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Sample records for copper lead nickel

  1. The analysis of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel content in human bones from the upper Silesian industrial district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, I; Czernicki, K; Aleksandrowicz, R

    1995-01-10

    The concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and nickel in autopsy samples of bones from adults living in the Upper Silesian industrial district (Poland)--an ecological disaster region--was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (flame and flameless GF AAS). Lead concentrations ranged from 20 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g bone wet weight, cadmium from 0.4 microgram/g to 1.5 micrograms/g bone wet weight. About one-fourth of the bones examined from Silesia, contained lead in the range from 100 micrograms/g to 200 micrograms/g. The were no significant differences in zinc, copper and nickel concentration between the control groups. The samples were mineralized in a microwave digestion system. To avoid anomalous results caused by the influence of the matrix Ca3 (PO4)2--the procedure of lead determination was carried out at a temperature of 2000 degrees C, the cadmium determination at a temperature of about 1200 degrees C.

  2. Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip

  3. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in boar semen and relation to the spermatozoa quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massányi, Peter; Trandzík, Jozef; Nad, Pavol; Koréneková, Beáta; Skalická, Magdaléna; Toman, Robert; Lukác, Norbert; Strapák, Peter; Halo, Marko; Turcan, Ján

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel as well as its relation to spermatozoa quality was investigated. The semen samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The concentration of copper in boar semen was 1.64 +/- 0.28 mg kg(-1) and of iron 16.14 +/- 10.35 mg kg(-1). The concentration of zinc in boar semen reached an average value of 171.74 +/- 64.72 mg kg(-1) and the level of cadmium reached 0.01-0.16 mg kg(-1) with the average value of 0.05 mg kg(-1). The analysis of lead showed that the concentration of this element in boar semen was 0.02 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) and the average level of nickel was 0.06 +/- 0.08 mg kg(-1). The total percentage of pathological spermatozoa was 9.82 +/- 1.47%. Detail analysis determined 3.18% of separated flagellum, 2.26% knob twisted flagellum, 0.88% flagellum torso, 0.85% flagellum ball, 0.42% broken flagellum, 0.23% retention of the cytoplasmic drop, 0.14% small heads, 0.03% large heads, and 1.83% forms other of pathological changes. Correlation analysis showed significant (p spermatozoa (r = 0.73) was determined.

  4. Dissolved Copper, Nickel and Lead in Tampamachoco Lagoon and Tuxpan River Estuary in the SW Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño Ruiz, E P; Rosales Hoz, L; Carranza Edwards, A

    2016-10-01

    In order to estimate the effects of a thermal power plant, physicochemical parameters and the concentrations of copper, nickel and lead were evaluated in water from both Tampamachoco Lagoon and the estuary of the Tuxpan River. Average salinities were 33.66 ups in the lagoon area, 32.77 ups in the channel that joins the lagoon and the river, and 24.74 ups in the river estuary. Total average metal concentrations were 21.95 for Cu, 29.67 for Ni and 4.31 µ/L for Pb. Sampling point 1 and samples from the bottom water of the lagoon present the highest salinities and concentrations of suspended matter, TOC, Cu, Ni and Pb.These high values may be associated with the infiltration of sea water either from plant operation or from the channel that connects the lagoon with the sea.

  5. Concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation to the occurrence of pathological spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massányi, P; Trandzik, J; Nad, P; Koreneková, B; Skalická, M; Toman, R; Lukac, N; Halo, M; Strapak, P

    2004-01-01

    In this study the concentration of copper, iron, zinc, cadmium, lead, and nickel in bull and ram semen and relation of these metals to spermatozoa morphology was investigated. Analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed that copper concentration was significantly higher (pzinc concentration was higher in bull semen in comparison with ram semen. The iron and cadmium concentrations in the semen were similar. Higher concentration of lead was found in ram semen. Higher levels of nickel were found in ram semen in comparison with bulls. In bull semen 11.79+/-4.88% of pathological spermatozoa was found. Higher occurrence of pathological spermatozoa was in ram semen (17.17+/-3.76) in comparison with the semen of bulls. Separated tail, tail torso, and knob twisted tail were the most frequent forms of pathological spermatozoa in both species. Correlation analysis in bulls showed high positive relation between iron and zinc (r = 0.72), nickel and separated tail (r = 0.76), separated tail and tail torso (r = 0.71), tail torso and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.72), and between tail ball and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.78). In rams high positive correlation between cadmium and lead (r=0.98), nickel and separated tail (r=0.77), separated tail and total number of pathological spermatozoa (r=0.69), knob twisted tail and retention of cytoplasmic drop (r=0.78), and between knob twisted tail and other pathological spermatozoa (r = 0.71) was found. High negative correlation in ram semen was observed between copper and nickel (r=0.71), copper and separated tail (r=0.70), and between iron and tail torso (r=0.67). The results suggest that the studied metals have a direct effect on spermatozoa quality.

  6. Determination of Pb (Lead, Cd (Cadmium, Cr (Chromium, Cu (Copper, and Ni (Nickel in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Si Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel were determined in 25 tea samples from China, including green, yellow, white, oolong, black, Pu'er, and jasmine tea products, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods used for sample preparation, digestion, and quantificational analysis were established, generating satisfactory analytical precisions (represented by relative standard deviations ranging from 0.6% to 2.5% and recoveries (98.91–101.32%. The lead contents in tea leaves were 0.48–10.57 mg/kg, and 80% of these values were below the maximum values stated by the guidelines in China. The contents of cadmium and chromium ranged from 0.01 mg/kg to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.27 mg/kg to 2.45 mg/kg, respectively, remaining in compliance with the limits stipulated by China's Ministry of Agriculture. The copper contents were 7.73–63.71 mg/kg; only 64% of these values complied with the standards stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The nickel contents ranged from 2.70 mg/kg to 13.41 mg/kg. Consequently, more attention must be paid to the risks of heavy metal contamination in tea. The quantitative method established in this work lays a foundation for preventing heavy metal toxicity in human from drinking tea and will help establish regulations to control the contents of heavy metals in tea.

  7. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  8. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  9. Preparation of Nickel-Copper Bilayers Coated on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to oxidizability of copper coating on carbon nanotubes, the interfacial bond strength between copper coating and its matrix is weak, which leads to the reduction of the macroscopic properties of copper matrix composite. The electroless coating technics was applied to prepare nickel-copper bilayers coated on single-walled carbon nanotubes. The coated single-walled carbon nanotubes were characterized through transmission electron microscope spectroscopy, field-emission electron microscope spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis. The results demonstrated that the nickel-copper bilayers coated on single-walled carbon nanotubes possessed higher purity of unoxidized copper fine-grains than copper monolayers.

  10. Oxidation Potentials in Matte Smelting of Copper and Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, Jan W.

    2014-09-01

    The oxidation potential, given as the base-ten logarithm of the oxygen partial pressure in bars and the temperature [log pO2/ T, °C], defines the state of oxidation of pyrometallurgical extraction and refining processes. This property varies from copper making, [-6/1150]; to lead/zinc smelting, [-10/1200]; to iron smelting, [-13/1600]. The current article extends the analysis to the smelting of copper and nickel/copper sulfide concentrates to produce mattes of the type Cu(Ni)FeS(O) and iron silicate slags, FeOxSiO2—with oxidation potentials of [-7.5/1250].

  11. Zirconium modified nickel-copper alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved material for use in a catalytic reactor which reduces nitrogen oxide from internal combustion engines is in the form of a zirconium-modified, precipitation-strengthened nickel-copper alloy. This material has a nominal composition of Ni-30 Cu-0.2 Zr and is characterized by improved high temperature mechanical properties.

  12. Lead-nickel electrochemical batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The lead-acid accumulator was introduced in the middle of the 19th Century, the diverse variants of nickel accumulators between the beginning and the end of the 20th Century. Although old, these technologies are always very present on numerous markets. Unfortunately they are still not used in optimal conditions, often because of the misunderstanding of the internal electrochemical phenomena.This book will show that batteries are complex systems, made commercially available thanks to considerable amounts of scientific research, empiricism and practical knowledge. However, the design of

  13. Effect of trace elements on the interface reactions between two lead-free solders and copper or nickel substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Sn-Pb solder alloys are being replaced, because of environmental and health concerns about lead toxicity. Among some alternative alloy systems, the Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base alloy systems have been studied and reveal promising properties. The reliability of a solder joint is affected by the solder/substrate interaction and the nature of the layers formed at the interface. The solder/substrate reactions, for Sn-Zn and Sn-Cu base solder alloys, were evaluated in what concerns the morphology and chemical composition of the interface layers. The effect of the addition of P, at low levels, on the chemical composition of the layers present at the interface was studied. The phases formed at the interface between the Cu or Ni substrate and a molten lead-free solder at 250ºC, were studied for different stage times and alloy compositions. The melting temperatures, of the studied alloys, were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Identification of equilibrium phases formed at the interface layer, and the evaluation of their chemical composition were performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS. Different interface characteristics were obtained, namely for the alloys containing Zn. The obtained IML layer thickness was compared, for both types of alloy systems.

  14. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  15. Affirmation of the Method that Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, Zinc, Cobalt and Nickel in Copper, Lead and Zinc Ores by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素方法确认

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊英; 王晓雁; 胡建平

    2011-01-01

    文章在修订GB/T 14353-1993研究工作中,建立了电感耦合等离子体发射光谱同时测定铜铅锌矿石中铜铅锌钴镍等元素的标准分析方法.通过控制试样量和制备试样溶液的体积,可实现主量元素铜、铅、锌与次量元素钴、镍的同时测定.测定范围为铜0.002%~8.5%,铅0.01%~5%,锌0.005%~3%,钴0.001 5%~0.5%,镍0.003%~0.5%.按照相关国家标准对测量方法与结果的准确度进行8个实验室协同参加的准确度试验,统计参数结果表明在限定水平范围内方法偏倚不显著;利用方法重复性限参数,计算可能产生的最大相对偏差.分析方法精密度满足的要求.%A standard analysis method for simultaneous detecting copper, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel and other elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was developed when improving GB/T 14353-1993 , the method for chemical analysis of copper ore, lead ore and zinc ore. The major elements such as copper, lead, zinc and the minor elements of cobalt and nickel can be simultaneous detected by adjusting the test portion amounts and reagent solution volumes. The determination ranges of copper, lead, zinc, cobalt and nickel are respectively 0.002% -8.5% , 0. 01% - 5% , 0. 005% - 3% , 0. 001 5% - 0. 5% and 0. 003% - 0. 5%. According to relevant national standards, this method was tested by eight cooperation laboratories. Statistical results indicated that the method is impartial within a definitive range. The repeatability limit parameter was used to calculate the possible maximum deviations. The precision of the method satisfied the requirement of "The specification of testing quality management for geological laboratoris".

  16. 微波消解-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定土壤中的铅、镍、铜%Determination of lead, nickel and copper in soil by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车晓曼; 张金辉; 李萍

    2012-01-01

    应用微波消解和火焰原子吸收光谱法测定土壤中的铅、镍、铜.考察了土壤的最佳微波消解条件,样品用HNO3-HCIO4- HF混合酸经微波消解后,溶解时间由原来的3~5 h缩短到3min.以原子吸收光谱法测定土壤中铅、镍、铜.铅、镍、铜的测定波长分别为283.3、232.0、324.8 nm;检出限分别为0.000 5、0.000 4、0.000 1 μg/mL;工作曲线的线性范围为0.002~30.00 μg/mL,0.001~50.00 μg/mL,0.001~6.00 μg/mL.方法用于土壤样品的分析,铅、镍、铜的相对标准偏差分别小于0.31%、1.52%、3.29%,回收率在98.00%~102.00%.%Soil Samples were digested in an inclosed microwave system, then flame absorption spectrometry was applied to determination of lead,nickel and copper in soil samples. Selected the best soil conditions of microwave digestion, after digestion with HNO3-HCIO4-HF mixed acid by microwave, dissolution time from 3~5 h reduced to 3 min. The wavelengths of determining lead, nickel and copper were 283. 3,232. 0,324. 8 nm;respectively. The detection limits were 0. 000 5,0. 000 4 and 0. 000 1 μg/ mL respectively,and the linear ranges were 0. 002~30. 00 μg/mL,0. 001~50. 00 μg/mL,0. 001-6. 00 μg/mL,respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of lead, nickel and copper with the relative standard deviation less than 0. 31%, 1. 52%,3. 29% respectively,and the e recovery of 98. 00%~102. 00%.

  17. Dynamic corrosion of copper-nickel sulfide by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Lin-lin; JIANG Mao-fa; YANG Hong-ying; YU Juan; FAN You-jing; ZHANG Yao

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic corrosion process of bio-oxidation of copper-nickel sulfide from Karatungk in northern Xinjiang Province of China was studied. The polished wafer of the copper-nickel sulphide was used to carry on a series of oxidation corrosion experiment by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The changes of superficial corrosion appearance and the mineral dynamic corrosion process were discovered by microscope observation. Then, the galvanic cell model was established, and the bio-oxidation activation order of typical copper-nickel sulphide minerals was ascertained as pyrrhotite>pentlandite>chalocopyrite.

  18. Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangyu; Fen, Weibo; Lei, Chun; Xiao, Weilie; Sun, Handong

    2009-02-15

    A solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent was studied. Trace amounts of chromium, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead were reacted with 2-(2-quinolinil-azo)-4-methyl-1,3-dihydroxidobenzene (QAMDHB) followed by adsorption onto MCI GEL CHP 20Y solid phase extraction column, and 1.0molL(-1) HNO(3) was used as eluent. The metal ions in 300mL solution can be concentrated to 1.0mL, representing an enrichment factor of 300 was achieved. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.0 with 1.0g of resin were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1.4ngL(-1) for Cr(III), 1.0ngL(-1) for Ni(II), 0.85ngL(-1) for Ag(I), 1.2ngL(-1) for Co(II), 1.0ngL(-1) for Cu(II), 1.2ngL(-1) for Cd(II) and 1.3ngL(-1) for Pb(II). The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials, and the presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in biological, water and soil samples with good results (recoveries range from 89 to 104%, and R.S.D.% lower than 3.2%. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method).

  19. Hydrogen ingress into copper-nickel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, B.G. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Materials Research Center)

    1994-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) ingress into two copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloys -- a commercial 77% Cu-15% Ni alloy (aged) and alloy K-500 (UNS N05500, aged and unaged) --- was studied using a technique referred to as hydrogen ingress analysis by potentiostatic pulsing (HIAPP). Anodic current transients obtained for these alloys in an acetate buffer (1 mol/L acetic acid + 1 mol/L sodium acetate [NaAc]) were analyzed using a diffusion-trapping model to determine trapping constants and H entry fluxes. A small increase was observed in the irreversible trapping constant for alloy K-500 with aging. Trapping constants of the aged alloys were similar within the limits of uncertainty, but H entry flux for the 77% Cu alloy was lower than that for aged or unaged alloy K-500. The lower flux may have accounted at least partly, for the Cu alloy's higher resistance to H embrittlement. Trap densities were consistent qualitatively with levels of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in the two alloys. This finding supported an assumption that S and P provided the primary irreversible traps.

  20. Copper and nickel speciation in mine effluents by combination of two independent techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Zhao, J.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    the speciation of nickel and copper in metal-mining aqueous effluents. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and competing ligand exchange (CLE) method have been applied to determine the speciation of nickel and copper. The results...

  1. Evaluation of nickel and copper catalysts in biogas reforming for hydrogen production in SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Leonardo Alves; Martins, Andre Rosa; Rangel, Maria do Carmo, E-mail: mcarmov@ufba.br [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Cinetica e Catalise; Ballarini, Adriana; Maina, Silvia [Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis Y Petroquimica Ing. Jose Miguel Parera (INCAPE), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2017-01-15

    The solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) enable the efficient generation of clean energy, fitting the current requirements of the growing demand for electricity and for the environment preservation. When powered with biogas (from digesters of municipal wastes), the SOFCs also contribute to reduce the environmental impact of these wastes. The most suitable route to produce hydrogen inside SOFC from biogas is through dry reforming but the catalyst is easily deactivated by coke, because of the high amounts of carbon in the stream. A promising way to overcome this drawback is by adding a second metal to nickel-based catalysts. Aiming to obtain active, selective and stable catalysts for biogas dry reforming, solids based on nickel (15%) and copper (5%) supported on aluminum and magnesium oxide were studied in this work. Samples were prepared by impregnating the support with nickel and copper nitrate, followed by calcination at 500, 600 and 800 deg C. It was noted that all solids were made of nickel oxide, nickel aluminate and magnesium aluminate but no copper compound was found. The specific surface areas did not changed with calcination temperature but the nickel oxide average particles size increased. The solids reducibility decreased with increasing temperature. All catalysts were active in methane dry reforming, leading to similar conversions but different selectivities to hydrogen and different activities in water gas shift reaction (WGSR). This behavior was assigned to different interactions between nickel and copper, at different calcination temperatures. All catalysts were active in WGSR, decreasing the hydrogen to carbon monoxide molar ratio and producing water. The catalyst calcined at 500 deg C was the most promising one, leading to the highest hydrogen yield, besides the advantage of being produced at the lowest calcination temperature, requiring less energy in its preparation. (author)

  2. Determination on Iron, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cobalt in Hair Dye%染发剂中铁、铜、铬、镉、铅、镍和钴等重金属含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解楠; 顾宇翔; 周泽琳

    2012-01-01

    建立了微波消解前处理,电感耦合等离子发射光谱(ICP-AES)测定染发剂中铁、铜、铬、镉、铅、镍和钴等重金属含量的方法.该方法各元素检出限均为0.05 mg/kg,线性范围0~500 ng/mL,加标回收率86.8%~108.0%,相对标准偏差为0.98%~5.54%.该方法简便、灵敏,结果稳定准确,可以用于染发剂中重金属含量的测定.%An inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with samples microwave digestion method for determination of Iron, Copper, Chromium, Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Cobalt in hair dye was established. The detection limits of all elements were 0.05 mg/kg, the linearity ranged from 0 to 500 ng/mL, and recoveries of samples were in the range of 86. 8%~108. 0%, the RSD of precision is from 0. 98% to 5.54%. It indicates that the method is simple, sensitive, stable and accurate, which can be used for the determination of heavy metal elements in hair dye.

  3. Discovery of Chromium, Manganese, Nickel, and Copper Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Garofali, K; Thoennessen, M

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-seven chromium, twenty-five manganese, thirty-one nickel and twenty-six copper isotopes have so far been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Corrosion and biofouling resistance evaluation of 90-10 copper-nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Carol [Consultant to Copper Development Association, UK, Square Covert, Caynham, Ludlow, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    susceptibility to sulphide pitting in subsequent exposure to polluted water. Corrosion resistance is maintained at higher flow rates than for steel and most copper alloys due to the resilience of this surface film. However, above a certain breakaway velocity, dependent on component geometry with respect to hydrodynamics of flow, the film can become damaged leading to impingement attack. In piping systems this is well understood and controlled by design. For flatter surfaces such as on marine structures and boat hulls upper flow limits are higher and still to be defined. Copper-nickel is found to have a good resistance to crevice corrosion and is not susceptible to chloride or sulphide or ammonia stress corrosion cracking in sea water. (authors)

  5. Dissolution of Nickel in Copper Residue Generated from Nickel Matte Refining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The dissolution behavior of nickel during the oxygen-chloride leaching of the copper residue was investigated.Technological variables of the leaching,including oxygen flow rate,concentrations of chloride and sulfuric acid,and temperature,were discussed.

  6. Determination of lead, cadmium, copper, and nickel in the tonghui river of beijing, china, by cloud point extraction-high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ting; Zhao, Li-Jiao; Sun, Bo-Si; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2013-11-01

    Heavy metal contamination of water has become an important problem in recent years. Most hazardous heavy metals exist in environmental water in trace or ultra-trace amounts, which requires establishing highly sensitive analytical methods. In this research, quantitative analyses were performed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry combined with cloud point extraction (CPE) to determine Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni levels in environmental surface water. By optimizing the CPE conditions, the enrichment factors were 29 for Pb, Cd, and Cu and 25 for Ni. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.080, 0.010, 0.035, and 0.014 μg L for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The sensitivity of the method is comparable with those reported in previous investigations using various methods and improves outcome by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude compared with the LODs of the current national standard methods of China. Our method was used to determine Pb, Cd, Cu, and Ni in 55 water samples collected from the Tonghui River, which is the principal river in the urban area of Beijing, China. The results indicated that the distributions of the four heavy metals in the Tonghui River were related with the environments. The levels of Pb and Ni exhibit increasing trends along the river from upstream to downstream possibly due to the existence of some chemical factories in the downstream area. Lead, Cd, Cu, and Ni averaged 13.9, 0.8, 46.8, and 38.5%, respectively, of the total amount of the determined heavy metals. The levels of the four heavy metals conformed to the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (Grade I) of China. This work provides a reliable quantitative method to determine trace-amount heavy metals in water, which lays a foundation for establishing standards and regulations for environmental water protection.

  7. Interference of Nickel with Copper and Iron Homeostasis Contributes to Metal Toxicity Symptoms in the Nickel Hyperaccumulator Plant Alyssum inflatum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rasoul Ghasemi; S. Majid Ghaderian; Ute Krämer

    2009-01-01

    .... To better understand the role of interactions between transition metals in the development of metal toxicity symptoms in plants, the effects of exposure to excess nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) and iron (Fe...

  8. Separation of nickel, cobalt and copper by solvent extraction with P204

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Nickel, cobalt and copper were separated by solvent extraction with P204. The experimental results show that [Co(NH3)6]3+ is an inert complex in extraction kinetics, therefore cobalt can be separated from nickel and copper by non-equilibrium solvent extraction. Under the conditions of temperature 25℃, contact time of two phases 10 min, phase ratio 1:1, aqueous pH 10.10 and concentration of P204 20 %, [ Co(NH3 )6 3+ is hardly extracted by P204, while the percentage extractions of nickel and copper are 79.3 % and 93.9 % respectively. Nickel and copper are separated by equi librium solvent extraction with P204. Under the conditions of temperature 25 ℃, contact time of two phases 1 min, phase ratio 1:1, equilibrium pH 4.01 and concentration of P204 20%, the separation factor of copper and nickel is 216.

  9. Nickel and Copper Toxicity to Embryos of the Long-Spined Sea Urchin, Diadema savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G; Rivera-Duarte, I; Colvin, M A; Dolecal, R E; Raymundo, L J; Earley, P J

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of long-spined sea urchins (Diadema savignyi) collected from Guam (Northern Marianas Islands), USA, to nickel and copper in seawater was explored using 48-h embryo-larval development toxicity tests. The median effective concentrations (EC50) averaged 94 µg L(-1) for nickel, and 19 µg L(-1) from a single exposure to copper, and suggest relatively high sensitivity of this species to nickel compared with other sea urchin genera, but similar sensitivity to copper. Ambient nickel and copper concentrations concurrently sampled from 16 near-shore locations around Guam were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those that would be expected to result in adverse effects to D. savignyi embryos. Although nationally recommended chronic ambient water quality criteria, currently 8.2 and 3.1 µg L(-1) for nickel and copper, respectively, were not exceeded, recently derived qualifying toxicity data should be considered for updating these criteria to ensure protectiveness of sensitive tropical species.

  10. Defect structure in proton-irradiated copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Schilling, W.; Dworschak, F.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-12-01

    This single crystals of copper or nickel with a thickness of about 10 ..mu..m are irradiated with 3 MeV protons at room temperature and the structures of resultant defects are investigated based on measurements of the effects of irradiation on the electrical resistivity, length, lattice constants, x-ray diffraction line profile and electron microscopic observations. The measurements show that the electrical resistivity increases with irradiation dose, while leveling off at high dose due to overlapping of irradiation cascades. The lattice constants decreases, indicating that many vacancies still remain while most of the interstitial stoms are eliminated, absorbed or consumed for dislocation loop formation. The x-ray line profile undergoes broadening, which is the result of dislocation loops, dislocation networks and SFT's introduced by the proton irradiation. Various defects have different effects though they cannot be identified separately from the profile alone. A satellite peak appears at a low angle, which seems to arise from periodic defect structures that are found in electron microscopic observations. In both copper and nickel, such periodic defect structures are seen over a wide range from high to low dose. Defect-free and defect-rich domains (defect walls), 0.5 to several ..mu..m in size, are alingned parallel to the /001/ plane at intervals of 60 nm. The defect walls, which consist of dislocations, dislocation loops and SFT's, is 20 - 40 nm thick. (Nogami, K.).

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Copper-Nickel Bulk Nanocrystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaoqiang; TANG Yongjian; WANG Lan; AN Xuguang; YI Zao; SUN Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Copper-nickel nanoparticle was directly prepared by flow-levitation method (FL) and sintered by vacuum sintering of powder (VSP) method. Several characterizations, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to investigate the prepared nanostructures. The results of the study show that FL method could prepare high purity Cu-Ni nanocrystals of uniform spheres with size distribution between 20 and 90 nm. After sintering the bulk nanocrystalline copper-nickel has obvious thermal stability and the surface Webster hardness increases with the rising sintering temperature. At the temperature of 900℃, the specimen shows higher surface Webster hardness, which is about two times of traditional materials. When the sintering temperature arrives at 1 000℃the relative density of bulk nanocrystals can reach 97.86 percent. In this paper, the variation tendency of porosity, phase and particles size of bulk along with the changing of sintering temperature have been studied.

  12. [Preparation of Copper and Nickel from Metallurgical Waste Products with the Use of Acidophilic Chemolithotrophic Microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, N V; Murav'ev, M I

    2015-01-01

    The study concerns the leaching of copper, nickel, and cobalt from metallurgical production slag with trivalent iron sulphates prepared in the process of oxidation of bivalent iron ions with the use of associations of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms. At the same time, copper extraction in the solution reached 91.2%, nickel reached 74.9%, and cobalt reached 90.1%. Copper was extracted by cementation, and nickel as sulphate was extracted by electrolysis. Associations of microorganisms can then completely bioregenerate the solution obtained after leaching.

  13. Elevated circulating levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P Monica; Olsén, Lena; Lind, Lars

    2012-12-01

    Identified risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are hypertension, diabetes and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain a part of the variation in left ventricular mass, we investigated if trace and heavy metals might also play a role in LVH. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were determined by echocardiography together with eleven different trace and heavy metals in 993 subjects aged 70 years. Only copper levels were significantly related to LVMI following adjustment for sex, blood pressure, antihypertensive treatment, diabetes and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.0001). However, both copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were related to RWT following adjustment (p<0.0001). When divided into four geometric groups, both Cu and Ni were elevated in subjects with concentric remodelling and concentric LVH, but not in those with eccentric hypertrophy, when compared to subjects with a normal left ventricle. No relationships were found for zinc, aluminium, manganese, molybdenum, mercury, lead, cadmium, cobalt or chromium. Elevated levels of copper and nickel are found in elderly subjects with LVH, especially of the concentric type, following adjustment for known risk factors for LVH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium Alloy Plate, Sheet, and Strip

  15. Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    Standard Specification for Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium, Low-Carbon Nickel-Molybdenum-Chromium-Tantalum, Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper, and Low-Carbon Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Tungsten Alloy Rod

  16. Preparation and electrical properties of dense micro-cermets made of nickel ferrite and metallic copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baco-Carles, Valérie; Pasquet, Isabelle; Laurent, Véronique; Gabriel, Armand; Tailhades, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    Dense micro-cermets made of nickel ferrites and copper micrometric particles were obtained from partial reduction under hydrogenated atmosphere at 350 °C of mixed copper nickel ferrites, and sintering in nitrogen at 980 °C. The small copper particles are homogeneous in size and well dispersed in the spinel oxide matrix. No exudation of copper metal was observed after sintering. The micro-cermets prepared are semi-conducting materials with electrical conductivity lying from 44 to 130 S/cm at 980 °C. Their overall characteristics make them interesting for inert anodes dedicated to aluminium electrolysis in melted cryolite.

  17. Copper, Aluminum and Nickel: A New Monocrystalline Orthodontic Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Mark

    Introduction: This study was designed to evaluate, via tensile and bend testing, the mechanical properties of a newly-developed monocrystalline orthodontic archwire comprised of a blend of copper, aluminum, and nickel (CuAlNi). Methods: The sample was comprised of three shape memory alloys; CuAlNi, copper nickel titanium (CuNiTi), and nickel titanium (NiTi); from various orthodontic manufacturers in both 0.018" round and 0.019" x 0.025" rectangular dimensions. Additional data was gathered for similarly sized stainless steel and beta-titanium archwires as a point of reference for drawing conclusions about the relative properties of the archwires. Measurements of loading and unloading forces were recorded in both tension and deflection testing. Repeated-measure ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare loading and unloading forces across wires and one-way ANOVA (alpha= 0.05) was used to compare elastic moduli and hysteresis. To identify significant differences, Tukey post-hoc comparisons were performed. Results: The modulus of elasticity, deflection forces, and hysteresis profiles of CuAlNi were significantly different than the other superelastic wires tested. In all tests, CuAlNi had a statistically significant lower modulus of elasticity compared to the CuNiTi and NiTi wires (P <0.0001). The CuAlNi wire exhibited significantly lower loading and unloading forces than any other wire tested. In round wire tensile tests, loading force at all deflections was significantly lower for CuAlNi than CuNiTi or NiTi (P <0.0001). In tensile testing, the CuAlNi alloy was able to recover from a 7 mm extension (10% elongation) without permanent deformation and with little to no loss in force output. In large-deflection bend tests at 4, 5, and 6 mm deflection, CuAlNi showed the significantly lowest loading forces across the three wire materials (P <0.0001). The NiTi wires showed up to 12 times the amount of energy loss due to hysteresis compared to CuAlNi. CuAlNi showed a hysteresis

  18. Kinetic speciation and bioavailability of copper and nickel in mangrove sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Ramteke, D.; Chennuri, K.

    An attempt was made to establish a mechanistic linkage between chemical speciation of copper and nickel, and their bioavailability in mangrove ecosystem. Kinetic speciation study was performed to determine the concentrations of labile metal...

  19. Health status within the precincts of a nickel-copper mining and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health status within the precincts of a nickel-copper mining and smelting environment. ... Objective: This paper elucidates on the human health status of residents ... frequent headaches, loss of body weight, regular constipation, diarrhoea, ...

  20. High performance transparent conductor of graphene wrapped copper/nickel microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Tassi, Nancy G.; Walls, Dennis J.; Zhang, Lei; Willner, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    A high performance, highly stable transparent conducting structure based on microscale copper/nickel grids wrapped with graphene is presented. Graphene is selectively deposited on the surfaces of the microgrids by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition method. The optical transmittance of the copper/nickel microgrid sample is ˜80% over the visible and near-infrared spectra with a very small sheet resistance of ˜0.58 Ω/sq. After the high temperature deposition of graphene, the sample's transmittance increases to be ˜90% due to the line width reduction of the microgrids while the sheet resistance also increases to ˜5 Ω/sq. The graphene layer is deposited to keep the copper/nickel surfaces from being oxidized in the air. Both stability testing and composition spectra results confirm the long-term stability of the copper/nickel microgrids wrapped with graphene.

  1. Impact Properties of Copper-Alloyed and Nickel-Copper Alloyed ADI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Uma; Ray, Subrata; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2007-08-01

    The influence of austenitization and austempering parameters on the impact properties of copper-alloyed and nickel-copper-alloyed austempered ductile irons (ADIs) has been studied. The austenitization temperature of 850 and 900 °C have been used in the present study for which austempering time periods of 120 and 60 min were optimized in an earlier work. The austempering process was carried out for 60 min for three austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C to study the effect of austempering temperature. The influence of the austempering time on impact properties has been studied for austempering temperature of 330 °C for time periods of 30-150 min. The variation in impact strength with the austenitization and austempering parameters has been correlated to the morphology, size and amount of austenite and bainitic ferrite in the austempered structure. The fracture surface of ADI failed under impact has been studied using SEM.

  2. Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Contents of Some Medicinal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, S. A.; Abu Shawish, K.Y.I.

    2016-01-01

    Thirty nine brands of pharmaceutical dosage forms (28 tablets, 4 syrups, 6 suspensions and one chewing gum) that are available in United Arab Emirates pharmaceutical markets were investigated for the presence of three heavy metals; lead, cadmium and nickel. Amongst the samples, 13 products were manufactured locally in United Arab Emirates and 26 products were imported from around the world. The samples were prepared by acid digestion procedure and the resultant solutions were analyzed for heavy metals by using a validated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric method. Calibration curves were achieved using different concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium ranged from 0.001 to 0.05 μg/ml. The mean recoveries of metals from the samples were 86.4 to 97%. The %relative standard deviation for the intraassay and interday precision for the metals were <5%. Amongst the 39 samples of pharmaceutical dosage form all exhibited a positive response for lead, cadmium and nickel except three products whose Ni levels were below quantification level. The products contained variable amounts of heavy metals as of 0.0017 to 11.88 μg lead; 0.0011 to 0.5559 μg cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.6428 μg nickel, respectively. Based on maximum recommended daily dose (g) of these products, maximum daily ingested mass of lead was 0.0034 to 11.88 μg/d, 0.0013 to 0.56 μg/d for cadmium and 0.0011 to 2.64 μg/d for nickel, respectively. The results were compared with those of oral permitted daily exposure levels of United State Pharmacopeial National Formulary 2013. All the products were safe to consume and contained lower level of lead, cadmium and nickel than Oral Permitted Daily Exposure levels, except three products which showed higher level of lead than oral permitted daily exposure levels. Hence the raw materials used in manufacturing of these medicinal agents might be responsible for the presence of higher level of lead. PMID:27168689

  3. Long-Term Effects of Soldering By-Products on Nickel-Coated Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of thirty-year-old, down graded flight cables was conducted to determine the makeup of a green material on the surface of the shielded wire near soldered areas and to ascertain if the green material had corroded the nickel-coated copper wire. Two likely candidates were possible due to the handling and environments to which these cables were exposed. The flux used to solder the cables is known to contain abietic acid, a carboxylic acid found in many pine rosins used for the soldering process. The resulting material copper abietate is green in color and is formed during the application of heat during soldering operations. Copper (II) chloride, which is also green in color is known to contaminate flight parts and is corrosive. Data is presented that shows the material is copper abietate, not copper (II) chloride, and more importantly that the abietate does not aggressively attack nickel-plated copper wire.

  4. Corrosion of dental copper, nickel, and gold alloys in artificial saliva and saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B I; Lemons, J E; Hao, S Q

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the tarnish and corrosion of three commercial copper alloys, three experimental copper alloys, two nickel alloys, and one high-gold alloy by exposing the specimens for four weeks to artificial saliva and saline solutions. Half of the specimens were brushed, and the solutions were changed regularly. The copper-based and the beryllium-containing nickel alloys exhibited significant surface alterations after exposure to either solution. The potential of elevated release of ions to the oral cavity and to the target organs by some of the investigated alloys should be considered if dental usage of these alloys is to be extended.

  5. Elimination of copper and nickel from wastewater by electrooxidation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeminezhad, Iraj; Mosivand, Saba

    2017-01-01

    Electrooxidation method was used to remove copper and nickel from water by iron sacrificial sheets in an electrolytic cell. The effect of various voltages, electrooxidation time, and the initial pH of water has been studied on removal efficiency. The concentration of heavy metals before and after treatment was determined by an AAS instrument. The sludge obtained after treatment has been characterized using XRD, FESEM, and VSM. Our results show that the operational parameters play an important role on removal process. AAS results confirmed that the concentration of heavy metal pollutants in the water effectively decreases by increasing the applied voltage, electrochemical reaction time, or the initial pH of water. Based on these results it is possible to highly decrease the concentration of Ni or Cu from water at pH ∼4.5 by applying ∼28 V for 60 min. The FESEM images showed the nano-size of synthesized particles during water treatment. The element maps confirmed the presence of iron, oxygen, and heavy metal pollutants in precipitate after water treatment. The XRD patterns of powder sample obtained after removal of Ni or Cu show the reflections of Fe3O4 and some small peaks which are correspond to different compound of metal pollutants. VSM results showed that the sludge samples are magnetically soft and their specific magnetization depends on removal conditions. The magnetic property of the sludge samples helps to separate them easily from water using magnetic field.

  6. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  7. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals.

  8. 标准加入原子吸收法连续测定光亮镀镍液中铜、锌、铬、铅、铁杂质的含量%Continuous determination of copper, zinc, chromium, lead,and iron impurities in bright nickel plating baths by standard atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀香; 王旭珍; 于丽; 张曰秋

    2001-01-01

    在相同的光亮镀镍液中分别加入浓度依次递增的铜、锌、铁、铬、铜的标准溶液。用原子吸收光谱法连续测定镀液中铜、锌、铁、铬、铅杂质的含量,优选出最佳的仪器工作条件,讨论了共存元素的干扰及消除。该方法简单,准确度和精密度高,具有使用价值。%Increasing amount of copper, zinc, iron, chromium and leadstandard solutions were separately added in the same nickel plating baths, subsequently, copper, zinc, iron, chromium and lead impurities were continuously determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Operating parameters of the analytical apparatus were optimized. Interference of coexisting elements was discussed. This method is simple, accurate, and has good application value.

  9. Effects of UV-ozone irradiation on copper doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongmo; Lee, Hee Ryung; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Lin, Tengda; Kanwat, Anil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form better morphology with highly arranged crystallinity. Compared to the cells using non-irradiated copper doped nickel acetate, UVO-irradiated copper-doped nickel acetate devices showed an enhanced open-circuit voltage (3% increase), short circuit current (16% increase), fill factor (5% increase), showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 12.2% (21% increase).The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form

  10. Geochemical prospecting for copper and nickel in the Wulgai and Tor Tangi areas southeast of Hindubagh, Quetta Division, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanin, S. Anthony; Wahid, M.A.; Khan, Shamsher

    1975-01-01

    Showings of magnetite, copper, and possible nickel mineralization in the Hindubagh chromite mining district are near Wulgai and Tor Tangi. Several hundred samples of clastic material from dry streambeds in these areas were sieved for the minus-80-mesh fraction and analyzed for copper using 2, 2'-biquinoline and for nickel using alpha-furildioxime. The copper threshold is 75 ppm, and the nickel threshold is 400 ppm. A geochemical map has been prepared that shows nine areas of anomalously high copper and six areas of high nickel. The nickel anomalies may represent secondary dispersion patterns derived from the erosion of nickeliferous ultramafic rocks of the Hindubagh intrusive complex. Copper showings in and near four of the anomalous copper areas indicate that detailed geological investigation and detailed geochemical sampling of rocks, soil, and unconsolidated clastic material are required to determine the source of the anomalies.

  11. High emittance black nickel coating on copper substrate for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somasundaram, Soniya, E-mail: jrf0013@isac.gov.in; Pillai, Anju M., E-mail: anjum@isac.gov.in; Rajendra, A., E-mail: rajendra@isac.gov.in; Sharma, A.K., E-mail: aks@isac.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High emittance black nickel coating is obtained on copper substrate. • The effect of various process parameters on IR emittance is studied systematically. • Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance black nickel coating. • Coating obtained using the finalized parameters exhibited an emittance of 0.83. • SEM and EDAX are used for coating characterization. - Abstract: Black nickel, an alloy coating of zinc and nickel, is obtained on copper substrate by pulse electrodeposition from a modified Fishlock bath containing nickel sulphate, nickel ammonium sulphate, zinc sulphate and ammonium thiocyanate. A nickel undercoat of 4–5 μm thickness is obtained using Watts bath to increase the corrosion resistance and adhesion of the black nickel coating. The effect of bath composition, temperature, solution pH, current density and plating time on the coating appearance and corresponding infra-red emittance of the coating is investigated systematically. Process parameters are optimized to develop a high emittance space worthy black nickel coating to improve the heat radiation characteristics. The effect of the chemistry of the plating bath on the coating composition was studied using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) of the coatings. The 5–6 μm thick uniform jet black zinc–nickel alloy coating obtained with optimized process exhibited an emittance of 0.83 and an absorbance of 0.92. The zinc to nickel ratio of black nickel coatings showing high emittance and appealing appearance was found to be in the range 2.3–2.4.

  12. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  13. Comparison of defect cluster accumulation and pattern formation in irradiated copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the contrasting behavior of defect cluster formation in neutron-irradiated copper and nickel specimens. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the density and spatial distribution of defect clusters produced in copper and nickel as the result of fission neutron irradiation to damage levels of 0.01 to 0.25 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperature between 50 and 230{degrees}C. A comparison with published results in the literature indicates that defect cluster wall formation occurs in nickel irradiated at 0.2 to 0.4 T{sub M} in a wide variety of irradiation spectra. Defect cluster wall formation apparently only occurs in copper during low temperature irradiation with electrons and light ions. These results are discussed in terms of the thermal spike model for energetic displacement cascades.

  14. Kinetic speciation and bioavailability of copper and nickel in mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Chakraborty, Sucharita; Ramteke, Darwin; Chennuri, Kartheek

    2014-11-15

    An attempt was made to establish a mechanistic linkage between chemical speciation of copper and nickel, and their bioavailability in mangrove ecosystem. Kinetic speciation study was performed to determine the concentrations of labile metal-complexes and their dissociation rate constants in mangrove sediments. Concentrations of copper and nickel in the mangrove roots were used as indicators of their bioavailability. It was found that the bioaccumulation of both the metals gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of the labile metal complexes and their dissociation rate constants in the mangrove sediments. This study shows that concentration of labile metal (copper and nickel) complexes and their dissociation rate constants in mangrove sediment can be a good indicator of their bioavailability.

  15. Atom probe tomography characterizations of high nickel, low copper surveillance RPV welds irradiated to high fluences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Powers, K. A.; Nanstad, R. K.; Efsing, P.

    2013-06-01

    The Ringhals Units 3 and 4 reactors in Sweden are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) designed and supplied by Westinghouse Electric Company, with commercial operation in 1981 and 1983, respectively. The reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) for both reactors were fabricated with ring forgings of SA 508 class 2 steel. Surveillance blocks for both units were fabricated using the same weld wire heat, welding procedures, and base metals used for the RPVs. The primary interest in these weld metals is because they have very high nickel contents, with 1.58 and 1.66 wt.% for Unit 3 and Unit 4, respectively. The nickel content in Unit 4 is the highest reported nickel content for any Westinghouse PWR. Although both welds contain less than 0.10 wt.% copper, the weld metals have exhibited high irradiation-induced Charpy 41-J transition temperature shifts in surveillance testing. The Charpy impact 41-J shifts and corresponding fluences are 192 °C at 5.0 × 1023 n/m2 (>1 MeV) for Unit 3 and 162 °C at 6.0 × 1023 n/m2 (>1 MeV) for Unit 4. These relatively low-copper, high-nickel, radiation-sensitive welds relate to the issue of so-called late-blooming nickel-manganese-silicon phases. Atom probe tomography measurements have revealed ˜2 nm-diameter irradiation-induced precipitates containing manganese, nickel, and silicon, with phosphorus evident in some of the precipitates. However, only a relatively few number of copper atoms are contained within the precipitates. The larger increase in the transition temperature shift in the higher copper weld metal from the Ringhals R3 Unit is associated with copper-enriched regions within the manganese-nickel-silicon-enriched precipitates rather than changes in their size or number density.

  16. Copper conducting electrode with nickel as a seed layer for selective emitter crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Atteq ur; Shin, Eun Gu; Lee, Soo Hong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    In this research, we investigated selective emitter formation with a single-step photolithography process having a metallization scheme composed of nickel/copper metal stacks. The nickel seed layers were deposited by applying the electroless deposition process while copper was formed by light induced electro-plating arrangements as the main conducting electrode. The electroless deposition of nickel, along with a sintering process, was employed to create a diffusion barrier between copper and silicon. The nickel metal stack below the copper-conducting electrode also helped in lowering the sheet resistance and improving the contact adhesion. The nickel used as a seed layer was successfully demonstrated in the fabrication of a homogeneous 60 Ω/ emitter and selective emitter cells. Lower series resistances of 0.165 Ω and 0.253 Ω were achieved for the selective emitter and the homogeneous emitter cells, respectively. The best cell efficiency of 18.37% for the selective emitter solar cell was achieved, with average cell efficiencies of 18.17% and 17.3% for the selective emitter and the homogeneous emitter cells, respectively. An approximate efficiency increase of about 0.8% was recorded for the selective emitter solar cells.

  17. Development of technique for air coating and nickel and copper metalization of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar cells were made with a variety of base metal screen printing inks applied over silicon nitride AR coating and copper electroplated. Fritted and fritless nickel and fritless tin base printing inks were evaluated. Conversion efficiencies as high as 9% were observed with fritted nickel ink contacts, however, curve shapes were generally poor, reflecting high series resistance. Problems encountered in addition to high series reistance included loss of adhesion of the nickel contacts during plating and poor adhesion, oxidation and inferior curve shapes with the tin base contacts.

  18. Best Practices for Controlling Lead and Copper Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation draft, covering summary of current state-of-the-art knowledge for the best treatment strategies for minimizing lead release and controlling copper release. The presentation is intended to aid with compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule, but also provide a guide to...

  19. Development of Lead-Free Copper Alloy-Graphite Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, P.K. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (US)

    1999-10-01

    In this project, graphite is used as a substitute for lead in order to maintain the machinability of plumbing components at the level of leaded brass. Graphite dispersed in Cu alloy was observed to impart good machinability and reduce the sizes of chips during machining of plumbing components in a manner similar to lead. Copper alloys containing dispersed graphite particles could be successfully cast in several plumbing fixtures which exhibited acceptable corrosion rate, solderability, platability, and pressure tightness. The power consumption for machining of composites was also lower than that of the matrix alloy. In addition, centrifugally cast copper alloy cylinders containing graphite particles were successfully made. These cylinders can therefore be used for bearing applications, as substitutes for lead-containing copper alloys. The results indicate that copper graphite alloys developed under this DOE project have a great potential to substitute for lead copper alloys in both plumbing and bearing applications.

  20. Hydrology and water quality of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald I.; Ericson, Donald W.

    1980-01-01

    Data were collected on the hydrology of the Copper-Nickel study region to identify the location and nature of groundwater resources, determine the flow characteristics and general quality of the major streams, and determine the potential effects of mining copper and nickel on the hydrologic stream. Groundwater generally occurs in local flow systems within surficial deposits and in fractures in the upper few hundred feet of bedrock. Yields commonly range from 1 to 5 gallons per minute from wells in surficial materials and bedrock, but can be as much as 1,000 gallons per minute from wells in the sand and gravel aquifer underlying the Embarrass River valley. Groundwater generally is calcium-magnesium bicarbonate types. Over a mineralized zone, groundwater has concentrations of copper and nickel greater than 5 micrograms per liter. The average annual runoff from streams in the study area is about 10 inches. About 60% of the annual runoff occurs during snowmelt in spring. Flood peaks are reduced in streams that have surface storage available in on-channel lakes and wetlands. Specific conductance in streams can exceed 250 micromhos per centimeter at 25 Celsius where mine dewatering supplements natural discharge. Estimated groundwater discharge to projected copper-nickel mines ranges from less than 25 to about 2,000 gallons per minute. The introduction of trace metals from future mining activities to the groundwater system can be reduced if tailings basins and stockpiles are located on material which has low permeability, such as till, peat, or bedrock. (USGS)

  1. Partial oxidation of methane over bimetallic copper- and nickel-actinide oxides (Th, U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana C.; Goncalves, A.P.; Gasche, T. Almeida [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Unidade de Ciencias Quimicas e Radiofarmaceuticas, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Ferraria, A.M.; Rego, A.M. Botelho do [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IST, Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular and IN, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, M.R.; Bola, A. Margarida [I3N-Universidade de Aveiro, Department Fisica, Aveiro (Portugal); Branco, J.B., E-mail: jbranco@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Unidade de Ciencias Quimicas e Radiofarmaceuticas, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2010-05-14

    The study of partial oxidation of methane (POM) over bimetallic nickel- or copper-actinide oxides was undertaken. Binary intermetallic compounds of the type AnNi{sub 2} (An = Th, U) and ThCu{sub 2} were used as precursors and the products (2NiO.UO{sub 3}, 2NiO.ThO{sub 2} and 2CuO.ThO{sub 2}) characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and temperature-programmed reduction. The catalysts were active and selective for the conversion of methane to H{sub 2} and CO and stable for a period of time of {approx}18 h on stream. The nickel catalysts were more active and selective than the copper catalyst and, under the same conditions, show a catalytic behaviour comparable to that of a platinum commercial catalyst, 5 wt% Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalytic activity increases when uranium replaces thorium and the selectivity of this type of materials is clearly different from that of single metal oxides and/or mechanical mixtures. The good catalytic behaviour of the bimetallic copper- and nickel-actinide oxides was attributed to an unusual interaction between copper or nickel oxide and the actinide oxide phase as showed by H{sub 2}-TPR, XPS and Raman analysis of the catalysts before and after reaction.

  2. Thick tellurium electrodeposition on nickel-coated copper substrate for 124I production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, M; Dastan, M; Ensaf, M R; Tehrani, A Abaspour; Tenreiro, C; Avila, M

    2008-10-01

    Tellurium electrodeposition on a nickel-coated copper substrate was investigated for production of iodine-124. The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by the alkali plating baths. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tellurium were as follows: 6 g l(-1) tellurium, pH=10, DC current density of ca. 8.55 mA cm(-2) and room temperature.

  3. Nickel and Copper Toxicity and Plant Response Mechanisms in White Birch (Betula papyrifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriault, Gabriel; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) are the most prevalent metals found in the soils in the Greater Sudbury Region (Canada) because of smelting emissions. The main objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the toxicity of nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) at different doses in Betula papyrifera (white birch), (2) Characterize nickel resistance mechanism, and (3) assess segregating patterns for Ni and Cu resistance in B. papyrifera populations. This study revealed that B. papyrifera is resistant to Ni and Cu concentrations equivalent to the levels reported in metal-contaminated stands in the GSR. Resistant genotypes (RG) accumulate Ni in roots but not in leaves. Moderately susceptible (MSG) and susceptible genotypes (SG) show a high level of Ni translocation to leaves. Gene expression analysis showed differential regulation of genes in RG compared to MSG and SG. Analysis of segregation patterns suggests that resistance to Ni and Cu is controlled by single recessive genes.

  4. Influence of nickel and beryllium content on swelling behavior of copper irradiated with fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Evans, J.H.

    1996-10-01

    In the 1970`s, the effects of nickel content on the evolution of dislocation microstructures and the formation and growth of voids in Cu-Ni alloys were studied using 1 MeV electrons in a high voltage electron microscope. The swelling rate was found to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. The decrease in the swelling rate was associated with a decreasing void growth rate with increasing nickel content at irradiation temperatures up to 450{degrees}C. At 500{degrees}C, both void size and swelling rate were found to peak at 1 and 2% Ni, respectively, and then to decrease rapidly with increasing nickel content. However, recent work has demonstrated that the swelling behavior of Cu-5%Ni irradiated with fission neutrons is very similar for that of pure copper. The present experiments were designed to investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  5. Foliar application of nickel and copper on pecan performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mobilization and conversion of reserve nitrogen (N) is critical for pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] during early spring when trees begin growing actively. Conversion of N reserves to translocatable forms (amides, amino acids, ureides) is adversely affected by a nickel (Ni) shortage...

  6. Decarbonylative Silylation of Esters by Combined Nickel and Copper Catalysis for the Synthesis of Arylsilanes and Heteroarylsilanes

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin

    2016-08-25

    An efficient nickel/copper-catalyzed decarbonylative silylation reaction of carboxylic acid esters with silylboranes is described. This reaction provides access to structurally diverse silanes with high efficiency and excellent functional-group tolerance starting from readily available esters.

  7. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma. Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    ...), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs...

  8. Experiment Research on the Enrichment of Precious Metals from Nickel-copper-iron Matte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xingxiang; LIU Yang; DONG Haigang; FU Guangqiang; WU Yuedong; ZHAO Jiachun; WU Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    According to the chemical and phase composition of the nickel-copper-iron matte containing precious metals and the progress in enrichment of precious metals from the nickel-copper-iron matte containing precious metals at home and abroad,this paper put forward the process route of enrichment of precious metals and selectively leaching of base metals from the nickel-copper-iron matte by sulfuric acid and sodium hypochlorite.The effects of particle size,leaching temperature,leaching time,amount of sulfuric acid and sodium hypochlorite on the leaching rate of nickel,cobalt,copper and iron are mainly discussed.The results show that raw material particle size has significantly effects on the leaching rate of base metals,high leaching rate of base metals and enrichment of precious metals are obtained with the suitable particle size.Through the experiments,the reasonable experiment parameters and conditions were determined as fellows:particle size of-200 to +250 mesh,leaching temperature 95℃,leaching time 5 h,sulfuric acid concentration 30%,adding amount of sodium hypochlorite 3 times of matte weight.Under these experiment parameters and conditions,the leaching rate of nickel,cobalt,copper and iron were 97.39%,96.24%,98.30% and 99.01%,respectively.The content of nickel,cobalt,copper,iron in the leaching residues was 8.15%,0.23%,1.40% and 0.24%,respectively.The content of Pt,Pd,Au,Ag and Rh in the leaching residues was 247 g/t,521 g/t,112 g/t,494 g/t and 24 g/t,respectively.The content of Pt,Pd,Au,Ag and Rh in the leaching solution was <0.0005 g/L,0.0023 g/L,0.0007 g/L,<0.0005 g/L and 0.00017 g/L,respectively.This process has advantages as follows:a small investment,simple technology,high enrichment efficiency.

  9. Surface ordering during underpotential deposition of lead on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa

    Recently there has been an increased fundamental and practical interest in studies of ultra-thin films in systems with large atomic size mismatch. For those systems interesting surface stress-driven phenomena are observed, such as surface-confined alloying resulting in self-assembly and ordering of domain structures. The system of interest in the present study is the electrochemical deposition of lead on copper that has an atomic size mismatch of 37%. This system shows no bulk alloying and has been thoroughly examined in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Electrodeposition of lead on copper starts by formation of one epitaxial monolayer in the potential region positive with respect to the reversible potential of bulk lead deposition, a phenomenon known in electrochemistry as underpotential deposition (UPD). On copper (111), in-situ STM results have shown (4 x 4) Moire structure of the complete lead monolayer, a structure identical to that observed in UHV. Following stripping of the lead monolayer, STM results revealed nano-organization of the topmost copper layer. Depending on the solution pH value, different types of nanoscale organization have been observed: (i) a Moire pattern of anion-induced reconstruction of the top copper layer, and (ii) a star pattern dislocation network. Additional experiments in lead-free aerated and deaerated solutions at different pH values suggest that observed structures are results of lead-assisted oxy-anion adsorption in which lead plays a catalytic role. On copper (100), the lead UPD process features coverage-dependent phase behavior identical to that observed in UHV. As a function of lead coverage, phases corresponding to a dilute random alloy phase and ordered surface alloy phase that appears at a surface coverage ratio of three lead atoms to eight copper atoms are observed. With increasing lead coverage, lead dealloys from this ordered phase resulting in the formation of a c(2 x 2) lead overlayer phase that transforms with increasing lead

  10. Inhibition effects of PMA/SbBr3 complex inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in LiBr solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-qi; LIANG Cheng-hao; HUANG Nai-bao

    2005-01-01

    The effects of PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor on copper and copper-nickel alloy in 55%LiBr solution were investigated by chemical immersion and electrochemical measurements. The results indicate that in boiling 55% LiBr solution containing PMA/SbBr3 inhibitor, corrosion rates of copper and copper-nickel alloy are 67.48 μm/a and 38. 14μm/a, respectively. Since both anodic and cathodic electrochemical reactions can be inhibited, PMA/SbBr3 belongs to complex inhibitor. PMA has the effect of inhibiting hydrogen evolution and [PMo12 O40]3- , the anion of PMA,has a strong oxidizing effect. Sb3+ also shows an oxidizing effect. It may exist in LiBr solutions stably with PMA.Because of the synergistic effect of PMA and Sb3+ , a protective film, comprising CuO, Cu2O and Sb, formed on copper and copper-nickel alloy surface may prevent Br- from diffusing to the surface of metals. As a result, the anticorrosion performance of copper and copper-nickel alloy may be improved.

  11. Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding sites of peptide containing adjacent histidyl residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenács, Ágnes; Sanna, Daniele; Sóvágó, Imre

    2015-10-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of the terminally protected nonapeptide Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 modeling the metal binding sites of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis, CD and ESR spectroscopic methods. The studies on the mutants containing only one of the histidyl residues (Ac-SGAEGAHQK-NH2, Ac-SGAEGHAQK-NH2) have also been performed. The formation of imidazole and amide coordinated mononuclear complexes is characteristic of all systems with a preference of nickel(II) binding to the His14 site, while the involvement of both histidines in metal binding is suggested in the corresponding copper(II) complexes. The formation of bis(ligand) and dinuclear complexes has also been observed in the copper(II)-Ac-SGAEGHHQK-NH2 system. The results provide further support for the copper(II) binding ability of the (8-16) domain of amyloid-β and support the previous assumptions that via the bis(ligand) complex formation copper(II) ions may promote the formation of the oligomers of amyloid-β.

  12. Removal of copper, nickel, and zinc ions from electroplating rinse water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revathi, Meyyappan; Saravanan, Mohan; Velan, Manickam [Department of Chemical Engineering, AC Tech, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Chiya, Ahmed Basha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Industrial Liaison Research Institute, Kyang Hee University, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Removal of copper, nickel, and zinc ions from synthetic electroplating rinse water was investigated using cationic exchange resin (Ceralite IR 120). Batch ion exchange studies were carried out to optimize the various experimental parameters (such as contact time, pH, and dosage). Influence of co-existing cations, chelating agent EDTA on the removal of metal ion of interest was also studied. Sorption isotherm data obtained at different experimental conditions were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson, and Toth models. A maximum adsorption capacity of 164 mg g{sup -1} for Cu(II), 109 mg g{sup -1} for Ni(II), and 105 mg g{sup -1} for Zn(II) was observed at optimum experimental conditions according to Langmuir model. The kinetic data for metal ions adsorption process follows pseudo second-order. Presence of EDTA and co-ions markedly alters the metal ion removal. Continuous column ion exchange experiments were also conducted. The breakeven point of the column was obtained after recovering effectively several liters of rinse water. The treated rinse water could be recycled in rinsing operations. The Thomas and Adams-Bohart models were applied to column studies and the constants were evaluated. Desorption of the adsorbed metal ions from the resin column was studied by conducting a model experiments with Cu(II) ions loaded ion exchange resin column using sulfuric acid as eluant. A novel lead oxide coated Ti substrate dimensionally stable (DSA) anode was prepared for recovery of copper ions as metal foil from regenerated liquor by electro winning at different current densities (50-300 A cm{sup -2}). (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Copper-Based Ultrathin Nickel Nanocone Films with High-Efficiency Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ye; Luo, Yuting; Zhu, Jie; Li, Juan; Gao, Xuefeng

    2015-06-10

    We report a type of copper-based ultrathin nickel nanocone films with high-efficiency dropwise condensation heat transfer (DCHT) performance, which can be fabricated by facile electrodeposition and low-surface-energy chemistry modification. Compared with flat copper samples, our nanosamples show condensate microdrop self-propelling (CMDSP) function and over 89% enhancement in the DCHT coefficient. Such remarkable enhancement may be ascribed to the cooperation of surface nanostructure-induced CMDSP function as well as in situ integration and ultrathin nature of nanofilms. These findings are very significant to design and develop advanced DCHT materials and devices, which help improve the efficiency of thermal management and energy utilization.

  14. Properties of Copper Doped Neodymium Nickelate Oxide as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Kyoung-Jin; Choe Yeong-Ju; Hwang Hae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Mixed ionic and electronic conducting K2NiF4-type oxide, Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ (x=0~1) powders were synthesized by solid state reaction technique and solid oxide fuel cells consisting of a Nd2Ni1-xCuxO4+δ cathode, a Ni-YSZ anode and ScSZ as an electrolyte were fabricated. The effect of copper substitution for nickel on the electrical and electrochemical properties was examined. Small amount of copper doping (x=0.2) resulted in the increased electrical conductivity and decreased polarization resista...

  15. Nickel toxicity on seed germination and growth in radish (Raphanus sativus) and its recovery using copper and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Shiv Shankar; Shukla, Rajni; Sharma, Y K

    2009-05-01

    Effect of various concentrations of nickel (100, 200, 500 and 1000 microM) and recovery treatments of boron (50 and 100 microM) and copper (15 and 75 microM) each with 200 microM and 500 microM of nickel on germination, growth, biomass, chlorophyll, carotenoids, pheophytin, amylase, protein, sugar as well as activity of catalase and peroxidase were studied in radish (Raphanus sativus cv. Early menu) seedlings. Nickel treatments caused a considerable reduction in germination percentage, growth and biomass. The different pigments were also decreased with nickel treatments. However boron addition with nickel recovered the negative effect on pigment contents. Among biochemical estimations, amylase activity and total proteins were found to be reduced in nickel treatments. Peroxidase and catalase activity were induced other than higher total sugar with nickel treatments. The combination of nickel with boron resulted into increased protein contents. This combination also reduced the catalase and peroxidase activity. The influence of nickel with copper failed to produce significant recovery except 200 microM nickel in combination with 15 microM copper with regard to catalase and peroxidase activity. The effect of nickel on hydrolyzing enzyme amylase was observed to be inhibitory resulting into poor germination followed by poor seedlings growth. The stress protecting enzymes peroxidase and catalase seem to be induced under the influence of nickel, and providing protection to the seedlings. The application of boron with nickel showed improved germination and growth. The level of catalase and peroxidase were found to be significantly reduced showing normal growth and biomass of seedlings.

  16. Electrochemical studies of copper, nickel and a Cu55/Ni45 alloy in aqueous sodium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Reinaldo Simões

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the electrochemical behavior of copper, nickel and a copper/nickel alloy in aerated aqueous 0.10 and 1.0 mol L-1 sodium acetate. The data obtained from different electrochemical techniques were analyzed to determine the influence of Ni and Cu on the electrochemical processes of the alloy electrode. The shapes of the potentiodynamic I(E curves of the alloy were found to be quite similar to those of the Ni voltamograms. Although the anodic current densities of Ni and the alloy increased with greater concentrations of acetate, the opposite effect occurred in Cu. The impedance measurements taken at the open circuit potential revealed that the polarization resistance (R P of the electrodes decreased in the following order: Ni > Alloy > Cu. With increasing concentrations of acetate, the R P of the alloy and the Cu increased while that of the Ni electrode decreased.

  17. Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGAYE, RUTH; ZHAO, JINSHUN; BOWMAN, LINDA; DING, MIN

    2012-01-01

    The nanotechnology industry has matured and expanded at a rapid pace in the last decade, leading to the research and development of nanomaterials with enormous potential. The largest source of these nanomaterials is the transitional metals. It has been revealed that numerous properties of these nano-sized elements are not present in their bulk states. The nano size of these particles means they are easily transported into biological systems, thus, raising the question of their effects on the susceptible systems. Although advances have been made and insights have been gained on the effect of transitional metals on susceptible biological systems, there still is much ground to be covered, particularly with respect to our knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Therefore, this review intends to summarize the current knowledge on the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of cobalt-, nickel- and copper-based nanoparticles indicated in in vitro and in vivo mammalian studies. In the present review, we briefly state the sources, use and exposure routes of these nanoparticles and summarize the current literature findings on their in vivo and in vitro genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Due to the increasing evidence of their role in carcinogenicity, we have also included studies that have reported epigenetic factors, such as abnormal apoptosis, enhanced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory effects involving these nanoparticles. PMID:23170105

  18. Factors Influencing the DNA Nuclease Activity of Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, and Copper Chelates

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner, Jeff C.; Reichfield, Jared; Cowan, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    A library of complexes that included iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper chelates of cyclam, cyclen, DOTA, DTPA, EDTA, tripeptide GGH, tetrapeptide KGHK, NTA, and TACN was evaluated for DNA nuclease activity, ascorbate consumption, superoxide and hydroxyl radical generation, and reduction potential under physiologically relevant conditions. Plasmid DNA cleavage rates demonstrated by combinations of each complex and biological coreactants were quantified by gel electrophoresis, yielding second-or...

  19. Investigation of possibility of recovery nonferrous metals and producing building materials from copper-nickel smelterslag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlov A.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pelletized slag of copper-nickel smelter ("Pechenganikel" combine, "Kola MMC" JSC has been investigated as a potential technogenic deposit. It has been shown that nonferrous metals can be re-extracted from slag using flotation. The work presents the results of laboratory simulation of heap leaching of non-ferrous metals. Ceramic building materials from slag-based feed have been produced and their main properties have been studied

  20. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata in a packed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Jegan, J; Palanivelu, K; Velan, M

    2005-07-01

    Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine green alga Ulva reticulata were investigated in a packed bed up-flow column. The experiments were conducted to study the effect of important design parameters such as bed height and flow rate. At a bed height of 25 cm, the metal-uptake capacity of U. reticulata for copper, cobalt and nickel was found to be 56.3+/-0.24, 46.1+/-0.07 and 46.5+/-0.08 mgg(-1), respectively. The Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model was used to analyze the experimental data. The computed sorption capacity per unit bed volume (N0) was 2580, 2245 and 1911 mgl(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. The rate constant (K(a)) was recorded as 0.063, 0.081 and 0.275 lmg(-1)h(-1) for copper, cobalt and nickel, respectively. In flow rate experiments, the results confirmed that the metal uptake capacity and the metal removal efficiency of U. reticulata decreased with increasing flow rate. The Thomas model was used to fit the column biosorption data at different flow rates and model constants were evaluated. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. The elutant used for the regeneration of the biosorbent was 0.1 M CaCl2 at pH 3 adjusted using HCl. For all the metal ions, a decreased breakthrough time and an increased exhaustion time were observed as the regeneration cycles progressed, which also resulted in a broadened mass transfer zone. The pH variations during both sorption and desorption process have been reported.

  1. Microwave enhanced recovery of nickel-copper ore: communition and floatability aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henda, R; Hermas, A; Gedye, R; Islam, M R

    2005-01-01

    A study describing the effect of microwave radiation, at a frequency of 2450 MHz, on the processes of communication and flotation of a complex sulphide nickel-copper ore is presented. Ore communication has been investigated under standard radiation-free conditions and after ore treatment in a radiated environment as a function of ore size, exposure time to radiation, and microwave power. The findings show that communication is tremendously improved by microwave radiation with values of the relative work index as low as 23% at a microwave power of 1.406 kW and after 10 s of exposure time. Communication is affected by exposure time and microwave power in a nontrivial manner. In terms of ore floatability, the experimental tests have been carried out on a sample of 75 microm in size under different exposure times. The results show that both ore concentrate recoveries and grades of nickel and copper are significantly enhanced after microwave treatment of the ore with relative increases in recovered concentrate, grade of nickel, and grade of copper of 26 wt%, 15 wt%, and 27%, respectively, at a microwave power of 1330 kW and after 30 s of exposure time.

  2. Development of a cloud-point extraction method for copper and nickel determination in food samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo Lemos, Valfredo [Nucleo de Quimica Analitica da Bahia (NQA), Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequie, 45206-190 Jequie, BA (Brazil)], E-mail: vlemos@uesb.br; Selis Santos, Moacy; Teixeira David, Graciete; Vasconcelos Maciel, Mardson; Almeida Bezerra, Marcos de [Nucleo de Quimica Analitica da Bahia (NQA), Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica (LQA), Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Campus de Jequie, 45206-190 Jequie, BA (Brazil)

    2008-11-30

    A new, simple and versatile cloud-point extraction (CPE) methodology has been developed for the separation and preconcentration of copper and nickel. The metals in the initial aqueous solution were complexed with 2-(2'-benzothiazolylazo)-5-(N,N-diethyl)aminophenol (BDAP) and Triton X-114 was added as surfactant. Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified methanol was performed after phase separation, and the copper and nickel contents were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the cloud-point extraction were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum experimental conditions, enrichment factors of 29 and 25 were achieved for copper and nickel, respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated and confirmed by analysis of the followings certified reference materials: Apple Leaves, Spinach Leaves and Tomato Leaves. The limits of detection expressed to solid sample analysis were 0.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} (Cu) and 0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} (Ni). The precision for 10 replicate measurements of 75 {mu}g L{sup -1} Cu or Ni was 6.4 and 1.0, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of food samples.

  3. III. Co-electrodeposition/removal of copper and nickel in a spouted electrochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-07-11

    Results are presented of an investigation of co-electrodeposition of copper and nickel from acidic solution mixtures in a cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor. The effects of solution pH, temperature, and applied current on metal removal/recovery rate, current efficiency, and corrosion of the deposited metals from the cathodic particles were examined under galvanostatic operation. The quantitative and qualitative behavior of co-electrodeposition of the two metals from their mixtures differs significantly from that of the individual single metal solutions. This is primarily attributed to the metal displacement reaction between Ni(0) and Cu(2+). This reaction effectively reduces copper corrosion, and amplifies that for nickel (at least at high concentrations). It also amplifies the separation of the deposition regimes of the two metals in time, which indicates that the recovery of each metal as a relatively pure deposit from the mixture is possible. It was also shown that nitrogen sparging considerably increases the observed net electrodeposition rates for both metals - considerably more so than from solutions with just the single metals alone. A numerical model of co-electrodeposition, corrosion, metal displacement, and mass transfer in the cylindrical spouted electrochemical reactor is presented that describes the behavior of the experimental copper and nickel removal data quite well.

  4. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Copper and Nickel Seawater Piping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    169. London: Newnes-Butterworths. nickel alloys. Biologia Marina, Proceedings of 5th Interna- Southwell, C. R. and Alexander, A. L. 1967. Corrosion of...Sons Ltd. 441 pp. Quimica . Verink, E.D. and Pourbaix, M. 1971. Use of electrochemical Pope, D. H., Duquette, D. J., Johannes, A. H., and Wayner...Bacteria. 2nd Ed. Workshop on Biodeterioration (CONICET-NSF), pp. 43-63, 144pp. London: Cambridge University Press. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Aquatec Quimica . MTS Journal • Vol. 24, No. 3 • 17

  5. A comparison of the uniaxial deformation of copper and nickel (1 1 19) surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukšič, Nuša; Jenko, Monika; Godec, Matjaž; McGuiness, Paul J.

    2017-02-01

    While a lot is known about the deformation of metallic surfaces from experiments, elasticity theory and simulations, this investigation represents the first molecular-dynamics-based simulation of uniaxial deformation for the vicinal surfaces in a comparison of copper and nickel. These vicinal surfaces are composed of terraces divided by equidistant, mono-atomic steps. The periodicity of vicinals makes them good candidates for the study of the surface steps’ influences on surface dynamics. The simulations of tensile and compressive uniaxial deformations were performed for the (1 1 19) vicinal surfaces. Since the steps on the surfaces serve as stress concentrators, the first defects were expected to nucleate here. In the case of copper, this was found to be the case. In the case of nickel, however, dislocations nucleated beneath the near-surface layer affected by the displacement field generated by the steps. Slip was hindered at the surface step by the vortex in the displacement field. The differences in the deformation mechanisms for the Ni(1 1 19) and Cu(1 1 19) surfaces can be linked to the differences in their displacement fields. This could lead to novel bottom-up approaches to the nanostructuring of surfaces using strain.

  6. The copper-nickel concentration log: A tool for stratigraphic interpretation within the ultramafic and basal zones of the stillwater complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Bawiec, W.J.; Page, N.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    An analogue to the electric well log was devised for copper-nickel concentration drill-hole data from the Basal and lower part of the Ultramafic zones of the Stillwater Complex using automated data processing. The copper-nickel concentration logs graphically represent intensity (concentration) values that reflect the distribution of the elements in sulfide and silicate minerals. Four major patterns are recognized by their characteristic variations in copper and nickel intensity: (1) relatively flat, low-level copper-intensity signatures associated with arcuate nickel-intensity patterns that correlate with rocks in the Peridotite member of the Ultramafic zone; (2) arcuate or bulb-like patterns of copper and nickel intensity that correlate closely with the Basal bronzite cumulate member of the Basal zone; (3) complex patterns consisting of intervals of low-intensity copper and moderate-intensity nickel, spikes of high nickel and copper intensity, and high copper intensity associated with low nickel intensity that correlate respectively with cordierite-pyroxene hornfels, massive sulfide, norites and mineralized diabase dikes in the Basal norite member; and (4) large intervals of extremely low copper and nickel intensity that correlate with quartz-orthopyroxene hornfels. The recognition and interpretation of these patterns allow two- and three-dimensional stratigraphic and lithologic reconstructions to be done by means of concentration-log correlations instead of variable quality lithologic logging. ?? 1985.

  7. Magnetic characterization of the nickel layer protecting the copper wires in harsh applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High Temperature (HT° motor coils open new perspectives for extending the applications of electrical motors or generators to very harsh environments or for designing very high power density machines working with high internal temperature gradients. Over a temperature of 300°C, the classic enameled wire cannot work permanently, the turn-to-turn insulation must be inorganic and made with high temperature textiles or vitro-ceramic compounds. For both cases, a diffusion barrier must protect the copper wire against oxidation. The usual solution consists of adding a nickel layer that yields an excellent chemical protection. Unfortunately, the nickel has ferromagnetic properties that change a lot the skin effect in the HT wire at high frequencies. For many applications such as aeronautics, electrical machines are always associated with PWM inverters for their control. The windings must resist to high voltage short spikes caused by the fast fronted pulses imposed by the feeding inverter. The nickel protection layer of the HT° inorganic wire has a large influence on the high frequency behavior of coils and, consequently, on the magnitude of the voltage spikes. A good knowledge of the non-linear magnetic characteristics of this nickel layer is helpful for designing reliable HT inorganic coils. The paper presents a method able to characterize non-linear electromagnetic properties of this nickel layer up to 500°C.

  8. Experimental Study of Nonequilibrium Electrodeposition of Nanostructures on Copper and Nickel for Photochemical Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh K. Shanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the performance of photochemical fuel cells, nonequilibrium electrodeposition has been performed on Cu and Ni to make photosensitive anodes. Processing parameters including electrolyte concentration, and electrode potential were studied using cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS were performed to understand the formation of the nanostructures during the nonequilibrium deposition of copper fractals. An increase in the deposition rate was observed with the increase in electrolyte concentration (from 0.05 M to 1.0 M. Similar trend was found when the cathode potential was decreased from −0.5 V to −4.5 V. The effect of substrate material was also examined. Porous fractal structures on copper were achieved, while the deposited material showed high density of surface cracks on nickel. The fractal structures deposited on copper electrode with the increased surface area were converted into copper oxide by oxidation in air. Such oxide samples were made into anodes for photochemical fuel cell application. We demonstrated that an increase in the magnitude of open circuit output voltage is associated with the increase in the fractal surface area under the ultraviolet irradiation test conditions. However, the electrodeposited fractals on nickel showed very limited increase in the magnitude of open circuit voltage.

  9. Jiangxi Copper Marching into Lead-zinc Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On November 13,Jiangxi Copper officially signed transfer agreement on the share rights of lead-zinc mines with Jiangxi Provincial Geol- ogy & Mineral Resources Bureau,marking the beginning of full-strategic cooperation between the two parties for the common exploitation of lead-zinc industry in the province. The Jiangxi Province is rich in lead-zinc re- sources,but most of them are in scattered lay-

  10. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid......In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... or tetrathiomolybdate may be more suitable alternatives today. In copper-toxicity, a free radical scavenger might be recommended as adjuvant to the chelator therapy...

  11. Copper and Lead levels in two popular leafy vegetables grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metals uptake by plants grown in polluted soils has been studied ... Abstract:A study was carried out to determine the levels of two heavy metals, Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu), in two popular ... into small pieces and left to dry on paper for about 2.

  12. LEAD AND COPPER CONTROL WITH NON-ZINC ORTHOPHOSPHATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful application of orthophosphate formulations not containing zinc for achieving control of copper and lead corrosion requires careful consideration of the background water chemistry, particularly pH and DIC. Inhibitor performance is extremely dependent upon dosage and pH,...

  13. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of cobalt,copper and nickel using 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol by chemometrics methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Niazi; Ateesa Yazdanipour

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of cobalt,copper and nickel using 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (first figure of this article) by spectrophotometric method is a difficult problem in analytical chemistry,due to spectral interferences.By multivariate calibration methods,such as partial least squares (PLS) regression,it is possible to obtain a model adjusted to the concentration values of the mixtures used in the calibration range.Orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is a preprocessing technique used for removing the information unrelated to the target variables based on constrained principal component analysis.OSC is a suitable preprocessing method for PLS calibration of mixtures without loss of prediction capacity using spectrophotometric method.In this study,the calibration model is based on absorption spectra in the 550-750-nm range for 21 different mixtures of cobalt,copper and nickel.Calibration matrices were formed from samples containing 0.05-1.05,0.05-1.30 and 0.05-0.80 μg mL-1 for cobalt,copper and nickel,respectively.The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for cobalt,copper and nickel with OSC and without OSC were 0.007,0.008,0.011 and 0.031,0.037,0.032 μg mL-1,respectively.This procedure allows the simultaneous determination of cobalt,copper and nickel in synthetic and real samples and good reliability of the determination was proved.

  14. Insight into selective removal of copper from high-concentration nickel solutions with XPS and DFT: New technique to prepare 5N-nickel with chelating resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuewen; Liu, Fuqiang; Bai, Zhiping; Wei, Dongyang; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wang, Junfei; Gao, Jie; Sun, Xiaowen; Li, Baohua; Li, Chenghui; Li, Aimin

    2016-10-01

    An efficient and profitable separation process was proposed to prepare 5N (the purity of the metal solution reaches 99.999%) high-purity nickel from 3N nickel-solutions using Purolite S984. The adsorption performance of this superior resin, especially its selectivity for metal ions, was explored quantitatively. The maximum adsorption capacity for copper was 2.286mmol/g calculated by the Langmuir model, which was twice as large as that for nickel. In the binary systems, the adsorption capacity for nickel was decreased by 45%, indicating direct competition for the active sites. The infinite separation factor for copper versus nickel exceeded 300, revealing the feasibility of preparing 5N-level high-purity nickel solutions, which was further verified using the 800BV (bed volume) effluent in the column dynamic process. According to the cost-benefit analysis, purification contributed to a profit of approximately 60,000USD per cycle, and the investment return period was less than 1/3years. Density functional theory analysis confirmed that four nitrogen atoms would be involved in the coordination complex and thus a structure involving two five-membered rings could be achieved. The X-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed the involvement of nitrogen atoms, implying a coordination ratio of approximately 1:1.

  15. Nickel multilayers and their effects on bend fatigue strength of leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feihua; WANG Zhanhua; SHEN Zhuoshen

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is commonly coated on the outer leads for T8 metal package. The leads electrodeposited by conventional dull or bright nickel over 5 μm at direct current from Watt bath are hard to pass the bend fatigue test for three times. Nickel electrodeposited at multi waveform current including direct current, single and double pulse from sulfamate bath can improve the bend fatigue strength of leads. Such nickel plating has a multilayer structure, its morphology of sublayers can be clearly seen in its cross section with SEM. The electrochemical study shows that these sublayers have different corrosion potentials. The bend fatigue test of leads with such plating for T8 metal package shows that the number of bend increases with the decrease of average current density of multi waveform, which can be attributed to the reduction of every sublayer thickness and the increase of layer numbers under the same condition of total thickness.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Thiourea Derivatives and Their Nickel and Copper Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gün Binzet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New benzoyl thiourea derivatives and their nickel and copper complexes were synthesized. The structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H NMR techniques. Four of the synthesized compounds are analyzed by X-ray single crystal diffraction technique. Whereas N,N-dimethyl-N′-(4-fluorobenzoylthiourea, N,N-diethyl-N′-(4-fluorobenzoylthiourea, and N,N-di-n-butyl-N′-(4-fluorobenzoyl thiourea crystallize in the monoclinic system, bis(N,N-di-n-propyl-N′-(4-fluorobenzoylthioureato nickel(II complex crystallizes in the triclinic system. These ligand molecules form dimers through strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds such as N–H⋯S, C–H⋯O, and N–H⋯O. Moreover, there are different types of intramolecular interactions in the crystal structures. Bis(N,N-dimethyl-N′-(4-fluorobenzoylthioureato nickel(II complex has a nearly square-planar coordination. The distance of nickel atom from the best plane through the coordination sphere is 0.029 Å.

  17. Contamination of urban garden soils with copper, boron, and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1967-04-01

    Spectrochemical analysis of representative samples of topsoil from urban gardens and from individual fields in rural areas indicates that the level of total copper, EDTA-extractable copper, water-soluble boron, and acetic-acid extractable lead are markedly enhanced in urban areas. No significant differences were discovered between levels of these elements in soils from built-up areas in small towns and large conurbations. These results suggest the possibility of general enhancement of the trace element content of plants grown in private gardens in built-up areas.

  18. Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of multihistidine peptide fragments of human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jószai, Viktória; Turi, Ildikó; Kállay, Csilla; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Giuseppe; Rizzarelli, Enrico; Sóvágó, Imre

    2012-07-01

    Mixed metal copper(II)-nickel(II) and copper(II)-zinc(II) complexes of four peptide fragments of human prion protein have been studied by potentiometric, UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. One peptide contained three histidyl residues: HuPrP(84-114) with H85 inside and H96, H111 outside the octarepeat domain. The other three peptides contained two histidyl residues; H96 and H111 for HuPrP(91-115) and HuPrP(84-114)H85A while HuPrP(84-114)H96A contained the histidyl residues at positions 85 and 111. It was found that both histidines of the latter peptides can simultaneously bind copper(II) and nickel(II) ions and dinuclear mixed metal complexes can exist in slightly alkaline solution. One molecule of the peptide with three histidyl residues can bind two copper(II) and one nickel(II) ions. H85 and H111 were identified as the major copper(II) and H96 as the preferred nickel(II) binding sites in mixed metal species. The studies on the zinc(II)-PrP peptide binary systems revealed that zinc(II) ions can coordinate to the 31-mer PrP peptide fragments in the form of macrochelates with two or three coordinated imidazol-nitrogens but the low stability of these complexes cannot prevent the hydrolysis of the metal ion in slightly alkaline solution. These data provide further support for the outstanding affinity of copper(II) ions towards the peptide fragments of prion protein but the binding of nickel(II) can significantly modify the distribution of copper(II) among the available metal binding sites.

  19. Comparison of Super-Hydrophobicity and Corrosion Resistance of Micro-Nano Structured Nickel and Nickel- Cobalt Alloy Coatings on Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khorsand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Super-hydrophobic nickel and nickel-cobalt alloy coatings with micro-nano structure were successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates with one and two steps electrodeposition. Surface morphology, wettability and corrosion  resistance were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle measurements, electrochemical impedanc spectroscopy (EIS and potentiodynamic polarization curves. The results showed that the wettability of the micro-nano Ni and Ni-Co films varied from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity by exposure of the surface to air at room temperature. The corrosion results revealed the positive effect of hydrophobicity on corrosion resistance of Ni coating (~10 times and Ni-Co coating (~100 times in comparison with their fresh coatings. The results showed that super-hydrophobic nickel coating had higher corrosion resistance than super-hydrophobic nickel-cobalt coating.

  20. Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Multi-nano Layered Copper-Nickel Thin Film by the Dynamic-Nano Indentation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The dynamic nano-indentation method was applied to study the effect of interface moving behavior with heat treatment on the nano-mechanical properties of multi-nano-layered copper-nickel thin film. Layer-by-layer depositions of copper and nickel of nano-sized thickness were prepared by two-step pulse electro-deposition in a modified copper-nickel sulfate bath at 25°C. The multi-layered copper-nickel thin sheet was composed of a 20-nm-thick copper-rich nickel phase, and a 25-nm-thick nickel-rich copper phase. Thermal vacuum annealing influenced the interface morphology between copper and nickel nano-layers. Inter-diffusion mainly occurred after annealing at 500°C for 6 h. The interface disappeared after annealing at 600°C to form a completely solid solution. Thermal annealing reduced the nano-hardness and elastic recovery. The average nano-hardness of the multi-layered nano-copper-nickel thin film for the specimens of as-received, 300°C, 500°C and 600°C were 7.9 Gpa, 6.1 Gpa, 4.7 Gpa and 3.0 GPa, respectively. The elastic stiffness was 15.77 × 104 Nm-1 for the as-received specimen, which finally became 2.98 × 104 Nm-1 for the specimen after annealing at 600°C for 6 h.

  1. Synthesis and aggregation study of optically active tetra--[()-2-octanyloxy]-substituted copper and nickel phthalocyanines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fang-Di Cong; Gui Gao; Jian-Xin Li; Guo-Qing Huang; Zhen Wei; Feng-Yang Yu; Xi-Guang Du; Ke-Zhi Xing

    2010-11-01

    The optically active tetra--[()-2-octanyloxy]-substituted copper and nickel phthalocyanines were synthesized via a two-step route with 4-nitro-phthalonitrile and ()-2-octanol as the starting materials. Both compounds are fully characterized by MS, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, IR, CD and elemental analysis, and soluble in common organic solvents except methanol. The results showed that they were dispersed into single molecules in chloroform and dichloromethane, but prone to congregate into H-type aggregates in ethanol and diethyl ether. They assembled to H-type aggregates with left-handed helix when deposited as thin films.

  2. Physiography and superficial geology of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott, P.G.; Siegel, D.I.

    1978-01-01

    The Copper-Nickel study region lies in the Superior Upland physiographic province and is located approximately 60 miles north of Duluth and 100 miles southeast of International Falls, Minnesota. It straddles the Laurentian Divide, which separates Hudson Bay and Lake Superior drainage. The topography exhibits a southwesterly trending lineation that parallels the strike of southeastward-dipping bedrock units and the southwestward direction of ice movement during Pleistocene glaciation. For this study, the region has been divided into seven physiographic areas based on geomorphic features related to the bedrock surface, glacial deposits, and hydrogeologic significance.

  3. Adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base electroplated in conditions of external stimulation by laser irradiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Dudkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The investigation of laser irradiance influence on the adhesion strength of nickel and zinc coatings with copper base and the research of initial stages of crystallization for nickel and zinc films. Methodology. Electrodeposition of nickel and zinc films from the standard sulphate electrolyte solutions was carried out on the laser-electrolytic installations, built on the basis of gas discharge CO2-laser and solid ruby laser KVANT-12. The adhesion strength of metal coatings with copper base are defined not only qualitatively using the method of meshing and by means of multiple bending, but also quantitatively by means of indention of diamond pyramid into the border line between coating and base of the side section. Spectrum microanalysis of the element composition of the border line “film and base” is carried out using the electronic microscope REMMA-102-02. Findings. Laser irradiance application of the cathode region in the process of electroplating of metal coatings enables the adhesion strength improvement of coating with the base. Experimental results of adhesive strength of the films and the spectrum analysis of the element composition for the border line between film and base showed that during laser-assisted electroplating the diffusion interaction between coating elements and the base metal surface takes place. As a result of this interaction the coating metal diffuses into the base metal, forming transition diffused layer, which enhances the improvement of adhesion strength of the coatings with the base. Originality. It is found out that ion energy increase in the double electric layer during interaction with laser irradiance affects cathode supersaturation at the stage of crystallization. Hence, it also affects the penetration depth of electroplated material ions into the base metal, which leads to the adhesion strength enhancement. Practical value. On the basis of research results obtained during the laser

  4. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Nickel, Iron, Copper Thin Films and the Creation of Nanoporous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarranton, Jonathan; Hampton, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    There has been much research in creating nanoporous platinum or gold thin films for catalysis, but there has not been as much work done with other, less noble metals. This research explored the deposition of nickel, iron, and copper ternary alloys using controlled potential electrolysis (CPE) and the selective removal of the copper with DC potential amperometry (DCPA) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) to create nanoporous structures. These structures have the advantage of increased surface area creating more efficient catalysts. All films were characterized before and after dealloying using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for composition. The roughness of each of the films was characterized by the capacitance of the film, with higher capacitances indicating a higher electrochemical surface area. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RUI Grant DMR-1104725, MRI Grant CHE-0959282, and ARI grant PHY-0963317.

  5. THE EVALUATION OF NICKEL, CHROMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENT IN SWEET CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Miriama Kopernická; Tomáš Tóth; Ľuboš Harangozo; Beáta Volnová; Petra Kavalcová; Ádám Elek

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury in 9 samples of sweet corn (frozen and canned) from the commercial network of the Slovak Republic. Homogenised samples of sweet corn were mineralized using microwave digestion unit MARS X-press and next analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer VARIAN 240 FS for tested metal concentration, excluding mercury which was was determined by automatic mercury analyser AMA 254.Nickel c...

  6. Effect of flow rate and lead/copper pipe sequence on lead release from service lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Clément; Arnold, Roger B; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Prévost, Michèle; Edwards, Marc

    2012-09-01

    A pilot experiment examined lead leaching from four representative configurations of service lines including: (1) 100% lead (Pb), (2) 100% copper (Cu), (3) 50% Pb upstream of 50% Cu, and (4) 50% Pb-downstream of 50% Cu using a range of flow rates. The cumulative mass of lead release indicated that a typical partial replacement configuration (50% lead downstream of copper) did not provide a net reduction in lead when compared to 100% lead pipe (85 mg for 50% Pb-downstream versus 83 mg for 100%-Pb) due to galvanic and deposition corrosion. The partially replaced service line configuration also had a much greater likelihood of producing water with "spikes" of lead particulates at higher flow rates, while tending to produce lower levels of lead at very low flow rates. After the first 214 days the galvanic current between copper and lead was only reduced by 34%, proving that galvanic impacts can be highly persistent even in water with optimized corrosion control by dosing of zinc orthophosphate. Finally, this experiment raises concern about the low flow rates used during some prior home sampling events, which may underestimate exposure to lead during normal water use, especially when galvanic Pb:Cu connections are present.

  7. Water quality improvement through bioretention: lead, copper, and zinc removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Allen P; Shokouhian, Mohammad; Sharma, Himanshu; Minami, Christie; Winogradoff, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Intensive automobile use, weathering of building materials, and atmospheric deposition contribute lead, copper, zinc, and other heavy metals to urban and roadway runoff. Bioretention is a low-impact-development best management practice that has the potential to improve stormwater quality from developed areas. The practice represents a soil, sand, organic matter, and vegetation-based storage and infiltration facility used in parking lots and on individual lots to treat runoff. Investigations using pilot-plant laboratory bioretention systems and two existing bioretention facilities documented their effectiveness at removing low levels of lead, copper, and zinc from synthetic stormwater runoff. Removal rates of these metals (based on concentration and total mass) were excellent, reaching close to 100% for all metals under most conditions, with effluent copper and lead levels mostly less than 5 microg/L and zinc less than 25 microg/L. Somewhat less removal was noted for shallow bioretention depths. Runoff pH, duration, intensity, and pollutant concentrations were varied, and all had minimal effect on removal. The two field investigations generally supported the laboratory studies. Overall, excellent removal of dissolved heavy metals can be expected through bioretention infiltration. Although the accumulation of metals is a concern, buildup problems are not anticipated for more than 15 years because of the low metal concentrations expected in runoff.

  8. Temperature effect on the binder-free nickel copper oxide nanowires with superior supercapacitor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Tang, Chunhua; Gong, Hao

    2014-11-07

    Although the use of nickel oxide in supercapacitor electrodes has been reported extensively, the effect of incorporating copper in the binary compound is not known. Arrays of nickel copper oxide nanowires on the current collector via a simple and industrially compatible route have been successfully synthesized. A systematic study on the effect of temperature is also presented. Strikingly, through conductivity modification and binder-free growth, the as-grown nanowires show high specific capacitance (2.24 F cm(2) at 10 mA; 1955 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1)), good rate capability (still 2.18 F cm(2) at 50 mA, 1542 F g(-1) at 50 mV s(-1)), and excellent cycle life (90% after 1000 cycles at a high charging-discharging rate 10 A g(-1)). An asymmetric full cell is then prepared and tested, and very high energy density (30 Wh kg(-1)) is achieved. Ideal capacitive behavior (rectangular shape of cyclic voltammetry) is shown with this tailored architecture of the full cell.

  9. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Nemec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loop heat pipes (LHPs are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements’ influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT have been made.

  10. Surface cellulose modification with 2-aminomethylpyridine for copper, cobalt, nickel and zinc removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Cavalcanti Silva Filho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose was first modified with thionyl chloride, followed by reaction with 2-aminomethylpyridine to yield 6-(2'-aminomethylpyridine-6-deoxycellulose. The resulting chemically-immobilized surface was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 13C NMR and thermogravimetry. From 0.28% of nitrogen incorporated in the polysaccharide backbone, the amount of 0.10 ± 0.01 mmol of the proposed molecule was anchored per gram of the chemically modified cellulose. The available basic nitrogen centers attached to the covalent pendant chain bonded to the biopolymer skeleton were investigated for copper, cobalt, nickel and zinc adsorption from aqueous solution at room temperature. The newly synthesized biopolymer gave maximum sorption capacities of 0.100 ± 0.012, 0.093 ± 0.021, 0.074 ± 0.011 and 0.071 ± 0.019 mmol.g-1 for copper, cobalt, nickel and zinc cations, respectively, using the batchwise method, whose data was fitted to different sorption models, the best fit being obtained with the Langmuir model. The results suggested the use of this anchored biopolymer for cation removal from the environment.

  11. A preconcentration system for determination of copper and nickel in water and food samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Citak, Demirhan [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Ferreira, Hadla S.; Korn, Maria G.A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, 40170-290 Salvador (Brazil); Bezerra, Marcos A. [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, 45200-190 Jequie (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    A separation/preconcentration procedure using solid phase extraction has been proposed for the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and nickel at trace level in food samples. The solid phase is Dowex Optipore SD-2 resin contained on a minicolumn, where analyte ions are sorbed as 5-methyl-4-(2-thiazolylazo) resorcinol chelates. After elution using 1 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid solution, the analytes are determinate employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimization step was performed using a full two-level factorial design and the variables studied were: pH, reagent concentration (RC) and amount of resin on the column (AR). Under the experimental conditions established in the optimization step, the procedure allows the determination of copper and nickel with limit of detection of 1.03 and 1.90 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively and precision of 7 and 8%, for concentrations of copper and nickel of 200 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The effect of matrix ions was also evaluated. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing of the followings certified reference materials: NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves and GBW 07603 Aquatic and Terrestrial Biological Products. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of copper and nickel in real samples including human hair, chicken meat, black tea and canned fish.

  12. Sonochemical fabrication of petal array-like copper/nickel oxide composite foam as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, Namachivayam; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Sethuraman, Mathur Gopalakrishnan; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-02-01

    Copper/nickel oxide composite foam (Cu/Ni) with petal array-like textures were successfully fabricated via a facile sonochemical approach, and its applications as a pseudocapacitive material for energy storage were examined. The nickel foam was immersed into a mixture of copper chloride (CuCl2) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) and subsequently sonicated for 30 min at 60 °C. As a result of galvanic replacement, nickel was oxidized while copper was reduced, and the walls of the nickel foam were coated with copper particles. Studies using field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses confirmed the morphology and chemical structure of the as-obtained Cu/Ni oxide composite foam. The supercapacitive performance of the as-fabricated Cu/Ni oxide composite foam was evaluated in 2 M KOH by employing cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyses. Cyclic voltammograms revealed that the Cu/Ni oxide composite foam exhibited pseudocapacitive behavior and delivered a high specific capacitance of 1773 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. This improvement may be attributed to the morphology, surface functionalization with heteroatoms, hydrogen evolution, and high conductivity, along with the low resistance due to short path lengths for electron transportation.

  13. Effect of inhibitors on corrosion behavior of copper-nickel in concentrated lithium bromide solution at high temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乃宝; 梁成浩; 佟大维

    2002-01-01

    The conventional mass-loss tests and the electrochemical techniques were used to study the inhibition action of LiOH and Na2MoO4 either individually or in different combination for copper-nickel alloy in boiling 65%LiBr solution. It indicates that the corrosion rate of copper-nickel is decreased when LiOH or Na2MoO4 is added to the solution individually. LiOH concentration has a double-effect on the corrosion behavior of copper-nickel. Low concentration is benefit to forming oxide film. High concentration results in dissolution of oxide film. The optimal concentration of LiOH is 0.15mol/L. The dissolution of copper-nickel is effectively prevented when adding 200mg/L Na2MoO4 to boiling 65%LiBr solution with 0.15mol/L LiOH. The inhibition mechanism is considered that the films of Cu, Ni, Mo oxides and deposited nonprotective in soluble CuBr on the surface of metal could prevent Br- ion from absorption, which prevent alloy dissolving.

  14. Supplemental foliar nickel and copper applications do not reduce kernel necrosis in pecan trees receiving excess nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch] fruit developed necrotic tissue at the basal end of the kernels (cotyledons) in an orchard receiving unusually high amounts of nitrogen (N) from nitrate contaminated irrigation water. It was hypothesized that increasing canopy nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ...

  15. A screened hybrid density functional study on energetic complexes: cobalt, nickel and copper carbohydrazide perchlorates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huisheng; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhang, Jianguo; Wang, Liqiong

    2010-07-15

    The molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectra and thermochemical properties of cobalt and nickel tris(carbohydrazide) perchlorates (CoCP and NiCP) as well as copper bis(carbohydrazide) perchlorate (CuCP) were investigated using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) screened hybrid density functional. The results show that both perchlorate ions coordinate with the copper atom, and the interactions between copper and perchlorate are ionic, whereas all the metal-carbohydrazide interactions are covalent. Due to the delocalization from the sigma(N-H) bond orbital to the n*(M) antibond orbital, the amino stretching vibrations of these complexes show considerable red-shift compared with those of free carbohydrazide ligand. The calculated heats of reaction and formation indicate that the formations of these complexes are exothermic, and the order of their thermal stability is NiCP>CoCP>CuCP. These agree well with the experimental results. Finally, we find that there is a relationship between the energy gap and impact sensitivity.

  16. Comparing the peroxo/superoxo nature of the interaction between molecular O2 and β-diketiminato-copper and nickel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Jhon; Caballol, Rosa; Calzado, Carmen J

    2011-12-01

    Adducts resulting from the interaction between molecular oxygen and β-diketiminato-copper and nickel complexes have been recently described in the literature as peroxo and superoxo complexes, respectively. The nature of the interaction is analyzed by means of DDCI calculations and an orthogonal valence bond reading of the ground state wavefunction for each system. Our results reveal that there is not any substantial difference between these systems, both presenting a marked leading superoxo nature, which is in line with the fact that LCu-O(2) and LNi-O(2) adducts present similar O-O distances and quite close O-O stretching vibration modes.

  17. Determination of Lead with a Copper-Based Electrochemical Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wenjing; Pei, Xing; Rusinek, Cory A; Bange, Adam; Haynes, Erin N; Heineman, William R; Papautsky, Ian

    2017-03-21

    This work demonstrates determination of lead (Pb) in surface water samples using a low-cost copper (Cu)-based electrochemical sensor. Heavy metals require careful monitoring due to their toxicity, yet current methods are too complex or bulky for point-of-care (POC) use. Electrochemistry offers a convenient alternative for metal determination, but the traditional electrodes, such as carbon or gold/platinum, are costly and difficult to microfabricate. Our copper-based sensor features a low-cost electrode material-copper-that offers simple fabrication and competitive performance in electrochemical detection. For anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of Pb, our sensor shows 21 nM (4.4 ppb) limit of detection, resistance to interfering metals such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn), and stable response in natural water samples with minimum sample pretreatment. These results suggest this electrochemical sensor is suitable for environmental and potentially biological applications, where accurate and rapid, yet inexpensive, on-site monitoring is necessary.

  18. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells. FPS Project: Product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Printed nickel overplated with copper and applied on top of a predeposited silicon nitride antireflective coating system for metallizing solar cells was analyzed. The ESL D and E paste formulations, and the new formulations F, G, H, and D-1 were evaluated. The nickel thick films were tested after firing for stability in the cleaning and plating solutions used in the Vanguard-Pacific brush plating process. It was found that the films are very sensitive to the leaning and alkaline copper solutions. Less sensitivity was displayed to the neutral copper solution. Microscopic and SEM observations show segregation of frit at the silicon nitride thick film interface with loose frit residues after lifting off plated grid lines.

  19. Synthesis of Copper and Nickel Nanoparticles from a Plasma Discharge in Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jinyoung; Ma, Sukhwal; Kim, Kangil; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Kwangwoon University Team; Chonbuk National University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    Nanoscale metal particles have been attracting much attention because of their unique size- and dimensionality dependent physical and chemical properties. In order to fabricate metal nano-particles, many methods are ported such as chemical vapor deposition, thermal decomposition, micro-emulsion, UV-irradiation, the polyol process, and so on. However, previous methods may cause secondary environment pollution. Moreover, most of the synthetic methods are not economically feasible due to low throughput and poor scalability. In this work, we propose the synthesis methods of metal nano-particles by underwater discharge to overcome the shortcomings of reported methods. The copper and nickel nano-particles are synthesized by underwater discharge, and they have the diameter less than 100 nm. Also, we confirmed Cu and Ni nanoparticles were not oxidized through XRD analysis. We expect that the metal nano-particles synthesized by underwater discharge can be applied to electronic industry such as printed electronics and multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs).

  20. Structural and electrical properties of copper-nickel-aluminum alloys obtained by conventional powder metallurgy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Waldemar A.; Carrio, Juan A.G.; Silveira, C.R. da; Pertile, H.K.S., E-mail: fisica.cch@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie (UPM/CCH), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, L.C.E. da; Buso, S.J., E-mail: jgcarrio@mackenzie.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work looked for to search out systematically, in scale of laboratory, copper-nickel-aluminum alloys (Cu-Ni-Al) with conventional powder metallurgy processing, in view of the maintenance of the electric and mechanical properties with the intention of getting electric connectors of high performance or high mechanical damping. After cold uniaxial pressing (1000 kPa), sintering (780 deg C) and convenient homogenization treatments (500 deg C for different times) under vacuum (powder metallurgy), the obtained Cu-Ni-Al alloys were characterized by optical microscopy, electrical conductivity, Vickers hardness. X rays powder diffraction data were collected for the sintered samples in order to a structural and microstructural analysis. The comparative analysis is based on the sintered density, hardness, macrostructures and microstructures of the samples. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Copper, Aluminum and Nickel Interatomic Potentials on Predicting the Elastic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Rassoulinejad-Mousavi, Seyed Moein; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Choice of appropriate force field is one of the main concerns of any atomistic simulation that needs to be seriously considered in order to yield reliable results. Since, investigations on mechanical behavior of materials at micro/nanoscale has been becoming much more widespread, it is necessary to determine an adequate potential which accurately models the interaction of the atoms for desired applications. In this framework, reliability of multiple embedded atom method based interatomic potentials for predicting the elastic properties was investigated. Assessments were carried out for different copper, aluminum and nickel interatomic potentials at room temperature which is considered as the most applicable case. Examined force fields for the three species were taken from online repositories of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as the Sandia National Laboratories, the LAMMPS database. Using molecular dynamic simulations, the three independent elastic constants, C11, C12 and C44 we...

  2. Recovery of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in sulphate and chloride solutions using synergistic solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yong Cheng; Keith R. Barnard; Wensheng Zhang; Zhaowu Zhu; Yoko Pranolo

    2016-01-01

    A number of synergistic solvent extraction (SSX) systems have been developed to recover nickel, cobalt, zinc and copper from sulphuric and chloride leach solutions by the solvent extraction team of CSIRO, Australia. These in-clude (1) Versatic 10/CLX50 system for the separation of Ni from Ca in sulphate solutions, (2) Versatic 10/4PC system for the separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (3) Cyanex 471X/HRJ-4277 system for the separation of Zn from Cd in sulphate solutions, (4) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (5) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system for separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (6) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of cobalt from nickel in sulphate solutions by difference in kinetics, (7) Cyanex 272/LIX84 system for the separation of Cu/Fe/Zn from Ni/Co in sulphate solutions, (8) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system to recover Cu/Ni from strong chloride solutions, and (9) Versatic 10/LIX63 system to separate Cu from Fe in strong chloride solutions. The synergistic effect on metal separation and efficiency is presented and possible industrial applications are demonstrated. The chemical stability of selected SSX systems is also reported.

  3. Corrosion characteristics of copper and leaded bronze in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Ann, L.J.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel has become more attractive as alternative fuel for automobiles because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is made from renewable sources. However, corrosion of metals in biodiesel is one of the concerns related to biodiesel compatibility issues. This study aims to characterize the corrosion behavior of commercial pure copper and leaded bronze commonly encountered in the automotive fuel system in diesel engine. Static immersion tests in B0, B50 and B100 fuels were carried out at room temperature for 2640 h. Similar immersion tests in B0, B100 and B100 (oxidized) fuels were also conducted at 60 C for 840 h. At the end of the test, corrosion behavior was investigated by weight loss measurements and changes in surface morphology. Fuels were analyzed by using TAN analyzer, FTIR, MOA (multi-element oil analyzer) to investigate acid concentration, oxidation level with water content and corrosive impurities respectively. Results showed that under the experimental conditions, pure copper was more susceptible to corrosion in biodiesel as compared to leaded bronze. (author)

  4. Comparison and analysis of the efficiency of heat exchange of copper rod and copper wires current lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J.; Yu, T.; Li, Z. M.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Zhang, H. J.

    2013-11-01

    Current leads are the key components that connect the low-temperature and high temperature parts of the cryogenic system. Owing to the wide range of temperatures, current leads are the main sources of heat leakage. Since the HTS tapes have no resistance and the generated Joule heat is almost zero, HTS binary current leads can reduce heat leakage compared to the conventional leads. However, heat will still be generated and conducted to the cryogenic system through the copper parts of the HTS current leads. In order to reduce heat leakage by the copper parts of the HTS current leads, this paper presents an optimized design of the copper parts of HTS binary current leads. Inside the leads, the copper wires were applied as an alternative to the copper rod without changing the overall dimensions. Firstly, the differential function of heat transfer was derived. By solving the function, the optimum number of the copper wires and the temperature distribution of two different current leads were gotten. Then the experiment of the temperature distribution was done, and the experimental results were basically the same with the calculative results. The simulation and related experiments proved that the copper wire can increase security margins and reduce maximum temperatures under the same shunt current.

  5. Improved bioactivity of antimicrobial peptides by addition of amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardo, M Daben; Cervantes, Jorge L; Salazar, Juan C; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates to help circumvent antibiotic resistance, which is an increasing clinical problem. Amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs are known to actively form reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon metal binding. The combination of these two peptidic constructs could lead to a novel class of dual-acting antimicrobial agents. To test this hypothesis, a set of ATCUN binding motifs were screened for their ability to induce ROS formation, and the most potent were then used to modify AMPs with different modes of action. ATCUN binding motif-containing derivatives of anoplin (GLLKRIKTLL-NH2), pro-apoptotic peptide (PAP; KLAKLAKKLAKLAK-NH2), and sh-buforin (RAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK-NH2) were synthesized and found to be more active than the parent AMPs against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. The lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the ATCUN-anoplin peptides are attributed to the higher pore-forming activity along with their ability to cause ROS-induced membrane damage. The addition of the ATCUN motifs to PAP also increases its ability to disrupt membranes. DNA damage is the major contributor to the activity of the ATCUN-sh-buforin peptides. Our findings indicate that the addition of ATCUN motifs to AMPs is a simple strategy that leads to AMPs with higher antibacterial activity and possibly to more potent, usable antibacterial agents.

  6. The effects of a magnetic field on the morphologies of nickel and copper deposits: the concept of “effective overpotential”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Changes in the morphologies of the metals caused by the effect of the magnetic fields are explained by the concept of “effective overpotential”. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits. Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field.

  7. Si-H activation of hydrosilanes leading to hydrido silyl and bis(silyl) nickel complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Thomas; Schaub, Thomas; Radacki, Krzysztof; Radius, Udo

    2011-03-07

    A general route for the synthesis of novel NHC stabilized nickel bis(silyl) and nickel hydrido silyl complexes is presented. The reaction of [Ni(2)((i)Pr(2)Im)(4)(COD)] 1 ((i)Pr(2)Im = 1,3-di-isopropyl-imidazolin-2-ylidene) with hydrosilanes H(n)SiR(4-n) leads to complexes of the type [Ni((i)Pr(2)Im)(2)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))(H)] or [Ni((i)Pr(2)Im)(2)(SiH(n-1)R(4-n))(2)].

  8. Reagents for selective extraction of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from highly acidic sulfate feeds containing iron

    OpenAIRE

    Roebuck, James William

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on development of new regents which are suitable for recovering nickel, cobalt and copper from laterite leach solutions, specifically focusing on reagent requirements for novel base metal flowsheets developed by Anglo American. The work aims to design reagents which can extract nickel(II), cobalt(II) and copper(II) from a highly acidic aqueous sulfate solutions whilst showing selectivity over iron(II) and iron(III). Chapter 1 reviews current extractive metallur...

  9. Development of technique for AR coating and nickel and copper metallization of solar cells: FPS project, product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominger, C. G.

    1981-01-01

    Silicon nitride and nickel pastes are investigated in conjunction with a brush copper plating process for the purpose of identifying one or more fabrication sequences which yield at least 10 percent efficient N(+)/P(+) flat plate solar cells. The adhesion of all nickel pastes is reduced significantly when subjected to acidic and alkaline brush copper plating solutions as a result of a combination of thermally induced stress and chemical attack of the frit, which occurs at the interface with the silicon solar cell. The AgF is penetrating the 800 a of Si3N4 and ohmic contact is occurring at all fire-in tempertures. During the brush plating process, fingers and buss bars tend to spread.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Triazole Derivatives on Copper-Nickel Alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, B.; Jiang, S. L.; Liu, X.; Ma, A. L.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the performance of three triazole derivatives with different molecular structures as corrosion inhibitors for the copper-nickel alloy CuNi 90/10 in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Inhibition behavior was systematically determined through electrochemical measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, adsorption behavior and the inhibition mechanism were investigated via quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamic simulation. Experimental results indicate that the three inhibitors with triazole rings and heteroatoms exhibited excellent corrosion inhibition capabilities on the copper-nickel alloy surface through physisorption and chemisorption. In particular, 3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole showed the best inhibition capability according to the concentration ranges considered in the experiments. The results of quantum chemical calculation agreed with the experimental findings.

  11. Process mineralogy of copper-nickel sulphide flotation by cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yi-jun; GUI Xia-hui; MA Zi-long; YU Xiao-xia; CHEN Xiao-dong; ZHANG Xiu-pin

    2009-01-01

    In our study we investigated a refractory copper-nickel sulfide ore separation by using a cyclonic-static micro-bubble flotation column (FCSMC). The process mineralogy of the main products was studied. Using a scanning electron micro-scope-energy dispersive system (SEM-EDS) and an X-ray spectrometer the mineral category and content of samples were analyzed. By using a mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) the mineral liberation characteristics were revealed. It is shown that in roughing feed the monomers liberation degree of nickel pyrite and chalcopyrite take up 84.11% and 88.82%, respectively. In tailings, the lost nickel pyrite and chalcopyrite are mainly monomers. Therefore, strengthening the micro-fine particle recovery capacity is the key to increase recovery.

  12. Synthesis of copper/nickel nanoparticles using newly synthesized Schiff-base metals complexes and their cytotoxicity/catalytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazam, Elham S; El-Said, Waleed Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Transition metal complexes compounds with Schiff bases ligand representing an important class of compounds that could be used to develop new metal-based anticancer agents and as precursors of metal NPs. Herein, 2,3-bis-[(3-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino]but-2-enedinitrile Schiff base ligand and its corresponding copper/nickel complexes were synthesized. Also, we reported a facile and rapid method for synthesis nickel/copper nanoparticles based on thermal reduction of their complexes. Free ligand, its metal complexes and metals nanoparticles have been characterized based on elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and by various spectroscopic (UV-vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR, GC-MS) techniques. Additionally, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of free ligand and its complexes compounds were assessed against two cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells)and one healthy cell line (HEK293 cell). The copper complex was found to be active against these cancer cell lines at very low LD50 than the free ligand, while nickel complex did not show any anticancer activity against these cell lines. Also, the antibacterial activity of as-prepared copper nanoparticles were screened against Escherichia coli, which demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values lower than those values of the commercial Cu NPs as well as the previous reported values. Moreover, the synthesized nickel nanoparticles demonstrated remarkable catalytic performance toward hydrogenation of nitrobenzene that producing clean aniline with high selectivity (98%). This reactivity could be attributed to the high degree of dispersion of Ni nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Copper electrodeposition from cuprous chloride solutions containing lead, zinc or iron ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Tchoumou; M. Roynette Ehics

    2005-01-01

    Cuprous chloride hydrochloric acid solutions were electrolysed in a two compartments cell without agitation for copper extraction. It is found that the current density affects the colour and the size of copper deposits. During electrodeposition of copper from cuprous solution in the presence of various concentrations of lead, zinc or iron ions at different current densities, it is observed that lead is codeposited with copper by increasing current density.In all experiments, the current efficiency for the copper deposition reaction fluctuates between 88.50% and 95.50%.

  14. Positron annihilation and magnetic properties studies of copper substituted nickel ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Z.; Asgarian, S. M.; Mozaffari, M.

    2016-05-01

    Single phase copper substituted nickel ferrite Ni1-xCuxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. TEM images of the samples confirm formation of nano-sized particles. The Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns showed that lattice constant increase with increase in copper content from 8.331 for x = 0.0 to 8.355 Å in x = 0.5. Cation distribution of samples has been determined by the occupancy factor, using Rietveld refinement. The positron lifetime spectra of the samples were convoluted into three lifetime components. The shortest lifetime is due to the positrons that do not get trapped by the vacancy defects. The second lifetime is ascribed to annihilation of positrons in tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites in spinel structure. It is seen that for x = 0.1 and 0.3 samples, positron trapped within vacancies in A sites, but for x = 0.0 and 0.5, the positrons trapped and annihilated within occupied B sites. The longest lifetime component attributed to annihilation of positrons in the free volume between nanoparticles. The obtained results from coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy (CDBS) confirmed the results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and also showed that the vacancy clusters concentration for x = 0.3 is more than those in other samples. Average defect density in the samples, determined from mean lifetime of annihilated positrons reflects that the vacancy concentration for x = 0.3 is maximum. The magnetic measurements showed that the saturation magnetization for x = 0.3 is maximum that can be explained by Néel's theory. The coercivity in nanoparticles increased with increase in copper content. This increase is ascribed to the change in anisotropy constant because of increase of the average defect density due to the substitution of Cu2+ cations and magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Cu2+ cations. Curie temperature of the samples reduces with increase in copper content which

  15. Copper and zinc content in wild game shot with lead or non-lead ammunition - implications for consumer health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Daniela; Sommerfeld, Christine; Müller-Graf, Christine; Selhorst, Thomas; Greiner, Matthias; Gerofke, Antje; Ulbig, Ellen; Gremse, Carl; Spolders, Markus; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination of game meat with copper and zinc and establish whether the use of alternative (non-lead) ammunition can lead to higher or unsafe levels of copper and zinc in the meat of roe deer, wild boar and red deer. The research project "Safety of game meat obtained through hunting" (LEMISI) was conducted in Germany with the purpose of examining the entry of lead as well as copper and zinc into the meat of hunted game when using either lead or non-lead ammunition. The outcome of this study shows that the usage of both lead-based ammunition and alternative non-lead ammunition results in the entry of copper and zinc into the edible parts of the game. Using non-lead ammunition does not entail dangerously elevated levels of copper and zinc, so replacing lead ammunition with alternative ammunition does not introduce a further health problem with regard to these metals. The levels of copper and zinc in game meat found in this study are in the range found in previous studies of game. The content of copper and zinc in game meat is also comparable to those regularly detected in meat and its products from livestock (pig, cattle, sheep) for which the mean human consumption rate is much higher. From the viewpoint of consumer health protection, the use of non-lead ammunition does not pose an additional hazard through copper and zinc contamination. A health risk due to the presence of copper and zinc in game meat at typical levels of consumer exposure is unlikely for both types of ammunition.

  16. Removal of copper, nickel and chromium mixtures from metal plating wastewater by adsorption with modified carbon foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Lee, Soonjae; Park, Jeong-Ann; Park, Chanhyuk; Lee, Sang Jeong; Kim, Song-Bae; An, Byungryul; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the characterizations and adsorption efficiencies for chromium, copper and nickel were evaluated using manufacture-grade Fe2O3-carbon foam. SEM, XRD, XRF and BET analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of the material. Various pore sizes (12-420 μm) and iron contents (3.62%) were found on the surface of the Fe2O3-carbon foam. Fe2O3-carbon foam was found to have excellent adsorption efficiency compared to carbon foam for mixed solutions of cationic and anionic heavy metals. The adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel were 6.7, 3.8 and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, which were obtained using a dual exponential adsorption model. In experiments with varying dosages of the Fe2O3 powder, no notable differences were observed in the removal efficiency. In a fixed-bed column test, Fe2O3-carbon foam achieved adsorption capacities for chromium, copper and nickel of 33.0, 12.0 and 9.5 mg/g, respectively, after 104 h. Based on these results, Fe2O3-carbon foam was observed to be a promising material for treatment of plating wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural significance of nickel (Ni) is becoming increasingly apparent; yet, relative few farmers, growers, specialists or researchers know much about its function in crops, nor symptoms of deficiency or toxicity. The body of knowledge is reviewed regarding Ni’s background, uptake, transloc...

  18. Solution phase synthesis and intense pulsed light sintering and reduction of a copper oxide ink with an encapsulating nickel oxide barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, M.; Dharmadasa, R.; Draper, G. L.; Sherehiy, A.; Sumanasekera, G.; Amos, D.; Druffel, T.

    2015-05-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticle inks sintered and reduced by intense pulsed light (IPL) are an inexpensive means to produce conductive patterns on a number of substrates. However, the oxidation and diffusion characteristics of copper are issues that must be resolved before it can be considered as a viable solution. Nickel can provide a degree of oxidation protection and act as a barrier for the diffusion of copper. In the present study we have for the first time synthesized copper oxide with an encapsulating nickel oxide nanostructure using a solution phase synthesis process in the presence of a surfactant at room temperature. The room temperature process enables us to easily prevent the formation of alloys at the copper-nickel interface. The synthesis results in a simple technique (easily commercializable, tested at a 10 g scale) with highly controllable layer thicknesses on a 20 nm copper oxide nanoparticle. These Cu2O@NiO dispersions were then directly deposited onto substrates and sintered/reduced using an IPL source. The sintering technique produces a highly conductive film with very short processing times. Films have been deposited onto silicon, and the copper-nickel structure has shown a lower copper diffusion. The nanostructures and resulting films were characterized using electron and x-ray spectroscopy, and the films’ resistivity was measured.

  19. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  20. THE EVALUATION OF NICKEL, CHROMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENT IN SWEET CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury in 9 samples of sweet corn (frozen and canned from the commercial network of the Slovak Republic. Homogenised samples of sweet corn were mineralized using microwave digestion unit MARS X-press and next analysed by atomic absorption spectrometer VARIAN 240 FS for tested metal concentration, excluding mercury which was was determined by automatic mercury analyser AMA 254.Nickel content in all samples was in the range of 0.376 – 0.556 mg.kg-1, chromium content was 0.088 – 0.546 mg.kg-1, lead content was 0.054 – 0.146 mg.kg-1 and mercury content was 0.000013 – 0.011458 mg.kg-1. The measured values have been compared with the limit values set out legislation for the maximum quantity of hazardous elements according to the Food Code of the Slovak Republic. From the point of view of the sanitary evaluation, the content of nickel, chromium, lead and mercury were not exceeded in either sample.

  1. Effect of Water Nutrient Pollution on Long-Term Corrosion of 90:10 Copper Nickel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Melchers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to their good corrosion resistance, copper and copper alloys such as 90:10 Cu-Ni are used extensively in high-quality marine and industrial piping systems and also in marine, urban, and industrial environments. Their corrosion loss and pitting behaviour tends to follow a bi-modal trend rather than the classic power law. Field data for 90:10 copper nickel immersed in natural seawater are used to explore the effect of water pollution and in particular the availability of critical nutrients for microbiologically induced corrosion. It is shown, qualitatively, that increased dissolved inorganic nitrogen increases corrosion predominantly in the second, long-term, mode of the model. Other, less pronounced, influences are salinity and dissolved oxygen concentration.

  2. comparison of phytotoxicity of copper and nickel in soils with different chinese plant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; LIU Ji-fang; YANG Jun-xing; MA Yi-bing; cHEN Shi-bao

    2015-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment of metals in soils is important to develop the critical loads of metals in soils. Phytotoxicity is one of the endpoints for ecological risk assessment of soils contaminated with metals. The sensitivity of eight Chinese plant species (bok choy, mustard, tomato, green chil i, paddy rice, barley, spinach and celery) to copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) toxicity in two Chinese soils was investigated to assess their potential use for ecological risk assessment in the region. The results showed that bok choy and mustard were the two most sensitive species to Cu and Ni toxicities. Assessment of metal accumulation by the plants demonstrated that bok choy shoot had the highest bioconcentration factor (BCF, the ratio of metal concentration in plant shoots to metal concentration in soil). Given the importance of bok choy to agricultural production in Asia, it is therefore important that these sensitive plant species are included in species sensitivity distributions for ecological risk assessment of Cu and Ni in soils.

  3. Adsorption of Thiophenic Compounds from Model Diesel Fuel Using Copper and Nickel Impregnated Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Karimzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of sulfur compoundsby porous materials is an effective way to produce cleaner diesel fuel.In this study, adsorption of refractory thiophenic sulfur compounds, i.e., benzothiophene (BT, dibenzothiophene (DBT, and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT in single-solute systems from n-hexane solutions onto metal-impregnated activated carbons was investigated. A hydrogen-treated activated carbon fiber was selectively loaded with Ni, NiO, Cu, Cu2O, and CuO species to systematically assess the impact of each metal species on the adsorption of thiophenic compounds (TC. Metal-loaded adsorbents had the same total metal contents and similar microporosities, but contained different types of copper or nickel species. All metal-loaded adsorbents showed enhanced adsorption of tested TC. Cu2O- or NiO-loaded adsorbents exhibited the highest uptakes, due to more specific interactions between Cu+ or Ni2+ species and TC molecules. The theoretical monolyer coverage of TC on the exposed Cu+ sites was estimated and compared with that calculated from the experimental data. Results suggested catalytic conversion of TC molecules to other compounds on the Cu+ sites, followed by adsorption of reaction products onto the carbon surface or multilayer accumulation of TC molecules on the Cu+sites. TC adsorption uptake of the majority of adsorbents followed the order of: 4,6-DMDBT > DBT > BT due to higher intensity of specific and non-specific interactions of larger TC molecules with adsorbents.

  4. Evolution of the defect structures on helium implanted copper and nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukuda, Noboru; Ehrhart, P.; Jaeger, W.; Gadalla, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    Helium in the range of 0 - 6 MeV is implanted uniformly in high-purity single crystals of copper and nickel (about 10 ..mu..m thickness) to concentrations of up to 3 at.%. Observation is performed to determine the effects of implantation on electric resistance, material length and x-ray diffraction profile. Based on the results obtained, examination is made on the induced vacancies, formation process of interstitial atom clusters and helium bubbles. Differential dilatometry shows that most interstitial atoms disapear at an early stage of implantation due to recombination and absorption into dislocations, while vacancies tend to remain in the form of stable clusters. Above a helium concentration of 0.2%, the number of dislocations increases, though large structural changes do not take place. Most of the vacancies form small He-V complexes which cannot be seen under TEM. The concentration ratio C(He)/C(v) in these complexes is smaller than unity. These stable cluster nuclei are formed at room temperature because of the small mobility of vacancies. They grow gradually as implantation is continued. Both electric resistance and volume increases linearly with implantation at early stages. Then the rate of change gradually decreases but does not become zero. The x-ray diffraction profile shows an extreme broadening, which cannot be explained in terms of the increase in the number of dislocations alone. (Nogami, K.).

  5. Addressing geographic variability in the comparative toxicity potential of copper and nickel in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2013-04-02

    Comparative toxicity potentials (CTP), in life cycle impact assessment also known as characterization factors (CF), of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were calculated for a global set of 760 soils. An accessibility factor (ACF) that takes into account the role of the reactive, solid-phase metal pool in the soil was introduced into the definition of CTP. Geographic differences in fate, accessibility, bioavailability, and terrestrial toxicity were assessed by combining the USEtox characterization model, empirical regression models, and terrestrial biotic ligand models. The median CTPs for Cu and Ni with 95% geographic variability intervals are 1.4 × 10(3) (1.7 × 10(2) to 2.0 × 10(4)) and 1.7 × 10(3) (2.1 × 10(2) to 1.1 × 10(4)) m(3)/kg · day, respectively. The geographic variability of 3.5 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Cu is mainly associated with the variability in soil organic carbon and pH. They largely influence the fate and bioavailability of Cu in soils. In contrast, the geographic variability of 3 orders of magnitude in the CTP of Ni can mainly be explained by differences in pore water concentration of magnesium (Mg(2+)). Mg(2+) competes with Ni(2+) for binding to biotic ligands, influencing the toxicity. Our findings stress the importance of dealing with geographic variability in the calculation of CTPs for terrestrial ecotoxicity of metals.

  6. Research of leaching of disseminated copper-nickel ores in their interaction with mine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlov A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of mine waste creates serious problems for economy and ecology in mining regions. Keeping of dumps and tailings storages requires huge capital costs and material inputs. Removal of overburden volumes cause ecological disequilibrium, ingress of chemical agents and heavy metals in ground and surface water have an adverse influence on eco-systems and human health. These hazards are particularly high under extreme climatic conditions, when mines create vast desert lands around themselves. Foreign researchers use the terms "acid mine drainage" (AМD and "acid rock drainage" (ARD when speaking on mine water oxidation and contamination of the environment with heavy metals. AMD is induced by underground mine drainage, natural sulfide-bearing rock exposures, etc. The processes occurring in the interaction the mine water with fine dust particles, as well as water filtering through the thick sulfide rocks have been studied. It has been shown that the reduction in potential environmental hazard of mine water of JSC "Kola MMC" is achieved through precipitation of heavy metals by iron hydroxide and magnesium hydrosilicate. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processing of disseminated copper-nickel ores has been made

  7. Copper and nickel hexacyanoferrate nanostructures with graphene-coated stainless steel sheets for electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mao-Sung; Lyu, Li-Jyun; Syu, Jhih-Hao

    2015-11-01

    Copper and nickel hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF and NiHCF) nanostructures featuring three-dimensional open-framework tunnels are prepared using a solution-based coprecipitation process. CuHCF shows superior supercapacitive behavior than the NiHCF, due to the presence of numerous macropores in CuHCF particles for facilitating the transport of electrolyte. Both CuHCF and NiHCF electrodes with stainless steel (SS) substrate tend to lose their electroactivity towards intercalation/deintercalation of hydrated potassium ions owing to the partial corrosion of SS. Formation of a protective and conductive carbon layer in between SS and CuHCF (NiHCF) film is of paramount importance for improving the irreversible loss of electroactivity. Thin and compact graphene (GN) layer without observable holes in its normal plane is the most effective way to suppress the corrosion of SS compared with porous carbon nanotube and activated carbon layers. Specific capacitance of CuHCF electrode with GN layer (CuHCF/GN/SS) reaches 570 F g-1, which is even better than that of CuHCF with Pt substrate (500 F g-1) at 1 A g-1. The CuHCF/GN/SS exhibits high stability with 96% capacitance retention over 1000 cycles, greater than the CuHCF with Pt (75%).

  8. Joint toxic action of binary metal mixtures of copper, manganese and nickel to Paronychiurus kimi (Collembola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jino; Lee, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yongeun; Shin, Key-Il; Hyun, Seunghun; Cho, Kijong

    2016-10-01

    The joint toxic effects of binary metal mixtures of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and nickel (Ni) on reproduction of Paronhchiurus kimi (Lee) was evaluated using a toxic unit (TU) approach by judging additivity across a range of effect levels (10-90%). For all metal mixtures, the joint toxic effects of metal mixtures on reproduction of P. kimi decreased in a TU-dependent manner. The joint toxic effects of metal mixtures also changed from less than additive to more than additive at an effect level lower than or equal to 50%, while a more than additive toxic effects were apparent at higher effect levels. These results indicate that the joint toxicity of metal mixtures is substantially different from that of individual metals based on additivity. Moreover, the close relationship of toxicity to effect level suggests that it is necessary to encompass a whole range of effect levels rather than a specific effect level when judging mixture toxicity. In conclusion, the less than additive toxicity at low effect levels suggests that the additivity assumption is sufficiently conservative to warrant predicting joint toxicity of metal mixtures, which may give an additional margin of safety when setting soil quality standards for ecological risk assessment.

  9. Lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) share a common uptake transporter in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G C

    2014-02-01

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a very high rate of lead (Pb) internalization and is known to be highly sensitive to dissolved Pb. However, the transport pathway that this metal uses to cross cellular membranes in microalgae is still unknown. To identify the Pb(2+) transport pathway in C. reinhartdii, we performed several competition experiments with environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb(2+) (~10 nM) and a variety of divalent cations. Among the essential trace metals tested, cobalt, manganese, nickel and zinc had no effect on Pb internalization. A greater than tenfold increase in the concentrations of the major ions calcium and magnesium led to a slight decrease (~34 %) in short-term Pb internalization by the algae. Copper (Cu) was even more effective: at a Cu concentration 50 times higher than that of Pb, Pb internalization by the algae decreased by 87 %. Pre-exposure of the algae to Cu showed that the effect was not due to a physiological effect of Cu on the algae, but rather to competition for the same transporter. A reciprocal effect of Pb on Cu internalization was also observed. These results suggest that Cu and Pb share a common transport pathway in C. reinhardtii at environmentally relevant metal concentrations.

  10. Synthesis, structure and antifungal activity of thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) and nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes: unsymmetrical coordination mode of nickel complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, Kusaï; Landreau, Anne; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles; Larcher, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) chlorides and cadmium(II) chloride and bromide with thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (2,3BTSTCH2) leads to a series of new complexes: [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl, [Cu(2,3BTSTC)], [CdCl2(2,3BTSTCH2)] and [CdBr2(2,3BTSTCH2)]. The crystal structures of the ligand and of [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl complex have been determined. In this case, we remark an unusual non-symmetrical coordination mode for the two functional groups: one acting as a thione and the second as a deprotonated thiolate. All compounds have been tested for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus, the cadmium complexes exhibit the highest antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using two biological methods: human MRC5 cultured cells and brine shrimp Artemia salina bioassay.

  11. Effect of temperature on chronic toxicity of copper, zinc, and nickel to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cecília M S; Deruytter, David; Blust, Ronny; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have considered the effect of temperature on the chronic sensitivity of Daphnia magna to other stressors. The present study investigated the effect of temperature on chronic metal toxicity and whether this effect differed among 4 different D. magna clones. Life table experiments were performed with copper, zinc, and nickel at 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C. General linear modeling indicated that chronic Cu, Zn, and Ni toxicity to D. magna were all significantly affected by temperature. When averaged across clones, our results suggest that chronic metal toxicity to D. magna was higher at 15 °C than at 20 °C, which is the temperature used in standard toxicity tests. At 15 °C, the 21-d median effect concentrations (EC50s) of Cu, Zn, and Ni were 1.4 times, 1.1 times, and 1.3 times lower than at 20 °C, respectively. At 25 °C, chronic Cu and Zn toxicity did not change in comparison with 20 °C, but chronic Ni toxicity was lower (21-d EC50 of nickel at 25 °C was 1.6 times higher than at 20 °C). The same trends were observed for Cu and Ni when the 21-d 10% and 20% effect concentrations were considered as the effect estimator, but not for Zn, which warns against extrapolating temperature effects on chemical toxicity across effect sizes. Overall, however, chronic metal toxicity was generally highest at the lowest temperature investigated (15 °C), which is in contrast with the usually observed higher acute metal toxicity at higher temperatures. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on chronic Ni toxicity depended significantly on the clone. This warns against extrapolating results about effect of temperature on chemical toxicity from single clone studies to the population level. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1909-1916. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Accelerated Degradation Test and Predictive Failure Analysis of B10 Copper-Nickel Alloy under Marine Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the corrosion behavior of B10 copper-nickel alloy in marine environment. Accelerated degradation test under marine environmental conditions was designed and performed based on the accelerated testing principle and the corrosion degradation mechanism. With the prolongation of marine corrosion time, the thickness of Cu2O film increased gradually. Its corrosion product was Cu2(OH3Cl, which increased in quantity over time. Cl− was the major factor responsible for the marine corrosion of copper and copper alloy. Through the nonlinear fitting of corrosion rate and corrosion quantity (corrosion weight loss, degradation data of different corrosion cycles, the quantitative effects of two major factors, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO and corrosion medium temperature, on corrosion behavior of copper alloy were analyzed. The corrosion failure prediction models under different ambient conditions were built. One-day corrosion weight loss under oxygenated stirring conditions was equivalent to 1.31-day weight loss under stationary conditions, and the corrosion rate under oxygenated conditions was 1.31 times higher than that under stationary conditions. In addition, corrosion medium temperature had a significant effect on the corrosion of B10 copper sheet.

  13. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d-mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol.We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d

  14. Coprecipitation and redox reactions of manganese oxides with copper and nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, J.D.; Lind, Carol J.; Roberson, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Open-system, continuous-titration experiments have been done in which a slow flux of ???0.02 molar solution of Mn2+ chloride, nitrate, or perchlorate with Cu2+ or Ni2+ in lesser concentrations was introduced into an aerated reactor solution held at constant temperature and at constant pH by a pH-stat titrator that added dilute NaOH. The resulting mixtures of metal oxyhydroxides and their native solutions were aged for periods as long as 2 1/2 years. Fresh and aged precipitates were characterized by chemical analysis, oxidation state determinations, X-ray and electron diffraction, and electron microscopy. The precipitates can be described as mixtures of oxide and oxyhydroxide species, using concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical thermodynamics. The metal-ion content of the aged precipitates in systems that contained copper is distributed among three principal components. One of these is a mixed oxide Cu2Mn3O8 in which all Mn is in the 4+ oxidation state. A major component in all precipitates is feitknechtite, ??MnOOH. These forms are supplemented by CuO or by birnessite or ramsdellite forms of MnO2 where stoichiometry and thermodynamic calculations predict them. In systems that contained nickel and manganese, identifiable components included ??MnOOH, Ni(OH)2, and the same two forms of MnO2. The oxidation number of the precipitated manganese increased during aging, and the pH of the supernatant solution decreased. The maximum Mn oxidation number observed was 3.55 in an Mn + Cu precipitate aged for 18 months. Concentrations of Cu2+ and Ni2+ generally decreased to values substantially below those predicted by oxide or hydroxide equilibrium. Scavenging effects of this type are common in natural aqueous systems. ?? 1989.

  15. Factors influencing the DNA nuclease activity of iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jeff C; Reichfield, Jared; Cowan, J A

    2011-10-05

    A library of complexes that included iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper chelates of cyclam, cyclen, DOTA, DTPA, EDTA, tripeptide GGH, tetrapeptide KGHK, NTA, and TACN was evaluated for DNA nuclease activity, ascorbate consumption, superoxide and hydroxyl radical generation, and reduction potential under physiologically relevant conditions. Plasmid DNA cleavage rates demonstrated by combinations of each complex and biological co-reactants were quantified by gel electrophoresis, yielding second-order rate constants for DNA(supercoiled) to DNA(nicked) conversion up to 2.5 × 10(6) M(-1) min(-1), and for DNA(nicked) to DNA(linear) up to 7 × 10(5) M(-1) min(-1). Relative rates of radical generation and characterization of radical species were determined by reaction with the fluorescent radical probes TEMPO-9-AC and rhodamine B. Ascorbate turnover rate constants ranging from 3 × 10(-4) to 0.13 min(-1) were determined, although many complexes demonstrated no measurable activity. Inhibition and Freifelder-Trumbo analysis of DNA cleavage supported concerted cleavage of dsDNA by a metal-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the case of Cu(2+)(aq), Cu-KGHK, Co-KGHK, and Cu-NTA and stepwise cleavage for Fe(2+)(aq), Cu-cyclam, Cu-cyclen, Co-cyclen, Cu-EDTA, Ni-EDTA, Co-EDTA, Cu-GGH, and Co-NTA. Reduction potentials varied over the range from -362 to +1111 mV versus NHE, and complexes demonstrated optimal catalytic activity in the range of the physiological redox co-reactants ascorbate and peroxide (-66 to +380 mV).

  16. Supramolecular Formation via Hydrogen Bonding in Copper and Nickel Complexes with 2-Hydroxynicotinic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two complexes, Cu(HnicO)2 1 and Ni(HnicO)2(H2O)2 2 (H2nicO = 2-hydroxy- nicolinic acid), were synthesized by hydrothermal reactions and structurally characterized. Complex 1 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/n, with a = 8.314(7), b = 6.275(4), c = 11.283(7) (A), β = 98.32(3)°, V = 582.5(7) (A)3, Z = 2, Mr = 339.74, Dc = 1.937 g/cm3, F(000) = 342, μ = 1.908 mm-1, S = 1.097, the final R = 0.0284 and wR = 0.0781 for 1177 observed reflections with I>2σ(I). Complex 2 crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c, with a = 7.438(5), b = 12.22(1), c = 7.537(5) (A), β = 100.07(3)°, V = 674.3(8) (A)3, Z = 2, Mr = 370.95, Dc = 1.827 g/cm3, F(000) = 380, μ = 1.487 mm-1, S = 1.041, the final R = 0.0335 and wR = 0.0779 for 1202 observed reflections with I>2σ(I). There are extended 3D framework structures in complexes 1 and 2 due to the N-H…O and C-H…O hydrogen bonds. The copper atom in 1 has square planar coordination, while the nickel atom in 2 adopts octahedral coordination geometry. The TG curve shows that complex 2 is stable in solid state to 150 ℃.

  17. Copper, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, and zinc levels in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Bilal; Jalbani, Nussarat; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas

    2008-04-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the metabolism of several trace elements is altered in diabetes mellitus and that these nutrients might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease. The aim of present study was to compare the level of essential trace elements, chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in biological samples (whole blood, urine, and scalp hair) of patients who have diabetes mellitus type 2 (n = 257), with those of nondiabetic control subjects (n = 166), age ranged (45-75) of both genders. The element concentrations were measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-induced acid digestion. The validity and accuracy was checked by conventional wet-acid-digestion method and using certified reference materials. The overall recoveries of all elements were found in the range of (97.60-99.49%) of certified values. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Zn, Mn, and Cr were significantly reduced in blood and scalp-hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects of both genders (p < 0.001). The urinary levels of these elements were found to be higher in the diabetic patients than in the age-matched healthy controls. In contrast, high mean values of Cu and Fe were detected in scalp hair and blood from patients versus the nondiabetic subjects, but the differences found in blood samples was not significant (p < 0.05). These results are consistent with those obtained in other studies, confirming that deficiency and efficiency of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Potassium Sodium Niobate-Based Lead-Free Piezoelectric Multilayer Ceramics Co-Fired with Nickel Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Kawada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have been extensively studied, many problems must still be overcome before they are suitable for practical use. One of the main problems is fabricating a multilayer structure, and one solution attracting growing interest is the use of lead-free multilayer piezoelectric ceramics. The paper reviews work that has been done by the authors on lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. Nickel inner electrodes have many advantages, such as high electromigration resistance, high interfacial strength with ceramics, and greater cost effectiveness than silver palladium inner electrodes. However, widely used lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics cannot be co-fired with nickel inner electrodes, and silver palladium inner electrodes are usually used for lead zirconate titanate-based piezoelectric ceramics. A possible alternative is lead-free ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. We have thus been developing lead-free alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramics co-fired with nickel inner electrodes. The normalized electric-field-induced thickness strain (Smax/Emax of a representative alkali niobate-based multilayer ceramic structure with nickel inner electrodes was 360 pm/V, where Smax denotes the maximum strain and Emax denotes the maximum electric field. This value is about half that for the lead zirconate titanate-based ceramics that are widely used. However, a comparable value can be obtained by stacking more ceramic layers with smaller thicknesses. In the paper, the compositional design and process used to co-fire lead-free ceramics with nickel inner electrodes are introduced, and their piezoelectric properties and reliabilities are shown. Recent advances are introduced, and future development is discussed.

  19. Optimization of microwave assisted digestion procedure for the determination of zinc, copper and nickel in tea samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Tuzen, Mustafa; Souza, Anderson Santos; das Graças Andrade Korn, Maria; Ferreira, Sérgio Luis Costa

    2007-10-22

    The present paper describes the development of a microwave assisted digestion procedure for the determination of zinc, copper and nickel in tea samples employing flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The optimization step was performed using a full factorial design (2(3)) involving the factors: composition of the acid mixture (CMA), microwave power (MP) and radiation time (RT). The experiments of this factorial were carried out using a certified reference material of tea GBW 07605 furnished by National Research Centre for Certified Reference Materials, China, being the metal recoveries considered as response. The relative standard deviations of the method were found below 8% for the three elements. The procedure proposed was used for the determination of copper, zinc and nickel in several samples of tea from Turkey. For 10 tea samples analyzed, the concentration achieved for copper, zinc and nickel varied at 6.4-13.1, 7.0-16.5 and 3.1-5.7 (microg g(-1)), respectively.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper, nickel and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles for potential use in dental materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Argueta-Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect is a desirable property in dental materials. Development of simple methods for the preparation of nanosized metal particles has attracted significant attention because of their future applications due to unusual size-dependent antibacterial properties. Copper (Cu, Nickel (Ni and bimetallic Cu–Ni nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical method and their antibacterial activity was tested against the widely used standard human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (gram-negative and Escherichia coli (gram-positive. Additionally, these nanoparticles were tested against the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Our results are promising for potential use in dental materials science.

  1. Biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. in fixed-bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Soufi, Samira; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Safaiyan, Shila; Mirian, Simin; Fallahe, Gila; Moazami, Nasrin

    2007-11-01

    The biosorption of copper, cobalt and nickel by marine brown alga Sargassum sp. were investigated in a fixed-bed column (temperature = 30 degrees C; different pH). Langmuir and Freundlich sorption models were used to represent the equilibrium data. The maximum Cu2+ uptake was obtained at pH 4 and the optimum Co2+ and Ni2+ uptake were at pH 7. Different dosage of biosorbent did not have an effect on the results, but the 3.5 and 5 g of biosorbent were shown higher uptake. The metal removal rates were rapid, with about 80% of the total adsorption tacking place within 40 min.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper, nickel and bimetallic Cu-Ni nanoparticles for potential use in dental materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Argueta-Figueroa; Raúl A. Morales-Luckie; Rogelio J. Scougall-Vilchis; Oscar F. Olea-Mejía

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial effect is a desirable property in dental materials. Development of simple methods for the preparation of nanosized metal particles has attracted significant attention because of their future applications due to unusual size-dependent antibacterial properties. Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni) and bimetallic Cu-Ni nanoparticles were prepared by a simple chemical method and their antibacterial activity was tested against the widely used standard human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (gram-negative) and Escherichia coli (gram-positive). Additionally, these nanoparticles were tested against the dental pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Our results are promising for potential use in dental materials science.

  3. Removal of lead, mercury and nickel using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlys Infante J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study the biomass of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to remove lead, mercury and nickel in the form of ions dissolved in water. Materials and methods. Synthetic solutions were prepared containing the three heavy metals, which were put in contact with viable microorganisms at different conditions of pH, temperature, aeration and agitation. Results. Both individual variables and the interaction effects influenced the biosorption process. Throughout the experimental framework it was observed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed a higher percentage of lead (86.4% as compared to mercury and nickel (69.7 and 47.8% respectively. When the pH was set at a value of 5 the effect was positive for all three metals. Conclusions. pH was the variable that had a greater influence on the biosorption of lead on the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The affinity of the heavy metals for the biomass followed the order Pb>Hg>Ni.

  4. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel from ore samples by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) as complexing reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Muhammed Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of dioxouranium(VI), iron(III), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), cobalt(III), palladium(II), and thorium(IV) by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) (H(2)SA(2)en) as a complexing reagent with total runtime ore samples indicating its presence within 103-1789 microg/g with RSD within 0.79-1.87%. Likewise copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were also simultaneously determined with RSD 0.4-1.6% (n = 6).

  5. Effect of air pollution on trees. VIII. Heavy metals in leaves of street trees: lead nickel, chrome, and cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, M.

    1971-01-01

    The nickel, lead, chromium, and cadmium contents of leaves of plants grown in Tokyo were measured. The nickel content ranged from 7-15 ppm, the lead content from 14-34 ppm, chromium from 4-16 ppm, and cadmium from 0.7-1.3 ppm. Fluctuations in metal contents were most pronounced for paulownia. High contents of nickel, lead, and chromium were found in highly polluted industrial areas. The differences in lead content in industrial areas compared to that in residential and commercial areas was less significant. This was attributed to the contribution of lead in exhaust gases. Correlation coefficients between metal content and insoluble materials adhering to leaves were calculated for individual plants.

  6. Lake sediments record prehistoric lead pollution related to early copper production in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeani, David P; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron A; Bain, Daniel J

    2013-06-04

    The mining and use of copper by prehistoric people on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is one of the oldest examples of metalworking. We analyzed the concentration of lead, titanium, magnesium, iron, and organic matter in sediment cores recovered from three lakes located near mine pits to investigate the timing, location, and magnitude of ancient copper mining pollution. Lead concentrations were normalized to lithogenic metals and organic matter to account for processes that can influence natural (or background) lead delivery. Nearly simultaneous lead enrichments occurred at Lake Manganese and Copper Falls Lake ∼8000 and 7000 years before present (yr BP), indicating that copper extraction occurred concurrently in at least two locations on the peninsula. The poor temporal coherence among the lead enrichments from ∼6300 to 5000 yr BP at each lake suggests that the focus of copper mining and annealing shifted through time. In sediment younger than ∼5000 yr BP, lead concentrations remain at background levels at all three lakes, excluding historic lead increases starting ∼150 yr BP. Our work demonstrates that lead emissions associated with both the historic and Old Copper Complex tradition are detectable and can be used to determine the temporal and geographic pattern of metal pollution.

  7. Effect of Reaction Temperature on Carbon Yield and Morphology of CNTs on Copper Loaded Nickel Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ming, Hu; Peiling, Ding; Yunlong, Zhang; Jing, Gao; Xiaoxue, Ren

    2016-01-01

      This investigation was attempted to introduce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto surface of copper powders in order to improve heat transfer performance of copper matrix for engineering application of electrical packaging materials...

  8. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  9. Electrical conductivity in directionally solidified lead-9 and -20 wt pct copper alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shinwoo; Flanagan, W. F.; Lichter, B. D.; Grugel, R. N.

    1993-01-01

    Composites consisting of aligned copper dendrites in a lead matrix have been produced by directional solidification processing for potential application as grids in lead-acid batteries. To promote a uniform composite of aligned copper dendrites in a protective lead matrix, two alloy compositions, Pb-9 and -20 wt pct Cu, have been directionally solidified through a temperature gradient of 4.5 K/mm at constant growth velocities which ranged from 1 to 100 micron/s. With slow growth rates (below about 10 microns/s), the copper dendrites were generally columnar and continuous along the sample length; at higher velocities (above 60 microns/s), they assumed an intricate and equiaxed morphology. In accordance with copper content and growth rate, the electrical conductivity of the directionally solidified composites was found to be as much as a 2.5 times that of pure lead. The results are compared with that predicted by a model based on a geometrical dendrite.

  10. High-performance reagent modes for flotation recovery of platiniferous copper and nickel sulfides from hard-to-beneficiate ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T. N.; Chanturiya, V. A.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of the recent research performed in IPKON Russian Academy of Sciences that deals with development and substantiation of new selective reagents for effective flotation recovery of non-ferrous and noble metals from refractory ores. The choice and development of new selective reagents PTTC, OPDTC, modified butylxanthate (BXm) and modified diethyl-dithiocarbamate (DEDTCm) to float platiniferous copper and nickel sulfide minerals from hard-to-beneficiate ores is substantiated. The mechanism of reagents adsorption and regulation of minerals floatability is discussed. The study of reagent modes indicates that by combining PTTC with the modified xanthate results in 6 - 7 % increase in the recovery of copper, nickel and PGM in the flotation of the low-sulfide platiniferous Cu-Ni ore from the Fedorovo-Panskoye deposit. The substitution of OPDTC for BX makes it possible to increase recovery of Pt by 13 %, Pd by 9 % and 2 - 4 times the noble metal content in the flotation concentrate.

  11. Preconcentration and separation of nickel, copper and cobalt using solid phase extraction and their determination in some real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Ahmadi, F; Soylak, M

    2007-08-17

    A solid phase extraction method has been developed to separate and concentrate trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper ions from aqueous samples for the measurement by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. By the passage of aqueous samples through activated carbon modified by dithioxamide (rubeanic acid) (DTO), Ni2+, Cu2+ and Co2+ ions adsorb quantitatively. The recoveries of analytes at pH 5.5 with 500 mg solid phase were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. The enrichment factor was 330. The detection limits by three sigma were 0.50 microg L(-1) for copper, 0.75 microg L(-1) for nickel and 0.80 microg L(-1) for cobalt. The loading capacity was 0.56 mg g(-1) for Ni2+, 0.50 mg g(-1) for Cu2+ and 0.47 mg g(-1) for Co2+. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in tap, river and sea waters, vegetable, soil and blood samples with successfully results (recoveries greater than 95%, R.S.D. lower than 2% for n=3).

  12. Auger electron spectroscopic study of mechanism of sulfide-accelerated corrosion of copper-nickel alloy in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Malcolm E.

    The mechanism of sulfide-induced accelerated corrosion of 90-10 copper-nickel(iron) alloy is investigated. Samples of the alloy are exposed to flowing (2.4 m/s) seawater, with and without 0 01 mg/l sulfide, for various periods of time. The resulting surfaces are examined by means of Auger electron spectroscopy coupled with inert-ion-homoardment. A detailed depth profile is thereby obtained of concentrations in the surface region of a total of nine elements. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that iron hydroxide segregates at the surface to form a protective gelatinous layer against the normal chloride-induced corrosion process. Trace sulfide interferes with formation of a good protective layer and leaves the iron hydroxide vulnerable to ultimate partial or complete debonding. When the alloy is first exposed to "pure" seawater for a prolonged period of time, however, subsequent exposure to sulfide is no longer deleterious. This is apparently due to a layer of copper-nickel salt that slowly forms over the iron hydroxide.

  13. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  14. Widespread copper and lead contamination of household drinking water, New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P J; Handley, H K; Taylor, M P

    2016-11-01

    This study examines arsenic, copper, lead and manganese drinking water contamination at the domestic consumer's kitchen tap in homes of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of 212 first draw drinking water samples shows that almost 100% and 56% of samples contain detectable concentrations of copper and lead, respectively. Of these detectable concentrations, copper exceeds Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) in 5% of samples and lead in 8%. By contrast, no samples contained arsenic and manganese water concentrations in excess of the ADWG. Analysis of household plumbing fittings (taps and connecting pipework) show that these are a significant source of drinking water lead contamination. Water lead concentrations derived for plumbing components range from 108µg/L to 1440µg/L (n=28, mean - 328µg/L, median - 225µg/L). Analysis of kitchen tap fittings demonstrates these are a primary source of drinking water lead contamination (n=9, mean - 63.4µg/L, median - 59.0µg/L). The results of this study demonstrate that along with other potential sources of contamination in households, plumbing products that contain detectable lead up to 2.84% are contributing to contamination of household drinking water. Given that both copper and lead are known to cause significant health detriments, products for use in contact with drinking water should be manufactured free from copper and lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study aimed at characterizing the interfacial structure in a tin–silver solder on nickel-coated copper plate during aging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Lin; R Kovacevic; T S Srivatsan; G X Wang

    2008-06-01

    This paper highlights the interfacial structure of tin-silver (Sn-3·5Ag) solder on nickel-coated copper pads during aging performance studies at a temperature of 150°C for up to 96 h. Experimental results revealed the as-solidified solder bump made from using the lead-free solder (Sn-3·5Ag) exhibited or showed a thin layer of the tin–nickel–copper intermetallic compound (IMC) at the solder/substrate interface. This includes a sub-layer having a planar structure immediately adjacent to the Ni-coating and a blocky structure on the inside of the solder. Aging performance studies revealed the thickness of both the IMC layer and the sub-layer, having a planar structure, to increase with an increase in aging time. The observed increase was essentially non-linear. Fine microscopic cracks were observed to occur at the interfaces of the planar sub-layer and the block sub-layer.

  16. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... requirements of § 141.87(e)(2), that it has re-qualified for triennial monitoring. (vii) Any water system... requirements for lead (i.e., a “lead waiver”), the water system must provide certification and...

  17. Selective separation of copper(II) and nickel(II) from aqueous media using the complexation-ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Raffaele; Poerio, Teresa; Argurio, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The polyethylenimine (PEI) as complexing agent was used to study the complexation-ultrafiltration (CP-UF) process in the selective removal of Cu(II) from Ni(II) contained in aqueous media. Preliminary tests showed that optimal chemical conditions for Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexation by the PEI polymer were pH>6.0 and 8.0, respectively, and polymer/metal weight ratio of 3.0 and 6.0, respectively. The effect of some important operating parameters on process selectivity was studied by performing UF tests at different parameters: pH, polymer/metal weight ratio, transmembrane pressure (TMP), and membrane cut-off in a batch experimental set-up. It was observed that process selectivity was achieved by choosing the pH value for obtaining a preferential copper complexation (pH 6.0), and the polymer/metal ratio needed to bound only the copper ion (3.0). The selective separation by UF tests was performed by using both a laboratory aqueous solution and a real aqueous effluent (water from Emoli torrent, Rende (CS)). The Iris 30 membrane at TMP of 200 kPa (2 bar) for both aqueous media gave the best results. A complete nickel recovery was reached, and copper recovery was the highest for this membrane (94% and 92%). Besides at this pressure, a lower water amount was needed to obtain total nickel recovery by diafiltration. A little higher membrane fouling was obtained by using the river effluent due to the presence of dissolved organic and inorganic matter.

  18. The 982 Ma Re-Os age of copper-nickel sulfide ores in the Baotan area, Guangxi and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛景文; 杜安道

    2002-01-01

    Re-Os dating on copper-nickel sulfide ores from the Baotan area, Guangxi, yielded an ore-forming age of 982±21 Ma(2σ), which demonstrates that copper-nickel sulfide deposits and their related mafic-ultramafic rocks occurred in the same period of time with the ophiolites in northeastern Jiangxi. Both of them are the products of collision-convergence between the Cathaysian plate and Yangtze plate and the subsequent extensional environment. Calculation of the γOs of the 982 Ma copper-nickel sulfide ores and its correlation with Re/Os indicate that injection-type massive ores display lower γOs values(-15.6 to -8.2) and lower Re/Os ratios(0.32 to 0.43), while basal liquation-type ores have γOs= -27.9 to -7.3 and Re/Os=5.36 to 11.24. This suggests that these copper-nickel sulfide ores and their related mafic-ultramafic rocks were derived from a Re-depleted mantle source and that contamination with some crustal material occurred during their intrusion.

  19. Biological Role of Cobalt(II), Copper(II) and Nickel(II) Metal Ions on the Antibacterial Properties of Some Nicotinoyl-Hydrazine Derived Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Chohan, Zahid H.; Sherazi, Syed K. A.

    1997-01-01

    Several cobalt(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of nicotinoylhydrazine-derived compounds were prepared and characterised by physical, spectral and analytical data. These compounds and their complexes have proven to be antibacterial. The screening data show the metal complexes to be more potential/bactericidal than the uncomplexed compounds against one or more bacterial species.

  20. Solvent effects on the stability of nifuroxazide complexes with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) in alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustayeen A; Ali, S Kauser; Bouet, Gilles M

    2002-05-21

    A spectrophotometric study of the complexation of nifuroxazide with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) was carried out in different alcohols. The formation of a complex in each case is reported and their stability constants have been calculated. For a given solvent, the stability of the complexes increases from cobalt to copper. In the case of copper(II), the stability varies as an inverse function of the dielectric constant of the solvent. A possible structure of the complex is proposed.

  1. Design of a Nickel-Based Bond-Coat Alloy for Thermal Barrier Coatings on Copper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Fiedler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase the lifetime of rocket combustion chambers, thermal barrier coatings (TBC may be applied on the copper chamber wall. Since standard TBC systems used in gas turbines are not suitable for rocket-engine application and fail at the interface between the substrate and bond coat, a new bond-coat material has to be designed. This bond-coat material has to be chemically compatible to the copper substrate to improve the adhesion and needs a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of copper to reduce thermal stresses. One approach to achieve this is to modify the standard NiCrAlY alloy used in gas turbines by adding copper. In this work, the influence of copper on the microstructure of NiCrAlY-alloys is investigated with thermodynamical calculations, optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and calorimetry. Adding copper leads to the formation of a significant amount of \\(\\beta\\ and \\(\\alpha\\ Reducing the aluminum and chromium content leads furthermore to a two-phase fcc microstructure.

  2. Analysis of cadmium, nickel, and lead in commercial moist and dry snuff used in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2013-06-01

    The extent to which smokeless tobacco endangers human health is an ongoing subject of debate. In this study, concentrations of toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), were measured in different snuff products (dry brown and black and moist green and brown), available and consumed in Pakistan. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined in 23 samples of various brands of snuff by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The reliability of methodology was assured by analyzing certified reference material. The resulted data of toxic metals in different snuff products are comparable to the existing information with limited exceptions. It was estimated that 10 g intake of different types of snuff could contribute 14-68, 17-47, and 20-73 % of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for Cd, Ni, and Pb, respectively.

  3. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  4. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...

  5. Effect of carbon coating on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of copper and nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minocha, Shalini; Mumper, Russell J

    2012-11-05

    The primary aim of these interdisciplinary studies is to investigate the effect of surface carbon coating on the physico-chemical properties and toxicity of carbon-coated and noncoated copper and nickel nanoparticles (C-Cu, Cu, C-Ni, Ni NPs) in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. Compared to Cu NPs, C-Cu NPs exhibit protection against surface oxidation, tenfold higher cellular uptake, and fourfold lower release of soluble Cu. The toxicity of C-Cu NPs and Cu NPs is associated with pronounced damage to mitochondrial function and plasma membrane integrity, respectively. Compared to Cu and C-Cu NPs, Ni and C-Ni NPs are less toxic. These studies demonstrate that correlations can be drawn between physico-chemical properties and resultant toxicity of NPs as a function of surface carbon coating.

  6. New Copper(Ⅱ) and Nickel(Ⅱ) Complexes of 4-Morpholinoacetophenone Thiosemicarbazone: Structural, Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BINGOL Haluk; COSKUN Ahmet; AKGEMCI Emine Guler; KAYA Basturk; ATALAY Tevfik

    2007-01-01

    4-Morpholinoacetophenone thiosemicarbazone, MAPT, and its nickel(Ⅱ) and copper(Ⅱ) complexes have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, spectral methods (FT-IR, 1H NMR) and cyclic voltammetry. Electrochemical behaviors of the complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry in DMF media showing metal centered reduction processes for both of them. The redox properties, nature of the electrode processes and the stability of the complexes were discussed. [Cu(MAPT)2]Cl2 complex shows Cu(Ⅱ)/Cu(I) couple and quasi-reversible wave associated with the Cu(Ⅲ)/Cu(Ⅱ) process. The reduction/oxidation potential values depend on the structures of complexes. Also, the antimicrobial activities of these complexes were determined against S. aureus, E. coli and B. subtilis.

  7. Quenching and partitioning response of carbon-manganese-silicon sheet steels containing nickel, molybdenum, aluminum and copper additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahkonen, Joonas

    In order to produce passenger vehicles with improved fuel economy and increased passenger safety, car manufacturers are in need of steels with enhanced strength levels and good formability. Recently, promising combinations of strength and ductility have been reported for several, so-called third generation advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels are increasingly being recognized as a promising third generation AHSS candidate. Early Q research used conventional TRIP steel chemistries and richer alloying strategies have been explored in more recent studies. However, systematic investigations of the effects of alloying elements on tensile properties and retained austenite fractions of Q&P steels are sparse. The objective of the present research was to investigate the alloying effects of carbon, manganese, molybdenum, aluminum, copper and nickel on tensile properties and microstructural evolution of Q&P heat treated sheet steels. Seven alloys were investigated with 0.3C-1.5Mn-1.5Si (wt pct) and 0.4C-1.5Mn-1.5Si alloys used to study carbon effects, a 0.3C-5Mn-1.6Si alloy to study manganese effects, 0.3C-3Mn-1.5Si-0.25Mo and 0.3C-3Mn-1.5Si-0.25Mo-0.85Al alloys to study molybdenum and aluminum effects and 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si-1.5Cu and 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si-1.5Cu-1.5Ni alloys to study copper and nickel effects. Increasing alloy carbon content was observed to mainly increase the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) up to 1865 MPa without significantly affecting total elongation (TE) levels. Increasing alloy carbon content also increased the resulting retained austenite (RA) fractions up to 22 vol pct. Measured maximum RA fractions were significantly lower than the predicted maximum RA levels in the 0.3C-1.5Mn-1.5Si and 0.4C-1.5Mn-1.5Si alloys, likely resulting from transition carbide formation. Increasing alloy manganese content increased UTS, TE and RA levels, and decreased yield strength (YS) and austenite carbon content (Cgamma) levels

  8. Direct and combined methods for the determination of chromium, copper, and nickel in honey by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez García, J C; Barciela García, J; Herrero Latorre, C; García Martín, S; Peña Crecente, R M

    2005-08-24

    In the present work, direct methods for the determination of chromium, copper, and nickel in honey by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy were developed using experimental design as an optimization tool. Once the optimum conditions for the individual methods were established, a direct method for the combined determination of the three elements was optimized using the response surface tool. Palladium was used as chemical modifier in all cases. Honey was diluted in water, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid. Triton X-100 was added to minimize the matrix effect and the viscosity of the sample. The RSD (better than 10%) and the analytical recovery (98-103%) were acceptable for all of the developed methods. Calibration graphs were used in the four methods to determine the concentration of the analytes in the sample. The detection limits of the combined method (0.21, 0.35, and 0.37 microg L(-)(1) for Cr, Cu, and Ni, respectively) were similar to those obtained for the individual methods (LOD = 0.17, 0.21, 0.33 microg L(-)(1) for Cr, Cu, and Ni, respectively). The direct-combined proposed method has been applied to the determination of chromium, copper, and nickel content in representative honey samples from Galicia (northwestern Spain). The concentrations found in the analyzed samples were in the range of (5.75 +/- 0.64)-(26.4 +/- 0.38) ng g(-)(1) of Cr, (79 +/- 7.8)-(2049 +/- 80) ng g(-)(1) of Cu, and (12.6 +/- 1.36)-(172 +/- 6.88) ng g(-)(1) of Ni.

  9. Characterization of laser doped silicon and overcoming adhesion challenges of solar cells with nickel-copper plated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The combination of localized laser patterning and metal plating allows to replace conventional silver screen printing with nickel-copper plating to form inexpensive front contacts for crystalline silicon solar cells. In this work, a focus is put on effects that could cause inhomogeneous metal deposition and low metal contact adhesion. A descriptive model of the silicon nitride ablation mechanism is derived from SEM imaging and a precise recombination analysis using QSSPC measurements. Surface sensitive XPS measurements are conducted to prove the existence of a parasitic surface layer, identified as SiO{sub x}N{sub y}. The dense SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer is an effective diffusion barrier, hindering the formation of a nickel silicide interlayer. After removal of the SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layer, cells show severe degradation caused by metal-induced shunting. These shunts are imaged using reverse biased electroluminescence imaging. A shunting mechanism is proposed and experimentally verified. New laser process sequences are devised and proven to produce cells with adhering Ni-Cu contacts. Conclusively the developed processes are assessed based on their industrial feasibility as well as on their efficiency potential.

  10. The impact of rotary lobe blower seal upgrades at INCO's Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corless, C; Costigan, J. [INCO Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery, Copper Cliff, ON (Canada)

    2000-10-01

    INCO's Pressure Carbonyl (IPC) plant at Copper Cliff is unique in the world in that it utilizes the same basic chemistry, but forms the nickel carbonyl at high pressure to accelerate the reaction and utilize less pure refinery feeds. Two main process gases are used, namely carbon monoxide and nickel carbonyl which are transported throughout the plant using various compressors and blowers depending on whether the gas is at high pressure or at low pressure. The high-pressure transport is accomplished by three five-stage reciprocating compressors. There are numerous low pressure gas blowers; all of them must have seals to ensure that the gas does not escape into the plant atmosphere, and just as importantly, to prevent the lubricating oil from entering the process gases. This paper describes an incident in 1997 when Castrol R40, a lubricant, entered the IPC plant carrier gas stream, adversely affecting equipment availability and process control. The main source of the Castrol R40 was determined to be the carrier gas and low pressure gas blowers. The entry of Castrol R40 into the carrier gas stream was successfully prevented when the mechanical shaft seals were replaced with Ferrofluidics seals. Details of the resulting new sealing arrangements, the status of blower upgrade project and results achieved to date are reviewed.

  11. Selective recovery of copper, nickel and zinc from ashes produced from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contaminated biomass used in the treatment of real electroplating effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Manuela D; Soares, Eduardo V; Soares, Helena M V M

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this work was to seek an environmentally friendly process for recycling metals from biomass-sludges generated in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. This work proposes a hybrid process for selective recovery of copper, nickel and zinc from contaminated biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used in the bioremediation of electroplating effluents. The developed separation scheme comprised five consecutive steps: (1) incineration of the contaminated biomass; (2) microwave acid (HCl) digestion of the ashes; (3) recovery of copper from the acid solution by electrolysis at controlled potential; (4) recycle of nickel, as nickel hydroxide, by alcalinization of the previous solution at pH 14; (5) recovery of zinc, as zinc hydroxide, by adjusting the pH of the previous solution at 10. This integrated approach allowed recovering each metal with high yielder (>99% for all metals) and purity (99.9%, 92% and 99.4% for copper, nickel and zinc, respectively). The purity of the metals recovered allows selling them in the market or being recycled in the electroplating process without waste generation.

  12. Lead, copper and zinc biosorption from bicomponent systems modelled by empirical Freundlich isotherm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sag, Y.; Kaya, A.; Kutsal, T. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Hacettepe Univ., Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    The biosorption of lead, copper and zinc ions on Rhizopus arrhizus has been studied for three single-component and two binary systems. The equilibrium data have been analysed using the Freundlich adsorption model. The characteristic parameters for the Freundlich adsorption model have been determined and the competition coefficients for the competitive biosorption of Pb(II)-Cu(II) at pH 4.0 and 5.0, and Pb(II)-Zn(II) at pH 5.0 have been calcualted. For the individual single-component isotherms, lead has the highest biosorption capacity followed by copper, then zinc. The capacity of lead in the two binary systems is always significantly greater than those of the other metal ions, in agreement with the single-component data. Only a partial selectivity for copper ions has been obtained at pH 4.0. (orig.)

  13. Electron-photon shower distribution function tables for lead, copper and air absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Messel, H

    2013-01-01

    Electron-Photon Shower Distribution Function: Tables for Lead, Copper and Air Absorbers presents numerical results of the electron-photon shower distribution function for lead, copper, and air absorbers. Electron or photon interactions, including Compton scattering, elastic Coulomb scattering, and the photo-electric effect, are taken into account in the calculations. This book consists of four chapters and begins with a review of both theoretical and experimental work aimed at deducing the characteristics of the cascade produced from the propagation of high energy electrons and photons through

  14. Simulation analysis of minimum bending radius for lead frame copper alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Juanhua; Shuguo, Jia; Fengzhang, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Copper alloy has a lot of excellent properties, so it becomes an important alloy for lead frame materials for the integrated circuit. The minimum bending radius of three different copper alloys (Cu-Fe-P, Cu-Ni-Si, Cu-Cr-Sn-Zn) for lead frame materials was analyzed by using finite element. Tensile tests for the three kinds of materials were done to obtain yield stress, ultimate strength and other parameters. The strain-hardening exponent n and normal anisotropy index r of the materials were ob...

  15. Study on the process mineralogy of Xiarihamu copper-nickel ore in Qinghai%青海夏日哈木铜镍矿石工艺矿物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长征; 杨启安; 吴树宽; 谢海林; 徐修生; 于传兵; 王治安

    2016-01-01

    青海夏日哈木铜镍矿石属硫化镍矿石,含镍0.63%~0.80%,铜0.14%~0.20%,钴0.025%~0.028%,是主要回收对象.矿石矿物组成复杂,铜矿物以黄铜矿为主,少量的墨铜矿和微量的方黄铜矿及铜蓝;镍矿物以镍黄铁矿为主,有微量的紫硫镍矿、砷镍矿、辉砷镍矿及含钴的辉砷镍矿等;铁矿物主要为磁铁矿,微量赤铁矿及菱铁矿.铜、镍矿物嵌布特征复杂、嵌布粒度细微,普遍被脉石矿物包裹,同时铜、镍矿物自身相互紧密连生;矿石中含镁脉石矿物较多,具有质地柔软,容易泥化,自然可浮性好,吸附能力强的特点,将给铜、镍矿物的分选带来不利的影响.%Qinghai Xiarihamu deposit copper-nickel ore belongs to the nickel sulfide ore ,nickel 0 .63% ~0.80% ,copper 0 .14% ~0 .20% ,cobalt containing 0 .025% ~0 .028% ,is the main object of recycling .The deposit of copper-nickel ore mineral composition complex ,copper content is given priority to with chalcopyrite ,a small amount of the ink copper and Party chalcopyrite and copper blue;Nickel mineral is given priority to with nickel pyrite ,there are traces of purple sulfur nickel ,nickel arsenic ,fai arsenic nickel and fai arsenic containing cobait nickel ore ,etc .Iron ore are mainly magnetite ,trace hematite and siderite . The disseminated characteristics of copper and nickel minerals are complicated which embedded in superfine particle and are generally packed by the gangue minerals .Meanwhile the copper and nickel minerals are closely associated .There are amounts of magnesium gangue minerals in ores with characteristics of soft texture ,easily sliming ,good floatability high adsorption ability .These will bring seriously bad impact to the separation of copper and nickel ore .

  16. 关于镀镍铜母线温升的分析%Analysis of Temperature Rise of Electroless Nickel Plating Copper Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕

    2012-01-01

    通过对镀镍铜母线产生温升进行分析,通过对镀镍过程以及镀层成分进行分析,提出控制镀镍层中有害元素的含量来解决降低温升的措施.%This article analyzes the temperature rise and process of the electroless nickel plating copper bus, its and the coating composi tion and puts forward the measures that the temperature rise is lowered is used to control the harmful element in nickel plating layer.

  17. Proceedings of the Symposium on Lead and Copper Azides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-10-26

    free from unhydrolysed polyvinyl acetate. The degree of polymerisation does not appear to be critical. An effective procedure is to add simultaneously...session was concerned with the hazards involved in the manufacture and subsequent usage of lead azide. A study had been undertaken of the explosions

  18. Corrosive microenvironments at lead solder surfaces arising from galvanic corrosion with copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline K; Stone, Kendall R; Dudi, Abhijeet; Edwards, Marc A

    2010-09-15

    As stagnant water contacts copper pipe and lead solder (simulated soldered joints), a corrosion cell is formed between the metals in solder (Pb, Sn) and the copper. If the resulting galvanic current exceeds about 2 μA/cm(2), a highly corrosive microenvironment can form at the solder surface, with pH galvanic currents, preventing passivation of the solder surface, and contributing to lead contamination of potable water supplies. The total mass of lead corroded was consistent with predictions based on the galvanic current, and lead leaching to water was correlated with galvanic current. If the concentration of sulfate in the water increased relative to chloride, galvanic currents and associated lead contamination could be greatly reduced, and solder surfaces were readily passivated.

  19. Nickel Phosphide as a Copper Free Back Contact for CdTe-Based Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Brian; Gupta, Akhlesh; Compaan, Alvin D.

    2002-03-01

    Nickel phosphide back contacts were deposited onto polycrystalline, thin-film, CdS/CdTe solar cells using DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of the etching procedure, substrate temperature, deposition duration, post-deposition diffusion temperature, and ambient on the initial performance and on the long term stability of the devices were studied. We found that the initial performance of nickel phosphide contacts was lower than typical Cu-based back contacts. However, the stability of the cells at open circuit under one-sun light soak for several months is better than for our standard contact with evaporated Cu and Au. The use of sputtered graphite as an interfacial layer improved the performance. Average efficiencies of over 8.6were achieved. The excellent stability makes Ni2P an attractive candidate for a Cu-free back contact to CdTe-based solar cells. Work supported by NREL and by NSF-REU.

  20. Electrodeposition of nickel plates on copper substrates using PC y PRC

    OpenAIRE

    Aperador Chaparro,William Arnulfo; Lopez,Enrique Vera

    2007-01-01

    Electrodeposition processes using direct current (DC) require the use of additives to control deposit structure and properties as well as current distribution. The Pulse Current (PC) and Pulse Reverse Current (PRC) techniques improve the properties of deposits based on an appropriate selection of the parameters involved. This research evaluates the influence of cathodic time (t on), anodic time (t rev), relaxation time (t off), and voltage on the resistance to corrosion of nickel deposits usi...

  1. Occupational exposure to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A; Peterson, E L; Kortsha, G X; Brown, G G; Richardson, R J

    1999-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in metropolitan Detroit to assess occupational exposures to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc as risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Non-demented men and women 50 years of age who were receiving primary medical care at HFHS were recruited, and concurrently enrolled cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 464) were frequency-matched for sex, race and age (+/- 5 years). A risk factor questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers, inquired about every job held by each subject for 6 months from age 18 onward, including a detailed assessment of actual job tasks, tools and environment. An experienced industrial hygienist, blinded to subjects' case-control status, used these data to rate every job as exposed or not exposed to one or more of the metals of interest. Adjusting for sex, race, age and smoking status, 20 years of occupational exposure to any metal was not associated with PD. However, more than 20 years exposure to manganese (Odds Ratio [OR] = 10.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06, 105.83) or copper (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.06,5.89) was associated with PD. Occupational exposure for > 20 years to combinations of lead-copper (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.59, 17.21), lead-iron (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.07,7.50), and iron-copper (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.40,9.71) was also associated with the disease. No association of occupational exposure to iron, mercury or zinc with PD was found. A lack of statistical power precluded analyses of metal combinations for those with a low prevalence of exposure (i.e., manganese, mercury and zinc). Our findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to manganese or copper, individually, or to dual combinations of lead, iron and copper, is associated with PD.

  2. Nickel, Lead and Zinc Contamination in the Surface Sediments of Agh Gel Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increased human activities around the Agh Gel wetland, this study aimed to measured accumulations of heavy metals (Ni, Pb and Zn in the surface sediment samples taken from this wetland. Materials & Methods: Samples were taken from 10 stations and exposed to bulk digestion and chemical partitioning. Finally, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were monitored with ICP-OES in the sediments. Also, geo-accumulation index, contamination factor and pollution load index were used to evaluate the magnitude of contaminants in the sediment profile. Results: The results showed, the average of metal concentration in samples (mg kg-1 wet weight were 34.20±3.58 for Ni, 25.37±2.52 for Pb and 127.20±15.21 for Zn, respectively. Therefore, the pattern of metal concentrations in sediment was determined as Zinc>Nickel >Lead. According to the mean I-geo values, sediments' qualities are classified as unpolluted category for Ni and Pb. Also, sediment's quality is classified as unpolluted to moderately polluted for Zn. The CF values for all elements are classified as moderate contamination. The PLI values indicated that metal pollution exists for all sampling stations. Conclusions: The obtained results indicated that the Agh Gel wetland has a potential to threaten by chemical pollutants such as agricultural effluent. So, in order to preserve the environment of the Agh Gel wetland from deterioration, monitoring of water and sediment qualities is recommended periodically.

  3. Removal of lead and nickel from aqueous solutions by SiO{sub 2} doped potassium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Gonzalez, Miguel A., E-mail: mgzlz@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, C.P 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Mty, Km. 13, AP 663, CP 25 000, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Gorokhovsky, Alexander V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Saltillo, Carr. Saltillo-Mty, Km. 13, AP 663, CP 25 000, Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Aguilar-Elguezabal, Alfredo [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, C.P 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    This paper is related to the elimination of Pb{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption in potassium tetratitanate doped with silica. The adsorbent was prepared in the form of pellets from potassium polytitanate (45 W%), powdered Pyrex glass (5 W%) and potato starch pastes (50 W%), which were extruded and heat treated at 1100 deg. C. The physicochemical characteristics of the granulated adsorbent allow the retention of lead from the aqueous solutions when passed through of an adsorption column, and the lead concentration in wastewater can fulfill the maximum permissible limits of national regulations. The experimental techniques used were: ICP, SEM, BET, Mercury Porosimetry and XRD. The nickel ions removal was carried out in sets of systems batches. The effects of the time on flow of the adsorbent and the pH of the solution on the effectiveness of the adsorption of Pb were also investigated. The maximum amounts removed of lead and nickel were 28 and 19.9 mg/g in batch sets. The mechanism of lead and nickel retention on the developed adsorbent is considered as a combination of adsorption, ion-exchange and precipitation processes. At basic pH values and with the adsorption results obtained in this paper proposes a kind of complex surface based on the formation of metal hydroxide on the surface of the original adsorbent. It is also shown that the lead-saturated adsorbent could be stabilized by means of a heat treatment.

  4. Electrodeposition of a protective copper/nickel deposit on the magnesium alloy (AZ31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Wang, T.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Weirich, T. [Gemeinschaeftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Neubert, V. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    An environmental-friendly Cu electrodeposition process was proposed for the Magnesium alloy (AZ 31). Experimental results show that a good bonding between Cu deposit and Mg alloy surface can be achieved with a pretreatment of galvanostatic etching and then copper electrodeposition in the alkaline copper-sulfate plating bath. Microstructures between Cu deposit and Mg alloy substrate were examined with scanning electron and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopes (SEM and EF-TEM). The Cu-deposited Mg alloy can be further electroplated in acidic Cu and Ni plating baths to acquire a protective Cu/Ni deposit.

  5. Effect of copper oxide on structure and physical properties of lithium lead borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, I.; Ratep, A.

    2015-09-01

    Copper-doped Lead lithium borate glass samples with the composition of (35- x) Pb3O4- xCuO-65Li2B4O7, where x = 5, 10, 15 or 20 mol%, have been prepared by melt quenching technique. Glass-forming ability, density, electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility and structural properties of lead lithium borate glasses have been investigated. IR spectroscopic data show that the copper ions play the role of glass modifier. Addition of CuO influences BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. Density is expressed in terms of the structural modifications that take place in glass matrix. The increase in Tg reflects an increase in bond strength, and samples obtain more rigid glass structure. Electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility χ data show a variable behavior with the increase in the copper content in two valance states Cu+ and Cu+2. In addition, optical properties depend on the change of the role of copper ions in the samples' structure. Optical energy band gap E opt and Urbach energy E tail are determined. The increase in E opt and UV cutoff with an increase in CuO content is due to the decrease in non-bridging oxygen concentration. The decrease in E tail at higher concentrations is attributed to the copper ion accumulation in the interstitial positions and to the formation of orthoborate groups. These samples are suitable for the green light longpass filters.

  6. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  7. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting process is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China during 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting process, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and installation rate of a certain type of APCD combination. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 was 67.6, 100.1 86.7 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the mercury in metal concentrates consumed by primary zinc, lead and copper smelters were 543 t. The mercury emitted into atmosphere, fly ash, other solids, waste water and acid was 72.5, 61.5, 2.0, 3774 and 27.2 t, respectively. Mercury retrieved directly from flue gas as byproduct of nonferrous metal smelting was about 2.4 t. The amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4, 30.6 and 2.5 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5%, 71.2% and 91.8% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  8. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  9. Jiangrun Copper Limited Company Set its Eyes on the Leading Position of Copper Processing Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Jiangrun Copper Limited Company’s total investment volume for projects of stranded copper wire with high strength and high conductivity as well as high-performance copper and copper alloy wire are 500 million yuan and 360 million yuan, respectively. The company plans to introduce 85 units (sets) of high-end

  10. Five Major State-Level Copper,Lead, Zinc Resource Succession Bases in Tibet Have Initially Taken Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to the Chengdu Center of China Geological Survey,five major state-level copper-lead-zinc resource succession bases in Tibet have initially taken shape,featuring tremendous resource potentials.It has been learned that these five major resource succession bases are respectively copper-lead-zinc molybdenum iron prospecting development base in Central Tibet,chromite

  11. The study on the rough surface of KFC copper strip applied to lead frame

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In the paper, the rough surface of KFC copper strip applied to lead frame was studied and analyzed. Themethod of energy spectrum analysis, SEM and metallographic analysis are adopted to study and analyze. To compare the component of the rough surface of KFC copper strip with one of the normal copper strip, the component abnormity is not found. But to observe its microstructure of the rough surface, there are thinner and regular dimpling in the surface before the polishing, and bigger crystal grains are found after the polishing. The coarse structure vanished when the sample is heated higher than 700℃.It is shown that current annealing technique is not reasonable and should be improved and optimized.

  12. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V

    2017-08-15

    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula, as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste.IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest undeveloped

  13. N-benzoylated 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: Spectral, magnetic, electrochemical, crystal structure, catalytic and antimicrobial studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, G.; Rahiman, A. Kalilur; Sreedaran, S.; Jegadeesh, R.; Raaman, N.; Narayanan, V.

    2010-09-01

    A series of N-benzoylated cyclam ligands incorporating three different benzoyl groups 1,4,8,11-tetra-(benzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 1), 1,4,8,11-tetra-(2-nitrobenzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 2) and 1,4,8,11-tetra-(4-nitrobenzoyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (L 3) and their nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes are described. Crystal structure of L 1 is also reported. The ligands and complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. N-benzoylation causes red shift in the λmax values of the complexes. The cyclic voltammogram of the complexes of ligand L 1 show one-electron, quasi-reversible reduction wave in the region -1.00 to -1.04 V, whereas that of L 2 and L 3 show two quasi-reversible reduction peaks. Nickel complexes show one-electron quasi-reversible oxidation wave at a positive potential in the range +1.05 to +1.15 V. The ESR spectra of the mononuclear copper(II) complexes show four lines, characteristic of square-planar geometry with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. All copper(II) complexes show a normal room temperature magnetic moment values μeff 1.70-1.73 BM which is close to the spin-only value of 1.73 BM. Kinetic studies on the oxidation of pyrocatechol to o-quinone using the copper(II) complexes as catalysts and hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylphosphate using the copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes as catalysts were carried out. All the ligands and their complexes were also screened for antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and human pathogenic fungi.

  14. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients

    OpenAIRE

    H. I. Afridi; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin,; Baig, J. A.; Kandhro, G A; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients (n=457), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For the purpose of comparison, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotomete...

  15. Experiment Study on Mineral Processing on One kind of Low-Grade Copper-Nickel Ore in Xinjiang%新疆某低品位铜镍矿选矿试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建芬; 余江鸿

    2011-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the low grade copper-nickel ore in Xinjiang,adopt a closed circuit test flowsheet which have one roughing,two scavenging and two concentrating copper-nickel mixed floating;and one roughing, one scavenging copper-nickel separation, middlings order returned."Reagents used in copper-nickel mixed flotation are the combined depressants of CMC and Sodium silicate, collecter iso-butyle Xanthate and assistant collecter A8. Copper-nickel separation medicament is conducted; using Activated Carbon to remove reagents,lime and T12 as the Inhibitors,Z-200 for collector. The Copper concentrate is obtained with Copper grade of 27. 03% , nickel grade of 0. 93% and Copper recovery of 67. 79%. The mixed concentrate of copper and nickel is obtained with nickel grade of 5. 59% .copper grade of 3. 79% and nickel recovery of 70. 82% , copper recovery of 29. 14%.%针对新疆某低品位铜镍矿矿石性质的特点,采用1粗2扫2精铜镍混浮、1粗1扫铜镍分离、中矿顺序返回的闭路试验流程,铜镍混浮以CMC与水玻璃的组合为脉石矿物抑制剂、异丁基黄药为捕收剂、A8为辅助捕收剂,铜镍分离以活性炭为脱药剂、石灰与T12的组合为镍矿物抑制剂、Z- 200为捕收剂,获得了铜品位为27.03%、铜回收率为67.79%、含镍0.93%的铜精矿,以及铜品位为3.79%、镍品位为5.59%、铜回收率29.14%、镍回收率70.82%的铜镍混合精矿.

  16. Jiangxi Copper Lead Zinc Smelting Project with an Investment of Nearly 5 billion yuan Started Construction in Hukou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,Jiangxi Copper Group Lead Zinc Smelting Project,a key construction project of Jiangxi Province’s "Ten,Hundred,Thousand Project" (referring to the plan to have a number of leading enterprises with annual sales topping

  17. A proposed methodology for the assessment of arsenic, nickel, cadmium and lead levels in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Germán, E-mail: santosg@unican.es; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    Air quality assessment, required by the European Union (EU) Air Quality Directive, Directive 2008/50/EC, is part of the functions attributed to Environmental Management authorities. Based on the cost and time consumption associated with the experimental works required for the air quality assessment in relation to the EU-regulated metal and metalloids, other methods such as modelling or objective estimation arise as competitive alternatives when, in accordance with the Air Quality Directive, the levels of pollutants permit their use at a specific location. This work investigates the possibility of using statistical models based on Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to estimate the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in ambient air and their application for policy purposes. A methodology comprising the main steps that should be taken into consideration to prepare the input database, develop the model and evaluate their performance is proposed and applied to a case of study in Santander (Spain). It was observed that even though these approaches present some difficulties in estimating the individual sample concentrations, having an equivalent performance they can be considered valid for the estimation of the mean values – those to be compared with the limit/target values – fulfilling the uncertainty requirements in the context of the Air Quality Directive. Additionally, the influence of the consideration of input variables related to atmospheric stability on the performance of the studied statistical models has been determined. Although the consideration of these variables as additional inputs had no effect on As and Cd models, they did yield an improvement for Pb and Ni, especially with regard to ANN models. - Highlights: • EU encourages modelling techniques over measurements for air quality assessment. • A methodology for minor pollutants assessment by statistical modelling is presented.

  18. Study of samarium modified lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite composite system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rani, Rekha [Department of Physics, SD PG College, Panipat 132103 (India); School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Juneja, J.K., E-mail: jk_juneja@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Hindu College, Sonepat 131001 (India); Singh, Sangeeta [Department of Physics, GVM Girls College, Sonepat 131001 (India); Raina, K.K. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, composites of samarium substituted lead zirconate titanate and nickel zinc ferrite with compositional formula 0.95Pb{sub 1−3x/2} Sm{sub x}Zr{sub 0.65}Ti{sub 0.35}O{sub 3}–0.05Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03) were prepared by the conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to confirm the coexistence of individual phases. Microstructural study was done by using scanning electron microscope. Dielectric constant and loss were studied as a function of temperature and frequency. To study ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the composite samples, corresponding P–E and M–H hysteresis loops were recorded. Change in magnetic properties of electrically poled composite sample (x=0.02) was studied to confirm the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. ME coefficient (dE/dH) of the samples (x=0 and 0.02) was measured as a function of DC magnetic field. - Highlights: • We are reporting the effect of Sm substitution on PZT–NiZn ferrite composites. • Observation of both P–E and M–H loops confirms ferroelectric and magnetic ordering. • With Sm substitution, significant improvement in properties was observed. • Increase in magnetization for electrically poled sample is evidence of ME coupling. • Electric polarization is generated by applying magnetic field.

  19. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  20. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g.

  1. The effects of lead and copper on the cellular architecture and metabolism of the red alga Gracilaria domingensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Claudiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Schmidt, Éder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Osorio, Luz K P; Pereira, Debora T; dos Santos, Rodrigo; Ouriques, Luciane C; Martins, Roberta de Paula; Latini, Alexandra; Ramlov, Fernanda; Carvalho, Tiago José G; Chow, Fungyi; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2013-06-01

    The effect of lead and copper on apical segments of Gracilaria domingensis was examined. Over a period of 7 days, the segments were cultivated with concentrations of 5 and 10 ppm under laboratory conditions. The samples were processed for light, confocal, and electron microscopy, as well as histochemistry, to evaluate growth rates, mitochondrial activity, protein levels, chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins, and carotenoids. After 7 days of exposure to lead and copper, growth rates were slower than control, and biomass loss was observed on copper-treated plants. Ultrastructural damage was primarily observed in the internal organization of chloroplasts and cell wall thickness. X-ray microanalysis detected lead in the cell wall, while copper was detected in both the cytoplasm and cell wall. Moreover, lead and copper exposure led to photodamage of photosynthetic pigments and, consequently, changes in photosynthesis. However, protein content and glutathione reductase activity decreased only in the copper treatments. In both treatments, decreased mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity was observed. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) heavy metals such as lead and copper negatively affect various morphological, physiological, and biochemical processes in G. domingensis and (2) copper is more toxic than lead in G. domingensis.

  2. Woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a biological indicator of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkin, S.P.; Hardisty, G.N.; Martin, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were determined in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse. Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) and soil and leaf litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution was centered on Avonmouth to the north-west of Bristol, the site of a primary zinc, lead, and cadmium smelting works. Concentrations of all four metals in the hepatopancreas, whole woodlice, soil and leaf litter were above background levels over a large area on all maps which, in the case of cadmium in the hepatopancreas, extended for 25 km to the east of the smelting works. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of each metal in woodlice and soil, and between woodlice and leaf litter, were positive and statistically significant in all cases. At individual sites, however, particularly those associated with disused mining areas, rubbish tips or busy roads, the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in woodlice could not have been predicted accurately from the levels of metals in leaf litter or soil due to the large scatter of data points along the lines of best fit.

  3. Electrochemical preparation of nickel and copper oxides-decorated graphene composite for simultaneous determination of dopamine, acetaminophen and tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingdi; Ouyang, Xiaoqian; Ding, Yaping; Luo, Liqing; Xu, Duo; Ning, Yanqun

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, transition metal oxides decorated graphene (GR) have been fabricated for simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), acetaminophen (AC) and tryptophan (Trp) using square wave voltammetry. Electro-deposition is a facile preparation strategy for the synthesis of nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles. GR can be modified by using citric acid to produce more functional groups, which is conducive to the deposition of dispersed metal particles. The morphologies and interface properties of the obtained NiO-CuO/GR nanocomposite were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the composite film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The modified electrode exhibited that the linear response ranges for detecting DA, AC and Trp were 0.5-20 μM, 4-400 μM and 0.3-40 μM, respectively, and the detection limits were 0.17 μM, 1.33 μM and 0.1 μM (S/N=3). Under optimal conditions, the sensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and satisfactory results in real samples analysis.

  4. Nanostructured Multilayer Composite Films of Manganese Dioxide/Nickel/Copper Sulfide Deposited on Polyethylene Terephthalate Supporting Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awangku Nabil Syafiq Bin Awangku Metosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured multilayer manganese dioxide/nickel/copper sulfide (MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were successfully deposited onto supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate through the sequential deposition of CuS, Ni, and MnO2 thin films by chemical bath deposition, electrodeposition, and horizontal submersion deposition techniques, respectively. Deposition of each thin-film layer was optimized by varying deposition parameters and conditions associated with specific deposition technique. Both CuS and Ni thin films were optimized for their electrical conductivity whereas MnO2 thin film was optimized for its microstructure and charge capacity. The electrochemical properties of nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry as electrode materials of an electrochemical capacitor prototype in a dual-planar device configuration. Cyclic voltammogram in mild Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte exhibited a featureless and almost rectangular shape which was indicative of the ideal capacitive behavior and high cycling reversibility of the electrochemical capacitor prototype. Nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films on supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate could potentially be utilized as electrode materials for the fabrication of high performance electrochemical capacitors.

  5. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Madrigal-Arias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE, this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au, copper (Cu and nickel (Ni by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs. These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  6. [Toxicity and accumulation of copper and nickel in wheat plants cropped on alkaline and acidic field soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Sun; Wei, Dong-Pu; Guo, Xue-Yan; Ma, Yi-Bing

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the toxicity of added copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) in soils to wheat and metal accumulation in wheat plants. The results showed that the yields of wheat straw and grain were decreased with the increasing concentration of Cu and Ni added to soils. The added Cu concentrations yielding 10% inhibition of wheat yield (EC10) were 499.6 mg x kg(-1) for alkaline soils (Dezhou, pH 8.90), and 55.7 mg x kg(-1) for acidic soils (Qiyang, pH 5.31). The toxicity of Cu or Ni in acidic soils were significantly higher than that in alkaline soils. With increasing addition of Cu or Ni, the contents of Cu in wheat grains initially increased and then keep at constant level, while the accumulation of Ni in grains linearly increased. The contents of Cu and Ni in Qiyang wheat grains were 6.07-9.26 mg x kg(-1) and 0.53-31.78 mg x kg(-1), and those of in Dezhou were 5.24-10. 52 mg x kg(-1) and 0.16-25.33 mg x kg(-1). In both field experimental sites, the contents of Cu in wheat grains meet the national standard for food safety. These findings showed that Cu is more relevant to ecological risk assessments than to food safety assessments for wheat grown in soils that have been contaminated with Cu.

  7. Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ron; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Extreme pollution of soils by emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex in the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashulina, G. M.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of the total Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, Pb, and Zn contents was studied in the soil profiles of six catenas in the zone subjected to emissions of the copper-nickel industrial complex, which is the largest source of SO2 and heavy metals in northern Europe. The results show that, at present, the concentrations of Ni and Cu in the upper organic soil horizons in the impact zone reach extreme levels of 9000 and 6000 mg/kg, respectively. Under conditions of the long-term intense multi-element industrial emissions, the modern levels of the accumulation of polluting substances in soils greatly depend on the indirect factors, such as the degree of the technogenic degradation of soils with the loss of a significant part of soil organic matter, the reaching of threshold saturation of the topsoil with polluting metals, and competitive relationships between chemical elements. The state of the ecosystems in the impact zone varied greatly and did not always agree with the contents of the main metals-pollutants in the soils. The moisture conditions determined by the landscape position affected significantly the resistance of the ecosystems to emissions.

  9. Cloud point extraction for the determination of copper, nickel and cobalt ions in environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Shokrollahi, A; Ahmadi, F; Rajabi, H R; Soylak, M

    2008-02-11

    A cloud point extraction procedure was presented for the preconcentration of copper, nickel and cobalt ions in various samples. After complexation with methyl-2-pyridylketone oxime (MPKO) in basic medium, analyte ions are quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in Triton X-114 following centrifugation. 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO(3) nitric acid in methanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The adopted concentrations for MPKO, Triton X-114 and HNO(3), bath temperature, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. Detection limits (3 SDb/m) of 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 ng mL(-1) for Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+) along with preconcentration factors of 30 and for these ions and enrichment factor of 65, 58 and 67 for Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. The high efficiency of cloud point extraction to carry out the determination of analytes in complex matrices was demonstrated. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of biological, natural and wastewater, soil and blood samples.

  10. Cloud point extraction for the determination of copper, nickel and cobalt ions in environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Yasouj, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Shokrollahi, A.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajabi, H.R. [Chemistry Department, University of Yasouj, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-02-11

    A cloud point extraction procedure was presented for the preconcentration of copper, nickel and cobalt ions in various samples. After complexation with methyl-2-pyridylketone oxime (MPKO) in basic medium, analyte ions are quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in Triton X-114 following centrifugation. 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} nitric acid in methanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The adopted concentrations for MPKO, Triton X-114 and HNO{sub 3}, bath temperature, centrifuge rate and time were optimized. Detection limits (3 SDb/m) of 1.6, 2.1 and 1.9 ng mL{sup -1} for Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} along with preconcentration factors of 30 and for these ions and enrichment factor of 65, 58 and 67 for Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}, respectively. The high efficiency of cloud point extraction to carry out the determination of analytes in complex matrices was demonstrated. The proposed procedure was applied to the analysis of biological, natural and wastewater, soil and blood samples.

  11. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  12. Atomistic study on mixed-mode fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron interacting with coherent copper and nickel nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Motasem, Ahmed Tamer; Mai, Nghia Trong; Choi, Seung Tae; Posselt, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The effect of copper and/or nickel nanoclusters, generally formed by neutron irradiation, on fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron was investigated by using molecular statics simulation. The equilibrium configuration of nanoclusters was obtained by using a combination of an on-lattice annealing based on Metropolis Monte Carlo method and an off-lattice relaxation by molecular dynamics simulation. Residual stress distributions near the nanoclusters were also calculated, since compressive or tensile residual stresses may retard or accelerate, respectively, the propagation of a crack running into a nanocluster. One of the nanoclusters was located in front of a straight crack in ferrite iron with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. Two crystallographic directions, of which the crack plane and crack front direction are (010)[001] and (111) [ 1 bar 10 ] , were considered, representing cleavage and non-cleavage orientations in ferrite iron, respectively. Displacements corresponding to pure opening-mode and mixed-mode loadings were imposed on the boundary region and the energy minimization was performed. It was observed that the fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron under the pure opening-mode loading are strongly influenced by the presence of nanoclusters, while under the mixed-mode loading the nanoclusters have no significant effect on the crack propagation behavior of ferrite iron.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structures and properties of two novel macrocyclic nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan-Hui; Liu, Jie; Li, Jia; Si, Xue-Zhi

    2007-06-01

    Two new 14-membered hexaaza macrocyclic complexes with the formulae [NiL](ClO 4) 2·CH 3COCH 3 ( 1) and [CuL](ClO 4) 2·CH 3COCH 3 ( 2), where L = 3,10-bis(2-thiophenemethyl)-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradecane, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, electronic spectra, IR and TG-DTA. In 1, the nickel(II) ion is four-coordinated with four nitrogen atoms from the macrocycle and forms a square-planar coordination geometry. In 2, the copper(II) ion is six-coordinated with four nitrogen atoms from the macrocyclic ligand in the equatorial plane and two oxygen atoms from the perchlorate anions in the axial position exhibiting an elongated octahedron coordination geometry. The two complexes present two different molecular arrangements in which the [ML] 2+ (M = Ni, Cu) cation arrays in the manner of M(1)M(2)M(1)… in sequence. The pendant thiophene groups of the neighboring macrocycles have no π⋯π interactions. All the ClO4- anions and acetone molecules are involved in hydrogen-bonding interactions with the macrocyclic ligand.

  14. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2 and nitrous oxide (N2O while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1 was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed.

  15. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, E.; Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2016-09-01

    New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  16. Study of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and enzymatic bio-Fenton process-mediated corrosion of copper-nickel alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, U; Hocheng, H

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the corrosion behavior of the copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloy in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) and glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme. In both the cases ferric ions played an important role in weight loss and thereby to carry out the corrosion of the Cu-Ni alloy. A corrosion rate of 0.6 (±0.008), 2.11 (±0.05), 3.69 (±0.26), 0.7 (±0.006) and 0.08 (±0.002) mm/year was obtained in 72 h using 9K medium with ferrous sulfate, A. ferrooxidans culture supernatant, A. ferrooxidans cells, GOx enzyme and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution respectively. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that a variable extent of corrosion was caused by 9K medium with ferrous sulfate, GOx and A. ferrooxidans cells. An arithmetic average surface roughness (Ra) of 174.78 nm was observed for the control work-piece using optical profilometer. The change in Ra was observed with the treatment of the Cu-Ni alloy using various systems. The Ra for 9K medium with ferrous sulfate, GOx and A. ferrooxidans cells was 374.54, 607.32 and 799.48 nm, respectively, after 24 h. These results suggest that A. ferrooxidans cells were responsible for more corrosion of the Cu-Ni alloy than other systems used.

  17. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu>Pb>Cd without alga and Pb>Cu>Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the "egg-box" model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  18. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu > Pb > Cd without alga and Pb > Cu > Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the 'egg-box' model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  19. River Sediment Analysis by Slurry Sampling FAAS: Determination of Copper, Zinc and Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Flávia L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental procedure for direct sediment analysis was developed. Using this procedure, copper, zinc and lead were determined and quantitative recoveries for these metals were accomplished at a low cost and with minimal sample manipulation. The influence of the nitric acid concentration on the slurry preparation, as well as the sediment particle size was investigated. Sediment slurries were treated with 6.0 mol L-1 nitric acid and 2% (m/v ammonium chloride, and sonicated for 15 minutes in an ultrasonic bath before quantification by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Using these conditions for a certified reference material, the percentage of recovery for copper, zinc and lead were 96.4 ± 4.9, 97.0 ± 4.0 and 99.7 ± 4.0, respectively.

  20. Estimation of lead, cadmium and nickel content by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in dry fruit bodies of some macromycetes growing in Poland. II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The content of lead, cadmium, and nickel in dry fruit bodies of 34 species of macromyoetes collected in Poland from 72 natural babitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS was estimated.

  1. Quantitative estimatation of lead, cadmium. and nickel contents by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in fruitbodies of some macromycetes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grzybek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium and nickel in dry fruitbodies of 13 species of macromycetes collected in Poland from 33 natural habitats by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS were estimated.

  2. Response of Four Russula Species under Copper Sulphate and Lead Acetate Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela BUSUIOC; Elekes, Carmen Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms have a species-specific affinity for heavy metals in soil. Therefore, mushrooms may act as an effective bioaccumulator of metals, thus can be used in mycoremediation technologies to remove and recover heavy metals from soil. The response of four Russula species to copper sulfate and lead acetate treatments concerning the absorption, accumulation and translocation of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Pb was studied. Differences in metal concentrations were recorded between caps and stipes of the fr...

  3. The effect of lead content and surface roughness on wetting and spreading of low-lead and no-lead solders on copper-clad FR-4 laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.O.; Roberts, J.L.; Davidson, R.N.; Yost, F.G.; Hosking, F.M.

    1997-02-01

    Environmental and health concerns pertaining to lead have encouraged research into low-lead alloys for electronic soldering. The development of solder alloys containing lower amounts of lead than Sn/Pb eutectic (37 wt.% lead), but possessing similar properties, is an industry-wide goal. To determine the wettability of low-lead solders, 21 alloys each of Sn/Ag and Sn/Cu eutectic (containing 0 to 10 wt.% lead and/or indium) were tested on as-received copper-clad FR-4. Contact angles for the alloys ranged from 12.5 to 38.9{degrees} and area of spread measurements ranged from 5.2 to 17.3 mm{sup 2} compared with 5 to 150 and {approximately}19 mm{sup 2}, respectively, for Sn/Pb eutectic. Alloys with 8 to 10 wt.% lead showed contact angles and areas of spread similar to Sn/Pb eutectic under similar conditions. The best results on the as-received substrates, compared to the Sn/Pb eutectic, were obtained from the Sn/Ag eutectic with 10 wt.% lead. The very low-lead (less than 10 wt.% lead) and lead-free alloys, however, failed to achieve the performance level of eutectic Sn/Pb solders. A desire to improve the spreading of very low-lead and lead-free solders provided the impetus for these efforts to produce {open_quotes}engineered{close_quotes} rough surfaces. In an attempt to improve the wettability and spreading behavior of very low-lead and lead-free alloys, the very low-lead and lead-free members of the Sn/Ag system were tested on roughened copper-clad FR-4. Every alloy in the test suite demonstrated improvement in area of spread on the roughened substrates. The best results on the roughened substrates, compared to the Sn/Pb eutectic, were obtained from the Sn/Ag eutectic with 8 wt.% lead. The effects of surface roughness on the wettability and flow behavior of solder alloys has provided insight into surface morphologies that lead to improved solderability.

  4. Simultaneous removal of copper and lead ions from a binary solution by sono-sorption process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Entezari, M.H. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: moh_entezari@yahoo.com; Soltani, T. [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775 Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this work is to compare the simultaneous sorption of copper and lead ions from a binary aqueous solution in the presence and in the absence of ultrasound. The experiments under sonication were carried out by 20-kHz apparatus. Results indicated that the removal of copper and lead ions from a binary aqueous solution was greater in the presence of ultrasound than in control method. The removal of these ions was examined by varying experimental conditions such as the amount of sorbent, contact time, and temperature. In addition, the competitive sorption of ions was considered with different concentrations of each ion under the constant total concentration. The Langmuir isotherm model fits adequately the experimental data. In point of kinetics, the second-order kinetic model describes the sorption process for both ions. It was found that more than 90% of the lead and 60% of the copper ions was removed in less than 2 min from the solution under sonication. The thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}, and {delta}S{sup o} were determined for the sorption of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from the temperature dependence of the sorption process.

  5. Copper doped nickel ferrite nano-crystalline thin films: A potential gas sensor towards reducing gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratibha; Godbole, R.V.; Bhagwat, Sunita, E-mail: smb.agc@gmail.com

    2016-03-01

    NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and (1 wt% and 3 wt%) Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films have been fabricated using spray pyrolysis deposition technique at 350 °C and then sintered at 650 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction, SEM, EDAX, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SQUID VSM were carried out to investigate phase formation, microstructural and influence of Cu doping on magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films. The gas response towards various gases viz. ethanol, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), methanol and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is investigated. The results of XRD revealed that all samples had shown the principal phase of nickel ferrite and the lattice parameter was found to vary from 8.294 Å to 8.314 Å on an incorporation of Cu, and the crystalline sizes were about 40–45 nm. The effect of Cu concentration on saturation magnetization and coercive force were studied. The maximum value of saturation magnetization calculated from hysteresis loop was 89.16 emu/g at room temperature and 96.88 emu/g at 50 K. Cu content on the film surface was found to be maximum for 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film and this film showed an improved response towards all gases. Response of ethanol for NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film was found to be higher as compared to all the other gases. The lowering of the optimum operating temperature is observed in 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin film with higher selectivity towards ethanol than other gases. All results indicated that the Cu doping in nickel ferrite thin films has a significant influence on the properties. - Highlights: • Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films are synthesized by low cost spray pyrolysis technique. • Addition of Cu content improves magnetic properties. • Cu content on the surface of the film enhances the gas response. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit predominant selectivity towards ethanol. • 1 wt% Cu:NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film responses towards ethanol at lower optimum temperature.

  6. Combustion Methods for Measuring Low Levels of Carbon in Nickel, Copper, Silver, and Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Savadkouei, Kayvon; Morin, Christophe; Fenstad, Jo; Copland, Evan H.

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory studies and a literature search indicate that there is no definitive procedure for combustion analysis of low levels of carbon in Cu, Ag, and Au. Literature data disagree by one to two orders of magnitude for solubility of carbon in Cu, near the melting point. Data for Ag and Au are very limited. This study develops a procedure for combustion analysis of ppm levels of carbon in high-purity Ni, Cu, Ag, and Au samples. For comparison, each sample is measured with glow discharge mass spectrometry. The study begins with Ni, as the procedure for this material is fairly well established. For the other metals, an optimum accelerator and sample-to-accelerate weight ratio is developed. Fine particle copper is a suitable accelerator for Cu and Ag samples, and also shows potential for Au samples

  7. Assessment of children environmental exposure to secondary emission of nickel, lead and copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kwapuliński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total rating impact of particulate matter in ground air layer recently takes on particular significance in evaluation of health risk. Indeed particulate matter is of interest to many research centres, however in so far PM related works the probability of adverse health impacts were not taken into account triggered with impact of additional presence of particulate matter from secondary dusting. The aim of the work: The work target was determination of secondary emission of Cu, Ni and Pb measured in streets with high traffic volume in many towns of Silesia Voivodeship. Materials and methods: Dust collected from the distance of about 200 m from busy roads in Upper Silesia cities was analyzed by the method of plasma spectrophotometry. The phenomenon of secondary dusting was defined by few coefficients of: secondary emission, enrichment, contamination and parameter of extra mass of a given metal in widespread air pollution. Results: It was concluded that absorbed dose of Cu and Pb changes depends on the area under study and decreases along with child’s age. Decrease of absorbed age depending doses is explained, so far, by significant increase of body mass in comparison to anatomically conditioned size of respiratory system.Also health risk estimated in relation to children residing in selected areas is diversified.. And it also decreases along with the children growing older. It appears, however, that health risk is determined by the volume of secondary PM emission and to children mostly threatened with Ni belong those who are particularly exposed to secondary emission of this metal. The secondary dusting is particularly dangerous for respiratory system and plays more important role than averaged content of this chemical in the environment.

  8. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  9. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  10. Home Plumbing Simulator for the Study of Copper and Lead Corrosion and Release, Disinfectant Demand, and Biofilm Activity - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corrosion of household or premise plumbing materials (such as copper, brass, and solder) and the metal release that results from that corrosion can cause numerous problems, ranging from “blue” water to copper pinhole leaks. If left untreated, these problems can lead to health...

  11. Biosorption of lead (II and copper (II by biomass of some marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisuksant, Y.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of heavy metal ions by algae is a potential technology for treating wastewater contaminated with heavy metals. Adsorption of lead (II and copper (II in aqueous solutions by some marine algae available in large quantities in Pattani Bay including Gracilaria fisheri, Ulva reticulata and Chaetomorpha sp. were investigated. The effect of pH on metal sorption of the algal biomass and the metal uptake capacity of the algal biomass comparing to that of synthetic adsorbents including activated carbon and siliga gel were studied by using batch equilibrium experiments. Each dried adsorbent was stirred in metal ions solutions with different pH or different concentration at room temperature for 24 hours and the residual metal ions were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The initial concentrations of lead and copper ionswere 70 µg/l and 20 mg/l, respectively. It was found that the effect of pH on metal sorption was similar in each algal biomass. The metal uptake capacity increased as pH of the solution increased from 2.0 to 4.0 and reached a plateau at pH 5.0-7.0. The metal uptake capacities of each algal biomass were similar. At low concentrations of metal ions, the metal adsorption occurred rapidly while at higher metal concentration less metal adsorption by each algal biomass was observed. The metal adsorption of activated carbon and silica gel occurred gradually and was less than those of algal biomass. The equilibrium data of copper and lead ions fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm values (mean±SD of Chaetomorpha sp., U. reticulata, G. fisheri, activated carbon and silica gel for lead ions were 1.26±0.14, 1.19±0.14, 1.18±0.15, 1.14±0.11 and 1.15±0.12 mg/g, respectively. For copper adsorption, the Qm values for G. fisheri, U. reticulata and Chaetomorpha biomass were 15.87±1.03, 14.71±1.02 and 12.35± 1.03 mg/g, respectively. While those of activated carbon and

  12. Cinnamaldehyde and cuminaldehyde thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes: a study to understand their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisceglie, Franco; Pinelli, Silvana; Alinovi, Rossella; Goldoni, Matteo; Mutti, Antonio; Camerini, Alessandro; Piola, Lorenzo; Tarasconi, Pieralberto; Pelosi, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of trans-cinnamaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (Htcin), cuminaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (Htcum) and their copper and nickel complexes. All the compounds, which on healthy cells (human fibroblasts) show a neglectable cytotoxicity, were screened in vitro in cell line U937 for their antileukemic activity. These compounds, in spite of their molecular similarity, present variegated behaviors. Htcin shows no inhibition activity in U935 cells, while both its metal complexes inhibit proliferation with IC50 at μM concentrations. The other ligand, Htcum, and its metal complexes, besides inhibiting proliferation, induce apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis highlights a G2/M checkpoint stop suggesting a possible direct action on DNA or on topoisomerase IIa. From CD and UV spectroscopy experiments, the DNA results to be not the main target of all these molecules, while both copper complexes are effective topoisomerase IIa inhibitors. All of these molecules activate caspase-9 and caspase-3, while caspase-8 activity is significantly induced by both cinnamaldehyde metal complexes. Tests on PgP and intracellular metal concentrations (determined by mean of atomic absorption spectrometry) show that the compounds tend to accumulate in the cytoplasm and that the cells do not manage to pump out copper and nickel ions.

  13. Accumulation of cadmium, lead, and nickel by fungal and wood biosorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holan, Z.R.; Volesky, B. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    Native fungal biomass of fungi Absidia orchids, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus nugricans, and modified spruce sawdust (Picea engelmanii) sequestered metals in the following decreasing preference: Pb>Cd>Ni. The highest metal uptake was q{sub max}=351 mg Pb/g for A. orchidis biomass. P. chrysogenum biomass could accumulate cadmium best at 56 mg Cd/G. The sorption of nickel was the weakest always at >5 mg Ni/g. The spruce sawdust was modified by crosslinking, oxidation to acidic oxoforms, and by substitution. The highest metal uptake was observed in phosorylated sawdust reaching q{sub max}=224 mg Pb/g, 56 mg Cd/g, and 26 mg Ni/g. The latter value is comparable to the value of nickel sorption by wet commercial resin Duolite GT-73. Some improvement in metal uptake was also observed after reinforcement of fungal biomass. 40 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. The influence of green microstructure and sintering parameters on precipitation process during copper-nickel-zinc ferrites sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural changes that occur during heat treatment of copper-nickel-zinc ferrites have been studied. The process of precipitation of the two types of crystals that occur during the sintering process has been analyzed. It is found that this process depends on dry relative density of the press specimens and on the following sintering parameters: sintering temperature, sintering time and cooling rate of the thermal cycle. Crystal precipitates characterization have been done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. These techniques have allowed to determine the nature of these crystals, which in this case correspond to zinc and copper oxides. It has been used two chemical reactions to explain the bulk precipitation and subsequent re-dissolution of these crystal precipitates during sintering.En este trabajo se han estudiado los cambios microestructurales que se producen durante el tratamiento térmico de las ferritas de cobre-níquel-cinc y se ha analizado el proceso de precipitación de los dos tipos de cristales que aparecen durante el proceso de sinterización. Se ha encontrado que este proceso depende de la densidad relativa en seco de las muestras compactadas y de las siguientes variables de la etapa de sinterización: temperatura y tiempo de sinterización y velocidad de enfriamiento. La caracterización de los cristales precipitados se ha realizado por microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, microanálisis por dispersión de energía de rayos X (EDX, difracción de rayos X (DRX, y espectroscopía de fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Estas técnicas han permitido determinar la naturaleza de estos cristales, que en este caso corresponden a los óxidos de cinc y de cobre. Se han propuesto dos reacciones químicas que permiten explicar el proceso de precipitación y la posterior re-disolución de estos cristales precipitados durante la

  15. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  16. Nickel, manganese and copper removal by a mixed consortium of sulfate reducing bacteria at a high COD/sulfate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, L P; Costa, P F; Bertolino, S M; Silva, J C C; Guerra-Sá, R; Leão, V A; Teixeira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The use of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in passive treatments of acidic effluents containing heavy metals has become an attractive alternative biotechnology. Treatment efficiency may be linked with the effluent conditions (pH and metal concentration) and also to the amount and nature of the organic substrate. Variations on organic substrate and sulfate ratios clearly interfere with the biological removal of this ion by mixed cultures of SRB. This study aimed to cultivate a mixed culture of SRB using different lactate concentrations at pH 7.0 in the presence of Ni, Mn and Cu. The highest sulfate removal efficiency obtained was 98 %, at a COD/sulfate ratio of 2.0. The organic acid analyses indicated an acetate accumulation as a consequence of lactate degradation. Different concentrations of metals were added to the system at neutral pH conditions. Cell proliferation and sulfate consumption in the presence of nickel (4, 20 and 50 mg l(-1)), manganese (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) and copper (1.5, 10 and 25 mg l(-1)) were measured. The presence of metals interfered in the sulfate biological removal however the concentration of sulfide produced was high enough to remove over 90 % of the metals in the environment. The molecular characterization of the bacterial consortium based on dsrB gene sequencing indicated the presence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfomonas pigra and Desulfobulbus sp. The results here presented indicate that this SRB culture may be employed for mine effluent bioremediation due to its potential for removing sulfate and metals, simultaneously.

  17. The dynamic of nickel and lead content in the profile of the meadow forest flooded soil in the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. М. Kunah

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of the experiment dealing with the study of nickel and lead migration through the soil profile have been presented in the work. Special attention has been paid to zoogenic factor of heavy metal migration. The usage of entropy measure to assess the heavy metal distribution in the soil profile has been proposed. The entropy evenness index has been shown to permit quantity estimation of the migration processes in the horizontal and vertical direction. The evenness of metal distribution in vertical direction is more active than in horizontal direction. The soil animals have an impotent role in the processes of increasing of horizontal heavy metal migration.

  18. Catalase Activity in Brown Mussels (Perna perna) under Acute Cadmium, Lead, and Copper Exposure and Depuration Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boudjema, Kamel; Kourdali, Sidali; Bounakous, Nabila; Meknachi, Abdellah; Badis, Abdelmalek

    2014-01-01

      Brown mussels (Perna perna) were exposed to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations under acute exposure and exposure-depuration tests for the estimation of biochemical biomarker catalase...

  19. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) And Zinc (Zn) from Tailing

    OpenAIRE

    Apriani Sulu Parubak; Eko Sugiharto; Mudjiran Mudjiran

    2010-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and nitric acid 65% as support electroly...

  20. Copper-nickel-rich, amalgamated ferromanganese crust-nodule deposits from Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Conrad, T.A.; Frank, M.; Christl, M.; Sager, W.W.

    2012-01-01

    A unique set of ferromanganese crusts and nodules collected from Shatsky Rise (SR), NW Pacific, were analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions, and dated using Be isotopes and cobalt chronometry. The composition of these midlatitude, deep-water deposits is markedly different from northwest-equatorial Pacific (PCZ) crusts, where most studies have been conducted. Crusts and nodules on SR formed in close proximity and some nodule deposits were cemented and overgrown by crusts, forming amalgamated deposits. The deep-water SR crusts are high in Cu, Li, and Th and low in Co, Te, and Tl concentrations compared to PCZ crusts. Thorium concentrations (ppm) are especially striking with a high of 152 (mean 56), compared to PCZ crusts (mean 11). The deep-water SR crusts show a diagenetic chemical signal, but not a diagenetic mineralogy, which together constrain the redox conditions to early oxic diagenesis. Diagenetic input to crusts is rare, but unequivocal in these deep-water crusts. Copper, Ni, and Li are strongly enriched in SR deep-water deposits, but only in layers older than about 3.4 Ma. Diagenetic reactions in the sediment and dissolution of biogenic calcite in the water column are the likely sources of these metals. The highest concentrations of Li are in crust layers that formed near the calcite compensation depth. The onset of Ni, Cu, and Li enrichment in the middle Miocene and cessation at about 3.4 Ma were accompanied by changes in the deep-water environment, especially composition and flow rates of water masses, and location of the carbonate compensation depth.

  1. Crippling effects of lead, steel, and copper shot on experimental mallards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochrane, K.L.

    1976-11-01

    In order to ascertain their capabilities in bagging or crippling farm raised mallards, No. 4 copper, No. 4 steel, and No. 6 steel shot pellets were compared to a 2.75-inch (6.985-cm) magnium (Winchester-Western Super XX) loaded with No. 4 lead shot. A total of 2400 ducks was experimentally shot, fluoroscoped, and analyzed biologically. Classification of a duck into the categories of bagged, crippled, or survivor was not affected by age or sex in any of the shot types tested. No. 4 lead shot broke significantly more bones than No. 4 steel shot when the categories of bagged, crippled, and survivor totals were compared. The overall performance of No. 4 steel compared to No. 4 lead in this experiment indicated No. 4 lead to be the best shotshell. No. 4 lead shot bagged more ducks and crippled fewer ducks than No. 4 steel. No. 4 steel shot pushed significantly more feather wads into shot wounds than No. 4 lead. Biologically, under the conditions of this experiment, the best lead shotshell available outperformed the best steel shotshell in that it produced fewer cripples at normal shooting ranges (up to 60 m). Whether or not the increase of crippling with steel shot is a lesser malady than poisoning awaits more precise data on lead poisoning and evaluation as to what constitutes normal shooting ranges for waterfowl hunters. Without such data, a change from lead to steel would be an arbitrary trade off. 6 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  2. Binding of transition metal ions [cobalt, copper, nickel and zinc] with furanyl-, thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-derived cephalexins as potent antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohan, Zahid H; Pervez, Humayun; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Rauf, A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2004-02-01

    A method is described for the preparation of novel cephalexin-derived furanyl-, thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-containing compounds showing potent antibacterial activity. The binding of these newly synthesized antibacterial agents with metal ions such as cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) has been studied and their inhibitory properties against various bacterial species such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are also reported. These results suggest that metal ions to possess an important role in the designing of metal-based antibacterials and that such complexes are more effective against infectious diseases compared to the uncomplexed drugs.

  3. Biosorption of Lead and Copper by Heavy Metal Resistance Bacterium using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Mohseni M, Khosravi F, Mohadjerani M, Chaichi, MJ . [ Biosorption of Lead and Copper by Heavy Metal Resistance Bacterium using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FT - IR ]. MLJ. 201 4 ; 8 ( 3 : [Article in Persian] Mohseni, M. (PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Contamination of environment to lead and copper is rising due to human activities. One of the best methods to remove heavy metals from the environment is bacterial remediation. This study aimed to isolate bacteria and investigate the mechanism of lead and copper bioremediation. Material and Methods: Heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from contaminated wastewater samples. The isolates with high resistance to lead and copper were selected for further studies and bioremediation was assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To determine the functional groups to remove metals, FT-IR was employed. In addition, plasmid curing was studied to determine the location of the genes that are resistance to heavy metals. Results: Ten bacterial isolates that are resistance to heavy metals were isolated. Among these, MKH3 with the highest remediation activity removed %90 lead and %92 copper from the growth medium. The absorption mechanism of MKH3 indicated that the functional groups such as carboxyl, amide, carbonyl and hydroxyl were most effective for removal of heavy metals from the growth medium. The results revealed that heavy metal resistant genes may be located on plasmid DNA. Furthermore, molecular identification demonstrated that MKH3 was similar to Enterobacterhormaechei with 98% homology. Conclusion: Bacterium isolated from a contaminated site showed the ability to remove a high amount of lead and copper. Thus, MKH3 could be useful for the bioremediation of heavy metals, particularly lead and copper, from industrial wastewater and contaminated sites.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, S. Sreehari; Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu2+ doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR - X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu2+ state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu2+ is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P-O-P bonds and creating more number of new P-O-Cu bonds.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of copper doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, S. Sreehari, E-mail: sreeharisastry@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Rao, B. Rupa Venkateswara [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjunanagar 522510 (India); Department of Physics, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering College, Vijayawada 52007 (India)

    2014-02-01

    In this paper spectroscopic investigation of Cu{sup 2+} doped alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses was done through the spectroscopic techniques like X-ray diffraction, Ultra Violet (UV) absorption Spectroscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR – X band), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. Alkaline earth lead zinc phosphate glasses containing 0.1% copper oxide (CuO) were prepared by the melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic studies indicated that there is a greater possibility for the copper ions to exist in Cu{sup 2+} state in these glasses. The optical absorption spectra indicated that the absorption peak of Cu{sup 2+} is a function of composition. The maxima absorption peak was reported at 862 nm for strontium lead zinc phosphate glass. Bonding parameters were calculated for the optical and EPR data. All these spectral results indicated clearly that there are certain structural changes in the present glass system with different alkaline earth contents. The IR and Raman spectra noticed the breaking of the P–O–P bonds and creating more number of new P–O–Cu bonds.

  6. Flotation-separation and ICP-AES determination of ultra trace amounts of copper, cadmium, nickel and cobalt using 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Omid Reza; Safavi, Afsaneh

    2005-09-01

    A rapid flotation method for separation and enrichment of ultra trace amounts of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions from water samples is established. At pH 6.5 and with sodium dodecylsulfate used as a foaming reagent, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and Co2+ were separated simultaneously with 2-aminocyclopentene-1-dithiocarboxylic acid (ACDA) added to 1 l of aqueous solution. The proposed procedure of preconcentration is applied prior to the determination of these four analytes using inductivity coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The effects of pH, concentration of ACDA, applicability of different surfactants and foreign ions on the separation efficiency were investigated. The preconcentration factor of the method is 1000 and the detection limits of copper(II), cadmium(II), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions are 0.078, 0.075, 0.072 and 0.080 ng ml(-1), respectively.

  7. Apparatus and technique for multiple tests by the confined-spot method of colorimetric analysis: Application to field estimation of nickel and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J.H.; Stevens, R.E.

    1958-01-01

    The confined-spot method of colorimetric analysis is generally applicable to the semiquantitative estimation of traces of ions in solution that form colored precipitates or otherwise alter material on a confined area of reagent paper. For precise results, the rate of flow of test solutions through the reagent paper must be reproduced on successive runs, so that the same proportion of reaction products is collected each time on the confined spot. A simple apparatus gives a controlled rate of flow and makes possible the analysis of many samples at one time with good reproducibility. This apparatus utilizes the increasing pull, resulting from the gradual lowering of the water level in a tank, to draw a sample solution through a confined area of reagent paper at a reproducible rate. Application to the rapid determination of nickel with dimethylglyoxime and of copper with rubeanic acid provides a method for determination of as little as 0.06 ?? of nickel and 0.03 ?? of copper. The coefficients of variation are 14 and 22%, respectively. This method has wide applicability in more rapid and convenient determination of trace amounts of many metals.

  8. Synthesis of cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Himanshu; Jiao, Yang; Burtch, Nicholas C; Huang, You-gui; Walton, Krista S

    2014-12-02

    The performance of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in humid or aqueous environments is a topic of great significance for a variety of applications ranging from adsorption separations to gas storage. While a number of water-stable MOFs have emerged recently in the literature, the majority of MOFs are known to have poor water stability compared to zeolites and activated carbons, and there is therefore a critical need to perform systematic water-stability studies and characterize MOFs comprehensively after water exposure. Using these studies we can isolate the specific factors governing the structural stability of MOFs and direct the future synthesis efforts toward the construction of new, water-stable MOFs. In this work, we have extended our previous work on the systematic water-stability studies of MOFs and synthesized new, cobalt-, nickel-, copper-, and zinc-based, water-stable, pillared MOFs by incorporating structural factors such as ligand sterics and catenation into the framework. Stability is assessed by using water vapor adsorption isotherms along with powder X-ray diffraction patterns and results from BET modeling of N2 adsorption isotherms before and after water exposure. As expected, our study demonstrates that unlike the parent DMOF structures (based on Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn metals), which all collapse under 60% relative humidity (RH), their corresponding tetramethyl-functionalized variations (DMOF-TM) are remarkably stable, even when adsorbing more than 20 mmol of H2O/g of MOF at 80% RH. This behavior is due to steric factors provided by the methyl groups grafted on the BDC (benzenedicarboxylic acid) ligand, as shown previously for the Zn-based DMOF-TM. Moreover, 4,4',4″,4‴-benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrayltetrabenzoic acid based, pillared MOFs (based on Co and Zn metals) are also found to be stable after 90% RH exposure, even when the basicity of the bipyridyl-based pillar ligand is low. This is due to the presence of catenation in their frameworks, similar to

  9. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days.

  10. Testing of the Eagle-Picher nickel-iron, the Globe ISOA lead-acid, and the Westinghouse nickel-iron battery subsystems in an electric-vehicle environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R.; Bryant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three full size developmental batteries were tested with electric vehicles; two nickel-iron batteries and a lead-acid battery. Constant speed and driving schedule tests were done on a chassis dynamometer. Several aspects of battery performance were evaluated for capacity, recharge efficiency, voltage response, and self discharge. Each of these three batteries exhibited some strengths and some weaknesses.

  11. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  12. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ≥ -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore T-score > -1.7), 1.463 ± 0.174, 1.327 ± 0.147 μg/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean ± SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 ± 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 ± 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 ± 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 ± 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 ± 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 ± 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 ± 20 ng/l and 3.80 ± 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger ample size might supply definite results about this association for copper and cadmium.

  13. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  14. Use of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Assessment of Biomonitor Plants for Lead, Cadmium and Copper Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gokce Kaya; Mehmet Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep,Turkey.Lead,cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.Lead,Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304~602,0.4~0.44 and 31~37 mg · kg-1,respectively.Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg · kg-1 was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L.plant.The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima >Morus sp.> Juglans regia L.> Ficus carica L.>Cydonia oblonga Miller> Prunus x domestica L.The plants,Populus nigra L.,Eleagnus angustifolia L.and Salix sp.were found useful for Cd,and the plant,Eleagnus angustifolia L.for Pb,to be considered as potential biomonitor.Especially,leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations.Therefore,people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  15. Methods of Reducing the Exhalation Lead Containing Copper%降低析出铅含铜的办法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪光

    2012-01-01

    铅电解生产的析出铅,在新开产时含铜超标的原因为:阳极泥中铜的溶解、铜盘管加热器氧化、滤液和新酸的加入,在生产过程中含铜超标的原因为:阳极含铜超标、阳极泥脱落或搅浑、析出铅结晶粗糙、盘管加热器的腐蚀。针对各种影响因数,分别采取针对性的办法,解决了析出铅含铜超标的生产技术难题。%Exhalation lead was produced by by electrolysis production. The during new production were copper anode slime of dissolution, copper coil heater reasons for copper containing exceeds oxidation, the filtrate and new acid to join. The reasons for copper containing exceeds during production were the anode containing copper overweight, anode slime fall off or muddied, exhalation lead crystal rough, and coil heater corrosion. According to various influence factor, adopting the specific measures respectively, the production technical difficult problem of copper exceeds of exhalation lead was solved.

  16. Effect of short-time exposures to nickel and lead on brain monoamine oxidase from Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatori, Ornella; Setini, Andrea; Scirocco, Annunziata; Nicotra, Antonietta

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work was to verify, in two small size freshwater teleosts Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulata, the effects of short-time exposures (24 and 72 h) to a sublethal dose (500 microg/L) of nickel and lead, on brain monoamine oxidase (MAO), an important neural enzyme. The 24-h treatment using both metals caused a strong reduction of MAO activity in D. rerio brain, whereas causing a slight MAO activity stimulation in P. reticulata brain. The same treatment in both species did not affect the brain MAO mRNA production as showed by RT-PCR. Extending the duration of treatment as far as 72 h, partly (D. rerio) or completely (P. reticulata) reversed the metal effects on brain MAO activity suggesting that mechanisms to neutralize the metals had been activated.

  17. Application of electroless nickel plating prior to sulfate copper electroplating%化学镀镍作为钢酸性镀铜前处理工艺的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元盛

    2012-01-01

    In order to avoid copper replacement reaction during sulfate copper electroplating on steel surface, electroless nickel plating process was introduced as the pretreatment of electroplating. The effect of electroless nickel plating on sulfate copper electroplating was studied. The results show that there is no copper precipitation on the surface of steel samples electroless nickel plated at least for 6 min after dipping in sulfate copper electroplating solution for 10 min. The effects of electroless plating coating on the both the surface appearance and the adhesion of copper coating are not obvious, so the eleetroless nickel plating can be used for the pretreatment of sulfate copper electroplating.%为了防止钢表面酸性电镀铜出现置换铜,采取在电镀铜前增加化学镀镍工序,研究了化学镀镍工艺对酸性电镀铜的影响。结果表明,化学镀镍时间超过6min时(镍层厚度〉2.5-3μm),工件在酸性镀铜液中浸泡10min,无置换铜出现。化学镀镍层对后续的酸性镀铜层的表面形貌和附着力均无明显影响,表明化学镀镍可作为钢酸性镀铜的底层。

  18. Removal efficiency of nickel and lead from industrial wastewater using microbial desalination cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaienia, Fariba; Asadipour, Ali; Jafari, Ahmad Jonidi; Malakootian, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new method of desalination. Its energy is supplied through microbial metabolism of organic materials. In this study, synthetic samples were provided with concentration of 25, 50, 75, 100 mg/L Ni and Pb. Removal efficiency of each metal was analyzed after 60, 90, 120 min, psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophilic and 3-4, 4-5, 5-6 mg/L dissolved oxygen. Optimum conditions for removing Ni and Pb were achieved in 100, 4.5 and 4.6 mg/L dissolved oxygen, respectively, 26 °C and 120 min. Nickel and led were removed from wastewaters of Isfahan electroplating industry and steel company. The maximum removal efficiencies of Ni and Pb in real samples were 68.81 and 70.04%. MDC can be considered as a good choice for removing Ni and Pb from industrial wastewater. Due to microorganisms for decomposing organic material in municipal wastewater, metals from industrial wastewater can be removed simultaneously.

  19. Relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair of people with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that some metals possess many adverse health effects. Recently, certain elements have been identified as essential trace elements that play an important role in the genesis and progression of several diseases. Some toxic metals have also been shown to be elevated in biological samples of diabetes mellitus patients. The status of trace elements in diabetes patients is also influenced by their diet, drugs administered and, to a large extent, by environmental factors. Pollutants due to the presence of toxic metals in environment not only enter the body by breading, water, and foodstuff accumulates in hair, but they could be adsorbed directly on the hair from environment. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of zinc, lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium in hair samples of diabetic women from Tehran (Iran. The study population consisted of 100 women between 30 to 70 years of age from Tehran. The hair samples were washed with 1% (w/v (DDTC, 0.1M HCL and deionized water. Afterwards, the hair sample dried in oven at 70° C for 5 hours and then digested the next day. Dry ashing digestion procedure was carried out. The concentration of elements was measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The statistical analysis confirmed that mean concentrations of lead and nickel did not differ significantly from the control group. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cr and Zn were significantly decreased in scalp hair samples of diabetic patients as compared to control subjects. Hair Cd level was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Values of Pearson correlation coefficient showed positive correlation between these elements.

  20. Closed circuit recovery of copper, lead and iron from electronic waste with citrate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Robinson; Lapidus, Gretchen T

    2017-02-01

    An integral closed circuit hydrometallurgical process is presented for base metal recovery from electronic waste. The leaching medium consists of a sodium citrate solution, from which base metals are retrieved by direct electrowinning, and the barren solution is recycled back to the leaching stage. This leaching-electrowinning cycle was repeated four times. The redox properties of the fresh citrate solution, as well as the leach liquors, were characterized by cyclic voltammetry to determine adequate conditions for metal reduction, as well as to limit citrate degradation. The leaching efficiency of electronic waste, employing the same solution after four complete cycles was 71, 83 and 94% for copper, iron and lead, respectively, compared to the original leach with fresh citrate solution.

  1. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Y.N. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Blazquez, M.L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: mlblazquez@quim.ucm.es; Ballester, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Munoz, J.A. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu > Cd {approx} Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb > Cu > Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  2. Characterization of the biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2008-10-30

    The recovery of cadmium, lead and copper with the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus was characterized and quantified. The biosorption data fitted the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm models, but did not adjust to the intraparticle diffusion model. The metal uptakes deduced from the pseudo-second order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model followed a similar sequence: Cu>Cd approximately Pb. The Langmuir maximum metal uptakes were: 0.9626 mmol/g, Pb 1.02 mmol/g, and Cu 1.66 mmol/g. According to the equilibrium constants of this isotherm model, the affinity of metals for the biomass followed this order: Pb>Cu>Cd. Biosorption was accomplished by ion exchange between metals in solution and algal protons, calcium and other light metals, and by complexation of the adsorbed metals with algal carboxyl groups. FTIR spectra showed a shift in the bands of carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfonate groups.

  3. Simulation of aging process of lead frame copper alloy by an artificial neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏娟华; 董企铭; 刘平; 李贺军; 康布熙

    2003-01-01

    The aging hardening process makes it possible to get higher hardness and electrical conductivity of lead frame copper alloy.The process has only been studied empirically by trial-and-error method so far.The use of a supervised artificial neural network(ANN)was proposed to model the non-linear relationship between parameters of aging process with respect to hardness and conductivity properties of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy.The improved model was developed by the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm.A basic repository on the domain knowledge of aging process was established via sufficient data mining by the network.The results show that the ANN system is effective and successful for predicting and analyzing the properties of Cu-Cr-Zr alloy.

  4. WETTING OF COPPER BY LEAD-FREE Sn-Cu SOLDERS AND SHEAR STRENGTH OF Cu – Cu JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Šebo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Developing and microstructure of lead-free Sn-Cu solders containing 3, 5 and 10 wt. % of copper in bulk as well as in ribbon form is presented. Wetting of copper substrate by these solders at the temperatures 300, 350 and 400°C in air (partially in N2+10H2 during 1800 s was studied by sessile drop method. Joints Cu – solder – Cu were prepared at 300°C and 1800 s in air as well as in gas mix and their shear strength was measured. The microstructure was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and standard X-ray diffraction machine. Wetting angle decreases with increasing wetting temperature. Wetting angle increased for higher (10 wt. % amount of copper in solder. Shear strength of the joints decreases with increasing the copper concentration in solder.

  5. Preparation and characterization of nickel-coated copper powder%镀镍铜粉的制备及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凤斌; 郭涵; 曹建国; 孙骋

    2011-01-01

    Nickel-coated copper composite powder was prepared by electroless plating with nickel sulfate as main salt, sodium hypophosphite as reducing agent, and sodium citrate as complexing agent. The particle size, morphology and elemental composition of the composite powder were analyzed using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive spectroscope. The effects of bath components on deposition rate were discussed. The results showed that the composite powder is coarser than the original powder, and the coating obtained is of Ni-P alloy. The deposition rate of electroless nickel coating is increased greatly with increasing concentrations of main salt, reducing agent and complexing agent, tends to be constant when the concentration of main salt is over a certain value, and become decreased with further increase of reducing agent. The composite powder has good resistance to oxidation below 100 ℃. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding efficiency of the conductive epoxy coating prepared with the nickel-coated copper powder is more than 50 dB in the frequency range of 30-100 MHz.%以硫酸镍为主盐、次磷酸钠为还原剂、柠檬酸钠为配位剂,通过化学镀法制备了镍包铜复合粉末.采用激光粒径分析仪、扫描电镜和能谱对镍包铜粉的粒径、形貌和元素组成进行分析,讨论了镀液成分对化学镍沉积速率的影响.结果表明,复合粉末较原始粉末粗糙,得到的镀层为镍磷合金.化学镍的沉积速率随主盐浓度的增加而加快,但到一定程度后趋于平缓.随着还原剂浓度增加,化学镍的沉积速率先增大而后下降;随着配位剂浓度增大,化学镍沉积速率逐渐增大.镍包铜粉在100 ℃以下有较好的抗氧化性.含镍包铜粉的环氧树脂导电涂膜在30~100 MHz频率范围内的电磁屏蔽效能大于50 dB.

  6. Effect of copper and lead on two consortia of phototrophic microorganisms and their capacity to sequester metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, A. [Departament de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de UAB, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Recursos Hidrobiológicos, Universidad de Nariño, Pasto (N) (Colombia); Maldonado, J. [Departament de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de UAB, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona (Spain); De los Rios, A. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales(CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Solé, A. [Departament de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de UAB, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Esteve, I., E-mail: isabel.esteve@uab.cat [Departament de Genètica i Microbiologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici C, Campus de UAB, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Recursos Hidrobiológicos, Universidad de Nariño, Pasto (N) (Colombia); Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales(CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •We studied the tolerance-resistance of phototrophic microorganisms to copper and lead. •We determined the capacity of consortia of microorganisms to sequester copper and lead. •CLSM-λscan is a technique for evaluating in vivo effect of metals on microorganisms. •SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX determined the capacity of microorganisms to sequester metals. -- Abstract: The roles of consortia of phototrophic microorganisms have been investigated in this paper to determine their potential role to tolerate or resist metals and to capture them from polluted cultures. With this purpose, two consortia of microorganisms: on one hand, Geitlerinema sp. DE2011 (Ge) and Scenedesmus sp. DE2009 (Sc) (both identified in this paper by molecular biology methods) isolated from Ebro Delta microbial mats, and on the other, Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 (Sp) and Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 (Ch), from Pasteur culture collection were polluted with copper and lead. In order to analyze the ability of these consortia to tolerate and capture metals, copper and lead were selected, because both have been detected in Ebro Delta microbial mats. The tolerance-resistance to copper and lead for both consortia was determined in vivo and at cellular level by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM-λscan function). The results obtained demonstrate that both consortia are highly tolerant-resistant to lead and that the limits between the copper concentration having cytotoxic effect and that having an essential effect are very close in these microorganisms. The capacity of both consortia to capture extra- and intracellular copper and lead was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) respectively, coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The results showed that all the microorganisms assayed were able to capture copper extracellularly in the extrapolymeric substances, and lead extra- and intracellularly in polyphosphate inclusions. Moreover

  7. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice...

  8. Syntheses, crystal structures, spectral and DFT studies of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with N‧-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene)acetohydrazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ram N.; Singh, Yogendra Pratap; Singh, Yogendra; Butcher, Ray J.; Zeller, Matthias; Singh, R. K. Bhubon; U-wang, Oinam

    2017-05-01

    Three new metal(II) complexes (copper(II)/nickel(II)) with N'-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene) acetohydrazide [Cu(HL)2]·(ClO4)21, [Ni(HL)2]·NO3·ClO4·0.5H2O 2 and [Cu(μ-CH3COO)(L)]2·4H2O 3 have been synthesized form N‧-(pyridine-2-ylmethylene) acetohydrazide (HL/L). The synthesized complexes were characterized by means of elemental analysis, spectroscopic, magnetic susceptibility and cyclic voltammetric measurements. Single crystal X-ray analysis of complexes has revealed the presence of a distorted octahedral geometry around mononuclear copper(II) and nickel(II) complex (1 and 2) and distorted square pyramidal geometry around copper(II) centers of complex 3. In the solid state Schiff base remains in its keto-tautomeric form. On complexation with Cu(II)/Ni(II) ions in natural or slightly acidic medium it coordinates through ketonic oxygen (keto form, HL) whereas in basic medium it acts as monoprotic (enol form, L) ligand. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility data of the compound 3 indicates the presence of weak antiferromagnetic interaction with J = -12.3 cm-1. The cyclic voltammograms of homobinuclear complex 3 in DMSO gave two irreversible waves which correspond to the Cu(II,II)/Cu(II,I) and Cu(II,I)/Cu(I,I) redox processes. On the other hand, the mononuclear complex 1 exhibited M(II)/M(I) quasireversible wave E1/2 = 0.06 V vs Ag/AgCl. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) data of copper(II) mononuclear and binuclear complexes 1 and 3 have been collected to investigate magnetic properties of the complexes in detail. The electronic structures, spectral properties of the ligands and the complexes have been explained by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. In addition, biological activity ranking of present complexes 1-3 are investigated theoretically. Complexes catalyzed the dismutation of superoxide (O2▪-) at biological pH in alkaline nitroblue tetrazolium chloride assay and IC50 values were evaluated.

  9. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  10. Effect of substituents on prediction of TLC retention of tetra-dentate Schiff bases and their Copper(II) and Nickel(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Nikola R; Perušković, Danica S; Gašić, Uroš M; Antunović, Vesna R; Lolić, Aleksandar Đ; Baošić, Rada M

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to gain insights into structure-retention relationships and to propose the model to estimating their retention. Chromatographic investigation of series of 36 Schiff bases and their copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes was performed under both normal- and reverse-phase conditions. Chemical structures of the compounds were characterized by molecular descriptors which are calculated from the structure and related to the chromatographic retention parameters by multiple linear regression analysis. Effects of chelation on retention parameters of investigated compounds, under normal- and reverse-phase chromatographic conditions, were analyzed by principal component analysis, quantitative structure-retention relationship and quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed on the basis of theoretical molecular descriptors, calculated exclusively from molecular structure, and parameters of retention and lipophilicity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Microplasticity and dislocation mobility in copper-nickel single crystals evaluated from strain-amplitude-dependent internal friction. [CuNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Y.; Okada, Y.; Asano, S. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Inst. of Tech. (Japan))

    1992-02-16

    Internal friction in copper-0.4 to 7.6 at% nickel single crystals is measured as a function of strain amplitude at various temperatures. Analysis of the data on the amplitude-dependent internal friction yields the relation of effective stress and microplastic strain of the order of 10{sup -9}. The stress-strain responses thus obtained exhibit that the microplastic flow stress increases more rapidly on alloying than the macroscopic yield stress. The mean dislocation velocity is also evaluated from the internal-friction data, which corresponds well to the etch-pit data. It is shown that the dislocation motion is impeded by friction due to dispersed solute atoms. (orig.).

  12. Development of a selective and sensitive flotation method for determination of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, copper and iron in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Ghaedi, M; Shokrollahi, A; Rajabi, H R; Soylak, M; Karami, B

    2008-02-28

    A simple, selective and rapid flotation method for the separation-preconcentration of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, iron and copper ions using phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime (PPKO) has been developed prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influence of pH, amount of PPKO as collector, type and amount of eluting agent, type and amount of surfactant as floating agent and ionic strength was evaluated on the recoveries of analytes. The influences of the concomitant ions on the recoveries of the analyte ions were also examined. The enrichment factor was 93. The detection limits based on 3 sigma for Cu, Ni, Co and Fe were 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method has been successfully applied for determination of trace amounts of ions in various real samples.

  13. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of copper(ii and nickel(ii complexes with l-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorides of copper(II and nickel(ll react with 1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole to give complexes of the type [M(LnCln(H20∙Cln (M = Cu or Ni; L = (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole; n=O, 1 or 2. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. These studies suggest that all the complexes possess an octahedral stereochemistry. The antibacterial activity of (1-benzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole or 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-2-methylbenzimidazole and their complexes was evaluated against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp.

  14. Cobalt, nickel, copper and zinc complexes with 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde Schiff bases: antimicrobial, spectroscopic, thermal and fluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Kumar, Yogender; Puri, Parvesh; Kumar, Mahender; Sharma, Chetan

    2012-06-01

    Two new Schiff bases of 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde and 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/H-1,2,4-triazole [HL(1-2)] and their Cobalt, Nickel, Copper and Zinc complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, (1)H NMR, Fluorescence) studies, thermal techniques and magnetic measurements. A square planar geometry for Cu(II) and octahedral geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been proposed. In order to evaluate the biological activity of Schiff bases and to assess the role of metal ion on biological activity, the pyrazole Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been studied in vitro antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal against Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus. In most of the cases higher activity was exhibited upon coordination with metal ions.

  15. Metal-Based Biologically Active Compounds: Synthesis, Spectral, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes of Triazole-Derived Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff bases derived from the condensation reaction of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl/ethyl-1,2,4-triazole with 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde were synthesized and tested as antimicrobial agents. The synthesized Schiff bases and their metal complexes were characterized with the aid of elemental analyses, magnetic moment measurements, spectroscopic and thermogravimetric techniques. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was supported by infrared and thermal gravimetric studies. A square planar geometry was suggested for Cu(II and octahedral geometry proposed for Co(II, Ni(II, and Zn(II complexes. The Schiff bases and their metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus. The metal complexes exhibited significantly enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity as compared to their simple Schiff bases.

  16. Sulfated chitosan/PVA absorbent membrane for removal of copper and nickel ions from aqueous solutions-Fabrication and sorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saied, M A; Wycisk, Ryszard; Abbassy, Moustafa M; El-Naim, G Abd; El-Demerdash, F; Youssef, M E; Bassuony, H; Pintauro, Peter N

    2017-06-01

    Novel absorbents for the removal of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) ions from aqueous solutions were prepared from solution cast sulfated chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol membranes (SCS/PVA) and their properties were investigated. FTIR, SEM, XRD and TGA analyses were used to determine membrane structure. The effect of environmental parameters on absorption was studied, including pH, contact time, temperature and the initial concentration of Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Freundlich and Langmuir absorption isotherms were fitted to experimental data and a pseudo-second order rate equation was employed to model the kinetics of uptake for several copper and nickel ion concentrations. The results indicate that the affinity of an SCS/PVA membrane for Cu(2+) ions was higher than that for Ni(2+) ions. The study demonstrated that the SCS/PVA system can be utilized as highly efficient sorbents, to extract Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) from aqueous feed solutions.

  17. Optimization of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium in natural waters and simulated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Claudio; Soto-Salazar, César; Toral, M Inés

    2006-12-01

    Chemical, electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine the effectiveness of the electrocoagulation process for the removal of copper, lead and cadmium. The electrochemical process, which uses electrodes of commercial laminate steel, was applied to simulated wastewater containing 12 mg dm(-3) of copper, 4 mg dm(-3) of lead and 4 mg dm(-3) of cadmium. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as pH=7, flow rate=6.3 cm(3) min(-1) and a current density between 31 and 54 A m(-2). When the electrode geometric area and time of electrolysis reached critical values, the copper removal reached a maximum value of 80%. A linear relationship was identified between the current density and the mass of generated sludge. In addition, a linear relationship was found between specific energy consumption and current density. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development of an industrial-scale electrolytic reactor.

  18. Mobilization of Intracellular Copper by Gossypol and Apogossypolone Leads to Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cell Death: Putative Anticancer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseeb Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that serum, tissue and intracellular levels of copper are elevated in all types of cancer. Copper has been suggested as an important co-factor for angiogenesis. It is also a major metal ion present inside the nucleus, bound to DNA bases, particularly guanine. We have earlier proposed that the interaction of phenolic-antioxidants with intracellular copper leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that ultimately serve as DNA cleaving agents. To further validate our hypothesis we show here that the antioxidant gossypol and its semi-synthetic derivative apogossypolone induce copper-mediated apoptosis in breast MDA-MB-231, prostate PC3 and pancreatic BxPC-3 cancer cells, through the generation of ROS. MCF10A breast epithelial cells refractory to the cytotoxic property of these compounds become sensitized to treatment against gossypol, as well as apogossypolone, when pre-incubated with copper. Our present results confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that plant-derived antioxidants mobilize intracellular copper instigating ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. As cancer cells exist under significant oxidative stress, this increase in ROS-stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  19. Hydrogen bonds as structural directive towards unusual polynuclear complexes: synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with a 2-aminoglucose ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Anja; Spielberg, Eike T; Simon, Sascha; Görls, Helmar; Buchholz, Axel; Plass, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of benzyl 2-amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (HL) with the metal salts Cu(ClO(4))(2)6 H(2)O and Ni(NO(3))(2)6 H(2)O affords via self-assembly a tetranuclear mu(4)-hydroxido bridged copper(II) complex [(mu(4)-OH)Cu(4)(L)(4)(MeOH)(3)(H(2)O)](ClO(4))(3) (1) and a trinuclear alcoholate bridged nickel(II) complex [Ni(3)(L)(5)(HL)]NO(3) (2), respectively. Both complexes crystallize in the acentric space group P2(1). The X-ray crystal structure reveals the rare (mu(4)-OH)Cu(4)O(4) core for complex 1 which is mu(2)-alcoholate bridged. The copper(II) ions possess a distorted square-pyramidal geometry with an [NO(4)] donor set. The core is stabilized by hydrogen bonding between the coordinating amino group of the glucose backbone and the benzylidene protected oxygen atom O4 of a neighboring {Cu(L)} fragment as hydrogen-bond acceptor. For complex 2 an [N(4)O(2)] donor set is observed at the nickel(II) ions with a distorted octahedral geometry. The trinuclear isosceles Ni(3) core is bridged by mu(3)-alcoholate O3 oxygen atoms of two glucose ligands. The two short edges are capped by mu(2)-alcoholate O3 oxygen atoms of the two ligands coordinated at the nickel(II) ion at the vertex of these two edges. Along the elongated edge of the triangle a strong hydrogen bond (244 pm) between the O3 oxygen atoms of ligands coordinating at the two relevant nickel(II) ions is observed. The coordinating amino groups of the these two glucose ligands are involved in additional hydrogen bonds with O4 oxygen atoms of adjacent ligands further stabilizing the trinuclear core. The carbohydrate backbones in all cases adopt the stable (4)C(1) chair conformation and exhibit the rare chitosan-like trans-2,3-chelation. Temperature dependent magnetic measurements indicate an overall antiferromagnetic behavior for complex 1 with J(1)=-260 and J(2)=-205 cm(-1) (g=2.122). Compound 2 is the first ferromagnetically coupled trinuclear nickel(II) complex with J(A)=16.4 and J

  20. Neutron production from 158 GeV/c per nucleon lead ions on thin copper and lead targets in the angular range 30-135 degree

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, Marco; Birattari, C; Foglio-Para, A; Gini, L; Mitaroff, Angela; Ulrici, L

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from 5, 10 and 20 mm thick lead and 10 and 20 mm thick copper targets bombarded by a lead ion beam with momentum of 158 GeV/c per nucleon were measured at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured with an extended range Bonner sphere spectrometer in the angular range 30-135 degree with respect to beam direction. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed to establish a guess spectrum for the unfolding of the experimental data. The results have shown that, lacking Monte Carlo radiation transport codes dealing with ions with masses larger than 1 amu, a reasonable prediction can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.85-0.95 for a lead target and 0.88-1.03 for a copper target.

  1. Development and functioning of microorganisms in concentration cycles of sulfide copper-nickel and non-sulfide apatite-nepheline ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina N. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number and trophic diversity of bacteria in flotation samples of apatite-nepheline and sulfide copper-nickel ores at the concentration plants of JSC "Apatite" and Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company have been determined. The study of the size and diversity of the microbiota has been conducted by culture on selective nutrient media. The total number and biomass of bacteria have been considered by fluorescence microscopy using Cyclopore polycarbonate membrane filters. Bacteria have been identified by molecular genetic methods. The least amount of both saprotrophic and other trophic groups of bacteria has been observed in the samples of ore and recycled water as at the concentrating factory of Apatit JSC, and also at the plant "Pechenganikel". It has been found out that the bacteria contained in the ore and recycling water flowing from the tailings increased their number during the flotation process due to coming of the nutrients with the flotation reagents, aeration and increased temperature. Strains which occurrence is more than 60 % have been extracted from recycled water and basic flotation products and classified as Pseudomonas. Two strains with occurrence of more than 60 % have been discovered at Apatit JSC and classified as Stenotrophomonas and Acinetobacter. The number of fungi in the cycle of apatite-nepheline ore enrichment at the factories is very low (1 to 24 CFU / 1 ml or 1 g of ore. Fungi of the genus Penicillium have been dominated, fungi of the genera Acremonium, Aureobasidium, Alternaria, Chaetomium have also been detected. At the plant "Pechenganikel" species Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium aurantiogriseum and P. glabrum have been extracted. It has been shown that the bacteria deteriorate the apatite flotation as a result of their interaction with active centers of calcium-containing minerals and intensive flocculation decreasing the floatation selectivity. Also some trend of copper and nickel recovery change has been

  2. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  3. Oxidation kinetics of thin copper films and wetting behaviour of copper and Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP) with lead-free solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Mauricio, E-mail: mauricio.ramirez2@de.bosch.com [Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Strasse 2, 71701 Schwieberdingen (Germany); Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Henneken, Lothar [Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert-Bosch-Strasse 2, 71701 Schwieberdingen (Germany); Virtanen, Sannakaisa [Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstrasse 7, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    The oxide formation on thin copper films deposited on Si wafer was studied by XPS, SEM and Sequential Electrochemical Reduction Analysis SERA. The surfaces were oxidized in air with a reflow oven as used in electronic assembly at temperatures of 100 deg. C, 155 deg. C, 200 deg. C, 230 deg. C and 260 deg. C. The SERA analyses detected only the formation of Cu{sub 2}O but the XPS analysis done for the calibration of the SERA equipment proved also the presence of a CuO layer smaller than 2 nm above the Cu{sub 2}O oxide. The oxide growth follows a power-law dependence on time within this temperature range and an activation energy of 33.1 kJ/mol was obtained. The wettability of these surfaces was also determined by measuring the contact angle between solder and copper substrate after the soldering process. A correlation between oxide thickness and wetting angle was established. It was found that the wetting is acceptable only when the oxide thickness is smaller than 16 nm. An activation energy of 27 kJ/mol was acquired for the spreading of lead free solder on oxidized copper surfaces. From wetting tests on copper surfaces protected by Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP), it was possible to calculate the activation energy for the thermal decomposition of these protective layers.

  4. Effect of Reflow Time on Wetting Behavior, Microstructure Evolution, and Joint Strength of Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu Solder on Bare and Nickel-Coated Copper Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona, Mrunali; Prabhu, K. Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The effect of reflow time on wetting behavior of Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder on bare and nickel-coated copper substrates has been investigated. The solder alloy was reflowed at 270°C for various reflow times of 10 s, 100 s, 300 s, and 500 s. On bare copper substrate, the intermetallic compound (IMC) thickness increased with increase in reflow time, whereas on Ni-coated Cu substrate, the IMC thickness increased up to 300 s followed by a drop for solder alloy reflowed for 500 s. The spreading behavior of the solder alloy was categorized into capillary, gravity (diffusion), and viscous zones. Gravity zone was obtained from 3.8 ± 0.43 s to 38.97 ± 3.38 s and from 5.99 ± 0.5 s to 77.82 ± 8.84 s for the Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Ni/Cu system, respectively. Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy was also reflowed for the period corresponding to the end of the gravity zone (40 s and 80 s on bare and Ni-coated Cu, respectively). The joint strength was maximum at reflow time of 40 s and 80 s for the Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Cu and Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu/Ni/Cu system, respectively. The dynamic contact angle at the end of the gravity (diffusion) zone ( θ gz) was found to be a better parameter compared with the stabilized contact angle ( θ f) to assess the effect of the wettability of the liquid solder on the microstructure and joint strength. The present investigation reveals the significance of the gravity zone in assessment of optimum reflow time for lead-free solder alloys.

  5. Influence of bioaccessibility on the toxicity of heavy metal (nickel, chromium, cadmium and lead) species; Einfluss der Resorptionsverfuegbarkeit auf die Toxizitaet von Verbindungen der Schwermetalle Nickel, Chrom, Cadmium und Blei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Oltmanns, J.; Kalberlah, F. [FoBiG Forschungs- und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Voss, J.U. [Toxikologische Beratung, Chemikalienbewertung - Risikoabschaetzung, Muellheim (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The risk assessment of heavy metals at hazardous waste sites is based on total elemental concentrations in the soil without differentiation of metal species. This literature study investigates the correlation between bioaccessibility and toxicity of compounds of the heavy metals nickel, chromium, cadmium and lead with low water solubility. Chronic oral toxicity studies for sparsely soluble species are generally lacking. Only for chromic oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) derivation of a tolerable daily dose is possible based on chronic toxicity studies. The chronic oral toxicity of water-soluble chromium-III-compounds can be assessed by comparing effective doses with well-studied, highly toxic Cr-VI-compounds. In general, lower water-solubility is correlated with lower bioaccessibility and lower toxicity in case of the sulfides of nickel, lead and cadmium (and also with nickel oxide and lead chromate). However, some carbonates, oxides and hydroxides (lead oxide, lead carbonate, cadmium oxide, cadmium carbonate, nickel carbonate, nickel hydroxide) show a better solubility in biological media and higher toxicity than expected based solely on poor water solubility. This can be explained by a higher solubility of these compounds in acid environments. Compounds with poor water solubility like nickel oxide and cadmium sulfide are absorbed only to a minor extent from the respiratory tract after inhalation. However, absorption in the respiratory tract is not strictly correlated with bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract. The influence of absorption on respiratory toxicity and on lung carcinogenicity of the heavy metals differs. For example, nickel sulfate, a compound with high water solubility, was toxic in the respiratory tract by inhalation, but not carcinogenic, whereas nickel subsulfide, a compound with lower water solubility, induced lung tumours. For the risk assessment of hazardous waste sites this means that results of in vitro digestive models (for the

  6. The technical and economic efficiency in the mineral processing for lead-zinc and copper ores by Microsoft excel

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Dejan; Vuckovski, Zoran

    2012-01-01

    The comparisons between economical and technical efficiency for lead flotation indicators, zinc flotation indicators in Sasa mine, Toranica and Zletovo mine. The comparisons for economic and technical efficiency for copper flotation indicators in Bucim mine. The possibility of equaled between both efficiencies for flotation indicators from mentioned mines using Microsoft Excel 2010.

  7. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    ...) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050...

  8. Amide to Alkyne Interconversion via a Nickel/Copper-Catalyzed Deamidative Cross-Coupling of Aryl and Alkenyl Amides

    KAUST Repository

    Srimontree, Watchara

    2017-06-05

    A nickel-catalyzed deamidative cross-coupling reaction of amides with terminal alkynes as coupling partners was disclosed. This newly developed methodology allows the direct interconversion of amides to alkynes and enables a facile route for C(sp2)-C(sp) bond formation in a straightforward and mild fashion.

  9. Lead concentration in blood of school children from copper mining area and the level of somatic development at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sławińska-Ochla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to assess the relations between lead intoxication in children at younger school age and the level of somatic development at birth. Materials and Methods. The research includes 717 children and adolescents 7–15 years old from LegnickoGłogowski copper mining region, which live in the vincity of „Głogów”, „Legnica” copper industrial plants and flotation tank reservoir „Żelazny most”. The analysis contained measures such as birth height, birth weight, Apgar score points, and blood lead level in 2007 and 2008. The whole blood lead level (Pb-B was indicated using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS with electrothermic atomization by certified The Foundation for Children From The Copper Basin laboratory. Results.Rural childrenwere noted forsignificantly higher blood lead levelsthan urban peers. Also boysin comparison to girls had higher blood lead levels. Regardless of gender and place of residence there were no significant correlation between blood lead level and body mass at birth. Conclusion. The biological state of the organism at the moment of birth has no connection with the susceptibility to absorption of lead in the later phases of ontogenesis: the earlier school age and adlescence.

  10. Development of technique for AR coating nickel and copper metallization of solar cells FPS project product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental matrices were conducted to determine a suitable firing schedule for fritless tin printing ink. considerable difficulties were encountered with oxidation. Best results were obtained with a firing cycle consisting of 400 C for 20 minutes in nitrogen followed by 5 minutes in air at 500 C. Elimination of oxidizing conditions impaired the adhesion of both tin and copper fritless printing inks, although adhesion of fritless copper inks was obtained when fired in nitrogen with slight oxidation.

  11. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, George J

    2015-12-02

    It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer's disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer's disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson's disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer's is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson's is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer's epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure.

  12. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  13. Electrochemical Migration Behavior of Copper-Clad Laminate and Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold Printed Circuit Boards under Thin Electrolyte Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical migration (ECM behavior of copper-clad laminate (PCB-Cu and electroless nickel/immersion gold printed circuit boards (PCB-ENIG under thin electrolyte layers of different thicknesses containing 0.1 M Na2SO4 was studied. Results showed that, under the bias voltage of 12 V, the reverse migration of ions occurred. For PCB-Cu, both copper dendrites and sulfate precipitates were found on the surface of FR-4 (board material between two plates. Moreover, the Cu dendrite was produced between the two plates and migrated toward cathode. Compared to PCB-Cu, PCB-ENIG exhibited a higher tendency of ECM failure and suffered from seriously short circuit failure under high relative humidity (RH environment. SKP results demonstrated that surface potentials of the anode plates were greater than those of the cathode plates, and those potentials of the two plates exhibited a descending trend as the RH increased. At the end of the paper, an electrochemical migration corrosion failure model of PCB was proposed.

  14. Oral administration of copper to rats leads to increased lymphocyte cellular DNA degradation by dietary polyphenols: implications for a cancer preventive mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Husain Y; Zubair, Haseeb; Ullah, Mohd F; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, Sheikh M

    2011-12-01

    To account for the observed anticancer properties of plant polyphenols, we have earlier proposed a mechanism which involves the mobilization of endogenous copper ions by polyphenols leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that serve as proximal DNA cleaving agents and lead to cell death. Over the last decade we have proceeded to validate our hypothesis with considerable success. As a further confirmation of our hypothesis, in this paper we first show that oral administration of copper to rats leads to elevated copper levels in lymphocytes. When such lymphocytes with a copper overload were isolated and treated with polyphenols EGCG, genistein and resveratrol, an increased level of DNA breakage was observed. Further, preincubation of lymphocytes having elevated copper levels with the membrane permeable copper chelator neocuproine, resulted in inhibition of polyphenol induced DNA degradation. However, membrane impermeable chelator of copper bathocuproine, as well as iron and zinc chelators were ineffective in causing such inhibition in DNA breakage, confirming the involvement of endogenous copper in polyphenol induced cellular DNA degradation. It is well established that serum and tissue concentrations of copper are greatly increased in various malignancies. In view of this fact, the present results further confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that an important anticancer mechanism of plant polyphenols could be the mobilization of intracellular copper leading to ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. In this context, it may be noted that cancer cells are under considerable oxidative stress and increasing such stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of solubility and activity of iron, chromium, and nickel in lead bismuth eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossé, Stéphane

    2014-06-01

    Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) is a heavy liquid alloy used as a coolant for the Lead-Cooled Fast Reactors and spallation target for Accelerator Driven Systems. LBE is also considered in sodium fast reactor designs as coolant in secondary circuit to avoid any occurrence of the reaction between sodium and water in steam generators. Even if this coolant presents many advantages due to its thermophysical properties, corrosion towards structural materials remains one of the major issues of LBE. Because corrosion in LBE is partly driven by dissolution processes, the solubility and chemical activity of the main elements of the alloy are the key parameters to model the related corrosion processes. Using the Calphad method and the Thermo-Calc software, a thermodynamic database was developed to assess the interaction between Cr-Ni-Fe alloys and LBE. The current thermodynamic data on the Cr-Fe-Ni + Bi-Pb quinary system was reviewed and the Bi-Cr and Cr-Pb binary phase diagrams were assessed. Fe, Cr and Ni solubilities (in at. fraction, T in K) at LBE composition were calculated: Fe solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SFe)=0.5719-4398.6T (399-1173 K) Cr solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SCr)=-0.2757-3056.1T (399-1173 K) Ni solubility at LBE composition: log10 (SNi)=2.8717-2932.9T (528-742 K) log10 (SNi)=0.2871-1006.3T (742-1173 K) Then, the thermodynamic assessment performed in this study was used to predict more accurately the Fe, Cr and Ni activities and solubilities in the case of four austenitic model alloys also studied in the framework of corrosion tests [1]. The calculated activities and solubilities provide thermodynamic data to better understand dissolution or precipitation phenomena observed during LBE corrosion processes.

  16. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  17. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for iron, lead, nickel, and zinc for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn), two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail), Stenocypris major (ostracod), Chironomus javanus (midge larvae), Nais elinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole) to determine 96 h LC(50) values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC) and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L(-1) and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC(50) values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc status in biological samples of smokers and nonsmokers hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, H I; Kazi, T G; Kazi, N G; Jamali, M K; Arain, M B; Sirajuddin; Baig, J A; Kandhro, G A; Wadhwa, S K; Shah, A Q

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between trace and toxic elements zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients (n=457), residents of Hyderabad, Pakistan. For the purpose of comparison, the biological samples of age-matched healthy controls were selected as referents. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference materials and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials and real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.8-99.3% in certified reference materials. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cd, Ni and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair, blood and urine samples of both smoker and nonsmoker patients than in referents (P<0.001), whereas the concentration of Zn was lower in the scalp hair and blood, but higher in the urine samples of hypertensive patients. The deficiency of Zn and the high exposure of toxic metals as a result of tobacco smoking may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.

  19. Economic incentive for applying vetiver grass to remediate lead, copper and zinc contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Fostert, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The application of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils can be promoted by economic return through essential oil production. Four levels of lead (0, 500, 2000, and 8000 mg kg(-1) dry soil), copper (0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg kg(-1) dry soil) and zinc (0, 400, 1600, and 6400 mg kg(-1) dry soil) were used to study their effects on vetiver growth, essential oil composition and yield. This study also investigated the effect of nitrogen concentrations on vetiver oil yield. Vetiver accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in roots (3246, 754 and 2666 mg kg(-1), respectively) and small amounts of contaminants in shoots (327, 55, and 642 mg kg(-1), respectively). Oil content and yield were not affected at low and moderate concentrations of Cu and Zn. Only the application of Pb had a significant detrimental effect on oil composition. Extraction of vetiver essential oils by hydrodistillation produced heavy metal free products. High level of nitrogen reduced oil yields. Results show that phytoremediation of Cu and Zn contaminated soils by vetiver can generate revenue from the commercialization of oil extracts.

  20. Bioaccumulation of copper, lead, and zinc in six macrophyte species grown in simulated stormwater bioretention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycewicz-Borecki, Malgorzata; McLean, Joan E; Dupont, R Ryan

    2016-01-15

    Stormwater bioretention (BR) systems collect runoff containing heavy metals, which can concentrate in soil environments and potentially leach into groundwater. This greenhouse experiment evaluated differences among six plant species undergoing three varying hydraulic and pollutant loads in their bioaccumulation potential when subjected to continual application of low metal concentrations as a means of preventing copper, lead, and zinc accumulation in the BR soil. Results show that >92% of metal mass applied to the treatments via synthetic stormwater was removed from the exfiltrate within 27 cm of soil depth. Compacted soil conditions of unplanted controls retained significantly more Cu, Pb, and Zn than Carex praegracilis, and Carex microptera treatments. Differences in above and below ground plant tissue concentrations differed among species, resulting in significant differences in mass accumulation. In the above ground tissue, from highest to lowest, Phragmites australis accumulated 8 times more Cu than Scirpus acutus, and C. microptera accumulated 18 times more Pb, and 6 times more Zn than Scirpus validus. These results, and differences among species in mass distribution of the metals recovered at the end of the study, reveal various metal accumulation mechanisms.

  1. Comparison of the adsorption capabilities of myriophyllum spicatum and ceratophyllum demersum for zinc, copper and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskinkan, O.; Yuceer, A.; Basibuyuk, M. [Department Environmental Engineering, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey); Goksu, M.Z.L. [Fisheries Faculty, Cukurova University, Balcali, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-04-15

    Industrial wastewaters contain various heavy metal components and therefore threaten aquatic bodies. Heavy metals can be adsorbed by living or non-living biomass. Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of heavy metals. This paper exhibits the comparison of the adsorption properties of two aquatic plants Myriophyllum spicatum and Ceratophyllum demersum for lead, zinc, and copper. The data obtained from batch studies conformed well to the Langmuir Model. Maximum adsorption capacities (q{sub max}) were obtained for both plant species and each metal. The maximum adsorption capacities (q{sub max}) achieved with M. spicatum were 10.37 mg/g for Cu{sup 2+}, and 15.59 mg/g for Zn{sup 2+} as well as 46.49 mg/g for Pb{sup 2+} and with C. demersum they were 6.17 mg/g for Cu{sup 2+}, 13.98 mg/g for Zn{sup 2+} and 44.8 mg/g for Pb{sup 2+}. It was found that M. spicatum has a better adsorption capacity than C. demersum for each metal tested. Gibbs free energy and the specific surface area based on the q{sub max} values were also determined for each metal. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Changyou; WANG Xiulin; WANG Baodong; ZHANG Chuansong; SHI Xiaoyong; ZHU Chenjian

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations were measured in the Changjiang Estuary and its adjacent waters.Results from a systematic survey in April 2002 to March 2003 indicate that the ranges of the concentrations of dissolved copper,lead,zinc and cadmium in the study waters are 1.01~6.86,0.10~0.39,3.17~9.12 and 0.011~0.049 μg/dm3,respectively.Similar to zinc,the behavior of dissolved copper Was essentially conservative,but high seatter has been observed for high salinity samples,which can be attribu-ted to the decomposition or mineralization of organic matter by bacteria.Dissolved lead may have active behavior with an addition at high salinity.Overall concentrations of dissolved cadmium increase with salinity.The mean values of these dissolved metals cal-culated for the surface waters were highcr than those for the middle and bottom ones.External inputs of dissolved heavy metals to the surface waters were the likely explanation for these higher values.The maximum seasonal average values of dissolved copper and zinc were flound in summer,reflecting higher amounts of riverine input in this season.In contrast,the maximum seasonal av-erage values of dissolved lead and copper were found in winter and the lowest ones in summer,respectively,which might be asso-ciated with a combination of low concentration with heterogeneous scavenging.Concentrations of these dissolved metals found for the Changjiang Estuary fall in the range observed for the other estuaries but are noticeably higher than those from uncontaminated rivers,except for cadmium.Compared with observations for the Changjiang Estuary in the last two deeades.it is clear that the Changjiang estuarine waters has been contaminated with copper,lead,zinc and cadmium during China's industuialization,but concentrations of them have decreased in the last few years.

  3. Structure and properties of the slags of continuous converting of copper nickel-containing mattes and concentrates: II. Effect of the SiO2/CaO ratio on the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigarev, S. P.; Tsymbulov, L. B.; Selivanov, E. N.; Chumarev, V. M.

    2012-03-01

    The structure and liquidus temperature of the SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-FeO x -Cu2O-NiO slags that form during continuous converting of copper mattes and concentrates into blister copper are analyzed. The slag melt compositions are varied over a wide SiO2/CaO range. The slags are studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron-probe microanalysis. The liquidus temperature of the slags is determined by differential thermal analysis. It is found that, depending on the SiO2/CaO ratio, the structure and liquidus temperature of the slags change and the forms of copper in a slag also change. The SiO2/CaO range in a slag is recommended for the process of continuous converting of a copper nickel-containing sulfide raw materials.

  4. Copper and lead isotopic and metallic pollution record in soils from the Kombat mining area, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Kribek, Bohdan; Penizek, Vit; Sracek, Ondrej

    2013-04-01

    Copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) concentration, isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb, 65Cu/63Cu) and speciation were studied in soils from the Kombat mining area. The Cu and Pb concentrations in the studied soils ranged between 21 mg/kg - 757 mg/kg, and 19 mg/kg - 815 mg/kg respectively. In the sequential extractions, the largest part of soil Cu appeared in the residual and reducible fractions and Pb was predominantly bound in reducible and residual fractions and was more mobile compared to Cu. Copper and Pb concentration are higher in soils close to the slime deposit. Concentration of both metals increased with increasing soil depth in irrigated and cultivated soils. In soils not contaminated by dust eroded from the slime deposit, Cu and Pb contents are not dependent on the soil depth. The Pb isotopic signatures (206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.15 - 1.21 in soils from the Kombat area. In most of soil samples, surface horizons exhibited lower 206Pb/207Pb ratio, which originates from the slime dust pollution (206Pb/207Pb ~ 1.15) compared to deeper soil horizons, with lithogenic Pb signatures (206Pb/207Pb > 1.2). Isotopic composition of Cu differs on contaminated and uncontaminated sites and cultivated and non-cultivated sites. The δ65Cu in the studied soil horizon ranged between -0.373 ‰ and 0.561 ‰. The most pronounced variations occurred in contaminated non cultivated and non-irrigated soils (0.529 ‰). The contaminated top horizons are enriched in isotopically heavier Cu (tailing materials), and δ65Cu decreased with depth. Irrigated (cultivated) and contaminated soils exhibited heavier Cu in the surface horizons (originated from tailing dust δ65Cu = 0.260), decrease of δ65Cu in Bt horizons (biological uptake of light isotope by crop, and their incorporation in this horizons) and increase of δ65Cu in Bc horizons. The Bc horizons of cultivated and irrigated Phaeozems are enriched in Mn nodules (0.2 - 1.5 cm diameter, prevailing Mn phase pyrochroite Mn(OH)2) which

  5. Copper deficiency leads to anemia, duodenal hypoxia, upregulation of HIF-2α and altered expression of iron absorption genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter - Dmt1) and ferric reductase - Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency.

  6. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  7. Dinuclear cadmium(II), zinc(II), and manganese(II), trinuclear nickel(II), and pentanuclear copper(II) complexes with novel macrocyclic and acyclic Schiff-base ligands having enantiopure or racemic camphoric diamine components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jue-Chao; Chu, Zhao-Lian; Huang, Wei; Wang, Gang; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2010-07-05

    Four novel [3 + 3] Schiff-base macrocyclic ligands I-IV condensed from 2,6-diformyl-4-substituted phenols (R = CH(3) or Cl) and enantiopure or racemic camphoric diamines have been synthesized and characterized. Metal-ion complexations of these enantiopure and racemic [3 + 3] macrocyclic ligands with different cadmium(II), zinc(II), manganese(II), nickel(II), and copper(II) salts lead to the cleavage of Schiff-base C horizontal lineN double bonds and subsequent ring contraction of the macrocyclic ligands due to the size effects and the spatial restrictions of the coordination geometry of the central metals, the steric hindrance of ligands, and the counterions used. As a result, five [2 + 2] and one [1 + 2] dinuclear cadmium(II) complexes (1-6), two [2 + 2] dinuclear zinc(II) (7 and 8), and two [2 + 2] dinuclear manganese(II) (9 and 10) complexes together with one [1 + 1] trinuclear nickel(II) complex (11) and one [1 + 2] pentanuclear copper(II) complex (12), bearing enantiopure or racemic ligands, different substituent groups in the phenyl rings, and different anionic ligands (Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(-), and SCN(-)), have been obtained in which the chiral carbon atoms in the camphoric backbones are arranged in different ways (RRSS for the enantiopure ligands in 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7-10 and RSRS for the racemic ligands in 3, 6, 11, and 12). The steric hindrance effects of the methyl group bonded to one of the chiral carbon atoms of camphoric diamine units are believed to play important roles in the formation of the acyclic [1 + 1] trinuclear complex 11 and [1 + 2] dinuclear and pentanuclear complexes 6 and 12. In dinuclear cadmium(II), zinc(II), and manganese(II) complexes 1-10, the sequence of separations between the metal centers is consistent with that of the ionic radii shortened from cadmium(II) to manganese(II) to zinc(II) ions. Furthermore, UV-vis, circular dichroism, (1)H NMR, and fluorescence spectra have been used to characterize and compare the structural

  8. Health risk assessment of heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in withdrawed parsley vegetable from some farms in Hamedan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cheraghi

    2014-11-01

    Results: Average concentration of cadmium, nickel, lead and zinc in parsley vegetable is in the order of 1/14, 2/56, 16/65 and 25/23 mg/kg and average concentration of this metals in soil is in the order of 0/23, 23/51, 20/85 and 57/5 mg/kg. Results of this study showed that average concentration of Cadmium and Leadin parsley is above WHO/FAO whereas average concentration of Nickel and Zink in parsleywas assessed less than WHO/FAO. Also the average concentration of every four metals in soil of farms was less than WHO/FAO levels.On the other hand the amount of risk and health index (HRI in parsley for lead metal was above 1 and for cadmium, nickel and zinc metals was less than 1. Conclusion: According to the studing results, cultivated parsley in this area was polluted to the heavy metalsCadmium and Lead, and the results indicates the very easy transferring of this metals from soil to parsley that was not healthy for human daily consumption and risk and health index (HRI that was above 1 for lead metal shows the hygienic potential risk of this metal in relation to the polluted parsley consumption in human daily alimentary diet.

  9. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of nickel, cobalt and copper prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooud Amirkavei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper followed by their determination with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. 300 µL of acetone and 1-undecanol was injected into an aqueous sample containing diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of metal ions. For a sample volume of 10 mL, enrichment factors of 277, 270 and 300 and detection limits of 1.2, 1.1 and 1 ng L-1 for nickel, cobalt and copper were obtained, respectively. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of these metals in different water samples.

  10. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of nickel, cobalt and copper prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooud Amirkavei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop for simultaneous extraction of trace amounts of nickel, cobalt and copper followed by their determination with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. 300 µL of acetone and 1-undecanol was injected into an aqueous sample containing diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of metal ions. For a sample volume of 10 mL, enrichment factors of 277, 270 and 300 and detection limits of 1.2, 1.1 and 1 ng L-1 for nickel, cobalt and copper were obtained, respectively. The method was applied to the extraction and determination of these metals in different water samples.

  11. 微波消解-ICP-AES法测底泥中的铜、镍等金属元素%Microwave digestion ICP-AES measure Copper, nickel and other metal elements in sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐兴伟

    2013-01-01

    Microwave digestion ICP -AES measure Copper , nickel and other metal elements in sedimentdetermined through experiments and spiked recoveries recoveries between 88 to 102%.%采用微波消解-ICP-AES法测定底泥中的铜、镍等金属元素。通过实验和加标回收率的测定,回收率在88~102%之间。

  12. In vitro susceptibility of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum to metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese or zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana Corrêa; Weiblen, Carla; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer; de Jesus, Francielli Pantella Kunz; Verdi, Camila Marina; Gressler, Leticia Trevisan; Sangioni, Luís Antonio; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2017-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes pythiosis, an important and severe disease of difficult treatment that affects humans, domestic and wild animals. This infection is often described in horses in Brazil and humans in Thailand. In clinical practice, we have observed many cases that do not respond to available therapies, indicating the need to explore alternative therapeutic approaches. In this sense, studies using metal compounds in conjunction with available antimicrobial agents have been demonstrated greater antimicrobial activity. Thus, in this research, we tested in vitro activities of metallic compounds containing cadmium, lead, copper, manganese, or zinc against 23 isolates of P. insidiosum. The assays were performed by broth microdilution based on CLSI M38-A2 document. The minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations were established for all isolates. Copper acetate and cadmium acetate showed the highest inhibitory effects, with minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 4-64 μg/ml and 16-256 μg/ml, respectively. The mean geometric for minimal fungicidal concentrations were, respectively, 26 μg/ml and 111.43 μg/ml for copper acetate and cadmium acetate. These results suggest that copper and cadmium can inhibit P. insidiosum growth, highlighting the greater inhibitory activity of copper acetate. In addition, our results propose that copper and/or cadmium compounds can be used in upcoming researches to formulate effective new complexed drugs against P. insidiosum in in vitro and in vivo experimental models. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Contents of the heavy metals nickel and lead in leaves of Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the capabilities of the two species Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. as biomonitors of atmospheric (and soil) heavy-metal pollution. Research on content of the heavy metals nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata growing under urban and suburban conditions with the comparison to the concentration of these elements in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortunei on an experimental pl...

  14. Reduction of fluoranthene of copper and lead accumulation in Triticum aestivum L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, A.; Alexander, T.; Brandt, S.; Haas, R.; Werner, D. (Univ. of Marburg (Germany))

    1994-12-01

    Fluoranthene is one of the most important representatives of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Coaltar production alone yields about 30000 t of fluoranthene per year. In spite of its abundance, however, very little is known about its effects on the environment. Groenewegen and Stolp investigated the half-life of this substance in soil and found values between 44 and 182 days, depending on the soil matrix. PAHs may migrate into soil organic matter, representing less accessible sites within the soil matrix. Such sorbed PAHs are suggested to be non-bioavailable and thus non-biodegradable. Fluoranthene has long been classified as non-carcinogenic and largely non-hazardous. The oral toxicity rating is indeed low, being only 2000 mg [center dot] kg[sup [minus]1] for rats and mice (LD[sub 50]), but there are also reports of mutagenic and toxic effects of fluoranthene on animals and plants. Fluoranthene has been reported to be synthesized by spermatophytes. However, accumulation of fluoranthene and other PAHs in plants is generally attributed to contamination by airborne particulate matter. Lettuce, soya, rye and tobacco plants grown in air-filtered chambers failed to synthesize PAHs, but accumulation of such substances was observed in a normal greenhouse. Transfer of fluoranthene from polluted soil via roots to shoots is probably limited due to the high n-octanol/water partition coefficient log P[sub OW] of fluoranthene: 5.33. However, there seems to be a stimulation of PAH uptake by mosses and spermatophytes in heavy metal-stressed soils. The aim of the present study was to determine toxic effects of fluoranthene on wheat and whether there were any interactions between toxicity and uptake of fluoranthene, lead and copper in hydroponic culture systems. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Exploring the doping effects of copper on thermoelectric properties of lead selenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayner, Chhatrasal; Sharma, Raghunandan; Mallik, Iram; Das, Malay K.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we have explored the effect of dopant concentration (copper (Cu)) on the thermoelectric performance of Cu doped lead selenide (Pb1-x Cu x Se (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.1)). With increasing the dopant concentration, sign inversion of majority charge carriers takes place for x  ⩾  0.04 due to the donor behaviour of Cu in the P-type pristine PbSe. The room temperature Seebeck coefficients of Pb1-x Cu x Se with x  =  0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 are observed to be 233, 337, -473.7, -392.5 and  -257.6 μV K-1, respectively as compared to that of 186.4 μV K-1 of the pristine PbSe. This increment in Seebeck coefficient is the result of low carrier concentration and is not related to the resonance states created by Cu dopant. At room temperature, the lattice thermal conductivity of pristine PbSe is 0.52 W m-1 K-1 while for Cu doped PbSe, it varies from 0.8 to 1.1 W m-1 K-1. Finally, with ZT of ~0.59 and power factor of ~700 at 500 K, Pb0.98Cu0.02Se exhibits the highest thermoelectric performance among the studied Pb1-x Cu x Se systems. Owing to the high ZT and power factor, a single thermoelement of Pb0.98Cu0.02Se exhibits thermovoltage of  >100 mV at a temperature gradient of 200 °C.

  16. Energetic features of copper and lead sorption by innovative aminoalcohol-functionalized cobalt phyllosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maurício Alves; Airoldi, Claudio

    2010-11-14

    Inorganic-organic cobalt phyllosilicate hybrids were synthesized by the sol-gel procedure under mild non-hydrothermal conditions with a silicon precursor, formed through individual reactions between the silane 3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane and the aminoalcohols ethanol- or diethanolamine. These procedures generated talc-like phyllosilicates containing pendant organic chains with nitrogen and oxygen basic centres located in the interlamellar region. For organofunctionalized phyllosilicates the lamellar structure obtained through the sol-gel method was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction, while elemental analysis indicated that the densities of the organic groups attached to the new matrices were 3.31 ± 0.05 and 3.08 ± 0.07 mmol g(-1) for hybrids functionalized with ethanol- and diethanolamines, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance in the solid state for (13)C and (29)Si showed that the organic groups are indeed covalently bonded to the inorganic structures and the process of functionalization did not affect the original structures of the silylating agents employed. The thermally stable hybrids presented well-formed particles with a homogeneous distribution of cobalt and nitrogen atoms. Their abilities for copper removal from aqueous solutions gave maximum capacities of sorption of 2.01 ± 0.11 and 2.55 ± 0.15 mmol g(-1) for phyllosilicates containing ethanol- and diethanolamine groups, respectively. For lead sorption the values of 2.59 ± 0.11 and 2.43 ± 0.12 mmol g(-1) were found for this same sequence. These sorption data were adjusted to the non-linear regression of the Langmuir equation. Energetic features related to the interactions between the cations and the pendant basic centres were determined through calorimetric titrations. The acid-basic interactions reflect the spontaneity of the reactions, which are also enthalpically and entropically favourable for these chelating processes at the solid-liquid interface.

  17. 金川三矿区低品位铜镍矿石工艺矿物学研究%Study on the Process Mineralogy of Low-grade Copper-nickel Ore in Jinchuan No.3 Deposit Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程少逸; 赵礼兵; 袁致涛; 赵毕文

    2011-01-01

    The prooess mineralogy study was made to identify the mineral composition, occurrence forms of coppernickel, and the dissemination characteristics of main minerals in low-grade copper-nickel ores of Jinchuan No. 3 deposit.The results showed that copper and nickel ores mainly occurs in form of pentlandite, violarite, chalcopyrite and wallerite,but other sulfides and gangues have close and complex dissemination relation with these minerals.Serpentine has a critical argillic alteration, which brings unfavorable effect on the separation of copper and nickel.%通过工艺矿物学研究,查明了金川二矿区低品位铜镍矿石的矿物组成、铜镍的赋存形式及主要有用矿物的嵌布特性.研究结果表明:矿石中的铜、镍主要以镍黄铁矿、紫硫镍铁矿、黄铜矿、墨铜矿形式存在,但其他硫化矿物及脉石矿物与它们嵌布关系密切而复杂;矿石蛇纹石蚀变严重,易于泥化.这些将给铜、镍的分选带来不利影响.

  18. Deriving Freshwater Quality Criteria for Iron, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc for Protection of Aquatic Life in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shuhaimi-Othman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater quality criteria for iron (Fe, lead (Pb, nickel (Ni, and zinc (Zn were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA’s guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia which were Macrobrachium lanchesteri (prawn, two fish: Poecilia reticulata and Rasbora sumatrana, Melanoides tuberculata (snail, Stenocypris major (ostracod, Chironomus javanus (midge larvae, Nais elinguis (annelid, and Duttaphrynus melanostictus (tadpole to determine 96 h LC50 values for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The final acute value (FAV for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were 74.5, 17.0, 165, and 304.9 μg L−1, respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a criterion maximum concentration (CMC and a criterion continuous concentration (CCC for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn that are 37.2, 8.5, 82.5, and 152.4 μg L−1 and 9.0, 2.0, 19.9, and 36.7 μg L−1, respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that N. elinguis, M. lanchesteri, N. elinguis, and R. sumatrana were the most sensitive to Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn, respectively.

  19. Residues of chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from urban and rural areas of Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orłowski, Grzegorz, E-mail: orlog@poczta.onet.pl [Institute of Agricultural and Forest Environment, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bukowska 19, 60-809 Poznań (Poland); Kasprzykowski, Zbigniew [Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce (Poland); Dobicki, Wojciech; Pokorny, Przemysław [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Wuczyński, Andrzej [Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lower-Silesian Field Station, Podwale 75, 50-449 Wrocław (Poland); Polechoński, Ryszard [Department of Limnology and Fishery, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chełmońskiego 38C, 51-630 Wrocław (Poland); Mazgajski, Tomasz D. [Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wilcza 64, 00-679 Warszawa (Poland)

    2014-08-15

    We examined the concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Rook Corvus frugilegus eggshells from 43 rookeries situated in rural and urban areas of western (= intensive agriculture) and eastern (= extensive agriculture) Poland. We found small ranges in the overall level of Cr (the difference between the extreme values was 1.8-fold; range of concentrations = 5.21–9.40 Cr ppm), Ni (3.5-fold; 1.15–4.07 Ni ppm), and Cd (2.6-fold; 0.34–0.91 Cd ppm), whereas concentrations of Pb varied markedly, i.e. 6.7-fold between extreme values (1.71–11.53 Pb ppm). Eggshell levels of these four elements did not differ between rural rookeries from western and eastern Poland, but eggshells from rookeries in large/industrial cities had significantly higher concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb than those from small towns and villages. Our study suggests that female Rooks exhibited an apparent variation in the intensity of trace metal bioaccumulation in their eggshells, that rapid site-dependent bioaccumulation of Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb occurs as a result of the pollution gradient (rural < urban), and that Cd levels are probably regulated physiologically, even though these were relatively high, which could be treated as an overall proxy of a heavy Cd load in the soil environment. - Highlights: • Concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb are reported for Rook eggshells from 43 rookeries. • Cr, Ni and Pb levels were significantly higher in urban than in rural areas. • Bioaccumulation of Cr, Ni and Pb suggests a pollution gradient (urban > rural areas). • Females rapidly bioaccumulate Cr, Ni and Pb in breeding areas. • No difference found for Cd levels, which are probably regulated physiologically.

  20. Synthesis of cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads as immunosensing probes for the detection of AFP, CEA and PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zifeng; Liu, Na; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-08-15

    A double-water-in-oil-emulsion procedure was designed to synthesize cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads less than 200n m diameter under mild conditions. The cadmium, lead and copper alginate nanobeads can be activated to immobilize biomacromolecules and can directly produce distinctive electrochemical signals. Using the novel alginate nanobeads labeled with antibodies as electrochemical probes, a sandwich-type immunosensor was constructed using AFP, CEA and PSA as model analytes. This proposed immunosensor shows wide linear range with detection limits of 0.01, 0.0086 and 0.0075 ng mL(-1) for AFP, CEA and PSA, respectively. Analysis of clinical serum samples using this immunosensor was well consistent with the data determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). It suggested that the alginate nanobeads electrochemical probes could be generally extended to other multiple analytes detection.

  1. Adsorption of lead and copper ions from aqueous effluents on rice husk ash in a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the kinetic adsorption of Pb and Cu ions using rice husk ash as adsorbent in a fixed bed. The maximum adsorption capacities obtained for lead and copper ions in the fixed bed were 0.0561 and 0.0682 mmol/g (at 20 ºC, respectively. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the lead adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous, while the copper adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Characterization results indicated the presence of several functional groups, amorphous silica and a fibrous and longitudinal structure of rice husks. Rice husk ash (RHA from northern Brazil can be used as a bioadsorbent for the individual removal of Pb(II and Cu(II ions from metal-containing effluents.

  2. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  3. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, George J.

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer’s is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson’s is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer’s epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure. PMID:26633489

  4. Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Brewer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer’s is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson’s is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer’s epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure.

  5. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  6. Recovery of copper and lead from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water oxidation combined with electrokinetic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2009-06-15

    An effective and benign process for copper and lead recovery from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed. In the process, the PCBs was pre-treated in supercritical water, then subjected to electrokinetic (EK) process. Experimental results showed that supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process was strong enough to decompose the organic compounds of PCBs, and XRD spectra indicated that copper and lead were oxidized into CuO, Cu(2)O and beta-PbO(2) in the process. The optimum SCWO treatment conditions were 60 min, 713 K, 30 MPa, and EK treatment time, constant current density were 11h, 20 mA cm(-2), respectively. The recovery percentages of copper and lead under optimum SCWO+EK treatment conditions were around 84.2% and 89.4%, respectively. In the optimized EK treatment, 74% of Cu was recovered as a deposit on the cathode with a purity of 97.6%, while Pb was recovered as concentrated solutions in either anode (23.1%) or cathode (66.3%) compartments but little was deposited on the electrodes. It is believed that the process is effective and practical for Cu and Pb recovery from waste electric and electronic equipments.

  7. SU-E-T-10: A Dosimetric Comparison of Copper to Lead-Alloy Apertures for Electron Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusk, B; Hogstrom, K; Gibbons, J; Carver, R [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dosimetric differences of copper compared to conventional lead-alloy apertures for electron beam therapy. Methods: Copper apertures were manufactured by .decimal, Inc. and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend, apertures were constructed for 32 square field sizes (2×2 – 20×20 cm{sup 2}) for five applicator sizes (6×6–25×25 cm{sup 2}). Percent depth-dose and off-axis-dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water with copper and Cerrobend apertures for a subset of aperture sizes (6×6, 10×10, 25×25 cm{sup 2}) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV). Dose outputs were measured for all field size-aperture combinations and available energies (6–20 MeV). Measurements were taken at 100 and 110 cm SSDs. Using this data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were constructed and compared. Passing criteria were ±2% of maximum dose or 1-mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. Results: A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 93 of 96 aperture size, applicator, energy, and SSD combinations passed the 2%/1mm criteria. Failures were found for small field size-large applicator combinations at 20 MeV and 100-cm SSD. Copper apertures showed a decrease in bremsstrahlung production due to copper's lower atomic number compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies with large amounts of shielding material present (small field size-large applicator). Also, an increase in electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend resulted in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV). Conclusion: Apertures for field sizes ≥6×6 cm{sup 2} at any energy, or for small fields (≤4×4 cm{sup 2}) at energies <20 MeV, showed dosimetric differences less than 2%/1mm for more than 99% of points. All field size-applicator size-energy combinations passed 3%/1mm criteria for 100% of points. Work partially

  8. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn

    2014-02-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Methods: Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P < 0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β = 0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β = 0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β = 0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. Conclusions: The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. - Highlights: • DNA oxidative damage levels (8-OHdG) in neonates from Guiyu were assessed.

  9. Bioaccumulation of chromium and nickel in the tissues of Barb us ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-04-25

    Apr 25, 1996 ... The toxicity of chromium and nickel to fish, as individual elements, is ... chromium concentrations can cause histological damage to the kidneys ..... assuming that fish have a mechanism to prevent excess bio- concentration of .... copper, zinc. arsenic. selenium, cadmium, mercury and lead in. Dutch fishery ...

  10. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  11. Nickel and Copper-Free Sintered Structural Steels Containing Mn, Cr, Si, and Mo Developed for High Performance Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to study the sinterability of potential high-strength nickel-free sintered structural steels containing Mn, Cr, Si and Mo compacts were prepared based on sponge and water atomised iron powders and on Astaloy prealloyed powders. To these were admixed ferromanganese, ferroslicon, and graphite. The samples were sintered at temperatures 1120 and 1250°C in laboratory tube furnaces in hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen atmospheres with dew points better than -60°C or in nitrogen in a semiclosed container in a local microatmosphere. After sintering the samples were slowly cooled or sinterhardened. Generally resultant microstructures were inhomogeneous, consisted of pearlite/ bainite/martensite, but were characterised by an absence of oxide networks. Sintering studies performed over a range of compositions have shown that superior strength, ranging beyond 900 MPa, along with reasonable tensile elongation, can be achieved with these new steels.

  12. Synthesis and synergistic antifungal activities of a pyrazoline based ligand and its copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes with conventional antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Wani, Waseem A; Khan, Amber; Haque, Ashanul; Ahmad, Aijaz; Saleem, Kishwar; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2012-08-01

    A pyrazoline based ligand; (5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-phenyl-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide) has been synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of acetophenone with p-chlorobenzaldehyde, followed by sodium hydroxide assisted cyclization of the resulting chalcone with thiosemicarbazide. Metal ion complexes of the synthesized ligand were prepared with Cu(II) and Ni(II) metal ions, separately and respectively. Ligand and the metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)HNMR, ESI-MS and (13)CNMR spectroscopic techniques. Molar conductance measurements in DMSO suggested non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry for copper and octahedral geometry for the nickel complexes was proposed on the basis of UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and magnetic moment measurements. The complexes were investigated for their ability to kill human fungal pathogen Candida by determining MICs (Minimum inhibitory concentrations), inhibition in solid media and ability to produce a possible synergism with conventional most clinically practiced antifungals by disc diffusion assay and FICI (fractional inhibitory concentration index).

  13. An approach by using near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and resin adsorption for the determination of copper, cobalt and nickel ions in dilute solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Nan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2009-07-15

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been proved to be a powerful analytical tool and used in various fields, it is seldom, however, used in the analysis of metal ions in solutions. A method for quantitative determination of metal ions in solution is developed by using resin adsorption and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRDRS). The method makes use of the resin adsorption for gathering the analytes from a dilute solution, and then NIRDRS of the adsorbate is measured. Because both the information of the metal ions and their interaction with the functional group of resin can be reflected in the spectrum, quantitative determination is achieved by using multivariate calibration technique. Taking copper (Cu(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) as the analyzing targets and D401 resin as the adsorbent, partial least squares (PLS) model is built from the NIRDRS of the adsorbates. The results show that the concentrations that can be quantitatively detected are as low as 1.00, 1.98 and 1.00 mg L(-1) for Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively, and the coexistent ions do not influence the determination.

  14. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of trace copper, nickel, and cobalt ions in water samples using solid phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yugao; Zhao, He; Han, Yelin; Liu, Xia; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Qingyin; Bian, Xihui

    2017-02-01

    A simultaneous spectrophotometric determination method for trace heavy metal ions based on solid-phase extraction coupled with partial least squares approaches was developed. In the proposed method, trace metal ions in aqueous samples were adsorbed by cation exchange fibers and desorbed by acidic solution from the fibers. After the ion preconcentration process, the enriched solution was detected by ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). Then, the concentration of heavy metal ions were quantified by analyzing ultraviolet and visible spectrum with the help of partial least squares (PLS) approaches. Under the optimal conditions of operation time, flow rate and detection parameters, the overlapped absorption peaks of mixed ions were obtained. The experimental data showed that the concentration, which can be calculated through chemometrics method, of each metal ion increased significantly. The heavy metal ions can be enriched more than 80-fold. The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes of copper ions (Cu2 +), cobalt ions (Co2 +) and nickel ions (Ni2 +) mixture was 0.10 μg L- 1, 0.15 μg L- 1 and 0.13 μg L- 1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) were less than 5%. The performance of the solid-phase extraction can enrich the ions efficiently and the combined method of spectrophotometric detection and PLS can evaluate the ions concentration accurately. The work proposed here is an interesting and promising attempt for the trace ions determination in water samples and will have much more applied field.

  15. Copper, nickel and zinc speciation in a biosolid-amended soil: pH adsorption edge, μ-XRF and μ-XANES investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Sayen, Stéphanie; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Guillon, Emmanuel

    2014-07-01

    Metal solid phase speciation plays an important role in the control of the long-term stability of metals in biosolid-amended soils. The present work used pH-adsorption edge experiments and synchrotron-based spectroscopy techniques to understand the solid phase speciation of copper, nickel and zinc in a biosolid-amended soil. Comparison of metal adsorption edges on the biosolid-amended soil and the soil sample showed that Cu, Ni, and Zn can be retained by both soil and biosolid components such as amorphous iron phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These data are combined with microscopic results to obtain structural information about the surface complexes formed. Linear combination fitting of K-edge XANES spectra of metal hot-spots indicated consistent differences in metal speciation between metals. While organic matter plays a dominant role in Ni binding in the biosolid-amended soil, it was of lesser importance for Cu and Zn. This study suggests that even if the metals can be associated with soil components (clay minerals and organic matter), biosolid application will increase metals retention in the biosolid-amended soil by providing reactive organic matter and iron oxide fractions. Among the studied metals, the long-term mobility of Ni could be affected by organic matter degradation while Cu and Zn are strongly associated with iron oxides.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of new zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes based on imine ligand containing 2-aminothiophenol moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaatian, Bita; Mousavi, S. Sedighe; Afshari, Sadegh

    2016-11-01

    New dimer complexes of zinc(II), copper(II) and nickel(II) were synthesized using the Schiff base ligand which was formed by the condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methyl benzaldehyde. This tridentate Schiff base ligand was coordinated to the metal ions through the NSO donor atoms. In order to prevent the oxidation of the thiole group during the formation of Schiff base and its complexes, all of the reactions were carried out under an inert atmosphere of argon. The X-ray structure of the Schiff base ligand showed that in the crystalline form the SH groups were oxidized to produce a disulfide Schiff base as a new double Schiff base ligand. The molar conductivity values of the complexes in dichloromethane implied the presence of non-electrolyte species. The fluorescence properties of the Schiff base ligand and its complexes were also studied in dichloromethane. The products were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, UV/Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis, and conductometry. The crystal structure of the double Schiff base was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory for the determination of the optimized structures of Schiff base complexes.

  17. 铝碳微电解处理含铜、镍电镀废水%Treatment of Electroplating Wastewater Containing Copper and Nickel by Micro-Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东飞; 胡涓; 陈整生; 张志军

    2012-01-01

    通过铝碳微电解法对含铜、镍电镀废水进行处理,研究了铝碳比,反应时间,进水pH对处理效果的影响.结果表明,铝碳微电解最佳反应时间较铁碳微电解的30min提高到15min; Cu2+去除率较铁碳微电解由95%提高到98%,Ni2+去除率较铁碳微电解由94%提高到97%.这为铝碳微电解处理电镀废水的实际应用奠定了基础.%Substituting aluminum -carbon micro-electrolysis for iron-carbon micro - electrolysis for the treatment of copper, nickel in electroplating wastewater was studied. During the experiment, the effect of aluminum carbon ratio, reaction time, water pH on treatment was investigated . The results showed that the best reaction time of aluminum -carbon micro-electrolysis was 15min compared with the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis' 30min, the removal rate of Cu2+ and Ni2+was improved from 95% to 98% and 94% to 97%, respectively. This laid the foundation of practical application in electroplating wastewater treatment by aluminum-carbon micro-electrolysis.

  18. Improved extraction method for the determination of iron, copper, and nickel in new varieties of sunflower oil by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rehana; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Arain, Mohammad B; Sherazi, Syed T; Jalbani, Nusrat; Afridi, Hassan I

    2008-01-01

    A simple and fast procedure is proposed for the extraction of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) in 16 varieties of sunflower seed oil samples using an ultrasonic bath. The experimental parameters of the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method were optimized to improve the sensitivity and detect the metals at trace levels in minimum time. Conventional wet acid digestion method was used for comparative purposes. The optimum recovery of all 3 metals was obtained by UAE for 7 min, while the separation of aqueous and organic phases after extraction using centrifugation (UAE-2) required 3 min, as compared to the conventional equilibration method (UAE-1) that required 90 min. The respective recoveries of Cu, Fe, and Ni obtained with UAE-2 were in the range of 95.8-97.5, 93.5-98.3, and 95.6-98.2%, respectively, for different varieties of sunflower oil samples. Accuracy was determined by the standard addition method. Under the optimum operating conditions, the limits of detection obtained from the standard addition curves were 21.7, 20.4, and 35.6 ng/mL for Fe, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The fact that all varieties of sunflower oil contain significant amounts of Fe, Cu, and Ni indicates the deterioration of sunflower oil quality immediately after extraction from seeds, which poses a threat to oil quality and human health.

  19. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Using 1-(2-Thiazolylazo)-2-Naphthol in the Presence of Triton X-100 Using Chemometric Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Kah Hin; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Abas, Mhd. Radzi; Misran, Misni; Mohd, Mustafa Ali [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Multivariate models were developed for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) in water with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol as chromogenic reagent in the presence of Triton X-100. To overcome the drawback of spectral interferences, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS) multivariate calibration approaches were applied. Performances were validated with several test sets, and their results were then compared. In general, no significant difference in analytical performance between PLS and PCR models. The root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) using three components for Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} were 0.018, 0.010, 0.011 ppm, respectively. Figures of merit such as sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD) were also estimated. High reliability was achieved when the proposed procedure was applied to simultaneous determination of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in synthetic mixture and tap water.

  20. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of two complexes based on bis(maleonitriledithiolate)nickel(III)/copper(II) anion and 1-(4‧-bromobenzyl)triphenylphosphinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Yu, Lin-Liang; Lin, Jing-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Dong; Yin, Wen-Tao; Zuo, Hong-Rong; Zhou, Jia-Rong; Yang, Le-Min; Ni, Chun-Lin

    2011-12-01

    The preparation, crystal structures and magnetic properties of two complexes containing bis(maleonitriledithiolate)nickel(III)/copper(II) anion, [4BrBzTPP][Ni(mnt) 2] ( 1) and [4BrBzTPP] 2[Cu(mnt) 2] ( 2) ([4BrBzTPP] + = 1-(4'-bromobenzyl)triphenylphosphinium) are report here. The crystals of two complexes belong to the triclinic system with space group P-1. The [Ni(mnt) 2] - anions form a stepwise stack for 1 through weak π···π stacking interactions, short C···S interactions between the neighboring anions, while the [Cu(mnt) 2] 2- anions and the [4BrBzTPP] + cations in 2 are linked through C sbnd H pdbond S, C sbnd H pdbond N and C sbnd H pdbond Cu hydrogen bonds. The difference of the stacking mode and the weak interactions in 1 and 2 results in the difference of the magnetic properties: complex 1 exhibits an activated magnetic behavior in the high-temperature range together with a Curie tail at lower temperature range, while 2 shows a ferromagnetic exchange interaction with θ = 25.65 K.

  1. Determining copper and lead binding in Larrea tridentata through chemical modification and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polette, L.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Chianelli, R. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Metal contamination in soils has become a widespread problem. Emerging technologies, such as phytoremediation, may offer low cost cleanup methods. The authors have identified a desert plant, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which naturally grows and uptakes copper and lead from a contaminated area near a smelting operation. They determined, through chemical modification of carboxyl groups with methanol, that these functional groups may be responsible for a portion of copper(II) binding. In contrast, lead binding was minimally affected by modification of carboxyl groups. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) further support copper binding to oxygen-coordinated ligands and also imply that the binding is not solely due to phytochelatins. The EXAFS data indicate the presence of both Cu-O and Cu-S back scatters, no short Cu-Cu interactions, but with significant Cu-Cu back scattering at 3.7 {angstrom} (unlike phytochelatins with predominantly Cu-S coordination and short Cu-Cu interactions at 2.7 {angstrom}). Cu EXAFS of roots and leaves also vary depending on the level of heavy metal contamination in the environment from which the various creosote samples were obtained. In contrast, Pb XANES data of roots and leaves of creosote collected from different contaminated sites indicate no difference in valence states or ligand coordination.

  2. Structures and magnetic properties of an antiferromagnetically coupled polymeric copper(II) complex and ferromagnetically coupled hexanuclear nickel(II) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Santokh S; Bunge, Scott D; Sanchiz, Joaquin; Thompson, Laurence K

    2012-03-05

    Reactions between 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol (DFMF) and tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THMAM = H(3)L2) in the presence of copper(II) salts, CuX(2) (X = CH(3)CO(2)(-), BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), Cl(-), NO(3)(-)) and Ni(CH(3)CO(2))(2) or Ni(ClO(4))(2)/NaC(6)H(5)CO(2), sodium azide (NaN(3)), and triethylamine (TEA), in one pot self-assemble giving a coordination polymer consisting of repeating pentanuclear copper(II) clusters {[Cu(2)(H(5)L(2-))(μ-N(3))](2)[Cu(N(3))(4)]·2CH(3)OH}(n) (1) and hexanuclear Ni(II) complexes [Ni(6)(H(3)L1(-))(2)(HL2(2-))(2)(μ-N(3))(4)(CH(3)CO(2))(2)]·6C(3)H(7)NO·C(2)H(5)OH (2) and [Ni(6)(H(3)L1(-))(2)(HL2(2-))(2)(μ-N(3))(4)(C(6)H(5)CO(2))(2)]·3C(3)H(7)NO·3H(2)O·CH(3)OH (3). In 1, H(5)L(2-) and in 2 and 3 H(3)L1(-) and HL2(2-) represent doubly deprotonated, singly deprotonated, and doubly deprotonated Schiff-base ligands H(7)L and H(4)L1 and a tripodal ligand H(3)L2, respectively. 1 has a novel double-stranded ladder-like structure in which [Cu(N(3))(4)](2-) anions link single chains comprised of dinuclear cationic subunits [Cu(2)(H(5)L(2-))(μ-N(3))](+), forming a 3D structure of interconnected ladders through H bonding. Nickel(II) clusters 2 and 3 have very similar neutral hexanuclear cores in which six nickel(II) ions are bonded to two H(4)L1, two H(3)L2, four μ-azido, and two μ-CH(3)CO(2)(-)/μ-C(6)H(5)CO(2)(-) ligands. In each structure two terminal dinickel (Ni(2)) units are connected to the central dinickel unit through four doubly bridging end-on (EO) μ-azido and four triply bridging μ(3)-methoxy bridges organizing into hexanuclear units. In each terminal dinuclear unit two nickel centers are bridged through one μ-phenolate oxygen from H(3)L1(-), one μ(3)-methoxy oxygen from HL2(2-), and one μ-CH(3)CO(2)(-) (2)/μ-C(6)H(5)CO(2)(-) (3) ion. Bulk magnetization measurements on 1 show moderately strong antiferromagnetic coupling within the [Cu(2)] building block (J(1) = -113.5 cm(-1)). Bulk magnetization measurements on 2

  3. 不同络合剂对化学镀法制备镍包铜复合粉末的影响%Effect of different complexing agents on nickel-coated copper compound powder prepared with chemical plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉棉; 孙建国; 赵忠兴; 徐瑞

    2013-01-01

    利用化学镀的方法制备镍包铜复合粉末,考察柠檬酸钠、醋酸钠和乳酸3种络合剂对Ni/Cu包覆粉体的转化率、包覆效果及分散性的影响.分别采用扫描电子显微镜、EDS能谱仪、X射线衍射仪对镍包铜粉末的微观形貌和物相组成进行表征.结果表明:采用柠檬酸钠作为络合剂能使镍更好地包覆于铜粉表面,镍金属原子分数大于90%,并且具有良好的分散性.%Using the chemical plating method,the nickel-coated copper composite powder was prepared,and the effect of three complexing agents of sodium citrate,sodium acetate,and lactic acid on the conversion,coating and dispersion of Ni/Cu cladding powder was examined.The microstructure and compositions of nickel-coated copper powder were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope,EDS energy spectrometer and X ray diffractometer respectively.The result showed that,using sodium citrate as complexing agent,the best nickel-coated copper powder could be prepared,and the atomic percentage content of nickel could reach more than 90%,and had good dispersity.

  4. Processing Trade Tariff Reductions Lead to a Decline in Copper Smelting Enterprises’ Export Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on Labor VAT and Consumption Tax Policy on Export Goods(Cai Shui 〔 2012 〕 39) was released. Three percent consolidated tax on copper concentrate processing export trade under the proc-

  5. Copper, zinc and lead enrichments in sediments from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba, and its bioaccumulation in oysters, Crassostrea rhizophorae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, O; Olivares Reumont, S; Viguri Fuente, J; Díaz Arado, O; López Pino, N; D'Alessandro Rodríguez, K; de la Rosa Medero, D; Gelen Rudnikas, A; Arencibia Carballo, G

    2010-01-01

    Levels of iron, copper, zinc and lead were determined in sediments and soft tissue of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae collected from Guacanayabo Gulf, Cuba. Metal-to-Iron ratio in sediments shows an average enrichment for Cu (5,1), Pb (11,7) and Zn (1,3) in the last 20 years. Metal concentrations found in soft tissue of C. rhizophorae are site dependent. The average biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) obtained for Fe, Cu and Pb are less than unity in all cases, indicating that only a little fraction of Cu and Pb in the sediments is bioavailable, independently of their enrichments. Zinc has an average BSAF value of 2.4 and may represent a serious impact in the area. The concentrations of zinc and copper in some of the oysters are above typical public health recommended limits.

  6. cobalt (ii), nickel (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and copper (II) complexes of N, N' – ... temperature and coordinated water were determined ... indicating fairly stable complex compounds (Table 1). The complex compounds are insoluble [Table 2] in water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in ...

  7. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Grace O. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  8. Joining of SiC Fiber-Bonded Ceramics using Silver, Copper, Nickel, Palladium, and Silicon-Based Alloy Interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asthana, Rajiv [University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie; Singh, Mrityunjay [NASA-Glenn Research Center, Cleveland; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Matsunaga, Kenji [Ube Industries, Ltd.; Ishikawa, Toshihiro [Ube Industries, Ltd.

    2013-01-01

    SiC fiber-bonded ceramics, SA-Tyrannohex, (SA-THX) with perpendicular and parallel fiber orientations were brazed using Ag-, Ni- and Pd-base brazes, and four Si X (X: Ti, Cr, Y, Ta) eutectics. Outcomes were variable, ranging from bonded joints through partially bonded to un-bonded joints. Prominent Ti- and Si-rich interfaces developed with Cusil-ABA, Ticusil, and Copper-ABA and Ni- and Si-rich layers with MBF-20. Stress rupture tests at 650 and 750 C on Cusil-ABA-bonded joints revealed a temperature-dependent behavior for the perpendicular joints but not for the parallel joints with failure occurring at brazed interface. Higher-use temperatures can be targeted with eutectic Si Ti and Si Cr alloys.

  9. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb And Zinc (Zn from Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Sulu Parubak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE and nitric acid 65% as support electrolyte. The limit of detection for this method 0.60 µg/L, 0.150 µg/L and 0.238 µg/L for copper, lead and iMc respectively. The stripping solution of 300/00 salinity with pH= 7.85, conductivity= 46.62 mS/cm gives the amounts of released metals as follows :14.867 µg/L Cu, 0.976 µg/L Pb and 6.224 µg/L Zn. These results are higher as compared with the results from 15 0/00 salinity with pH= 7.66, conductivity= 23.22 mS/cm that give released metals of Cu= 7.988 µg/L, Pb= 0.311 µg/L and Zn= 4.699 µg/L. the results from ANOVA suggest that this is due to different in salinity of the solution. It also found that the conductivity does not give any effect. It can be concluded that the higher salinity will that give higher concentration or released metals.

  10. Determination of Trace Nickel in Copper Alloy by Inductively Coupled Spectrophotometry%萃取分离-分光光度法测定铜合金中痕量镍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正权

    2014-01-01

    用硝酸溶解试样,在pH 6.0~7.0范围内,用三氯甲烷萃取丁二酮肟镍与铜基体分离。以盐酸反萃取镍。在碱性介质中,氧化剂存在下,镍与丁二酮肟形成络合物,在波长480nm处测定吸光度。0.2~2μg·mL-1范围内符合朗伯-比尔定律,回收率达100.7%,所测镍量范围为0.001%~0.010%。%Using nitric acid to dissolve the sample, pH was 6.0~7.0, dimethylglyoxime-nickel was separated from copper matrix by chloroform extraction. Hydrochloric acid was used to extract nickel. In alkaline medium, at the presence of oxidizing agent, nickel and dimethylglyoxime formed complex, the absorbance was measured at the wavelength of 480nm. In range of 0.2μg/mL~2μg/mL, the absorbance was accorded with Lambert-Beer’s law, the recovery was 100.7%, the nickel content range was 0.001%~0.010%.

  11. Simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater using optimised thin-mercury film electrodes in situ plated in thiocyanate media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapuça, Helena M; Monterroso, Sandra C C; Rocha, Luciana S; Duarte, Armando C

    2004-10-08

    In the present work the anodic stripping voltammetric (ASV) methodology using a thin mercury film electrode in situ plated in thiocyanate media was re-assessed in order to allow the simultaneous determination of copper and lead in seawater. Under previously suggested conditions [6], i.e. using a concentration of thiocyanate of 5mM, the ASV peaks of copper and lead overlapped due to the formation of a stable copper(I)-thiocyanate species, limiting the analytical determinations. Therefore, the best value for the thiocyanate concentration was re-evaluated: for 0.05mM a trade-off between good resolution of the copper and lead peaks and high reproducibility of the mercury film formation/removing processes was achieved. In this media, the ASV peaks for Pb and Cu occurred, separated by 140mV. Also, the in situ thin mercury film electrode was produced and removed with good repeatability, which was confirmed by the relative standard deviation values for the ASV determinations: 0.5% for Pb and 2.0% for Cu (10 replicate determinations in a solution with metal concentrations 1.5x10(-8)M for lead and 2.2x10(-8)M for copper). The optimised methodology was successfully applied to the determination of copper in the presence of lead, in certified seawater (NASS-5).

  12. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, copper, lead and nickel traces in aragonite following flotation and extraction separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendelovska, D; Pavlovska, G; Cundeva, K; Stafilov, T

    2001-03-30

    A method of determination of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni in nanogram quantities from aragonite is presented. Flotation and extraction of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni is suggested as methods for elimination matrix interferences of calcium. The method of flotation is performed by iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC)(3), as a colloid precipitate collector. The liquid-liquid extraction of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni is carried out by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, NaDDTC, as complexing reagent into methylisobutyl ketone, MIBK. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is used for determination of analytes. The detection limits of ETAAS followed by flotation are: 7.8 ng.g(-1) for Co, 17.1 ng.g(-1) for Cu, 7.2 ng.g(-1) for Pb and 9.0 mug.g(-1) for Ni. The detection limits of ETAAS followed by extraction are found to be: 12.0 ng.g(-1) for Co, 51.0 ng.g(-1) for Cu, 24.0 ng.g(-1) for Pb and 21.0 ng.g(-1) for Ni.

  13. Adsorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions by meranti sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatullah, M; Sulaiman, O; Hashim, R; Ahmad, A

    2009-10-30

    The present study proposed the use of meranti sawdust in the removal of Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption studies showed that meranti sawdust was able to adsorb Cu(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions in the concentration range 1-200mg/L. The adsorption was favoured with maximum adsorption at pH 6, whereas the adsorption starts at pH 1 for all metal ions. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, adsorbent dosage and temperature have been reported. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm was tried for the system to completely understand the adsorption isotherm processes. The adsorption kinetics tested with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models yielded high R(2) values from 0.850 to 0.932 and from 0.991 to 0.999, respectively. The meranti sawdust was found to be cost effective and has good efficiency to remove these toxic metal ions from aqueous solution.

  14. Removal of Cadmium, Copper, Lead and Nickel from Aqueous Solution by White, Yellow and Red United Arab Emirates Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pappalardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To remove toxic heavy metal ions from wastewater using local sand as a low cost adsorbent. Approach: Removal efficiency of Cd(II, Cu(II, Pb(II and Ni(II from aqueous solution by white, yellow and red UAE sand was investigated at 25.0°C using the methods of batch equilibrium adsorption and column filtration. In each case, a mixture containing 20 ppm of each ion was employed. In the equilibrium study, the effect of sand dosage was measured for mixtures containing 20 ppm of each ion. In the column filtration study, the mixture was added to a column packed with yellow sand and the composition of the effluent was measured for each 0.050 dm3 portion. Concentrations were measured on an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer “ICP-AES”. Results: Removal efficiency by sand type was found to follow the order yellow>white>red. At low sand dosages, removal efficiencies of Pb(II and Cu(II were much higher than those for Ni(II and Cd(II. For example, at a sand dosage of 0.02 kg dm-3, removal efficiencies of Pb(II, Cu(II, Cd(II and Ni(II were, respectively, 95, 86, 33 and 23% for yellow sand; 89, 86, 30 and 18% for white sand; and 75, 63, 12 and 13% for red sand. Column filtration using yellow sand confirmed that removal efficiency followed the order Pb(II>Cu(II>Cd(II>Ni(II, with all four ions completely removed at mass ratios (metal/sand lower than 3.0×10-4. Conclusion: Equilibration on sand and sand filtration are most efficient for the removal Pb(II and Cu(II. Sand filtration can be effectively utilized to separate Pb(II and Cu(II from a mixture containing all four ions.

  15. Oral intake of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel, manganese and zinc in the university student's diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberá, R; Farré, R; Mesado, D

    1993-01-01

    A duplicate diet meal study was carried out with a group of university students living in a hostel, in order to estimate the intake of Zn, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Ni were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Cd, Co and Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after a nitric acid wet digestion procedure. The estimated intake values from the contents of breakfast, lunch, dinner and drinks were compared with the values of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) in the case of Cd and Pb, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of Co, Fe and Zn and Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietetic Daily Intake (ESADDI) of Cu and Mn. Neither excessive intake of Pb and Cd nor deficiencies in Zn, Co, Fe, Mn or Ni were observed, but Cu intake was lower than the ESADDI.

  16. Ministry of Land and Resources Plans to Find Out Support Capabilities of Mineral Resources including Copper, Lead, Zinc and Nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On September 10,the Ministry of Land and Resources(MLR)revealed on its website that it decided to carry out a research on the support capability of main mineral resources in China for national economy and social development by 2020,2025 and 2030.According to MLR,China’s research and argumentation on support capacity of important

  17. Removal of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, and zinc from water by a cancrinite-type zeolite synthesized from fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Qiu; Ying Zheng [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2009-01-01

    As a low Si/Al ratio zeolite, cancrinite received very scant study in previous studies on the adsorption removal of heavy metals from water. In this study, a cancrinite-type zeolite (ZFA) was synthesized from Class C fly ash via the molten-salt method. Adsorption equilibriums of Pb{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Zn{sup 2+} on ZFA were studied in aqueous solutions and were well represented by Langmuir isotherms. The increase of pH levels during the adsorption process suggests that the uptake of heavy metals on ZFA was subjected to an ion exchange mechanism. It is found that the maximum exchange level (MEL) follows the order: Pb{sup 2+} (2.530 mmol g{sup -1}) > Cu{sup 2+} (2.081 mmol g{sup -1}) > Zn{sup 2+} (1.532 mmol g{sup -1}) > Co{sup 2+} (1.242 mmol g{sup -1}) > Zn{sup 2+} (1.154 mmol g{sup -1}). Comparison with previous studies shows that the MEL of ZFA is higher than the commonly used natural zeolites; and it is also comparable to (or higher than) several synthetic zeolites and ion exchange resins. The high MEL of heavy metals on ZFA is attributed to the high cation exchange capacity (CEC) and proper pore size of cancrinite. The pseudo-first-order kinetics suggests that the ion exchange processes were diffusion-controlled.

  18. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  19. Nickel: makes stainless steel strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.

    2012-01-01

    Nickel is a silvery-white metal that is used mainly to make stainless steel and other alloys stronger and better able to withstand extreme temperatures and corrosive environments. Nickel was first identified as a unique element in 1751 by Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, a Swedish mineralogist and chemist. He originally called the element kupfernickel because it was found in rock that looked like copper (kupfer) ore and because miners thought that "bad spirits" (nickel) in the rock were making it difficult for them to extract copper from it. Approximately 80 percent of the primary (not recycled) nickel consumed in the United States in 2011 was used in alloys, such as stainless steel and superalloys. Because nickel increases an alloy's resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, equipment and parts made of nickel-bearing alloys are often used in harsh environments, such as those in chemical plants, petroleum refineries, jet engines, power generation facilities, and offshore installations. Medical equipment, cookware, and cutlery are often made of stainless steel because it is easy to clean and sterilize. All U.S. circulating coins except the penny are made of alloys that contain nickel. Nickel alloys are increasingly being used in making rechargeable batteries for portable computers, power tools, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Nickel is also plated onto such items as bathroom fixtures to reduce corrosion and provide an attractive finish.

  20. Indium oxide (In2O3) nanoparticles induce progressive lung injury distinct from lung injuries by copper oxide (CuO) and nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyoung; Kim, Jeongeun; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Cho, Wan-Seob

    2016-04-01

    Indium is an essential element in the manufacture of liquid crystal displays and other electronic devices, and several forms of indium compounds have been developed, including nanopowders, films, nanowires, and indium metal complexes. Although there are several reports on lung injury caused by indium-containing compounds, the toxicity of nanoscale indium oxide (In2O3) particles has not been reported. Here, we compared lung injury induced by a single exposure to In2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) to that caused by benchmark high-toxicity nickel oxide (NiO) and copper oxide (CuO) NPs. In2O3 NPs at doses of 7.5, 30, and 90 cm(2)/rat (50, 200, and 600 µg/rat) were administered to 6-week-old female Wistar rats via pharyngeal aspiration, and lung inflammation was evaluated 1, 3, 14, and 28 days after treatment. Neutrophilic inflammation was observed on day 1 and worsened until day 28, and severe pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was observed on post-aspiration days 14 and 28. In contrast, pharyngeal aspiration of NiO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1 and lymphocytic inflammation with PAP on day 28. Pharyngeal aspiration of CuO NPs showed severe neutrophilic inflammation on day 1, but symptoms were completely resolved after 14 days and no PAP was observed. The dose of In2O3 NPs that produced progressive neutrophilic inflammation and PAP was much less than the doses of other toxic particles that produced this effect, including crystalline silica and NiO NPs. These results suggest that occupational exposure to In2O3 NPs can cause severe lung injury.

  1. Field dependent transition to the non-linear regime in magnetic hyperthermia experiments: Comparison between maghemite, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Verde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR. Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated

  2. Suspended nanoparticles in surfactant media as a microextraction technique for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of cobalt, nickel and copper ions for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shakerian, Farid; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji

    2013-03-15

    The aim of this study was to describe a new method of microextraction based on the suspension of alumina nanoparticles in the surfactant media for simultaneous separation and preconcentration of the ultra-traces of cobalt, nickel and copper ions. In this technique, the alumina nanoparticles were suspended in the non-ionic surfactant solution of Triton X-114. The analytes in the sample solution were adsorbed onto the nanoparticles. After the phase separation based on the cloud point of the mixture at 40 °C, the nanoparticles settled down in the surfactant rich phase. Then 120 μL of nitric acid (3.0 mol L(-1)) was added to the surfactant rich phase which caused desorption of the analytes. Finally, the liquid phase was separated by centrifugation from the nanoparticles and was used for the quantification of the analytes by the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The parameters affecting the extraction and detection processes were optimized. Under the optimized experimental conditions (i.e. pH∼8, Triton X-114, 0.05% (v/v); temperature 40 °C), a sample volume of 25 mL resulted in the enhancement factors of 198, 205 and 206 and detection limits (defined as 3Sb/m) of 2.5, 2.8 and 2.6 ng L(-1) for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) respectively. The sorbent showed high capacity for these metal ions (30-40 mg g(-1) sorbent). The method was successfully applied to the determination of the analytes in natural water samples.

  3. Magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper deposits related to picrite and (or) tholeiitic basalt dike-sill complexes-A preliminary deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Chandler, Val W.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (?) platinum-group elements (PGEs), account for approximately 60 percent of the world's Ni production and are active exploration targets in the United States and elsewhere. On the basis of their principal metal production, magmatic sulfide deposits in mafic rocks can be divided into two major types: those that are sulfide-rich, typically with 10 to 90 percent sulfide minerals, and have economic value primarily because of their Ni and Cu contents; and those that are sulfide-poor, typically with 0.5 to 5 percent sulfide minerals, and are exploited principally for PGE. Because the purpose of this deposit model is to facilitate the assessment for undiscovered, potentially economic magmatic Ni-Cu?PGE sulfide deposits in the United States, it addresses only those deposits of economic significance that are likely to occur in the United States on the basis of known geology. Thus, this model focuses on deposits hosted by small- to medium-sized mafic and (or) ultramafic dikes and sills that are related to picrite and tholeiitic basalt magmatic systems generally emplaced in continental settings as a component of large igneous provinces (LIPs). World-class examples (those containing greater than 1 million tons Ni) of this deposit type include deposits at Noril'sk-Talnakh (Russia), Jinchuan (China), Pechenga (Russia), Voisey's Bay (Canada), and Kabanga (Tanzania). In the United States, this deposit type is represented by the Eagle deposit in northern Michigan, currently under development by Kennecott Minerals.

  4. The impact of industrial emissions of copper-nickel smelter complex on the status of populations and communities of small mammals in the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy D. Kataev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The population status of the small mammals, Micromammalia, was studied in the central mountain and taiga part of the Kola Peninsula in the Lapland Biosphere Reserve and its buffer zone. For this purpose, control groups of animals were selected at a different distance from the Severonikel' industrial complex which is considered as the largest metallurgical company in Europe. It produces nickel, copper and other non-ferrous metals. The study sites were located at 4–30 km from the local source of industrial pollution. The analysis of population dynamics, faunistic structure and biological parameters of mass species of Soricidae, Myomorpha has revealed the differences in habitats depending on the distance to the industrial complex. The results of the chemical analysis of organs and tissue samples of small rodents, their morpho-physiological and genetic characteristics within emission plume were analysed. The abundance of the studied Mammalia species was the lowest at 5 km north and 7 km south of the metallurgical industrial complex. According to our results, animals in a zone of increased industrial emission (sulfur dioxide, compounds of heavy metals concentrations had more deviations from the biological norms in comparison with the same species from less polluted areas. Long-term (1936–2014 abundance dynamics of Clethrionomys glareolus was presented due to the new ecological situation in the region and reduction of the volume of sulfur dioxide emission by the Severonikel' industrial complex. This biotesting method using mammals as study objects may be applied for the definition of ecologically safe level criteria of heavy metal production and it may be used in studies of similar ecological situations.

  5. Inhibiting Approaches of Magnesium Silicate Minerals in Copper-nickel Sulfide Ore Floatation%铜镍硫化矿浮选中镁质硅酸盐矿物的抑制途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹钊; 张亚辉; 孙传尧; 曹永丹

    2012-01-01

    分析了铜镍硫化矿中MgO脉石矿物的晶体结构、理化性质及其与可浮性的关系,总结了铜镍硫化矿浮选中含镁脉石矿物进入浮选精矿的可能途径及对策,着重介绍了含镁脉石矿物表面活化离子的作用及消除机理,最终得出采用高效金属离子络合剂对矿物表面进行清洗预处理,恢复矿物的原本浮游性,再用选择性抑制剂抑制含镁脉石矿物,将是处理含镁硅酸盐铜镍硫化矿物的有效途径的结论.%The relationship of crystal structure, physico-chemical properties and ftoatability of MgO-containing silicate gangue minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ores was analyzed, possible ways of magnesium silicate mixed into flotation concentrate in copper-nickel sulfids ores flotation and corresponding coun term easu res were summarized, the activating mechanism of metal ions on magnesium silicate and deactivating methods were emphatically researched. Finally an effective method was obtained. In this method, an efficient metal ions complexing agent is used to clean the surfaces of minerals, which will recover their original floatability. In the meantime, a selective depressant is applied to depress magnesium-containing gangue minerals. This may be the effective approach for depressing magnesium-containing silicate minerals in copper-nickel sulfide ore floatation.

  6. Simultaneous determination of nickel and copper by H-point standard addition method-first-order derivative spectrophotometry in plant samples after separation and preconcentration on modified natural clinoptilolite as a new sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohparvar, Rasool; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Mohadesi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    For the simultaneous determination of nickel(ll) and copper(ll) in plant samples, a rapid and accurate method was developed. In this method, solid-phase extraction (SPE) and first-order derivative spectrophotometry (FDS) are combined, and the result is coupled with the H-point standard addition method (HPSAM). Compared with normal spectrophotometry, derivative spectrophotometry offers the advantages of increased selectivity and sensitivity. As there is no need for carrying out any pretreatment of the sample, the spectrophotometry method is easy, but because of a high detection limit, it is not so practical. In order to decrease the detection limit, it is suggested to combine spectrophotometry with a preconcentration method such as SPE. In the present work, after separation and preconcentration of Ni(ll) and Cu(ll) on modified clinoptilolite zeolite that is loaded with 2-[1-(2-hydroxy-5-sulforphenyl)-3-phenyl-5-formaza-no]-benzoic acid monosodium salt (zincon) as a selective chromogenic reagent, FDS-HPSAM, which is a simple and selective spectrophotometric method, has been applied for simultaneous determination of these ions. With optimum conditions, the detection limit in original solutions is 0.7 and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively, for nickel and copper. The linear concentration ranges in the proposed method for nickel and copper ions in original solutions are 1.1 to 3.0 x 10(3) and 0.9 to 2.0 x 10(3) ng/mL, respectively. The recommended procedure is applied to successful determination of Cu(ll) and Ni(ll) in standard and real samples.

  7. Aminobenzenesulfonamide functionalized SBA-15 nanoporous molecular sieve: A new and promising adsorbent for preconcentration of lead and copper ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leila Hajiaghababaei; Babak Ghasemi; Alireza Badiei; Hassan Goldooz; Mohammad Reza Ganjali; Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction and monitoring of nanogram level of Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions using uniform silanized mesopor (SBA-15) functionalized with aminobenzenesulfonamide groups and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is presented.Aminobenzenesulfonamide functionalized SBA-15 was synthesized according to procedure in the literature and the presence of organic groups in the silica framework was demonstrated by FT-IR spectra.The functionalized product showed the BET surface area 110 m2/g and pore diameter 5.1 nm,based on adsorption-desorption of N2 at 77 K.The effect of several variables such as (amount of adsorbent,stirring time,pH and presence of other ions in the medium) has been studied.Lead and copper were completely extracted at pH greater than 3 after stirring for 10 min.The maximum capacity of the adsorbent was found to be 191.3 ± 1.4 and 155.0 ± 1.0 μg of lead and copper ions/mg functionalized SBA-15,respectively.The preconcentration factor of the method was found to be 200.The detection limit of the technique was 3.4 and 0.4 ng/mL for Pb2+ and Cu2+,respectively.The applications of this methodology for real samples were examined by various water type,black tea and pepper samples.

  8. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toru Murakami; Yasuo Uchikoshiki; Kazutoshi Komori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it.Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency,limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  9. Nickel Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ToruMurakami; YasuoUchikoshiki; KazutoshiKomori

    2004-01-01

    Nickel electroplating has been used practically for decades, is easy to plate, but there is an unknown interest in it. Nickel electroplating as a basis of surface treatment is shown practically from basics to the applied electronics use. At first the basics of nickel electroplating, for example, purpose, use, merit & demerit, nickel plating solution, current efficiency, limiting current density, additional agents and their behaviors are surveyed. And the points of nickel deposition already practically used such as decorative nickel plating, satin nickel plating and functional nickel plating, which has very high throwing power and has been used for electronics, are described in detail.

  10. Flotation Experimental Study On a Low Grade Copper-Nickel Ore Containing Talc%某含滑石低品位铜镍矿浮选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯泽平; 谈伟军

    2014-01-01

    某含滑石低品位铜镍矿有用矿物共生关系密切且嵌布不均匀,滑石等层状硅酸盐矿物含量高而易泥化,分选难度较大。通过系统的工艺矿物学研究和探索试验,针对含镍0.78%,铜0.16%的原矿,最终采用滑石、铜镍等可浮-铜镍分离浮选-尾矿强化回收镍的试验流程,试验获得铜精矿含铜24.41%、铜回收率47.50%,镍精矿含镍8.20%、镍回收率77.43%的选别指标。试验获得的技术指标稳定可靠,可以作为矿山开发利用的初步依据。%Minerals in a low -grade copper -nickel polymetallic sulfide ore are closely associated with each other and disseminated unevenly , talc and other layered silicate are in high content and they are easy to slime , which results in sorting difficult .For this raw ore containing 0.78%of Ni and 0.16% of Cu, through systematical mineralogical study and flotation experiments , the test process of talc and copper -nickel iso-flotation, copper-nickel separation flotation and enhanced recovery of Ni in tailings were carried out .Then copper concentrate with Cu grade of 24 .41%at an 47.50%recovery, nickel concentrate with Ni grade of 8.20% at an 77.43% recovery were ob-tained .The technical indicators can be used as a preliminary basis for mining exploitation .

  11. Quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II): structural features, biological evaluation and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psomas, George; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P

    2013-05-14

    The structural features of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with the antimicrobial drugs quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as ligands are discussed. The binding properties of these complexes to biomolecules (calf-thymus DNA, bovine or human serum albumin) are presented and evaluated. The biological activity (antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative) of selected complexes is investigated. Further perspectives concerning the synthesis and the biological activity of novel complexes with quinolones or NSAIDs attractive to synthetic chemists, biochemists and/or biologists are presented.

  12. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of lead and nickel in land farming soil of petroleum refinery; Remediacao eletrocinetica de chumbo e niquel em solos de landfarming de uma refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guaracho, Viviane V.; Ponte, Maria Jose J.S.; Adamoski, Luiz Felipe [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In many areas in the world, the ground has been seriously contaminated, had to practical of inadequate disposal and pollutant industrial activities. This polluted soil becomes a threat to the environment for presenting toxical substances, as the heavy metals. The alternative to solve this threat is a technique of electrokinetic remediation, which has been considered promising because it presents an excellent potential of recovery of places contaminated by heavy metals. This technique consists on the application of a direct current of low intensity through the ground between two or more electrodes. This way, the objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of the electrokinetic remediation for removal of Lead and Nickel, from the ground of land farming from petroleum refineries. The ground will be simulated using contaminated sand with nickel and lead nitrate with concentrations previously established. For a reduction in the experimental costs, one technique of statistical planning will be used. Parameters will be modified as: concentration of ions, applied potential and time. Through the concentration profile it is intended to calculate the coefficient of mass transport in order to get a correlation between the concentration and the flow of the species. Aiming at a economical evaluation of the reactor, the current and the energy consumption efficiencies will be evaluated. (author)

  14. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy level alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS. XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH3NH3PbI3, facilitating hole transfer from CH3NH3PbI3 to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  15. Energy level alignment at the methylammonium lead iodide/copper phthalocyanine interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shi; Goh, Teck Wee; Sum, Tze Chien, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Sabba, Dharani; Chua, Julianto; Mathews, Nripan [Energy Research Institute @NTU (ERI-N), Research Techno Plaza, X-Frontier Block, Level 5, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Huan, Cheng Hon Alfred, E-mail: Alfred@ntu.edu.sg, E-mail: Tzechien@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16–16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-08-01

    The energy level alignment at the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). XPS reveal a 0.3 eV downward band bending in the CuPc film. UPS validate this finding and further reveal negligible interfacial dipole formation – verifying the viability of vacuum level alignment. The highest occupied molecular orbital of CuPc is found to be closer to the Fermi level than the valance band maximum of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, facilitating hole transfer from CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} to CuPc. However, subsequent hole extraction from CuPc may be impeded by the downward band bending in the CuPc layer.

  16. Effect of adding sorbitol to the electroplating solution on the process of depositing lead on copper and the morphology of the film produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J. L. P.; Carlos, I. A.

    The electrodeposition of lead on to a copper substrate from a plumbite solution, 0.1 M Pb(NO 3) 2 + 0.2 M sorbitol + NaOH, was investigated over a range of concentrations of the hydroxide. Interactions between the copper electrode surface and the lead deposit were investigated by the voltammetric technique. From these experiments, it was concluded that underpotential deposition (upd) of lead does not occur on copper and that lead nucleation occurs as soon as deposition is operative from -0.78 V. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the lead films corroborates this result. Lead films obtained at -0.78 and -0.90 V were adherent and could be used as a support in battery plates, but this adhesion of lead to copper cannot be attributed to upd. SEM analysis showed that films produced at potentials down to -0.90 V were smooth and that this is the critical potential for a transition from dense to pyramidal or dendritic crystals patterns. The dendritic crystallites can be transformed into a high-purity lead powder.

  17. Associations of neonatal lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel co-exposure with DNA oxidative damage in an electronic waste recycling town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wenqing; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jingwen; Wu, Kusheng

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45 ng/mL vs. 57.31 ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50 ng/mL vs. 0.33 ng/mL, both P<0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β=0.126 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198 ng/mL), chromium (β=0.086 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158 ng/mL) and nickel (β=0.215 ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317 ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  19. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  20. Efficiency of green waste compost and biochar soil amendments for reducing lead and copper mobility and uptake to ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Nadia; Clemente, Rafael; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Lepp, Nicholas W; Beesley, Luke

    2011-07-15

    Green waste compost and biochar amendments were assessed for their assistance in regulating the mobility of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) and the resultant uptake of these metals into vegetation. The amendments were mixed with a heavily Cu and Pb contaminated soil (600 and 21,000 mg kg(-1), respectively) from a former copper mine in Cheshire (UK), on a volume basis both singly and in combination in greenhouse pot trials. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. var. Cadix) was grown for the following 4 months during which biomass, metals in soil pore water and plant uptake were measured in three consecutive harvests. Very high Pb concentrations in pore water from untreated soil (>80 mg l(-1)) were reduced furthest by compost amendment (compost amendments, respectively during successive harvests. However, because green waste compost singly and in combination with biochar vividly enhanced biomass yields, harvestable amounts of Pb were only significantly reduced by the compost amendment which had reduced shoot Pb levels furthest. The low biomass of ryegrass with biochar amendment meant that this was the only amendment which did not significantly increase harvestable amounts of Cu. Therefore the two amendments have opposing metal specific suitability for treating this contaminated soil regarding whether it is a maximum reduction in plant tissue metal concentration or a maximum reduction in harvestable amount of metal that is required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An inorganic hole conductor for organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells. Improved hole conductivity with copper iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Jeffrey A; Fung, Raymond C M; Kamat, Prashant V

    2014-01-15

    Organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells have emerged as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells. To date, these perovskite thin film solar cells have exclusively employed organic hole conducting polymers which are often expensive and have low hole mobility. In a quest to explore new inorganic hole conducting materials for these perovskite-based thin film photovoltaics, we have identified copper iodide as a possible alternative. Using copper iodide, we have succeeded in achieving a promising power conversion efficiency of 6.0% with excellent photocurrent stability. The open-circuit voltage, compared to the best spiro-OMeTAD devices, remains low and is attributed to higher recombination in CuI devices as determined by impedance spectroscopy. However, impedance spectroscopy revealed that CuI exhibits 2 orders of magnitude higher electrical conductivity than spiro-OMeTAD which allows for significantly higher fill factors. Reducing the recombination in these devices could render CuI as a cost-effective competitor to spiro-OMeTAD in perovskite solar cells.

  2. Corrosion control in water supply systems: effect of pH, alkalinity, and orthophosphate on lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Y S; Elefsiniotis, P

    2009-10-01

    This study explored the potential of lead and copper leaching from brass plumbing in the Auckland region of New Zealand. A five-month field investigation, at six representative locations, indicated that Auckland's water can be characterized as soft and potentially corrosive, having low alkalinity and hardness levels and a moderately alkaline pH. More than 90% of the unflushed samples contained lead above the maximum acceptable value (MAV) of 10 microg/L (New Zealand Standards). In contrast, the copper level of unflushed samples remained consistently below the corresponding MAV of 2 mg/L. Flushing however reduced sharply metal concentrations, with lead values well below the MAV limit. Generally, metal leaching patterns showed a limited degree of correlation with the variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen and free chlorine residual at all sampling locations. Furthermore, a series of bench-scale experiments was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of pH and alkalinity adjustment, as well as orthophosphate addition as corrosion control tools regarding lead and copper dissolution. Results demonstrated that lead and copper leaching was predominant during the first 24 hr of stagnation, but reached an equilibrium state afterwards. Since the soluble fraction of both metals was small (12% for lead, 29% for copper), it is apparent that the non-soluble compounds play a predominant role in the dissolution process. The degree of leaching however was largely affected by the variations in pH and alkalinity. At pH around neutrality, an increase in alkalinity promoted metal dissolution, while at pH 9.0 the effect of alkalinity on leaching was marginal. Lastly, addition of orthophosphate as a corrosion inhibitor was more effective at pH 7.5 or higher, resulting in approximately 70% reduction in both lead and copper concentrations.

  3. Contents of the heavy metals nickel and lead in leaves of Paulownia elongata S.Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Dragica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was carried out on the capabilities of the two species Paulownia elongata S. Y. Hu and Paulownia fortunei Hems. as biomonitors of atmospheric (and soil heavy-metal pollution. Research on content of the heavy metals nickel (Ni and lead (Pb in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata growing under urban and suburban conditions with the comparison to the concentration of these elements in leaves of the species Paulownia elongata and Paulownia fortunei on an experimental plot in Bela Crkva showed average nickel concentrations of 2.7 μg/g on the experimental plot in Bela Crkva, Serbia, twice as low as the concentrations measured under extreme urban conditions (6.62 μg/g, or 4.54 μg/g in the immediate vicinity of suburban traffic lines. Inasmuch as Paulownia elongata endures urban conditions well, it can be recommended for cultivation in parks, tree alleys, and wind-protection zones along urban and regional traffic lines.

  4. Lead and zinc geochemical behavior based on geological characteristics in Parkam Porphyry Copper System, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyyed; Saeed; Ghannadpour; Ardeshir; Hezarkhani

    2015-01-01

    Parkam(Sarah) porphyry system is located on the metallogenic belt of Kerman, Iran. Due to existence of some copper-rich resources in this region, finding out the exact statistical characteristics such as distribution of data population, mean, variance and data population behavior of elements like Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn is necessary for interpreting their geological behavior. For this reason, precise calculation of statistical characteristics of Pb and Zn grade datasets was performed and results were interpreted geologically. The natures of Pb and Zn distributions were initially identified and their distributions were normalized through statistical treatment. Subsequently, the variograms were calculated for each exploration borehole and show that both Pb and Zn geochemical variates are spatially correlated. According to the similarity of the behavior of Pb and Zn in these calculations, it is decided to measure their exact behavior applying K-means clustering method. K-means clustering results show that the Zn grade varies linearly relative to that of Pb values and their behavior is similar. Based on the geochemical behavior similarity of Pb and Zn, throughout the pervasive secondary hydrothermal activity, they are remobilized in the similar manner, from the deep to the shallow levels of the mineralization zones. However, statistical analysis suggests that hydrothermal activity associated with secondary waters in Parkam is effective in remobilizing and enriching both Pb and Zn since they have similar geochemical characteristics. However, the process does not result in generation of economic concentrations.

  5. Screening of plant species for phytoremediation of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead contaminated soils from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-yue; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-xin; Zheng, Ji-fang; Liu, Yu-long; Wang, Yong-dong; Nie, Xiao-qin

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of uranium, thorium, barium, nickel, strontium and lead in the samples of the tailings and plant species collected from a uranium mill tailings repository in South China were analyzed. Then, the removal capability of a plant for a target element was assessed. It was found that Phragmites australis had the greatest removal capabilities for uranium (820 μg), thorium (103 μg) and lead (1,870 μg). Miscanthus floridulus had the greatest removal capabilities for barium (3,730 μg) and nickel (667 μg), and Parthenocissus quinquefolia had the greatest removal capability for strontium (3,920 μg). In this study, a novel coefficient, termed as phytoremediation factor (PF), was proposed, for the first time, to assess the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation of a target element contaminated soil. Phragmites australis has the highest PFs for uranium (16.6), thorium (8.68), barium (10.0) and lead (10.5). Miscanthus floridulus has the highest PF for Ni (25.0). Broussonetia papyrifera and Parthenocissus quinquefolia have the relatively high PFs for strontium (28.1 and 25.4, respectively). On the basis of the definition for a hyperaccumulator, only Cyperus iria and Parthenocissus quinquefolia satisfied the criteria for hyperaccumulator of uranium (36.4 μg/g) and strontium (190 μg/g), and could be the candidates for phytoremediation of uranium and strontium contaminated soils. The results show that the PF has advantage over the hyperaccumulator in reflecting the removal capabilities of a plant for a target element, and is more adequate for assessing the potential of a plant to be used in phytoremediation than conventional method.

  6. Application of Deep Eutectic Solvent Modified Cotton as a Sorbent for Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Determination of Trace Amounts of Copper and Nickel in Water and Biological Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mehdi; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji

    2017-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) was used as the extractant to improve the extraction properties of cotton. DES of choline chloride-urea (ChCl-urea) was prepared and immobilized on the surface of cotton fibers. The resulting sorbent was packed on a microcolumn, and a flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry was designed for the online separation and determination of trace amounts of copper and nickel. Various parameters affecting the extraction recovery of analytes such as pH, sample volume, sample loading rate, nature, volume, concentration, and flow rate of eluent were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.25-50.0 and 4.0-125.0 μg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (r (2)) of 0.9991 and 0.9990 for copper and nickel, respectively. The method was very sensitive with the detection limits (defined as 3Sb/m) of 0.05 and 0.60 μg L(-1) for Cu and Ni, respectively. It was successfully applied for the determination of Cu and Ni in water and biological samples. The accuracy of the method was evaluated through the recovery experiments and independent analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  7. Simple,Selective,and Sensitive Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Trace Amounts of Nickel(Ⅱ),Copper(Ⅱ), Cobalt(Ⅱ),and Iron(Ⅲ)with a Novel Reagent 2-Pyridine Carboxaldehyde Isonicotinyl Hydrazone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajid H.Guzar; JIN Qin-han

    2008-01-01

    A selective and sensitive reagent of 2-pyridine carboxaldehyde isonicotinyl hydrazone(2-PYAINH)was synthesized and studied for the spectrophotometric determination of nickel,copper,cobalt,and iron in detail.At a pH value of 7.0,9.0,9.0,and 8.0,respectively,which greatly increased the selectivity;nickel,copper,cobalt, and iron reacted with 2-PYAINH to form a 1:2 yellow-orange,1:2 yellow-green,1:2 yellow and 1:1 yellow complexes,with absorption peaks at 363,352,346,and 359 nm,respectively.Under the optimal conditions,Beer's law was obeyed over the ranges of 0.01-1.4,0.01-1.5,0.01-2.7,and 0.01-5.4 mg/L,respectively.The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivities were 8.4×104,5.2x104,7.1×104,and 3.9×104L·mol-1.cm-1,respectively,and 0.00069,0.0012,0.00078,and 0.0014 μ g·cm-2,respectively.The detection limits were found to be 0.001,O.002,0.003,and 0.01 mg/L,respectively.The detailed study of various interfering ions to make the method more sensitive was carried out and selective and several real samples were analyzed with satisfactory results.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with Schiff base derived from 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Barwa, Manjeet Singh; Tyagi, Parikshit

    2007-03-01

    A few (1:1) and (1:2) metal complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) have been isolated with ligand derived from the condensation of 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-1,2,4-triazine with 2-acetylpyridine (L(1)) and characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, infrared, electronic, (1)H NMR spectral data, magnetic and thermogravimetric analyses. Due to insolubility in water and most of the common organic solvents and infusibility at higher temperatures, all the complexes are thought to be polymeric in nature. A square-planar geometry was suggested for copper(II) and octahedral proposed for cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II). Some of the chemically synthesized compounds have been screened in vitro against the three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus subtilis) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) organisms. It is observed that the coordination of metal ion has pronounced effect on the microbial activities of the ligand. The metal complexes have higher antimicrobial effect than the free ligands.

  9. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edson Luiz, E-mail: edsonqmc@hotmail.com [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Santos Roldan, Paulo dos [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Campus A.C. Simoes, Av. Lourival Melo Mota, Tabuleiro do Martins, CEP: 57072-970 AL (Brazil); Gine, Maria Fernanda [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Centenario, 303, CP 96, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L{sup -1}, 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 deg. C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n = 9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  10. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples by cloud point extraction using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol and their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Edson Luiz; Roldan, Paulo dos Santos; Giné, Maria Fernanda

    2009-11-15

    A procedure for simultaneous separation/preconcentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel in water samples, based on cloud point extraction (CPE) as a prior step to their determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), has been developed. The analytes reacted with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) at pH 5 to form hydrophobic chelates, which were separated and preconcentrated in a surfactant-rich phase of octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, buffer amount, surfactant concentration, temperature, kinetics of complexation reaction, and incubation time were optimized and their respective values were 5, 0.6 mmol L(-1), 0.3 mL, 0.15% (w/v), 50 degrees C, 40 min, and 10 min for 15 mL of preconcentrated solution. The method presented precision (R.S.D.) between 1.3% and 2.6% (n=9). The concentration factors with and without dilution of the surfactant-rich phase for the analytes ranged from 9.4 to 10.1 and from 94.0 to 100.1, respectively. The limits of detection (L.O.D.) obtained for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, and 6.3 microg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was evaluated through recovery experiments on aqueous samples.

  11. Early Effects of Long-Term Neurotoxic Lead Exposure in Copper Works Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Böckelmann

    2011-01-01

    It was found that of the psychometric performance parameters, only the mainly motor performance parameters had a potential for being neurotoxic early indicators. Preferably centrally influenced performance parameters were found to be less suitable early indicators. The lead-exposed subjects exhibited a slowed poststrain resetting behaviour of the vegetative nervous system, which correlated with the individual blood lead level. This was attributed to vagus depression, which had already started in the prevailing situation of exposure and was reflected by diminished cardiac phase duration variability. Our results indicate that it is necessary to more critically choose the lead level standards in the air on the working area. Heart rate variability may be affected even at small lead concentration.

  12. Interactions of 160 GeV/Nucleon $^{207}$Pb Nuclei in Emulsion Chambers with Copper and Lead Targets

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU13 \\\\ \\\\ Nuclear emulsions will be used as targets and trackers to investigate the interactions of $^{207}$Pb nuclei in emulsion, copper and lead targets; specifically (i) the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles including analysis of particle fluctuations in pseudorapidity and azimuthal angle distributions, (ii) the transverse momentum distribution of $\\alpha$ fragments from the projectile nucleus. \\\\ \\\\Several emulsion chambers with different geometry and targets will be exposed to the $^{207}$Pb beam. Each chamber will be irradiated with the beam of low density $^{207}$Pb ions (several hundred per cm$^2$). Interactions with small impact parameter, characterized by high multiplicity and disruption of the projectile nucleus will be found with high efficiency. Measurements in the emulsion will include the number and emission angles of charged particles produced and the emission angles of $\\alpha$ fragments from the projectile nucleus.

  13. Nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallo-intercalators: structural details of the DNA-binding by a combined experimental and computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Antonino; Bonsignore, Riccardo; Terenzi, Alessio; Spinello, Angelo; Giannici, Francesco; Longo, Alessandro; Almerico, Anna Maria; Barone, Giampaolo

    2014-04-28

    We present a thorough characterization of the interaction of novel nickel(II) (1), copper(II) (2) and zinc(II) (3) Schiff base complexes with native calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA), in buffered aqueous solution at pH 7.5. UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence of the intercalative mechanism of the three square-planar metal complexes, allowing us to determine the intrinsic DNA-binding constants (K(b)), equal to 1.3 × 10(7), 2.9 × 10(6), and 6.2 × 10(5) M(-1) for 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Preferential affinity, of one order of magnitude, toward AT compared to GC base pair sequences was detected by UV-vis absorption titrations of 1 with [poly(dG-dC)]2 and [poly(dA-dT)]2. Structural details of the intercalation site of the three metal complexes within [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 were obtained by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by density functional theory/molecular mechanics (DFT/MM) calculations. The calculations revealed that three major intermolecular interactions contribute to the strong affinity between DNA and the three metal complexes: (1) the electrostatic attraction between the two positively charged triethylammoniummethyl groups of the metal complexes and the negatively charged phosphate groups of the DNA backbone; (2) the intercalation of the naphthalene moiety within the four nitrogen bases of the intercalation site; (3) the metal coordination by exocyclic donor atoms of the bases, specifically the carbonyl oxygen and amine nitrogen atoms. Remarkably, the Gibbs formation free energy calculated for the intercalation complexes of 1, 2 and 3 with [dodeca(dA-dT)]2 in the implicit water solution is in agreement with the experimental Gibbs free energy values obtained from the DNA-binding constants as ΔG° = -RT ln(K(b)). In particular, the DNA-binding affinity trend, 1 > 2 > 3, is reproduced. Finally, the first shell coordination distances calculated for the intercalation complex 3/[dodeca(dA-dT)]2 are in

  14. Copper inducing Aβ42 rather than Aβ40 nanoscale oligomer formation is the key process for Aβ neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Wu, Wei-Hui; Li, Qiu-Ye; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Li, Yan-Mei

    2011-11-01

    Copper is known to be a critical factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, as it is involved in amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide related toxicity. However, the relationship between neurotoxicity and Aβ peptide in the presence of copper remains unclear. The effect of copper has not been clearly differentiated between Aβ42 and Aβ40, and it is still debated whether copper-mediated neurotoxicity is due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation or other molecular mechanisms. Here, we describe that copper dramatically affects Aβ42 aggregation and enhances Aβ42 cytotoxicity while it shows no significant effects on Aβ40. These phenomena are mainly because that the strong interactions between copper and Aβ42 lead to great conformation changes, and stabilize Aβ42 aggregates at highly toxic nanoscale oligomer stage, whereas copper shows no similar impact on Aβ40. We also propose a possible molecular mechanism that copper enhances Aβ42 cytotoxicity via perturbing membrane structure. Moreover, we test the effect of an analogue of copper, nickel, on Aβ aggregation and cytotoxicity, finding that nickel also enhances cytotoxicity via Aβ42 nanoscale oligomer formation. These results clarify that the copper-induced Aβ42 nanoscale oligomer formation is the key process for Aβ neurotoxicity, and suggest that disrupting the interactions between copper and Aβ42 peptide to inhibit nanoscale oligomerization process, deserves more attention in AD drug development.

  15. The Role of Blood Lead, Cadmium, Zinc and Copper in Development and Severity of Acne Vulgaris in a Nigerian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikaraoha, C I; Mbadiwe, N C; Anyanwu, C J; Odekhian, J; Nwadike, C N; Amah, H C

    2017-04-01

    Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disorder affecting human beings. There is a paucity of report on the role of heavy metals-lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd)-globally, and trace metals-zinc (Zn) and copper (Cd)-particularly in Nigeria in the development/severity of acne vulgaris. This study is aimed to determine the blood levels of some heavy metals-cadmium and lead-and trace metals-zinc and copper-in acne vulgaris sufferers in a Nigerian population. Venous blood samples were collected from a total number of 90 non-obese female subjects consisting of 30 mild, 30 moderate and 30 severe acne vulgaris sufferers for blood Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn determination. They were age-matched with 60 females without acne vulgaris who served as the control subjects. Acne sufferers had significantly higher blood Cd and Pb (P = 0.0143 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significantly different blood levels of Cu and Zn (P = 0.910 and P = 0.2140 respectively) compared to controls. There were significant progressive increases in blood levels of Cd and Pb (P = 0.0330 and P = 0.0001 respectively) and non-significant differences in the mean blood level of Cu and Zn (P = 0.1821 and P = 0.2728 respectively) from mild to moderate and severe acne vulgaris sufferers. Increases in blood Cd and Pb may play critical roles in the pathogenesis/severity of acne vulgaris, while Cu and Zn seem to play less significant roles in the development of this disorder in this environment.

  16. APT characterization of high nickel RPV steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Sokolov, M. A.; Nanstad, R. K.; Russell, K. F.

    2006-06-01

    The microstructures of three high nickel content pressure vessel steels have been characterized by atom probe tomography to investigate the influence of high nickel levels on the response to neutron irradiation of high and low copper pressure vessel steels. The high-nickel, low-manganese, low-copper VVER-1000 weld and forging exhibited lower than predicted levels of embrittlement during neutron irradiation. The Palisades weld exhibits a Δ T41 J of 102 °C which was significantly lower than the value of 154 °C predicted by Reg. Guide 1.99 Rev. 2. Atom probe tomography revealed nickel-, manganese-, and silicon-enriched precipitates in both the VVER-1000 base and weld materials after neutron irradiation. A high number density of copper-, nickel-, manganese-, silicon- and phosphorus-enriched precipitates were observed in the Palisades weld after neutron irradiation. Atom probe tomography also revealed high levels of phosphorus segregation to the dislocations in all three materials.

  17. FI/SI on-line solvent extraction/back extraction preconcentration coupled to direct injection nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for determination of copper and lead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2002-01-01

    at a sample flow rate of 6.0 ml/min The precisions (RSD) at the 0.2 mug/1 level were 4.4% (Cu) and 4.8% (Pb), respectively. The applicability of the procedure is demonstrated for the determination of copper and lead in three certified reference materials and a urine sample.......An automated sequential injection on-line preconcentration procedure for determination of trace levels of copper and lead via solvent extraction/back extraction coupled to ICP-MS is described. In citrate buffer of pH 3, neutral complexes between the analytes and the chelating reagent, ammonium...

  18. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  19. Equilibrium, thermodynamic and kinetic studies for the biosorption of aqueous lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions on Spirulina platensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seker, Ayseguel [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysegulseker@iyte.edu.tr; Shahwan, Talal [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: talalshahwan@iyte.edu.tr; Eroglu, Ahmet E. [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: ahmeteroglu@iyte.edu.tr; Yilmaz, Sinan [Department of Chemistry, Izmir Institute of Technology, Urla 35430, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: sinanyilmaz@iyte.edu.tr; Demirel, Zeliha [Department of Biology, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: zelihademirel@gmail.com; Dalay, Meltem Conk [Department of Bioengineering, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: meltemconkdalay@gmail.com

    2008-06-15

    The biosorption of lead(II), cadmium(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution by Spirulina platensis was studied as a function of time, concentration, temperature, repetitive reactivity, and ionic competition. The kinetic results obeyed well the pseudo second-order model. Freundlich, Dubinin Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models were applied in describing the equilibrium partition of the ions. Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the design of a single-stage batch sorption system. According to the thermodynamic parameters such as {delta}G{sup o}, {delta}H{sup o}and {delta}S{sup o} calculated, the sorption process was endothermic and largely driven towards the products. Sorption activities in a three metal ion system were studied which indicated that there is a relative selectivity of the biosorbent towards Pb{sup 2+} ions. The measurements of the repetitive reusability of S. platensis indicated a large capacity towards the three metal ions.

  20. 3D hierarchical flower-like nickel ferrite/manganese dioxide toward lead (II) removal from aqueous water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bo; Ling, Dong; Lou, Han; Gu, Hongbo

    2017-03-05

    A functionalized magnetic nickel ferrite/manganese dioxide (NiFe2O4/MnO2) with 3D hierarchical flower-like and core-shell structure was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal approach and applied for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the effect of solution pH, initial Pb(II) concentration, and dose of absorbents on the Pb(II) removal by NiFe2O4/MnO2. The NiFe2O4/MnO2 nanocomposites showed the fast Pb(II) adsorption performance with the maximum adsorption capacity of 85.78mgg(-1). The adsorption kinetics of Pb(II) onto NiFe2O4/MnO2 obeyed a pseudo-second-order model. The isothermal experimental results indicated that the Langmuir model was fitted better than the Freundlich model, illustrating a monolayer adsorption process for Pb(II) onto NiFe2O4/MnO2. Meanwhile, the NiFe2O4/MnO2 was easily separated from the solution by an external magnet within a short period of time and still exhibited almost 80% removal capacity after six regenerations. The NiFe2O4/MnO2 is expected to be a new promising adsorbent for heavy metal removal.

  1. What Do Lead and Copper Sampling Protocols Mean, and Which Is Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    this presentation will provide a short review of the explicit and implicit concepts behind most of the currently-used regulatory and diagnostic sampling schemes for lead, such as: random daytime sampling; automated proportional sampler; 30 minute first draw stagnation; Sequential...

  2. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, M; Kalangi, Suresh K; Sivarama Krishna, L; Reddy, A Varada

    2014-01-24

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1=2.1228, g2=2.0706 and g3=2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM.

  3. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: Detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeesh, M.; Kalangi, Suresh K.; Sivarama Krishna, L.; Reddy, A. Varada

    2014-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1 = 2.1228, g2 = 2.0706 and g3 = 2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM.

  4. 某铜铅锌矿石浮选试验研究%Floatation experimental research on a copper-lead-zinc ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晗; 张海鹏; 郑晔; 赵明福

    2011-01-01

    According to the ore characteristics, the combination of XY - 09 non-poisonous depressor and XYB -09 collecting agent is used in copper-lead bulk floatation. The restraint of blende is strengthened and the blende acti vation problem caused by secondary-originated copper is soloved basically. The research provides favorable conditions to ensure the efficient division of copper-lead mixed concentrate, zinc concentrate quality and recovery rate.%根据矿石性质,铜铅混合浮选采用XY - 09型抑制剂和XYB - 09型捕收剂,强化抑制闪锌矿,基本解决次生铜活化闪锌矿问题,为保证铜铅混合精矿有效分离、锌精矿质量及回收率创造了有利条件.

  5. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  6. Metal accumulation in human tissues. Vol. 6. Chromium, nickel, lead, cadmium, and zinc in liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys. Metallanreicherungen in Humangeweben. Bd. 6. Chrom, Nickel, Blei, Cadmium und Zink in Lunge, Leber, Milz und Niere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmeier, H.; Seemann, J.; Wittig, P.; Witting, C.; Rothe, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analytical determination of Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn in human lungs, livers, spleens, and kidneys by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry, and this on an individual and on a group basis; individually as a combined record which contains the trace metal concentrations of the investigated tissues and the post-mortem findings obtained by autopsy. The retrieval of the findings in case of certain diseases is realized by an index. The tissue concentrations of those metals depend upon many endogenous and exogenous variables, especially as regards time and place. Thus, often interpretations are only possible on an individual basis. For example, we measured an increased tissue concentration of lead in a cadaver which perinatally died of severe vasal malformations. On the other hand, we found a highly positive correlation between age and chromium and nickel content of lungs, which might be interesting in regard to occupational lung cancer. In relation to our results we tried to establish reference levels. However, the interpretation of the measurements remains difficult. Within the scientific literature the results of such studies are very different, and this both in regard to the analytical method used and to the year of publication. This fact is demonstrated by tabular overviews of the investigated metals and tissues. Furthermore, problems of organisation of getting samples, of avoiding sample contamination, of quality assurance etc. are discussed.

  7. Determination of copper, lead and iron in water and food samples after column solid phase extraction using 1-phenylthiosemicarbazide on Dowex Optipore L-493 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ozden; Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    A novel solid phase extraction procedure for determination of copper, lead and iron in natural water and food samples has been established in the presented work. 1-Phenylthiosemicarbazide (1-PTSC) as ligand and Dowex Optipore L-493 resin as adsorbent were used in a mini chromatographic column. Various analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of analyte ions including pH, amounts of adsorbent, eluent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The recovery values for analyte ions were higher than 95%. The determination of copper, lead and iron was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of some alkali, alkali earth and transition metals on the recoveries of analyte ions were investigated. The preconcentration factor was 62.5. The limit of detections of the understudied analytes (k=3, N=21) were 0.64 μg L(-1) for copper, 0.55 μg L(-1) for lead and 0.82 μg L(-1) for iron. The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 6%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference material (GBW 07605 Tea). The method was successively applied for the determination of copper, lead and iron in water and some food samples including cheese, bread, baby food, pekmez, honey, milk and red wine after microwave digestion.

  8. Utilization of polysaccharides as depressants for the flotation separation of copper/lead concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Wenqing; Wei Qian; Jiao Fen; Yang Congren; Liu Ruizeng; Wang Peipei; Ke Lifang

    2013-01-01

    The interaction mechanism between dextrin and minerals has been investigated through micro-flotation,adsorption density measurements,Fourier transform infrared ray (FTIR) spectroscopic studies and dissolution tests.Dextrin shows a good depressing action towards galena but not chaicopyrite.FTIR spectroscopic studies indicate that dextrin chemically adsorbed on galena surface in alkaline pH range.Dissolution tests confirm leaching action of metal ions from chalcopytite and galena surfaces,and dextrin-lead ion interaction.Adsorption measurements present that the higher adsorption density of O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC) onto chalcopyrite than that onto galena,and IPETC adsorbed on galena decrease with increasing dextrin concentrations in the presence of dextrin,attesting the flotation results.

  9. Research on Mineral Processing Process for Copper-Lead-Zinc Mine%某铜铅锌矿选矿工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊锋

    2015-01-01

    青海某铜铅锌矿的矿石类型为原生硫化矿,针对原矿的物相分析及工艺矿物学研究,研究了一种比较适合该矿矿石的选矿工艺流程,最终可获得含锌54.10%、含铜0.39%、含铅0.24%的锌精矿,其锌回收率为90.90%,锌精矿含银36.1 g/t,回收率4.26%;得到含铜25.27%,含铅5.88%,含锌5.91%的铜精矿,铜的最终回收率80.48%,铜精矿中含银842 g/t;得到含铅37.78%,含铜1.60%,含锌8.35%的铅精矿,铅的最终回收率53.55%,铅精矿中含银3 880 g/t.%Ore type of a Qinghai copper-lead-zinc mine is primary sulfide ore, according to phase analysis of ROM ore and process mineralogy research, mineral processing process flow suitable for the type of ore is researched, zinc concentrate (including 54.10% zinc, 0.39% copper and 0.24% lead) will be obtained, in which zinc recovery of 90.90%, 36.1 g/t silver content in zinc concentrate, recovery of 4.26%;copper concentrate (including 25.27%copper, 5.88%lead and 5.91%zinc) will be obtained, in which copper recovery of 80.48%, 842 g/t silver content in copper concentrate; lead concentrate (including 37.78% lead, 1.60% copper, 8.35%zinc) will be obtained, in which lead recovery of 53.55%, 3 880 g/t silver in lead concentrate.

  10. Thermal stress in the scanning tunneling microscopy of the metallic heterostructure lead on copper(111); Thermospannung bei der Rastertunnelmikroskopie der metallischen Heterostruktur Blei auf Kupfer(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenkamp, Winfried

    2008-02-22

    The thermal stress, which arises, when tip and sample of a scanning tunneling microscope have different temperatures, was studied in the system lead on copper(111). Thereby atomic resolution on the 4 x 4 superstructure of the lead atoms of the first layer was reached. The thermal stress of lead island was studied because the electronic density of states here is in the greatest part determined by quantum pot states. The density of states as function of the energy can by approached as step function und is by this available for a mathematical modelling. As sum of the influence of the substrates and the influence by the quantum pot states it bas possible to develop a model. in which the thermal stress for lead islands on copper(111) can be described also quantitatively.

  11. [Molluscacide activity of a mixture of 6-n-alkyl salicylic acids (anacardic acid) and 2 of its complexes with copper (II) and lead (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, N M; de Oliveira, A B; Guimarães, J E; Pereira, J P; Katz, N

    1990-01-01

    The molluscicide activity of hexanic extract from Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew) nut shell, of copper (II) complex, of lead (II) complex and anacardic acid has been compared in the laboratory in an attempt to obtain better stability than anacardic acid. This was obtained from the hexanic extract of the cashew nut shell by precipitation with lead (II) hydroxide or cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide or (II) cupric hydroxide followed by treatment of lead (II) complex with a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. Ten products of the mixture obtained were tested on adults snails of Biomphalaria glabrata at 1 to 10 ppm. The most active products were copper (II) complex, obtained by cupric sulfate plus sodium hydroxide, and anacardic acid (sodium hydroxide) which presented activity at 4 ppm. The anacardic acid's lead content was above the limits accepted by the United States standards.

  12. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazer-Rahmati, Mohammad Mehdi, E-mail: mrahmati@ut.ac.ir [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Parisa; Abdolali, Atefeh [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box: 11155-4563, Tehran 4563 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, Ali Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). From the results obtained, chemically modification leads to higher capacity of biosorption. {yields} The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. {yields} One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. {yields} The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model describes best the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions. - Abstract: The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical

  13. China Resumes Processing Trade of Copper Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>On December 31,2008,China’s Ministry of Commerce and General Administration of Cus- toms issued its year-2008 No.121 announce- ment,saying it will adjust the forbidden cate- gory of processing trade,which includes non- ferrous metal products such as copper concen- trate,nickel concentrate,cobalt concentrate, refined copper,nickel and nickel alloy.The above products will be exempt from being for- bidden to process starting from Feb.1,2009.

  14. Adsorption of Thiourea and Formation of Nickel-thiourea Complexes at Initial Stage of Nickel Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guang-hui; WU Hui-huang; YANG Fang-zu; LIU Xin-yu

    2004-01-01

    The effect of thiourea(TU) on the nickel deposition process was analyzed by means of linear-sweep voltammetry. Raman spectroscopy and infrared reflectance spectroscopy were used to investigate the adsorption of TU and the formation of nickel-TU complexes on copper surface. The experimental results indicate that the nucleation and the preceding conversion step are involved in the deposition of nickel on copper electrodes. TU makes the onset nucleation potential negative due to the formation of nickel-TU complexes, which can accelerate the nickel deposition. Moreover, the S atom in the TU molecule adsorbed on copper surface facilitates the coordination of TU to Ni2+. Meanwhile, TU might be adsorbed at a flatter orientation if no Ni2+ is on the surface, while at a perpendicular orientation when Ni2+ is coadsorbed.

  15. Copper, indium, tin, and lead complexes with fluorinated selenolate ligands: precursors to MSex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holligan, Kareem; Rogler, Patrick; Rehe, David; Pamula, Michael; Kornienko, Anna Y; Emge, Thomas J; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Brennan, John G

    2015-09-21

    Reductive cleavage of C6F5SeSeC6F5 with elemental M (M = Cu, In, Sn, Pb) in pyridine results in the formation of (py)4Cu2(SeC6F5)2, (py)2In(SeC6F5)3, (py)2Sn(SeC6F5)2, and (py)2Pb(SeC6F5)2. Each group adopts a unique structure: the Cu(I) compound crystallizes as a dimer with a pair of bridging selenolates, two pyridine ligands coordinating to each Cu(I) ion, and a short Cu(I)-Cu(I) distance (2.595 Å). The indium compound crystallizes as monometallic five-coordinate (py)2In(SeC6F5)3 in a geometry that approximates a trigonal bipyramidal structure with two axial pyridine ligands and three selenolates. The tin and lead derivatives (py)2M(SeC6F5)2 are also monomeric, but they adopt nearly octahedral geometries with trans pyridine ligands, a pair of cis-selenolates, and two "empty" cis-positions on the octahedron that are oriented toward extremely remote selenolates (M-Se = 3.79 Å (Sn), 3.70 Å (Pb)) from adjacent molecules. Two of the four compounds (Cu, In) exhibit intermolecular π-π stacking arrangements in the solid state, whereas the stacking of molecules for the other two compounds (Sn, Pb) appears to be based upon molecular shape and crystal packing forces. All compounds are volatile and decompose at elevated temperatures to give MSex and Se(C6F5)2.The electronic structures of the dimeric Cu compound and monomeric (py)2M(SeC6F5)2 (M = Sn, Pb) were examined with density functional theory calculations.

  16. Export Rebate for 11 Copper Products Are Adjusted Upward, Which May Lead to Improvement in Industry Product Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On December 31,2014,the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation published the"Notice on Adjusting Some Products’Export Rebate Rate".Among products related to non ferrous metals,beginning from January 1,2015,rebate rates of11 copper products would be increased(see attached table).Wherein,5 are copper bar and

  17. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  18. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  19. Preparation and Evaluation of Acetabularia-Modified Carbon Paste Electrode in Anodic Stripping Voltammetry of Copper and Lead Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raziq Rahimi Kooh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is well known about for potential in chelating heavy metals. In this study, carbon paste electrodes were fabricated with siphonous seaweed Acetabularia acetabulum as the modifiers to sense lead (II and copper (II by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Various scan rates and deposition potentials were measured to obtain the optimal peak current for Pb(II and Cu(II. Optimum conditions of Acetabularia-CPE for sensing Pb(II were at the scan rate of 75 mV/s and deposition potential of −800 mV, while for Cu(II sensing were at 100 mV/s and −300 mV, respectively. The electrodes were characterized by the duration of accumulation time, preconcentration over a range of standards, supporting electrolyte, and standard solutions of various pH values. Interference studies were carried out. Both Zn(II and Cu(II were found to interfere with Pb(II sensing, whereas only Zn(II causes interference with Cu(II sensing. The electrode was found to have good regeneration ability via electrochemical cleaning. Preliminary testing of complex samples such as NPK fertilisers, black soil, and sea salt samples was included.

  20. Mobilization of Copper ions by Flavonoids in Human Peripheral Lymphocytes Leads to Oxidative DNA Breakage: A Structure Activity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Arif

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have linked dietary consumption of plant polyphenols with lower incidence of various cancers. In particular, flavonoids (present in onion, tomato and other plant sources induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. These can therefore be used as lead compounds for the synthesis of novel anticancer drugs with greater bioavailability. In the present study, we examined the chemical basis of cytotoxicity of flavonoids by studying the structure–activity relationship of myricetin (MN, fisetin (FN, quercetin (QN, kaempferol (KL and galangin (GN. Using single cell alkaline gel electrophoresis (comet assay, we established the relative efficiency of cellular DNA breakage as MN > FN > QN > KL > GN. Also, we determined that the cellular DNA breakage was the result of mobilization of chromatin-bound copper ions and the generation of reactive oxygen species. The relative DNA binding affinity order was further confirmed using molecular docking and thermodynamic studies through the interaction of flavonoids with calf thymus DNA. Our results suggest that novel anti-cancer molecules should have ortho-dihydroxy groups in B-ring and hydroxyl groups at positions 3 and 5 in the A-ring system. Additional hydroxyl groups at other positions further enhance the cellular cytotoxicity of the flavonoids.

  1. Tolerance and biosorption of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by filamentous fungi isolated from a freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Nur Liyana; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Tan, Soon Guan

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment. The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention. In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P. janthinellum. A. niger and P. simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(II) concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A. niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration. The results showed that A. niger, P. simplicissimum and T. asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution. The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) that was performed by A. niger. The metal removal which occurred at Cu(II) 200 mg/L was (20.910 +/- 0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(II) was (54.046 +/- 0.328) mg/g.

  2. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbain Fifi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb, copper (Cu and Cadmium (Cd during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti. Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax, the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  3. Tolerance and biosorption of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by filamentous fungi isolated from a freshwater ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur Liyana Iskandar; Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin; Soon Guan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment.The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention.In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb).The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A.fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P.janthinellum.A.niger and P simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(Ⅱ)concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A.niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration.The results showed that A.niger, P.simplicissimum and T.asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution.The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) that was performed by A.niger.The metal removal which occurred at Cu(Ⅱ) 200 mg/L was (20.910 ±0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(Ⅱ) was (54.046 ± 0.328) mg/g.

  4. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  5. Direct Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper Metal in Tap Water of Delhi (India by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Salts of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead and Copper are taken incidentally or accidently and has become of great toxicological importance having toxic effect. In the present study direct determination of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu metal was carried out from tap water of Delhi (India using differential pulse anodic stripping Voltammeter (DPASV at Hanging mercury dropping electrode (HMDE.Determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was done using Ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.6 with a sweep rate (scan rate of 59.5 mV/s and pulse amplitude 50mV by HMDE by standard addition method. The solution was stirred during pre-electrolysis at -1150mV (vs. Ag/AgCl for 90 seconds and the potential was scanned from -1150V to +100V (vs..Ag/AgCl. As a result the minimum level of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu was Zero and the concentration observed in the tap water sample of Delhi (India was determined as 0.174 mg/L-1, 0.001 mg/L-1, 0.002 mg/L-1, 0.011 mg/L-1 respectively.

  6. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China.

  7. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers.

  8. Thermal, Spectral, Fluorescence, and Antimicrobial Studies of Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, and Zinc Complexes Derived from 4-[(5-Bromo-thiophen-2-ylmethylene-amino]-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-[1,2,4]triazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of bidentate Schiff base derived from the condensation of 5-bromothiophene-2-carboxaldehyde with 4-amino-3-mercapto-6-methyl-5-oxo-[1,2,4]triazine were synthesized. Physical (magnetic measurements, molar conductance, TG, spectral (UV-Vis, IR, 1HNMR, fluorescence, ESR, and analytical data have established the structures of synthesized Schiff base and its metal complexes. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by IR and TG studies. The Schiff base exhibits a strong fluorescence emission, contrast to this partial fluorescence quenching phenomena is observed in its metal complexes. A square planar geometry for Cu(II and octahedral geometry for Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have been proposed. The Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for antibacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, A. flavus.

  9. Synthesis of Two Potentially Heptadentate (N4O3 Schiff-base Ligands Derived from Condensation of Tris(3-aminopropyl-amine and Salicylaldehyde or 4-Hydroxysalicylaldehyde. Nickel(II and Copper(II Complexes of the Former Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Parish

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Two potentially heptadentate (N4O3 tripodal Schiff-base ligands: tris(3-(salicylideneiminopropylamine (H3L1 and tris(3-(4’-hydroxysalicylideneimino-propylamine (H3L2 have been prepared and characterized by various spectroscopic methods (IR, FAB-MS, NMR. They are derived from the condensation reactions of tris(3-aminopropylamine (tpt, with 3 equivalents of either salicylaldehyde or the ringsubstituted salicylaldehyde, 4-hydroxysalicylaldehyde. The nickel(II and copper(II complexes of H3L1 were obtained from the its reactions Ni(II and Cu(II salts in absolute methanol. These complexes were studied by IR and FAB-Mass spectrometry.

  10. Human health risk assessment of lead, manganese and copper from scrapped car paint dust from automobile workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Onyenezi Amuka, John Paul; Onwuka, Jude Chinedu; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The economic downturn in Nigeria and Structural Adjustment Programme led to the flooding of Nigerian market with imported used automobiles. Most of these vehicles needed refurbishing and reworking. The present study is a human health risk assessment of metal exposure resulting from reworking of imported used vehicles in Nigeria. Scrap paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different mechanic villages (workshops A-H] in Southeastern Nigeria. Scrap paints were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed of lead, manganese and copper with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Workshop B has the highest concentration of Pb (4.26 ± 0.93). Manganese in workshops A and F were (3.31 ± 0.85) and (3.04 ± 0.47) respectively and were higher than the levels from workshops C, B, D, G and H. Copper in workshop D (7.11 ± 0.21) was significantly greater than the other workshops. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures in adults were 9.44E-05 (workshop B), 4.20E-01 (workshop B) and 1.08E-05 (workshop D) respectively. The highest values for HQ through ingestion, inhalation and dermal in children were 8.82E-04, 7.61E-01 and 2.86E-05 all in workshop B respectively. For children, the highest carcinogenic risk levels were 7.05E-08, 6.09E-05 and 2.29E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. In adults, the carcinogenic risk levels were 7.55E-09, 3.39E-05 and 8.67E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. Chronic exposure to scrap car paint dusts may be of significant public health importance in Nigeria as this may add to the body burden of some heavy metals.

  11. The Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY haemophore binds gallium(iii), zinc(ii), cobalt(iii), manganese(iii), nickel(ii), and copper(ii) protoporphyrin IX but in a manner different to iron(iii) protoporphyrin IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz, Halina; Bielecki, Marcin; Wojaczyński, Jacek; Olczak, Mariusz; Smalley, John W; Olczak, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major etiological agent of chronic periodontitis, acquires haem from host haemoproteins through a haem transporter HmuR and a haemophore HmuY. The aim of this study was to analyse the binding specificity of HmuY towards non-iron metalloporphyrins which may be employed as antimicrobials to treat periodontitis. HmuY binds gallium(iii), zinc(ii), cobalt(iii), manganese(iii), nickel(ii), and copper(ii) protoporphyrin IX but in a manner different to iron(iii) protoporphyrin IX which uses His(134) and His(166) as axial ligands. The metal ions in Ga(iii)PPIX and Zn(ii)PPIX can accept only His(166) as an axial ligand, whereas nickel(ii) and copper(ii) interact exclusively with His(134). Two forms of pentacoordinate manganese(iii) are present in the Mn(iii)PPIX-HmuY complex since the metal accepts either His(134) or His(166) as a single axial ligand. The cobalt ion is hexacoordinate in the Co(iii)PPIX-HmuY complex and binds His(134) and His(166) as axial ligands; however, some differences in their environments exist. Despite different coordination modes of the central metal ion, gallium(iii), zinc(ii), cobalt(iii), and manganese(iii) protoporphyrin IX bound to the HmuY haemophore cannot be displaced by excess haem. All of the metalloporphyrins examined bind to a P. gingivalis wild-type strain with higher ability compared to a mutant strain lacking a functional hmuY gene, thus corroborating binding of non-iron metalloporphyrins to purified HmuY protein. Our results further clarify the basis of metalloporphyrin acquisition by P. gingivalis and add to understanding of the interactions with porphyrin derivatives which exhibit antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis.

  12. Combined processing of lead concentrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. L.; Paretskii, V. M.; Sidorin, G. N.; Travkin, V. F.

    2013-06-01

    A combined scheme of processing of lead concentrates with the production of pure metallic lead and the important components containing in these concentrates is considered. This scheme includes sulfating roasting of the lead concentrates and two-stage leaching of the formed cinder with the formation of a sulfate solution and lead sulfate. When transformed into a carbonate form, lead sulfate is used for the production of pure metallic lead. Silver, indium, copper, cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and other important components are separately extracted from a solution. At the last stage, zinc is extracted by either extraction followed by electrolytic extraction of a metal or the return of the forming solution of sulfuric acid to cinder leaching.

  13. Theoretical study of mononuclear nickel(I), nickel(0), copper(i), and cobalt(I) dioxygen complexes: new insight into differences and similarities in geometry and bonding nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2013-11-18

    Geometries, bonding nature, and electronic structures of (N^N)Ni(O2) (N^N = β-diketiminate), its cobalt(I) and copper(I) analogues, and (Ph3P)2Ni(O2) were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and multistate restricted active space multiconfigurational second-order perturbation (MS-RASPT2) methods. Only (N^N)Ni(O2) takes a C(S) symmetry structure, because of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect, while all other complexes take a C(2V) structure. The symmetry lowering in (N^N)Ni(O2) is induced by the presence of the singly occupied δ(d(xy)-π(x)*) orbital. In all of these complexes, significant superoxo (O2-) character is found from the occupation numbers of natural orbitals and the O-O π* bond order, which is independent of the number of d electrons and the oxidation state of metal center. However, this is not a typical superoxo species, because the spin density is not found on the O2 moiety, even in open-shell complexes, (N^N)Ni(O2) and (N^N)Co(O2). The M-O and O-O distances are considerably different from each other, despite the similar superoxo character. The M-O distance and the interaction energy between the metal and O2 moieties are determined by the d(yz) orbital energy of the metal moiety taking the valence state. The binding energy of the O2 moiety is understood in terms of the d(yz) orbital energy in the valence state and the promotion energy of the metal moiety from the ground state to the valence state. Because of the participations of various charge transfer (CT) interactions between the metal and O2 moieties, neither the d(yz) orbital energy nor the electron population of the O2 moiety are clearly related to the O-O bond length. Here, the π bond order of the O2 moiety is proposed as a good measure for discussing the O-O bond length. Because the d electron configuration is different among these complexes, the CT interactions are different, leading to the differences in the π bond order and, hence, the O-O distance among these complexes. The

  14. Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium, lead, and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by intact and chemically modified brown algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazer-Rahmati, Mohammad Mehdi; Rabbani, Parisa; Abdolali, Atefeh; Keshtkar, Ali Reza

    2011-01-15

    The present study deals with the evaluation of biosorptive removal of Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II) ions by both intact and pre-treated brown marine algae: Cystoseira indica, Sargassum glaucescens, Nizimuddinia zanardini and Padina australis treated with formaldehyde (FA), glutaraldehyde (GA), polyethylene imine (PEI), calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Batch shaking adsorption experiments were performed in order to examine the effects of pH, contact time, biomass concentration, biomass treatment and initial metal concentration on the removal process. The optimum sorption conditions for each heavy metal are presented. One-way ANOVA and one sample t-tests were performed on experimental data to evaluate the statistical significance of biosorption capacities after five cycles of sorption and desorption. The equilibrium experimental data were tested using the most common isotherms. The results are best fitted by the Freundlich model among two-parameter models and the Toth, Khan and Radke-Prausnitz models among three-parameter isotherm models for Cd (II), Ni (II) and Pb (II), respectively. The kinetic data were fitted by models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order. From the results obtained, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model best describes the biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead ions.

  15. Determination of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, lead, molybdenum, nickel, and selenium in fertilizers by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter F; Hall, William L

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing regulatory interest in the non-nutritive metals content of fertilizer materials, but at present there is no consensus analytical method for acid digestion and instrument detection of those elements in fertilizer matrixes. This lack of method standardization has resulted in unacceptable variability of results between fertilizer laboratories performing metals analysis. A method has been developed using microwave digestion with nitric acid at 200 degrees C, followed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry instrument detection, for the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, and selenium. The method has been collaboratively studied, and statistical results are here reported. Fourteen collaborators were sent 62 sample materials in a blind duplicate design. Materials represented a broad cross section of fertilizer types, including phosphate ore, manufactured phosphate products, N-P-K blends, organic fertilizers, and micro-nutrient materials. As much as possible within the limit of the number of samples, materials were selected from different regions of the United States and the world. Limit of detection (LOD) was determined using synthetic fertilizers consisting of reagent grade chemicals with near zero levels of the non-nutritive elements, analyzed blindly. Samples with high iron content caused the most variability between laboratories. Most samples reasonably above LOD gave HorRat values within the range 0.5 to 2.0, indicating acceptable method performance according to AOAC guidelines for analyses in the mg/kg range. The method is recommended for AOAC Official First Action status.

  16. Sensitive determination of lead, cadmium and nickel in soil, water, vegetable and fruit samples using STAT-FAAS after preconcentration with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Gulbahar; Bakirdere, Sezgin; Yaman, Mehmet

    2015-10-01

    In this study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) were determined in soil, water, vegetable and fruit samples taken from around oil refinery region in Batman, Turkey. Digestion procedures for samples were optimized and all optimum parameters were used both in digestion and in determination steps. In order to determine Pb and Cd, slotted tube atom trap (STAT) was used to increase the sensitivity in atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Preconcentration procedure under the optimum conditions was applied to water, vegetable and fruit samples to determine Pb, Cd and Ni in trace levels. In soil samples, concentrations of analytes were found in the range of 4.0 ± 0.2-12,000 ± 60 mg/kg for Pb, 0.15 ± 0.01-3.0 ± 0.1 mg/kg for Cd and 21 ± 1-65 ± 3.4 mg/kg for Ni. In all water samples, concentration of Ni was expressed as nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) and found to be higher than Pb and Cd levels. It was observed that Pb, Cd and Ni concentrations varied from both plant to plant and in same plants at different experimental sites. Pb concentrations in vegetable and fruit samples interested varied between 20 ± 2 and 160 ± 12 ng/g, and the highest level of Pb was found to be in green pepper taken from 1000 m away from refinery.

  17. Resveratrol mobilizes endogenous copper in human peripheral lymphocytes leading to oxidative DNA breakage: a putative mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, S M; Ullah, M F; Azmi, A S; Ahmad, A; Shamim, U; Zubair, H; Khan, H Y

    2010-06-01

    Plant polyphenols are important components of human diet, and a number of them are considered to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic properties against cancer. They are recognized as naturally occurring anti-oxidants but also act as pro-oxidants catalyzing DNA degradation in the presence of metal ions such as copper. The plant polyphenol resveratrol confers resistance to plants against fungal agents and has been implicated as a cancer chemopreventive agent. Of particular interest is the observation that resveratrol has been found to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines but not in normal cells. Over the last few years, we have shown that resveratrol is capable of causing DNA breakage in cells such as human lymphocytes. Such cellular DNA breakage is inhibited by copper specific chelators but not by iron and zinc chelating agents. Similar results are obtained by using permeabilized cells or with isolated nuclei, indicating that chromatin-bound copper is mobilized in this reaction. It is well established that tissue, cellular and serum copper levels are considerably elevated in various malignancies. Therefore, cancer cells may be more subject to electron transfer between copper ions and resveratrol to generate reactive oxygen species responsible for DNA cleavage. The results are in support of our hypothesis that anti-cancer mechanism of plant polyphenols involves mobilization of endogenous copper and the consequent pro-oxidant action. Such a mechanism better explains the anti-cancer effects of resveratrol, as it accounts for the preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells.

  18. Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of N'-(furan-3-ylmethylene)-2-(4-methoxyphenylamino)acetohydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Sanaa M; El-Saied, Fathy A; Abou El-Enein, Saeyda A; El-Shater, Heba A

    2009-03-01

    Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and hafnium(IV) complexes of furan-2-carbaldehyde 4-methoxy-N-anilinoacetohydrazone were synthesized and characterized by elemental and thermal (TG and DTA) analyses, IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra as well as magnetic moment and molar conductivity. Mononuclear complexes are obtained with 1:1 molar ratio except complexes 3 and 9 which are obtained with 1:2 molar ratios. The IR spectra of ligand and metal complexes reveal various modes of chelation. The ligand behaves as a neutral bidentate one and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The ligand behaves also as a monobasic tridentate one and coordination occurs through the enolic oxygen atom, azomethine nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom of furan ring. Moreover, the ligand behaves as a neutral tridentate and coordination occurs via the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and furan oxygen atoms as well as a monobasic bidentate and coordination occurs via the enolic oxygen atom and azomethine nitrogen atom. The electronic spectra and magnetic moment measurements reveal that all complexes possess octahedral geometry except the copper complex 10 possesses a square planar geometry. The thermal studies showed the type of water molecules involved in metal complexes as well as the thermal decomposition of some metal complexes.

  19. 2,6-Bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II): synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, X-ray study and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Bulit, Pablo; Garza-Ortíz, Ariadna; Mijangos, Edgar; Barrón-Sosa, Lidia; Sánchez-Bartéz, Francisco; Gracia-Mora, Isabel; Flores-Parra, Angelina; Contreras, Rosalinda; Reedijk, Jan; Barba-Behrens, Norah

    2015-01-01

    Coordination compounds with cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) and the ligand 2,6-bis(2,6-diethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine (L) were synthesized and fully characterized by IR and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and X-ray diffraction for two representative cases. These novel compounds were designed to study their activity as anti-proliferative drugs against different human cancer cell lines. The tridentate ligand forms heptacoordinated compounds from nitrate metallic salts, where the nitrate acts in a chelating form to complete the seven coordination positions. In vitro cell growth inhibition was measured for Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well as for the free ligand. Upon coordination, the IC50 value of the transition-metal compounds is improved compared to the free ligand. The copper(II) and zinc(II) compounds are the most promising candidates for further in vitro and in vivo studies. The activity against colon and prostate cell lines merits further research, in views of the limited therapeutic options for such cancer types.

  20. Seedling growth and metal accumulation of selected woody species in copper and lead/zinc mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Chen, Guangcai; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Ling; Shan, Xiaoquan

    2011-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of selected woody plants for revegetation in copper (Cu) and lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailing areas. Five woody species (Amorpha fruticosa Linn, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Glochidion puberum (Linn.) Hutch, Broussonetia papyrifera, and Styrax tonkinensis) and one herbaceous species (Sesbania cannabina Pers) were planted in Cu and Pb/Zn tailings to assess their growth, root morphology, nutrition uptake, metal accumulation, and translocation in plants. Amorpha fruticosa maintained normal growth, while the other species demonstrated stress related growth and root development. Sesbania cannabina showed the highest biomass among the plants, although it decreased by 30% in Cu tailings and 40% in Pb/Zn tailings. Calculated tolerance index (TI) values suggested that A. fruticosa, an N-fixing shrub, was the most tolerant species to both tailings (TI values 0.92-1.01), while S. cannabina had a moderate TI of 0.65-0.81 and B. papyrifera was the most sensitive species, especially to Pb/Zn tailings (TI values 0.15-0.19). Despite the high concentrations of heavy metals in the mine tailings and plants roots, only a small transfer of these elements to the aboveground parts of the woody plants was evident from the low translocation factor (TF) values. Among the woody plants, V. trifolia var. simplicifolia had the highest TF values for Zn (1.32), Cu (0.78), and Pb/Zn (0.78). The results suggested that A. fruticosa and S. cannabina, which have the highest tolerance and biomass production, respectively, demonstrated the potential for tailings revegetation in southern China.

  1. Sulfidation treatment of molten incineration fly ashes with Na2S for zinc, lead and copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2007-04-01

    The present study focuses on the conversion of heavy metals involved in molten incineration fly ashes to metal sulfides which could be thereafter separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was carried out for five molten incineration fly ashes (Fly ash-A to Fly ash-E) by contacting each fly ash with Na(2)S solution for a period of 10 min to 6h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Me(2+) was adjusted to 1.20. The conversion of heavy metals to metal sulfides was evaluated by measuring the S(2-) residual concentrations using an ion selective electrode. The formation of metal sulfides was studied by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. In the case of Fly ash-A to Fly ash-D, more than 79% of heavy metals of zinc, lead and copper was converted to metal sulfides within the contacting period of 0.5h owing to a fast conversion of metal chlorides to metal sulfides. By contrast, the conversion of about 35% was achieved for Fly ash-E within the same contacting period, which was attributed to a high content of metal oxides. Further, the S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio was reduced to 1.00 to minimize Na(2)S consumption and the conversions obtained within the contacting period of 0.5h varied from 76% for Fly ash-D to 91% for Fly ash-C. Finally, soluble salts such as NaCl and KCl were removed during the sulfidation treatment, which brought about a significant enrichment in metals content by a factor varying from 1.5 for Fly ash-D to 4.9 for Fly ash-A.

  2. Concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in the equine liver and kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paßlack, Nadine; Mainzer, Barbara; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Schafft, Helmut; Palavinskas, Richard; Breithaupt, Angele; Neumann, Konrad; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of specific elements in the equine liver and kidneys are of practical relevance since horses are not only food-producing animals, but also partially serve as an indicator for the environmental pollution, as the basic feed includes plants like grass, grain and fruits. In this study, the concentrations of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) were measured in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla of 21 horses (8 male; 13 female; aged between 5 months-28 years), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Comparable Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in the liver and renal cortex, while approximately 50% lower concentrations were measured in the renal medulla. The lowest Sr, Cd and Se, but the highest Mn, Sb and Pb concentrations were measured in the liver. The Ba concentrations were comparable in the renal cortex and medulla, but lower in the liver of the horses. Gender-related differences were observed for Cd, Mn and Cr, with higher Cd concentrations in the liver, but lower Mn concentrations in the renal cortex and lower Cr concentrations in the renal medulla of female horses. Age-related differences were detected for most measured elements, however, the animal number per age-group was only low. In conclusion, the present study provides important reference data for the storage of Sr, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Sb, Se and Pb in the liver and kidneys of horses, which are of practical relevance for an evaluation of the exposure of horses to these elements, either via feed or the environment.

  3. Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope evidence for the genesis of Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit lies in the Lut block metallogenic province of Eastern Iran. This deposit consists of ore-bearing vein emplaced along fault zone and hosted by Late Eocene monzonite porphyry. Hydrothermal alteration minerals developed in the wall rock include quartz, kaolinite, illite, and calcite. Microscopic studies reveal that the vein contains galena and sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and pyrite as hypogene minerals and cerussite, anglesite, covellite, malachite, hematite, and goethite as secondary minerals. Fluorite and quartz are the dominant gangue minerals and show a close relationship with sulfide mineralization. Calculated δ34S values for the ore fluid vary between -9.9‰ and -5.9‰. Sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that the ore-forming aqueous solutions were derived from magmatic source and mixed with isotopically light sulfur, probably leached from the volcanic and plutonic country rocks. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions indicates homogenization temperatures of 151-352 °C. Salinities of ore-forming fluids ranged from 0.2 to 16.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The ore-forming fluids of the Sechangi deposit are medium- to low-temperature and salinity. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Pb-Zn (-Cu) mineralization. The key factors allowing for metal transport and precipitation during ore formation include the sourcing of magmatic fluids with high contents of metallogenic elements and the mixing of these hydrothermal fluids with meteoric waters resulting in the formation of deposit. In terms of the genetic type of deposit, the Sechangi is classified as a volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal-related vein deposit.

  4. Effect of Lead and Copper on the Growth of Heavy Metal Resistance Fungi Isolated from Second Industrial City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siham, Al-Kadeeb A.

    In this study, soil samples for isolation of heavy metal resistance fungi were collected from different distance of Electric Meter manufactory in Second Industrial City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Soil samples were analyzed chemically for heavy metal concentrations, total soluble salts and pH and mechanically for composition of soils. Saturation percent were determined also. Eighteen fungal isolates were grown in 10 mM concentration of either lead or copper ions. Aspergillus was predominant and represented by 6 species. Fusarium was represented by 4 species. Mucor was represented by 3 species. Penicillium was represented by 2 species. While Alternaria, Cephaliophora, Eurotium were represented by one species each. The intraspecific variability in growth response to Pb2+ and Cu2+ on agar and liquid culture was studied among isolated fungi. The growth rate of some fungi isolated on solid media was less sensitive to addition of lead or copper than biomass production in liquid culture.

  5. Polyhydroxybutyrate-b-polyethyleneglycol block copolymer for the solid phase extraction of lead and copper in water, baby foods, tea and coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Tuzen, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Soylak, Mustafa; Hazer, Baki

    2014-01-01

    A new adsorbent, polyhydroxybutyrate-b-polyethyleneglycol, was used for the separation and preconcentration of copper(II) and lead(II) ions prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric detections. The influences of parameters such as pH, amount of adsorbent, flow rates and sample volumes were investigated. The polymer does not interact with alkaline, alkaline-earth metals and transition metals. The enrichment factor was 50. The detection limits were 0.32 μg L(-1) and 1.82 μg L(-1) for copper and lead, respectively. The recovery values were found >95%. The relative standard deviations were found to be less than 6%. The validation of the procedure was performed by analysing certified reference materials; NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves, IAEA-336 Lichen and GBW-07605 Tea. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of analytes in water and food samples.

  6. A novel assay method for the trace determination of Th and U in copper and lead using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-03-01

    This study describes a novel sample preparation and assay method developed in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment for the determination of thorium and uranium levels in copper and lead shielding components. Meticulously clean sample preparation methods combined with novel anion exchange separations for analyte pre-concentration and matrix removal were developed. Quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Detection limits of 0.0084 pg 232Th/g and 0.0106 pg 238U/g were determined for copper, while detection limits of 0.23 pg 232Th/g and 0.46 pg 238U/g were achieved for lead. These methods allow the Majorana Collaboration to accurately assay detector components and ensure that the experiment’s stringent radiopurity requirements are met.

  7. [Simultaneous determination of trace amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper by the method of anodic voltammetry using factor experimental design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koen, E

    1975-01-01

    Using the method of factor planning of the experiment, the author studies and demonstrates the influence exerted by the potential and time of electrolysis, and by the concentration of the background and elements on the heights of anodal peaks upon simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead and copper microconcentrations. On the ground of statistical elaboration of the results, the optimal condition for polarographic determination through anodal voltamperometry are outlined. According to the cyclic voltametry method, the electrod processes reversibility for zinc, cadmium and lead, as well as the incomplete reversibility for copper are established; the number of electrons participating in the electrochemical reaction are found using the method of gas coulometry. The possibility of simultaneous determination of the four elements' ultramicroconcentrations after the method of voltamperometry with enrichment is proved. The standard deviation is in the range 3.02 to 4.9.

  8. Simple method of determination of copper, mercury and lead in potable water with preliminary pre-concentration by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołyńska, B.; Ostachowicz, B.; Wȩgrzynek, D.

    1996-06-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical pre-concentration procedures have been applied for the analysis of trace concentrations of copper, mercury, and lead in drinking water samples. A simple total reflection module has been used in X-ray measurements. The elements under investigation were pre-concentrated by complexation using a mixture of carbamates followed by solvent extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone. The preconcentration procedure was tested with the use of twice-distilled water samples and samples of mineral and tap water spiked with known additions of copper, mercury, and lead. The obtained recovery and precision values are presented. The minimum detection limits for the determination of these elements in mineral and tap water samples were found to be 40 ng l -1, 60 ng l -1, and 60 ng l -1, respectively.

  9. Crystal structures of a copper(II and the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes of the ligand (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheyla Chetioui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the copper(II complex, bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}copper(II, [Cu(C16H8Br3N2O2], (I, the metal cation is coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate (E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olate ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In one of the ligands, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 37.4 (5°, creating a weak intramolecular Cu...Br interaction [3.134 (2 Å], while in the other ligand, the tribromobenzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 72.1 (6°. In the isotypic nickel(II and palladium(II complexes, namely bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}nickel(II, [Ni(C16H8Br3N2O2], (II, and bis{(E-1-[(2,4,6-tribromophenyldiazenyl]naphthalen-2-olato}palladium(II, [Pd(C16H8Br3N2O2], (III, respectively, the metal atoms are located on centres of inversion, hence the metal coordination spheres have perfect square-planar geometries. The tribromobenzene rings are inclined to the naphthalene ring systems by 80.79 (18° in (II and by 80.8 (3° in (III. In the crystal of (I, molecules are linked by C—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. The chains are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming sheets parallel to (011. In the crystals of (II and (III, molecules are linked by C—H...π interactions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1. For the copper(II complex (I, a region of disordered electron density was corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics of the disordered solvent molecules were not taken into account during refinement.

  10. Crystal structures of a copper(II) and the isotypic nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes of the ligand (E)-1-[(2,4,6-tri-bromo-phen-yl)diazen-yl]naphthalen-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetioui, Souheyla; Rouag, Djamil-Azzeddine; Djukic, Jean-Pierre; Bochet, Christian G; Touzani, Rachid; Bailly, Corinne; Crochet, Aurélien; Fromm, Katharina M

    2016-08-01

    In the copper(II) complex, bis-{(E)-1-[(2,4,6-tri-bromo-phen-yl)diazen-yl]naph-thalen-2-olato}copper(II), [Cu(C16H8Br3N2O)2], (I), the metal cation is coord-inated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two bidentate (E)-1-[(2,4,6-tri-bromo-phen-yl)diazen-yl]naphthalen-2-olate ligands, forming a slightly distorted square-planar environment. In one of the ligands, the tri-bromo-benzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 37.4 (5)°, creating a weak intra-molecular Cu⋯Br inter-action [3.134 (2) Å], while in the other ligand, the tri-bromo-benzene ring is inclined to the naphthalene ring system by 72.1 (6)°. In the isotypic nickel(II) and palladium(II) complexes, namely bis-{(E)-1-[(2,4,6-tri-bromo-phen-yl)diazen-yl]naphthalen-2-olato}nickel(II), [Ni(C16H8Br3N2O)2], (II), and bis-{(E)-1-[(2,4,6-tri-bromo-phen-yl)diazen-yl]naphthalen-2-olato}palladium(II), [Pd(C16H8Br3N2O)2], (III), respectively, the metal atoms are located on centres of inversion, hence the metal coordination spheres have perfect square-planar geometries. The tri-bromo-benzene rings are inclined to the naphthalene ring systems by 80.79 (18)° in (II) and by 80.8 (3)° in (III). In the crystal of (I), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. The chains are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming sheets parallel to (011). In the crystals of (II) and (III), mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming slabs parallel to (10-1). For the copper(II) complex (I), a region of disordered electron density was corrected for using the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2015 ▸). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18]. The formula mass and unit-cell characteristics of the disordered solvent mol-ecules were not taken into account during refinement.

  11. Nickel Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most plants find nickel to be pretty nasty stuff, and they won’t grow in soils rich in the metal.Streptanthus polygaloides. on the other hand.loves nickel.This member of the mustard family grows only in high-nickel soil in the shadow of the Sierra Nevada,in central California.Streptanthus is a rare type of plant known as a "hyperaccumulator." All plants take up nutrients

  12. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix I Appendix II Tables Figures State Programs Alabama Alaska Arizona ... Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks File Formats Help: ...

  13. New insights into single-compound and binary adsorption of copper and lead ions on a treated sea mango shell: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellaoui, Lotfi; Edi Soetaredjo, Felycia; Ismadji, Suryadi; Cláudio Lima, Éder; Dotto, Guilherme L; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb; Erto, Alessandro

    2017-09-21

    Herein, adsorption isotherms of Pb(ii) and Cu(ii) ions on treated sea mango fruit in both single-compound and binary systems were experimentally realized at different temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. Experimental results show that adsorption of Pb(ii) was more as compared to that of Cu(ii) ions; however, for both ions, a significant reduction in the adsorption capacity was observed in the binary system as compared to that in the single-compound systems. Moreover, under all the investigated conditions, adsorption seems to be promoted by an increase in temperature. To understand and interpret the experimental evidences, the Hill and competitive Hill models developed on the basis of the grand canonical ensemble were applied for the analysis of adsorption equilibrium data. These models contain some physicochemical parameters that allow an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics of single-compound and binary adsorptions. Based on the fitting results, in particular, through the evaluation of the number of ions bonded per site (n and ni), it was found that lead and copper ions interacted by inclined and horizontal positions on treated sea mango in single-compound and binary systems, respectively. In addition, based on the same parameters, a significant interaction between ions was retrieved. A study focused on the saturation adsorption capacity in single-compound and binary systems affirmed that the adsorbent was more selective for lead than for copper. The reduction of the adsorbed capacity ratio between the binary and single-compound systems (i.e. Qb/Qs) explained and confirmed that an inhibition effect between copper and lead ions at the same receptor site occurred. Finally, based on the energetic investigations, it was deduced that the adsorption energy represented the dominant factor promoting the greater adsorption of lead than that of copper in both systems.

  14. Determination of presence and quantification of cadmium, lead and copper in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fillets obtained from three cold storage plants in the state of Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nobuhiro Tajiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pisciculture is an economic activity that is steadily growing in the state of Parana, Brazil, and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is one of the widely cultivated species in this state. Tilapia is not only a very nutritious food, but also an important indicator of environmental contamination. This study aimed to verify contamination by cadmium, copper and lead in tilapia fillets, and to compare the found values to international legislations. Were collected 135 samples of tilapia fillets, between July 2006 and May 2007, in three fish stores located in regions west and north of Paraná State. Samples of tilapia fillet were analyzed in relation to the presence of cadmiun, lead and copper, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Lead has not been detected in the analyses. Cadmium has been detected in three samples, on concentrations of 0.012 µg.g-1, 0.011 µg.g-1 and 0.014 µg.g-1. Copper has been detected in all fillets, and the average concentration of each cold storage plant was of 0.122 µg.g-1, 0.106 µg.g-1 and 0.153 µg.g-1. The concentrations found in this study are within the limits allowed by both the European and the Australian legislations.

  15. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  16. The role of terminal amino group and histidine at the fourth position in the metal ion binding of oligopeptides revisited: Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-histamine and its N-Boc protected derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancsó, Attila; Selmeczi, Katalin; Gizzi, Patrick; Nagy, Nóra V; Gajda, Tamás; Henry, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) binding properties of two pseudo tetrapeptides, N-Boc-Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (BGGGHa) and Gly-Gly-Gly-Histamine (GGGHa) have been investigated by pH-potentiometric titrations, UV-visible-, EPR-, NMR- and ESI-HRMS (electrospray ionization high resolution MS) spectroscopies, in order to compare the role of N-terminal amino group and imidazole moiety at the fourth position in the complex formation processes. Substantially higher stabilities were determined for the ML complexes of GGGHa, compared to those of BGGGHa, supporting the coordination of the terminal amino group and the histamine imidazole of the non-protected ligand. A dimeric Cu(2)H(-2)L(2) species, formed through the deprotonation of peptide groups of the ligands, was found in the GGGHa-copper(II) system. Deprotonation and coordination of further amide nitrogens led to CuH(-2)L and, above pH~10, CuH(-3)L. Experimental data supports a {NH(2), 2 × N(amide),N(im)} macrochelate structure in CuH(-2)L whereas a {NH(2), 3 × N(amide)} coordination environment in CuH(-3)L. The first two amide deprotonation processes were found to be strongly cooperative with nickel(II) and spectroscopic studies proved the transformation of the octahedral parent complexes to square planar, yellow, diamagnetic species, NiH(-2)L and above pH~9, NiH(-3)L. In the basic pH-range deprotonation and coordination of the amide groups also took place in the BGGGHa containing systems, leading to complexes with a {3 × N(amide),N(im)} donor set, and in parallel the re-dissolving of precipitate. Above pH~11, a further proton release from the pyrrolic NH group of the imidazole ring of BGGGHa occurred providing an additional proof for the different binding modes of the two ligands. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochelatins as biomarkers for heavy metal stress in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): combined effects of copper and cadmium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keltjens, W.G.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract

    Heavy metal contaminated soils often show increased levels of more than one metal, e.g. copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) or nickel (Ni). In case such soils are used for crop production, prediction of yield reduction or quality decline due to heavy metals in the soil

  18. 澳大利亚蒙特艾萨锌-铅-银-铜矿山%The Mount Isa Zinc-Lead-Silver-Copper Mine in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长根

    2012-01-01

    The Mount Isa zinc-lead-silver-copper Mine is the one of the large mining and metallurgical industry. To the end of June 2007 Mount Isa Zinc-Lead-Silver Mine has the proved and probable copper ore reserves of 84 Mt containing 1. 8% ~3.4% Cu as well as the proved and probable zinc-lead-silver ore reserves of 84 Mt containing 4. 8% ~ 8. 8% zinc ,2. 2% ~ 5. 5% lead and 39 ~ 125g/t silvero The copper orebody worked using a sub-level open stoping. Stopes are backfilled with cemented aggregate. The zinc-lead-silver orebody worked using a sub-level open stoping and cut-and-fill. The copper concentrator uses SAG/ball mill-preflotation of easy flotation minerals - copper roughing - column cleaning - recleaning flowsheet to obtain copper concentrates. The zinc-lead-silver concentrator uses rod mill/ball mill-lead roughing - regrinding in Isa mills - lead cleaning - preflotaion - zinc roughing - regrinding in Isa mills - zinc cleaning flowsheet to obtain zinc concentrates and lead concentrates containing silver. In 2007 production measure of Mount Isa zinc-lead-silver-copper mine was 6. 7Mt/a of copper ore,6. 5Mt/a of zinc-lead-silver ore,226529t/a of zinc (in zinc concentrates) , 125195 t/a lead bullion, 8. 26 Moz/a of sil-ver(in crude) ,172552t/a copper(in copper concentrates)and 217907t/a copper anode.%澳大利亚蒙特艾萨锌-铅-银-铜矿山是澳大利亚大型矿冶企业之一.它由两个独立的锌—铅—银矿山和选矿厂,以及铜矿山和选矿厂组成.截至2007年6月底,证实和控制的铜矿石储量为8400万t,含铜1.8%~3.4%;锌—铅—银矿石储量为8400万t,含锌4.8%~8.8%,铅2.2% ~5.5%和银39~125g/t.铜矿山采用分段空场采矿法开采矿石;锌-铅-银矿山采用分段空场采矿法和落顶充填采矿法开采矿石.铜选矿厂采用半自磨/球磨—易浮矿物预先浮选—铜粗选—浮选柱精选—浮选机再精选工艺流程,得到铜精矿.锌—铅—银矿石选矿工艺流程包括

  19. The removal of lead and nickel from the composted municipal waste and sewage sludge using nanoscale zero-valent iron fixed on quartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Parisa; Bostani, Amir

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the concentration of heavy metals including lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) in organic contaminants such as municipal wastes and sewage sludge is of health and environmental importance. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) particles can effectively remove heavy metals from contaminated aqueous and solid media. It was accordingly hypothesized that it is possible to recycle and detoxify organic waste materials containing heavy metals using NZVI and NZVI fixed on quartz (QNZVI). The objective was to investigate the effects of NZVI type, concentration (2% and 5%) and contact time on the removal of Pb and Ni from raw compost, compost fermented with beet molasses, and leachate using a factorial design. The results indicated the significant reduction of DTPA- Pb and DTPA-Ni concentration, in all the organic compounds treated with NZVI and QNZVI (P= 0.01), compared with control. Increased concentration of NZVI in all treatments, increased the rate of DTPA-Pb and DTPA-Ni (P= 0.01) at 113.1% and 180% for Pb (NZVI at 2% and 5%), and at 16.3% and 23.3% for Ni, irrespective of the NZVI type. The reducing trend of extractable Pb and Ni in all the organic compounds was the same, quick reduction at the beginning, followed by a negligible rate. The highest reduction rates for Pb (at one hour) and Ni (at 672h) were equal to 72.93% and 23.27%, respectively. NZVI at 2% was more efficient than NZVI at 5%. There were not any significant differences between NZVI and QNZVI on the removal of Pb and Ni from the organic contaminants. It is possible to immobilize and reduce the concentration of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in organic contaminants using NZVI, which is affected by NZVI properties, concentration, and contact time, as well as by organic contaminant type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Separation-preconcentration of nickel and lead in food samples by a combination of solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction using SiO2 nanoparticles, ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbani, Nusrat; Soylak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    A microextraction method for the determination of nickel and lead using solid-liquid-solid dispersive extraction followed by ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SLSDE-ILDLLME) was presented. It was applied to the extraction of nickel and lead from food samples. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing agent, [C4MIM][PF6] as ionic liquid, SiO2 as nanoparticles and 2 mol L(-1) HNO3 as eluent were used. Several important parameters such as amount of IL, extraction time, pH and volume of the complexing agent were investigated. The quantitative recoveries were obtained at pH 7.0 for analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) calculated using 3(Sd)blank/m were 0.17 for Ni(II) and 0.79 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) for aqueous solutions with 125 enrichment factor (EF). The limit of detections of the analyte ions (3(Sd)blank/m) for solid samples were 0.09 µg g(-1) (Ni) and 0.40 µg g(-1) (Pb). The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (1577c bovine liver) and spiked recovery test. The proposed method was applied to determine nickel and lead levels in chicken, fish and meat samples.

  1. Atmosphere corrosion behavior of plasma sprayed and laser remelted coatings on copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gongying Liang; T. T. Wong; Geng An; J. M. K. MacAlpine

    2006-01-01

    Nickel and chromium coatings were produced using plasma spraying and laser remelting on the copper sheet. The corrosion test was carried out in an acidic atmosphere, and the corrosive behaviors of both coatings and original copper samples were investigated by using an impedance comparison method. Experimental results show that nickel and chromium coatings display better corrosion resistance properties relative to the original pure copper sample. The corrosion rate of chromium coating is less than that of nickel coating, and corrosion resistances of laser remelted nickel and chromium samples are better thanthose of plasma sprayed samples. The corrosion deposit film of copper is loose compared with nickel and chromium.

  2. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea and sunflower (Helianthus annuus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu and lead (Pb is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF, translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹ in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54% and Cu (34-38% followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3-4.3 and 1.8-3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. CONCLUSIONS: Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis pattern in Kuwait: nickel leads the pack. In-depth analysis of nickel allergy based on the results from a large prospective patch test series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaf Almutairi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Contact dermatitis is a relatively common dermatosis reported among several population groups from all around the globe. However, the data from Kuwait is unavailable. Patch tests are essential for the diagnosis of contact sensitization. Aim : To determine a relative frequency and pattern of sensitizers to different allergens in patients of suspected contact dermatitis in Kuwait and, also to study the role of the commonest sensitizer in detail. Material and methods: Patch tests were performed in 2461 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of contact dermatitis seen at our hospital between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Out of the total of 1381 (56.1% patients with positive patch test results to at least one allergen, 546 (22.2% patients with a single positive reaction to nickel only (single largest sensitizer were selected as the study population for further detailed analysis. Results : At least one positive patch test reaction was found in 1381 (56.12% patients. Nickel was found to be the most common sensitizer seen in 546 (40% patients. The mean age was 37.3 ±13.8 years and the mean duration of disease was 27.3 ±13.8 months. Most (387/546 patients sensitized were females. The forearms/hands and wrists were the most prevalent sites (52.56% of the participants. In 58.91% of women, dermatitis was more often confined to other sites, mostly ears and the neck due to earrings and necklaces. Just more than half of the number (51.09% of nickel allergic patients were found in the age group of 15–25 years. Hairdressers/beauticians were the most affected group followed by house workers (housewives, cleaners, housekeepers. Conclusions : Nickel is the single most common sensitizer found in our patients, and female sex, young age, occupation with long hours of contact to nickel are high risk factors. We recommend that a directive, which limits the release of nickel from products with extended skin contact, be approved in

  4. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  5. Copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds in epoxides leading to aryl nitriles and aryl aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lijun; Jin, Cheng

    2015-04-18

    Novel copper-catalyzed aerobic synthesis of aryl nitriles and aldehydes from epoxides via C-C single bond cleavage has been discovered. This reaction provides a practical method toward the synthesis of aryl nitriles and aldehydes, which are versatile intermediates and building blocks in organic synthesis.

  6. 2013 will See 1.96 Million Tons of Outdated Capacity of Copper, Aluminum, and Lead Phase out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On April 11th, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology published on its website Goals and Tasks on Eliminating Outdated Capacity of 19 Industries. Among these 19 industries, there are five major nonferrous industries, including 665,000 tons of copper smelting,

  7. Treatment of copper-nickel mixed wastewater by spouted bed electro-deposition method%喷射床电沉积法处理铜镍混合废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈熙; 徐新阳; 赵冰; 李海波

    2015-01-01

    Constant current spouted bed particle electro-deposition method had been studied with simulated wastewater containing copper and nickel as the research object under different experimental conditions such as pH, current, temperature with N2. experimental results showed that under the experiment conditions of pH 3 (first 210 min) and 4.5 (next 270 min), electrolyte concentration 1 g·L-1, constant current 15 A, cathode particle size 1.8 mm, electrolyte temperature 25℃ with blowing N2, the largest removal rate of Cu2+ was 99.88% and Ni2+ was 85.21% after 480 min. During the experiments, DO first rapid increased to the maximum, and then came down slowly. Blowing N2 into electrolyte could significantly reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration, which could effectively inhibit deposited Cu and Ni once again return to dissolve and improve the removal rate of deposited metals. The replacement reaction between Ni and Cu2+ weakened, the corrosion rate of deposited copper while it was intensified for nickel. Thus, the electro-deposition of mixed copper and nickel showed a certain order, which suggested that the separate recycling of metals in wastewater was feasible with the spouted bed particle electro-deposition method under certain conditions.%以实验室模拟酸性铜镍废水为研究对象,采用自制喷射床电沉积实验装置在恒电流条件下对铜镍混合酸性废水进行了沉积实验,研究了pH、电流值、温度和鼓入氮气对沉积效果和电解液DO的影响规律.实验结果表明,在前210 min控制pH为3,后270 min为4.5,电流值15 A,温度25℃,鼓入氮气的条件下,沉积480 min,铜镍离子沉积率可以分别达到99.88%和85.21%;实验过程中 DO 先迅速增大至最大值,之后缓慢降低;鼓入氮气可以有效降低溶液中溶解氧,提高金属的沉积率;由于 Ni 和 Cu2+之间置换反应的存在,削弱了沉积铜的腐蚀但加剧了镍的腐蚀,使得铜镍混合电沉积在宏观上表现出一定的顺序

  8. Concentrations of arsenic, copper, cobalt, lead and zinc in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, B.; Majer, V.; Knésl, I.; Nyambe, I.; Mihaljevič, M.; Ettler, V.; Sracek, O.

    2014-11-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in washed leaves and washed and peeled tubers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) growing on uncontaminated and contaminated soils of the Zambian Copperbelt mining district have been analyzed. An enrichment index (EI) was used to distinguish between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. This index is based on the average ratio of the actual and median concentration of the given contaminants (As, Co, Cu, mercury (Hg), Pb and Zn) in topsoil. The concentrations of copper in cassava leaves growing on contaminated soils reach as much as 612 mg kg-1 Cu (total dry weight [dw]). Concentrations of copper in leaves of cassava growing on uncontaminated soils are much lower (up to 252 mg kg-1 Cu dw). The concentrations of Co (up to 78 mg kg-1 dw), As (up to 8 mg kg-1 dw) and Zn (up to 231 mg kg-1 dw) in leaves of cassava growing on contaminated soils are higher compared with uncontaminated areas, while the concentrations of lead do not differ significantly. The concentrations of analyzed chemical elements in the tubers of cassava are much lower than in its leaves with the exception of As. Even in strongly contaminated areas, the concentrations of copper in the leaves and tubers of cassava do not exceed the daily maximum tolerance limit of 0.5 mg kg-1/human body weight (HBW) established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.025 mg kg-1/HBW for lead and the highest tolerable weekly ingestion of 0.015 mg kg-1/HBW for arsenic are exceeded predominantly in the vicinity of smelters. Therefore, the preliminary assessment of dietary exposure to metals through the consumption of uncooked cassava leaves and tubers has been identified as a moderate hazard to human health. Nevertheless, as the surfaces of leaves are strongly contaminated by metalliferous dust in the polluted areas, there is still a potential hazard

  9. Uptake of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper by the pulmonate mollusc, Helix aspersa Muller, and its relevance to the monitoring of heavy metal contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Martin, M.H.

    1977-01-13

    The occurrence of lead, zinc, cadmium, and copper in individuals of Helix aspersa from two sites of varying degrees of contamination was studied. Zinc, cadmium, and copper were shown to increase in a linear fashion with animal weight. The rate of uptake for zinc and cadmium in particular was significantly greater at the more contaminated site. Statistical analysis of the data, using correlation and regression techniques, provided information on apparent intermetallic effects. It is concluded that because metal uptake and body weight show a positive linear relationship only the use of animals of similar weight and/or size can be used for monitoring purposes. Even then, different patterns of uptake into different organs and interactions between metal uptakes are such as to seriously question the use of Helix, and other molluscs, for monitoring purposes unless specific organs from comparably sized and/or aged animals are used.

  10. Effect of copper and lead chlorides on working properties of mineral motor oils. Vliyaniye khloridov medi i olova na prirabotochnyye svoistva mineral'nykh motornykh masel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramukov, M.D.; Babel' , V.G.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Lubricating properties of petroleum oils containing copper and lead chlorides were studied on laboratory friction machines. Also studied was the increase in their antifriction, antiwear and antiscuff factors. Provides results of the tests using car and tractor oils on a MI-1M friction machine. Best figures with respect to sample wear and roughness of friction surface were achieved by treating oil with copper chloride. Here, wear was 2.3 times less than wear when LZ-23k additive was used, and 1.6 times less wear utilizing the OM-2 running-in oil. The given laboratory tests were confirmed by tests carried out during running-in of 3M3-53 motors at an autorepair plant.

  11. 高铜铅精矿富氧底吹工业实践%Industrial Practice of Rich Oxygen Bottom Blowing Process of Smelting High Copper Content of Lead Concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学兴; 欧阳坤

    2014-01-01

    A lead factory had smelted a batch of high copper content of lead concentrate , through two months of industrial practice , high copper content of lead concentrate had certain influence to the produc-tion of bottom blowing furnace and fuming furnace . The industrial test results showed that copper can be enriched in the crude lead and matte , the copper content of crude lead can reach more than 10 percent , the copper content of matte can reach more than 40 percent , the copper content of slag can be controlled under 0 .65 percent , and the recovery rate of copper can reach more than 90 percent .%某铅厂处理了一批高铜铅精矿,通过2个月的工业生产,入炉原料含铜高对底吹炉、烟化炉生产有一定影响,整个工业试验结果表明,铜可以在粗铅及锍中富集,粗铅含铜可达10%以上,锍含铜可达40%以上,弃渣含铜可控制在0.65%以下,铜的回收率可达90%。

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt(III), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Mononuclear Complexes with the Ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol and Their Catalase-Like Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Bianca M; Silva, Daniel M; Visentin, Lorenzo C; Rodrigues, Bernardo L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Faria, Roberto B

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of two new mononuclear complexes with the ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol (HL), [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2), as well as the known complex [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) for comparison. Their abilities to catalyze the dismutation of H2O2 and the oxidation of cyclohexane were investigated. The complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, electronic and infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and conductivity measurements. The X-ray structures showed that the nickel (2) and copper (3) complexes are tetracoordinated, with the metal ion bound to the nitrogen atoms of the ligand. On the other hand, the cobalt complex (1) is hexacoordinated, possessing additional bonds to the alkoxo group of the ligand and to a water molecule. Neither of the complexes was able to catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexane, but all of them exhibited catalase-like activity, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which suggest resemblance with the catalase natural enzymes. The catalytic activity followed the order: [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2) > [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) > [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1). As far as we know, this is the first description of a nickel complex presenting a significant catalase-like activity.

  13. A comparison of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress from welding fumes generated with a new nickel-, copper-based consumable versus mild and stainless steel-based welding in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Badding

    Full Text Available Welding processes that generate fumes containing toxic metals, such as hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI, manganese (Mn, and nickel (Ni, have been implicated in lung injury, inflammation, and lung tumor promotion in animal models. While federal regulations have reduced permissible worker exposure limits to Cr(VI, this is not always practical consid