan copper deposit is of superimposed poyphyry-skarn type deposit that originated from the metallogenic superimposition of two phases of magmatic hydrothermal fluids.%红山铜矿床为滇西北地区一大型斑岩-矽卡岩型铜多金属矿床,它产于印支期石英闪长玢岩及燕山期石英二长斑岩体内及其周边地层中,其形成经历了多期次热液叠加成矿作用过程.流体包裹体岩相学、显微测温及碳、氢、氧稳定同位素综合研究表明,矿区早期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-H2O体系热液,主要来源于印支晚期岛弧型岩浆活动,对区内矽卡岩型矿化形成起了重要作用;晚期成矿流体为中高温、高盐度NaCl-CO2-H2O体系热液,主要来源于隐伏的燕山期后造山伸展型花岗质岩浆侵入体,形成了区内斑岩型Cu、Mo及相关的Pb、Zn多金属矿化.因此,红山铜矿床是

  20. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ZLATÁ BAŇA ORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košuth Marián

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The main processing interest of examined Zlatá Baňa polymetalic ores was focused on copper-lead-zinc minerals with precious metals and trace elements. Gold occurrin a native form or as an isomorphism in pyrite. The role of inclusions of own Ag-minerals was inflated by geologist, but a prevailing amount of silver is isomorphous in galena and argentotetrahedrite. Almost no possibility to concentrating discrete silver minerals was proved technologically. In galena, an interesting content of Se and Te was registered. Among trace elements, a higher content of cadmium folows exclusively the content of zinc in blende.

  1. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; Şeref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential

  2. An Analysis of Contemporary Copper Recycling in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Qiang; LU Zhong-wu

    2006-01-01

    Copper consumption increased very quickly in China in recent years, which could not be met by inland copper industry. In order to achieve a sustainable development of copper industry, an analysis of copper recycling in China was necessary. For the life cycle of copper products a copper-flow diagram with time factor was worked out and the contemporary copper recycling in China was analyzed, from which the following data were obtained. The average life cycle of copper products was 30 years. From 1998 to 2002, the use ratio of copper scraps in copper production, the use ratio of copper scraps in copper manufacture, the materials self-support ratio in copper production, and the materials self-support ratio in copper manufacture were 26.50%, 15.49%, 48.05% and 59.41%, respectively. The materials self-support ratios in copper production and manufacture declined year by year in recent years on the whole, and the latter dropped more quickly. The average index of copper ore and copper scrap from 1998 to 2002 were 0.8475 t/t and 0.0736 t/t, respectively; and copper resource efficiency was 1.1855 t/t. Some efforts should be paid to reduce copper ores consumption and promote copper scraps regeneration.Copper scraps were mostly imported from foreign countries because of shortage in recent years in China. Here the reasons related to copper scraps deficiency were also demonstrated. But we can forecast: when copper production was in a slow rise or in a steady state in China, the deficiency of copper scraps may be mitigated; when copper production was in a steady state for a very long time, copper scraps may become relatively abundant. According to the status of copper industry in China, the raw materials of copper production and manufacture have to depend on oversea markets heavily in recent years, and at the same time, the copper scraps using proportion and efficiency in copper industry should be improved.

  3. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Dewaele, S.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, Ph.

    2013-03-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper-cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irregular veins. The hypogene sulphide mineralogy consists predominantly of chalcopyrite, bornite and chalcocite. Based upon relationships with metamorphic biotite, vein sulphides and most of the sulphides in cemented lenses were precipitated during or after biotite zone greenschist facies metamorphism. New δ34S values of sulphides from the Konkola deposit are presented. The sulphur isotope values range from -8.7‰ to +1.4‰ V-CDT for chalcopyrite from all mineralising phases and from -4.4‰ to +2.0‰ V-CDT for secondary chalcocite. Similarities in δ34S for sulphides from different vein generations, earlier sulphides and secondary chalcocite can be explained by (re)mobilisation of S from earlier formed sulphide phases, an interpretation strongly supported by the petrographic evidence. Deep supergene enrichment and leaching occurs up to a km in depth, predominantly in the form of secondary chalcocite, goethite and malachite and is often associated with zones of high permeability. Detailed distribution maps of total copper and total cobalt contents of the Ore Shale formation show a close relationship between structural features and higher copper and lower cobalt contents, relative to other areas of the mine. Structural features include the Kirilabombwe anticline and fault zones along the axial plane and two fault zones in the southern limb of the anticline. Cobalt and copper behave differently in relation to these structural features. These structures are interpreted to have

  4. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied withcyanide leaching liquor of gold ores, containing various kinds of ions. The adsorbed leaching liquorwas analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method. The contents of variouskinds of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy. ACFF not onlyadsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic, nickel, zinc, calcium, sulphur, bismuth, copper, iron. silverand cyanide anion. Atomic percentage of C and those of O, N, Zr, Fe increase and decreaserespectively with the increase of the layer depth, while those of Ca, Au, Ag keep constant.

  5. Research on Magnesite Ore Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berisha, K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite ore, consisting mainly of magnesite, MgCO3 is a chief mineral source for production of high quality refractory materials based on highly pure MgO. However, the presence of calcium and silicium mineral impurities in the ore adversely affect refractoriness. The removal of silicate minerals is now a routine process but it is not so for calcium minerals impurities. In this work, the new method for the removal of calcium mineral impurities from magnesite ore has been investigated. It is based on extraction of calcium hydroxide from the calcined hydrated ore with the solution of magnesium nitrate. The results show that it is possible to remove up to 65–83 % of calcium oxide (CaO within five minutes, and up to 88–95 % within an hour. The process itself is complex, but mainly under mass transfer control. It is possible to use waste materials produced as fertilizer in agriculture thus helping in environmental protection.

  6. Phase analytical studies of industrial copper smelting slags. Part I: Silicate slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüffler, R.; Dávalos, J.

    1998-12-01

    The pyrometallurgical extraction of copper from sulfide ore concentrates is determined by the behaviour of the associated iron during smelting. Hence, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is an attractive tool for studying the phases in silicate slags from German and Chilean smelting plants. Other methods used were ore microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray powder diffraction.

  7. 福建紫金山矿田五子骑龙铜矿床矿化与蚀变分带研究%The Mineralization and Alteration Zonation of the Wuziqilong Copper Deposit in the Zijinshan Ore Field, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛凯

    2013-01-01

    The Wuziqilong copper deposit is a transitional-type between porphyry-and epithermal-type deposit located inside of the Zijinshan Au-Cu-Mo polymetallic ore field.Alteration and mineralization in the deposit are pervasive and intensive,which show typical zonation both horizontally and vertically.Based on the sulfide assemblages,the deposit can be divided into the South,Middle,and North mineralization zones.Ore bodies mainly occur between the elevation of 300~480 m in the Middle mineralization zone,and was controlled by the Northeast-and Northwest-trending faults and fractures.Near infrared spectroscopy technique was utilized for identifying alteration minerals in drill cores and determining the alteration zones in the mining area.Combining with the drill core logging and geological mapping,alunite-dickite-silicic alteration zone,dickite-sericite-silicic alteration zone,and sericite-silicic alteration zone were recognized.The type of mineralization is closely related to different alteration types,i.e.,the typical pyrite-covellite-digenite assemblage is constrained in the alunite-dickite-silicic zone,while the pyrite-chalcopyrite-bornite assemblage is pervasively observed in the dickite-sericite-silicic alteration zone.The overprinting zones of the forementioned two alteration types host high-grade ores,which was used for exploration of"bonanza" ores.These two alteration zones and their close relationship with mineralization were used as indicators for exploration and deep prospecting in the area.%五子骑龙铜矿床是紫金山斑岩-浅成低温热液型金铜钼多金属矿田的一个重要矿床,属于斑岩型矿床和浅成中-低温热液型矿床的过渡类型.该矿床矿化和蚀变具有明显的分带特征.根据金属矿物共生组合,五子骑龙铜矿床自南往北、自下往上可划分为南、中、北三个矿化带.矿化地段相对集中在中矿带的480~300m标高之间.矿体严格受北西向、北东向断裂和裂隙带控制,

  8. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  9. Virtual phosphorus ore requirement of Japanese economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubae, Kazuyo; Kajiyama, Jun; Hiraki, Takehito; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-08-01

    Phosphorus is indispensable for agricultural production. Hence, the consumption of imported food indirectly implies the import of phosphorus resources. The global consumption of agricultural products depends on a small number of ore-producing countries. For sustainable management of phosphorus resources, the global supply and demand network should be clarified. In this study, we propose the virtual phosphorus ore requirement as a new indicator of the direct and indirect phosphorus requirements for our society. The virtual phosphorus ore requirement indicates the direct and indirect demands for phosphorus ore transformed into agricultural products and fertilizer. In this study, the virtual phosphorus ore requirement was evaluated for the Japanese economy in 2005. Importantly, the results show that our society requires twice as much phosphorus ore as the domestic demand for fertilizer production. The phosphorus contained in "eaten" agricultural products was only 12% of virtual phosphorus ore requirement.

  10. Influence of flotation cell volume and solids mass on kinetics of sulfide ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plawski Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents studies on the influence of flotation cell capacity and mass of solids in the suspension on the flotation kinetics of sulfide copper ore. A sample of copper ore that was collected from the Polkowice Mine of KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. in Poland was used in the experiments. It was determined that neither the volume of flotation cell nor the mass of solids had influence on the type of kinetics equation of flotation. Copper-bearing minerals floated according to the second-order equation, while the remaining components according to the first-order equation. The kinetic rate constants and maximum recovery of the studied components decreased with increasing solids mass in the flotation cell, regardless of the capacity of the cell. The best results were obtained for tests using a 1.0 dm3 cell, while the less favorable kinetics results were observed in the test with the smallest cell of 0.75 dm3 volume. The obtained results can be helpful in choosing the most appropriate methodology of upgrading the sulfide copper ore from Poland in order to obtain the best kinetics results.

  11. Arsenic inertization through alunite-type phases: Application to copper pyrometallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    [eng] Nowadays, arsenic is an important problem in water pollution. Non-ferrous metallurgical industries generate arsenic residues because the ores contain this mineral. The high technology improvement is increasing the demand of some metals such as copper. This increasing demand and the scarce of copper ores with low arsenic content is generating a problem with arsenic wastes in lots of countries, but especially in Asia and in South and Central America. In these countries, groundwater is pol...

  12. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  13. Biomining-biotechnologies for extracting and recovering metals from ores and waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-12-01

    The abilities of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria and archaea to accelerate the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals have been harnessed in the development and application of a biotechnology for extracting metals from sulfidic ores and concentrates. Biomining is currently used primarily to leach copper sulfides and as an oxidative pretreatment for refractory gold ores, though it is also used to recover other base metals, such as cobalt, nickel and zinc. Recent developments have included using acidophiles to process electronic wastes, to extract metals from oxidized ores, and to selectively recover metals from process waters and waste streams. This review describes the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in commercial biomining operations, how the technology has developed over the past 50 years, and discusses the challenges and opportunities for mineral biotechnologies in the 21st century.

  14. The potential for ore and industrial minerals in the Forsmark area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Hardy [MIRAB Mineral Resurser AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans; Thunehed, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    A survey has been made of existing information concerning the potential for ore and industrial minerals in and near the candidate area for a deep repository in Forsmark. A deep repository for spent nuclear fuel should not be located in a rock type or an area where mineral extraction might be considered in the future, since this would make it impossible to exploit this natural resource. Avoiding such areas reduces the risk that people in the future will come into contact with the deep repository through mineral prospecting or mining activities. The survey has made use of all the geoscientific information that was compiled in the more regional investigations in Oesthammar Municipality in 1996-97. In cooperation with the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), a new, more detailed mineral resources map has been prepared. The map shows areas with an ore potential that may be unsuitable or unfavourable for siting of a deep repository. The results of the recently completed geophysical helicopter surveys of the Forsmark area are presented in a special chapter. The judgement of the area's ore potential is in part based on the geophysical evaluation of these measurements. Furthermore, the survey obtained information from ongoing deep drillings from the site investigation in Forsmark. In order to better be able to judge the ore potential, the survey has initiated a geochemical investigation of activated soil samples, plus an ore geology sampling of a section in the deep borehole KFM02A, where a hydrothermally altered zone was detected in 2003.The first results from these samplings are presented in the report, which also discusses prospecting efforts in the area as well as relevant Swedish mining legislation. Some suggestions are made for further ore geology investigations. The mineral resources map shows that there is an elongate northwest-southeast zone south and southwest of the candidate area which has a potential for skarn iron ore, and possibly for copper and zinc

  15. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparecida Ribeiro, Andreza; Quintao Lima, Diana; Anderson Duarte, Helio; Murad, Enver [ICEx, UFMG, Departamento de Quimica (Brazil); Pereira, Marcio Cesar, E-mail: mcpqui@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia (Brazil); Tadeu de Freitas Suita, Marcos [UFOP, Departamento de Geologia (Brazil); Ardisson, Jose Domingos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (Brazil); Fabris, Jose Domingos [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajas Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaqua copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  16. Getting rid of the unwanted: highlights of developments and challenges of biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Rasheed A

    2014-12-01

    The quest for quality mineral resources has led to the development of many technologies that can be used to refine minerals. Biohydrometallurgy is becoming an increasingly acceptable technology worldwide because it is cheap and environmentally friendly. This technology has been successfully developed for some sulphidic minerals such as gold and copper. In spite of wide acceptability of this technology, there are limitations to its applications especially in the treatment of non-sulphidic minerals such as iron ore minerals. High levels of elements such as potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in iron ore minerals are known to reduce the quality and price of these minerals. Hydrometallurgical methods that are non-biological involving the use of chemicals are usually used to deal with this problem. However, recent advances in mining technologies favour green technologies, known as biohydrometallurgy, with minimal impact on the environment. This technology can be divided into two, namely bioleaching and biobeneficiation. This review focuses on Biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals. Biobeneficiation of iron ore is very challenging due to the low price and chemical constitution of the ore. There are substantial interests in the exploration of this technology for improving the quality of iron ore minerals. In this review, current developments in the biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals are considered, and potential solutions to challenges faced in the wider adoption of this technology are proposed.

  17. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  18. STUDY ON BIOLEACHING OF PRIMARY CHALCOPYRITE ORE WITH THERMOACIDOPHLIC ARCHAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Zou; W.B. Zhang; T. Lei; J.K. Wang

    2006-01-01

    A high temperature-tolerating thermoacidophilic archae (TA) was isolated from water samples collected from a hot sulfur-containing spring in the Yunnan Province, China, and was used in bioleaching experiments of a low-grade chalcopyrite ore. The TA grow at temperatures ranging from 40 to 80℃, with 65℃ being the optimum temperature, and at pH values of 1.5 to 4.0, with an optimum pH value of 2.0. The bioleaching experiments of the chalcopyrite ore were conducted in both laboratory batch bioreactors and leaching columns. The results obtained from the bioreactor experiments showed that the TA bioleaching rate of copper reached 97% for a 12-day leaching period, while the bioleaching rate was 32.43% for thiobacillus ferrooxidans (Tf) leaching for the same leaching time. In the case of column leaching, tests of a two-phase leaching (196 days), that is,a two-month (56 days) Tf leaching in the first phase, followed by a 140-day TA leaching in the second phase were performed. The average leaching rate of copper achieved for the 140-day TA leaching was 195mg/(L· d), while for the control experiments, it was as low as 78mg/(L· d) for the Tf leaching, indicating that the TA possesses a more powerful oxidizing ability to the chalcopyrite than Tf. Therefore, it is suggested that the two-phase leaching process be applied to for the heap leaching operations, whereas, the TA can be used in the second phase when the temperature inside the heap has increased, and the primary copper sulfide minerals have already been partially oxidized with Tf beforehand in the first phase.

  19. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  20. Properties and Evolution of Ore-Forming Fluid in Liuju Sandstone Type Copper Deposit,Chuxiong Basin in Yunnan Province%楚雄盆地六苴砂岩型铜矿床成矿流体性质及演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海枝; 韩润生; 吴鹏

    2016-01-01

    ;meanwhile ,the ionic component changed from the rich SO2 -4 (-Cl-) Ca2+ K+ type to the rich Cl- Na+ type .Different properties of ore‐forming fluids played different roles in the mineralization of bedded orebodies and veined orebodies .During the ore‐forming fluid evolution ,the disseminated or laminated ores in sandstone‐type copper deposits were formed in the diagenesis period ;w hile ,the high‐grade banded ,veined ores on the base of bedded orebody controlled by the fracture are formed during the further evolution in tectonic‐reworked period .%六苴铜矿床是中国南方中、新生代红层盆地中典型的陆相砂岩型铜矿床,具有明显的“金属矿物分带”及“浅色和紫色砂岩过渡带控矿”两大特征。为探讨该矿床流体演化及成矿机制,本文以矿化类型及成矿期次划分为基础,进行了详细的流体包裹体特征、显微测温及成分分析研究。研究结果表明,六苴铜矿床成矿作用主要经历成岩期和改造期两个时期,改造期分早、晚两阶段。两期次的流体包裹体均以纯液相型和富液型盐水包裹体为主,流体均一温度具有先升高后降低的演化趋势,温度范围分别为:96~164℃、108~227℃、94~159℃;而盐度(w (NaCl))差别不大,改造期比成岩期略低,范围分别为2.7%~16.7%、2.1%~13.8%、1.2%~13.5%,总体属中低温中低盐度盆地卤水。包裹体岩相学观察与激光拉曼气相成分测试表明,成岩期含少量烃类包裹体,而改造期含少量CO2包裹体。两期包裹体群体成分也有一定差异:挥发分具有从还原性富有机质的CH4端元向相对氧化的CO2端元演化的特点;离子成分由富SO2-4(-Cl-)-Ca2+-K+型向富Cl--Na+型转变。成岩期流体演化形成了砂岩铜矿层状产出的浸染状或纹层状矿(化)体,改造期的构造流体在层状矿(化)体基础上进一

  1. Up-dated ore composition data (Central ore-field, Kuznetsk Alatau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushmanov A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy-dispersive microanalyzer and X-ray ray fluorescence microscope the ore mineral composition in Central gold-ore field ore field (Kuznetsk Alatau was investigated. Eleven new minerals were detected in this ore field. The differentiated behavior of mineral formation stages in veinsand near-veined beresites was determined. The composition of native gold was studied, as well as the distribution of trace elements in pyrite.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF LEAD-ZINK ORE AT Mt. IVANŠČICA NEAR IVANEC (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Šinkovec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral and ore occurences at Mt. Ivanščica are situated in the Middle Triassic carbonate rocks and are of epigenetic origin. These occurences are characterised by simple paragenesis of primary sulphides of leads and zinc and traces of sulphides of iron and copper. This mineralization is similar to Mississippi Valley Pb-Zn deposits (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Hageri alustas oreli taastamisega / Inge Põlma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põlma, Inge

    2009-01-01

    1851. aastal eesti orelimeistri Carl Tantoni valmistatud ja 1892. aastal Gustav Terkmanni poolt kohendatud Hageri Lambertuse kiriku oreli restaureerimisest, ekspertiisi tegi rootsi organist Göran Grahn

  4. Organic Geochemistry Characteristics in Ores and Host Rocks from Qixiashan Lead-Zinc Deposit, Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shucheng; Wang Hongmei; Guo Jianqiu; Liang Bin; Zhou Xiugao

    2003-01-01

    Organic matter, associated with ores, host rocks, ore source rocks and present in fluid inclusions in the Qixiashan lead-zinc polymetallic deposit hosted in Upper Carboniferous dolomites and limestones in East China, was systematically analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography (GC), GC/mass spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. The biomarker ratios of nC-21-/nC+22-alkanes, C23-tricyclic/C30-hopane and the tricyclic terpane parameters including C21/C23, C19-20/C21-29 and C19-25/C26-29 can effectively discriminate ores from host rocks. Extractable organic matter present in fluid inclusions displays similarities to those enclosed in the ore source rocks in the biomarker ratios, suggesting that a proportion of organic matter was introduced into the deposit from the ore source strata. The presence of copper and zinc in stage Ⅱ pyrobitumen indicates that some metals may have been transported by an organic fluid or removed from an aqueous fluid by organic matter.

  5. Determining Prehistoric Mining Practices in Southeastern Europe Using Copper Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wayne; Mathur, Ryan; Bankoff, H. Arthur; Bulatović, Aleksandar; Filipović, Vojislav

    2017-04-01

    Copper was first smelted from malachite at 5000 BCE in Serbia. There the Eneolithic (Copper Age) began with the production of small jewelry pieces and progressed to the casting of massive copper tools near its end, approximately 2000 years later. However, copper metallurgy in southeastern Europe ceased or significantly decreased in the later third millennium, several centuries before the Bronze Age began. Whether this metallurgical hiatus was the result a cultural shift or depletion of natural resources remains an ongoing subject of debate. It has been speculated that the marked reduction in metal production at the Eneolithic-Bronze Age transition was due to the exhaustion of surficial weathered oxide ores and the technical inability to smelt the underlying sulfide minerals. The behavior of copper isotopes in near-surface environments allows us to differentiate highly weathered oxide ores that occur at Earth's surface from non-weathered sulfide ores that occur at greater depth. The oxidation of copper generates fluids and associated minerals that are enriched in the 65Cu isotope. Thus, oxidative weathering of sulfide ores leads to the development of three stratified isotopic reservoirs for copper: 1) oxides above the water table that are enriched in 65Cu; 2) residual weathered sulfides minerals at the water table that are depleted in 65Cu; and 3) non-fractionated, non-weathered sulfide ore below the water table. And so, the transformative shift to sulfide-based metallurgy will be delineated by a significant decrease in δ65Cu in copper artifacts corresponding to the first use of 65Cu-depleted residual ore. The degree of variability of primary ore composition from numerable ore deposits would likely result in the overlap of copper isotope composition between populations of artifacts. Therefore, shifts in the mean copper isotope values and associated standard deviations would best reflect changes in ores use. A baseline value of -0.2‰ ±0.5 (1) was determined

  6. Fire-assay collection of gold and silver by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantatos, A

    1987-08-01

    Gold and silver are very effectively collected in copper after fire-assay fusion at 1200 degrees . The resultant copper button is dissolved in perchloric acid and the parting solution is diluted with an equal volume of water. Both gold and silver are precipitated in the copper perchlorate medium by reduction with formic acid or hydroquinone. The two noble metals are collected, dissolved in acids, and determined by atomic-absorption spectrometry. The proposed procedure is simple, relatively rapid, and has been successfully applied to ores, concentrates, furnace products, and copper alloys. Recoveries compare favourably with those obtained by the classical lead cupellation method.

  7. Iron from Zealandic bog iron ore -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    og geologiske materiale, metallurgiske analyser og eksperimentel arkæologiske forsøg - konturerne af en jernproduktion med udgangspunkt i den sjællandske myremalm. The frequent application by archaeologists of Werner Christensen’s distribution map for the occurrence of bog iron ore in Denmark (1966...... are sketched of iron production based on bog iron ore from Zealand....

  8. The Luster of Iron Ore Prices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China battles its way out of an iron ore stalemate by finding alternative supplier After months of seesawing, China’s iron ore negotiators appear to be breaking through the tight encirclement of suppliers. On August 17, the China Iron and Steel Association (CISA) announced that Fortescue

  9. Fuzzy Comprehensive Appraisal of Concealed Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the transformation from the fuzzy to the accurate process is exemplified by the Jiaodong gold ore deposits concentrated region where the mathematical analysis is used to appraise and forecast regional concealed gold ore deposits. In this sense, this paper presents a new way to the appraisal of the non-traditional mineral resources.

  10. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  11. Biomass for iron ore sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, M.; Martinez-Pacheco, M.; Fray, T.A.T. [Corus Research Development & Technology, Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Within an integrated steelworks, iron ore sinter making is an energy intensive process. In recent years, biomass is becoming an attractive alternative source of energy to traditional fossil fuels such as coal. In this study, commercially available biomass materials suited to sinter making have been identified as an alternative source of fuel to coke breeze. Olive residues, sunflower husk pellets, almond shells, hazelnut shells and Bagasse pellets have been characterised and prepared for sintering. A laboratory sinter pot has been employed for studying sintering behaviour of biomass material. On average, the calorific values of selected biomass materials, on a dry basis, are about 65% of dry coke breeze. It was found that less of this energy would be available in sinter making due to the evaporation of some of the volatile matter ahead of the flame front. At a replacement rate of 25%, the crushed sunflower husk pellets showed the closest thermal profile to that of coke breeze alone in the size range of -0.8 to +0.6 mm. A specification of less than 1 mm has been recommended for the studied biomass materials when co-firing biomass with coke breeze for iron ore sintering.

  12. Spatial data mining system for ore-forming prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The authors designed the spatial data mining system for ore-forming prediction based on the theory and methods of data mining as well as the technique of spatial database, in combination with the characteristics of geological information data. The system consists of data management, data mining and knowledge discovery, knowledge representation. It can syncretize multi-source geosciences data effectively, such as geology,geochemistry, geophysics, RS. The system digitized geological information data as data layer files which consist of the two numerical values, to store these files in the system database. According to the combination of the characters of geological information, metallogenic prognosis was realized, as an example from some area in Heilongjiang Province. The prospect area of hydrothermal copper deposit was determined.

  13. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  14. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  15. Advances in research of sulphide ore textures and their implications for ore genesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Lianxing; ZHENG Yuanchuan; TANG Xiaoqian; WU Changzhi; HU Wenxuan

    2006-01-01

    Important advances in research of sulphide ore textures in recent years have deepened our understanding of ore genesis of related mineral deposits. Pressure solution of sulphide minerals has been suggested as a mechanism for remobilization of ore materials,whereas pressure solution of the gangues is believed to raise the grade of the primary ores. We have known that precipitation of base metal sulphides from fluids prefers crystal and crack surfaces of pyrite to form overgrowth. Therefore, pyrite-bearing embryo beds in a sedimentary sequence can be acted as effective crystal seed beds and are favorable for fluid overprinting to form huge statabound deposits. Texture studies of various sulphides can be used to interpret the entire history of sedimentation, diagenesis, deformation and metamorphism of the ores. The study of chalcopyrite disease in sphalerite has brought about the idea of zone refining, and given a new explanation to metal zonation in massive sulphide deposits. Ductile shearing of sulphide ores may form ore mylonites, which will become oreshoots enriched in Cu, Au and Ag during late-stage fluid overprinting. Despite that various modern analytical techniques are being rapidly developed, ore microscopy remains to be an unreplaceable tool for ore geologists. Combined with these modern techniques, this tool will help accelerate the development of theories on ore genesis.

  16. Nitrile O-ring Cracking: A Case of Vacuum Flange O-ring Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Craig

    2016-07-01

    A review of recent nitrile O-ring failures in ISO-KF vacuum flange connections in glovebox applications is presented. An investigation of a single “isolated” o-ring failure leads to the discovery of cracked nitrile o-rings in a glovebox atmospheric control unit. The initial cause of the o-ring failure is attributed to ozone degradation. However, additional investigation reveals nitrile o-ring cracking on multiple gloveboxes and general purpose piping, roughly 85% of the nitrile o-rings removed for inspection show evidence of visible cracking after being in service for 18 months or less. The results of material testing and ambient air testing is presented, elevated ozone levels are not found. The contributing factors of o-ring failure, including nitrile air sensitivity, inadequate storage practices, and poor installation techniques, are discussed. A discussion of nitrile o-ring material properties, the benefits and limitations, and alternate materials are discussed. Considerations for o-ring material selection, purchasing, storage, and installation are presented in the context of lessons learned from the nitrile o-ring cracking investigation. This paper can be presented in 20 minutes and does not require special accommodations or special audio visual devices.

  17. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Ngom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia, was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  18. Cross-comparison of leaching strains isolated from two different regions: Chambishi and Dexing copper mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains.

  19. Main types of gold ore forming systems and their relationship with the paleogeodynamic settings on the Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurnin, Vasiliy; Anatoly, Gavrish; Aleksandra, Bagaeva; Petrushkov, Boris; Shneider, Alexey; Saltanov, Vasily; Stepunina, Maria; Proskurnina, Alina

    2014-05-01

    Within the Taimyr - Severnaya Zemlya mineragenic province, the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Kara rare-metal - gold and Byrrangsky coal-bearing - polymetallic mineragenic areas are distinguished. Main geological commercial types of the Kara mineragenic area include manifestations of gold-quartz, gold sulphide-quartz (proper gold ore), and gold-rare metal, gold-bearing copper-molybdenum-porphyry formations. The Riphean - Vendian subduction - collisional and Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic repeated collisional (deuterogenic) ore-forming systems play a leading role in their formation. Regardless of the age and formation features, manifestations of proper gold ore formations are controlled by a common factor, the degree of metamorphism of host rocks - not above the sericite-biotite subfacies of the greenschist facies, and belong to the group of hydrothermal-metasomatic ore forming systems conditioned by alkali-acid differentiation of matter in temperature gradient field with ore concentration in mesozone. Depending on the host Precambrian formations, Kara Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic mineragenic area is subdivided into Mininsky-Bolshevistsky flysch-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with manifestation of zonal regional metamorphism of the andalusite-sillimanite type (Arctida passive margin) and Shrenk-Faddey volcanogenic-carbonate-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with ophiolites (accretion prism of Siberia). For the Riphean - Early Vendian endogenous manifestations, the following main types of gold ore forming systems are distinguished: in the passive marginal Mininsky-Bolshevistsky zone - early collisional metamorphic-hydrothermal in terrigenous carbonaceous complexes (Valterovsky, Voskresensky, Litkensky ore zones) and late collisional plutonic-hydrothermal in allochthonous granitoids of S-type (Martovsky-Nikitinsky ore cluster); in the accretionary Shrenck-Faddey zone - subduction-collisional plutonic-metamorphic-hydrothermal (Zhilninsky, Leningradsky ore zones) in

  20. Oolitic ores in the Bakchar iron-ore cluster (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmin, M. A.; Mazurov, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Oolitic iron ores are typified, and their morphology and composition are studied. Special attention is focused on the character of distribution of valuable and harmful admixtures and determination of the principal minerals concentrating these elements. As a result of this study, three types of ores are identified, such as "loose" ores, cemented ores with glauconite-chlorite-clay cement, and well-cemented ores with siderite cement. The morphology and composition of the ore oolites are characterized. The forms of occurrence of calcium phosphates (anapaite) and phosphates of rare-earth elements (monazite, cularite) that are related to the harmful phosphorus admixture are described. According to the analysis of the elemental composition, the fractions of (-1…+0.2) and (-1…+0.1) mm in the western and eastern segments, respectively, may be promising for processing.

  1. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  2. Endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits and ore-bearing potentiality of strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baode; NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; XIE Yan; LUO Yi; LIU Hailong; WANG Yanhua

    2010-01-01

    The problem of ore-bearing potentiality of the strata involves metallogenic theory and ore-search orientation. Studies of the spatial distribution of endogenic Au-Ag polymetallic ore deposits in North Hebei indicated that the strata in which ore deposits occurred range in age from Paleozoic, Proterozoic to Mesozoic. In addition the ore deposits are characterized as being strata-bound in nature. The arise and establishment of "extracting" viewpoint may be attributed to the following three reasons: 1) influence by the idea of "ore-source bed"; 2) limitation of analytical techniques in the 1980s' (especially gold element); and 3) a small number of samples (sampling locations were mostly disturbed by mineralization). Studies have shown that ore-forming materials would most probably come from the deep interior of the Earth. Deep-seated ore-bearing materials including Au-Ag polymetals were brought to the shallow levels by way of mantle plume-mantle sub-plume-mantle branch structure multi-stage evolution, finally leading to the formation of ore deposits.

  3. Geological Characteristics of Epithermal Ore Concentrated Areas and Epithermal Ore Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The epithermal ore concentrated area is located in Southwestern China. We systematically study the regional geological characteristics such as the basement of Proterozoic, the capping bed, Moho, geothermal feature and tectonics, and discuss the relationship between distributed characteristics of the epithermal ore deposits and ore-control factors in this paper. It is concluded that the conditions, under which the epithermal ore deposits form, are huge thick basement of Proterozoic, long-time and wide-scope developed capping bed and weak magmatic activity. The basement of Proterozoic that enriches volcanic matters and carbon and the carbonaceous-bearing and paleo-pool-bearing capping bed provides main ore source. The large and deep faults and paleopool accordance with gravity anomaly gradient control the distribution of epithermal ore deposits. The lithologic assembles of microclastic rocks and carbonate rocks in the capping bed provide spaces of ore precipitation and create conditions of ore precipitation. The coincidence of many geological factors above forms the epithermal ore concentrated area.

  4. Stochastic optimization of mine production scheduling with uncertain ore/metal/waste supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leite Andre; Dimitrakopoulos Roussos

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of long-term mine production scheduling in open pit mines deals with the management of cash flows, typically in the order of hundreds of millions of dollars. Conventional mine scheduling utilizes optimization methods that are not capable of accounting for inherent technical uncertainties such as uncertainty in the expected ore/metal supply from the underground, acknowledged to be the most critical factor. To integrate ore/metal uncertainty into the optimization of mine production scheduling a stochastic integer programming (SIP) formulation is tested at a copper deposit. The stochastic solution maximizes the economic value of a project and minimizes deviations from production targets in the pres-ence of ore/metal uncertainty. Unlike the conventional approach, the SIP model accounts and manages risk in ore supply, leading to a mine production schedule with a 29%higher net present value than the schedule obtained from the conventional, industry-standard optimization approach, thus contributing to improving the management and sustainable utilization of mineral resources.

  5. The sources of our iron ores. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  6. Understanding Lateritic Ore Agglomeration Behaviour as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    istics, low grade lateritic ores require more aggressive but costly chemical and hydrometallurgical techniques (e.g., leaching in ... Isothermal, batch agglomeration tests involving 30 and 44 % w/w sulphuric acid ... *Loss of ignition. Table 2: ...

  7. Research of Geochemical Associations of Nephelin Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulf, M.; Simonov, K.; Sazonov, A.

    The instant paper concerns research of distribution petrogenic chemical members in urtit ore body of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit. Rocks of the deposit are ore for producing alum earth. Actuality of the subject based on outlooks of detection noble metal ore-bearing (Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru) in alkaline rocks of Siberia, including rocks of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit (Kuznetsk Alatau). The main purpose of analysis of distribution of members is directed to detection of a non-uniformity of distribution of substance and segments enriched with alum earth and noble members. The basic solved problems are following: o Creation regression models of ore body; o Definition of cumulative distribution functions of members in a contour of ore body; o The analysis of the obtained outcomes in geologic terms. For construction regression models the full-scale data was used, which was presented by the results of the spectral and silicate analyses of gold and petrogenic members containing 130 assays arranged in ore body. A non-linear multiparameter model of the ore body based on components of nephelin ore using neural net approach was constructed. For each member the corresponding distribution function is produced. The model is constructed on the following members: Au, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, R2O ((Na2O+K2O) -1) and losses of burning. The error of model forecasting membersS concentrations was from 0.02 up to 20%. Large errors basically connected with assays located near contact of ore body and ad- jacent strata or with very high concentrations of members; also they can be connected with different genesis of rocks or superposition of other processes. The analysis of concentrations of members and normalised absolute errors of the fore- cast has shown, that all members can be sectioned into two groups: first: Al2O3, SiO2, R2O, Fe2O3 and second: Au, losses of burning, CaO, MgO, SO3. The distribution of 1 gold is tightly connected with calcium and losses of burning and spatially linked with zones

  8. Analytical fingerprint for tantalum ores from African deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, F.; Graupner, T.; Sitnikova, M.; Oberthür, T.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Gäbler, E.; Rantitsch, G.

    2009-04-01

    Illegal mining of gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt and, in the last decade, "coltan" has fuelled ongoing armed conflicts and civil war in a number of African countries. Following the United Nations initiative to fingerprint the origin of conflict materials and to develop a traceability system, our working group is investigating "coltan" (i.e. columbite-tantalite) mineralization especially in Africa, also within the wider framework of establishing certified trading chains (CTC). Special attention is directed towards samples from the main Ta-Nb-Sn provinces in Africa: DR Congo, Rwanda, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Egypt and Namibia. The following factors are taken into consideration in a methodological approach capable of distinguishing the origin of tantalum ores and concentrates with the utmost probability: (1) Quality and composition of coltan concentrates vary considerably. (2) Mineralogical and chemical compositions of Ta-Nb ores are extremely complex due to the wide range of the columbite-tantalite solid solution series and its ability to incorporate many additional elements. (3) Coltan concentrates may contain a number of other tantalum-bearing minerals besides columbite-tantalite. In our approach, coltan concentrates are analyzed in a step-by-step mode. State-of-the-art analytical tools employed are automated scanning electron microscopy (Mineral Liberation Analysis; MLA), electron microprobe analysis (major and trace elements), laser ablation-ICP-MS (trace elements, isotopes), and TIMS (U-Pb dating). Mineral assemblages in the ore concentrates, major and trace element concentration patterns, and zoning characteristics in the different pegmatites from Africa distinctly differ from each other. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns vary significantly between columbite, tantalite, and microlite, and also relative to major element compositions of columbites. Some locations are characterized by low REE concentrations, others are highly enriched. Samples with

  9. Mechanism of mechanical activation for sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hui-ping; CHEN Qi-yuan; YIN Zhou-lan; HE Yue-hui; HUANG Bai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Structural changes for mechanically activated pyrite, sphalerite, galena and molybdenite with or without the exposure to ambient air, were systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis(XRD), particle size analysis, gravimetrical method, X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy(XPS) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM), respectively. Based on the above structural changes for mechanically activated sulfide ores and related reports by other researchers, several qualitative rules of the mechanisms and the effects of mechanical activation for sulfide ores are obtained. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and incomplete cleavage plane or extremely incomplete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with thermal instability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that a great amount of surface reactive sites are formed, and lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For brittle sulfide ores with excellent thermal stability, and complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation. The effects of mechanical activation are apparent. For sulfide ores with high toughness, good thermal stability and very excellent complete cleavage plane, the mechanism of mechanical activation is that lattice deformation happens during their mechanical activation, but the lattice deformation ratio is very small. The effects of mechanical activation are worst.

  10. How Many Ore-Bearing Asteroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e. commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (= US$1 B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is ~20,000 (Mainzer et al. 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in ~1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water (~20%) expected in ~25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to ~9000 out of th...

  11. PREDICTION OF LOCATION OF HIDDEN ORE DEPOSITS IN THE AGED ORE FIELDS:AN EXAMPLE FROM FENGHUANGSHAN ORE FIELD,TONGLING,CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Liang-ming; PENG; Sheng-lin; YIANG; Qun-zhou; SHAO; Yong-jun; WANG; Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for successfully predicting the location of potential hidden ore bodies in aged ore field,and presents the result of location prediction of hidden ore bodies in Fenghuangshan ore field,Tongling.Innovative conceptual targeting procedures based on a genetic understanding of mineralization systems,carefully geological investigation and correct deduction,together with new geochemical and geophysical technology and integrating of comprehensive information are all very important for the successful prediction.In the aged Fenghuangshan ore field,through researching by application of the metallogenic theory of polygenetic compound ore deposits and triple-frequency induced polarization method and exploration tectono-geochemical method,we predicted location and quality of hidden ore bodies.According to the prediction,hidden high quality Cu-Au ore bodies of skarn type and porphyry type have been discovered.

  12. ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER FABRIC IN CYANIDE LEACHING LIQUOR OF GOLD ORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXiaozhen

    2002-01-01

    Adsorption capacity of ACFF in cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores was studied with cyanide leaching liquor of gold ores,containing various kinds of ions.The adsorbed leaching liquor was analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy and colorimetric method.The contents of various kinds. of ions in ACFF were determined with X-ray photoctron spectroscopy.ACFF not only adsorbed gold but also adsorbed arsenic,nickel,zinc,calcium,sulphur,bismuth,copper,iron,silver and cyanide,anion.Atomic percentage of C and those of O,N,Zn,Fe increase and decrease respectively with the increase of the layer depth,while those of Ca,Au,Ag keep constant.

  13. Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.

    1981-03-01

    Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

  14. Geology and ore deposits of the Pioche district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, L.G.; Knopf, Adolph

    1932-01-01

    which was discovered accidentally during the prospecting of the fissure veins. The ore deposits of the district comprise three groups (1) silver-bearing fissure veins in quartzite; (2) silver-bearing mineralized granite porphyry; (3) replacement deposits in limestone and dolomite. All of them appear to have been formed at about the same time, in the epoch of mineralization that occurred shortly after the intrusion of the granitic rocks and their allied dikes of granite porphyry and lamprophyre. The entire present output of the district is coming from the replacement deposits in limestone and dolomite, but exploratory work is still in progress on the fissure veins and mineralized porphyry. The replacement deposits include both replacement fissure veins and stratiform ("bedded") replacement deposits. The replacement fissure veins dip steeply and cut across the bedding of the carbonate rocks in which they are inclosed. They are thoroughly oxidized, as deep at least as 1,100 feet, for on none of them have the mine workings penetrated to water level, and they are highly manganiferous and limonitic and low in silica. At-certain horizons stratiform replacement deposits extend out as lateral branches from the fissure veins. Deposits of this kind occur mainly in the Mendha limestone, Highland Peak limestone, and Lyndon limestone. The stratigraphic range is therefore at least 5,500 feet, and as some of the fissure veins extend down through the underlying Pioche shale the indicated range may exceed 6,500 feet. The most notable representatives of the replacement fissure veins are at the Bristol mine, where they yield silver-bearing copper-leadzinc ores. So far unique among the ore bodies of the district is the pipe of wad and pyrolusite ore at the Jackrabbit mine, the periphery of the pipe consisting of a girdle of extraordinarily coarse white calcite spar produced by the recrystallization of the surrounding limestones. The stratiform replacement deposits that are attracting most

  15. Mobility factors of cracked ore in vibrating-ore draw shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ai-xiang; JIANG Li-chun; CHEN Jia-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The mobile factors of cracked ore in vibrating-ore draw shafts were analyzed. The results show that the mobile coefficient of cracked ores will be mainly influenced by the combination of ore physical factors if the structure dimension and parameters of vibrating ore-draw shafts are sure. It decreases with increasing the cohesion, lump content, lump size and powder content and increases with increasing the porosity. The coefficient decreases with increasing the moisture content, but increases after the moisture content reaches a certain value. Uniform grain leads to better mobility, non-uniform grain leads to worse mobility. The value of the mobile coefficient should be in a range of 0.31.1 when designing the vibrating ore-draw shafts. According to correlation degree of grey system theory, the effects of factors on the mobility of cracked ore are given in the weight decreasing consequence as follows: moisture content, lump content, distribution of grain size, lump size, porosity, cohesion and powder ore content. It is unreasonable to neglect any one because the values of their weights are not obvious.

  16. Contrasting REE Signatures on Manganese Ores of Iron Ore Group in North Orissa, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The distribution pattern of Rare Earth Elements (REE) in three categories of manganese ores viz.stratiform, stratabound-replacement, and detrital of Precambrian Iron Ore Group from north Orissa, India was reported.These categories of Mn-ore differed in their major and trace chemistry and exhibited contrasting REE signature.The stratiform ores were relatively enriched in REE content (697 μg·g-1) and their normalized pattern showed both positive Ce and Eu anomalies, whereas the stratabound-replacement types were comparatively depleted in REE content (211 μg·g-1) and showed negative Ce and flat Eu signatures.The detrital categories showed mixed REE pattern.The data plotted in different discrimination diagrams revealed a mixed volcaniclastic and chemogenic source of material for stratiform categories, and LREE (Light Rare Earth Elements) and HREE (Heavy Rare Earth Elements) are contributed by such sources, respectively.In contrast, the stratabound ore bodies were developed during the remobilization of stratiform ores, and associated Mn-containing rocks under supergene condition followed by the redeposition of circulating mineralized colloidal solutions in structurally favorable zones.During this process, some of the constituents were found only in very low concentration within stratabound ores, and this is attributed to their poor leachability/mobility.The detrital ores did not exhibit any significant characteristic in respect of REE as their development was via a complex combination of processes involving weathering, fragmentation, recementation, and burial under soil cover.

  17. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Aparecida; Lima, Diana Quintão; Duarte, Hélio Anderson; Murad, Enver; Pereira, Márcio César; de Freitas Suita, Marcos Tadeu; Ardisson, José Domingos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaquã copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  18. Life cycle methodology for copper : allocation and recycling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobling-Reisemann, S. [Bremen Univ., Bremen (Germany). Faculty of Production Engineering; Tikana, L.; Sievers, H.; Klassert, A. [Deutsches Kupferinstitut, Dusseldorf (Germany). Life Cycle Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper provided an overview of different methodologies available for recycling and assessing the life cycles of copper ores. Approaches towards allocation in life cycle assessments (LCA) included detailed modelling; system expansion; physical allocation; economic allocation; and subsequent-use allocation. Approaches towards recycling included system expansion, cut-off approaches, open loop approach; value corrected substitution; and the cascade approach. Sulphuric acid and steam are produced as by-products during copper production, and most copper ores contain molybdenum, gold, silver, and nickel. The environmental impacts of copper by-products must be considered when conducting LCAs. Existing standards allow different implementation methods for recycling and allocation into metal LCAs, and the selection of a methodology can significantly influence the ecological profile of copper and copper products. Allocation is needed when processes with more than 1 function are investigated. ISO standards recommend avoiding allocation problems by using detailed system modelling. Allocation factors should be chosen that reflect the physical relationship between the functional units produced and their associated environmental burdens. Case studies were presented to demonstrate allocations of co- and byproducts and recycling in copper production. 19 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies in kalchoye Copper- gold deposit, East of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvary

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kalchoye Copper-gold deposit is located about 110 kilometers east of Esfahan province and within the Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks. Sandy tuff and andesite lava are important members of this complex.The form of mineralization in area is vein and veinlet and quartz as the main gangue phase. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena and weathered minerals such as goethite, iron oxides, malachite and azurite. Studies in area indicate that ore mineralization Kalchoye is low sulfide, quartz type of hydrothermal ore deposits and results of thermometry studies on quartz minerals low- medium fluid with low potential mineralization is responsible for mineralization in this area.

  20. Selective Flocculation of Dilband Iron Ore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ishaque Abro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective flocculation for long is known as one of the beneficiation techniques applicable to the concentration of finely disseminated ores. The success of this technique is based on the selective adsorption of an organic polymer on the mineral particles to be flocculated. In present study beneficiation of finely disseminated Dilband iron ore using selective flocculation has been attempted. The effect of pH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, sodium hexametaphosphate (Na2OP2O5, sodium trypolyphosphate (Na5P3O10, ethylediaminetretracetae (NaCH2-CH2N, flocculant doses, and flocculant mixing method on the selective adsorption of corn starch on hematite, the chief iron mineral, was studied comprehensively. Improvement in grade was assessed by XRF analysis of the flocculation products. The selective flocculation upgraded the ore from 52% hematite (i.e. 39% Fe to 60% hematite (i.e. 45% Fe with an average hematite recovery of 15%. Appreciable increase in ore grade with sufficiently poor recovery suggested that selective flocculation process is not adequate beneficiating technique to upgrade the Dilband iron ore due to heavily intergrowth of impurities.

  1. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson, L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  2. Bioleaching of low-grade copper sulphides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The bioleaching behavior of low-grade copper sulphides under the condition of preferential solution flow was investigated through experiments.The experiment of bioleaching was conducted within the multifunction autocontrol bioleaching apparatus.The results show that the concentrations of Cu2+ and total Fe increase slowly at the beginning.The recovery rate decreases with the increase of depth of dump.The preferential solution happens within the fine region when the application rate is low,and the recovery rate of the fine region is higher than that of the coarse region.The content of fine ore particles within both fine and coarse regions increases during the leaching period,and the preferential solution flow shifts from fine region to coarse region.The surface of the ores at the top of dump is attacked seriously,and the ores in the middle is attacked slightly.There are plenty of crackles on the surface of bottom ores because of the precipitation layer on the surface.

  3. The physical hydrogeology of ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Appold, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits represent a convergence of fluid flow, thermal energy, and solute flux that is hydrogeologically unusual. From the hydrogeologic perspective, hydrothermal ore deposition represents a complex coupled-flow problem—sufficiently complex that physically rigorous description of the coupled thermal (T), hydraulic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes (THMC modeling) continues to challenge our computational ability. Though research into these coupled behaviors has found only a limited subset to be quantitatively tractable, it has yielded valuable insights into the workings of hydrothermal systems in a wide range of geologic environments including sedimentary, metamorphic, and magmatic. Examples of these insights include the quantification of likely driving mechanisms, rates and paths of fluid flow, ore-mineral precipitation mechanisms, longevity of hydrothermal systems, mechanisms by which hydrothermal fluids acquire their temperature and composition, and the controlling influence of permeability and other rock properties on hydrothermal fluid behavior. In this communication we review some of the fundamental theory needed to characterize the physical hydrogeology of hydrothermal systems and discuss how this theory has been applied in studies of Mississippi Valley-type, tabular uranium, porphyry, epithermal, and mid-ocean ridge ore-forming systems. A key limitation in the computational state-of-the-art is the inability to describe fluid flow and transport fully in the many ore systems that show evidence of repeated shear or tensional failure with associated dynamic variations in permeability. However, we discuss global-scale compilations that suggest some numerical constraints on both mean and dynamically enhanced crustal permeability. Principles of physical hydrogeology can be powerful tools for investigating hydrothermal ore formation and are becoming increasingly accessible with ongoing advances in modeling software.

  4. Influence of copper minerals on cyanide leaching of gold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper thermodynamically examined the behavior of various copper minerals in cyanide solu-tions and investigated the influence of copper minerals on cyanide leaching of gold. In elucidating the influence of copper minerals on cyanide leaching of gold, copper minerals were classified into two types according to their solubility in cyanide solutions by proposing two concepts, cyaniding easily soluble copper (ECu) and cyaniding insoluble copper. The former involves copper occurrence in metal, oxides and secondary sulfides, and the latter refers mainly to primary sulfides. Experimental results show that not all the total copper in an ore affected cyanide leaching of gold, while cyaniding easily soluble copper turns out to be the decisive factor that interferes with gold cyanidation by causing decrease in gold cyanidation recovery and increase in cyanide consumption. When cyaniding easily soluble copper content (wE(Cu)) lies in the range of 0-0.25%, it linearly affects gold cyanidation recovery (R) as well as cyanide consumption (mc). The regression equations have been worked out to be R(%)=94.177 5-142.735 7 wE(Cu) with a correlation coefficient of -0.902 and mc=5.590 7+33.572 9 wE(Cu) with a correlation coefficient of 0.945, respectively.

  5. A new radiation shielding material: Amethyst ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkut, Turgay, E-mail: turgaykorkut@hotmail.co [Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Physics, Ibrahim Cecen University, Agri (Turkey); Korkut, Hatun [Faculty of Science and Art, Department of Physics, Ibrahim Cecen University, Agri (Turkey); Karabulut, Abdulhalik; Budak, Goekhan [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a new radiation shielding material, amethyst ore. We have determined the elemental composition of amethyst using WDXRF spectroscopy technique. To see the shielding capability of amethyst for several photon energies, these results have been used in simulation process by FLUKA Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Linear attenuation coefficients have been calculated according to the simulation results. Then, these values have been compared to a fine shielding concrete material. The results show that amethyst shields more gamma beams than concrete. This investigation is the first study about the radiation shielding properties of amethyst ore.

  6. METALLOGENIC SYSTEM OF DACHANG TINPOLYMETALLIC ORE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiang-bin; DAI Ta-gen; WANG Zhi-bin; FANG Sheng-kui

    2001-01-01

    The Dachang tin-polymetallic ore field in northern Guangxi,China,lies in a mid-late Paleozoic rift that borders up the southern boundary of the Jiangnan-Xuefeng Massif.As a giant ore deposit,it deposited in middle of the Nandang-Hechi metallogenic zone.The orehosting strata are of the Devonion,which shows the evident characteristics of polymetallic elements,i.e: ,Sn,Zn,Pb,Sb,As,Cu,Ag,In,Ge,Cd,et al.,and over 1 000 000 t tin reserves.

  7. Ore-bearing hydrothermal metasomatic processes in the Elbrus volcanic center, the northern Caucasus, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbanov, A. G.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Dokuchaev, A. Ya.; Gazeev, V. M.; Abramov, S. S.; Groznova, E. O.; Shevchenko, A. V.

    2008-06-01

    Precaldera, caldera, and postcaldera cycles are recognized in the geological evolution of the Pleistocene-Holocene Elbrus volcanic center (EVC). During the caldera cycle, the magmatic activity was not intense, whereas hydrothermal metasomatic alteration of rocks was vigorous and extensive. The Kyukyurtli and Irik ore-magmatic systems have been revealed in the EVC, with the former being regarded as the more promising one. The ore mineralization in rocks of the caldera cycle comprises occurrences of magnetite, ilmenite, pyrite and pyrrhotite (including Ni-Co varieties), arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, millerite, galena, and finely dispersed particles of native copper. Pyrite and pyrrhotite from volcanics of the caldera cycle and dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion are similar in composition and differ from these minerals of the postcaldera cycle, where pyrite and pyrrhotite are often enriched in Cu, Co, and Ni and millerite is noted as well. The composition of ore minerals indicates that the hydrothermal metasomatic alteration related to the evolution of the Kyukyurtli hydrothermal system was superimposed on rocks of the caldera cycle, whereas the late mineralization in rocks of the postcaldera cycle developed autonomously. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz and carbonate from crosscutting veinlets in the apical portion of the Kyukyurtli extrusion is 140-170°C and in quartz from geyserite, 120-150°C. The temperature of formation of the chalcopyrite-pyrite-pyrrhotite assemblage calculated using mineral geothermometers is 156 and 275°C in dacite from the middle and lower portions of the Malka lava flow and 190°C in dacite of the Kyukyurtli extrusion. The hydrothermal solutions that participated in metasomatic alteration of rocks pertaining to the Kyukyurtli ore-magmatic system (KOMS) and formed both secondary quartzite and geyserite were enriched in fluorine, as evidenced from the occurrence of F-bearing minerals-zharchikhite, ralstonite,

  8. Partitioning properties of rare earth ores in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Ru'an; LI Zhongjun; PENG Cui; ZHU Guocai; XU Shengming

    2005-01-01

    The properties of rare earth partitioning in Chinese industrial rare earth ores were analyzed. Rare earth ores can be divided into the single-mineral type ore with bastnaesite, the multi-mineral type ore with bastnaesite and monazite, and the weathering crust type. Both the Bayan Obo rare earth ore and the Zhushan rare earth ore are a kind of mixed ore, consisting of bastnaesite and monazite. Their rare earth partitionings are strongly enriched in light rare earths, where CeO2 is 50% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 95%. The Mianning rare earth ore as well as the Weishan rare earth is a kind of rare earth ore only having bastnaesite. Their rare earth partitionings are also strongly enriched in light rare earths,in which CeO2 is 47% and the light rare earth partitioning is totally over 94%. For the weathering crust type rare earth ore,there are the Longnan rare earth ore, the Xunwu rare earth ore, and the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. In the Longnan rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in heavy rare earths, Y2O3 is 64.83%, and the heavy and light rare earth partitionings are 89.40% and 10.53%, respectively. In the Xunwu rare earth ore, which is strongly enriched in light rare earths, CeO2 is 47.16%, and the light rare earth partitioning is totally 93.25%. Y and Eu are enriched in the middle yttrium and rich europium ore. Its middle rare earth partitioning is totally over 10%, and Eu2O3 and Y2O3 are over 0.5% and 20%,respectively, which are mainly industrial resources of the middle and the heavy rare earths.

  9. Equilibrium Copper Strip Points as a Function of Temperature and Other Operating Parameters: Implications for Commercial Copper Solvent Extraction Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The development of pressure and bioleaching processes for high grade copper ores and concentrates will result in copper solvent extraction plants treating solutions with high copper and acid concentrations at temperatures up to 45C and these copper solvent extraction plants will run with reagent concentrations up to 40 vol.%. There is also a trend to use copper stripping solutions with less acid than typically used in recent years. Cognis has developed a model that accurately predicts the copper strip point for virtually any copper solvent extraction reagent or combination of reagents under a wide variety of conditions. The equilibrium strip points for several well known commercial copper solvent extraction reagents are given as a function of reagent concentration, the copper and acid concentration of the strip aqueous, and the temperature. It is shown that the equilibrium strip point is not a straight line function of reagent concentration and that the equilibrium strip point increases with an increase in temperature. Copper extraction also increases as the temperature increases.

  10. Carbon, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotope constraints on the ore source and metallogenesis of copper deposits in western Awulale Mountain metallogenic belt, Xinjiang%新疆阿吾拉勒成矿带西段铜矿床碳、氧、硫、铅同位素研究——成矿物质来源及成矿环境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 张作衡; 刘晓阳; 刘敏; 张贺; 朱维娜

    2012-01-01

    western Awulale Mountain metallogenic belt include subvolanic rock-related Cu deposits (SVR) situated in the middle and southern area and intermediate-low temperature hydrother-mal vein-type Cu deposits (ILTHV) located in the northern area. This paper reports a detailed C, O, S and Pb isotopic investigation of three SVR deposits (No. 109, Qunjisayi and Qunji) and two ILTHV deposits (Nulasai and Qiongbulake) lying from south to north in the ore field. The sulfur isotopic compositions of the sulfides from the five deposits show distinct differences and systematic variations from south to north. The SVR deposits show small variation of δ34S values from + 3.4%o to +4.4%o (No. 109 deposit) and from - 1.6%o to 0.2%o (Qunjisayi and Qunji deposits). In contrast, the ILTHV deposits have large variation of S^S values from - 18%o to + 8.9%o. The carbon and oxygen isotope variations of the two types have similar sulfur isotope variation features. The SVR deposits show small variation of δ13C values from - 1.44%o to + 0.8%o and relatively large variation of δ18O values from + 11.87‰ to + 16.99‰. The ILTHV deposits have large variation of δ13C values from - 10.1% to -3.2% and relatively large variation of δ18O values from 9.63% to 16.27%. The Pb-isotopic composition of sulfides from ILTHV deposits indicate that they are normal-Pb mainly derived from the mantle. The Pb-isotope of sulfides from felisic SVR deposits is rich in radiogenetic Pb provided by the Precam-brian basement rock. The Pb-isotope of sulfides from basic SVR deposits is the mixed mantle-Pb and crust-Pb. In conclusion, the systematic variations of mineral source and ore-forming process from SVR deposits to ILTHV deposits reveal that the metallogenic environments in southern and northern copper belt are different and this dif-ference was probably related to the Permian rifting evolution. In the process of Permian rifting evolution, the different extents of the stretching structure in southern and northern copper

  11. Sintering Properties and Optimal Blending Schemes of Iron Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dauter0liveira; WUSheng—li; DAIYu—ming; XUJian; CHEN Hong

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain good sintering performance, it is important to understand sintering properties of iron ores. Sintering properties including chemical composition, granulation and high-temperature behaviors of ores from China, Brazil and Australia. Furthermore, several indices were defined to evaluate sintering properties of iron ores. The results show that: for chemical composition, Brazilian ores present high TFe, low SiOz, and low Alz03 con- tent. For granulation, particle diameter ratio of Brazilian ores are high; particle intermediate fraction of Chinese con- centrates are low; and average particle size and clay type index of Australian ores are high. For high-temperature properties, ores from China, Brazil and Australia present different characteristics. Ores from different origins should be mixed together to obtain good high-temperature properties. According to the analysis of each ore's sintering prop- erties, an ore blending scheme (Chinese concentrates 20 ~-1- Brazilian ores 400//oo -k Australian ores 40 ~) was sugges- ted. Moreover, sinter pot test using blending mix was performed, and the results indicated that the ore blending scheme led to good sintering performance and sinter quality.

  12. Influences of silver sulfide on the bioleaching of chalcopyrite, pyrite and chalcopyrite-containing ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡岳华; 王军; 邱冠周; 王淀佐

    2002-01-01

    The effects of silver sulfide (Ag2S) on the bioleaching of chalcopyrite and pyrite were investigated in this paper. It has been shown that Ag2S enhanced the yields of bioleaching of chalcopyrite but inhibited the bio-oxidation of pyrite. The addition of Ag2S selectively increased the copper dissolution from the chalcopyrite-containing ores in shake flasks with a recovery of 85.3% compared with 24.3% without Ag2S, while slightly decreased the iron yields from 51% to 41.8%. The copper extraction of the chalcoopyrite-containing waste rock in column leaching charged with 18 kg mass increased up to 21.7% in the presence of Ag2S, while only 3.4% in the absence of the catalyst. The mechanism of Ag2S catalysis could be explained well by the "Mixed potential model".

  13. Influences of ore formation on biomarkers in the Kupferschiefer from the Lubin mine, Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuzhuang; CHEN Jianping; LIN Mingyue; MENG Zhiqiang; ZHANG Hongjian

    2005-01-01

    Molecular biomarkers are the important maturity parameters for sedimentary organic matter. They have also been widely used for determining the maturity of organic matter in ore deposits. However, during the study of organic matter in the Kupferschiefer from the Lubin mine, it had been found that the biomarkers were influenced by sulfide formation. In order to probe into the degree of influence on biomarkers, seven samples collected from a Kupferschiefer section from the Lubin mine were analyzed by various geochemical methods. The results indicated that in the samples with higher copper contents, the values of biomarkers are lower than in the samples with lower copper contents. In highly mineralized samples, hydrogen donation for thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) occurred in alkylated phenanthrenes and naphthalenes, leading to the decrease of 12 biomarker parameters during the Kupferschiefer mineralization.

  14. HANDLING, STORAGE AND IRON ORE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Fonseca Fortes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify handling and storage impact in iron ore quality, in their physical and chemical characteristics most important for a mining. It is tried to show the interferences in iron ore quality caused by the handling equipment and stockpiling. The research is restricted to Complexo Vargem Grande (Vale. The timeline was demarcated based on the formation of stockpiling. The fieldwork enables data collection and distinction of the routine procedures of casual operations handling. The quantitative analysis is conducted by the statistical method. As a conclusion, handling and storage identified are able to insert changes in physical and chemical characteristics of iron ore. Storage contributes to reduce variability of silica and alumina concentrations, but contributes too particle size deterioration. The handling induces degradation and segregation. However, there is the possibility to decrease handling of the ore and to establish the ideal size of stocks on the system in study, improving the efficiency of the system and consequent in global costs.

  15. Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

  16. Ore genesis at the Monterrosas deposit in the Coastal Batholith, Ica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, G. B.

    1984-06-01

    Monterosas is a hydrothermal deposit of copper and for that is hosted by gabbro-diorites of the Upper Cretaceous Patap Superunit within the Coastal Batholith of central Peru. The ore body is localized by fractures and splays related to a nearby regional fault and is composed of massive chalcopyrite, magnetite, and pyrite. Ore and alteration minerals such as actinolite, sodic scapolite, epidotes, sphene, magnetite, apatite, tourmaline, chlorites, hematite, and quartz formed dominantly as replacements of magmatic diosside, labradorite-andesine, and ilmenite. Hydrothermal mineralization was characterized by the exchange of major, minor, and trace elements between hot saline fluids and gabbro-diorite wall rocks. Geochemical data suggest that the ore and gangue minerals were deposited at high temperatures from saline fluids derived from a magma. The evidence includes fluid inclusions within gangue quartz that exhibit homogenization temperatures of 400 to 500 C, salinites of 32 to 56 wt percent NaCl and the halite trend, and magmatic like sulfur isotopic compositions that range from 1.6 to 3.3 permit in gyrite and chalcopyrite.

  17. Mining and processing of uranium ores at the Streltsovsky ore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovseytchuk, V.A.; Litvinenko, V.G.; Kultishev, V.I. [Joint Stock Company, Priargunsky Industrial Mining and Chemical Union, Krasnokamensk, Chita Region (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The uranium deposits of Streltsovsky ore fields provide raw materials for Russian nuclear industry. For this region, it is important to achieve continued and increased activities in the recovery of mineral resources of uranium. Similarly, maintaining the mining and processing of uranium ores ensures the supply of raw materials for the nuclear industry. With the current operations, increasing the mining and processing activities would increase the cost of production of uranium oxides due to decreasing grades of ore body. After a review of the existing economic, technological and natural factors, a solution was proposed based on the joint application of underground mining and ore enrichment and processing with the help of hydrometallurgical process, in-situ leaching. Reduction of operation coasts and creation of radiation-safe working conditions could be achieved with the application of these systems involving concrete hardening in the mines and in-situ leaching of ore. With the help of economic-mathematical modeling, methods for rational application of various technologies could be determined and their processing parameters were specified. A reduction of coasts could be obtained and favorable conditions could be established for improvement in the treatment of lower grade ores by heap leaching. Application of purification of mine waters and tailing pond reduces the influence of the radiation and the impact on the natural environment. (author)

  18. Hydrogen Reduction of Hematite Ore Fines to Magnetite Ore Fines at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surplus coke oven gases (COGs and low grade hematite ores are abundant in Shanxi, China. Our group proposes a new process that could simultaneously enrich CH4 from COG and produce separated magnetite from low grade hematite. In this work, low-temperature hydrogen reduction of hematite ore fines was performed in a fixed-bed reactor with a stirring apparatus, and a laboratory Davis magnetic tube was used for the magnetic separation of the resulting magnetite ore fines. The properties of the raw hematite ore, reduced products, and magnetic concentrate were analyzed and characterized by a chemical analysis method, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results indicated that, at temperatures lower than 400°C, the rate of reduction of the hematite ore fines was controlled by the interfacial reaction on the core surface. However, at temperatures higher than 450°C, the reaction was controlled by product layer diffusion. With increasing reduction temperature, the average utilization of hydrogen initially increased and tended to a constant value thereafter. The conversion of Fe2O3 in the hematite ore played an important role in the total iron recovery and grade of the concentrate. The grade of the concentrate decreased, whereas the total iron recovery increased with the increasing Fe2O3 conversion.

  19. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-06-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  20. Hydrogen Plasma Processing of Iron Ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Kali Charan; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-03-01

    Iron is currently produced by carbothermic reduction of oxide ores. This is a multiple-stage process that requires large-scale equipment and high capital investment, and produces large amounts of CO2. An alternative to carbothermic reduction is reduction using a hydrogen plasma, which comprises vibrationally excited molecular, atomic, and ionic states of hydrogen, all of which can reduce iron oxides, even at low temperatures. Besides the thermodynamic and kinetic advantages of a hydrogen plasma, the byproduct of the reaction is water, which does not pose any environmental problems. A review of the theory and practice of iron ore reduction using a hydrogen plasma is presented. The thermodynamic and kinetic aspects are considered, with molecular, atomic and ionic hydrogen considered separately. The importance of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules in overcoming the activation energy barriers, and in transferring energy to the iron oxide, is emphasized. Both thermal and nonthermal plasmas are considered. The thermophysical properties of hydrogen and argon-hydrogen plasmas are discussed, and their influence on the constriction and flow in the of arc plasmas is considered. The published R&D on hydrogen plasma reduction of iron oxide is reviewed, with both the reduction of molten iron ore and in-flight reduction of iron ore particles being considered. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility of the process are discussed. It is shown that hydrogen plasma processing requires less energy than carbothermic reduction, mainly because pelletization, sintering, and cokemaking are not required. Moreover, the formation of the greenhouse gas CO2 as a byproduct is avoided. In-flight reduction has the potential for a throughput at least equivalent to the blast furnace process. It is concluded that hydrogen plasma reduction of iron ore is a potentially attractive alternative to standard methods.

  1. The Three-dimensional Geodynamic Model of The Pechenga Ore District (baltic Shield, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, K.; Kazansky, V.

    The drilling and investigation of the Kola superdeep borehole SG-3 for the first time provided direct data on the structure and composition of the ancient continental crust at previously inaccessible depths. They stimulated the elaboration of alternative three- dimensional models of the Pechenga ore district equally. These models consider the Pechenga structure that hosts large sulfide copper-nickel deposits as a graben-syncline, asymmetrical syncline, explosive volcanic center, and two-continent collision suture zone. The paper comprises the reappraisal of the alternative models and the charac- teristics of an integrated three-dimensional geodynamic model of the Pechenga ore district. Rock density and their anisotropy in elastic properties were used as the main parameters for the formalized description of the borehole SG-3 section and the refer- ence profile on the day surface. The first parameter reflects the rocks' lithology, the second accounts for the intensity of synmetamorphic tectonic deformations. In addi- tion, new age datings and morphology of the gravity field of the Pechenga district were considered. The computer-based technology insured reappraisal of the alterna- tive models by comparison of observed and calculated gravity profiles going through the borehole SG-3. The constraints of the proposed integrated model are based both on the investigations of the borehole SG-3 and on the additional surface studies. The model regards the Pechenga ore district as a horizontal section of a mantle-derived volcano-plutonic ore-forming system of the central type. The model defines the north- ern limb of the Pechenga structure as an imbricated fragment of a volcanic caldera and describes its southern limb as a combination of a sheeted monocline in a jux- taposition with rheomorphic granitoid domes. Development of the system was pre- ceded by rifting of the consolidated sialic crust. The model implies a co-genetic re- lationship between the Early Proterozoic

  2. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  3. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory.

  4. An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

  5. Ore fluid geochemistry of the Jinlongshan Carlin type gold ore belt in Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Jinlongshan gold ore belt in southern Shaanxi Province contains a number of Carlin-type gold deposits in the Qinling collisional orogenic belt. Their fluid inclusions are of the Na+ - Cl- type. From the main metallogenic stage to later stages, the total quantity of anions and cations, temperature and deoxidation parameter (R) for fluid inclusions all gradu ally decreased, suggesting the gradual intensification of fluid oxidation, the reduction of met allogenic depth and the input of meteoric water and organic components. The deposits were formed during crustal uplifting and hence had similar tectonic settings to orogenic gold depos its. The CO2 contents and CO2/H2O values of the ore fluid increased from early to late sta ges, and the wall-rock alteration is represented by decarbonation, which is inconsistent with the characteristics of orogenic gold deposits. It is also discovered that Na + , K + ,SO42-, Cl-and the total amounts of anions and cations in the inclusions in quartz are higher than those in the coexisting calcite. The H, O and C isotope ratios indicate that the ore fluid was sourced from meteoric water and metamorphic devolatilisation of the sedimentary rocks that host the ores. The high background δ18O and δ13C values of wall rocks resulted in high δ18O and δ13 C values of ore fluid and also high δ 18 O and δ 13 C values of hydrothermal minerals such as quartz and carbonate. The carbon in ore fluid stemmed largely from the hosting strata. The δ 18O and δ13C values of Fe-calcite and the δD values of fluid inclusions are lower than those of calcite and quartz. In terms of the theory of coordination chemistry, all these differences can be ascribed to water-rock interaction in the same fluid system, instead, to the multi source of ore fluid.

  6. Coper Isotope Fractionation in Porphyry Copper Deposits: A Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J.; Mathur, R.; Uhrie, J. L.; Hiskey, B.

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that copper is fractionated in the environment. However, the mechanisms for isotope fractionation and the role of organic and inorganic processes in the fractionation are not well understood. Here we used the well controlled experiments used by Phelps Dodge Corporation aimed at leaching copper from their ore deposits to constrain the mechanism of copper isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotope data were collected on a Micromass Isoprobe. High temperature copper sulfides from ore deposits in Chile and Arizona yield delta 65Cu near 0 permil. The reproducibility of the data is better that 0.1 permil. Controlled experiments consisting of large columns of rocks were fed solutions containing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Leptospirrilium ferroxidan. Solutions fom the columns were sampled for sixty days and analyzed for copper concentrations, oxidation potential, ferrous/ferric ratios and pH. The results indicate that the bacterially aided dissolution of copper fractionated copper. Preliminary experiments of copper dissolution not using bacteria show no isotope fractionation The original rock in the experiment has a delta 65Cu of -2.1. The first solutions that were collected from the columns had a delta 65Cu of -5.0 per mil. The liquid changed its isotopic composition from -50 to -10 during the sixty days of sampling. The greatest shift in the isotope ratios occurred the first 30 days when the copper recovered was less than 40% and the ferrous/ferric ratios were somewhat constant. At approximately 35 days after the start of the experiments, the copper recovery increases the ferrousferric ratio decreased and the copper isotope ratio of the fluids remained fairly constant. The data suggest that the bacteria are required to effectively fractionate copper isotopes in natural systems and that the mechanisms of bacterial aided copper dissolution may include a direct dissolution of the sulfides by the bacteria. Experiments

  7. PHYTOAVAILABILITY OF COPPER IN INDUSTRIAL BY-PRODUCTS AND MINERAL FERTILIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alternative copper (Cu sources could be used in fertilizer production, although the bioavailability of copper in these materials is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extractants neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, 2 % citric acid, 1 % acetic acid, 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, buffer solution pH 6.0, DTPA, EDTA, water, and hot water in the quantification of available Cu content in several sources, relating them to the relative agronomic efficiency (RAE of wheat grown in a clayey Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico (Oxisol and Neossolo Quartzarênico (Typic Quartzipsamment. Copper was applied at the rate of 1.5 mg kg-1 as scrap slag, brass slag, Cu ore, granulated copper, and copper sulfate. The extractants 10 % HCl, 10 % H2SO4, and NAC extracted higher Cu concentrations. The RAE values of brass slag and Cu ore were similar to or higher than those of Cu sulfate and granulated Cu. Solubility in the 2nd NAC extractant, officially required for mineral fertilizers with Cu, was lower than 60 % for the scrap slag, Cu ore, and granulated copper sources. This fact indicates that adoption of the NAC extractant may be ineffective for industrial by-products, although no extractant was more efficient in predicting Cu availability for wheat fertilized with the Cu sources tested.

  8. Dose calculations for intakes of ore dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, R.S

    1998-08-01

    This report describes a methodology for calculating the committed effective dose for mixtures of radionuclides, such as those which occur in natural radioactive ores and dusts. The formulae are derived from first principles, with the use of reasonable assumptions concerning the nature and behaviour of the radionuclide mixtures. The calculations are complicated because these `ores` contain a range of particle sizes, have different degrees of solubility in blood and other body fluids, and also have different biokinetic clearance characteristics from the organs and tissues in the body. The naturally occurring radionuclides also tend to occur in series, i.e. one is produced by the radioactive decay of another `parent` radionuclide. The formulae derived here can be used, in conjunction with a model such as LUDEP, for calculating total dose resulting from inhalation and/or ingestion of a mixture of radionuclides, and also for deriving annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations for these mixtures. 15 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Recovery of copper and cobalt by biopolymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, L K; Lopez, S L; Eastman, S L; Pryfogle, P

    1991-02-05

    The recovery of copper from synthetic aqueous media circulating in a loop fluidized bed reactor operated batchwise was investigated by using the following biopolymer systems: (1) a viscous solution of sodium alginate (from kelp) dispensed directly into the reactor fluid containing dissolved copper (sulfate salt) at initial concentrations of 60-200 ppm, (2) partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres for absorbing dissolved copper at initial concentrations of 10-40 ppm, and (3) a mixture of green algae Microcystis and sodium alginate dispensed directly into the reactor fluid. The recovery of copper and cobalt, a strategic metal, from cobalt ore leachate was achieved by a two-step approach: direct dispensing of sodium alginate to absorb the bulk of metals followed by the addition of partially coagulated calcium alginate spheres to "polish" the leachate. Metal binding capacity and conditional stability constant of each biopolymer system as well as the effective diffusivity of cupric ion in the matrix of biopolymer gels are reported.

  10. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  11. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian, Jilin Province, China: Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN JingGui; ZHAO JunKang; CHEN JunQiang; KEISUKE Nagao; HIROCHiKA Sumino; SHEN Kun; MEN LanJing; CHEN Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and 40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45-0.08 Ra, 10.2-8.8 and 306-430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123-102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition- crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as: (1

  12. On the Yangtze—type Copper Deposits and Their Polygentic Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文达

    1990-01-01

    The so-called“Yangtze-type”copper deposits include:(1)Cu-bearing massive pyrite bed ,(2)Cu-bearing skarn and magnetite-type ore deposits,with replacement Cu-vein-type deposits near the metasomatic zone,and (3)mineralized intrusive bodies and breccia pipes ,some of which are known as porphyry copper ores(e.g.Chengmenshan).This type of ore deposits is a typical example to verify the polygenesis of inost of the deposits in China,as has been promoted by Prof.Tu Guangchi in view of the polycyclic development of the geological history in China.This paper is con-cemed with one sub-type of such deposits.

  13. Iron ore weathering potentials of ectomycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, R A; Cloete, T E; Bertrand, A; Khasa, D P

    2012-10-01

    Plants in association with soil microorganisms play an important role in mineral weathering. Studies have shown that plants in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have the potential to increase the uptake of mineral-derived nutrients. However, it is usually difficult to study many of the different factors that influence ectomycorrhizal weathering in a single experiment. In the present study, we carried out a pot experiment where Pinus patula seedlings were grown with or without ECM fungi in the presence of iron ore minerals. The ECM fungi used included Pisolithus tinctorius, Paxillus involutus, Laccaria bicolor and Suillus tomentosus. After 24 weeks, harvesting of the plants was carried out. The concentration of organic acids released into the soil, as well as potassium and phosphorus released from the iron ore were measured. The results suggest that different roles of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mineral weathering such as nutrient absorption and transfer, improving the health of plants and ensuring nutrient circulation in the ecosystem, are species specific, and both mycorrhizal roots and non-mycorrhizal roots can participate in the weathering process of iron ore minerals.

  14. Vertical mill simulation applied to iron ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Batista Mazzinghy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of vertical mills in regrind circuits is consolidated. This type of mill is now attracting interest in primary grinding applications, due to its higher efficiency when compared to ball mills, which are usually used at this stage. In this study, a coarse sample of iron ore was tested in a pilot scale grinding circuit with a vertical mill. Other three samples of pellet feed had already been tested with the methodology used in this study. The sample of coarse iron ore was characterized in laboratory tests carried out in a small batch ball mill. Selection and breakage function parameters were determined from the laboratory tests. The parameters were then used for simulating the pilot scale tests using Modsim™ software. The model previously implemented in Modsim™ has been successfully applied to represent the vertical mill operated with different ores. The simulations produced particle size distributions that were very close to the actual size distributions, and the predictions were accomplished only by imputing the calibrated parameters from the batch tests, the power draw and the feed size distribution of the pilot tests. The methodology is therefore useful for scale-up and simulation of vertical mills, only requiring laboratory tests that can be carried out in standard laboratory batch ball mills with small amounts of samples.

  15. Jiangxi’s Proved Reserve of Copper, Tungsten and Rare Earth Topped 4 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The reporter learned from Jiangxi Provincial Geological and Mineral Resource Bureau that Jiangxi’s geological prospecting has made significant progress, copper, tungsten, rare earth, silver, and iron ore varieties have fulfilled Stage 1 target, at present the verified and

  16. Isotopic Characteristics of Mesozoic Au-Ag Polymetallic Ore Deposits in Northern Hebei and Their Ore-Forming Materials Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝德; 牛树银; 孙爱群; 李红阳

    2003-01-01

    It has long been a controversy about the source of ore-forming materials of Au-Agpolymetallic deposits both in metallogenic theory and in ore-searching practice. In terms of alarge wealth of the isotopic statistics data from Indosinian-Yanshanian endogenic ore deposits innorthern Hebei (generally referring to the areas along the northern part of Taihang Mountainsand northern Hebei, the same below) , it is considered that the ore-forming materials came fromthe deep interior of the Earth, which had migrated through plumes to the Earth surface while ex-perienced multi-stage evolution and then emplaced progressively in favorable structural loci toform ores. Their isotope data show that 559 sulfur isotopic data from 40 ore deposits are, for themost part, within the range of - 5‰ - 5‰, with a high degree of homogenization, indicatingthat the sulfur is derived mainly from magma; 200 lead isotope data from 37 ore deposits indi-cate that the ore-forming materials are principally of mantle source though some crust-source ma-terial was involved; 96 oxygen, hydrogen and carbon isotope data from 34 ore deposits illustratethat the ore-forming fluids are dominated by magmatic water while other sources of water wouldbe involved. It may therefore be seen that the formation of endogenic deposits has nothing to dowith the strata.

  17. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  18. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700°C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S 2 and O 2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  19. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart A are applicable to discharges from (a) mines operated to obtain iron ore, regardless of the type of ore...

  20. EXPLANATORY MODEL OF SPOT PRICE OF IRON ORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Villalva A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to construct an explanatory model of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. For this, the method of multiple linear regressions was used. As a dependent variable, the spot price of iron ore (62% Fe China Tianjin port was taken, between 2010 and 2013. As independents variables were taken seven variables of international iron ore market. The resulting model includes variables: Iron ore inventory in Chinese ports, Baltic Dry Index (BDI, Iron ore exports from Brazil & Australia and Chinese Rebar Steel Price, as explanatory variables of the behavior of the spot price of iron ore in the international market. The model has an adjusted coefficient of determination R2 of 0.90, and was validated by comparing its predictions vs. known values of 2014.

  1. Genesis of Gold- Silver Deposits in Qingchengzi Ore Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Min

    2001-01-01

    The gold - silver complex ore field of Qingchengzi is located in Liaohe group of Liaodong rift. The gold - silver ore bodies mainly lie in Dashiqiao group and Gaixian group, which provides ore - forming materials for the mineralization. For taking place multi - period and multi - stage magmatic activities, the ore - forming materials in the formation had had dynamothermal metamorphism for a long time and enriched and formed ore bodies after magmatism in Indo- Chinese and Yanshan epoch. The ore bodies are controlled by stratigraphic formation and stored in the interformational faults and schistosity belts. Silicalite is the most important indicator for searching them. Although the Pb - Zn and the gold - silver deposits are the same series of mineralized products, their positions are different, resulting from the differences of elements nature and mineralized conditions. The gold silver deposits belong to strata - bound and hysterogenetic mesothermal - epithermal deposit.

  2. Particles carried by ascending gas flow at the Tongchanghe copper mine,Guizhou Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We collected and analyzed, using transmission electron microscopy, the particles carried by ascending gas flow in soil above the concealed orebody of the Tongchanghe copper mine, Guizhou Province. Particles of native copper, native copper-iron alloy, and native chromium-iron-copper alloy particles in the ascending gas flow were first discovered. Commonly, they were aggre- gations of relatively small particles. Individual particles within aggregations were subcircular, elliptical, regularly polygonal, or elongate and from 5 to 40 nm in size. The aggregations were subcircular or elliptical and 20-150 nm in size. Chloride, oxide, sulfate, and hydroxide particles containing ore-forming metals in the ascending gas flow were also discovered. The elements of the particles were commonly in a high valence state, suggesting that they were formed in a near-surface oxidizing environment. Discovery of the particles extracted from the ascending gas flow above the Tongchanghe copper mineprovided a powerful tool for exploration for deep concealed orebodies. Our study also showed that native copper, native copper-iron alloys, native chromium-iron-copper alloys, as well as chloride, oxide, sulfate, and hydroxide compounds containing ore-forming metals can be transported in particle form by ascending gas flow below the Earth’s surface.

  3. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  4. Source of ore-forming material for the Huangtuliang gold deposit, Hebei Province and ore prospecting in the deep periphery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Shuyin; SUN Aiqun; WANG Baode; HAN Yuchou; WEI Minghui; ZHANG Hai; ZHANG Ge; SHI Ping; WANG Wenxing

    2008-01-01

    The Huangtuliang gold deposit is characterized by its wide and large ore belt, stable extension and closely spaced orebodies. Unfortunately, no orebody was found by deep drilling. As a result, ore prospecting in this region was once put into dilemma. Detailed analysis of ore-forming and ore-controlling structures in the mining district by the authors has revealed that the ore-forming and ore-controlling structure in this mining district is a steeply dipping (85°-110°/∠70°-85° N-NNE), spade-shaped ductile shear zone, and the ore-controlling structures are a series of nearly erected second-ordered faults which are developed in the upper part of the ductile shear zone, intersecting with the ductile shear zone. Deep cutting of the ductile shear zone made it possible the ascending of ore fluids from the mantle plume at depth and these ore fluids would migrate upwards along the ductile shear zone under certain temperature and pressure conditions. Along their ascending path, the ore fluids would extract ore-forming elements from the country rocks and the extracted ore-forming elements would be deposited as ores in the hanging-wall second-ordered faults. The reason why no orebody was found in early prospecting at depth is that northward-dipping drilling in the southern part of the shear zone extended so deeply as to be beneath the shear zone. Only shallow-level orebodies could be found by southward-dipping drilling practice in the northern part of the shear zone.The location where deep-seated orebodies occurred shifted northwards and the orebodies occurred at greater depth.Therefore, it is natural that no orebody could be found when drill core passed through the shear zone. After the ore-forming and ore-controlling structures were well understood, the focus of ore prospecting was placed on the deep-level, northward-penetrating veins. In this way a number of new blind orebodies of great thickness have been found. On the basis of research development in the mining

  5. The Nature and Use of Copper Reserve and Resource Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Wright, Nancy A.; Coakley, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Copper reserve, resource, and production data can be combined to produce disaggregated resource estimates and trends and, when combined with demand forecasts, can be used to predict future exploration and development requirements. Reserve estimates are subject to uncertainties due mainly to incomplete exploration and rapidly changing economic conditions. United States' reserve estimates in the past have been low mainly because knowledge of the magnitude of very large porphyry-copper deposits has been incomplete. Present estimates are considerably more reliable because mining firms tend to drill out deposits fully before mining and to release their reserve estimates to the public. The sum of reserves and past production yields an estimate of the total ore, total metal contained in ore, and average grade of ore originally in each of the deposits known in the United States. For most deposits, estimates of total copper in ore are low relative to the total copper in mineralized rock, and many estimates are strongly affected by the economic behavior of mining firms. A better estimate of the real distribution of copper contained in deposits can be obtained by combining past production data with resource estimates. Copper resource data are disaggregated into categories that include resources in undeveloped deposits similar to those mined in the past, resources in mines closed because of unfavorable economic conditions, resources in deep deposits requiring high-cost mining methods, arid resources in deposits located in areas where environmental restrictions have contributed to delays in development. The largest resource is located in the five largest porphyry deposits. These deposits are now being mined but the resources are not included in the present mining plan. Resources in this last category will not contribute to supply until some future time when ores presently being mined are depleted. A high correlation exists between total copper contained in deposits and annual

  6. Sulfuric acid leaching of mechanically activated manganese carbonate ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidic leaching of mechanically activated manganese ore from Denizli – Tavas was investigated. The ore was activated mechanically in a planetary mill and the amorphisation in manganese structure was analyzed with X-ray diffraction. The parameters in acidic leaching of the ore were milling time, acid concentration and time. All experiments were performed at 25°C with solid to liquid ratio: 1/10. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in manganese ore and accelerated the dissolution of manganese in acidic media.

  7. Tectonomagmatic Metallogenic System of Dexing Ore Field, Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    13 ore deposits and a large number of ore occurrences cluster in Dexing ore field which is 20 km long and 12 km wide. The tectonic evolution, magmatism, as well as the metallogeny are controlled by the Northeast Jiangxi deep-seated fracture belt (NJDFB). The source is believed to have been derived from the Meso-Neoproterozoic marine volcanism. The magmatic activity of Mesozoic I-type granite could have provided the metal elements, thermal fluid, heat, and the space for ore-forming processes. A unified geological model is proposed, which combines the tectonism, magmatism and metallogeny as the basic control of the giant metal mineralizations.

  8. Pros and Cons,Iron Ore Price Hikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Jingtao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Backaround Baostecl and CVRD reached an agreement on the price hikes of 65 percent and 71 percent in February.And in June Baosteel and Rio Tinto which is the largest iron ore company in Australia reached an agreement on the price hikes of 79.88 percent on the iron ore fines and 96.5 percent on the iron ore lumps.This is the first time that two kinds of the iron ore price grew at the same time in Asian market.

  9. Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p 222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body.

  10. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  11. The copper deposits of Bor, eastern Serbia: Geology and origin of the deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposits of Bor, volcanic activities in the area and relationship of minerals through time are presented by formations within the Cenomanian-Turonian range. Geology and age of the deposits are given in the geological-time order based on superposition of the Timok mineral-ore Formation and the underlying (Cenomanian and fossiliferous overlying (Senonian strata. The concept of dating Bor deposits the Turonian is discussed in this context. Bor deposits lie between the Cenomanian Krivelj Formation and the Senonian epiclastic Metovnica Formation. Embedded between the two formations is the Timok volcanogenic Formation. Described in this paper are principal members of the Timok Formation strata: volcanogenic and subvolcanogenic- intrusive rocks, a zone of hydrothermally altered rocks and main types of the Bor ore deposits: (a Deposits of massive sulphide coppers; (b Vein and stockwork-disseminated type of mineralisation; (c Porphyry mineralisation; and (d Reworked ore-clasts of copper sulphides of the Novo Okno deposit. Identified deposits, according to the Bor Geological Service records and published works, are systematized and summarized into three geographic units: (1 Group of deposits Severozapad (Brezanik; (2 Central Bor Deposits (Tilva Roš, Čoka Dulkan, Tilva Mika, Borska Reka, and Veliki Krivelj and many ore bodies; (3 Copper deposits Jugoistok (ore bodies X and J and olistostrome deposit Novo Okno. Information given in this paper, the discussion on relative geologic age of the Bor deposit’s floor and roof in particular, support our concept that the process ceased before the Upper Turonian, and that age of the primary copper mineralization is Turonian.

  12. 拉萨地块北部~90Ma斑岩型矿床年代学及成矿地质背景%Geochronology and Ore-Forming Geological Background of ~90 Ma Porphyry Copper Deposit in the Lhasa Terrane, Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保弟; 许继峰; 刘保民; 陈建林; 王立全; 郭琳; 王冬兵; 张万平

    2013-01-01

    A number of large-very large porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits have been discovered in the Tibetan plateau, which has caused widespread concern in recent years. Existing research results show that the formation ages of thse ore-bearing porphyries and porphyry deposits in the Tibetan Pleteau concentrate mainly on four stages: 120~110 Ma, ~90 Ma, 54~45 Ma and 18~12 Ma, but the ore-forming geological background of porphyry deposits forming at the second stage (90Ma) is still controversial. This study reports the zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb and molybdenites Re-Os ages of the porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits in the northern Lhasa terrane, along with analysis of ore-forming background. Two weighted average 206Pb/238U ages for two granodioritic porphyry samples are 92. 1±1. 2 Ma and 93. 8±1.2 Ma, which probably record the age of magma crystallization, while the molybdenites Re-Os isotopic age of 88. 2~89. 6 Ma probably represents the age of mineralization of the Balazha porphyry deposits. Based on the regional geochemical data, this study suggests that the magmatism and mineralizaion at~90 Ma in the northern Lhasa terrane was neither the prodcut of subduction of the Neo-Tethys ocean and oceanic ridge, which are represented by the Yarlung-zangbo suture, nor the direct result of subduction of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean, but likely the product of collision process after the subduction and closure of the BangongcoNujiang Ocean.%近年来青藏高原多个大型—超大型斑岩Cu-Mo-Au矿床的发现已引起人们广泛的关注,现有研究显示这些含矿斑岩和斑岩型矿床的形成年龄主要集中在120~110 Ma、~90 Ma、54~45 Ma和18~12 Ma4个阶段,其中90 Ma左右的斑岩型矿床的成矿地质背景仍存在很大争议.本文报道拉萨地块北部尼玛县拔拉扎斑岩型矿床含矿斑岩的LA-ICPMS锆石U-Pb定年以及辉钼矿Re-OS定年结果,并分析了该期的成矿地质背景.两件花岗闪长斑岩锆石206 Pb/238U

  13. Remobilisation features and structural control on ore grade distribution at the Konkola stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C.D.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform Cu–Co ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the copper–cobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and irre...

  14. An approach to the metallogenic mechanism of porphyry copper (molybdenum) deposits and porphyry molybdenum (copper) deposits:Influence of evolving processes of ore-forming fluids and tectonic settings%斑岩型铜(钼)矿床和斑岩型钼(铜)矿床的形成机制探讨:流体演化及构造背景的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕; 刘建明; 曾庆栋

    2012-01-01

    斑岩型铜(钼)矿床和斑岩型钼(铜)矿床是世界钼资源最主要的来源,提供的钼金属量相当。对比发现,两类矿床在流体来源-演化以及铜和钼的相关性上较为相似,而在铜/钼比值、品位、矿物共生组合、蚀变类型等方面存在差异,特别是斑岩铜(钼)矿初始出溶流体中的Cl-/F-值、硫的总量、SO2/H2S以及H+/K+比斑岩钼(铜)矿高。流体演化过程中有两方面因素可能影响最终沉淀的铜和钼比值(1)铜和钼在流体中的性质差异,如铜以氯或硫络合物形式运移,沉淀受温度影响比较显著,钼以羟基或氯络合物形式存在,沉淀受压力控制比较明显;(2)流体自身氧逸度、pH、硫逸度的变化以及演化路径的改变。然而,和初始流体性质的差异相比,流体演化过程对最终形成矿床类型的影响是有限的,决定矿床形成斑岩铜(钼)矿化还是钼(铜)矿化的因素可能在流体出溶之前的岩浆起源-演化阶段就存在。斑岩铜(钼)矿常分布在偏挤压的陆缘弧和大陆碰撞造山带环境,基底多为新生或加厚的陆壳,斑岩钼(铜)矿多出现在偏伸展的陆内裂谷、弧后及造山后伸展环境,基底可以为老陆壳或新生的陆壳;上述特征反映物源区或岩浆的起源和演化方式不同可能是制约形成斑岩铜(钼)矿还是钼(铜)矿的主要机制。%Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits and porphyry Mo-Cu deposits are the most important sources of world's Mo resources,each providing comparable Mo reserves.Although sharing the same characteristics in fluid source and evolution pattern and Cu-Mo correlation,those two types of deposits demonstrate many differences in Cu/Mo ratio,ore grade,mineral association,hydrothermal alteration type,and especially in primitive fluid composition,with fluids from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits containing more sulfur and showing higher ratios of Cl-/F-,SO2/H2S,as well as H+/ K

  15. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella B.; Oláh, Erika; Zaccarini, Federica; Szakáll, Sándor

    2016-02-01

    The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag) occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  16. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system.

  17. Lead Isotope Constraints on the Sources of Ore Metals in SW Mexican Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potra, A.; Macfarlane, A. W.

    2007-12-01

    Lead isotope ratios from mineral deposits in southern Mexico increase with distance from the trench from 206Pb/204Pb values between 18.597 and 18.650 in the coastal area to values between 18.712 and 19.069 approximately 800 km east from the trench. This variation has been attributed to increasing assimilation of radiogenic lead from the crust with increasing distance from the trench. New sampling was undertaken in this area to provide a clearer picture of the potential sources of ore metals in this arc system, and also, if possible, to examine whether ore metal sources differ among the proposed tectonostratigraphic exotic terranes of southern Mexico. New TIMS lead isotope analyses are presented for samples from the metamorphic basement rocks of the Guerrero Terrane, the Late Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks from the Upper Mesozoic Assemblage, and for mid-Cretaceous igneous rocks, as well as for samples from the Oligocene La Verde, Esmeralda, and El Malacate copper prospects. Whole rock samples of schist from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Arteaga Complex and phyllite and slate from the Tierra Caliente Complex contain radiogenic lead relative to bulk earth models, with 206Pb/204Pb ranging from 18.981-19.256. These values are substantially more radiogenic than published values of analyses of metagabbro and charnockite from the Grenvillian-age Oaxaca Terrane. Sedimentary rocks (sandstones, siltstones, and marls) belonging to the Huetamo Sequence have 206Pb/204Pb values ranging between 18.630 to 18.998, close to the published data for the sediments from IPOD-DSDP Sites 487 and 488, Cocos Plate. Whole rock analyses of igneous rocks (granodiorite) collected from La Verde and El Malacate have 206Pb/204Pb ranging from 18.764 to 18.989, clustering between the fields represented by the sedimentary and the metamorphic rocks, suggesting assimilation of lead from these components. Ore samples from La Verde and Esmeralda have 206Pb/204Pb between 18.685 and 18.731 and plot within

  18. The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Kesler, Stephen E.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Walshe, John; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquity of Au-bearing arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits suggests that the coupled geochemical behaviour of Au and As in this sulfide occurs under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions. Despite significant advances in the last 20 years, fundamental factors controlling Au and As ratios in pyrite from ore deposits remain poorly known. Here we explore these constraints using new and previously published EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μ-PIXE analyses of As and Au in pyrite from Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry Cu, Cu-Au, and orogenic Au deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide (VHMS), Witwatersrand Au, iron oxide copper gold (IOCG), and coal deposits. Pyrite included in the data compilation formed under temperatures from ∼30 to ∼600 °C and in a wide variety of geological environments. The pyrite Au-As data form a wedge-shaped zone in compositional space, and the fact that most data points plot below the solid solubility limit defined by Reich et al. (2005) indicate that Au1+ is the dominant form of Au in arsenian pyrite and that Au-bearing ore fluids that deposit this sulfide are mostly undersaturated with respect to native Au. The analytical data also show that the solid solubility limit of Au in arsenian pyrite defined by an Au/As ratio of 0.02 is independent of the geochemical environment of pyrite formation and rather depends on the crystal-chemical properties of pyrite and post-depositional alteration. Compilation of Au-As concentrations and formation temperatures for pyrite indicates that Au and As solubility in pyrite is retrograde; Au and As contents decrease as a function of increasing temperature from ∼200 to ∼500 °C. Based on these results, two major Au-As trends for Au-bearing arsenian pyrite from ore deposits are defined. One trend is formed by pyrites from Carlin-type and orogenic Au deposits where compositions are largely controlled by fluid-rock interactions and/or can be highly perturbed by changes in temperature and

  19. Project StORe: Social Science report

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Guy

    2006-01-01

    There was widespread support across the social science research community regarding the aims of the StORe Project Nearly half of social science respondents claimed that both source-to-output and out-put-to source repositories would offer a ‘significant advantage to my work’; a third in both cases claimed it would be ‘useful but not of major significance’ Postgraduate students were generally more enthusiastic about source-to-output and output-to-source repositories than acade...

  20. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  1. Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder%Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-guo; WU Sheng-li; HAN Hong-liang; WANG Hong-wei; XUE Fang; LIU Xiao-qin

    2011-01-01

    Pilbara blending iron ore powder (PB powder) is blending ores with good and poor quality iron ores, so how to use PB power effectively is a problem. The self-characteristics of PB powder and its single-components were studied respectively such as the macroscopic properties, microscopic properties, and high-temperature properties the behavior and effect in the sintering were mastered. Then based on the new ore-proportioning idea of iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the principles on the effective use of PB powder were discussed, and was fur ther validated through the sintering pot test and industrial production. The results show that PB powder is composed of three kinds of iron ore, and the sintering characteristics of different iron ores are obviously discrepant. With the ore-proportioning optimization based on the iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the proportion of PB iron ore powder can be increased to more than 45 %.

  2. The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carlos; Ramírez, Luis E.; Townley, Brian; Solari, Marcelo; Guerra, Nelson

    2007-02-01

    During the Late Jurassic-Early Oligocene interval, widespread hydrothermal copper mineralization events occurred in association with the geological evolution of the southern segment of the central Andes, giving rise to four NS-trending metallogenic belts of eastward-decreasing age: Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament (ACL) consists of an important dextral strike-slip NE-trending fault system. Deformation along the ACL system is evidenced by a right-lateral displacement of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene metallogenic belts. Furthermore, clockwise rotation of the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos copper deposit and the Late Paleocene Lomas Bayas porphyry copper occurred. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene metallogenic belt, a sigmoidal deflection and a clockwise rotation is observed in the ACL. The ACL is thought to have controlled the emplacement of Early Oligocene porphyry copper deposits (34-37 Ma; Toki, Genoveva, Quetena, and Opache), whereas it deflected the Late Eocene porphyry copper belt (41-44 Ma; Esperanza, Telégrafo, Centinela, and Polo Sur ore deposits). These observations suggest that right-lateral displacement of the ACL was active during the Early Oligocene. We propose that the described structural features need to be considered in future exploration programs within this extensively gravel-covered region of northern Chile.

  3. PRACTICAL AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING OF ORE DEPOSITS IN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-bin; B.E.Hobbs; H.B.Muhlhaus; A.Ord

    2001-01-01

    @@ Over the past five years,we have been making efforts to develop a practical and predictive tool to explore for giant ore deposits in hydrothermal systems.Towards this goal,a significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes behind ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems.

  4. PRACTICAL AND PREDICTIVE MODELLING OF ORE DEPOSITS IN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Chong-bin; B.E.Hobbs; H.B.Muhlhaus; A.Ord

    2001-01-01

    Over the past five years,we have been making efforts to develop a practical and predictive tool to explore for giant ore deposits in hydrothermal systems.Towards this goal,a significant progress has been made towards a better understanding of the basic physical and chemical processes behind ore body formation and mineralization in hydrothermal systems.……

  5. Experimental study of ore gabbro liquid immiscibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG; Zunan; XIA; Bin; ZHOU; Yongsheng; JIN; Zhenmin

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present the results of a preliminary experimental study on partial melting of fine-grained gabbro, Panzhihua, Sichuan Province, China. Experiments were conducted under (confining) pressure ranging from 450 to 500 MPa and temperature of 900-1200℃. The results show that the initial melt is distributed along grain boundaries and triple junctions. Liquid immiscibility phenomena are noted in the melt with two compositional different melt phases, i.e. matrix and sphere phases. The matrix phase is relatively rich in Si, Al and K, and is depleted in Mg, Fe, Ca, Na and Ti, whereas the sphere phase shows opposite trends. The calculation of the melt free energy indicates that the liquid immiscibility is governed by the rule of thermodynamics, as the liquid immiscibility would result in the decrease in free energy of the melt system. The field relationships suggest that the liquid immiscibility may have played an important role in the generation of ore magma of Panzhihua V-Ti magnetite ore deposit. This study thus provides experimental constraints on the mechanism of the formation of V-Ti magnetite deposite.

  6. The Novo Okno copper deposit of olistostrome origin (Bor, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposit Novo Okno, uncovered at present, with non-ore and ore clasts of massive sulphides (from 0.5 to 50 m3 in size, has many distinctive features that indicate its olistostrome origin. The deposit is chaotic in structure, unstratified, with the lower surface unconformable over the underlying parent rock of the basin. It is a lens-like body, with the longer axis directed east and west, variable in thickness from 15 to 28 metres, about 335 metres long and less than 140 metres wide. These and other characteristics of the body indicate a unified, reworked, olistostrome copper deposit formed from primary ore bodies of the Bor mineral deposit and vulcanite, destroyed by volcanic explosion into blocks and rocks of Turonian age and extrusion and concurrent deposition on the land surface. Gravitational massive sliding of the consolidated rocks down the slopes of the volcanic relief and chaotic accumulation of ore and non-ore clasts (olistoliths in a marine basin evolved in the Upper Turonian and the Lower Senonian.

  7. Excited response of granular ores in vibrating field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamical theory was utilized to probe into the law of the excited response of granular ores generated by the exciting action of exciter and the influence of wave propagation in vibrating field. The exciter with double axes was presented as an example, and the principle of exciter and its mathematical expression of the excitation force were given. The granular ores have viscidity and damping speciality, on the basis of which the motion equation of excited response of ores was established and the approximate expression of mode-displacement by harmonic excitation and the steady effect solution of coordinate response were deduced. Utilizing the step-by-step integration method, the recursion relation matrix of displacement, velocity and acceleration of the excited response of ores were obtained, and the computational flow chart and a computational example were given. The results show that the excited response can change the dynamical character and the flowing characteristic of granular ores.

  8. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  9. Effects of High Pressure ORE Grinding on the Efficiency of Flotation Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramak, Daniel; Krawczykowska, Aldona; Młynarczykowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    This article discusses issues related to the impact of the high pressure comminution process on the efficiency of the copper ore flotation operations. HPGR technology improves the efficiency of mineral resource enrichment through a better liberation of useful components from waste rock as well as more efficient comminution of the material. Research programme included the run of a laboratory flotation process for HPGR crushing products at different levels of operating pressures and moisture content. The test results showed that products of the high-pressure grinding rolls achieved better recoveries in flotation processes and showed a higher grade of useful components in the flotation concentrate, in comparison to the ball mill products. Upgrading curves have also been marked in the following arrangement: the content of useful component in concentrate the floatation recovery. All upgrading curves for HPGR products had a more favourable course in comparison to the curves of conventionally grinded ore. The results also indicate that various values of flotation recoveries have been obtained depending on the machine operating parameters (i.e. the operating pressure), and selected feed properties (moisture).

  10. Biodiversity and interactions of acidophiles: Key to understanding and optimizing microbial processing of ores and concentrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.B.JOHNSON

    2008-01-01

    Mining companies have become increasingly aware of the potential of microbiological approaches for recovering base and precious metals from low-grade ores,and for remediating acidic,metal-rich wastewaters that drain from both operating and abandoned mine sites.Biological systems offer a number of environmental and (sometimes) economical advantages over conventional approaches,such as pyrometallurgy,though their application is not appropriate in every situation.Mineral processing using micro-organisms has been exploited for extracting gold,copper,uranium and cobalt,and current developments are targeting other base metals.Recently,there has been a great increase in our knowledge and understanding of both the diversity of the microbiology of biomining environments,and of how the microorganisms interact with each other.The results from laboratory experiments which have simulated both stirred tank and heap bioreactor systems have shown that microbial consortia are more robust than pure cultures of mineral-oxidizing acidophiles,and also tend to be more effective at bioleaching and bio-oxidizing ores and concentrates.The paper presented a concise review of the nature and interactions of microbial consortia that are involved in the oxidation of sulfide minerals,and how these might be adapted to meet future challenges in biomining operations.

  11. High-temperature performance prediction of iron ore fines and the ore-blending programming problem in sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-ji Yan; Jian-liang Zhang; Hong-wei Guo; Ling-kun Chen; Wei Li

    2014-01-01

    The high-temperature performance of iron ore fines is an important factor in optimizing ore blending in sintering. However, the application of linear regression analysis and the linear combination method in most other studies always leads to a large deviation from the desired results. In this study, the fuzzy membership functions of the assimilation ability temperature and the liquid fluidity were proposed based on the fuzzy mathematics theory to construct a model for predicting the high-temperature performance of mixed iron ore. Comparisons of the prediction model and experimental results were presented. The results illustrate that the prediction model is more accurate and effec-tive than previously developed models. In addition, fuzzy constraints for the high-temperature performance of iron ore in this research make the results of ore blending more comparable. A solution for the quantitative calculation as well as the programming of fuzzy constraints is also introduced.

  12. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  13. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家军; 李朝阳; 张乾; 潘家永; 刘玉平; 刘显凡; 刘世荣; 杨伟光

    2001-01-01

    Jinman vein copper deposit in western Yunnan occurs in a salt-bearing red clastic rock formation composed of sandstone, siltstone and shale. Wood texture is considerably developed in the ores. The metallic minerals making up the wood textures mainly include pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Studies on the samples and examination of their micrographs and electron micrographs have confirmed that they belong to xenoxylon, reflecting that the ore-hosting rock series is the product of sedimentation in the terrestrial environment. Organic geochemistry and sulfur and carbon isotopic composition data indicate that the formation of the deposit is substantially related with underground hot brines and biological processes.

  14. Grade-Tonnage, Ore Value-Tonnage, and Enrichment Ratio-Tonnage Models for Resource Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to grade-tonnage diagrams of nickel and zinc deposits, their critical grades are 0.4 % and 3.4 %, respectively, and hence the former resources can be considered optimistic and the latter pessimistic. The grade-tonnage diagram of gold deposits is convex downwards suggesting that the critical grade is 1×10-6 in the low-grade part. The ore value (OV)-tonnage diagram of all deposits in the world consists of three parts: high, middle and low value classes. The enrichment ratio (ER)-tonnage diagram of all deposits in the world also consists of three parts: high, middle and low ratio classes. Nine quality categories defined by ER and OV are characterized by some keywords indicating deposit types as follows: category HH (high ER-high OV: 0.7 %) by “unconformity” and “Mississippi Valley”, category HM (high ER-middle OV: 0.7 %) by “vein”, category ML (middle ER-low OV: 0 %) by “sandstone”, “stockwork” and “dissemination”, category LM by “orthomagmatic”, “laterite”, komatiite“ and ”chemical“, and category LL by “porphyry”, “dissemination” and “placer”. Category MM is not characterized by any keyword. If the commodities of a deposit are defined by both the enrichment ratio and the ore value, the defined commodities are relatively coincident for gold and nickel, but different for copper, silver and zinc, and greatly different for molybdenum and lead. Deposits containing lead and/or zinc are complimentary. If the commodity Pb+Zn is applied, most lead or zinc deposits are classified as Pb+Zn by both definitions. Accessory metals are commonly expected for deposits of kuroko-type zinc, epithermal silver, massive sulfide-type zinc and volcanogenic zinc, but uncommon for deposits of orthomagmatic chromium, chemically precipitated copper and sandstone-type uranium.

  15. Research and Application of Flotation Column in Domestic Metallic Ore Beneficiation%浮选柱在国内金属矿选矿中的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晋芳; 童雄

    2012-01-01

    浮选柱凭着其结构简单、占地面积小、技术指标好等优点,在国外得到了广泛的应用,而目前国内主要用于煤的浮选,在金属行业中的应用较少.本文介绍了浮选柱在选别国内铜矿、铅锌矿、金矿、铁矿、镍矿、钼矿及其尾矿中的研究及取得的良好效果,指出了浮选柱在国内金属矿选矿中有着广阔的市场前景.%Flotation column with its advantages of simple structure, small occupation area and good technical inde xes is widely used at abroad, while it is mainly used for coal flotation at home, less in the metallic field. This paper introduced the research and the achieved good results that flotation column was used for separating copper ore,lead -zinc ore, gold ore, iron ore, nickel ore, molybdenum ore and tailings. At the same time, the market prospect of the flotation column was also pointed.

  16. Copper Products Capacity Expansion Stimulate the Copper Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>The dramatic growth of copper consumption in China can directly be seen from the expansion of copper products capacity.According to sta- tistics,in the past 4 years,the improvement on the balance of trade on copper bar,copper,and copper alloy and copper wire & cable has driven the growth of copper consumption a lot.

  17. Emission of SO2 and SO4 2-: From copper smelter and its influence on the level of total S in soil and moss in Bor, Serbia, and the surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Šerbula Snežana M.; Ţivković Dragana T.; Radojević Ana A.; Kalinović Tanja S.; Kalinović Jelena V.

    2015-01-01

    Bor and the surroundings (Eastern Serbia) have been known for exploitation and processing of sulphide copper ores for more than 100 years. Emissions of waste gases and particulate matter rich in heavy metals are characteristic for pyrometallurgical production of copper. Long-term measurement results (2005-2008) indicate an increased sulphur dioxide level in the urban-industrial zone of Bor since it is closest to the copper smelter which is a dominant source...

  18. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras Rafael Jaimes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  19. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang

    2017-06-01

    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  20. Exact linear modeling using Ore algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schindelar, Kristina; Zerz, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Linear exact modeling is a problem coming from system identification: Given a set of observed trajectories, the goal is find a model (usually, a system of partial differential and/or difference equations) that explains the data as precisely as possible. The case of operators with constant coefficients is well studied and known in the systems theoretic literature, whereas the operators with varying coefficients were addressed only recently. This question can be tackled either using Gr\\"obner bases for modules over Ore algebras or by following the ideas from differential algebra and computing in commutative rings. In this paper, we present algorithmic methods to compute "most powerful unfalsified models" (MPUM) and their counterparts with variable coefficients (VMPUM) for polynomial and polynomial-exponential signals. We also study the structural properties of the resulting models, discuss computer algebraic techniques behind algorithms and provide several examples.

  1. Improved polynomial remainder sequences for Ore polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroschek, Maximilian

    2013-11-01

    Polynomial remainder sequences contain the intermediate results of the Euclidean algorithm when applied to (non-)commutative polynomials. The running time of the algorithm is dependent on the size of the coefficients of the remainders. Different ways have been studied to make these as small as possible. The subresultant sequence of two polynomials is a polynomial remainder sequence in which the size of the coefficients is optimal in the generic case, but when taking the input from applications, the coefficients are often larger than necessary. We generalize two improvements of the subresultant sequence to Ore polynomials and derive a new bound for the minimal coefficient size. Our approach also yields a new proof for the results in the commutative case, providing a new point of view on the origin of the extraneous factors of the coefficients.

  2. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi

    2005-01-01

    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  3. Super-Enrichment of Dispersed Elements and Associated Ore Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振敏; 姚林波

    2004-01-01

    Dispersed elements do not always occur as associated elements in the ore deposits of other elements. Instead, they can constitute independent ore deposits. The focus of this paper is placed on the mechanism of super-enrichment of the four dispersed elements TI, Ge, Se, and Te under favorable geological conditions, where their enrichment coefficients are so high that their abundances can reach n×103-n×104, sometimes even up to n×106 times (e. g. Te) those of the crust. As a result, they can form their independent ore deposits. Studies have shown that such independent ore deposits are mostly distributed in the southwestern part of China, most of which belong to low-temperature ore deposits, ranging in age from Yanshanian to Himalayan(Cretaceous to Cenozoic), with a significant time gap with the host strata. Moreover, this paper also deals with the existing forms (as independent minerals, occurring isomorphously and being adsorbed) of the dispersed elements in those independent ore deposits. The discovery of independent ore deposits of dispersed elements is a great breakthrough in the study of dispersed element metallogenesis.

  4. Leaching hydrodynamics of weathered elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Both porosity (φ) and permeability (k) of the weathered elution-deposited rare earth ores are basic hydrodynamic parameters for RE leaching. The relationship between k and φ of two typical rare earth ores of South China in the packed bed was investigated by measuring the flow (Q) under various leaching pressure difference (Δp). The experimental results show that the relationship between k and φ is unique, moreover the relationship between Q and Δp is in accord with the Darcy's law. The effects of the type of ores, the leaching reagents and its concentration, the granule ore size on the leaching permeability have also been investigated. It is demonstrated that kH (for heavy RE ore, kH=35.98 mm2)>kM-H (for middle-heavy RE ore,kM-H=28.50 mm2), whereas k(NH4NO3)>k(NH4Cl)>k[(NH4)2SO4], and the k value increases with increasing leaching reagents concentration and granule ore size(k0.60~0.75 mm=99.96 mm2,k0.125~0.60 mm=11.83 mm2, k0.074~0.125 mm=0.84 mm2).

  5. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  6. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  7. Late Cretaceous porphyry copper mineralization in Sonora, Mexico: Implications for the evolution of the Southwest North America porphyry copper province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Fernando; Valencia, Victor A.

    2014-10-01

    Two porphyry Cu-Mo prospects in northern Sonora, Mexico (Fortuna del Cobre and Los Humos) located within the southwestern North American porphyry province have been dated in order to constrain the timing of crystallization and mineralization of these ore deposits. In Fortuna del Cobre, the pre-mineralization granodiorite porphyry yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 76.5 ± 2.3 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz feldespathic porphyry were dated at 74.6 ± 1.3 and 75.0 ± 1.4 Ma. Four molybdenite samples from Los Humos porphyry Cu prospect yielded a weighted average Re-Os age of 73.5 ± 0.2 Ma, whereas two samples from the ore-bearing quartz monzonite porphyry gave U-Pb zircon ages of 74.4 ± 1.1 and 74.5 ± 1.3 Ma, showing a Late Cretaceous age for the emplacement of this ore deposit. The results indicate that Laramide porphyry Cu mineralization of Late Cretaceous age is not restricted to northern Arizona as previously thought and provide evidence for the definition of NS trending metallogenic belts that are parallel to the paleo-trench. Porphyry copper mineralization follows the inland migration trend of the magmatic arc as a result of the Farallon slab flattening during the Laramide orogeny.

  8. Sulfur isotope geochemistry of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type ore district, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, D.L.; Vets, J.G.; Gent, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the sulfur isotopic composition of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb district were conducted to gain insights into processes that controlled the location and distribution of the ore deposits. Results of this study show that minerals from the Silesian-Cracow ore district have the largest range of sulfur isotope compositions in sulfides observed from any Mississippi Valley-type ore district in the world. The ??34S values for sulfide minerals range from +38 to -32 per mil for the entire paragenetic sequence but individual stages exhibit smaller ranges. There is a well developed correlation between the sulfur isotope composition and paragenetic stage of ore deposition. The first important ore stage contains mostly positive ??34S values, around 5 per mil. The second stage of ore formation are lower, with a median value of around -5 to -15 per mil, and with some values as low as -32 per mil. Late stage barite contains isotopically heavy sulfur around +32 per mil. The range in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by contributions of sulfur from a variety of source rocks together with sulfur isotope fractionations produced by the reaction paths for sulfate reduction. Much of the variation in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by bacterial reduction of sedimentary sulfate and disequilibrium reactions by intermediate-valency sulfur species, especially in the late-stage pyrite and sphalerite. Organic reduction of sulfate and thermal release of sulfur from coals in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin may have been important contributors to sulfur in the ore minerals. The sulfur isotopic data, ore mineral textures, and fluid inclusion data, are consistent with the hypothesis that fluid mixing was the dominant ore forming mechanism. The rather distinct lowering of ?? 34S values in sulfides from stage 2 to stage 3 is believed to reflect some fundamental change in the source of reduced sulfur and/or hydrology of the ore

  9. Copper and copper proteins in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Sergio; Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  10. Discovery of the copper deposits with features of the Keweenawan type in the border area of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳泉; 胡耀国; 张正伟; 常向阳

    2003-01-01

    There existed intense Cu anomaly on the northeastern side of the geochemical boundary with NW strike in the border area between the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Through field observation, ore bodies of high-grade native coppers have been found. The copper mineralization was constrained by the ancient volcanic vents of Permian basalt eruption and the overlain strata of carbonaceous argillites. Native coppers with flaky, net veined and impregnated occurrences, fine-grained tenorites and massive chalcocites widely occur in volcanic breccias, tuffs, carbonaceous-siliceous argillites and siliceous bitumen rocks with bed thickness of about 15-80 m. Cu contents vary from 0.5% to 20%. The copper mineralization was tightly related to actinolite-tremolitization, zeolitization and bituminization and involved in extensive reduction environments. Continental flood basalts erupted in mantle plume environments usually have high Cu concentrations (~170 ×10-6 in the Emeishan basalts), which provided a copper source of mineralization. Thus, metallogenesis of the native copper deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou border area is tightly associated with intensive crust-mantle and organic-inorganic interactions. The tremolitization and chalcocitization indicate that the metallogenic temperatures are in a range of 400-100℃. The geologic background and characteristics of ore and alteration for the native copper deposits in this area are somewhat similar to those of the Keweenawan native copper deposit in Michigan, USA.

  11. Microstructure of Bentonite in Iron Ore Green Pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U.; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P.E.; Hedlund, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam ...

  12. Biological-Chemical Oxidation of Ore Minerals at Pezinok Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Chovan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of leaching experiments of the comparison between chemical and biological-chemical leaching, at the same conditions in solution, of ores from the Sb-(Au- base metal deposit Pezinok (Malé Karpaty Mts., Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The research study shows the oxidation order and the progression of present ore minerals (löllingite, arsenopyrite, stibnite, native Sb, gudmundite, berthierite, pyrite, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. There are discussed differences between chemical and biological-chemical leaching activity of various ore minerals at the surface of polished sections. The extent of the leaching of sulphide minerals is significantly higher than that without bacteria.

  13. Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Trumbull, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline occurs in diverse types of hydrothermal mineral deposits and can be used to constrain the nature and evolution of ore-forming fl uids. Because of its broad range in composition and retention of chemical and isotopic signatures, tourmaline may be the only robust recorder of original mineralizing processes in some deposits. Microtextures and in situ analysis of compositional and isotopic variations in ore-related tourmaline provide valuable insights into hydrothermal systems in seafl oor, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic environments. Deciphering the hydrothermal record in tourmaline also holds promise for aiding exploration programs in the search for new ore deposits.

  14. Start of exploration and mining of uranium ores in Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolay, I.; Szomolanyi, G. (Mecseki Ercbanyaszati Vallalat, Pecs II (Hungary))

    1983-09-01

    The mining of uranium ores is the youngest branch in the history of the Hungarian ore mining. The exploration for uranium ores started in Hungary in the decade from 1947, using simple methods at the beginning to apply more developed technologies later on. From the year 1952 Soviet geologists and geophysicists joined the explorations using the most advanced instruments, in co-operation with the Hungarian experts. From 1953 explorations and developments have been concentrated on the SW area of Mountain Mecsek so that by 1957 the preliminary conditions of a successful Hungarian uranium mining were established.

  15. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  17. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  19. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The provisions of subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  2. Process Mineralogy Study on the Oxidized Ore in a Gold Deposit%某金矿床氧化矿石工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 史光大; 刘飞燕

    2009-01-01

    The oxidized ore mined from a gold deposit contained 8.1g/t Au,82.5g/t Ag and 0.94%Cu. The gold is mainly occurred as native gold,electrum,the silver is mainly occurred as orgentojarosite,horn-silver,and the copper is mainly occurred as cuprite,tenorite,azurite in the ore. The oxidizing rate of the ore is higher,the mouse-eaten and crevasse are developed,and the permeability of the ore is satisfactory. Therefore,the ore is suitable leaching treatment. However,owing to the content of clay is relatively high,and the oxidized copper minerals are soluble in cyanide solution and resulted in production of Cu(CN)2-3 ion that is an important factor influencing recovery of gold and silver. Thus,a technological flowsheet of desliming-wet pretreatment-cyanide leaching of gold and silver was recommended,so as to realize comprehensive recovery of gold,silver and copper from this kind of ore.%某金矿床氧化矿石含金8.1g/t,含银82.5g/t,含铜0.94%.金主要以自然金、银金矿形式存在,银主要以银铁矾,角银矿形式存在,铜主要以赤铜矿、黑铜矿、蓝铜矿形式存在.矿石氧化率高,孔洞、裂隙发育,渗透性良好,适宜湿法浸出.由于粘土矿物含量高,氧化铜矿物易溶于氰化物溶液,并产生影响金、银回收的Cu(CN)2-3离子,因此推荐采用脱泥→湿法预处理→氰化浸出金、银的工艺流程,综合回收矿石中金、银、铜.

  3. Potential for improved extraction of tellurium as a byproduct of current copper mining processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, S. M.; Spaleta, K. J.; Skidmore, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    Tellurium (Te) is classified as a critical element due to its increasing use in high technology applications, low average crustal abundance (3 μg kg-1), and primary source as a byproduct of copper extraction. Although Te can be readily recovered from copper processing, previous studies have estimated a 4 percent extraction efficiency, and few studies have addressed Te behavior during the entire copper extraction process. The goals of the present study are to perform a mass balance examining Te behavior during copper extraction and to connect these observations with mineralogy of Te-bearing phases which are essential first steps in devising ways to optimize Te recovery. Our preliminary mass balance results indicate that less than 3 percent of Te present in copper ore is recovered, with particularly high losses during initial concentration of copper ore minerals by flotation. Tellurium is present in the ore in telluride minerals (e.g., Bi-Te-S phases, altaite, and Ag-S-Se-Te phases identified using electron microprobe) with limited substitution into sulfide minerals (possibly 10 mg kg-1 Te in bulk pyrite and chalcopyrite). This work has also identified Te accumulation in solid-phase intermediate extraction products that could be further processed to recover Te, including smelter dusts (158 mg kg-1) and pressed anode slimes (2.7 percent by mass). In both the smelter dusts and anode slimes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates that about two thirds of the Te is present as reduced tellurides. In anode slimes, electron microscopy shows that the remaining Te is present in an oxidized form in a complex Te-bearing oxidate phase also containing Pb, Cu, Ag, As, Sb, and S. These results clearly indicate that more efficient, increased recovery of Te may be possible, likely at minimal expense from operating copper processing operations, thereby providing more Te for manufacturing of products such as inexpensive high-efficiency solar panels.

  4. Characterizing copper flows in international trade of China, 1975-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Chen, Tianming; Yang, Jiameng; Cai, Zhijian; Sheng, Hu; Yuan, Zengwei; Wu, Huijun

    2017-12-01

    Since the economic reform, China has actively participated in the global market with rapid industrialization and gradually dominated the utilization and consumption of some critical materials, one of which is copper. China has reigned the global anthropogenic cycle of copper since 2004. We explore copper flows along with the international trade of China during 1975-2015, through life cycle lens, from ore to final products. Our main finding is that China has become more active in the copper-related trade, indicated by its great increase in trade volume and the number of trade partners. The physical volume of copper flows through trade increased over 119 times between 1975 and 2015, mainly because of more imported raw materials of copper and exported copper products. Generally, China is a net importer of copper, with increasing import dependence through the study period, whereas the degree of dependence slightly decreased from 2010 to 2015. The indicator of Export Support Rate took a decreasing percentage, which has fallen about 35% since 2010. It suggests China's changing position in the global resource and manufacturing market. In terms of trade price of different copper products, the price of imported copper concentrate was noticeably higher than that of exported one, revealing the poor copper resource endowment of China; while the different trend of copper semis in recent years signifies that China is in urgent need to improve its capability of producing high value-added semis. From international trade perspective, the copper resource of China presented stable supply as well as demand. The One Belt One Road strategy proposed by the state will further expand both the resource and market of copper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements in Xikeng Ag-Pb-Zn Ore Deposit, South Anhui, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study is done on the geochemical charateristics of REE in ore, ore-hosted rocks of Lantian group, granite related to ore deposit, and altered rocks for tracing origin of ore-forming materials. The result indicates that the ore-forming fluid and ore-forming materials for Xikeng silver-polymetallic ore deposit were derived from Yixian granite's magmatic activity. Water-rock reaction of the hydrothermal fluid with the carbonate-rich stratum led the altered rock to relatively enrich in HREE.

  6. Studies on Sulfating Roasting Process for Mianning Bastnasite and Baotou Mixed RE Concentrate Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Guangli

    2004-01-01

    Some processes of sulfating roasting and water leaching of crude Mianning RE concentrate ore, of fine Mianning RE concentrate ore, of Baotou RE concentrate ore and of their mixture were investigated.The result shows that the mixture of Mianning and Baotou RE concentrate ore has the optimum leaching rate and rate of recovery when the mixture ratio is 1:4.The recovery rate of the mixture is higher by 14.76% than that of crude Mianning RE concentrate ore, by 5.0 % than that of Mianning fine RE concentrate ore and by 2.4 % than that of Baotou RE concentrate ore.

  7. Effect of Na2CO3 Addition on Carbothermic Reduction of Copper Smelting Slag to Prepare Crude Fe-Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Yao, Weijie; Xu, Wuqi; Chen, Jinan

    2017-09-01

    Copper smelting slag is a useful secondary resource containing high iron and copper, which can be utilized to prepare crude Fe-Cu alloy by a direct reduction-magnetic separation process for making weathering-resistant steel. However, it is difficult to recover iron and copper from the slag by direct reduction since the iron mainly occurs in fayalite and the copper is held in copper sulfide. Therefore, enhancement reduction of copper slag is conducted to improve the recovery of copper and iron. Additives such as Na2CO3 has been proven to be capable of reinforcing the reduction of refractory iron ore. In this research, the effect of Na2CO3 on the carbothermic reduction of copper slag was investigated, and phase transformations during reduction and the distributing characteristics of iron and copper in the alloy and non-metallic phases of the reduced pellets were also studied. The results show that the metallization rate of iron and copper was increased with the addition of Na2CO3, leading to higher iron and copper recovery in Fe-Cu alloy powder. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results confirm that Na2CO3 is capable of enhancing the reduction of fayaltie, copper silicate and copper sulfide, which agrees well with thermodynamic analysis. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism of copper slag was demonstrated based on systematic experimental observations.

  8. Experimental study on preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Sheng-hua; WU Ai-xiang; SU Yong-ding; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of preferential solution flow during dump leaching of low-grade ores was studied. The formative mechanism of preferential solution flow was investigated through analyzing the relationship between permeability and ore diameter,and the relationship between surface tension and ore diameter. The preferential solution flow happened within the fine ore area when the dump was unsaturated. And it could happen within the coarse ore area when the dump became saturated. The results of experiment show that the outflow of coarse ore area increases sharply with higher applied rate. The outflow of fine ore area is greater than that of coarse ore area when the applied rate is below 3.2 L/min, and the preferential solution flow happens in fine ore area. But the preferential solution flow happens in coarse ore area when the applied rate is higher than 3.2 L/min. The result of the experiment is consistent with the mechanism analyzing.

  9. Ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping Cu-Co-Ag polymetallic deposit in the Lanping Basin, western Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhiming; LIU Jiajun; ZHANG Changjiang

    2008-01-01

    The ore-forming material sources of the Baiyangping copper-cobalt-silver polymetallic deposit have been studied in view of the S, Pb, C, O and H isotopic characteristics and the ratio of Co/Ni of cohaltite. The results showed that sulfur in metallic sulfides may have come from a mixed sulfur-source consisting of the sulfur-source from metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks and the sulfur-source from basin sulfates;lead in the ores was provided by the sedimentary rocks and basement rocks; CO2 in ore-forming fluids was derived from thermolysis of altered and normal marine facies carbonates and decarboxylation of sedimentary organic matter respectively; the ore-forming fluids belong to the SO4-Cl-Na-Ca-type basin thermal brines derived from paleo-meteoric waters; cobalt in the deposit may also be derived from the metamorphic rocks in the basin basement with basic volcanic rocks.

  10. ITABIRITE IRON ORE CONCENTRATION BY PNEUMATIC FLOTATION CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Quintiliano Nunes da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main iron ore processing plants in Brazil operate through reverse cationic flotation. Many studies have been conducted in order to improve flotation efficiency by optimization process variables. The pneumatic flotation cell stands out due to the simplicity to and to the intense contact particle/bubble promoted by the pulp feeding system. In this study, laboratory scale and pilot were conducted using a sample of itabirite iron ore. The objectives are evaluating the performance of this device using low grade iron ore, and drawing a comparison with laboratory scale tests on conventional flotation cell. The results indicate the potential application of pneumatic flotation cell to the ore tested. Adjustments in the feed particle size and process optimizations can be performed on the concentrate, reaching Fe and SiO2 grades used by the industry

  11. Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact.

  12. Carbothermal Upgrading of the Awaso Bauxite Ore using Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Ore using Waste Pure Water Sachets as Reductant”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. ... content) and the emergence of low grade bauxite with high iron oxide content calls for ... effects on the alumina extraction process (Lu et al.,.

  13. Measurement and Modelling of Blast Movement to Reduce Ore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    growth both from new discoveries and the develop- ment of Subika ... search have developed innovative tools and tech- niques to .... 7 Histogram of Horizontal Blast Displace ment from All Five .... Better QA/QC along the ore/waste boundaries.

  14. Radioanalysis of RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Shu Quan; Hu He Ping; Li Fu Sheng; Chen Ying Min; LiuShiMing

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the radioactivity in Rare Earth (RE) enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores. Methods: Using HPGe-gamma spectrometer to analyze the activity ratio of gamma radionuclides in kind of samples, using FJ-2603 low background alpha, beta measurement apparatus to measure their total alpha and total beta activities, and using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to analyze contents of La sub 2 O sub 3 and Y sub 2 O sub 3 , respectively. Results: HPGe gamma spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy are simple, convenient and non-destructive methods of analyzing radionuclides and La sub 2 O sub 3 , Y sub 2 O sub 3 in RE enrichment of ion adsorption type RE ores, respectively. Conclusion: The basic data were provided for radiation protection and treatment of gas, liquid and solid waste in RE production of ion adsorption type RE ores; method and experience were provided for studying ion adsorption type RE ores

  15. By lithology Zbruch deposits (Lower Sarmatian Nikopol manganese ore Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich V.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on lithologic-paleogeographic study Zbruch layers of Nikopol manganese ore Basin sediments described lithological and genetic types of rocks and facies conditions of formation of deposits.

  16. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  17. A geochemical assessment of possible lunar ore formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    The Moon apparently formed without appreciable water or other relatively volatile materials. Interior concentrations of water or other volatile substances appear to be extremely low. On Earth, water is important to the genesis of nearly all types of ores. Thus, some have reasoned that only abundant elements would occur in ore concentrations. The definition and recognition of ores on the Moon challenge the imaginations and the terrestrial perceptions of ore bodies. Lunar ores included solar-wind soaked soils, which contain abundant but dilute H, C, N, and noble gases (including He-3). Oxygen must be mined; soils contain approximately 45 percent (wt). Mainstream processes of rock formation concentrated Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Ca, and possibly Ti and Cr. The highland surface contains approximately 70 percent (wt) feldspar (mainly CaAl2Si2O8), which can be separated from some highland soils. Small fragments of dunite were collected; dunite may occur in walls and central peaks of some craters. Theoretical extensions of observations of lunar samples suggest that the Moon may have produced ores of trace elements. Some small fragments have trace-element concentrations 104 times higher than the lunar average, indicating that effective geochemical separations occurred; processes included fractional crystallization, silicate immiscibility, vaporization and condensation, and sulfide metamorphism. Operations of these processes acting on indigenous materials and on meteoritic material in the regolith could have produced ores. Infalling carbonaceous meteorites and comets have added water and hydrocarbons that may have been cold-trapped. Vesicles in basalts, pyroclastic beads, and reported transient events suggest gag emission from the lunar interior; such gas might concentrate and transport rare elements. Large impacts may disperse ores or produce them through deposition of heat at depth and by vaporization and subsequent condensation. The main problem in assessing lunar resources is

  18. Uranium and thorium recovery in thorianite ore-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotte, Joao V.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Villegas, Raul A.S.; Fukuma, Henrique T., E-mail: rvillegas@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of the studies aiming to develop a hydrometallurgical process to produce uranium and thorium concentrates from thorianite ore from Amapa State, Brazil. This process comprises two major parts: acid leaching and Th/U recovery using solvent extraction strategies. Thorianite ore has a typical composition of 60 - 70% of thorium, 8 - 10% lead and 7 - 10% uranium. Sulfuric acid leaching operational conditions were defined as follows: acid/ore ratio 7.5 t/t, ore size below 65 mesh (Tyler), 2 hours leaching time and temperature of 100 deg C. Leaching tests results showed that uranium and thorium recovery exceeded 95%, whereas 97% of lead ore content remained in the solid form. Uranium and thorium simultaneous solvent extraction is necessary due to high sulfate concentration in the liquor obtained from leaching, so the Primene JM-T primary anime was used for this extraction step. Aqueous raffinate from extraction containing sulfuric acid was recycled to the leaching step, reducing acid uptake around 60%, to achieve a net sulfuric acid consumption of 3 t/t of ore. Uranium and thorium simultaneous stripping was performed using sodium carbonate solution. In the aqueous stripped it was added sulfuric acid at pH 1.5, followed by a second solvent extraction step using the tertiary amine Alamine 336. The following stripping step was done with a solution of sodium chloride, resulting in a final solution of 23 g L-1 uranium. (author)

  19. Ore-forming mechanism for the Xiaoxinancha Au-rich Cu deposit in Yanbian,Jilin Province,China:Evidence from noble gas isotope geochemistry of fluid inclusions in minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KEISUKE; Nagao; HIROCHIKA; Sumino

    2008-01-01

    The Xiaoxinancha Au-rich copper deposit is one of important Au-Cu deposits along the continental margin in Eastern China. The deposit consists of two sections: the Beishan mine (North), composed of altered rocks with veinlet-dissemination sulfides and melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins, and the Nanshan mine (South), composed of pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins and pure sulfide veins. The isotope compositions of noble gases extracted from fluid inclusions in ore minerals, i.e. ratios of 3He/4He, 20Ne/22Ne and40Ar/36Ar are in the ranges of 4.45―0.08 Ra, 10.2―8.8 and 306―430, respectively. Fluid inclusions in minerals from the Nanshan mine have higher 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios whereas those from the Beishan mine have lower 3He/4He ratios. The analysis of origin, and evolution of the ore fluids and its relations with the ore-forming stages and the ages of mineralization suggests that the initial hydrothermal fluids probably come from the melts generated by partial melting of oceanic crust with the participation of fluids from the mantle (mantle-plume type)/aesthenosphere. This also corresponds to the continental margin settings during the subduction of Izanagi ocaneic plate towards the palaeo-Asian continent (123―102 Ma). The veinlet-dissemination ore bodies of the Beishan mine were formed through replacement and crystallization of the mixed fluids generated by mixing of the ascending high-temperature boiling fluid with young crustal fluid whereas the melnicovite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins were formed subsequently by filling of the high-temperature ore fluid in fissures. Pyrrhotite-dominated sulfide-quartz veins in the Nanshan mine were formed by filling-deposition-crystallization of the moderate-temperature ore fluids and the pure sulfide veins were formed later by filling-deposition-crystallization of ore substance-rich fluids after boiling of the moderate-temperature ore fluids. The metallogenic dynamic processes can be summarized as

  20. Study on the multi-sources of ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids in the Huize lead-zinc ore deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenliang; HUANG Zhilong; GUAN Tao; YAN Zaifei; GAO Derong

    2005-01-01

    The Huize large-sized Pb-Zn deposit in Yunnan Province, China, is characterized by favorable metallogenic background and particular geological settings. This suggested that the ore-forming mechanism is relatively unique. On the basis of geological features such as the contents of mineralization elements, the REE concentrations of gangue calcites, the REE concentrations of calcite veins in the NE-trending tectonic zone and the Pb, Sr, C, H and O isotopic compositions of different minerals, this paper presents that the ore-forming materials and ore-forming fluids of the deposit were derived from various types of strata or rocks. This is a very significant conclusion for us to further discuss the mineralization mechanism of the deposit at depth and establish an available genetic model.

  1. Transport network and flow mechanism of shallow ore-bearing magma in Tongling ore cluster area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Jun; WANG; Qingfei; HUANG; Dinghua

    2006-01-01

    Abundant studies revealed that shallow intrusions of the Yanshanian epoch resulted in the mass mineralization of the Tongling region. Various evidences showed there existed a concealed magma chamber at -10 km depth in the middle part of this region during Yanshanian epoch, from which the ore-forming magma was generated and then transported to the superficial layer. Yet the transport network and flow mechanism of the shallow ore-bearing magma, the key problem associ- ated with ore-forming process, was relatively little focused on. Integrate analysis of structural me- chanics, statistical fractal and geological facts suggested that NE trending high-angle fold-related thrust faults and the tessellated basement ones served as the main pathways for the shallow magma's transporting, moreover, the saddle void spaces among adjacent strata in the folds upon this fault system provided the place for magma's emplacement. So the folds in the upper part and faults in the lower part of the upper crust constituted the fluid's transport and emplacement network. During the deformation of geologic body with multi-layer structure, the layers in the upper part tended to fold when received the jacking stress from the lower part, while the lower one inclined to fault undergoing loads of the upper part. And the producing probability of this structure assemblage was highly increased in the condition, such as in the Tongling area, that the mechanic rigidity of the lower layers was stronger than that of the upper ones. For the pre-existence of fluid-conducting network, the top magma with high volatile in the magma chamber transported rapidly to the superficial layer in dyking pattern, located in the void spaces of folds, filled and reconstructed them. The sudden drop of pressure caused the fluid unmixing from the magma and mass ore-forming elements concentration. Pulse activity of the dyking may be the principal reason why magmatic bodies in the Tongling area were spatially

  2. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ferrite grade iron oxides from ore rejects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K S Rane; V M S Verenkar; P Y Sawant

    2001-06-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides and hydroxides were synthesized from chemically beneficiated high SiO2/Al2O3 low-grade iron ore (57.49% Fe2O3) rejects and heated to get iron oxides of 96–99.73% purity. The infrared band positions, isothermal weight loss and thermogravimetric and chemical analysis established the chemical formulas of iron-oxyhydroxides as -FeOOH.0.3H2O; -FeOOH.0.2H2O and amorphous FeOOH. The thermal products of all these were -Fe2O3 excepting that of -FeOOH.0.3H2O which gave mainly -Fe2O3 and some admixture of -Fe2O3. The hydrazinated iron hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, on the other hand, decomposed autocatalytically to mainly -Fe2O3. Hydrazine method modifies the thermal decomposition path of the hydroxides. The saturation magnetization, s, values were found to be in the range 60–71 emu g–1 which are close to the reported values for -Fe2O3. Mechanism of the -Fe2O3 formation by hydrazine method is discussed.

  4. Tectonic environments of South American porphyry copper magmatism through time revealed by spatiotemporal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, N.; Steinberg, D.; Müller, R. D.; Williams, S.; Merdith, A. S.; Hardy, S.

    2016-12-01

    Porphyry ore deposits are known to be associated with arc magmatism on the overriding plate at subduction zones. While general mechanisms for driving magmatism are well established, specific subduction-related parameters linking episodes of ore deposit formation to specific tectonic environments have only been qualitatively inferred and have not been formally tested. We develop a four-dimensional approach to reconstruct age-dated ore deposits, with the aim of isolating the tectonomagmatic parameters leading to the formation of copper deposits during subduction. We use a plate tectonic model with continuously closing plate boundaries, combined with reconstructions of the spatiotemporal distribution of the ocean floor, including subducted portions of the Nazca/Farallon plates. The models compute convergence rates and directions, as well as the age of the downgoing plate through time. To identify and quantify tectonic parameters that are robust predictors of Andean porphyry copper magmatism and ore deposit formation, we test two alternative supervised machine learning methods; the "random forest" (RF) ensemble and "support vector machines" (SVM). We find that a combination of rapid convergence rates ( 100 km/Myr), subduction obliquity of 15°, a subducting plate age between 25-70 Myr old, and a location far from the subducting trench boundary (>2000 km) represents favorable conditions for porphyry magmatism and related ore deposits to occur. These parameters are linked to the availability of oceanic sediments, the changing small-scale convection around the subduction zone, and the availability of the partial melt in the mantle wedge. When coupled, these parameters could influence the genesis and exhumation of porphyry copper deposits.

  5. Mechanism of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutant formation in iron ore sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Lina; Fu, Xin; Zhu, Tianle; Buekens, Alfons; Yang, Xiaoyi; Wang, Qiang

    2016-04-05

    Effects of temperature, carbon content and copper additive on formation of chlorobenzenes (CBzs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in iron ore sintering were investigated. By heating simulated fly ash (SFA) at a temperature range of 250-500°C, the yield of both CBzs and PCBs presented two peaks of 637ng/g-fly ash at 350°C and 1.5×10(5)ng/g-fly ash at 450°C for CBzs, and 74ng/g-fly ash at 300°C and 53ng/g-fly ash at 500°C. Additionally, in the thermal treatment of real fly ash (RFA), yield of PCBs displayed two peak values at 350°C and 500°C, however, yield of CBzs showed only one peak at 400°C. In the thermal treatment of SFA with a carbon content range of 0-20wt% at 300°C, both CBzs and PCBs obtained the maximum productions of 883ng/g-fly ash for CBzs and 127ng/g-fly ash for PCBs at a 5wt% carbon content. Copper additives also affected chlorinated aromatic formation. The catalytic activity of different copper additives followed the orders: CuCl2∙2H2O>Cu2O>Cu>CuSO4>CuO for CBzs, and CuCl2∙2H2O>Cu2O>CuO>Cu>CuSO4 for PCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deposit Types and Geological Characteristics of the Copper Deposits in Zambia%赞比亚铜矿床类型及地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道俊; 冷莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is one of the most famous copper production places in the world.The copper ore deposits in Zambia include stratabound,sedimentary,metamorphosed-deformation and hydrothermal types,and are dominated by the sedimentary type.Statistics indicate that the sedimentary copper ore resources account for 79% of the whole resources in Zambia.All kinds of the copper ore deposits are controlled by the Luflian arc.The stratabound copper deposits are mainly discovered in the perifornical region,and the ore-bearing rock serious are the Muva megagroup biotite schist and around the anticlines and two-mica quartz schist.The sedimentary copper deposits are mainly distributed around anticlines and the peripheral dome,and the ore-bearing rock series are the lower Katanga megagroup sandstone-shale beds.%赞比亚是世界著名的铜产地之一,其铜矿类型可分为层控型、沉积型、变质改造型及热液型,以沉积型为主.据现有大中型矿床铜资源量统计,沉积型矿产铜资源量占赞比亚铜总资源量的79%.各类型铜矿床总体受卢弗里安(Luflian)弧控制,层控型铜矿主要分布在穹窿核部边缘,含矿岩系为莫瓦(Muva)超群的黑云母片岩、二云石英片岩;沉积型铜矿主要分布在背斜或穹窿外缘周围,含矿岩系主要是加丹加(Katanga)超群下部的砂页岩层.

  7. Fluorosilicone and silicone o-ring aging study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Robert; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2007-10-01

    Fluorosilicone o-ring aging studies were performed. These studies examined the compressive force loss of fluorosilicone o-rings at accelerated (elevated) temperatures and were then used to make predictions about force loss at room temperature. The results were non-Arrhenius with evidence for a lowering in Arrhenius activation energies as the aging temperature was reduced. The compression set of these fluorosilicone o-rings was found to have a reasonably linear correlation with the force loss. The aging predictions based on using the observed curvature of the Arrhenius aging plots were validated by field aged o-rings that yielded degradation values reasonably close to the predictions. Compression set studies of silicone o-rings from a previous study resulted in good correlation to the force loss predictions for the fluorosilicone o-rings from this study. This resulted in a preliminary conclusion that an approximately linear correlation exists between compression set and force decay values for typical fluorosilicone and silicone materials, and that the two materials age at similar rates at low temperatures. Interestingly, because of the observed curvature of the Arrhenius plots available from longer-term, lower temperature accelerated exposures, both materials had faster force decay curves (and correspondingly faster buildup of compression set) at room temperature than anticipated from typical high-temperature exposures. A brief study on heavily filled conducting silicone o-rings resulted in data that deviated from the linear relationship, implying that a degree of caution must be exercised about any general statement relating force decay and compression set.

  8. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  9. [Copper pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, B; Romette, J; Di Costanzo, J D

    1982-01-30

    Copper is an essential dietary component, being the coenzyme of many enzymes with oxidase activity, e.g. ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, etc. The metabolism of copper is complex and imperfectly known. Active transport of copper through the intestinal epithelial cells involves metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups which also binds the copper in excess and probably prevents absorption in toxic amounts. In hepatocytes a metallothionein facilitates absorption by a similar mechanism and regulates copper distribution in the liver: incorporation in an apoceruloplasmin, storage and synthesis of copper-dependent enzymes. Metallothioneins and ceruloplasmin are essential to adequate copper homeostasis. Apart from genetic disorders, diseases involving copper usually result from hypercupraemia of varied origin. Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, although clinically and pathogenetically different, are both marked by low ceruloplasmin and copper serum levels. The excessive liver retention of copper in Wilson's disease might be due to increased avidity of hepatic metallothioneins for copper and decreased biliary excretion through lysosomal dysfunction. Menkes' disease might be due to low avidity of intestinal and hepatic metallothioneins for copper. The basic biochemical defect responsible for these two hereditary conditions has not yet been fully elucidated.

  10. [Copper IUDs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-10-01

    Following initial development of the Grafenberg ring in the 1920's, IUDs fell into disuse until the late 1950s, when plastic devices inserted using new technology began to gain worldwide acceptance. Further research indicated that copper had a significant antifertility effect which increased with increasing surface area, and several copper IUDs were developed and adapted, including the Copper T 200, the Copper T 220C, and the Copper T 380 A, probably the most effective yet. The Gravigard and Multiload are 2 other copper devices developed according to somewhat different principles. Copper devices are widely used not so much because of their great effectiveness as because of their suitability for nulliparous patients and their ease of insertion, which minimizes risk of uterine perforation. Records of 2584 women using Copper IUDs for 7190 women-years and 956 women using devices without copper for 6059 women-years suggest that the copper devices were associated with greater effectiveness and fewer removals for complications. Research suggests that the advantages of copper IUDs become more significant with increased duration of use. Contraindications to copper devices include allergy to copper and hepatolenticular degeneration. No carcinogenic or teratogenic effect of copper devices has been found, but further studies are needed to rule out other undesirable effects. Significant modifications of copper devices in recent years have been developed to increase their effectiveness, prolong their duration of usefulness, facilitate insertion and permit insertion during abortion or delivery. The upper limit of the surface area of copper associated with increased effectiveness appears to be between 200-300 sq mm, and at some point increases in copper exposure may provoke expulsion of the IUD. The duration of fertility inhibition of copper IUDs is usually estimated at 2-3 years, but recent research indicates that it may be 6-8 years, and some devices may retain copper surface

  11. Copper isotopes as monitors of redox processes in hydrothermal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markl, Gregor; Lahaye, Yann; Schwinn, Gregor

    2006-08-01

    The stable copper isotope composition of 79 samples of primary and secondary copper minerals from hydrothermal veins in the Schwarzwald mining district, South Germany, shows a wide variation in δ65Cu ranging from -2.92 to 2.41‰. We investigated primary chalcopyrite, various kinds of fahlores and emplectite, as well as supergene native copper, malachite, azurite, cuprite, tenorite, olivenite, pseudomalachite and chrysocolla. Fresh primary Cu(I) ores have at most localities copper isotope ratios ( δ65Cu values) of 0 ± 0.5‰ despite the fact that the samples come from mineralogically different types of deposits covering an area of about 100 by 50 km and that they formed during three different mineralization events spanning the last 300 Ma. Relics of the primary ores in oxidized samples (i.e., chalcopyrite relics in an iron oxide matrix with an outer malachite coating) display low isotope ratios down to -2.92‰. Secondary Cu(I) minerals such as cuprite have high δ65Cu values between 0.4 and 1.65‰, whereas secondary Cu(II) minerals such as malachite show a range of values between -1.55 and 2.41‰, but typically have values above +0.5‰. Within single samples, supergene oxidation of fresh chalcopyrite with a δ value of 0‰ causes significant fractionation on the scale of a centimetre between malachite (up to 1.49‰) and relict chalcopyrite (down to -2.92‰). The results show that—with only two notable exceptions—high-temperature hydrothermal processes did not lead to significant and correlatable variations in copper isotope ratios within a large mining district mineralized over a long period of time. Conversely, low-temperature redox processes seriously affect the copper isotope compositions of hydrothermal copper ores. While details of the redox processes are not yet understood, we interpret the range in compositions found in both primary Cu(I) and secondary Cu(II) minerals as a result of two competing controls on the isotope fractionation process

  12. Geological Characteristics of Copper Mineralization,Jiujiang—Ruichang Area,Jiangxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小平; 裴荣富; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Jiujiang-Ruichang area in northwestern Jiangxi extends along the western part of the minerogenic belt of the middle-lower Yangtze Valley in a terrain of sediments ranging from Ordovician to Triassic in age with NEE-folda,and NW-compressive,NNW-tensile and NEE-compressive-shearing faults as the major structures .Igneous rocks are mostly intermediate-acid epizonal intrusive bodies.Typical copper mineralizations in this area include the skarn-type and stratiform Cu-bearing pyrite-type deposits at Wushan and the porphyry and breccia-pipe type copper-molybdenum deposits at Chengmenshan.Silurian strata,with a great thickness and an average copper content of 51 ppm,are considered to be the source bed of copper mineralization,as is evidenced,among other things,by the presence of an envelope which is notably impoverished in Cu aroud most of the deposits.Magmatic rocks which intruded into the Silurian strata often have relatively high alkali contents and K2O/Na2O ratios ,with extensive potash alteration.Magmatic rocks in the area are of co-melting type or mixed type.The magma assimilated a large quanity of country rocks while ascending.They are characterized by high REE contents,absence of Eu anomalies and high LREE/HREE ratios.Ancient lead and strontium isotopes were detected in feldspar megaphenocrysts from the granodiorite porphyry.Hydrothermal convective circulation systems of magmatic water of magmatic water and supergenic water was extensively developed in the magmatic and country rocks,in which copper,potassium and other ore-forming components were extracted from the country rocks and concentrated through heating,boiling and evaporating.When the ore-forming fluids found their way into the skarn zone or the unconformity between the Wutong Formation and the Huanglong Formation,ore precipitation would have occurred as a result of changing media,If the concentration of KCl exceeded 9%,copper and other ore-forming components might have been deposited in magmatic rocks

  13. Gamma Spectrometric Analysis of Iron Ore Samples of Arak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourimani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron ore is one of the most important natural raw materials that is widely used for manufacturing iron and steel. This type of ore contains various amounts of radionuclides; thus, exposing workers handling their extraction, transportation, and processing to radiation. Materials and Methods In this study, 12 ore samples (each mass weighing about 2 kg were collected from the iron ore mining areas of Arak region, Iran. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined usinggamma-ray spectrometry method employing high-purity germanium (HPGe detector. Results The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in samples were 9.39-271.70 Bq/kg, -3 Sv/y suggested in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 82. Conclusion The gamma ray spectrometric analysis showed that the specific activities of natural radionuclides in samples, except for limonite ore, were within the worldwide range. The effective dose received by workers was much lower than the maximum acceptable value (1000 μSv/y; therefore, the level of radiations in this mine had no adverse consequences for public health.

  14. Existing State and Partitioning of Rare Earth on Weathered Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The existing state and partitioning of rare earth (RE) on weathered ores in Longnan County (LN), Xingfeng County(XF) and Ninghua County(NH) were characterized systematically by standard geological analytical methods. It is found that RE in the weathered rare earth ores exist as four phases: (a) water soluble, (b) ion-exchangeable, (c) colloidal sediment (oxides), (d) minerals, in which mainly as ion exchangeable phase, accounting for nearly 80% of total RE,with about 20% in the form of colloid sediment phase and mineral phase, but very little as aqueous soluble phase. These rare earth partitioning were mainly chosen mid-heavy RE elements, occupying above 60%, but not equal in the four phases. The mid-heavy RE elements were primarily enriched in the ion exchangeable phase up to 40%, while the containment of cerium dioxide is below 2%. The cerium deficiency occurs in the ion exchangeable phase in weathered ore. It results from that the Ce3+ is oxidized into Ce4+ and changes into CeO2. For LN ore, the containment of Y is high in weathered ore because Y-minerals are abundant in original rock.

  15. Microbial Beneficiation of Salem Iron Ore Using Penicillium purpurogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M.; Pradhan, M.; Sukla, L. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2011-02-01

    High alumina and silica content in the iron ore affects coke rate, reducibility, and productivity in a blast furnace. Iron ore is being beneficiated all around the world to meet the quality requirement of iron and steel industries. Choosing a beneficiation treatment depends on the nature of the gangue present and its association with the ore structure. The advanced physicochemical methods used for the beneficiation of iron ore are generally unfriendly to the environment. Biobeneficiation is considered to be ecofriendly, promising, and revolutionary solutions to these problems. A characterization study of Salem iron ore indicates that the major iron-bearing minerals are hematite, magnetite, and goethite. Samples on average contains (pct) Fe2O3-84.40, Fe (total)-59.02, Al2O3-7.18, and SiO2-7.53. Penicillium purpurogenum (MTCC 7356) was used for the experiment . It removed 35.22 pct alumina and 39.41 pct silica in 30 days in a shake flask at 10 pct pulp density, 308 K (35 °C), and 150 rpm. In a bioreactor experiment at 2 kg scale using the same organism, it removed 23.33 pct alumina and 30.54 pct silica in 30 days at 300 rpm agitation and 2 to 3 l/min aeration. Alumina and silica dissolution follow the shrinking core model for both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

  16. On the use of bastnasite ore as a phosphor material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohapatra, M., E-mail: manojm@barc.gov.in; Natarajan, V.; Rajeswari, B.; Dhobale, A.R.; Godbole, S.V.

    2014-01-15

    Bastnasite ore obtained from Indian Rare Earth (IRE) was investigated for its possible use as a phosphor material. The material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) techniques. XRD studies revealed the semi processed ore to be consisting of single phase CeO{sub 2} with no other impurities. EDXRF studies revealed the presence of ‘Th’ and traces of ‘Sm’ along with ‘Ce’ in the sample. PAS studies revealed the presence of strong charge transfer from oxygen to cerium in the system. PL studies confirmed the presence of at least four trivalent rare earths, viz. Sm, Eu, Dy and Tb in the system in trace quantities. The emission spectrum and decay time data were evaluated. It was observed that the rare earth ions are situated at distorted sites in the system surrounded by defect centers. EPR studies confirmed the presence of Ce{sup 3+}in the system along with electron trapped in oxygen ion vacancies. CIE indices for the ore sample were evaluated and it was seen that the overall emission from the system was in the ‘magenta’ region of the visible spectrum. The emission intensities were also compared with that of commercial samples. -- Highlights: • Characterization of bastnasite ore as a phosphor material. • Role of RE impurities in the luminescence • CIE index of the bastnasite ore.

  17. Flotation technology of refractory low-grade molybdenum ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Shuhua; Luo Zhenfu

    2013-01-01

    Because of the low grade,high oxidation rate and the accumulation of little associated metal sulfide ore in the molybdenum concentrate during flotation,the Qingyang molybdenum ore is difficult to beneflciate.The experimental studies of grinding fineness,the amount of roughing modifier,depressant and collector were completed.In the cleaning process,the contrast experiments of one regrinding.the regrinding and scrubbing,two-stage regrinding was carried.The result shows that the grade of molybdenum ore concentrate is 45.31%,the recovery is 65.98% and the rich ore ratio reaches 20.59% by the regrinding and scrubbing seven cleaning,the regrinding of concentrations from middling of molybdenum-sulfur separation.The regularly-concentrated material from the apparatus was as the middling products.Hence,ideal beneficiation index can be obtained with a rational mineral processing,which offers new beneficiating technology for the refractory low-grade molybdenum ore in China.

  18. Nature, origin and evolution of the granitoid-hosted early Proterozoic copper-molybdenum mineralization at Malanjkhand, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S. C.; Kabiraj, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pal, A. B.

    1996-07-01

    At Malanjkhand, Central India, lode-type copper (-molybdenum) mineralization occurs within calcalkaline tonalite-granodiorite plutonic rocks of early Proterozoic age. The bulk of the mineralization occurs in sheeted quartz-sulfide veins, and K-silicate alteration assemblages, defined by alkali feldspar (K-feldspar≫albite)+dusty hematite in feldspar±biotite±muscovite, are prominent within the ore zone and the adjacent host rock. Weak propylitic alteration, defined by albite+biotite+epidote/zoisite, surrounds the K-silicate alteration zone. The mineralized zone is approximately 2 km in strike length, has a maximum thickness of 200 m and dips 65° 75°, along which low-grade mineralization has been traced up to a depth of about 1 km. The ore reserve has been conservatively estimated to be 92 million tonnes with an average Cu-content of 1.30%. Supergene oxidation, accompanied by limited copper enrichment, is observed down to a depth of 100 m or more from the surface. Primary ores consist essentially of chalcopyrite and pyrite with minor magnetite and molybdenite. δ34S (‰) values in pyrite and chalcopyrite (-0.38 to +2.90) fall within the range characteristic of granitoid-hosted copper deposits. δ18O (‰) values for vein quartz (+6.99 to +8.80) suggest exclusive involvement of juvenile water. Annealed fabrics are common in the ore. The sequence of events that led to the present state of hypogene mineralization is suggested to be as follows: fracturing of the host rock, emplacement of barren vein quartz, pronounced wall-rock alteration accompanied by disseminated mineralization and the ultimate stage of intense silicification accompanied by copper mineralization. Fragments of vein quartz and altered wall rocks and striae in the ore suggest post-mineralization deformation. The recrystallization fabric, particularly in chalcopyrite and sphalerite, is a product of dynamic recrystallization associated with the post-mineralization shearing. The petrology of the host

  19. The production and use of citric acid for the removal of potassium from the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Williams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the richer iron ore worldwide has made it necessary to process lower quality iron ore. Certain substances, such as potassium, contained within the lower quality iron ore, have a detrimental effect on the smelting process during steel manufacturing. Therefore, international steel-making companies charge penalties when purchasing iron ore concentrates containing high concentrations of potassium. To date, lower quality iron ore has been blended with high quality iron ore in an attempt to alleviate the potassium concentrations in the export iron ore; however, the ratio of low quality iron ore to high quality iron ore is increasing, thereby becoming an escalating problem within the economic functioning of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. It has, therefore, become necessary to develop an economically viable and environmentally friendly process to reduce the high potassium concentrations contained in the iron ore concentrate of the Sishen Iron Ore Mine. In this study, we compared solid substrate and submerged fermentation using Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid, which is used for the chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate. It was found that submerged fermentation proved to be more economical and efficient, producing a maximum citric acid concentration of 102.3 g/L in 96 h of fermentation. ‘Heap leaching’ simulation experiments were found to be uneconomical, due to the required addition of fungal growth medium every 5 days as a result of growth factor depletion within this time; however, this process removed 17.65% of the potassium from the iron ore concentrate. By contrast, chemical leaching of potassium from the iron ore concentrate proved to be most efficient when using a 1 mol citric acid leaching solution at 60 ºC, removing 23.53% of the potassium contained within the iron ore concentrate. Therefore, the most economical and efficient process for the removal of potassium from the iron

  20. Characteristics of polymetallic ore-forming fluid and metallogenesis of the Xiangshan ore-field in Jiangxi%江西相山矿田多金属成矿流体特征与成矿作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂江涛; 李子颖; 王健; 郭建

    2015-01-01

    Fluid inclusions of polymetallic mineralization in the Xiangshan uranium orefield were studied for the first time in this pa⁃per. A large number of polymetallic mineralizations were discovered recently with the deepening of geological exploration in the Xiangshan uranium orefield and the implementation of uranium scientific deep drilling. Based on studying petrography, microther⁃mometry, pressure of ore-forming processes, composition and metallogenic depth of fluid inclusions as well as sulfur, carbon, oxygen isotopic composition, the authors hold that the lead and zinc ore-forming temperatures are mainly concentrated on 230~300℃, the metallogenic pressures are concentrated on 12~51MPa, and the salinities are concentrated on 4%~12%NaCleqv. The fluid inclusions are enriched in CO2 and to a lesser extent in CH4 and N2. The mineral assemblage is mainly sphalerite+gelenite+pyrite. The cop⁃per ore-forming temperatures are mainly concentrated on 320~380℃,metallogenic pressures on 33~95MPa , and salinities on 4%~12%NaCleqv. The fluid inclusions are enriched in CO2 and to a lesser extent in CH4 and N2. The mineral assemblage is mainly chal⁃copyrite+pyrrhotite+arsenikstein. All these data indicate that ore-forming fluids were characterized by medium-high temperature, high pressure, medium-high salinity, low oxygen fugacity and high content of CO 2. The lead, zinc, copper and uranium ore-form⁃ing fluids were characterized by deep source, but there were obvious different in stage, space, alteration and fluid inclusion characteris⁃tics of lead, zinc, copper and uranium mineralization, so they were formed in different ore-forming stages and occurred in different separate hydrothermal mineralization processes in early-middle Cretaceous in South China.%随着相山铀矿矿田勘探深度的增加和铀矿科学深钻的实施,在矿田内揭露了大量多金属矿化,流体包裹体和地球化学研究表明,铅锌矿成矿期温度集中在230~300

  1. Chemical state mapping of heterogeneous reduction of iron ore sinter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M.; Takeichi, Y.; Murao, R.; Obayashi, I.; Hiraoka, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Iron ore sinter constitutes the major component of the iron-bearing burden in blast furnaces, and its reduction mechanism is one of the keys to improving the productivity of ironmaking. Iron ore sinter is composed of multiple iron oxide phases and calcium ferrites (CFs), and their heterogeneous reduction was investigated in terms of changes in iron chemical state: FeIII, FeII, and Fe0 were examined macroscopically by 2D X-ray absorption and microscopically by 3D transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM). It was shown that the reduction starts at iron oxide grains rather than at calcium ferrite (CF) grains, especially those located near micropores. The heterogeneous reduction causes crack formation and deteriorates the mechanical strength of the sinter. These results help us to understand the fundamental aspects of heterogeneous reduction schemes in iron ore sinter.

  2. A hybrid decision support system for iron ore supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samolejová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European metallurgical companies are forced to import iron ore from remote destinations. For these companies it is necessary to determine the amount of iron ore that will have to be ordered and to create such a delivery schedule so that the continuous operation of blast-furnace plant is not disrupted and there is no exceedingly large stock of this raw material. The objective of this article is to design the decision support system for iron ore supply which would effi ciently reduce uncertainty and risk of that decision-making. The article proposes a hybrid intelligent system which represents a combination of diff erent artifi cial intelligence methods with dynamic simulation technique for that purpose.

  3. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  4. Investigation of chemical suppressants for inactivation of sulfide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the effective control method of spontaneous combustion in the mining of sulfide ore deposits, This paper presents the testing results of several selected chemicals (water glass, calcium chloride, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide and their composites) as oxidation suppressants for sulfide ores. A weight increment scaling method was used to measure suppressant performance, and this method proved to be accurate, simple and convenient. Based on a large number of experiments, the test results show that four types of chemical mixtures demonstrate a good performance in reducing the oxidation rate of seven active sulfide ore samples by up to 27% to 100% during an initial 76 d period. The mixtures of water glass mixed with calcium chloride and magnesium oxide mixed with calcium chloride can also act as fire suppressants when used with fire sprinkling systems.

  5. Beneficiation of the gold bearing ore by gravity and flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Alim; Kangal, Olgaç; Sirkeci, Ayhan A.; Önal, Güven

    2012-02-01

    Gold concentration usually consists of gravity separation, flotation, cyanidation, or the combination of these processes. The choice among these processes depends on the mineralogical characterization and gold content of the ore. Recently, the recovery of gold using gravity methods has gained attention because of low cost and environmentally friendly operations. In this study, gold pre-concentrates were produced by the stepwise gravity separation and flotation techniques. The Knelson concentrator and conventional flotation were employed for the recovery of gold. Gold bearing ore samples were taken from Gümüşhane Region, northern east part of Turkey. As a result of stepwise Knelson concentration experiments, a gold concentrate assaying around 620 g/t is produced with 41.4wt% recovery. On the other hand, a gold concentrate about 82 g/t is obtained with 89.9wt% recovery from a gold ore assaying 6 g/t Au by direct flotation.

  6. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin

    2004-01-01

    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  7. Fossil bacteria in Xuanlong iron ore deposits of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yongding; SONG Haiming; SHEN Jiying

    2004-01-01

    Discovered in Early Proterozoic Xuanlong iron ore deposits are six genera of fossil iron bacteria, i. e. sphere (coenobium of) rod-shaped (monomer) Naumanniella, ellipsoid elliptical Ochrobium, sphere spherical Siderocapsa and chain spherical Siderococcus, chain rod-shaped Leptothrix and Lieskeella, and six genera of fossil blue bacteria, namely sphere spherical Gloeocapsa, Synechocystis and Globobacter, chain spherical Anabaena and Nostoc, and constrictive septate tubular Nodularia. The biomineralized monomers and coenobia of the two categories of bacteria, together with hematite plates made up the bacteria pelletal, bacteria silky,bacteria fibrous and clasty bacteria pelletal textural lamina. The bacteria pelletal laminae combined with other bacteria laminae to make up oncolite, stromatolite and laminate. The precipitation of iron oxide was accelerated due to iron and blue bacteria cohabiting on microbial film or mat. The Xuanlong iron ore deposits are microbial binding ore deposits of ocean source.

  8. Control of Rock Mechanics in Underground Ore Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. I.; Efremenkov, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    Performance indicators in underground mining of thick iron fields can be insufficient since geo-mechanic specifics of ore-hosting fields might be considered inadequately, as a consequence, critical deformations and even earth’s surface destruction are possible, lowering the indicators of full subsurface use, this way. The reason for it is the available approach to estimating the performance of mining according to ore excavation costs, without assessing losses of valuable components and damage to the environment. The experimental approach to the problem is based on a combination of methods to justify technical capability and performance of mining technology improvement with regard to geomechanical factors. The main idea of decisions to be taken is turning geo-materials into the condition of triaxial compression via developing the support constructions of blocked up structural rock block. The study was carried out according to an integrated approach based on the analysis of concepts, field observations, and simulation with the photo-elastic materials in conditions of North Caucasus deposits. A database containing information on the deposit can be developed with the help of industrial experiments and performance indicators of the field can be also improved using the ability of ore-hosting fields to develop support constructions, keeping the geo-mechanical stability of the system at lower cost, avoiding ore contamination at the processing stage. The proposed model is a specific one because an adjustment coefficient of natural and anthropogenic stresses is used and can be adopted for local conditions. The relation of natural to anthropogenic factors can make more precise the standards of developed, prepared and ready to excavation ore reserves relying on computational methods. It is possible to minimize critical stresses and corresponding deformations due to dividing the ore field into sectors safe from the standpoint of geo-mechanics, and using less cost

  9. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  10. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  11. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    During the 20th century, the iron ore mining industries of Canada and the United States passed through several periods of transformation. The beginning of the 21st century has seen yet another period of transformation, with the economic failure of a number of steel companies, the acquisition of their facilities by more viable steelmakers, and the consolidation of control within the North American iron ore industry. Changes in Canadian and United States iron ore production and the market control structure involved are analysed. The consolidation of ownership, formation of foreign joint ventures within Nordi America, planned divestitures of upstream activities by steelmakers, and industry changes made to ensure availability of feedstocks will be reviewed. The ttaditional isolation of the Canadian and United States iron ore operations and their strong linkage to downstream steel production will be discussed in the context of a changing global economy. Management-labour conflicts that have taken place and agreements made during 2000 through 2004 will be discussed in the context of the economic environment leading up to these agreements. Cooperative agreements between competing Canadian and United States companies to resolve client needs in processing and blending will be examined. A joint industry-government project designed to use new technology to produce direct reduced iron nuggets of 96 - 98 per cent iron content using non-coking coals will also be assessed. Changes in iron ore transportation methods, ownership and infrastructure will be reviewed for both rail and inland waterway transport between Canadian and United States companies. A brief analysis of social and environmental issues relating to sustainable development of the Canadian-United States iron ore industry will be included.

  12. Ore-forming Conditions and Prospecting in the West Kunlun Area, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yongguan; GUO Kunyi; XIAO Huiliang; ZHANG Chuanlin; ZHAO Yu

    2004-01-01

    The West Kunlun ore-forming belt is located between the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and southwestern Tarim Basin. It situated between the Paleo-Asian Tectonic Domain and Tethyan Tectonic Domain. It is an important component of the giant tectonic belt in central China (the Kunlun-Qilian-Qinling Tectonic Belt or the Central Orogenic Belt). Many known ore-forming belts such as the Kunlun-Qilian Qinling ore-forming zone, Sanjiang (or Threeriver) ore-forming zone, Central Asian ore-forming zone, etc. pass through the West Kunlun area. Three ore-forming zones and seven ore-forming subzones were classified, and eighteen mineralization areas were marked. It is indicated that the West Kunlun area is one of the most favorable region for finding out large and superlarge ore deposits.

  13. A study of the distribution of rare-metals in kuroko-type ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience]|[Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    We have performed PIXE analysis of kuroko-type ore from the JADE hydrothermal site of the Okinawa Trough, Japan using the proton microprobe (PIXEPROBE). We analysed five kinds of ores dredged from the sea floor: (I) barite ore with small sulfide dissemination; (2) sphalerite-pyrite chimney; (3) pyrite ore; (4) sulfide veinlets in strongly altered rock; and (5) pyrite megacrystals in strongly altered rock. The analyses revealed that the trace element distribution is regulated by the occurrence mode of the ore, and within each ore, by the crystal structure. The distribution suggests that the hydrothermal system for kuroko ore formation is quite heterogeneous and its chemistry is controlled by local factors such as difference in temperature, and that in-situ PIXE analyses are essential for effective beneficiation strategy for the rare-metals from kuroko-type ore. (authors). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Mining remittances corresponding to metalliferous ores: regulation and budget impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Asaloș

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic statistics and forecasting show that Romania has a very favourable potential as far as the metalliferous ores are concerned. As these are owned by the state, once they are allowed to be exploited, they generate considerable amounts for the consolidated public budget. The present paper is meant to conduct a synthetic analysis on the topic of mining remittances from an economic perspective, by considering the juridical framework of capitalizing deposits of ferrous and non-ferrous ores, correlated with the general regulations concerning property and the specific existing regulations of the EU and of the countries that have experience and potential in the mining sector.

  15. A novel optical granulometry algorithm for ore particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Y.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel algorithm to detect the particle size distribution of ores with irregular shapes and dim edges. This optical granulometry algorithm is particularly suitable for blast furnace process control, so its result can be used directly as a reliable basis for control system dynamics optimization. The paper explains the algorithm and its concept, as well as its method, which consists of five steps to detect ore granularity and distribution. A series of comparative experiments under industrial environments proved that this novel algorithm, compared with conventional ones, improves the accuracy of granulometry.

  16. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GOLD-ORE DUMP REPROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Samsonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic projection is presented in the paper on the heap leaching technology for extracting a residual gold from the gold-ore dumps accumulated at the exploited or closed gold mines. A brief analysis is performed on the legal status of use this source of raw materials, availability and efficiency of the heap leaching method are reviewed, and the potential users of this method are assessed. An investment plan is created for involving anthropogenic dumps of gold-raw materials at one of the ore deposits in Siberia (heap complex of the North-Western flank of the Sovetskoye minefield, Krasnoyarsk region, North-Yenisey area.

  17. Biological reclamation of areas degraded after the excavation of lignite and copper ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mocek-Płóciniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic assumptions of biological reclamation of the areas degraded in excavation of various industrial resources. Opencast or depth excavation always leads to intrusion in the natural environment. As a result, inner and outer spoil tips and post-flotation pits and containers – which are post-mining lands – are developed. After the excavation, such areas need a series of reclamation operations which incorporate technical and biological actions whose aim is to restore their environmental and utilitarian values. Reclamation of degraded areas should incorporate mainly actions which lead to preparation of grounds and enhancing their chemism, as well as biological operations targeted at the renovation of their biological activity (microbiological and enzymatic. A proper architecture of the spoil tip and the quality of post-mining ground ought to be developed in order to make post-industrial barrens change into farming or landscape areas and therefore, enhance the attractiveness of these transformed anthropogenic areas.

  18. Removal of cobalt, chromium, copper, iron and nickel cations from electroplating waste water by apatite ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kargar-Razi, M.; Yahyaabadi, S. [Azad Univ. Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    In this investigation, the adsorption behavior of natural phosphate rock and it's concentrate with respect to Fe{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} has been studied, in order to consider its application to purity of electroplating waste water pollution. The batch mehtod has been employed, using metal concentrations in solution ranging from 2 ppm to 40 ppm with mixing process. The effect of pH, concentration of heavy metals and times (10-20 min) is considered. The results of their removal performance in 40 ppm concentration, pH = 8 and 10 minutes are obtained as Cr{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate rock and the sequence can be given as Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate concentrate. It was found that the adsorption phenomena depend on charge density and hydrated ion diameter. The same results show that maximum adsorption in PH = 4.5 and 7 for concentrate. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm constants corresponding to adsorption capacity were found to be as Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} for phosphate soil and Cr{sup 3+} > Fe{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for phosphate concentrate. Sorption of metallic cations are considered in pH 4.5, 7 and 8. The results show that phosphate rock and its concentrate have great potential to remove cations of heavy metal species from electroplating waste water. (orig.)

  19. China’s Copper Ore Potential Resource Quantity Reached 180 Million Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The National Mineral Resource Potential Evaluation Project Special Topic Achievements Report-back Meeting convened by the Development Research Center of China Geological Survey announced that,the national chemical prospecting data application research innovatively adopted geochemical quantitative prediction method to predict that the national

  20. Porphyry-copper mineralisation in the central Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strashimirov, Strashimir; Petrunov, Rumen; Kanazirski, Milko

    2002-08-01

    The porphyry-copper systems in the central part of the Srednogorie zone (Bulgaria) are represented by three major deposits (Elatsite, Medet and Assarel) and several smaller deposits and occurrences, all of them within the Panagyurishte ore district. The hydrothermal systems are related to Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline igneous complexes. Ore mineralisation is developed predominantly in the apical parts of subvolcanic and intrusive bodies as well as within the volcanic and basement metamorphic rocks. Several of the porphyry systems are spatially associated with shallow-level intermediate and high-sulphidation volcanic-hosted epithermal deposits of economic importance, such as the major gold-copper mine at Chelopech located 10 km from the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit. Mineralisation processes in the porphyry deposits start with intensive hydrothermal alteration of the wall rocks. K-silicate alteration is characteristic for pre-ore hydrothermal activity in all of them, and it is located mostly in their central parts. Propylitic alteration is prominent in the Medet and Assarel deposits. The Assarel deposit is located in the central part of a palaeovolcanic structure and shows a large spectrum of pre-ore alterations, including propylitic, sericitic, and advanced argillic assemblages. The initial stages of the hydrothermal systems are characterised by high temperatures (>550-500 °C) and highly saline (50-20 wt% NaCl equiv.) and vapour-rich fluids of likely magmatic origin. The composition of the fluids gradually changes from H2O-NaCl±FeCl2 to H2O-NaCl-KCl and H2O-NaCl-dominated as the fluids cool, react with wall rocks, and may become diluted with meteoric water. Fe-Ti-oxide mineral associations were formed early in all deposits, later followed, in the Elatsite deposit, by an assemblage of bornite, chalcopyrite, platinum group element (PGE) phases, Co-Ni thiospinels, Ag- and Bi-tellurides, and selenides. The main ore stage in all deposits is dominated by

  1. Platinum metals in magmatic sulfide ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldrett, A.J.; Duke, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. Copyright ?? 1980 AAAS.

  2. Handling of Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulcke, Felix; Dringen, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for many important cellular functions. However, excess of copper can impair cellular functions by copper-induced oxidative stress. In brain, astrocytes are considered to play a prominent role in the copper homeostasis. In this short review we summarise the current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the handling of copper by astrocytes. Cultured astrocytes efficiently take up copper ions predominantly by the copper transporter Ctr1 and the divalent metal transporter DMT1. In addition, copper oxide nanoparticles are rapidly accumulated by astrocytes via endocytosis. Cultured astrocytes tolerate moderate increases in intracellular copper contents very well. However, if a given threshold of cellular copper content is exceeded after exposure to copper, accelerated production of reactive oxygen species and compromised cell viability are observed. Upon exposure to sub-toxic concentrations of copper ions or copper oxide nanoparticles, astrocytes increase their copper storage capacity by upregulating the cellular contents of glutathione and metallothioneins. In addition, cultured astrocytes have the capacity to export copper ions which is likely to involve the copper ATPase 7A. The ability of astrocytes to efficiently accumulate, store and export copper ions suggests that astrocytes have a key role in the distribution of copper in brain. Impairment of this astrocytic function may be involved in diseases which are connected with disturbances in brain copper metabolism.

  3. 刚果民主共和国腾克丰古鲁梅铜钴矿山%The DRC Tenke Fugurume Copper and Cobalt Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长根

    2012-01-01

    刚果民主共和国腾克丰古鲁梅( Tenke Fungurume)铜钴矿山是世界上现有的最大的铜钴矿山,它具有世界上最丰富的铜钴资源.现有的矿石储量可能超过1.19亿t,其中含2.64%铜和0.35%钴.矿山采用常规的露天开采方法.平均每天开采4.65万t物料,其中7000t高品位矿石、7500t低品位矿石和32000t废石.选矿厂日处理矿石7000t,年产11.1万t铜和8545t钴(氢氧化钻).选矿流程包括磨矿、硫酸浸出和对流倾析、中和、溶剂萃取/电积和钴的回收.矿山和选矿厂基本投资为17.50亿美元,矿石的采矿和选矿总成本为85.10美元/t矿石.%The DRC Tenke Fugurume Copper-Cobalt Miner is the word's most present copper and cobalt mine. It is believed to hold one of the richest and extensive high grade copper and resources. The ore reserves approximate 119 million tons at average ore grades of 2.64% copper and 0. 35% cobalt. The ores are mined with typical open pit miming method. The average daily mining rate will be 46,500 tpd over the mine life. Ore deliveries to the high-grade stockpiles will be 7,000 t/d, low-grade ore production will average 7 ,500 tpd and waste production will aver age 32,000 tpd. 7000 t/d ores are delivered to the process plant. 111000 t/a are produced of copper cathode. 8545 t/a contained in a hydroxide are produced as the commercial production target. The ore processing flowsheet consists of semi autogenous grinding, sulphuric acid leaching, counter current decantation, neutralization, solvent ex-traction/electrowinning and cobalt recovery. The capital cost of mining and processing plant is 1750 million US $ . The operation cost of mining and processing is 81. 50 US/t ore.

  4. 26 CFR 1.272-1 - Expenditures relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic iron ore. 1.272-1 Section 1.272-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... relating to disposal of coal or domestic iron ore. (a) Introduction. Section 272 provides special treatment... sometimes referred to as a “coal royalty contract” or “iron ore royalty contract”) for the disposal of coal...

  5. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the Ore..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2010-0893 or Site name Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site by one of...

  6. IMPACT: How ORE Findings Have Affected Decisions in Austin and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David, Ed.; Ligon, Glynn, Ed.

    Over the years, findings of the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District (AISD) have had a significant impact on decisions made in the district and sometimes beyond it. The ORE's impact in the AISD is reviewed in 16 areas. Some of the major findings are summarized: (1) ORE studies of retention in…

  7. 40 CFR 440.80 - Applicability; description of the vanadium ore subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vanadium ore subcategory. 440.80 Section 440.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Vanadium Ore Subcategory (Mined Alone and Not as a Byproduct) § 440.80 Applicability; description of the vanadium...

  8. 28 CFR 79.62 - Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ore transporters. 79.62 Section 79.62 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.62 Criteria for eligibility for claims by ore transporters. To establish eligibility for...

  9. 28 CFR 79.63 - Proof of employment as an ore transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of employment as an ore transporter... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.63 Proof of employment as an ore transporter. (a) The Department will accept, as proof of employment for the time...

  10. Rock-magnetism and ore microscopy of the magnetite-apatite ore deposit from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Vivallo, W.

    2001-03-01

    Rock-magnetic and microscopic studies of the iron ores and associated igneous rocks in the Cerro de Mercado, Mexico, were carried out to determine the magnetic mineralogy and origin of natural remanent magnetization (NRM), related to the thermo-chemical processes due to hydrothermalism. Chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) seems to be present in most of investigated ore and wall rock samples, replacing completely or partially an original thermoremanent magnetization (TRM). Magnetite (or Ti-poor titanomagnetite) and hematite are commonly found in the ores. Although hematite may carry a stable CRM, no secondary components are detected above 580°, which probably attests that oxidation occurred soon enough after the extrusion and cooling of the ore-bearing magma. NRM polarities for most of the studied units are reverse. There is some scatter in the cleaned remanence directions of the ores, which may result from physical movement of the ores during faulting or mining, or from perturbation of the ambient field during remanence acquisition by inhomogeneous internal fields within these strongly magnetic ore deposits. The microscopy study under reflected light shows that the magnetic carriers are mainly titanomagnetite, with significant amounts of ilmenite-hematite minerals, and goethite-limonite resulting from alteration processes. Magmatic titanomagnetites, which are found in igneous rocks, show trellis, sandwich, and composite textures, which are compatible with high temperature (deuteric) oxy-exsolution processes. Hydrothermal alteration in ore deposits is mainly indicated by martitization in oxide minerals. Grain sizes range from a few microns to >100 mm, and possible magnetic state from single to multidomain, in agreement with hysteresis measurements. Thermal spectra, continuous susceptibility measurements, and IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) acquisition suggest a predominance of spinels as magnetic carriers, most probably titanomagnetites with low

  11. The critical importance of pulp concentration on the flotation of galena from a low grade lead–zinc ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianping Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Qixia orebody is a complex lead–zinc sulfide system with pyrite gangue and minor amounts of copper. In order to improve the flotation results, laboratory scale flotation testing of ore samples taken from this operation was performed. Flotation tests used a sequential recovery protocol for selective flotation of first the lead and thereafter the zinc. The key parameters that influence flotation performance of lead mineral were tested in this paper. The test data show that, for comparable collector, grinding time, flotation pH and solid-in-pulp concentration, the increase of solid-in-pulp concentration has the most significant effect on the recovery and selective separation of lead mineral. The increase of solid-in-pulp concentration from 27% to 55% makes the recovery of lead mineral increased from 60% to 80% and the lead grade increased from 27.5% to 29.1%.

  12. New data on age of ore-hosting sequence of the Saf'yanovka deposit, Central Urals, based on foraminifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashov, B. I.; Anfimov, A. L.; Soroka, E. I.; Yaroslavtseva, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Saf'yanovka copper massive sulfide deposit is situated 10 km northeast from the town of Rezh, on the eastern slope of the Central Urals. The ore-hosting plagiorhyolite-dacitic sequence consists of tephrites and tuffites with interlayers of dark gray siliceous-carboniferous pelites and psephytes from 0.1 to 1.5 m thick. The shells of the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer were identified in one of the lightened interlayers in the siliceous-carboniferous sequence. The samples for study were taken from the southern part of the orebody in the open-pit between prospecting lines 2 and 3, horizons 170 and 157. The inner part of the shell is composed of quartz and apatite, and the wall, by apatite with rare calcite grains. One shell contains a tacking disk allowing us to refer these foraminifers to the attached benthos typical of the shallow marine basin (sublitoral). In the Urals, the Parathurammina tamarae L. Petrovae, 1981 foraminifer is known in limestones from the Eifel-Givetian (Langurskii and Vysotinskii Horizons); the siliceous-carboniferous rocks from the ore-hosting sequence from the Saf'yanovka deposit has the same age.

  13. Canine models of copper toxicosis for understanding mammalian copper metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Fieten, Hille; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Watson, Adrian L.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary forms of copper toxicosis exist in man and dogs. In man, Wilson’s disease is the best studied disorder of copper overload, resulting from mutations in the gene coding for the copper transporter ATP7B. Forms of copper toxicosis for which no causal gene is known yet are recognized as well, often in young children. Although advances have been made in unraveling the genetic background of disorders of copper metabolism in man, many questions regarding disease mechanisms and copper homeo...

  14. Nonlinear Effects of Laser Surface Modification of Ore Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Leonenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of continuous laser radiation on complex ore minerals objects containing gold, not extracted by monerd methods was investigated. It was established the formation of different structural surfaces of gold, revealed general patterns of sintering and concentration of sub-micron gold.

  15. Challenges facing the North American iron ore industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: This report is derived from a presentation the author presented in late September at the Iron Ore 2005 Conference sponsored by The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and held in Fremantle, Western Australia. Some slight revisions have been made for the new audience.

  16. Reduction Mechanism of Chromite Ore in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-wei; DING Wei-zhong; LU Xiong-gang; XU Kuang-di

    2004-01-01

    The structural changes and reduction degree of chromite ore in blast furnace were studied by optical micrograph analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA). The smelting reduction mechanism of chromite in blast furnace was primarily discussed.

  17. Technogenic hydrogeochemical anomalies of tungsten deposits in Kykylbey ore region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonid V.Zamana; Larisa P.Chechel

    2004-01-01

    Peculiarities of the tungsten deposits drainage flow chemical composition formation, the development of which was ceased almost 40 years ago, have been considered. Migration peculiarities of ore components have been covered, and forms of their migration have been calculated. Inertial characteristics of the surface flow contamination are shown.

  18. When People Talk, AISD Listens! ORE Districtwide Surveys, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) conducts three surveys to contribute to more informed and better decision-making. The Questions for Teachers and Questions for Administrators surveys are both sent out annually to determine the attitudes of District staff on issues of importance districtwide. The…

  19. ORE's GENeric Evaluation SYStem: GENESYS 1988-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy; And Others

    GENESYS--GENeric Evaluation SYStem--is a method of streamlining data collection and evaluation through the use of computer technology. GENESYS has allowed the Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) of the Austin (Texas) Independent School District to evaluate a multitude of contrasting programs with limited resources. By standardizing methods and…

  20. Method and set-up for uranium ore sorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragulescu, E.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania)); Gherea, Gh. (Intreprinderea metalelor rare, Bucuresti (Romania)); Draga, Z.; Funaru, Gh. (Exploatarea miniera Oravita, Oravita (Romania))

    1981-01-01

    A method was studied for uranium ore sorting. After the discussion of the principle, some particular conditions of the sorting are pointed out. A radiometric assembly is described and some results obtained on the simulator and in industrial conditions are reported.

  1. Phases transformation of nickel lateritic ore during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Q.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high magnesium nickel laterite ore need first be dehydrated if it is treated by the pirometallurgical means. The nickel laterite ore was dehydrated in a laboratory scale sintering pot in this study. The dehydration mechanism was studied by using the thermo-gravimetric (TG tests, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD experiments. The measurements indicated that chlorite (Fe,Mg,Al6(Si,Al4O10(OH8 and serpentine Mg21Si12O28(OH34H2O are the primary phases, while FeO(OH and (Fe,Mg,3Si4O10(OH2 are the minor phases in the ore. The water in the ore can be divided as free water, crystal water, and hydroxyl group. During the heating process, the temperature range for the removal of the free water is 25~140˚C, for the crystal water it is 200~480 ˚C, and for the hydroxyl group it is 500~800˚C. The experiments with various coal dosages show that the temperatures of off-gas and burden increase with an increase in coal dosage. The sinter samples were analyzed using XRD. The results demonstrated that olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 and spinel MgFe2O4 are the main bonding phases.

  2. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  3. Detection of diamond in ore using pulsed laser Raman spectroscopy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lamprecht, GH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The viability of using pulsed laser excited Raman spectroscopy as a method for diamond detection from ore, has been investigated. In this method the spontaneous Stokes Raman signal is used as indicator of diamond, and a dual channel system...

  4. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  5. China Copper Processing Industry Focus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>1. Market Consumption The ’China Factor’ and Copper Price Fluctuation We all know China is an enormous consumer of copper,but the exact levels of consumption and where the copper has gone remains a mystery.

  6. Biogenic nanoparticles: copper, copper oxides, copper sulphides, complex copper nanostructures and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubilar, Olga; Rai, Mahendra; Tortella, Gonzalo; Diez, Maria Cristina; Seabra, Amedea B; Durán, Nelson

    2013-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles have been the focus of intensive study due to their potential applications in diverse fields including biomedicine, electronics, and optics. Copper-based nanostructured materials have been used in conductive films, lubrification, nanofluids, catalysis, and also as potent antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesis of metallic nanostructured nanoparticles is considered to be a green and eco-friendly technology since neither harmful chemicals nor high temperatures are involved in the process. The present review discusses the synthesis of copper nanostructured nanoparticles by bacteria, fungi, and plant extracts, showing that biogenic synthesis is an economically feasible, simple and non-polluting process. Applications for biogenic copper nanoparticles are also discussed.

  7. Analysis of Historic Copper Patinas. Influence of Inclusions on Patina Uniformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingru Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite (Cu2O and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite (Cu4SO4(OH6. The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers. The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability.

  8. Experimental Study on Mineral Processing of Low-grade Cu-Ni Ore%某低品位铜镍矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇

    2012-01-01

    A low-grade copper-nickel sulfide ore contains nickel 0.63 %,copper 0.62 %,and there are a lot of magnesium oxide minerals in the gangue minerals,including olivine,serpentine,chlorite,pyroxene,etc.According to mineral characters,the flotation test of the ore is studied.By experimenting,regulating and optimizing the technical parameter,we use the site production process and gets the qualified concentrate: nickel grade was 6.11 %,nickel recovery rate reaches 72.03 %,and copper grade was 7.06 %,copper recovery rate reaches 78.61 %.That not only improves resource utilization,but also provides a reasonable way for sustainable development of mineral enterprise.%某低品位硫化铜镍矿含镍0.63%、含铜0.62%,脉石矿物主要以橄榄石、蛇纹石、绿泥石、辉石等含镁矿物为主。根据矿石性质,对其进行了浮选试验研究,采用现场生产工艺流程,通过试验调整、优化工艺参数后得到了镍品位6.11%、回收率72.30%和铜品位7.06%,回收率78.61%的合格精矿,提高了资源利用率,为矿山可持续发展提供了合理的途径。

  9. 金宝山铂钯矿矿石选矿研究%Beneficiability Study of the Ore in Jingbaoshan Platinum-palladium Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋焕斌

    2006-01-01

    根据矿石的工艺性质,对金宝山铂钯矿石进行了大量探索性试验和条件试验,对磨矿细度、药剂制度和选矿工艺流程进行了详细研究.试验表明,铂钯的回收率为74.73%,对于这类微细粒低品位矿石,这是一个理想的结果;铜的回收率86.07%;镍的回收率为54.92%.精矿中氧化镁的含量偏高,达20.56%.%In accordance with the ore's process property, massive exploratory experiments and condition tests on the platinum-palladium ore in Jinbaoshan, detailed researches have been carried out into the grinding fineness, reagent and technological flowsheet. According to our test, the recovery ratio of platinum-palladium is 74.73%, which is an ideal result for micro-grained and low grade ores. The recovery ratio of copper is 86.07%, The recovery ratio of nickel is 54.92%. The content of MgO in the concentrate is on the high side,as high as 20.56%.

  10. Disposal and improvement of contaminated by waste extraction of copper mining in chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Lamilla, Pedro; Blanco Fernández, David; Díaz González, Marcos; Robles Castillo, Marcelo; Decinti Weiss, Alejandra; Tapia Alvarez, Carolina; Pardo Fabregat, Francisco; Vidal, Manuel Miguel Jordan; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    This project originated from the need of a mining company, which mines and processes copper ore. High purity copper is produced with an annual production of 1,113,928 tons of concentrate to a law of 32%. This mining company has generated several illegal landfills and has been forced by the government to make a management center Industrial Solid Waste (ISW). The forecast volume of waste generated is 20,000 tons / year. Chemical analysis established that the studied soil has a high copper content, caused by nature or from the spread of contaminants from mining activities. Moreover, in some sectors, soil contamination by mercury, hydrocarbons and oils and fats were detected, likely associated with the accumulation of waste. The waters are also impacted by mining industrial tasks, specifically copper ores, molybdenum, manganese, sulfates and have an acidic pH. The ISW management center dispels the pollution of soil and water and concentrating all activities in a technically suitable place. In this center the necessary guidelines for the treatment and disposal of soil contamination caused by uncontrolled landfills are given, also generating a leachate collection system and a network of fluid monitoring physicochemical water quality and soil environment. Keywords: Industrial solid waste, soil contamination, Mining waste

  11. Effects of Mineral Composition and Microstructure on Crack Resistance of Sintered Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Zi-wei; JIANG Mao-fa; XU Li-xian

    2006-01-01

    Vickers indentation test was used to study the effects of mineral composition and microstructure on crack resistance of sintered ore, and the initiation and propagation of cracks in different minerals contained in sintered ore were examined. The results indicate that the microstructure of calcium ferrites is a major factor influencing crack resistance of sintered ore. Finer grain size of calcium ferrite will lead to higher cracking threshold and better crack resistance of sintered ore. The formation of calcium ferrite with fine grain size during sintering process is favorable for crack resistance of sintered ore.

  12. Fundamentals of fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhao; Peimin Guo

    2008-01-01

    Fundamentals on the fast reduction of ultrafine iron ore at low temperature, including characterization of ultrafine ore, de- oxidation thermodynamics of stored-energy ultrafine ore, kinetics of iron ore deoxidation, and deoxidation mechanism, etc., and a new ironmaking process are presented in this article. Ultrafine ore concentrate with a high amount of stored energy can be produced by mechanical milling, and can be dcoxidated fast below 700℃ by either the coal-based or gas-based process. This novel process has some advantages over others: high productivity, low energy consumption, and environmental friendliness.

  13. Explosion-assisted preparation of dispersed gold-bearing different-grade ore for selective mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubachev, AI; Zykov, NV

    2017-02-01

    It is found that there are transient zones (between quality and off-quality ore areas) with the respective content of useful component in an ore body, and a variant of explosive treatment of such zones before the selective mining is put forward. Practicability of two processing technologies is evaluated: processing of high-grade and low-grade ore from the transient zones and heap leaching of metals from the low-grade and impoverished ore. Open mining technology is conventional truck-and-shovel scheme, with distributed ore flows to processing plant and (or) to heap leaching, which generally enhances the mine efficiency.

  14. 青海某镍多金属矿选矿试验研究%Mineral processing of nicke polymetallic ore of Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志凯

    2015-01-01

    Studied at the nickel polymetallic ore of Qinghai,it contains 0.80% nickel,0.2% copper and 0.025%cobalt,that is a typical primary sulfide ore.The main copper mineral is chalcopyrite,pentlandite is the dominant nickel mineral,cobalt exist in pentlandite as isomorphism.The main gangue mineral is tremolite,talc and pyroxene.Process of tacle-copper nickel iso-flotation and nickel flotation was adopted. According to the closed circuit tests,copper concentration contains 25.15% copper,1.23% nickel at a 62.14% copper recover,meantime,nickel concentration contains 0.4% copper,0.24% cobalt and,7.95%nickel at a 80.67% nickel recovery and 75.76%cobalt recovery.%本文针对青海省某铜镍钴多金属矿进行选矿实验研究,该矿为原生硫化矿,原矿中的镍、铜、钴的含量分别为0.80%、0.20%、0.025%,铜矿物主要为黄铜矿,镍矿物主要为镍黄铁矿,钴以类质同象形式赋存在镍黄铁矿中,非金属矿物主要为透闪石、滑石、辉石。采用以铜为主的滑石-铜镍等可浮-尾矿强化回收镍工艺流程,闭路试验指标,铜精矿含铜25.15%,含镍1.23%,铜回收率62.14%;镍精矿含镍7.95%,含铜0.40%,含钴0.24%,镍回收率80.67%,钴回收率75.76%。

  15. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  16. Leaching of a Cu-Co ore from Congo using sulphuric acidhydrogen peroxide leachants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cu-Co ore from Katinga Province, the Republic of Congo containing 1.5% Co and 1.6% Cu was tested to determine the leachability of Cu and Co using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide mixtures at different conditions. Without hydrogen peroxide, the maximum extraction of copper and cobalt were found to be ~80% and ~15%, respectively when the acid concentration was varied between 0.36 - 1.1M. When hydrogen peroxide was added (0.008-0.042M, Cu recovery was enhanced to ~90%. Recoveries of ~90% of Co could be achieved at 20ºC, using leachants consisting of 0.36M sulphuric acid and 0.025M hydrogen peroxide after 3 hours. The reaction time to reach 90% Co extraction was reduced to less than 2 hours at 30ºC. Stabcal modelling of the Eh-pH diagrams shows the importance of hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. The decrease of solution potential (300-350 mV by adding hydrogen peroxide was confirmed by Eh measurements during the tests. The leaching follows the shrinking core model kinetics, where the rate constant is linearly dependent on hydrogen peroxide concentration in the range 0-0.025M and proportional to (1/r2 where r is the average radius of the mineral particles. The activation energy for the leaching process is 72.3 kJ/mol.

  17. Probing the whole ore chalcopyrite-bacteria interactions and jarosite biosynthesis by Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamou, Anastasia; Manos, Giorgos; Messios, Nicholas; Georgiou, Lazaros; Xydas, Constantinos; Varotsis, Constantinos

    2016-08-01

    The whole ore chalcopyrite-bacteria interaction and the formation of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during the bioleaching process by microorganisms found in the mine of Hellenic Copper Mines in Cyprus were investigated. Raman and FTIR microspectroscopies have been applied towards establishing a direct method for monitoring the formation of secondary minerals and the newly found vibrational marker bands were used to monitor the time evolution of the formation of covellite, and the K(+) and NH4(+)-jarosites from the chalcopyrite surfaces. The Raman data indicate that the formation of K(+)-jarosite is followed by the formation of NH4(+)-jarosite. The variation in color in the FTIR imaging data and the observation of the amide I vibration at 1637cm(-1) indicate that the microorganisms are attached on the mineral surface and the changes in the frequency/intensity of the biofilm marker bands in the 900-1140cm(-1) frequency range with time demonstrate the existence of biofilm conformations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A new strain Acidithiobacillus albertensis BY-05 for bioleaching of metal sulfides ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jin-lan; PENG An-an; HE Huan; YANG Yu; LIU Xue-duan; QIU Guan-zhou

    2007-01-01

    An acidophilic, rod-shaped Gram-negative sulfur oxidizing strain BY-05 was isolated from an acid mine drainage of copper ore in Baiyin area, Gansu Province, China. Ultrastructural studies show that the isolate has a tuft of polar flagella and possesses sulfur granules with clear membrane adhering to the cell innermembrane. Physiological study shows that this isolate grows autotrophically and aerobically by oxidizing S0 and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (S2O2-3,S2O2-4,S2- and ZnS) with the optimum growth at pH 3.5-4.0 and at the temperature range of 25-30 ℃. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (DQ 423683) of strain BY-05 has 100% sequence similarity to that of Acidithiobacillus albertensis (DSM 14366). So it is identified and named as A. albertensis BY-05. Bioleaching experiments with this new strain show that it can play an important role in recovery of metals from chalcopyrite and sphalerite.

  19. Sulfur, Lead, Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Composition and Source of Ore-forming Materials of the Bangpu Pb-Zn Ore Deposit in Tibet%西藏邦铺铅锌矿床S、Pb、C、O同位素组成及成矿物质来源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立强; 罗茂澄; 袁志洁; 陈伟; 冷秋锋; 张学全

    2012-01-01

    The Bangpu Pb-Zn deposit, formed in the periphery of the porphyry mineralization body of the ore district, is a skarn deposit with relatively rich ore grade, and the ore-forming elements are dominated by lead and zinc, without copper basically. Main metal sulfides were objects of this study, and S and Pb isotopic methods were used to investigate the source of the ore-forming minerals. The results show that the δ34S values of the ore metal sulfides have a wide distribution, and mainly vary in the range of -3.7‰-0.7‰, with the characteristics of tower distribution, and that these sulfur materials were mainly derived from the magma. Lead isotopes of the ore have stable composition and are positive common lead. The high μ values (larger than 9.58) of ore lead and the distribution characteristics of the data points in the evolution diagram of tectonic environment indicate that the ore lead was mainly derived from the upper crust. A comparison between this deposit and the nearby Zhibula and Jiama deposits shows that sulfur of these three deposits was exclusively derived from magma, and their metal materials show a certain regular pattern in source space, i.e., the contamination of crustal source material increased from south to north in the Qulong-Jiama-Bangpu ore district. Carbon and Oxygen isotope compositions of marble and calcite show that carbon in ore-forming fluid was mainly derived from the magma whereas the carbonate formation provided parts of other ore-forming materials.%邦铺铅锌矿床系邦铺钼铜矿区斑岩矿化体外围形成的矽卡岩型铅锌矿床;矿石品位较富,成矿元素以铅锌为主,基本不含铜.文章以矿床中主要金属硫化物为研究对象,采用S、Pb同位素研究方法对矿床成矿物质来源进行探讨.结果表明,矿石金属硫化物δ34S值分布范围较宽,但主要集中于-3.7‰~-0.7‰之问,具塔式分布特征,硫主要来源于岩浆;矿石铅同位素组成稳定,

  20. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  1. Development of Technology for Enrichment of Silver Containing Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekiladze, Asmati; Kavtelashvili, Otari; Bagnashvili, Mamuka

    2016-10-01

    The progress of Georgian economics is substantially associated with a development of new deposits of mineral resources. Among them is the David-Gareji deposit where at present the intensive searching geological works are performed. The work goal involves the elaboration of the technology for processing of silver-containing quartz-barite ores. Without its development the mining of more valuable gold-polymetallic ores is impossible. Because of ore complexity silver and barite are considered in a common technological aspect. The investigations were carried out on the representative samples of quartz-barite ores containing 78-88 g/ton of silver and 27-29 % of silver is a nugget in the form of the simple sulphides and chlorides. The ore is characterized by fine coalescence of barite and ore-generating minerals. Non-ferrous metals haven't any industrial value because of their very low content. Therefore, for the processing of the ores under study the direct selective scheme of flotation enrichment was chosen and the formula of optimal reagent regime was elaborated. Potassium xanthogenate is used as a collector for flotation of silver minerals and pine oil- as a foaming agent. The effect of the pulp - pH and medium temperature on silver flotation was studied. It was established that the silver is actively floats in neutral medium. For barite flotation the various collectors were tested: sulfidezid cotton oil-soap stock, soaps of fatty acids and alkyl sulphates of C12 - C16 row, among the “Baritol” is the most efficient one. Depression of the barren rock was carried out by liquid glass in alkaline medium. The effect of pulp pH on barite flotation has been investigated. The best results were obtained at pH=8.5. The increase of the pulp alkalinity has no essential effect on the indexes of the barite enrichment. Conditional concentrate of the barite is obtained by two fold purification of the main flotation concentrate by the addition of the liquid glass to the re

  2. 复杂钼铜铁多金属矿的综合利用研究%Comprehensive Utilization of Mo-Cu-Fe Polymetallic Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严海军; 向宇; 宋永胜

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogical examination was studied on the Mo-Cu-Fe polymetallic ore. The main mineral in this ore is molybdenum mineral, accompanying with copper and iron minerals. According to the ore property, the molybdenum minerals and copper minerals were recovered with bulk flotation, and then the bulk concentrate was separated. The combined kerosene-diesel oil reagents is used to improve molybdenum recovery and effective collector BK802 was used to improve copper recovery in the bulk floatation. Only kerosene is used in the copper-molybdenum separation step. The effects of depressants BK310 and BK311 were compared, then BK310 was chosen. The iron minerals were selected with magnetic separation method from the bulk flotation tailing and the optimal magnetic field is between 0.12 ~0.16 T. The results obtained a copper concentrate with the copper grade of 15.16% and recovery of 80.54% respectively under the copper grade of raw ore on 0.082% , a molybdenum concentrate with the molybdenum grade of 50.87% and recovery of 85.94% respectively using new depressant BK310 with three cleaning, Magnetic separation tests obtained an iron concentrate containing 69.47% Fe and the recovery of Fe was 41. 89% after one regrinding stage for its good liberation.%对某钼铜铁多金属矿矿石进行了工艺矿物学研究,该矿石是以钼为主、并生铜铁的多金属矿.根据矿石的性质,采用钼铜混合浮选混合精矿再分离-尾矿磁选选铁的工艺流程.铜钼混合浮选时,采用煤油、柴油混合捕收剂,有利于提高钼回收率,采用选铜特效捕收剂BK802,有利于提高铜的回收率.铜钼混合精矿分离时,采用煤油作为捕收剂,最终选择BK310进行铜钼分离.对铜钼混选尾矿进行了选铁实验,最适宜的磁场强度为0.12~0.16 T之间.研究结果表明:在原矿铜品位0.082%的情况下,可以得到含铜品位15.16%、铜回收率80.54%的铜精矿;采用新型抑制剂BIC310,一次分离三次

  3. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  4. Coping with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure......, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils....

  5. China's emergence as the world's leading iron-ore-consuming country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, W.S.

    2004-01-01

    China has become the leading iron ore consuming nation, and, based on recent steel production capacity increases and plans for more, its consumption will almost certainly to continue to grow. China's iron ore industry, however, faces a number of problems. China's iron ore is low-grade, expensive to process, and its mines are being depleted. For many Chinese steelmakers, particularly in the coastal regions, the delivered cost of domestic iron ore, is more than the delivered cost of foreign ore. Thus China's iron ore imports are expected to increase. As China's growth continues, it will almost certainly surpass Japan to become the leading iron ore importing country as well. Without China's increasing appetite for iron ore, the world iron ore market would be flat or declining. China's recent imports largely offset the slump in demand in North America and Europe. China is regarded by the iron ore industry as the growth sector for the next decade. Although Chinese imports are expected to continue their rapid increase and imports in other Asian countries are expected to continue growing, there appears to be enough greenfield and expansion projects to meet future demand for iron ore worldwide. Present suppliers of iron ore, Australia, Brazil, India, and South Africa, will probably be the chief beneficiaries of China's increasing consumption of iron ore. How long China can continue its extraordinary growth is the primary issue for the future of the iron ore industry. Based on the number and size of planned blast furnaces it appears that China's growth could continue for several more years. ?? 2004 Taylor and Francis.

  6. 斑岩铜矿床研究进展%Review of Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云国; 周朝宪

    2011-01-01

    斑岩铜矿不但形成于环太平洋成矿域,还形成于特提斯成矿域和中亚成矿域(古亚洲洋成矿域)。成矿物质来源于深部,经过“洋壳一地幔熔岩流”、“原始岩浆”、“浅部富矿岩浆”和“岩浆结晶一成矿”4个阶段,其中在“原始弧岩浆”阶段,通过MASH过程,有大量成矿物质和能量的聚集。成矿流体为富H2O、高温、高压、高盐度、强氧化性、高氧逸度的富矿气液相流体,这些特点有利于成矿物质在岩浆一热液分离过程中向流体富集,并以氯络合物的形式运移。随着成矿流体的上侵,温度和压力的降低是成矿物质沉淀的主要影响因素。磁铁矿的结晶为成矿流体提供了大量的S2-离子,也是导致成矿物质沉淀的主要因素。斑岩型蚀变带从里向外为石英内核、钾化带、SCC带和泥化带,铜矿化主要发育在矿化带外围以及SCC带。目前,斑岩铜矿成矿模型主要有经典模型、系统模型和多阶段叠加模型。%Porphyry copper deposit as the largest source of Cu is one of the most important deposits in the world. Porphyry Copper Deposit not only occured in Circum-Pacific ore-forming region, but also oceured in Tethys ore-forming region and Middle-Asian(Paleo-Asian Oceanic) ore-forming region. The mineralization materials de- rived from the deep. Porphyry forms through four stages: "Oceanic Crust-Mantle Lava Flow"," Original Magma", "Shallow Ore Magma"," Crystallization of Magma-Minerali- zation". In the stage of "Original Magma", much met- allogenic materials and energy gather through the process of "MASH". Ore-forming fluids are high-grade fliuds of gas-liquid phase, which are of fluid-rich, high temperature, high pressure, high salinity, strong oxidizing, high ox- ygen fugacity. The characteristics of ore-torming fluids are favorable tbr metallogenic materials to gather from mag- mas to fluids in the

  7. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕献武; 胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 邵树勋

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry, trace element geochemistry, fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by mag-matic fluid. This kind of ore-forming fluid w