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Sample records for copper deposit coastal

  1. An Introduction to Copper Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    There are 11 genetic types of copper deposit in China, three of which (porphyry,contact metasomatic and VMS types) are the most important. The copper deposits distribute widely both temporally and spatially in China. The features of copper ores in China are mostly poor in copper tenor and complex in metal associated. The copper metallogeny in China predominantly occurs in three metallogenic megadomains, namely the circum-Pacific, the paleo-Asian and the Tethys-Himalayan.

  2. Preliminary Model of Porphyry Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program develops mineral-deposit models for application in USGS mineral-resource assessments and other mineral resource-related activities within the USGS as well as for nongovernmental applications. Periodic updates of models are published in order to incorporate new concepts and findings on the occurrence, nature, and origin of specific mineral deposit types. This update is a preliminary model of porphyry copper deposits that begins an update process of porphyry copper models published in USGS Bulletin 1693 in 1986. This update includes a greater variety of deposit attributes than were included in the 1986 model as well as more information about each attribute. It also includes an expanded discussion of geophysical and remote sensing attributes and tools useful in resource evaluations, a summary of current theoretical concepts of porphyry copper deposit genesis, and a summary of the environmental attributes of unmined and mined deposits.

  3. Porphyry copper deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Information on porphyry copper deposits from around the world with grade and tonnage models, a general classification based on geologic setting, mineralogy, with...

  4. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    can be successfully treated, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Serum ferritin values, transferrin saturation and genetic analysis are used when diagnosing haemochromatosis. The diagnostics of Wilson's disease depends on the use of urinary copper values, serum ceruloplasmin and liver...

  5. Duobaoshan Porphyry Copper Deposit and Its Associated Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit, situated in Nenjiang County of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China, lies tectonically in the Mongolian-Okhotsk geosyncline.Duobaoshan porphyry copper ore field consisting of Duobaoshan copper deposit and Tongshan copper deposit contains rich copper associated with molybdenum, gold, silver and osmium (OsX87). In this sense, this porphyry copper ore field will turn into a large industrial base of copper, gold, silver and osmium. At present, in Duobaoshan porphyry copper deposit occurs a usable B+C+-D grade reserve of 3 276 630ton Cu, 122 920 ton Mo, 87 ton gold and 1 417 ton Ag.

  6. Copper complexation in coastal rainwater, southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Melanie; Skrabal, Stephen; Kieber, Robert; Willey, Joan

    Complexation of dissolved copper (Cu) was studied in Atlantic coastal rainwater using adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (ASCV) with salicylaldoxime as a competing ligand at pH 7.8. Detectable concentrations of strong Cu-complexing ligands possessing conditional stability constants of 10 13-10 16 were observed in over 80% of the rain events occurring over the course of 2 year. In 11 of the 23 samples analysed, total dissolved Cu concentrations were higher than those of dissolved ligands, indicating that a significant fraction of the Cu occurred as the free ion and as weaker complexes. In the remaining samples, ligand concentrations were equal to or greater than Cu concentrations, indicating virtually complete (>99%) complexation of the ambient Cu. By varying the analytical detection window, two classes of ligands with differing conditional stability constants were detected in selected rain samples suggesting that the Cu ligands most likely represent a spectrum of organic compounds. Back trajectory analysis indicated that continentally dominated rain samples contained higher concentrations of Cu and organic ligands relative to storms of marine origin, suggesting a strong terrestrial and/or anthropogenic source of both Cu and ligands in rain at this location. Variability in Cu speciation may impact a variety of atmospheric redox reactions because free and complexed forms of the metal have very different reactivities.

  7. The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-14

    AD-A278 022 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-84-k-0656/PP0002 R & T Code 4133034 Technical Report #36 The Underpotential Deposition of Copper...Include Security Clauffication) The Underpotential Deposition of Copper on Pt(311): Site Selective Deposition and Anion Effects 𔃼 OERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Alacant, Spain ABSTRACT The underpotential deposition of copper on Pt(31 1)=Pt[2(111 )x(100)] stepped surfaces has been studied and the results are compared

  8. Deposition of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yunxiang; Afzaal, Mohammad; Malik, Mohammad A.; O'Brien, Paul

    2006-12-01

    A new method is reported for the growth of copper selenide thin films and nanoparticles using copper acetylacetonate and trioctylphosphine selenide. Aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition experiments lead to successful deposition of tetragonal Cu 2Se films. In contrast, hexadecylamine capped nanoparticles are composed of cubic Cu 2-xSe. The deposited materials are optically and structurally characterized. The results of this comprehensive study are described and discussed.

  9. Analysis of tectonic settings of global superlarge porphyry copper deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Bin(夏斌); CHEN; Genwen(陈根文); WANG; He(王核)

    2003-01-01

    About three quarters of superlarge porphyry copper deposits throughout the world occur along the eastern Pacific basin rim, most of which were formed during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. Porphyry copper deposits often occur in the upper parts of a subduction zone and in a within-plate orogenic belt. Some porphyry copper deposits are inconsistent with plate subduction with respect to their formation time, and most of them in the world are associated with tensional environment. Metallogenic porphyries originated from the mantle, and the involvement of the lower-crust or oceanic crust materials have played an important role. Based on the geochemical characteristics and tectonic settings of the ore-bearing porphyries in the Gandise and Yulong metallogenic zones, it is proposed that delamination may be the important mechanism of formation of porphyry copper deposits.

  10. In situ deposits of copper and copper oxide containing condensation polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, G. M.; Taylor, L. T.

    1987-01-01

    Novel copper-polyimide composites have been synthesized via simultaneous thermal decomposition of solid solutions of bis (trifluoroacetylacetonato) copper (II) and thermal cyclodehydration of polyimide acid. In contrast to conventional filled polymer composites which are prepared by dispersion of particles or fibers in a polymer matrix this study has yielded in general uniform Cu or CuO dispersions of very small particle size that reside near the film surface that was exposed to the atmosphere during curing. The nature of the copper deposit, the thickness of the copper deposit, and the polyimide overlayer which bonds the copper to the polymer substrate depend on the curing atmosphere used. A variety of analytical surface methods along with thermogravimetric analysis and variable temperature (surface and volume) electrical resistivity measurements have been used to characterize these thin, flexible copper doped polyimide films.

  11. Kinetics of electroless deposition: the copper-dimethylamine borane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Daniela; Campbell, Andrew I; Patole, Samson N; Shul, Galyna; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2010-06-15

    A kinetic study of the electroless deposition of copper on gold, using dimethylamine borane (DMAB) as a reducing agent, has been carried out. The copper deposition rate in the electroless bath was determined to be 50 nm min(-1), through electrochemical stripping of the copper deposits as well as from direct measurements of the film thickness using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Comparison with a galvanic cell setup, where the two half-reactions were physically separated, yielded a lower deposition rate of 30 nm min(-1). An important kinetic effect of the surface on the oxidation of the reducing agent, and thus on the overall process, was therefore revealed. The efficiency of the process was measured over time, revealing the contribution of side reactions in the cathodic half-cell, particularly during the initial stages of the electroless process.

  12. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumarkin, A. V., E-mail: sanyahrustal@mail.ru; Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  13. Magnetic field effects on copper metal deposition from copper sulfate aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Chikako; Maeda, Aya; Katsuki, Akio; Maki, Syou; Morimoto, Shotaro; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi

    2014-05-01

    Effects of a magnetic field (≤0.5 T) on electroless copper metal deposition from the reaction of a copper sulfate aqueous solution and a zinc thin plate were examined in this study. In a zero field, a smooth copper thin film grew steadily on the plate. In a 0.38 T field, a smooth copper thin film deposited on a zinc plate within about 1 min. Then, it peeled off repeatedly from the plate. The yield of consumed copper ions increased about 2.1 times compared with that in a zero field. Mechanism of this magnetic field effect was discussed in terms of Lorentz force- and magnetic force-induced convection and local volta cell formation.

  14. Coper Isotope Fractionation in Porphyry Copper Deposits: A Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J.; Mathur, R.; Uhrie, J. L.; Hiskey, B.

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that copper is fractionated in the environment. However, the mechanisms for isotope fractionation and the role of organic and inorganic processes in the fractionation are not well understood. Here we used the well controlled experiments used by Phelps Dodge Corporation aimed at leaching copper from their ore deposits to constrain the mechanism of copper isotope fractionation in natural systems. The isotope data were collected on a Micromass Isoprobe. High temperature copper sulfides from ore deposits in Chile and Arizona yield delta 65Cu near 0 permil. The reproducibility of the data is better that 0.1 permil. Controlled experiments consisting of large columns of rocks were fed solutions containing bacteria such as Thiobacillus ferroxidans and Leptospirrilium ferroxidan. Solutions fom the columns were sampled for sixty days and analyzed for copper concentrations, oxidation potential, ferrous/ferric ratios and pH. The results indicate that the bacterially aided dissolution of copper fractionated copper. Preliminary experiments of copper dissolution not using bacteria show no isotope fractionation The original rock in the experiment has a delta 65Cu of -2.1. The first solutions that were collected from the columns had a delta 65Cu of -5.0 per mil. The liquid changed its isotopic composition from -50 to -10 during the sixty days of sampling. The greatest shift in the isotope ratios occurred the first 30 days when the copper recovered was less than 40% and the ferrous/ferric ratios were somewhat constant. At approximately 35 days after the start of the experiments, the copper recovery increases the ferrousferric ratio decreased and the copper isotope ratio of the fluids remained fairly constant. The data suggest that the bacteria are required to effectively fractionate copper isotopes in natural systems and that the mechanisms of bacterial aided copper dissolution may include a direct dissolution of the sulfides by the bacteria. Experiments

  15. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalik R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV), anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV) and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM). The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium star...

  16. The copper deposits of Bor, eastern Serbia: Geology and origin of the deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposits of Bor, volcanic activities in the area and relationship of minerals through time are presented by formations within the Cenomanian-Turonian range. Geology and age of the deposits are given in the geological-time order based on superposition of the Timok mineral-ore Formation and the underlying (Cenomanian and fossiliferous overlying (Senonian strata. The concept of dating Bor deposits the Turonian is discussed in this context. Bor deposits lie between the Cenomanian Krivelj Formation and the Senonian epiclastic Metovnica Formation. Embedded between the two formations is the Timok volcanogenic Formation. Described in this paper are principal members of the Timok Formation strata: volcanogenic and subvolcanogenic- intrusive rocks, a zone of hydrothermally altered rocks and main types of the Bor ore deposits: (a Deposits of massive sulphide coppers; (b Vein and stockwork-disseminated type of mineralisation; (c Porphyry mineralisation; and (d Reworked ore-clasts of copper sulphides of the Novo Okno deposit. Identified deposits, according to the Bor Geological Service records and published works, are systematized and summarized into three geographic units: (1 Group of deposits Severozapad (Brezanik; (2 Central Bor Deposits (Tilva Roš, Čoka Dulkan, Tilva Mika, Borska Reka, and Veliki Krivelj and many ore bodies; (3 Copper deposits Jugoistok (ore bodies X and J and olistostrome deposit Novo Okno. Information given in this paper, the discussion on relative geologic age of the Bor deposit’s floor and roof in particular, support our concept that the process ceased before the Upper Turonian, and that age of the primary copper mineralization is Turonian.

  17. Combined effects of iron and copper from atmospheric dry deposition on ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F. J.; Chen, Y.; Guo, Z. G.; Gao, H. W.; Mackey, K. R.; Yao, X. H.; Zhuang, G. S.; Paytan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition can provide nutrients and potential toxicants to marine ecosystem, hence affecting ocean net primary productivity (NPP). Nonetheless, the interactive effects of mixed aerosol components on phytoplankton have rarely been reported. Here we explored the combined effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on NPP over the East China Sea. In aerosol addition mesocosm experiments, phytoplankton growth was suppressed under high aerosol Cu but was increased when high Cu was accompanied by high Fe in aerosols. A time series of soluble aerosol Fe and Cu deposition was obtained and compared to regional chlorophyll a (Chl a) abundances from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer/Aqua. Strong positive correlations were observed between the dry flux ratios of soluble Fe/Cu and Chl a abundances in the large offshore area, whereas these variables were uncoupled in coastal regions where riverine input and upwelling dominated the biogeochemistry. Current work provides insight into the complex linkage between atmospheric deposition and marine productivity.

  18. X-Ray diffraction Investigation of Electrochemically Deposited Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Jensen, Jens Dahl; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Copper layers were deposited from acidic electrolytes containing different amounts of organic additives, designed for the formation of Cu-interconnect structures. Amorphous Ni-P substrates allow to study the unbiased growth of the electrodeposits. The crystallographic texture was investigated...

  19. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  20. Porphyry copper deposit model: Chapter B in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Barton, Mark D.; Blakely, Richard J.; Bodnar, Robert J.; Dilles, John H.; Gray, Floyd; Graybeal, Fred T.; Mars, John L.; McPhee, Darcy K.; Seal, Robert R., II; Taylor, Ryan D.; Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.

    2010-01-01

    This report contains a revised descriptive model of porphyry copper deposits (PCDs), the world's largest source (about 60 percent) and resource (about 65 percent) of copper and a major source of molybdenum, gold and silver. Despite relatively low grades (average 0.44 percent copper in 2008), PCDs have significant economic and societal impacts due to their large size (commonly hundreds of millions to billions of metric tons), long mine lives (decades), and high production rates (billions of kilograms of copper per year). The revised model describes the geotectonic setting of PCDs, and provides extensive regional- to deposit-scale descriptions and illustrations of geological, geochemical, geophysical, and geoenvironmental characteristics. Current genetic theories are reviewed and evaluated, knowledge gaps are identified, and a variety of exploration and assessment guides are presented. A summary is included for users seeking overviews of specific topics.

  1. Surface ordering during underpotential deposition of lead on copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa

    Recently there has been an increased fundamental and practical interest in studies of ultra-thin films in systems with large atomic size mismatch. For those systems interesting surface stress-driven phenomena are observed, such as surface-confined alloying resulting in self-assembly and ordering of domain structures. The system of interest in the present study is the electrochemical deposition of lead on copper that has an atomic size mismatch of 37%. This system shows no bulk alloying and has been thoroughly examined in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Electrodeposition of lead on copper starts by formation of one epitaxial monolayer in the potential region positive with respect to the reversible potential of bulk lead deposition, a phenomenon known in electrochemistry as underpotential deposition (UPD). On copper (111), in-situ STM results have shown (4 x 4) Moire structure of the complete lead monolayer, a structure identical to that observed in UHV. Following stripping of the lead monolayer, STM results revealed nano-organization of the topmost copper layer. Depending on the solution pH value, different types of nanoscale organization have been observed: (i) a Moire pattern of anion-induced reconstruction of the top copper layer, and (ii) a star pattern dislocation network. Additional experiments in lead-free aerated and deaerated solutions at different pH values suggest that observed structures are results of lead-assisted oxy-anion adsorption in which lead plays a catalytic role. On copper (100), the lead UPD process features coverage-dependent phase behavior identical to that observed in UHV. As a function of lead coverage, phases corresponding to a dilute random alloy phase and ordered surface alloy phase that appears at a surface coverage ratio of three lead atoms to eight copper atoms are observed. With increasing lead coverage, lead dealloys from this ordered phase resulting in the formation of a c(2 x 2) lead overlayer phase that transforms with increasing lead

  2. The geology and geochemistry of Philippine Porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divis, Allan F.

    Porphyry copper deposits and their relationship to felsic intrusions are of considerable economic as well as academic interest. They generally occur near continental margins and in island arcs. Although some conjecture exists as to the ultimate source of transition metals associated with the deposits, a growing body of evidence suggests the metals are principally derived from a magmatic source: the porphyry intrusions. These intrusions may also give rise to adjacent vein and precious metal deposits. Over 40 potential deposits have been reported in the Philippine island arc and approximately nine are or have been in production. The known and inferred reserves from these deposits exceed three billion metric tons of ore— approximately 10 to 20 million tons of metallic copper. Several deposits may ultimately have more than a billion tons of ore reserves. There appears to be a remarkable correlation between the timing of porphyry intrusions in the Philippines and that in other areas, particularly New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. These intrusions also show a close relationship to the timing of oceanic plate tectonic processes. Periods of increased subduction rate and accompanying dilation and/or shearing within the arc may be conducive to the generation of porphyry magmas on an episodic rather than continuous basis. Ultimately, the development of an economically significant ore body requires the presence of a hydrous magma and may be associated with other primary compositional characteristics. However, anomalous high primary magmatic concentrations of copper do not appear to be required for the formation of the porphyry deposits. The Philippine porphyry intrusions differ somewhat from `continental' porphyries and are chemically similar to mineralized island arc intrusions of the Carribean and the southwest Pacific. The Philippine intrusions generally range from diorites and quartz diorites to low potassium granodiorites. Initial 87-Sr/86-Sr ratios are low, ranging

  3. Atmospheric Deposition of Copper and Zinc in Maramures County (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buteana Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce pollution to levels that minimize adverse effects on human health involve the monitoring of air quality, including dry depositions and their metal content. The analysis of these parameters aims to investigate the air quality in Maramures County (with nonferrous mining activities and in the Romanian - Ukraine transboundary area. The paper presents the experimental results obtained for dry atmospheric deposition of copper and zinc using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. The samples were collected from four location/cities of Maramures County (Baia Mare, Sighetu Marmatiei, Viseu de Sus and Borsa during May-October 2014. The highest average values of copper concentration in the dry depositions were found in Baia Mare (199.88 μg/g, that is the most important industrial centre in Maramures County, followed by Borsa (111.49 μg/g, that used to be a nonferrous mining centre. In Viseu de Sus and Sighetu Marmatiei the average concentrations of copper in the dry depositions were lower: 75.63 μg/g and 64.26 μg/g, respectively. Zn average concentrations in dry depositions were 6.4-12 times higher than Cu concentrations. In Viseu de Sus and Borsa relative high values of Pearson correlation coefficients between the logarithm of Cu and Zn content in the dry deposition were found (0.702 and 0.737, respectively estimating that both pollutants in the ambient air have the same sources, probably the re-suspension of the dust from the tailing ponds. This study is implemented within the frame of ENPI Cross-border Cooperation Programme Hungary-Slovakia-Romania-Ukraine 2007-2013, in the project Clean Air Management in the Romania-Ukraine Transboundary Area - (CLAMROUA, financed by the European Union

  4. Analysis Of The Underpotential Deposition Of Cadmium On Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalik R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the process of deposition of cadmium on polycrystalline copper electrode in sulfate solution was investigated. The process of underpotential and bulk deposition was analyzed by classical electrochemical method: cyclic voltammetry(CV, anodic stripping voltammetry(ASV and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance(EQCM. The obtained results were compared with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS measurements. CV, EQCM and EIS results suggest that the UPD of cadmium starts below potential −0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl. Additionally the stripping analysis indicates the formation of cadmium monolayer with different density of deposited atoms depending on the applied potential. The transition from UPD to bulk deposition occurs below potential −0,7 V.

  5. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel in the incubation water. Over the three-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon (POC increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived cobalt (Co, manganese, and nickel were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Copper (Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1 atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2 these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3 growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic

  6. Characterization of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    2004-11-01

    A low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films onto glass substrates and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Good quality thin films of smooth surface of copper selenide thin films were deposited using sodium selenosulfate as a source of selenide ions. The structural and optical behaviour of the films are discussed in the light of the observed data.

  7. Genesis of Yangla Banded Skarn-Hosted Copper Deposit in Tethys Orogenic Belt of Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Yangla copper deposit is the largest banded skarn-hosted copper deposit found recently in the Tethys orogenic belt of Southwestern China. On the basis of the study of distribution, petrology and mineralogy as well as major element, REE and isotope geochemistry, the authors find that the banded skarn, which hosts the deposit, was precipitated from hydrothermal solutions in the form of exhalate sediment. Therefore, the banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is a Sedex-type deposit, with a series of stacked, conformable lenses underlain by at least one stringer zone. The deposit, intercalated at the contact of lower clastic rock and upper carbonate rock of Gajinxueshan Group, was formed in the Carboniferous ((296.1±7.0) Ma), contemporary to the host Gajinxueshan Group. The interpretation of the genesis of Yangla banded skarn-hosted copper deposit is of fundamental exploration significance for the discovery of Sedex-type copper deposit in the region.

  8. Stress of electroless copper deposits on insulating and metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brüning, Ralf, E-mail: rbruening@mta.ca [Physics Department, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick E4L 1E6 (Canada); Sibley, Allison; Sharma, Tanu; Brown, Delilah A.; Demay, Thibault [Physics Department, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick E4L 1E6 (Canada); Brüning, Frank; Bernhard, Tobias [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstrasse 20, 10553 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    In the fabrication of printed circuit boards, electroless copper is plated on insulating substrates. However, data for film stress by substrate bending are frequently obtained with metal substrates. We compare the stress evolution on an insulating substrate (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) with results from commercial Ni–Fe and Cu–Fe alloy test strips, as well as X-ray diffraction based strain data. Tests were done with two plating bath formulations, one with and one without added nickel. Substrate type and condition determine the stress near the beginning of plating. Stress of the Ni-free films depends more strongly on the substrate material. Further, when the samples are cooled from the bath operating temperature to room temperature, the thermal contraction of the insulating substrate compresses the plated thin copper film. The measured stress change agrees with the change predicted by calculation. Data correction methods are discussed, and other substrate materials can be tested readily with the method employed here. - Highlights: • We report stress of electroless Cu deposits on insulating and metal substrates. • The final deposit stress is substrate-independent. • The final deposit stress and the X-ray diffraction based strain agree. • The stress change due to the thermal contraction of the substrate is observed. • Plating bath type, substrate and surface preparation alter the stress.

  9. The copper and uranium deposits of the Coyote district, Mora County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschanz, C.M.; Laub, D.C.; Fuller, G.W.

    1954-01-01

    The copper and uranium-vanadium deposits of the Coyote district, Mora County, N. Mec, are confined to the lower 2,000 feet of the Sangre de Gristo formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. A narrow belt of deposits in steeply dipping or overturned rocks extends for 7 miles along Coyote Creek south of Guadalupita. Earlier studies showed that the copper deposits contained uranium, but both the reserves and the uranium content of the copper-bearing

  10. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine R M; Buck, Kristen N; Casey, John R; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu(2+) concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity.

  11. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  12. Deposition of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on patterned substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    In this work we study the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) of copper films on blanket and patterned substrates at high filament temperatures. A vertical chemical vapor deposition reactor was used in which the chemical reactions were assisted by a tungsten filament heated at 650 degrees C. Hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) vapors were used, directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a liquid injection system using N2 as carrier gas. Copper thin films grown also by thermal and hot-wire CVD. The substrates used were oxidized silicon wafers on which trenches with dimensions of the order of 500 nm were formed and subsequently covered with LPCVD W. HWCVD copper thin films grown at filament temperature of 650 degrees C showed higher growth rates compared to the thermally ones. They also exhibited higher resistivities than thermal and HWCVD films grown at lower filament temperatures. Thermally grown Cu films have very uniform deposition leading to full coverage of the patterned substrates while the HWCVD films exhibited a tendency to vertical growth, thereby creating gaps and incomplete step coverage.

  13. Genetic Analogy Between Sediment—Hosted Gold Deposits and Sediment—Hosted Copper Deposits in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荣阁; 陈卉泉; 等

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-hosted copper deposits according to the authors' study were formed from connate formation water during the post-sedimentary or diagenetic stage while the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits are unanimously considered to be of post-sedimentary hydrothermal origin.Therefore,apart from their own individulities.These two types of deposits must share some characters in common.Comparisons are attempted,in this paper,between the sediment-hosted copper deposits in southwest China and the Triassic sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi Triangle in terms of geological and geochemical features.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of copper sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Nathanaelle, E-mail: n.schneider@chimie-paristech.fr; Lincot, Daniel; Donsanti, Frédérique

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) thin films from Cu(acac){sub 2} (acac = acetylacetonate = 2,4-pentanedionate) and H{sub 2}S as Cu and S precursors is reported. Typical self-saturated reactions (“ALD window”) are obtained in the temperature range T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for an average growth per cycle (GR) = 0.25 Å/cycle. The morphology, crystallographic structure, chemical composition, electrical properties and optical band gap of thin films were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction under Grazing Incidence conditions (GI-XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), Hall effect measurements, and UV–vis spectroscopy. The obtained copper sulfide films are heavily p-doped (charge carrier concentration ~ 10{sup 21} –10{sup 22} cm{sup −3}) with optical band gaps in the range of 2.2–2.5 eV for direct and 1.6–1.8 eV for indirect band gaps. Depending on the number of ALD cycles, multiphase compounds (made of digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S, chalcocite Cu{sub 2}S, djurleite Cu{sub 31}S{sub 16} and covellite CuS) or single-phase digenite Cu{sub 1.8}S films are obtained via a growth mechanism that involves in-situ copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation. - Highlights: • Cu{sub x}S films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition from Cu(acac){sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. • Self-saturated reactions at T{sub dep} = 130–200 °C for growth = 0.25 Å/cycle • Multi- or single- phase films are obtained depending on the number of cycles. • Growth mechanism involves copper reduction and loss of sulfur by evaporation.

  15. Ore genesis at the Monterrosas deposit in the Coastal Batholith, Ica, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidder, G. B.

    1984-06-01

    Monterosas is a hydrothermal deposit of copper and for that is hosted by gabbro-diorites of the Upper Cretaceous Patap Superunit within the Coastal Batholith of central Peru. The ore body is localized by fractures and splays related to a nearby regional fault and is composed of massive chalcopyrite, magnetite, and pyrite. Ore and alteration minerals such as actinolite, sodic scapolite, epidotes, sphene, magnetite, apatite, tourmaline, chlorites, hematite, and quartz formed dominantly as replacements of magmatic diosside, labradorite-andesine, and ilmenite. Hydrothermal mineralization was characterized by the exchange of major, minor, and trace elements between hot saline fluids and gabbro-diorite wall rocks. Geochemical data suggest that the ore and gangue minerals were deposited at high temperatures from saline fluids derived from a magma. The evidence includes fluid inclusions within gangue quartz that exhibit homogenization temperatures of 400 to 500 C, salinites of 32 to 56 wt percent NaCl and the halite trend, and magmatic like sulfur isotopic compositions that range from 1.6 to 3.3 permit in gyrite and chalcopyrite.

  16. Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition of Few-Layer Graphene on Copper Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Víctor-Manuel Freire; Badia-Canal, Jordi; Roca, Carles Corbella; Miralles, Esther Pascual; Serra, Enric Bertran; Bella, José-Luís Andújar

    2013-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on copper is an efficient technology for producing high-quality graphene for large areas. The objective of this work is to deposit graphene/few-layer graphene (FLG) using different types of copper substrate by a new hot-wire CVD process. We carried out the processes at temperatures below 1000 °C with acetylene (C2H2) as a precursor gas. After a general characterization of the samples, the results mostly indicate the formation of FLG on copper samples by this method. Nevertheless, the presence of pure, crystalline, and sufficiently flat surfaces is needed for depositing high-quality graphene layers.

  17. The effect of antimony presence in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Z.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of Sb atoms, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics, and, on the mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution has been investigated. The galvanostatic single-pulse method has been used. Results indicate that presence of Sb atoms in anode copper increase the exchange current density as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction. It is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  18. Study on copper complexing ligand concentrations in several China's coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Copper complexing ligand concentrations in the Daya Bay, Qingdao coast, Jiaozhou Bay, South China Sea and Huanghe Estuary waters were determined by the anodic stripping voltammetry technique. The distribution regularity and the relationship with other parameters were discussed. The results were as follows: Copper complexing ligand concentrations of the South China Sea were a little higher than those of other sea areas, and they were apparently higher than those of the ocean. Compared with the subsurface layer (SSL) in the sea surface microlayer copper complexing ligand concentrations showed an enrichment phenomenon, of which the mechanism is similar to dissolved organic matter. The metal complexing ligand concentration profiles of the South China Sea showed that the value in the sea surface was the highest, then it decreased with depth accruing, and a higher value appeared at the bottom. Copper complexing ligand concentrations were higher than those of cadmium and lead. Ligands in each sea area exhibited a complicated property. In short, the distribution regularity of copper complexing ligand concentrations in China' s coastal waters was consistent with that of other regions in the world. Meanwhile, the positive relationship between the copper complexing ligand concentrations and biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved organic carbon, and viscosity were found clearly.

  19. Thin films of copper oxide and copper grown by atomic layer deposition for applications in metallization systems of microelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechtler, Thomas

    2010-05-25

    Copper-based multi-level metallization systems in today's ultralarge-scale integrated electronic circuits require the fabrication of diffusion barriers and conductive seed layers for the electrochemical metal deposition. Such films of only several nanometers in thickness have to be deposited void-free and conformal in patterned dielectrics. The envisaged further reduction of the geometric dimensions of the interconnect system calls for coating techniques that circumvent the drawbacks of the well-established physical vapor deposition. The atomic layer deposition method (ALD) allows depositing films on the nanometer scale conformally both on three-dimensional objects as well as on large-area substrates. The present work therefore is concerned with the development of an ALD process to grow copper oxide films based on the metal-organic precursor bis(trin- butylphosphane)copper(I)acetylacetonate [({sup n}Bu{sub 3}P){sub 2}Cu(acac)]. This liquid, non-fluorinated {beta}-diketonate is brought to react with a mixture of water vapor and oxygen at temperatures from 100 to 160 C. Typical ALD-like growth behavior arises between 100 and 130 C, depending on the respective substrate used. On tantalum nitride and silicon dioxide substrates, smooth films and selfsaturating film growth, typical for ALD, are obtained. On ruthenium substrates, positive deposition results are obtained as well. However, a considerable intermixing of the ALD copper oxide with the underlying films takes place. Tantalum substrates lead to a fast self-decomposition of the copper precursor. As a consequence, isolated nuclei or larger particles are always obtained together with continuous films. The copper oxide films grown by ALD can be reduced to copper by vapor-phase processes. If formic acid is used as the reducing agent, these processes can already be carried out at similar temperatures as the ALD, so that agglomeration of the films is largely avoided. Also for an integration with subsequent

  20. Model predictions of copper speciation in coastal water compared to measurements by analytical voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    2012-07-17

    Trace metal toxicity to aquatic biota is highly dependent on the metaĺs chemical speciation. Accordingly, metal speciation is being incorporated in to water quality criteria and toxicity regulations using the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) but there are currently no BLM for biota in marine and estuarine waters. In this study, I compare copper speciation measurements in a typical coastal water made using Competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV) to model calculations using Visual MINTEQ. Both Visual MINTEQ and BLM use similar programs to model copper interactions with dissolved organic matter-DOM (i.e., the Stockholm Humic Model and WHAM-Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, respectively). The total dissolved (14). The modeled [Cu2+] could be fitted to the experimental values better after the conditional stability constant for copper binding to fulvic acid (FA) complexes in DOM in the SHM was adjusted to account for higher concentration of strong Cu-binding sites in FA.

  1. The Sedimentation—reworking Genesis of Dongchuan—type Stratiform Copper Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华仁民

    1990-01-01

    The Dongchuan-type copper deposits have long been studied and well reported because of their great economic significance.The present paper proposes a "sedimentation-reworking" origin for this type of deposits to challenge the current "sedimentation-metamorphism" model which has been widely asscpted since 1970s.According to the new idea,orebodies were not directly deposited in the Luoxue dolomite where they are hosted.Instead,copper was preliminarily concentrated in the Yinmin Formation.During or after diagenesis,copper in the Yinmin Formation was mobilized and leached by hydrothermal solutions derived from the interstitial water of sediments under the high geothermal gradient of rift environment,Thus,copper was transported from the source bed(the Yinmin Formation)upward to the Luoxue algal dolomite where sulfur was produced by the reduction of sulfates.The copper sulfides were formed through replacement of initial sulfides by Cu-bearing solutions.

  2. Sorbitol as an efficient reducing agent for laser-induced copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemirovsky, V. A.; Logunov, L. S.; Safonov, S. V.; Tumkin, I. I.; Tver'yanovich, Yu. S.; Menchikov, L. G.

    2012-10-01

    We have pioneered in revealing the fact that sorbitol may be used as an efficient reducing agent in the process of laser-induced copper deposition from solutions; in this case, it is possible to obtain copper lines much higher quality than by using conventional formalin.

  3. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, J.; Mavrogenes, J.; Tattitch, B.; Sparks, S.; Gilmer, A.

    2015-03-01

    Porphyry copper deposits, that is, copper ore associated with hydrothermal fluids rising from a magma chamber, supply 75% of the world's copper. They are typically associated with intrusions of magma in the crust above subduction zones, indicating a primary role for magmatism in driving mineralization. However, it is not clear that a single, copper-rich magmatic fluid could trigger both copper enrichment and the subsequent precipitation of sulphide ore minerals within a zone of hydrothermally altered rock. Here we draw on observations of modern subduction zone volcanism to propose an alternative process for porphyry copper formation. We suggest that copper enrichment initially involves metalliferous, magmatic hyper-saline liquids, or brines, that exsolve from large, magmatic intrusions assembled in the shallow crust over tens to hundreds of thousands of years. In a subsequent step, sulphide ore precipitation is triggered by the interaction of the accumulated brines with sulphur-rich gases, liberated in short-lived bursts from the underlying mafic magmas. We use high-temperature and high-pressure laboratory experiments to simulate such gas-brine interactions. The experiments yield copper-iron sulphide minerals and hydrogen chloride gas at magmatic temperatures of 700-800 °C, with textural and chemical characteristics that resemble those in porphyry copper deposits. We therefore conclude that porphyry copper ore forms in a two-stage process of brine enrichment followed by gas-induced precipitation.

  4. Tempo of magma degassing and the genesis of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelle-Michou, Cyril; Rottier, Bertrand; Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Porphyry deposits are copper-rich orebodies formed by precipitation of metal sulphides from hydrothermal fluids released from magmatic intrusions that cooled at depth within the Earth’s crust. Finding new porphyry deposits is essential because they are our largest source of copper and they also contain other strategic metals including gold and molybdenum. However, the discovery of giant porphyry deposits is hindered by a lack of understanding of the factors governing their size. Here, we use thermal modelling and statistical simulations to quantify the tempo and the chemistry of fluids released from cooling magmatic systems. We confirm that typical arc magmas produce fluids similar in composition to those that form porphyry deposits and conclude that the volume and duration of magmatic activity exert a first order control on the endowment (total mass of deposited copper) of economic porphyry copper deposits. Therefore, initial magma enrichment in copper and sulphur, although adding to the metallogenic potential, is not necessary to form a giant deposit. Our results link the respective durations of magmatic and hydrothermal activity from well-known large to supergiant deposits to their metal endowment. This novel approach can readily be implemented as an additional exploration tool that can help assess the economic potential of magmatic-hydrothermal systems.

  5. Electrodeposition of a protective copper/nickel deposit on the magnesium alloy (AZ31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gfehu@mail.cgu.edu.tw; Wang, T.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Weirich, T. [Gemeinschaeftslabor fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Neubert, V. [Zentrum fuer Funktionswerkstoe GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    An environmental-friendly Cu electrodeposition process was proposed for the Magnesium alloy (AZ 31). Experimental results show that a good bonding between Cu deposit and Mg alloy surface can be achieved with a pretreatment of galvanostatic etching and then copper electrodeposition in the alkaline copper-sulfate plating bath. Microstructures between Cu deposit and Mg alloy substrate were examined with scanning electron and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopes (SEM and EF-TEM). The Cu-deposited Mg alloy can be further electroplated in acidic Cu and Ni plating baths to acquire a protective Cu/Ni deposit.

  6. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  7. The Unusual Colour of Copper Deposited on a Graphite Electrode in an Aqueous Solution of CuSO[subscript 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Stojanovska, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The colour of the copper layer deposited on a graphite electrode during electrolysis of an aqueous solution of copper(II) sulfate looks whitish-grey when inspected in situ. Taking the electrode out of the solution reveals the familiar orange-red colour of deposited copper. The explanation is found in terms of the almost ideal complementary colours…

  8. Characterization of hafnium oxide resistive memory layers deposited on copper by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, B.D.; Bishop, S.M. [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Leedy, K.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH 45433 (United States); Cady, N.C., E-mail: ncady@albany.edu [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, 255 Fuller Road, Albany, NY 12203 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Hafnium oxide-based resistive memory devices have been fabricated on copper bottom electrodes. The HfO{sub x} active layers in these devices were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 250 °C with tetrakis(dimethylamido)hafnium(IV) as the metal precursor and an O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. Depth profiles of the HfO{sub x} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed a copper concentration on the order of five atomic percent throughout the HfO{sub x} film. In addition to the Cu doped HfO{sub x}, a thin layer (20 nm) of Cu{sub x}O is present at the surface. This surface layer is believed to have formed during the ALD process, and greatly complicates the analysis of the switching mechanism. The resistive memory structures fabricated from the ALD HfO{sub x} exhibited non-polar resistive switching, independent of the top metal electrode (Ni, Pt, Al, Au). Resistive switching current voltage (I–V) curves were analyzed using Schottky emission and ionic hopping models to gain insight into the physical mechanisms underpinning the device behavior. During the forming process it was determined that, at voltages in excess of 2.5 V, an ionic hopping model is in good agreement with the I–V data. The extracted ion hopping distance ∼ 4 Å was within the range of interatomic spacing of HfO{sub 2} during the forming process consistent with ionic motion of Cu{sup 2+} ions. Lastly the on state I–V data was dominated at larger voltages by Schottky emission with an estimated barrier height of ∼ 0.5 eV and a refractive index of 2.59. The consequence of the Schottky emission analysis indicates the on state resistance to be a product of a Pt/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu filament(s)/Cu{sub 2}O/Cu structure. - Highlights: • HfO{sub 2} was grown via atomic layer deposition at 250 and 100 °C on Cu substrates. • A Cu{sub 2}O surface layer and Cu doping were observed in post-deposition of HfO{sub 2}. • Resistive memory devices were fabricated and

  9. Evaluating the Metal Source(s) of Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) Deposits (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. C.; Bilenker, L.; Lundstrom, C.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.; Hanchar, J. M.; Westhues, A.

    2013-12-01

    Iron oxide - copper - gold deposits (IOCG) are characterized by high modal abundances of magnetite and/or hematite, ubiquitous and variable grades of Cu and Au, and, often, economic grades of other metals including REE, U, Ag, Mo and Zn. The largest deposits contain >1 billion tonnes of iron. There seems to be a general consensus that metals in IOCG deposits were transported by, and precipitated from, aqueous fluids. However, there is a lack of agreement for the source of the metal-bearing aqueous fluid(s) as well as the source of iron and other metals (i.e., magmatic or hydrothermal, or some combination of the two). Published fluid inclusion data indicate that metal-bearing aqueous fluids were trapped over a wide range of temperatures, with homogenization temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for inclusions associated with the precipitation of iron-oxide minerals, and between 300 and 500 °C for inclusions associated with main-stage sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite, pyrite). The high trapping temperatures for fluid inclusions and the observation that some IOCG deposits appear to be related temporally and spatially to igneous intrusions, characteristics similar to those observed for porphyry-type ore deposits, have led some authors to propose that magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluids are responsible for IOCG formation. Others, however, favor a genetic model that invokes large-scale circulation of basinal brines, which are heated by magmatic intrusions and subsequently leach Fe and other metals from the crust. Evidence cited for this model includes the pervasive alkali metasomatism associated with some IOCG deposits, and the depletion of Fe, Cu and Au in some deposit wall rocks. Stable isotope evidence thus far is inconclusive. Published d34S values for IOCG deposits range from -30 to +30, but generally cluster around zero per mil. d18O ranges from ~0 to +10 per mil. Chlorine isotope values for fluids in inclusions liberated from quartz, calcite and apatite are

  10. Estrogen Intake and Copper Depositions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Amtage

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with chronic postmenopausal estrogen intake with presence of Kayser-Fleischer ring in the cornea and Alzheimer's disease and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of estrogen intake and copper accumulation in various tissues, including the central nervous system. Sonography was compatible with copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, but the patient showed no clinical signs of Wilson's disease. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography revealed a typical pattern for Alzheimer's disease. We propose increased copper levels as a direct effect of estrogen intake due to an augmented ATP7A-mRNA in the intestine. Moreover, we discuss the impact of elevated free serum copper on accompanying Alzheimer's disease, knowing that copper plays a crucial role in the formation of amyloid plaques and tau aggregation. This might offer a partial explanation for the observation that postmenopausal estrogen therapy is associated with a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Re-Os Dating of the Pulang Porphyry Copper Deposit in Zhongdian, NW Yunnan, and Its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Pusheng; HOU Zengqian; WANG Haiping; QU Wenjun; MENG Yifeng; YANG Zhusen; LI Wenchang

    2004-01-01

    The Pulang porphyry copper deposit is located in the Zhongdian island arc belt, NW Yunnan, in the central part of the Sanjiang area, SW China, belonging to the southern segment of the Yidun island arc belt on the western margin of the Yangtze Platform. In the Yidun island arc, there occur well-known "Gacun-style" massive sulfide deposits in the northern segment and plenty of porphyry copper deposits in the southern segment, of which the Pulang porphyry copper deposit is one of the representatives. Like the Yulong porphyry copper deposit, this porphyry copper deposit is also one of the most important porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. But it is different from other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (e.g. those in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt and Yulong porphyry copper belt) in that it formed in the Indosinian period, while others in the Himalayan period. Because of its particularity among the porphyry copper deposits of China, this porphyry copper deposit is of great significance for the study of the basic geology and the evaluation and prediction of mineral resources in the Zhongdian island arc belt.However, no accurate chronological data are available for determining the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit. By field observation in the study area and Re-Os dating of molybdenite and K-Ar dating of hydrothermal minerals and whole rock from the typical geological bodies, the timing of mineralization of the porphyry copper deposit has systematically been determined for the first time. The K-Ar age for the hydrothermal mineralization of biotite-quartz monzonitic porphyry that has undergone patassic silicate (biotite and K-feldspar) alteration ranges from 235.4±2.4 to 221.5±2.0 Ma and the Re-Os age for molybdenite in the quartz-molybdenite stage is ~213±3.8 Ma. These data are very close to each other, suggesting that the ore-forming processes of the Pulang porphyry copper deposit was

  12. The current efficiency during the cathodic period of reversing current in copper powder deposition and the overall current efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. NIKOLIC

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The current efficiency during the cathodic period of reversing current in copper powder deposition was determined by measuring the quantity of hydrogen evolved. The diagrams from which the instantaneous and average current efficiencies for copper deposition can be extracted for any deposition time up to 30 min are given. A procedure for the calculation of the overall current efficiency is proposed.

  13. Effect of Copper, Irgarol and Atrazine on Epiphytes Attached to Artificial Devices for Coastal Ecotoxicology Bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Elena; Lozano, Pablo; Blasco, Julián; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio

    2013-10-12

    Toxic effects of copper, atrazine and irgarol were evaluated on epiphytes attached to mimes (artificial devices that mimic the morphology of seagrasses) in order to check sensitivity of this biological group. Tube-dwelling diatoms were the major component of the epiphyte community. Superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced by exposure to 25 and 50 μg L(-1) of atrazine; the organism generates this antioxidant response to prevent cellular damage by removing reactive oxygen substances produced by oxidative stress. The measurement of antioxidant enzymatic activity in epiphytes could be a useful technique for ecotoxicology monitoring in marine coastal environments.

  14. Fabrication of copper nanorods by low-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; Frank Leung-Yuk Lam; HU Xijun; YAN Zifeng

    2006-01-01

    Copper nanorods have been synthesized in mesoporous SBA-15 by a low-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)employing copper (Ⅱ) acetylacetonate, Cu(acac)2,and hydrogen as a precursor and reactant gas, respectively. The hydrogen plays an important role in chemical reduction of oganometallic precursor which enhances mass transfer in the interior of the SBA-15 porous substrate. Such copper nanostructures are of great potentials in the semiconductor due to their unusual optical, magnetic and electronic properties.In addition, it has been found that chemically modifying the substrate surface by carbon deposition is crucial to such synthesis of copper nanostructures in the interior of the SBA-15, which is able to change the surface properties of SBA-15 from hydrophilic to hydrophobic to promote the adsorption of organic cupric precursor. It has also been found that the copper nanoparticles deposited on the external surface are almost eliminated and the copper nanorods are more distinct while the product was treated with ammonia. This approach could be achieved under a mild condition: a low temperature (400℃) and vacuum (2 kPa) which is extremely milder than the conventional method. It actually sounds as a foundation which is the first time to synthesize a copper nanorod at a mild condition of a low reaction temperature and pressure.

  15. Geochronologic constraints on magmatic intrusions and mineralization of the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in Gangdese, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ zircon U-Pb ages for the recently discovered Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit in the western part of the Gangdese metallogenic belt in Tibet were determined by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP). The ages can be divided into two separate groups, reflecting more than four major tectono-magmatic events in the area. The 62.5±2.5 Ma age of inherited zircons may be related to the volcanic eruption of the Linzizong Group formed shortly after the India-Asia continental collision. The 50.1±3.6 Ma age most likely corresponds to the time of underplating of mantle-derived mafic magma in Gangdese. The 15.6±0.6 Ma age obtained from magmatic zircons is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Zhunuo ore-forming porphyry. Finally, a molybdenite Re-Os isochron age of 13.72±0.62 Ma is consistent with another zircon U-Pb age of 13.3 ±0.2 Ma, representing the time of copper mineralization. These ages, in combination with available literature data, indicate that magmatic crystallization and copper mineralization in the Gangdese metallogenic belt became gradually younger westward, and further suggest that the Zhunuo porphyry copper deposit was formed in the same tectonic stage as other porphyry copper deposits in the eastern and central Gangdese belt. This conclusion provides critical information for future exploration of porphyry copper deposits in western Gangdese.

  16. Geochemistry of Subvolcanic-Type Copper-Silver Deposits in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The metallogenesis of subvolcanic deposits is controlled by subvolcanic activities. The copper polymetallic deposits are genetically related to intermediate-acid rocks, and the silver polymetallic deposits are more closely related to acid rocks. The abundance of Cu is relatively high in the intermediate-acid rocks and subvolcanic rocks, whereas the abundances of Pb, An and Ag are high in acid rocks, indicating rich ore-forming elements in original magmas. The study of REEs shows that the magmatic type related to copper deposits is the syntectic type, and that related to silver polymetallic deposits is mainly the re-melting type. The deposits were formed under medium-low temperatures and low salinity. The metallogenic times were the late stage of the early Yanshanian or the late Yanshanian, dating 78- 147 Ma.

  17. On the Yangtze—type Copper Deposits and Their Polygentic Origin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文达

    1990-01-01

    The so-called“Yangtze-type”copper deposits include:(1)Cu-bearing massive pyrite bed ,(2)Cu-bearing skarn and magnetite-type ore deposits,with replacement Cu-vein-type deposits near the metasomatic zone,and (3)mineralized intrusive bodies and breccia pipes ,some of which are known as porphyry copper ores(e.g.Chengmenshan).This type of ore deposits is a typical example to verify the polygenesis of inost of the deposits in China,as has been promoted by Prof.Tu Guangchi in view of the polycyclic development of the geological history in China.This paper is con-cemed with one sub-type of such deposits.

  18. Combined optical second harmonic generation/quartz crystal microbalance study of underpotential deposition processes: copper electrodeposition on polycrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkaraju, S; Bennahmias, M J; Borges, G L; Gordon Ii, J G; Lazaga, M; Stone, B M; Ashley, K

    1990-11-20

    Optical second harmonic generation and quartz crystal microbalance techniques are used as in situ probes of copper underpotential deposition on polycrystalline gold surfaces in sulfuric acid electrolyte. The second harmonic signal from a polished bulk gold substrate is observed to decrease by >60% as a result of copper underpotential deposition on gold. Also, the mass of an underpotentially deposited copper adlayer is monitored in situ by an oscillating quartz crystal microbalance, yielding an estimated coverage of ~8.0 x 10(-10) mol cm(-2) and an electrosorption valency of 1.5 for a copper adlayer on the surface of vapor-deposited polycrystalline gold.

  19. Cold Spray Deposition of Copper Electrodes on Silicon and Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yeon; Park, Jung-Jae; Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Donghwan; Tark, Sung Ju; Ahn, Sejin; Yun, Jae Ho; Gwak, Jihye; Yoon, Kyung Hoon; Chandra, Sanjeev; Yoon, Sam S.

    2013-10-01

    Copper lines with widths varying from 150 to 1500 μm were deposited onto crystalline silicon wafers and soda-lime glass plates by cold spraying copper particles with 1 μm average diameter through a mask. This direct deposition method yielded high-aspect-ratio electrodes with minimum shadowing effects and maximum electrode-to-silicon contact area. The copper lines had triangular cross sections with aspect ratios (height/width) ranging from 0.1 to 1.1, depending on the number of spray gun passes. Copper particles were densely packed with increasing the width of the masking slit. This study presents the potential use of the cold spray technology in printing lines as front electrodes in solar cell applications.

  20. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited copper selenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; V Ganesan; S Potadar; L A Patil

    2009-02-01

    Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric thin films of copper selenide have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at temperature below 60°C on glass substrate. The effect of nonstoichiometry on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the film was studied. The bandgap energy was observed to increase with the increase in at % of copper in composition. The grain size was also observed to increase with the decrease of at % of copper in composition. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), absorption spectroscopy, and AFM. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  1. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Mader, Lothar; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  2. Detailed 40Ar/39Ar dating of geologic events associated with the Mantos Blancos copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Verónica; Féraud, Gilbert; Aguirre, Luis; Ramírez, Luis; Fornari, Michel; Palacios, Carlos; Parada, Miguel

    2008-03-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar geochronological method was applied to date magmatic and hydrothermal alteration events in the Mantos Blancos mining district in the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile, allowing the distinction of two separate mineralization events. The Late Jurassic Mantos Blancos orebody, hosted in Jurassic volcanic rocks, is a magmatic-hydrothermal breccia-style Cu deposit. Two superimposed mineralization events have been recently proposed. The first event is accompanied by a phyllic hydrothermal alteration affecting a rhyolitic dome. The second mineralization event is related to the intrusion of bimodal stocks and sills inside the deposit. Because of the superposition of several magmatic and hydrothermal events, the obtained 40Ar/39Ar age data are complex; however, with a careful interpretation of the age spectra, it is possible to detect complex histories of successive emplacement, alteration, mineralization, and thermal resetting. The extrusion of Jurassic basic to intermediate volcanic rocks of the La Negra Formation is dated at 156.3 ± 1.4 Ma (2 σ) using plagioclase from an andesitic lava flow. The first mineralization event and associated phyllic alteration affecting the rhyolitic dome occurred around 155-156 Ma. A younger bimodal intrusive event, supposed to be equivalent to the bimodal stock and sill system inside the deposit, is probably responsible for the second mineralization event dated at ca. 142 Ma. Other low-temperature alteration events have been dated on sericitized plagioclase at ca. 145-146, 125, and 101 Ma. This is the first time that two distinct mineralization events have been documented from radiometric data for a copper deposit in the metallogenic belt of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile.

  3. Lambton generating station's experience with HP turbine copper deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravaggio, M. [Lambton Generating Station, Ontario Power Generation Inc., Courtright, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers the understanding developed from, as well as the timeline and techniques that were used to address, rapid, dramatic HP turbine performance losses associated with copper deposition on two of four 500 MW coal-fired drum units at Ontario power generation's (OPG's) Lambton generating station (GS) over the last three years. The two affected units both had greater than 20 MW de-rates caused by copper deposition and 5-10% losses in HP cylinder efficiency during the period. On one unit the HP cylinder was being replaced by a dense pack HP turbine (decision made prior to identifying the copper deposition issue), and on the other unit a physical clean of the turbine was opted for, with additional study being conducted for possible chemical cleans in the future. This paper outlines Lambton's current understanding of the copper transport cycle through a drum type boiler (based on industry literature and OPG/Lambton GS operating experience), as well as Lambton's experiences to date with the solutions chosen for addressing HP turbine copper deposition. (orig.)

  4. Stochastic modelling of deep magmatic controls on porphyry copper deposit endowment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Caricchi, Luca

    2017-03-01

    Porphyry deposits, our main source of copper and of significant amounts of Mo, Re and Au, form at convergent margins in association with intermediate-felsic magmas. Although it is accepted that copper is transported and precipitated by fluids released by these magmas, the magmatic processes leading to the formation of economic deposits remain elusive. Here we perform Monte Carlo petrological and geochemical modelling to quantitatively link crustal magmatic processes and the geochemical signatures of magmas (i.e., Sr/Y) to the formation of porphyry Cu deposits of different sizes. Our analysis shows that economic deposits (particularly the largest ones) may only form in association with magma accumulated in the lower-middle crust (P > ~0.5 GPa) during ≥2–3 Ma, and subsequently transferred to and degassed in the upper crust over periods of up to ~2.0 Ma. Magma accumulation and evolution at shallower depths (<~0.4 GPa) dramatically reduces the potential of magmatic systems to produce economic deposits. Our modelling also predicts the association of the largest porphyry deposits with a specific Sr/Y interval (~100 ± 50) of the associated magmatic rocks, which is virtually identical to the range measured in giant porphyry copper deposits.

  5. Niobium thin film coating on a 500-MHz copper cavity by plasma deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haipeng Wang; Genfa Wu; H. Phillips; Robert Rimmer; Anne-Marie Valente; Andy Wu

    2005-05-16

    A system using an Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma source for the deposition of a thin niobium film inside a copper cavity for superconducting accelerator applications has been designed and is being constructed. The system uses a 500-MHz copper cavity as both substrate and vacuum chamber. The ECR plasma will be created to produce direct niobium ion deposition. The central cylindrical grid is DC biased to control the deposition energy. This paper describes the design of several subcomponents including the vacuum chamber, RF supply, biasing grid and magnet coils. Operational parameters are compared between an operating sample deposition system and this system. Engineering work progress toward the first plasma creation will be reported here.

  6. Using different chemical methods for deposition of copper selenide thin films and comparison of their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2015-11-05

    Different chemical methods such as Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR), spin coating and spray pyrolysis methods were used to deposite of copper selenide thin films on the glass substrates. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) spectroscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The XRD and SEM studies showed that all the films exhibit polycrystalline nature and crystallinity of copper selenide thin films prepared with spray pyrolysis greater than spin coating and SILAR methods. From SEM and AFM images, it was observed copper selenide films were uniform on the glass substrates without any visible cracks or pores. The EDX spectra showed that the expected elements exist in the thin films. Optical absorption studies showed that the band gaps of copper selenide thin films were in the range 2.84-2.93 eV depending on different chemical methods. The refractive index (n), optical static and high frequency dielectric constants (ε0, ε∞) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values for each deposition method. The obtained results from different chemical methods revealed that the spray pyrolysis technique is the best chemical deposition method to fabricate copper selenide thin films. This absolute advantage was lead to play key roles on performance and efficiency electrochromic and photovoltaic devices.

  7. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: Adhesion toward electroless deposited copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubroeck, David, E-mail: David.Schaubroeck@elis.ugent.be [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Mader, Lothar [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Dubruel, Peter [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S4 bis, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Vanfleteren, Jan [Center for Microsystems Technology (CMST), IMEC and Ghent University, Technologiepark 914A, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Surface modifications of epoxy resins with polydopamine and grafted polyamines can significantly increase the adhesion toward electroless deposited copper. • A clear characterization of the copper/epoxy interphase is provided by SEM analyses of cross sections. • Tailored conditions such as etching time (roughness) and electroless deposition temperature are needed to increase the adhesion of the modified surfaces. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the epoxy roughness, surface modifications and ELD (electroless copper deposition) temperatures on the adhesive strength of the copper is studied. Good adhesion at low roughness values is targeted due to their applicability in high density electronic circuits. Roughened epoxy surfaces are modified with adsorbed polyamines, polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next the, adhesive strength of ELD copper is determined with peel strength measurements and the interphases are examined with SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Polydopamine and polyamines grafted to polydopamine can lead to increased adhesive strength at lower roughness values compared to the non-modified samples at specific plating temperatures.

  8. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  9. The effect of bi presence as impurities in anodic copper on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Zvonimir D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Bi, as foreign metal atoms in anode copper, on kinetics and mechanism of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of copper in acidic sulfate solution was investigated using the galvanostatic single-pulse method. Results indicate that presence of Bi atoms in anode copper increases the exchange current density, as determined from the Tafel analysis of the electrode reaction, which is attributed to the increase of the crystal lattice parameter determined from XRD analysis of the electrode material.

  10. Electrochemical atomic layer deposition of copper nanofilms on ruthenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregziabiher, Daniel K.; Kim, Youn-Geun; Thambidurai, Chandru; Ivanova, Valentina; Haumesser, Paul-Henri; Stickney, John L.

    2010-04-01

    As ULSI scales to smaller and smaller dimensions, it has become necessary to form layers of materials only a few nm thick. In addition, trenches are now being incorporated in ULSI formation which require conformal coating and will not be amenable to CMP. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is being developed to address such issues. ALD is the formation of materials layer by layer using self-limiting reactions. This article describes the formation of Cu seed layers (for the Cu damascene process) on a Ru barrier layer. The deposit was formed by the electrochemical analog of ALD, using electrochemical self-limiting reactions which are referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). Monolayer restricted galvanic displacement was used to form atomic layers of Cu. First Pb UPD was deposited, forming a sacrificial layer, and then a Cu +2 solution was flushed into the cell and Pb was exchanged for Cu. A linear dependence was shown for Cu growth over 8 ALD cycles, and STM showed a conformal deposition, as expected for an ALD process. Relative Cu coverages were determined using Auger electron spectroscopy, while absolute Cu coverages were obtained from coulometry during oxidative stripping of the deposits. Use of a Cl - containing electrolyte results in Cu deposits covered with an atomic layer of Cl atoms, which have been shown to protect the surfaced from oxidation during various stages of the deposition process. The 10 nm thick Ru substrates were formed on Si(1 0 0) wafers, and were partially oxidized upon receipt. Electrochemical reduction, prior to Cu deposition, removed the oxygen and some traces of carbon, the result of transport. Ion bombardment proved to clean all oxygen and carbon traces from the surface.

  11. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  12. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕献武; 胡瑞忠; 叶造军; 邵树勋

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry, trace element geochemistry, fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by mag-matic fluid. This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites. Therefore, as viewed from whether they contain water or not, the A-type granites can, at least, be divided into two types: water-bearing and water-free. The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  13. Relations between A-type granites and copper mineralization as exemplified by the Machangqing Cu deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the relations between the Machangqing rockbody which corresponds to the A-type granites and porphyry copper mineralization in terms of petrochemistry,trace element geochemistry,fluid inclusion geochemistry and isotope geochemistry.The results show that the Machangqing porphyry copper deposit was formed from the fluid predominated by magmatic fluid.This kind of ore-forming fluid was just differentiated from the magma responsible for the A-type granites.Therefore,as viewed from whether they contain water or not,the A-type granites can,at least,be divided into two types:water-bearing and water-free.The water-bearing A-type granites can serve as the host of porphyry copper deposits under certain geological conditions.

  14. Hydrogeochemical prospecting for porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W.R.; Ficklin, W.H.; Learned, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeochemical survey utilizing waters from streams and springs was conducted in the area of two known porphyry copper deposits in the tropical-marine climate of westcentral Puerto Rico. The most important pathfinder for regional hydrogeochemical surveys is sulfate which reflects the associated pyrite mineralization. Because of increased mobility due to intense chemical weathering and the low pH environment, dissolved copper can also be used as a pathfinder for regional surveys and has the advantage of distinguishing barren pyrite from pyrite associated with copper mineralization. For follow-up surveys, the most important pathfinders are copper, sulfate, pH, zinc, and fluoride. High concentrations of dissolved copper and moderate concentrations of sulfate is a diagnostic indication of nearby sources of copper minerals. An understanding of the geochemical processes taking place in the streambeds and the weathering environment, such as the precipitation of secondary copper minerals, contributes to the interpretation of the geochemical data and the selection of the most favorable areas for further exploration. ?? 1982.

  15. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  16. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process

  17. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated

  18. Grade and Tonnage Model of Contact Metasomatic Copper Deposit in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Grade-tonnage model is one of the research frontiers of systematical exploration theory. Based on the “Reserve Database of Mineral Resources in China (1997)”, this paper establishes the geological model, grade model, tonnage model, grade-tonnage model and tonnage-sequence model of contact metasomatic copper deposits in China. The mathematical properties of these models are described in detail.

  19. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van den Wesley T.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process di

  20. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beld, van den Wesley T.E.; Berg, van den Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated usin

  1. An electroplating topography model based on layout-dependent variation of copper deposition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qiang; Chen Lan; Li Zhigang; Ruan Wenbiao

    2011-01-01

    A layout-pattern-dependent electroplating model is developed based on the physical mechanism of the electroplating process.Our proposed electroplating model has an advantage over former ones due to a consideration of the variation of copper deposition rate with different layout parameters during the process.The simulation results compared with silicon data demonstrate the improvement in accuracy.

  2. The role of oxygen in the deposition of copper-calcium thin film as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhinong; Ren, Ruihuang; Xue, Jianshe; Yao, Qi; Li, Zhengliang; Hui, Guanbao; Xue, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The properties of copper (Cu) metallization based on copper-calcium (CuCa) diffusion barrier as a function of oxygen flux in the CuCa film deposition were investigated in view of adhesion, diffusion and electronic properties. The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film, however, and increases the resistance of Cu film. The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film induces the improvement of adhesion and crystallinity of Cu film, but produces a slight increase of resistance. The increased resistance results from the partial oxidation of Cu film. The annealing process in vacuum further improves the adhesion, crystallinity and conductivity of Cu film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show that the CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate due to the formation of Ca oxide in the interface of CuCa/substrate.

  3. Unusual behavior in magnesium-copper cluster matter produced by helium droplet mediated deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, S. B., E-mail: samuel.emery@navy.mil; Little, B. K. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, 2306 Perimeter Rd., Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States); Xin, Y. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ridge, C. J.; Lindsay, C. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, 2306 Perimeter Rd., Eglin AFB, Florida 32542 (United States); Buszek, R. J. [ERC Inc., Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Boatz, J. A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace System Directorate, Edwards AFB, California 93524 (United States); Boyle, J. M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Technology Division, Indian Head, Maryland 20640 (United States)

    2015-02-28

    We demonstrate the ability to produce core-shell nanoclusters of materials that typically undergo intermetallic reactions using helium droplet mediated deposition. Composite structures of magnesium and copper were produced by sequential condensation of metal vapors inside the 0.4 K helium droplet baths and then gently deposited onto a substrate for analysis. Upon deposition, the individual clusters, with diameters ∼5 nm, form a cluster material which was subsequently characterized using scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Results of this analysis reveal the following about the deposited cluster material: it is in the un-alloyed chemical state, it maintains a stable core-shell 5 nm structure at sub-monolayer quantities, and it aggregates into unreacted structures of ∼75 nm during further deposition. Surprisingly, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the copper appears to displace the magnesium at the core of the composite cluster despite magnesium being the initially condensed species within the droplet. This phenomenon was studied further using preliminary density functional theory which revealed that copper atoms, when added sequentially to magnesium clusters, penetrate into the magnesium cores.

  4. Copper-Coated Liquid-Crystalline Elastomer via Bioinspired Polydopamine Adhesion and Electroless Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Carl P; Merkel, Daniel R; Laursen, Christopher M; Brinckmann, Stephan A; Yakacki, Christopher M

    2016-12-01

    This study explores the functionalization of main-chain nematic elastomers with a conductive metallic surface layer using a polydopamine binder. Using a two-stage thiol-acrylate reaction, a programmed monodomain is achieved for thermoreversible actuation. A copper layer (≈155 nm) is deposited onto polymer samples using electroless deposition while the samples are in their elongated nematic state. Samples undergo 42% contraction when heated above the isotropic transition temperature. During the thermal cycle, buckling of the copper layer is seen in the direction perpendicular to contraction; however, transverse cracking occurs due to the large Poisson effect experienced during actuation. As a result, the electrical conductivity of the layer reduced quickly as a function of thermal cycling. However, samples do not show signs of delamination after 25 thermal cycles. These results demonstrate the ability to explore multifunctional liquid-crystalline composites using relatively facile synthesis, adhesion, and deposition techniques.

  5. Determination of cadmium and copper with ET-AAS after electrochemical deposition on a graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraná, A; Komárek, J

    1996-06-01

    The electrodeposition of cadmium and copper on a special graphite disk electrode has been performed at controlled potential. The electrode with the deposit has been inserted into the graphite atomizer HGA-400 by an adapted automatic sampler for the final determination by ET-ASS. The sensitivity of determination has been 0.371 (microg l(-1))(-1) for cadmium and 0.025 (microg l(-1))(-1) for copper for 2 min electrodeposition and increased linearly with the time of deposition. The limit of detection (3s(bl)) has been 7.9 ng l(-1) Cd(2+) and 0.11 microg l(-1) Cu(2+) for 2 min deposition and it has been improved with increased time of electrodeposition. The technique has been applied to the determination of both metals in seawater and to speciation in the presence of EDTA complexing agent.

  6. Multistage Carbonatization and Mineral Geochemistry of a Skarn—type Copper Deposit at Tongshan ,Guichi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱瑞龙

    1991-01-01

    The Tongshan copper deposit at Guichi can be considered as a skarn-type copper deposit.Mul-ti-stage carbonatization was well developed in the skarn zone and copper-bearing orebodies,Mineralogy,mineral chemistry and stable isotope data allow it to be divided into five stages:(1)carbonatization of single calcite crystals in the skarn stage;(2)calcite carbonatization in the oxide stage;(3)carbonatization in the early sulfide stage;(4)carbonatization in the late sulfide stage;and (5)carbonatization in the post-sulfide stage.Carbonatization in the early sulide stage is ,among other things,closely related to copper mineralization and is one of the alteration indicators of copper mineralization of this type.C.O,Rb and Sr isotopic studies indicate that the cakites of skarn and oxide stages were formed from hydrothermal solutions predominated by magmatic water,and those of sulfide stage were formed from hydrothermal solutions mainly involving heated meteoric warer.The former was formed in the environment where ?o2(?o2>10-33and 10-33>?o2>10-36)(pH=7-8)is high as compared with the latter(10-35>?o2>10-38;pH=5.7).

  7. Copper selenide thin films by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    1999-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin films (0.05 to 0.25 μm) of copper selenide obtained from chemical baths using sodium selenosulfate or N,N-dimethylselenourea as a source of selenide ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on the films obtained from baths using sodium selenosulfate suggest a cubic structure as in berzelianite, Cu 2- xSe with x=0.15. Annealing the films at 400°C in nitrogen leads to a partial conversion of the film to Cu 2Se. In the case of films obtained from the baths containing dimethylselenourea, the XRD patterns match that of klockmannite, CuSe. Annealing these films in nitrogen at 400°C results in loss of selenium, and consequently a composition rich in copper, similar to Cu 2- xSe, is reached. Optical absorption in the films result from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ˜10 5 cm -1. Band-to-band transitions which gives rise to the optical absorption in the visible-ultraviolet region may be interpreted in terms of direct allowed transitions with band gap in the 2.1-2.3 eV range and indirect allowed transitions with band gap 1.2-1.4 eV. All the films, as prepared and annealed, show p-type conductivity, in the range of (1-5)×10 3 Ω -1 cm -1. This results in high near infrared reflectance, of 30-80%.

  8. Nucleation and growth of copper phthalocyanine aggregates deposited from solution on planar surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghani, Fatemeh [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Gojzewski, Hubert, E-mail: hubert.gojzewski@put.poznan.pl [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Riegler, Hans [Department of Theory & Bio-Systems, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Am Mühlenberg 1 Golm, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copper phthalocyanine deposited on planar surfaces by 3 solution process methods. • Aggregate morphology examined for coverage extending over 3 orders of magnitude. • Morphologies vary from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. • Nucleation and growth model explains the observed deposit morphologies. - Abstract: Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is deposited on solid SiO{sub 2} surfaces by solvent evaporation. The deposited CuPc aggregates are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The CuPc deposits were prepared by spin casting, dip coating, and spray deposition. Depending on the amount of deposited CuPc the aggregate morphology ranges from small individual domains to mesh-like multilayers. Each domain/layer consists of many parallel stacks of CuPc molecules with the square, plate-like molecules piled face-wise within each stack. The parallel stacks are attached sideways (i.e., edgewise attachment molecularly) to the substrate forming “nanoribbons” with uniform thickness of about 1 nm and varying width. The thickness reflects the length of a molecular edge, the width the number of stacks. A nucleation and growth model is presented that explains the observed aggregate and multilayer morphologies as result of the combination of nucleation, transport processes and a consequence of the anisotropic intermolecular interactions due to the shape of the CuPc molecule.

  9. Deposition of Antimicrobial Copper-Rich Coatings on Polymers by Atmospheric Pressure Jet Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kredl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Inanimate surfaces serve as a permanent reservoir for infectious microorganisms, which is a growing problem in areas in everyday life. Coating of surfaces with inorganic antimicrobials, such as copper, can contribute to reduce the adherence and growth of microorganisms. The use of a DC operated air plasma jet for the deposition of copper thin films on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS substrates is reported. ABS is a widespread material used in consumer applications, including hospitals. The influence of gas flow rate and input current on thin film characteristics and its bactericidal effect have been studied. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy confirmed the presence of thin copper layers on plasma-exposed ABS and the formation of copper particles with a size in the range from 20 to 100 nm, respectively. The bactericidal properties of the copper-coated surfaces were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. A reduction in growth by 93% compared with the attachment of bacteria on untreated samples was observed for coverage of the surface with 7 at. % copper.

  10. Copper deposition and its replacement by platinum on a gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misicak, Daniel; Ruthenburg, Travis C. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fawcett, W. Ronald, E-mail: wrfawcett@ucdavis.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The decoration of single crystal gold electrodes with platinum using underpotential deposited copper as an intermediate has been studied in detail. It was found that a significant fraction of the copper is lost in the transfer process from the upd cell to the exchange cell. In addition the surface of the gold is not covered uniformly by the platinum. Nevertheless, acceleration of the electroreduction of oxygen was observed with a loading of 0.14 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. The structure of the decorating layer was studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  11. Deposit model for heavy-mineral sands in coastal environments: Chapter L in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Shah, Anjana K.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive model of heavy-mineral sands, which are sedimentary deposits of dense minerals that accumulate with sand, silt, and clay in coastal environments, locally forming economic concentrations of the heavy minerals. This deposit type is the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, through recovery of the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Heavy-mineral sands are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4) and its zirconium oxide; zircon is often recovered as a coproduct. Other heavy minerals produced as coproducts from some deposits are sillimanite/kyanite, staurolite, monazite, and garnet. Monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is a source of rare earth elements as well as thorium, which is used in thorium-based nuclear power under development in India and elsewhere.

  12. Copper electrodeposition and additives: from underpotential deposition to bulk growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanson, Yuriy; Frenken, Joost; Rost, Marcel [Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Cu electrodeposition at different stages on Au(111) surface is accessed in-situ on atomic scale by means of our newly developed fast electrochemical STM. We show the effect of industrially used additives, such as bis-(3-sodiumsulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the Cu deposit. The EC-STM results are complemented by electrochemical measurements and discussed in the light of current state of knowledge on electrodeposition and molecular processes involving the additives.

  13. Inkjet catalyst printing and electroless copper deposition for low-cost patterned microwave passive devices on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin S.; Fang, Yunnan; Kim, Sangkil; Le, Taoran; Goodwin, W. Brandon; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Tentzeris, Manos M.

    2013-09-01

    A scalable, low-cost process for fabricating copper-based microwave components on flexible, paper-based substrates is demonstrated. An inkjet printer is used to deposit a catalyst-bearing solution (tailored for such printing) in a desired pattern on commercially-available, recyclable, non-toxic (Teslin®) paper. The catalystbearing paper is then immersed in an aqueous copper-bearing solution to allow for electroless deposition of a compact and conformal layer of copper in the inkjet-derived pattern. Meander monopole antennas comprised of such electroless-deposited copper patterns on paper exhibited comparable performance as for antennas synthesized via inkjet printing of a commercially-available silver nanoparticle ink. However, the solution-based patterning and electroless copper deposition process avoids nozzle-clogging problems and costs associated with noble metal particle-based inks. This process yields compact conductive copper layers without appreciable oxidation and without the need for an elevated temperature, post-deposition thermal treatment commonly required for noble metal particle-based ink processes. This low-cost copper patterning process is readily scalable on virtually any substrate and may be used to generate a variety of copper-based microwave devices on flexible, paper-based substrates.

  14. Paragenesis And Evolution Of The Hydrothermal Bacuri Iron Oxide-copper-gold Deposit, Carajás Province (pa)

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo G.H.C.; Monteiro L.V.S.; Moreto C.P.N.; Xavier R.P.; Da Silva M.A.D.

    2014-01-01

    The Bacuri copper deposit is located about 9 km east of the world-class Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit in the Carajás Province. It is hosted by the ca. 2.84 Ga Serra Dourada granite, the Bacuri Porphyry, and subordinated gabbro. The Bacuri deposit is situated within the regional-scale, WNW-ESE-trending ductile Canaã shear zone, characterized by early albite, scapolite-magnetite, potassium feldspar and biotite-scapolite-magnetite hydrothermal alteration zones. Copper mineralization was...

  15. Surface modification of an epoxy resin with polyamines and polydopamine: The effect on the initial electroless copper deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, David; Mader, Lothar; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino; Dubruel, Peter; Vanfleteren, Jan

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the influence of polydopamine and polyamine surface modifications of an etched epoxy cresol novolak (ECN) resin on the initial electroless copper deposition. Three different strategies to introduce polyamines on a surface in aqueous environment are applied: via polyethyleneimine adsorption (PEI), via polydopamine and via polyamines grafted to polydopamine. Next, the influence of these surface modifications on the catalytic palladium activation is investigated through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Finally, the initial electroless copper deposition on modified epoxy surfaces is evaluated using SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Grafted polyamines on polydopamine surface modifications result in a large increase of the initial deposited copper.

  16. Investigation of the mechanism of electroless deposition of copper on functionalized alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers adsorbed on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Walker, Amy V

    2007-12-04

    We have investigated the reaction pathways involved in the unseeded electroless deposition of copper on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on Au, using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. At 22 degrees C copper deposits on both -CH3 and -COOH terminated SAMs. No copper deposition is observed on -OH terminated SAMs because the hydroxyl terminal groups react with formaldehyde in the plating solution, forming an acetal which prevents Cu deposition. At higher deposition temperatures (45 degrees C), no Cu is observed to deposit on -CH3 terminated SAMs because Cu2+ ions are not stabilized on the SAM surface. Copper complexes are still able to form with the -COOH terminal group at 45 degrees C, and so copper continues to be deposited on -COOH terminated SAMs. Copper also penetrates through -CH3 and -COOH terminated SAMs to the Au/S interface, suggesting that soft deposition techniques do not prevent the penetration of low-to-moderate reactivity metals through organic films.

  17. Long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on coastal plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J; Alexander, Jim; Brooker, Rob; Cummins, Roger; Fielding, Debbie; Gore, Sarah; Hewison, Richard; Mitchell, Ruth; Moore, Emily; Orford, Katy; Pemberton, Clare; Trinder, Clare; Lewis, Rob

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen deposition has been shown to have significant impacts on a range of vegetation types resulting in eutrophication and species compositional change. Data from a re-survey of 89 coastal sites in Scotland, UK, c. 34 years after the initial survey were examined to assess the degree of change in species composition that could be accounted for by nitrogen deposition. There was an overall increase in the Ellenberg Indicator Value for nitrogen (EIV-N) of 0.15 between the surveys, with a clear shift to species characteristic of more eutrophic situations. This was most evident for Acid grassland, Fixed dune, Heath, Slack and Tall grass mire communities and despite falls in EIV-N for Improved grass, Strand and Wet grassland. The increase in EIV-N was highly correlated to the cumulative deposition between the surveys, and for sites in south-east Scotland, eutrophication impacts appear severe. Unlike other studies, there appears to have been no decline in species richness associated with nitrogen deposition, though losses of species were observed on sites with the very highest levels of SOx deposition. It appears that dune vegetation (specifically Fixed dune) shows evidence of eutrophication above 4.1 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), or 5.92 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) if the lower 95% confidence interval is used. Coastal vegetation appears highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, and it is suggested that major changes could have occurred prior to the first survey in 1976.

  18. Effect of copper concentration on the physical properties of copper doped NiO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani Menaka, S., E-mail: manimenaka.phy@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore, 641018, Tamilnadu (India); Umadevi, G. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Coimbatore, 641018, Tamilnadu (India); Manickam, M. [SRMV College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore, 641020, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-04-15

    The spray pyrolysis (SP) technique is an important and powerful method for the preparation of nickel oxide (NiO) and copper-doped nickel oxide thin films. The best films were obtained when the substrate temperature, T{sub s} = 450 °C on glass substrates. Copper (Cu) concentrations in the films were varied from 0 to 8%. The effect of Cu concentration on the structural, morphological, spectral, optical, and electrical properties of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer, Hot probe and Hall system. The X-ray diffraction result shows the polycrystalline cubic structure of sprayed films with (200) preferred orientation. The variations of the structural parameters such as lattice parameters and grain sizes were investigated. The SEM image displays the surface morphology of the NiO and Cu:NiO thin films. The FTIR of the as-deposited films were associated with chemical identification. The optical transmittance and absorbance spectra of the films were measured by UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer. The absorption coefficient and band gaps of the films were calculated using the optical method. All the NiO and Cu:NiO films were p-type. The resistivity of the above films decreases with the increase in copper concentration and so the conductivity of the films depend on the precursor concentration. - Highlights: • Pure and Cu:NiO films were deposited by Spray pyrolysis technique. • The XRD result shows the polycrystalline nature of pure and Cu:NiO films. • The formation of pure and Cu:NiO were confirmed by FTIR analysis. • Band gap values of pure and Cu:NiO decreases. • All the pure and Cu:NiO films were p-type.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of copper and copper silver films using an electrochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Y.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the formation and properties of Cu and Cu(Ag) films on a Ru/Si substrate using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. The process was performed layer-by-layer using underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox reactions. The first Cu atomic layer was deposited on the Ru/Si substrate via UPD. Using UPD, atomic layered of Pb, which acts as a sacrificial layer, was applied on the Cu layer. Then, a Cu{sup 2+} solution was flushed into the cell at an open-circuit potential, and the Pb layer was exchanged for Cu via redox replacements. The above sequences were repeated 500 times to form a Cu film. The Cu(Ag) alloy films were formed using Cu–UPD and Ag–UPD in predetermined sequences. The lowest electrical resistivity achieved was 3.6 and 2.2 μΩ cm for the Cu film and Cu(Ag) film, respectively, after annealing at 400 °C. Due to the self-limiting reactions, the process has the ability to deposit atomic layers to meet the requirement of Cu interconnects. - Highlights: • Layer-by-layer growth of Cu and Cu(Ag) films are prepared using electrochemical atomic layer deposition. • Cu coverage is from 0.33 to 0.51 ML for each deposition cycle in different NaCl concentrations. • The process can be applied in Cu interconnections.

  20. High-temperature conductivity in chemical bath deposited copper selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanam, M.; Manoj, P. K.; Prabhu, Rajeev. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports high-temperature (305-523 K) electrical studies of chemical bath deposited copper (I) selenide (Cu 2-xSe) and copper (II) selenide (Cu 3Se 2) thin films. Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have been prepared on glass substrates from the same chemical bath at room temperature by controlling the pH. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, it has been found that Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have cubic and tetragonal structures, respectively. The composition of the chemical constituent in the films has been confirmed from XRD data and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It has been found that both phases of copper selenide thin films have thermally activated conduction in the high-temperature range. In this paper we also report the variation of electrical parameters with film thickness and the applied voltage.

  1. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of copper(II) oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iivonen, Tomi, E-mail: tomi.iivonen@helsinki.fi; Hämäläinen, Jani; Mattinen, Miika; Popov, Georgi; Leskelä, Markku [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Marchand, Benoît; Mizohata, Kenichiro [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kim, Jiyeon; Fischer, Roland A. [Chair of Inorganic Chemistry II, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätsstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    Copper(II) oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using bis-(dimethylamino-2-propoxide)copper [Cu(dmap){sub 2}] and ozone in a temperature window of 80–140 °C. A thorough characterization of the films was performed using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, UV‐Vis spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis techniques. The process was found to produce polycrystalline copper(II) oxide films with a growth rate of 0.2–0.3 Å per cycle. Impurity content in the films was relatively small for a low temperature ALD process.

  2. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Illite, a distinctive kind of clay minerals of potassiumalteration within the hydrothermal alteration zone, frequently occurs at the Tongchang porphyry copper deposit ore field. The illite crystallinity (IC) value and expandability are mainly affected by water/rock ratio or fluid flux. It was formed by illitization of plagioclase and micas during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction within the porphyry body and near the contact zone with wall rocks. Moreover, the negative correlation between illite index (IC) and copper grade indicates that within the alteration zone, the smaller the illite crystallinity value, the higher the alteration degree, and the higher the copper grade due to higher water/rock ratio. At lower levels of the porphyry body, however, the illite crystallinity (IC) values are mainly controlled by temperature and time duration.

  3. Isotopic tracing of ore-forming source materials for Dexing porphyry copper deposit of Jiangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng QIAN; Jianjun LU

    2008-01-01

    Dexing copper deposit is the biggest porphyry copper deposit in China. By researching isotopes of C,Si and Cu from the samples of Tongchang and Fujiawu ore-field, the authors found that δ13CPDB values of siderite were close to the δ13CPDB value of original magma; δ30Si values of the samples at the ore-forming stage were close to the δ30Si value range of magma, δ30Si values of partial samples were far away from it; Cu isotopic compositions of massive chalcopyrite formed at the early ore-forming stage are higher than that of veinal chalcopyrite formed at the later ore-forming stage. The results show that ore-forming materials were mainly derived from the porphyry body, and part of them were from wall rock materials.

  4. Deposition of thin titanium-copper films with antimicrobial effect by advanced magnetron sputtering methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranak, V., E-mail: stranak@physik.uni-greifswald.de [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wulff, H. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Rebl, H. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Res. Center, Dept. of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Zietz, C. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Orthopaedics, Doberaner Str. 142, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Arndt, K. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Med. Microbiol., Virology and Hygiene, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Bogdanowicz, R. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Nebe, B. [University of Rostock, Biomedical Res. Center, Dept. of Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Bader, R. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Orthopaedics, Doberaner Str. 142, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Podbielski, A. [University of Rostock, Dept. of Med. Microbiol., Virology and Hygiene, Schillingallee 70, 18057 Rostock (Germany); Hubicka, Z. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Hippler, R. [University of Greifswald, Institute of Physics, Felix-Hausdorff Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-10-10

    The antibacterial effect of thin titanium-copper (Ti-Cu) films combined with sufficient growth of human osteoblastic cells is reported in the paper. Thin Ti-Cu films were prepared by three different plasma-assisted magnetron sputtering methods: direct current magnetron sputtering (dc-MS), dual magnetron sputtering (dual-MS) as well as dual high power impulse magnetron sputtering (dual-HiPIMS). The antimicrobial effect is caused by copper released from the metallic Ti-Cu films, which was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The copper release is influenced by the chemical and physical properties of the deposited films and was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and X-ray reflectometry (GIXD and XR) techniques. It was found that, within the first 24 h the amount of Cu released from dual-HiPIMS films (about 250 {mu}g) was much higher than from dc-MS and dual-MS films. In vitro planktonic growth tests on Ti-Cu surfaces for Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus demonstrated the killing of both bacteria using the Ti-Cu films prepared using the dual-HiPIMS technique. The killing effects on biofilm bacteria were less obvious. After the total release of copper from the Ti-Cu film the vitality of exposed human osteoblast MG-63 cells increased significantly. An initial cytotoxic effect followed by the growth of osteoblastic cells was demonstrated. The cytotoxic effect combined with growth of osteoblastic cells could be used in joint replacement surgery to reduce the possibility of infection and to increase adoption of the implants. Highlights: {yields} Ti-Cu films with significant cytotoxic effect were prepared by dual-HiPIMS technique. {yields} The cytotoxic effect is caused by total release of copper species from thin films. {yields} The copper release is influenced by crystallography and chemical properties of thin films. {yields} Sufficient growth of osteoblastic cells follows after copper release.

  5. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  6. Long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on coastal plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Brooker, Rob; Alexander, Jim

    2016-01-01

    , Fixed dune, Heath, Slack and Tall grass mire communities and despite falls in EIV-N for Improved grass, Strand and Wet grassland. The increase in EIV-N was highly correlated to the cumulative deposition between the surveys, and for sites in south-east Scotland, eutrophication impacts appear severe....... Unlike other studies, there appears to have been no decline in species richness associated with nitrogen deposition, though losses of species were observed on sites with the very highest levels of SOx deposition. It appears that dune vegetation (specifically Fixed dune) shows evidence of eutrophication......Nitrogen deposition has been shown to have significant impacts on a range of vegetation types resulting in eutrophication and species compositional change. Data from a re-survey of 89 coastal sites in Scotland, UK, c. 34 years after the initial survey were examined to assess the degree of change...

  7. Structural, optical and electrical properties of chemically deposited nonstoichiometric copper indium diselenide films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R H Bari; L A Patil; P P Patil

    2006-10-01

    Thin films of copper indium diselenide (CIS) were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrate at temperature, 60°C. The studies on composition, morphology, optical absorption, electrical conductivity and structure of the films were carried out and discussed. Characterization included X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and absorption spectroscopy. The results are discussed and interpreted.

  8. Underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer on a gold film sensed by integrated optical surface plasmon resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Abanulo, J.C.; Harris, R.D.; Bartlett, P.N.; Wilkinson, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated optical surface plasmon resonance sensor combined with electrochemical control is used to monitor the underpotential deposition of a copper monolayer onto a gold film from 1 mM Cu2+ in 0.1 M perchloric acid.

  9. Mineralogy and fluid inclusion studies in kalchoye Copper- gold deposit, East of Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvan Mehvary

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kalchoye Copper-gold deposit is located about 110 kilometers east of Esfahan province and within the Eocene volcano sedimentary rocks. Sandy tuff and andesite lava are important members of this complex.The form of mineralization in area is vein and veinlet and quartz as the main gangue phase. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite, chalcocite, galena and weathered minerals such as goethite, iron oxides, malachite and azurite. Studies in area indicate that ore mineralization Kalchoye is low sulfide, quartz type of hydrothermal ore deposits and results of thermometry studies on quartz minerals low- medium fluid with low potential mineralization is responsible for mineralization in this area.

  10. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家军; 李朝阳; 张乾; 潘家永; 刘玉平; 刘显凡; 刘世荣; 杨伟光

    2001-01-01

    Jinman vein copper deposit in western Yunnan occurs in a salt-bearing red clastic rock formation composed of sandstone, siltstone and shale. Wood texture is considerably developed in the ores. The metallic minerals making up the wood textures mainly include pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite. Studies on the samples and examination of their micrographs and electron micrographs have confirmed that they belong to xenoxylon, reflecting that the ore-hosting rock series is the product of sedimentation in the terrestrial environment. Organic geochemistry and sulfur and carbon isotopic composition data indicate that the formation of the deposit is substantially related with underground hot brines and biological processes.

  11. Electrochemical deposition of copper onto Pt(111) in the presence of (bi)sulfate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, C.A. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool, L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Markovic, N.M.; Ross, P.N. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Using {ital in situ} x-ray diffraction we have studied the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper onto a Pt(111) electrode in sulfuric acid. Deposition occurs in a two-stage process; close to a full monolayer of Cu being preceded by a ({radical}(3){times}{radical}(3))R30{degree} structure that consists of both Cu and (bi)sulfate anions and is similar to the structure observed on the Au(111) electrode. Utilizing anomalous scattering methods we can accurately determine the Cu coverage during UPD and propose structural models based on crystal truncation rod measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Sunny C.; Mode, Wilfred A.; Ozumba, Berti M.; Yelwa, Nura A.

    2016-09-01

    Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface) and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta) should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should be treated with

  13. Sedimentology and ichnology of Neogene Coastal Swamp deposits in the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeh Sunny C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Often analyses of depositional environments from sparse data result in poor interpretation, especially in multipartite depositional settings such as the Niger Delta. For instance, differentiating channel sandstones, heteroliths and mudstones within proximal environments from those of distal facies is difficult if interpretations rely solely on well log signatures. Therefore, in order to achieve an effective and efficient interpretation of the depositional conditions of a given unit, integrated tools must be applied such as matching core descriptions with wireline log signature. In the present paper cores of three wells from the Coastal Swamp depositional belt of the Niger Delta are examined in order to achieve full understanding of the depositional environments. The well sections comprise cross-bedded sandstones, heteroliths (coastal and lower shoreface and mudstones that were laid down in wave, river and tidal processes. Interpretations were made from each data set comprising gamma ray logs, described sedimentological cores showing sedimentary features and ichnological characteristics; these were integrated to define the depositional settings. Some portions from one of the well sections reveal a blocky gamma ray well log signature instead of a coarsening-upward trend that characterises a shoreface setting while in other wells the signatures for heteroliths at some sections are bell blocky in shaped rather than serrated. Besides, heteroliths and mudstones within the proximal facies and those of distal facies were difficult to distinguish solely on well log signatures. However, interpretation based on sedimentology and ichnology of cores from these facies was used to correct these inconsistencies. It follows that depositional environment interpretation (especially in multifarious depositional environments such as the Niger Delta should ideally be made together with other raw data for accuracy and those based solely on well log signatures should

  14. Deposition of copper and sulfate on Au(1 1 1): New insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madry, B.; Wandelt, K.; Nowicki, M.

    2016-12-01

    The adsorption of sulfate anions (SO42-) and copper cations on Au(1 1 1) from CuSO4 containing H2SO4 solution was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The underpotential deposition from solution results first in the formation of 2/3 monolayer of copper with the well known (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) structure of sulfate followed by the completion of the first copper monolayer at lower potentials. Just after formation of 1ML of Cu STM reveals a disordered surface. At more negative potential values, already in the overpotential deposition region, the STM images reflect a (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on terraces of the first pseudomorphic Cu layer, a (√{ 3} ×√{ 3}) -like structure on terraces of the second uncompleted Cu layer with sulfate anions residing in atomic vacancies, and the known Moiré structure on terraces of the multi-layer Cu deposit. The formation of the (√{ 3} ×√{ 7}) sulfate structure on pseudomorphic monolayer Cu terraces on Au(1 1 1) is discussed in the context of results obtained for sulfate on bare Au(1 1 1) and Cu(1 1 1) electrodes in H2SO4 solution.

  15. The Novo Okno copper deposit of olistostrome origin (Bor, Eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper deposit Novo Okno, uncovered at present, with non-ore and ore clasts of massive sulphides (from 0.5 to 50 m3 in size, has many distinctive features that indicate its olistostrome origin. The deposit is chaotic in structure, unstratified, with the lower surface unconformable over the underlying parent rock of the basin. It is a lens-like body, with the longer axis directed east and west, variable in thickness from 15 to 28 metres, about 335 metres long and less than 140 metres wide. These and other characteristics of the body indicate a unified, reworked, olistostrome copper deposit formed from primary ore bodies of the Bor mineral deposit and vulcanite, destroyed by volcanic explosion into blocks and rocks of Turonian age and extrusion and concurrent deposition on the land surface. Gravitational massive sliding of the consolidated rocks down the slopes of the volcanic relief and chaotic accumulation of ore and non-ore clasts (olistoliths in a marine basin evolved in the Upper Turonian and the Lower Senonian.

  16. REVIEW OF COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRON SAND DEPOSITS IN CILACAP CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hananto Kurnio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mineable iron sand deposits in Cilacap – southern coastal area of Central Java have certain coastal characteristics that need to be studied in order to understand its depositional environment. With the knowledge of such environment, it can be applied to look for other places prospective of iron sand deposits that have the same characteristics especially recently when Cilacap’s deposits were almost depleted. Coastal characteristics of iron sand deposit in Cilacap is shown by successive sandy beach ridges separated by marshy valleys typical of prograded coasts and by dunes of sand elongated parallel to the shore line with elevation varies from 0 m to 15 m above sea level. The iron sand deposit was derived from denudation of andesite and “Old Andesite Formation” enriched in magnetite and ilmenite minerals in the steep elevated and deeply weathered rock hinterlands of Cilacap. High sediment loads of Serayu Basin in the hinterland (3,500-4,500 ton/km2/year; Citarum River basin only 800-1,200 ton/km2/year was causing extensive deposition of iron sand in the coastal zone. Key words: coast, characteristic, iron sand, Cilacap Endapan pasir besi yang dapat ditambang di Cilacap – pesisir selatan Jawa Tengah memiliki karakteristik pantai tertentu yang perlu dikaji agar dapat dipahami lingkungan pengendapannya. Dengan pengetahuan tentang lingkungan pengendapan tersebut, dapat diterapkan untuk mencari daerah-daerah lain prospek endapan pasir besi yang memiliki karakteristik yang sama terutama pada akhir-akhir ini ketika endapan Cilacap akan habis. Karakteristik pantai endapan pasir besi di Cilacap dicirikan oleh urutan pematang pantai berpasir yang dipisahkan oleh lembah-lembah berawa khas pantai maju dan oleh gumuk-gumuk pasir memanjang sejajar dengan garis pantai dengan ketinggian bervariasi dari 0 m hingga 15 m dari muka laut. Endapan pasir besi di daerah ini berasal dari proses denudasi andesit dan “Formasi Andesit

  17. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, Rosa, E-mail: rvera@ucv.c [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile); Verdugo, Patricia [Departamento de Quimica y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile); Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo [Instituto de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avda. Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. {yields} In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. {yields} The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  18. Discovery of the copper deposits with features of the Keweenawan type in the border area of Yunnan and Guizhou provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳泉; 胡耀国; 张正伟; 常向阳

    2003-01-01

    There existed intense Cu anomaly on the northeastern side of the geochemical boundary with NW strike in the border area between the Yunnan and Guizhou provinces. Through field observation, ore bodies of high-grade native coppers have been found. The copper mineralization was constrained by the ancient volcanic vents of Permian basalt eruption and the overlain strata of carbonaceous argillites. Native coppers with flaky, net veined and impregnated occurrences, fine-grained tenorites and massive chalcocites widely occur in volcanic breccias, tuffs, carbonaceous-siliceous argillites and siliceous bitumen rocks with bed thickness of about 15-80 m. Cu contents vary from 0.5% to 20%. The copper mineralization was tightly related to actinolite-tremolitization, zeolitization and bituminization and involved in extensive reduction environments. Continental flood basalts erupted in mantle plume environments usually have high Cu concentrations (~170 ×10-6 in the Emeishan basalts), which provided a copper source of mineralization. Thus, metallogenesis of the native copper deposits in the Yunnan-Guizhou border area is tightly associated with intensive crust-mantle and organic-inorganic interactions. The tremolitization and chalcocitization indicate that the metallogenic temperatures are in a range of 400-100℃. The geologic background and characteristics of ore and alteration for the native copper deposits in this area are somewhat similar to those of the Keweenawan native copper deposit in Michigan, USA.

  19. Alteration processes in igneous rocks of the michilla mining area, coastal range, northern chile, and their relation with copper mineralisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, V.; Aguirre, L.; Townley, B.

    2003-04-01

    A 10 km thick homoclinal sequence of intermediate volcanic and sedimentary Jurassic rocks crops out in the Michilla mining area, Coastal Range, northern Chile (22-22°45S, 70-70°15W). Cretaceous plutons, intermediate to acid in composition, intrude this sequence together with numerous small basic to acid dykes and stocks. Main deposits are stratabound Cu-(Ag) with the ore minerals emplaced at the porous tops of the volcanic flows. However, some discordant orebodies, e.g. hydrothermal breccias, exist within the manto-type deposits. The volcanic sequence, and a minor part of the plutonic rocks, have been affected by three different alteration processes, each of them with their distinct mineral assemblages reflecting that every process was developed under different physicochemical conditions. The volcanic rocks far from the mining area are affected by a regional scale alteration process, basically isochemical. Its products are typical of a low-grade event: chl + ep +qtz + ttn (+- ab +- cal) with no ore minerals associated. The temperature interval, estimated by the chlorite geothermometer, ranges between 250 and 350°C. This alteration is either due to very low grade burial metamorphism or to hydrothermalism related to the Late Jurassic - Cretaceous plutonism. Inside the mining district the volcanic rocks are affected by a local scale alteration process originated by the intrusion of small stocks and dykes. This event is characterized by strong sodic metasomatism and minor Mg mobility. Two stages probably occurred as suggested by the two main mineral assemblages present, a propylitic (ab + ep + chl + act + ttn + qtz) and a quartz-sericitic one (ab + ser + qtz + tnn). They would reflect the changes in temperature, water/rock ratio and pH conditions during the whole process. Ore minerals related to this alteration are chalcopyrite, chalcocite and minor bornite and native silver. A temperature interval of 200-300°C is indicated by the chlorite geothermometer for the

  20. Evidence of seismites in coastal Quaternary deposits of western Oranie (northwestern Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhedimi, Mohamed Amine; Louni-Hacini, Amina; Bouhadad, Youcef; Ritz, Jean-François; Machane, Djamel; Benhamouche, Azzeddine; Bourenane, Hamid

    2016-10-01

    Coastal Quaternary deposits of western Oranie show typical soft-sediment deformations including sedimentary dykes, sand volcanoes, sismoslumps, thixotropic bowls, thixotropic wedges, diapir-like structures, and faults grading. Field observations indicate that these deformations exist at several levels of the studied deposits along the west Oranian coast. This study demonstrated that these structures are earthquakes-related, by analysis of potential trigger sources. Several arguments demonstrate the seismic origin: the depositional environment rich in water that located in an active tectonic region, the thixotropic nature of deformations and their large vertical and horizontal diffusion in the Quaternary series consistent with a seismic recurrence. This allows characterizing these Quaternary soft-sediment deformations as seismites that were triggered by earthquakes.

  1. Coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands; Global significance and US resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Bedinger, George M.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient and modern coastal deposits of heavy mineral sands (HMS) are the principal source of several heavy industrial minerals, with mining and processing operations on every continent except Antarctica. For example, HMS deposits are the main source of titanium feedstock for the titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments industry, obtained from the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2) and leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). HMS deposits are also the principal source of zircon (ZrSiO4), from which zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is obtained for uses mostly in refractory products. Sometimes monazite [(Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4] is recovered as a byproduct mineral, sought for its rare earth elements and thorium (Ault and others, 2016; Sengupta and Van Gosen, 2016; Van Gosen and Tulsidas, 2016). 

  2. Bimodal variation in mercury wet deposition to the coastal zone of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Siudek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the following periods: November 2005–June 2006 and October 2007–January 2009, concentrations and deposition rates of total mercury (THg and Hg(II were measured in precipitation over the urbanized and industrialized area of the southern Baltic – the city of Gdynia. Rains over the coastal zone had different concentrations of total mercury, they ranged from 8.6 to 118.0 ng L−1, out of which about 32% were labile, inorganic forms, easily reducible in a SnCl2 solution. Over the southern Baltic two maxima of concentrations were observed: first, in the heating season and second, in the non-heating season. Elevated concentrations of mercury in precipitations during heating seasons were the result of the activity of local emission sources (intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces and individual power and heat generating plants. During the warm season, precipitation over the southern Baltic could clean the air from Hg reemitted from sea and land surfaces. Precipitations, which purified marine and continental air masses were responsible for the comparable input of mercury to the coastal zone. The wet deposition value in 2008 was estimated to be 28.9 μg m−2. In the coastal zone of the southern Baltic, acid precipitations with the elevated Hg concentrations are very frequent.

  3. Effects of sputtering power on properties of copper oxides thin films deposited on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, P. K.; Ng, S. S.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Copper oxides are deposited by radio frequency sputtering using copper target in the mixture of argon and oxygen gasses. The structural and optical properties of the copper oxides deposited at different sputtering powers have been investigated. All the films are single phase polycrystalline. At low RF power (100 W), the film is monoclinic structure of cupric oxide (CuO). Meanwhile, the films are cubic structure of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) at higher RF power. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images show the films have different morphologies with small grain size and consist of a lot of voids. The analysis of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that the ratio of Cu to O is increased as the RF power increased. From the ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, the films have a broad absorption edge in the range of 300–500 nm. The band gap of the films grown at RF power of 100 W, and 120 W and above, were 1.18 eV and 2.16 eV, respectively.

  4. Searching a Holocene coastal lagoon for paleotsunami deposits: Kamala Beach, Phuket, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J. R.; Kirby, M. E.; Rhodes, B. P.; Jankaew, K.

    2006-12-01

    In the wake of the devastating December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, there is a renewed effort to locate and date paleotsunami deposits. As part of this effort, one piston and two push cores were extracted along a transect from a Holocene age coastal lagoon in Kamala Beach, Phuket, Thailand. The piston core (KBPISTON06-1 measures 513 cm total length. The overall sedimentology reflects a long-term sea level regression and beach progradation across the core site to the modern beach position. The sedimentology is, however, highly complex indicating variable depositional environments throughout the Holocene. Basal sands (estimated at 8,000 cy BP) are overlain by various thickness laminated clays, interbedded organic silts, and occasional sands. The upper 40 cm may reflect recent human disturbance, which includes mining of placer tin, planting of coconut trees, and tourist-related infrastructure. In addition to visual descriptions, mass magnetic susceptibility, percent total organic matter, and percent total carbonate were determined at 1 cm contiguous intervals. Micro-fossil counts and grain size measurements were also determined but at lower resolution throughout the core. Using visual description as the basic identifying criteria, we recognize four candidate deposits as potentially tsunamigenic. Each of the four units is sand-rich. Sandy clays bracket the upper two sand units; whereas, the lower two sand units are much coarser and bracketed by semi-to-well laminated clays. Considering each of the analyses above, we cannot identify any one of these candidate deposits as unequivocally tsunamigenic. Similarly, we cannot conclude that any one of these candidate deposits is not tsunamigenic. Nonetheless, our initial conclusion is that coastal lagoon environments may not represent the best location for preservation and identification of paleotsunami deposits in Thailand. Sites with less complex terrestrial-marine sediment interaction, such mangrove swamps, may be easier

  5. Rocking disc electro-deposition of copper films on Mo/MoSe{sub 2} substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Charles Y.; Frith, Paul E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Zoppi, Guillaume; Forbes, Ian [Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Northumbria University, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Rogers, Keith D. [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Shrivenham Campus, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Lane, David W. [Department of Applied Science, Security and Resilience, Cranfield University, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Marken, Frank, E-mail: F.Marken@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-31

    A novel electro-deposition method based on a rocking disc system with {pi}/3 amplitude and variable frequency is introduced. Uniform copper films were deposited from a 0.1 M CuSO{sub 4}/3.0 M NaOH/0.2 M sorbitol bath directly onto 12.1 cm{sup 2} Mo/MoSe{sub 2} substrates with X-ray diffraction showing a thickness variation of {+-}5% over this area. Investigation of the mass transport conditions suggests (i) uniform diffusion over the sample, (ii) a rate of mass transport proportional to the square root of the rocking rate, and (iii) turbulent conditions, which are able to dislodge gas bubbles during electro-deposition.

  6. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Woehrl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A plasma enhanced vapor deposition process is used to synthesize graphene from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture on copper samples. The graphene samples were transferred onto SiO2 substrates and characterized by Raman spectroscopic mapping and atomic force microscope topographical mapping. Analysis of the Raman bands shows that the deposited graphene is clearly SLG and that the sheets are deposited on large areas of several mm2. The defect density in the graphene sheets is calculated using Raman measurements and the influence of the process pressure on the defect density is measured. Furthermore the origin of these defects is discussed with respect to the process parameters and hence the plasma environment.

  7. Deposition and characterization of CuInS2 thin films deposited over copper thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Titu; Kumar, K. Rajeev; Kartha, C. Sudha; Vijayakumar, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Simple, cost effective and versatile spray pyrolysis method is effectively combined with vacuum evaporation for the deposition of CuIns2 thin films for photovoltaic applications. In the present study In2s3 was spray deposited over vacuum evaporated Cu thin films and Cu was allowed to diffuse in to the In2S3 layer to form CuInS2. To analyse the dependence of precursor volume on the formation of CuInS2 films structural, electrical and morphological analzes are carried out. Successful deposition of CuInS2thin films with good crystallinity and morphology with considerably low resistivity is reported in this paper.

  8. Copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Tianru; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Xuefu; Shi, Zhiyuan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on dielectric substrates is important for its application in electronics. In this work, we report the process of copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and large graphene domains on various dielectric substrates. The copper vapor plays a vital role on the growth of transfer-free graphene. Both single-crystal domains that are much larger than previous reports and high-coverage graphene films can be obtained by adjusting the growth duration. The quality of the obtained graphene was verified to be comparable with that of graphene grown on Cu foil. The progress reported in this work will aid the development of the application of transfer-free graphene in the future.

  9. Controlled growth of few-layer hexagonal boron nitride on copper foils using ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haolin; Zhang, Xingwang; Meng, Junhua; Yin, Zhigang; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yajuan; Zhang, Liuqi

    2015-04-01

    Ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) is used to synthesize high quality few-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on copper foils. Compared to the conventional chemical vapor deposition, the IBSD technique avoids the use of unconventional precursors and is much easier to control, which should be very useful for the large-scale production of h-BN in the future.

  10. Novel electroless copper deposition on carbon fibers with environmentally friendly processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jang-Woo

    2010-08-15

    A novel electroless deposition (ELD) of copper (Cu) on carbon fibers (CFs) with environmentally friendly processes, silver (Ag) aerosol activation and subsequent nonformaldehyde Cu ELD, was developed. Spark-generated Ag aerosol nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm in mode diameter) were deposited (48.4 microg Ag/g CF in activation intensity) onto the surfaces of CFs. After annealing (at 220 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere), the catalytically activated CFs were placed into a solution for Cu ELD (at 82 degrees C). Homogeneous Cu coating (approximately 5.1 nm/min) on CFs was achieved with 90 min of deposition and the corresponding mass deposition rate and Cu grain size for 30-90 min of deposition had ranges of 0.25-1.14 mg Cu/g CF-min and 14.8-37.2 nm, respectively. The porosity of CFs decreased by depositing the Cu for 30-90 min, and the specific surface area and pore volume of CFs decreased from 1536 to 1399 m(2)/g and from 0.65 to 0.57 cm(3)/g, respectively.

  11. Effects of Implant Copper Layer on Diamond Film Deposition on Cemented Carbides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The deposition of high-quality diamond films and their adhesion on cemented carbides are strongly influenced by the catalytic effect of cobalt under typical deposition conditions.Decreasing Co content on the surface of the cemented carbide is often used for the diamond filmdeposition. But the leaching of Co from the WC-Co substrate leading to a mechanical weak surface often causes a poor adhesion. In this paper we adopted an implant copper layer preparedby vaporization to improve the mechanical properties of the Co-leached substrate. The diamondfilms were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition from CH4 :H2 gas mixture. Thecross section and the morphology of the diamond film were characterized by scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM). The non-diamond content in the film was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy.The effects of pretreatment on the concentrations of Co and Cu near the interfacial region wereexamined by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) equipped with SEM. The adhesion of the diamondon the substrate was evaluated with a Rockwell-type hardness tester. The results indicate that thediamond films prepared with implant copper layer have a good adhesion to the cemented carbidesubstrate due to the recovery of the mechanical properties of the Co-depleted substrate after thecopper implantation and the formation of less amorphous carbon between the substrate and thediamond film.

  12. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  13. Characterisation of sputter deposited niobium and boron interlayer in the copper-diamond system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, J; Chirtoc, M; Eisenmenger-Sittner, C; Hutter, H; Kornfeind, N; Kijamnajsuk, P; Kitzmantel, M; Neubauer, E; Zellhofer, K

    2012-09-15

    In most metal matrix composites (MMCs) interfaces are decisive but hard to manipulate. Especially copper-carbon composites can exhibit excellent mechanical and thermal properties only if the Cu/C interface is modified by an optimised interlayer. Due to the excellent thermal conductivity and mechanical stability of diamond this form of carbon is preferred as reinforcement in heat sink materials (copper-diamond composite) which are often subjected to severe thermal and mechanical loads. In the present case niobium and boron interlayers of various thicknesses were deposited on diamond and vitreous carbon substrates by magnetron sputter deposition. After the coverage of all samples by a copper film, a part of the samples was subjected to heat treatment for 30 min at 800 °C under high vacuum (HV) to simulate the thermal conditions during the production of the composite material by uniaxial hot pressing. De-wetting during heat treatment leads to the formation of holes or humps in the Cu coating. This effect was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A comparison of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS) profiles of heat treated samples with those of as deposited ones showed the influence of interdiffusion during the heating process. Diffusion behaviour and chemical composition of the interface were also studied by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (X-TEM) investigations using focused ion beam (FIB) cut samples. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) of the interface was calculated from results obtained from modulated infrared radiometry (IR). Thin interlayers suppressed de-wetting most effectively and consequently the TCR at the Cu-diamond interface was found to decrease. Therefore they are promising candidates for optimising the Cu-diamond interface.

  14. Potential Dependent Structural Changes of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Iodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by Surface EXAFS and Its Polarization Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-25

    of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Iodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by Surface EXAFS and Its Polarization Dependence G.M...fiCAtson) Potential Dependent Structural Changes of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on an Irodine Treated Platinum Surface Determined In Situ by...necessary and identify by block number) An in situ structural investigation of the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum

  15. Generation of porphyry copper deposits by gas-brine reaction in volcanic arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Mavrogenes, John; Tattitch, Brian; Sparks, Steve; Gilmer, Amy

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are characterised by a close spatial and temporal association with small, hypabyssal intrusions of silicic magmas in volcanic arcs. PCD formation requires elevated chlorine and water to concentrate copper in magmatic hypersaline liquids (or brines), and elevated sulphur to precipitate copper-rich sulphides. These twin requirements are hard to reconcile with experimental and petrological evidence that voluminous chlorine-rich, hydrous silicic magmas, of the variety favourable to copper enrichment, lack sufficient sulphur to precipitate directly the requisite quantities of sulphides. These features are, however, consistent with observations of active volcanic arcs whereby PCDs can be viewed as roots of dome volcanoes above shallow reservoirs where silicic magmas accumulate over long time spans. During protracted periods of dormancy metal-enriched dense brines accumulate in and above the silicic reservoir through slow, low-pressure degassing. Meanwhile cogenetic volatile-rich mafic magmas and their exsolved, sulphur and CO2-rich fluids accumulate in deeper reservoirs. Periodic destabilisation of these reservoirs leads to short-lived bursts of volcanism liberating sulphurous gases, which react with the shallow-stored brines to form copper-rich sulphides and acidic vapours. We test this hypothesis with a novel set of 'porphyry in a capsule' experiments designed to simulate low-pressure (1-2 kbar) interaction of basalt-derived, sulphur-rich gases with brine-saturated, copper-bearing, but sulphur-free, granite. Experiments were run at 720-850 ° C in cold-seal apparatus with basaltic andesite, loaded with H2O and S, situated below dacite, loaded with H2O, Cl and Cu. At run conditions both compositions are substantially degassed and crystallized. S-rich gas from the basaltic andesite ascends to react with Cu-rich brines exsolved from the dacite, Our experiments reveal the direct precipitation of copper-sulphide minerals, in vugs and veins

  16. Ion beam analysis of copper selenide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Zavala, E. P.; Huerta, L.; Rocha, M. F.

    2000-03-01

    Analyses of Rutherford back scattered (RBS) 4He+-particle spectra of copper selenide thin films deposited on glass slides by chemical bath were carried out to determine the changes brought about in the thin film by annealing processes. The atomic density per unit area and composition of the films were obtained from these measurements. This analysis shows that annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400°C leads to the conversion of Cu xSe thin film to Cu 2Se. Results of X-ray diffraction, optical, and electrical characteristics on the films are presented to supplement the RBS results.

  17. Fluid inclusion and isotope geochemistry of the Yangla copper deposit, Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yang, Long-Bo; Han, Si-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Huan

    2014-04-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, with Cu reserves of 1.2 Mt, is located between a series of thrust faults in the Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region, Yunnan, China, and has been mined since 2007. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions ranged from 1.32 to 2.10 kbar at 373-409 °C. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapour phase in these inclusions consists of CO2, CH4, N2 and H2O. The gas phases in the inclusions are H2O and CO2, with minor amounts of N2, O2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. Within the liquid phase, the main cations are Ca2+ and Na+ while the main anions are SO4 2- and Cl-. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of the ore-forming fluids (-3.05‰ ≤ δ18OH2O ≤ 2.5‰; -100‰ ≤ δD ≤ -120‰) indicate that they were derived from magma and evolved by mixing with local meteoric water. The δ34S values of sulfides range from -4.20‰ to 1.85‰(average on -0.85‰), supporting a magmatic origin. Five molybdenite samples taken from the copper deposit yield a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 232.8 ± 2.4 Ma. Given that the Yangla granodiorite formed between 235.6 ± 1.2 Ma and 234.1 ± 1.2 Ma, the Cu metallogenesis is slightly younger than the crystallization age of the parent magma. A tectonic model that combines hydrothermal fluid flow and isotope compositions is proposed to explain the formation of the Yangla copper deposit. At first, westward subduction of the Jinshajiang Oceanic Plate in the Early Permian resulted in the development of a series of thrust faults. This was accompanied by fractional melting beneath the overriding plate, triggering magma ascent and extensive volcanism. The thrust faults, which were then placed under tension during a change in tectonic mode from compression to extension in the Late Triassic, formed favorable pathways for the magmatic ore-forming fluids. These fluids precipitated copper-sulfides to form the Yangla deposit.

  18. Uplift and submarine formation of some Melanesian porphyry copper deposits: Stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivas, A.R.; O'Neil, J.R.; Katchan, G.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of sericites and kaolinites from four young porphyry copper deposits (Ok Tedi (1.2 Ma) and Yandera (6.5 Ma), Papua New Guinea; Koloula (1.5 Ma), Solomon Islands; and Waisoi (ocean water. For Ok Tedi, the non-magmatic component was a meteoric water with an isotopic composition different from that of the present meteoric water in the region. The isotopic signature of the former meteoric water is consistent with a surface elevation of 200 m a.s.l. or less at the time of mineralization. The deposit was later exposed and supergene kaolinitization commenced at approximately 1200 m a.s.l. Uplift and erosion has continued to the present at which time the elevation of the exposed deposit is 1800 m a.s.l. This rate of uplift is consistent with that known from other geological evidence. If the rate of uplift were approximately constant during the last 1.2 Ma, the age of supergene enrichment can be dated at approximately 0.4 Ma B.P. Similarly, influx of meteoric water at Yandera occurred when the ground surface above the deposit was at an elevation of approximately 600 m a.s.l. The deposit's present elevation is 1600 m a.s.l. In this case a total uplift of approximately 2.2 km is indicated, with removal of 1.2 km of overburden by erosion. ?? 1984.

  19. Geology, Geochemistry and Minerogenesis of the Shijuligou Zinc-Copper Deposit in Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenyuan; DENG Jun; GAO Yongbao; GUO Zhouping; ZHANG Zhaowei; SONG Zhongbao

    2009-01-01

    The Shijuligou deposit was separated by an arcuate ductile shear zone cross the center of the deposit region, resulting in the difference between the southern and northern ore bodies. The lead (Pb) isotopic data of ores of the Shijuligou copper deposit have averages of ~(206)Pb/~(204)Pb, ~(207)Pb/~(204)Pb, and ~(208)Pb/~(204)Pb in 17.634, 15.444, and 37.312, respectively. It has been shown that ore-forming metals originated from intrusive and extrusive rocks in the upper part of ophiolites. The sulfur isotopic data of pyrite and chalcopyrite in the northern part change from +7.61‰ to +8.09‰ and +4.95‰ to +8.88‰ in the southern part. Isotopes of δ~(18)O in the Shijuligou copper deposit are between +11.1‰ and +18.6‰, with the calculated δ~(18)O_(H_2O) at +0.65‰. It is suggested that the mineralized fluid is a mixture of magma fluid, meteorological water, and seawater through circulating and leaching metals from the volcanic rocks. The zircon uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of gabbro is 457.9±1.2 Ma, and the lower crossing age of the discordant and concordia curves of pyroxene spilite of zircon is 454±15 Ma. It is indicated that the Shijuligou deposit formed in a new ocean crust (ophiolite) of the back-arc basin in the late Ordovician. Mineralization should occur in the intermittence period after strong volcanic activity, and the age should be the late Ordovician. Moreover, the mineralization of ophiolite-hosted massive sulfide deposits in the ancient orogenic belt of the late Ordovician in the northern Qilian Mountains was controlled by the primary fault/fracture, with the forming of a metallogenic hydrothermai system by a mixture of volcanic magma fluid and seawater, which circularly leached the metaliogenic metals from the volcanic rocks, resulting in their accumulation. The ore bodies were transformed with morphology and metallogeuic elements. Jasperoid is an important sign for prospecting such deposits. There were many island arcs in the continent of

  20. Electrochemical Deposition of Niobium onto the Surface of Copper Using a Novel Choline Chloride-Based Ionic Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wixtroma, Alex I. [Christopher Newport U.; Buhlera, Jessica E. [Christopher Newport U.; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M. [Christopher Newport U.

    2013-06-01

    Recent research has shown that choline chloride-based solutions can be used to replace acid-based electrochemical polishing solutions. In this study niobium metal was successfully deposited on the surface of copper substrate via electrochemical deposition using a novel choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The niobium metal used for deposition on the Cu had been dissolved in the solution from electrochemical polishing of a solid niobium piece prior to the deposition. The visible coating on the surface of the Cu was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This deposition method effectively recycles previously dissolved niobium from electrochemical polishing.

  1. Bath Parameter Dependence of Chemically-Deposited Copper Selenide Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin films (0.2-0.6 μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that complexing the Cu2+ ions with TEA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe.

  2. Effect of post deposition annealing on the performance of copper phthalocyanine based organic thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, N.; Sawant, Shilpa N.; Sen, Shaswati; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-02-01

    The electrical performance of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) based OFETs on SiO2 dielectric was studied with and without post deposition annealing of CuPc films. Field effect mobility of holes and the drain current modulation (Ion/Ioff) was found to increase by one order for devices with annealed films as compared to that with as deposited film. This is attributed to well connected grains and increased crystallinity of CuPc film. Subthreshold slope (SS) was found to be reducing with increase in annealing temperature and was minimum for the device with CuPc film annealed at 225 °C, implying lesser traps affecting the mobility of charge carriers.

  3. The mass balance calculation of hydrothermal alteration in Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit is located 65 km southwest of Rafsanjan in Kerman province. The Sarcheshmeh deposit belongs to the southeastern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage (i.e., Dehaj-Sarduyeh zone. Intrusion of Sarcheshmeh granodiorite stock in faulted and thrusted early-Tertiary volcano-sedimentary deposits, led to mineralization in Miocene. In this research, the mass changes and element mobilities during hydrothermal process of potassic alteration were studied relative to fresh rock from the deeper parts of the plutonic body, phyllic relative to potassic, argillic relative to phyllic and propylitic alteration relative to fresh andesites surrounding the deposit. In the potassic zone, enrichment in Fe2O3 and K2O is so clear, because of increasing Fe coming from biotite alteration and presence of K-feldspar, respectively. Copper and molybdenum enrichments resulted from presence of chalcopyrite, bornite and molybdenite mineralization in this zone. Enrichment of SiO2 and depletion of CaO, MgO, Na2O and K2O in the phyllic zone resulted from leaching of sodium, calcium and magnesium from the aluminosilicate rocks and alteration of K-feldspar to sericite and quartz. In the argillic zone, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O and MnO have also been enriched in which increasing Al2O3 may be from kaolinite and illite formation. Also, enrichment in SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO in propylitic alteration zone can be attributed to the formation of chlorite, epidote and calcite as indicative minerals of this zone.

  4. Evidence of North Africa's green revolution preserved in sedimentary organic matter deposited in three coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczkowski, Autumn J; Flower, Roger J; Thompson, Julian R; Ayache, Fethi; Ahmed, Mahmoud H; Ramdani, Mohamed; Turner, Simon

    2011-07-01

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the deposition and accumulation of organic matter (OM). Sediment cores were retrieved from three North African lagoons to provide records of recent environmental changes. We measured percentage nitrogen (%N), nitrogen stable isotope values (delta15N), and percentage organic matter (%OM), and we used radiometric dating techniques (210Pb, 137Cs) to examine the evidence for the intensification of upstream agricultural practices in sediment cores from Lake Manzala (Egypt), Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia), and Lagune de Nador (Morocco). With the exception of one core collected near a sewage outfall, sediments from Lake Manzala clearly reflected the impact of agricultural intensification following completion of the Aswan High Dam and delta barrages in the mid-1960s to early 1970s. Both %N and %OM more than doubled in three Manzala sediment cores, and delta15N values declined from 5 per thousand to Lagune de Nador receives relatively little agricultural drainage water, and core data did not show the same trends as Manzala and Ghar El Melh. Overall, the sediment core data from these systems reflect environmental shifts in the quantity, quality, and isotope signature of the deposited organic matter and confirm the concerns of local scientists and environmental managers that eutrophication has had dramatic impacts on the coastal ecosystems, particularly at the Egyptian and Tunisian sites.

  5. Evidence for Metallogenic Geochemistry of Volcano-Hot Spring Deposition in Xiqiu Copper deposit,Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There were strong volcanic and hot spring activities in Late proterozic in the Xiqiu mining district,Zhejiang province,The volcanic rocks and hydrothermal sedimentary cherts have high contents of the major metallogenic elements,Their atomic percentage of Cu:Zn:Pb is similar very much between volcanic rock,hydrothermal sedimentary chert and ore.Therefore,the metallization has a direct bearing on the volcanic and hot spring activities in the Xiqiu area.The δ34S values vary from -6.5‰to 2.8‰,the δ30Si Values from-0.2‰ to 0.6‰,and the δ18O Values from 8.14‰ to 22.32‰,Lead isotopes were derived mainly from the lower crust.The ores have high contents of As,Sb,Bi,Ga,Zn,and Ba,and low Al/(Al+Fe+Mn)ratios,with Zn/(Zn+Pb)ratios approximate to unity,Therefore,the Xiqiu massive copper sulfide deposit can be ascribed to volcano-hot spring deposition.

  6. Characteristics and evolution of ore-forming fluids of the Chongjiang copper deposit in the Gangdise porphyry copper belt, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Guangming Li; Zhiming Yang; Longsheng Yi

    2007-01-01

    Petrography, microthermometry, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) studies were performed on the fluid inclusions in the ore-bearing quartz veins and quartz phenocrysts in the porphyry of the Chongjiang porphyry copper deposit. The analyses of the fluid inclusions indicate that the ore-forming fluids were exsolved from magma. They are near-saturated, supercritical, rich in volatile constituents, and have the capture temperature of 362-389°C and salinities of 17.7wt%-18.9wt% NaCl eq. With the decreasing of temperature and pressure, the supercritical fluids were separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. During quartz-sericitization, the high salinity fluid boiled and separated into a low salinity vapor phase and a high salinity liquid phase. The high salinity inclusions that formed in the boiling process had daughter mineral melting temperatures higher than the homogenization temperatures of the vapor and liquid phases. The late fluids that are responsible for argillization are of lower temperature and salinity.

  7. Femtosecond to nanosecond excited state dynamics of vapor deposited copper phthalocyanine thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplins, Benjamin W; Mullenbach, Tyler K; Holmes, Russell J; Blank, David A

    2016-04-28

    Vapor deposited thin films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) were investigated using transient absorption spectroscopy. Exciton-exciton annihilation dominated the kinetics at high exciton densities. When annihilation was minimized, the observed lifetime was measured to be 8.6 ± 0.6 ns, which is over an order of magnitude longer than previous reports. In comparison with metal free phthalocyanine (H2Pc), the data show evidence that the presence of copper induces an ultrafast relaxation process taking place on the ca. 500 fs timescale. By comparison to recent time-resolved photoemission studies, this is assigned as ultrafast intersystem crossing. As the intersystem crossing occurs ca. 10(4) times faster than lifetime decay, it is likely that triplets are the dominant excitons in vapor deposited CuPc films. The exciton lifetime of CuPc thin films is ca. 35 times longer than H2Pc thin films, while the diffusion lengths reported in the literature are typically quite similar for the two materials. These findings suggest that despite appearing to be similar materials at first glance, CuPc and H2Pc may transport energy in dramatically different ways. This has important implications on the design and mechanistic understanding of devices where phthalocyanines are used as an excitonic material.

  8. Thermal chemistry of copper acetamidinate atomic layer deposition precursors on silicon oxide surfaces studied by XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yunxi; Zaera, Francisco, E-mail: zaera@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The thermal surface chemistry of copper(I)-N,N′-di-sec-butylacetamidinate, [Cu({sup s}Bu-amd)]{sub 2}, a metalorganic complex recently proposed for the chemical-based deposition of copper films, has been characterized on SiO{sub 2} films under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Initial adsorption at cryogenic temperatures results in the oxidation of the copper centers with Cu 2p{sub 3/2} XPS binding energies close to those seen for a +2 oxidation state, an observation that the authors interpret as the result of the additional coordination of oxygen atoms from the surface to the Cu atoms of the molecular acetamidinate dimer. Either heating to 300 K or dosing the precursor directly at that temperature leads to the loss of one of its two ligands, presumably via hydrogenation/protonation with a hydrogen/proton from a silanol group, or following a similar reaction on a defect site. By approximately 500 K the Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, C 1s, and N 1s XPS data suggest that the remaining acetamidinate ligand is displaced from the copper center and bonds to the silicon oxide directly, after which temperatures above 900 K need to be reached to promote further (and only partial) decomposition of those organic moieties. It was also shown that the uptake of the Cu precursor is self-limiting at either 300 or 500 K, although the initial chemistry is somewhat different at the two temperatures, and that the nature of the substrate also defines reactivity, with the thin native silicon oxide layer always present on Si(100) surfaces being less reactive than thicker films grown by evaporation, presumably because of the lower density of surface nucleation sites.

  9. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Engelbrecht

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse and PM2. 5 (fine particle size fractions in the dust deposits.X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from

  10. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  11. Middle to Late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Eivissa (Western Mediterranean): Chronology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle, Laura; Pomar, Francisco; Fornós, Joan J.; Gómez-Pujol, Lluís; Anechitei-Deacu, Valentina; Timar-Gabor, Alida

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the sedimentary and stratigraphical description of Pleistocene deposits from seven coastal areas of Eivissa (Balearic Islands). Twenty two sedimentary facies have been described involving the succession of eolian, colluvial and edaphic environments. Carbonate sandstones, breccias and silty deposits are the main component of these sequences. Despite the extensive eolian systems outcropping along the coast of Eivissa, there are very few studies performed to chronological framework of these deposits. Luminescence measurements were carried out using an automated RisØ TL/OSL-DA-20 reader in the Luminescence Dating Laboratory of Babes-Bolyai University (Cluj-Napoca, Romania) under low intensity red light. OSL dating of nineteen eolian levels indicate that their deposition took place between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, establishing a paleoclimatic evolution of Eivissa Island since 755 ka to 70 Ka. Eolian activity in the Eivissa Island can be correlated with regression episodes which took place during cold periods associated with different isotopic stages, concretely the MIS 18, 16, 12, 10, 8, 6 and 4. Similar results have been obtained from many sites along the western Mediterranean Sea such as Mallorca (Pomar i Cuerda, 1979; Nielsen et al, 2004; Fornós et al, 2009), Sardinia (Andreucci et al, 2009; Pascucci et al, 2014), Liguria (Pappalardo et al., 2013). Keywords: Eolian dunes, Pleistocene, Climatic evolution, Eivissa. References - Andreucci, S.; Pascucci, V.; Murray, A. S.; Clemmensen, L. B. 2009. Late Pleistocene coastal evolution of San Giovanni di Sinis, west Sardinia (Western Mediterranean). Sedimentary Geology, 216: 104- 116 - Fornós, J.J.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Murray, A. 2009. Late Pleistocene carbonate aeolianites on Mallorca, Western Mediterranean: a luminescence chronology. Quaternary Science reviews 28: 2697-2709. -Nielsen, K.A.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Fornós, J.J. 2004. Middle Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy and

  12. Influence of different deposition potential on the structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Kaur, Jaskiran; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, nanowires were successfully fabricated from the aqueous solution containing 0.2 M/l CuSO4.5H2O, 0.1 M/l SeO2, 1 g/l PVP and a few drops of H2SO4 in Milli-Q water using electrodeposition technique at room temperature. Influence of different deposition potential on structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires has been investigated here. Morphological, structural and optical properties were monitored through field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible 1800 spectrophotometer. From the XRD analysis, it was found that the stoichiometric (CuSe) nanowires are formed at deposition potential (-0.6 V) and (+0.6 V). Band gap of nanowires were found to be maximum around 3.13 eV for deposition potential (-0.8 V) and minimum of 2.81 eV for deposition potential (-0.6 V).

  13. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  14. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY STUDIES OF COPPER (II AND TELLURIUM (IV IONS IN ACIDIC AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS FOR THIN FILM DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAVANAN NAGALINGAM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic voltammetry studies of copper (II and tellurium (IV ions in acidic aqueous solutions were carried out to determine the optimum condition for copper telluride thin film deposition. The voltammetry studies include reversible scans at different solution pH. Based on the voltammogram, suitable deposition conditions was determined to be in the range of -0.35 V to -0.45 V versus Ag/AgCl at pH values between 2.0 to 2.2 under non diffusion-limited conditions.

  15. Deposit Types and Geological Characteristics of the Copper Deposits in Zambia%赞比亚铜矿床类型及地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道俊; 冷莹莹

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is one of the most famous copper production places in the world.The copper ore deposits in Zambia include stratabound,sedimentary,metamorphosed-deformation and hydrothermal types,and are dominated by the sedimentary type.Statistics indicate that the sedimentary copper ore resources account for 79% of the whole resources in Zambia.All kinds of the copper ore deposits are controlled by the Luflian arc.The stratabound copper deposits are mainly discovered in the perifornical region,and the ore-bearing rock serious are the Muva megagroup biotite schist and around the anticlines and two-mica quartz schist.The sedimentary copper deposits are mainly distributed around anticlines and the peripheral dome,and the ore-bearing rock series are the lower Katanga megagroup sandstone-shale beds.%赞比亚是世界著名的铜产地之一,其铜矿类型可分为层控型、沉积型、变质改造型及热液型,以沉积型为主.据现有大中型矿床铜资源量统计,沉积型矿产铜资源量占赞比亚铜总资源量的79%.各类型铜矿床总体受卢弗里安(Luflian)弧控制,层控型铜矿主要分布在穹窿核部边缘,含矿岩系为莫瓦(Muva)超群的黑云母片岩、二云石英片岩;沉积型铜矿主要分布在背斜或穹窿外缘周围,含矿岩系主要是加丹加(Katanga)超群下部的砂页岩层.

  16. Plasma Deposition and Characterization of Copper-doped Cobalt Oxide Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek TYCZKOWSKI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of pure and copper-doped cobalt oxide films was prepared by plasma-enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PEMOCVD. The effect of Cu-doping on the chemical structure and morphology of the deposited films was investigated. Raman and FTIR spectroscopies were used to characterize the chemical structure and morphology of the produced films. The bulk composition and homogeneity of the samples were investigated by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was employed to assess the surface chemical composition of pure and doped materials. The obtained results permit to affirm that the PEMOCVD technique is a simple, versatile and efficient method for providing homogeneous layers of cobalt oxides with a different content of copper. It has been found that pure cobalt oxide films mainly contain Co3O4 in the form of nanoclusters whereas the films doped with Cu are much more complex, and CoOx (also Co3O4, mixed Co-Cu oxides and CuOx nanoclusters are detected in them. Preliminary catalytical tests show that Cu-doped cobalt oxide films allow to initiate catalytic combustion of n-hexane at a lower temperature compared to the pure cobalt oxide (Co3O4 films. From what has been stated above, the plasma-deposited thin films of Cu-doped cobalt oxides pave the way towards a new class of nanomaterials with interesting catalytic properties. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.3.2320

  17. Wet and dry atmospheric depositions of inorganic nitrogen during plant growing season in the coastal zone of Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbao; Ning, Kai; Li, Yunzhao; Du, Siyao; Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Wu, Huifeng; Wang, Guangmei; Gao, Yongjun

    2014-01-01

    The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO4 (2-) and Na(+) were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m(-2), in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3 (-)-N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4 (+)-N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N in 0-10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  18. Assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits of the Kodar-Udokan area, Russia: Chapter M in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Chechetkin, Vladimir S.; Parks, Heather L.; Box, Stephen E.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Cossette, Pamela M.; Dolgopolova, Alla; Hayes, Timothy S.; Seltmann, Reimar; Syusyura, Boris; Taylor, Cliff D.; Wintzer, Niki E.

    2014-01-01

    Mineral resource assessments integrate and synthesize available information as a basis for estimating the location, quality, and quantity of undiscovered mineral resources. This probabilistic mineral resource assessment of undiscovered sandstone copper deposits within Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Kodar-Udokan area in Russia is a contribution to a global assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The purposes of this study are to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) to indicate where undiscovered sandstone-hosted copper deposits may occur within 2 km of the surface, (2) provide a database of known sandstone copper deposits and significant prospects, (3) estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within these permissive tracts at several levels of confidence, and (4) provide probabilistic estimates of amounts of copper (Cu) and mineralized rock that could be contained in undiscovered deposits within each tract. The workshop for the assessment, held in October 2009, used a three-part form of mineral resource assessment as described by Singer (1993) and Singer and Menzie (2010).

  19. Mineralogy of Copper-Gold Deposit, Masjid Daghi Area, Jolfa, IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoozi, Roya

    2010-05-01

    The Copper-Gold deposit of Masjid Daghi area is located in the Jolfa quadrangle (scale 1:100,000), East Azerbaijan Province, north-west Iran. The deposit, hosting by sub-volcanic bodies comprise of quartz monzonite composition whose intruded the Tertiary volcanic and volcanic-sedimentary rocks and turbidities. The Tertiary volcanic rocks consist of andesite, trachy andesite and quartz andesite. These mineral-bearing bodies related to Late Eocene sub-volcanic activities which intrudded the Eocene volcanic rocks. Mineralography, XRD and SEM studies showed that the variations in mineralization of the area. The main agent of mineralization is the intrusion of Late Eocene sub volcanic bodies inside the Tertiary volcanic units. The mineralography studies revealed two main groups of mineralization as oxides and sulfides. The sulfide minerals formed as veins, vein lets and stock work.The economic minerals comprise of native gold, copper sulfides. The native gold occurring in siliceous veins and almost as inclusions inside the sulfides minerals such as chalcopyrite. The copper sulfides, contain pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalco-pyrrhoyite. Pyrite is main sulfide in the area and formed as disseminations, cavity filling and colloform. The amount of pyrite, chalcopyrite and chalco-pyrrhoyite increases with depth. Supergene alteration produced digenite, covellite, bornite, and malachite. The alteration occurred as potassic, phyllic, argillic and propylitic minerals. Furthermore, selective sercitic, sericitic-chloritic and alunitic alterations are seen around the mineralized veins. The mineralography studies indicate that pyrite is main mineral phase and native gold occurred in silicious vein almost as inclusions inside the sulfide mineral. Most of economic mineral formed as veins, vein lets, disseminated, cavity filling and colloform which related to intrusions of Late Eocene quartz monzonite bodies into the Eocene volcanic rocks and turbiditse. Some types of alterations such as

  20. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3

  1. Influence of pulse ratio on codeposition of copper species with calcium phosphate coatings on titanium by means of electrochemically assisted deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Brandstetter, Cornelia; Oswald, Steffen; Bierbaum, Susanne; Wiesmann, Hans-Peter; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study was to combine the well-known biocompatibility and ostoeconductivity of thin calcium phosphate coatings on titanium with proangiogenic signals from codeposited copper species. Copper species could be integrated in mineral layers based on hydroxyapatite by means of electrochemically assisted deposition from electrolytes containing calcium, phosphate, and copper ions. Different combinations of duration and intensity of galvanostatic pulses result in different amounts of deposited calcium phosphate and of copper species even for the same applied total charge. Absolute amounts of copper varied between 2.1 and 6.9 μg/cm², and the copper was distributed homogeneously as shown by EDX mapping. The presence of copper did not change the crystalline phase of deposited calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) but provoked a significant decrease in deposited amounts by factor 3 to 4. The copper was deposited mainly as Cu(I) species with a minor fraction of basic copper phosphates. Reduction of copper occurred not only at the surface of titanium but also within the hydroxyapatite coating due to the reaction with hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water during the cathodic polarization of the substrate.

  2. 斑岩铜矿床研究进展%Review of Porphyry Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云国; 周朝宪

    2011-01-01

    斑岩铜矿不但形成于环太平洋成矿域,还形成于特提斯成矿域和中亚成矿域(古亚洲洋成矿域)。成矿物质来源于深部,经过“洋壳一地幔熔岩流”、“原始岩浆”、“浅部富矿岩浆”和“岩浆结晶一成矿”4个阶段,其中在“原始弧岩浆”阶段,通过MASH过程,有大量成矿物质和能量的聚集。成矿流体为富H2O、高温、高压、高盐度、强氧化性、高氧逸度的富矿气液相流体,这些特点有利于成矿物质在岩浆一热液分离过程中向流体富集,并以氯络合物的形式运移。随着成矿流体的上侵,温度和压力的降低是成矿物质沉淀的主要影响因素。磁铁矿的结晶为成矿流体提供了大量的S2-离子,也是导致成矿物质沉淀的主要因素。斑岩型蚀变带从里向外为石英内核、钾化带、SCC带和泥化带,铜矿化主要发育在矿化带外围以及SCC带。目前,斑岩铜矿成矿模型主要有经典模型、系统模型和多阶段叠加模型。%Porphyry copper deposit as the largest source of Cu is one of the most important deposits in the world. Porphyry Copper Deposit not only occured in Circum-Pacific ore-forming region, but also oceured in Tethys ore-forming region and Middle-Asian(Paleo-Asian Oceanic) ore-forming region. The mineralization materials de- rived from the deep. Porphyry forms through four stages: "Oceanic Crust-Mantle Lava Flow"," Original Magma", "Shallow Ore Magma"," Crystallization of Magma-Minerali- zation". In the stage of "Original Magma", much met- allogenic materials and energy gather through the process of "MASH". Ore-forming fluids are high-grade fliuds of gas-liquid phase, which are of fluid-rich, high temperature, high pressure, high salinity, strong oxidizing, high ox- ygen fugacity. The characteristics of ore-torming fluids are favorable tbr metallogenic materials to gather from mag- mas to fluids in the

  3. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  4. Uniformly Distributed Graphene Domain Grows on Standing Copper via Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hao Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniformly distributed graphene domains were synthesized on standing copper foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. This method improved the distribution of the graphene domains at different positions on the same piece of copper foil along the forward direction of the gas flow. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed the average size of the graphene domains to be about ~20 m. This results show that the sheet resistance of monolayer graphene on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate is about ~359 /□ whereas that of the four-layer graphene films is about ~178 /□, with a transmittance value of 88.86% at the 550 nm wavelength. Furthermore, the sheet resistance can be reduced with the addition of HNO3 resulting in a value of 84 /□. These values meet the absolute standard for touch sensor applications, so we believe that this method can be a candidate for some transparent conductive electrode applications.

  5. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  6. The deposition characteristics of copper(I) compounds for CVD by FT-IR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardcastle, F.D.; Peden, C.H.F.; Omstead, T.R.; Blewer, R.S. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Farkas, J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to investigate the adsorption and thermally-induced decomposition of copper (I) {beta}-diketonate precursors of the type (hfac)CuL, where hfac is the hexafluoroacetylacetonate bidentate ligand and L is trimethylphosphine or 1,5-cyclooctadiene. The (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} precursor desorbs from the surface at very low temperatures whereas the (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD) dissociates on adsorption, liberating 1,5-COD and leaving a surface(hfac)Cu complex which can subsequently disproportionate. Evidence is provided for hydrogen-bonding between the hfac ligand and the surface silanols for (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3}, but not for (hfac)Cu(1,5-COD). These results are consistent with the selective behavior of these precursors for copper deposition and suggest that the selectivity of the (hfac)CuPMe{sub 3} and (hfac)Cu(1, 5-COD) precursors may be due to the ability of the hfac ligand to hydrogen bond to the surface silanol groups.

  7. Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Deposited Copper Sulphide Thin Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Firat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline copper sulphide (CuxS thin films were grown by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using aqueous solutions of copper chloride and thiourea without any complexing agent at various substrate temperatures of 240, 280, and 320°C. The films were characterized for their structural, optical, and electrical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX, atomic force microscopy (AFM, contact angle (CA, optical absorption, and current-voltage (I-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the films had single or mixed phase polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal covellite and cubic digenite structure. The crystalline phase of the films changed depending on the substrate temperature. The optical band gaps (Eg of thin films were 2.07 eV (CuS, 2.50 eV (Cu1.765S, and 2.28 eV (Cu1.765S–Cu2S. AFM results indicated that the films had spherical nanosized particles well adhered to the substrate. Contact angle measurements showed that the thin films had hydrophobic nature. Hall effect measurements of all the deposited CuxS thin films demonstrated them to be of p-type conductivity, and the current-voltage (I-V dark curves exhibited linear variation.

  8. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Chau; Khanh, Phon Le; Jodłowski, Paweł; Pieczonka, Jadwiga; Piestrzyński, Adam; Van, Hao Duong; Nowak, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  9. Natural Radioactivity at the Sin Quyen Iron-Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit in North Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Chau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The field radiometric and laboratory measurements were performed at the Sin Quyen copper deposit in North Vietnam. The field gamma-ray spectrometry indicated the concentration of uranium ranging from 5.5 to 87 ppm, thorium from 5.6 to 33.2 ppm, and potassium from 0.3 to 4.7%. The measured dose rates ranged from 115 to 582 nGy/h, the highest doses being at the copper ore. Concentrations in the solid samples were in the range of 20-1700 Bq/kg for uranium, 20-92.7 Bq/kg for thorium, and 7-1345 Bq/kg for potassium. The calculated doses were from 22 to 896 nGy/h; both measured and calculated dose rates are mostly related to uranium. Concentrations of radium in water samples were below 0. 17 Bq/L. Uranium in water samples was significantly higher than the hydrogeological background; the maximum of 13 Bq/L was at the waste zone pool, but neither radium nor uranium were present in tap water. Radon concentration in the dwelling air was from 42 to 278 Bq/m3 for 222Rn and from 8 to 193 Bq/m3 for 220Rn. The estimated committed dose rates were principally related to 222Rn concentration and ranged from 1.1 to 8.1 mSv/y.

  10. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-02-10

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  11. [Leaching of copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit at low temperatures by an association of acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, T F; Pivovarova, T A; Krylova, L N; Melamud, V S; Adamov, E V; Karavaĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    Pure cultures of indigenous microorganisms Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain TFUd, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans strain LUd, and Sulfobacillus thermotolerans strain SUd have been isolated from the oxidation zone of sulfide copper ore of the Udokanskoe deposit. Regimes of bacterial-chemical leaching of ore have been studied over a temperature range from -10 to +20 degrees C. Effects of pH, temperature, and the presence of microorganisms on the extraction of copper have been shown. Bacterial leaching has been detected only at positive values of temperature, and has been much more active at +20 than at +4 degrees C. The process of leaching was more active when the ore contained more hydrophilic and oxidized minerals. The possibility of copper ore leaching of the Udokanskoe deposit using sulfuric acid with pH 0.4 at negative values of temperature and applying acidophilic chemolithotrophic microorganisms at positive values of temperature and low pH values was shown.

  12. Direct Deposition of Bamboo-Like Carbon Nanotubes on Copper Substrates by Sulfur-Assisted HFCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Katar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Films of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (BCNTs were grown directly on copper substrates by sulfur-assisted hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD. The effects of substrate temperature and growth time over the BCNT structure were investigated. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Raman spectroscopy (RS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electron field emission (EFE studies. SEM and Raman characterization indicate a transition from the growth of microcrystalline diamond to the growth of a dense entangled network of carbon nanotubes or fibers as the substrate temperature is increased from 400 to 900°C that is accounted for by the base growth model. TEM images show that the nanotubes have regular arrays of nanocavities. These BCNTs show good electron field emission properties as other carbon films.

  13. Cubic Copper Hexacyanoferrates Nanoparticles: Facile Template-Free Deposition and Electrocatalytic Sensing Towards Hydrazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF nanoparticles prepared via electrolytic deposition are presented with their morphology and crystalline structure characterized with SEM and XRD. The advantage of this methodology is that it allows the fabrication of uniform cubic nanoparticles with permeable structures onto the desired underlying electrode substrate. It was observed that the CuHCF film acts as a permeable membrane for cations such as K+, Na+, Li+, and NH4+ with a selection order of K+> Li+>NH4+> Na+. Furthermore, the analytical utility of these cubic-like CuHCF morphologies supported on a glassy carbon electrode was evaluated towards the electrochemical oxidation of hydrazine which was found to exhibit a linear response over the range 66 M to 17 mM with a detection limit corresponding to 16.5 M.

  14. Characteristics of copper meshes coated with carbon nanotubes via electrophoretic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jong-Seol; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the characteristics of a hybrid-type transparent electrode for touch screen panels, which was fabricated by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on copper (Cu)-meshes. The surface morphologies, visible-range transmittance and reflectance, and chromatic properties, such as yellowness and redness, of the fabricated CNTs-coated Cu mesh electrodes were characterized as functions of their dimensions (line-to-line spacing, line width, and electrode thickness) and compared with those of the Cu-mesh electrodes without coating of CNTs. The experimental results showed that the coating of CNTs substantially reduced the reflectance of the Cu-mesh electrodes and also improved their chromatic properties with their transmittance and sheet resistance only slightly changed, subsequently indicating that the CNTs-coated Cu-mesh electrodes possessed desirable characteristics for touch screen panels.

  15. Ultrahigh-mobility graphene devices from chemical vapor deposition on reusable copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banszerus, Luca; Schmitz, Michael; Engels, Stephan; Dauber, Jan; Oellers, Martin; Haupt, Federica; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Beschoten, Bernd; Stampfer, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Graphene research has prospered impressively in the past few years, and promising applications such as high-frequency transistors, magnetic field sensors, and flexible optoelectronics are just waiting for a scalable and cost-efficient fabrication technology to produce high-mobility graphene. Although significant progress has been made in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and epitaxial growth of graphene, the carrier mobility obtained with these techniques is still significantly lower than what is achieved using exfoliated graphene. We show that the quality of CVD-grown graphene depends critically on the used transfer process, and we report on an advanced transfer technique that allows both reusing the copper substrate of the CVD growth and making devices with mobilities as high as 350,000 cm2 V–1 s–1, thus rivaling exfoliated graphene. PMID:26601221

  16. Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium and Copper Composite Coatings Deposited by LPCS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnicki M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of microstructure and corrosion resistance of composite coatings (Al+Al2O3 and Cu+Al2O3 deposited by Low Pressure Cold Spraying method (LPCS. The atmospheric corrosion resistance was examined by subjecting the samples to cyclic salt spray and Kesternich test chambers, with NaCl and SO2 atmospheres, respectively. The selected tests allowed reflecting the actual working conditions of the coatings. The analysis showed very satisfactory results for copper coatings. After eighteen cycles, with a total time of 432 hours, the samples show little signs of corrosion. Due to their greater susceptibility to chloride ions, aluminium coatings have significant corrosion losses.

  17. Fabrication of copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods within SBA-15 by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods grown in channels of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by chemical vapor deposition method has been synthesized. The morphology and microstructure of the resulting product were characterized by XRD patters, TEM images, EDS analysis and Raman spectra. The XRD and TEM revealed that the Cu3N phase was confined in channels of SBA-15 forming continuous nanowires with 6 nm around and hundreds of nanometers in length. Raman spectra of the final product and pure Cu3N showed peaks shift due to the quantum confinement effect of the nanowires. This preparation methodology only requires a mild working condition and is capable of template synthesis of other binary nitride nanostructures with controlled morphology inside the channels of mesoporous materials.

  18. Heavy metal deposition fluxes affecting an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío

    2013-10-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of industrial emissions and harbour activities on total atmospheric deposition in an Atlantic coastal area in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Three large industrial estates and a busy harbour have a notable influence on air quality in the city of Huelva and the surrounding area. The study is based on a geochemical characterization of trace elements deposited (soluble and insoluble fractions) in samples collected at a rate of 15 days/sample from June 2008 to May 2011 in three sampling sites, one in the principal industrial belt, another in the city of Huelva, and the last, 56 km outside Huelva city in an area of high ecological interest. The industrial emissions emitted by the Huelva industrial belt exert a notable influence on atmospheric deposition. Major deposition fluxes were registered for Fe, Cu, V, Ni, P, Pb, As, Sn, Sb, Se and Bi, principally in the insoluble fraction, derived from industrial funnel emissions and from harbour activities. Metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn, and elements such as P also have a significant presence in the soluble fraction converting them into potentially bio-available nutrients for the living organism in the ocean. A principal component analysis certifies three common emissions sources in the area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals mixed with certain anthropogenic species (Mg, K, Sr, Na, Al, Ba, LREE, Li, Mn, HREE, Ti, Fe, Se, V, SO-, Ni, Ca and P); 2) an industrial factor composed of the same trace elements in the three areas (Sb, Mo, Bi, As, Pb, Sn and Cd) thus confirming the impact of the emissions from the Huelva industrial belt on remote areas; and 3) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg and SO.

  19. Salt-marsh areas as copper complexing ligand sources to estuarine and coastal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Caetano, Miguel; Laglera, Luis M; Vale, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved copper levels, copper complexing capacities and conditional stability constants have been determined in the Tagus estuarine waters and one of the saltmarshes located in this estuary, the Rosario saltmarsh. Tagus estuarine waters show a constant and around 20 nM copper concentration during the estuarine mixing. Most of this copper is organically complexed by a strong ligand (L(1)) with a concentration that varies between 19 and 55 nM and a log K' between 14.14 and 15.75. In addition L(1)/Cu ratios are quite constants and close to 1 all through the estuary, indicating the same source. A second and weaker ligand (L(2)) was also detected in these waters in higher concentrations (36-368 nM) but with a lower log K' that varies between 12.06 and 13.13. The present work has demonstrated that salt-marsh areas are important and continuous sources of copper complexing ligands to the Tagus estuary. Noticeable, tidal induced transport continuously feed these waters with copper and ligands, mainly with the stronger one. This continuous input, together with the high residence times of this system results in a quite constant concentration along the salinity gradient. This input represents 95% of the ligand present in the estuary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of volcanic activity in the Campi Flegrei coastal depositional system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Crescenzo; Esposito, Eliana; Molisso, Flavia; Porfido, Sabina; Sacchi, Marco

    2010-05-01

    The Campi Flegrei coastal area includes the bay of Pozzuoli, Procida and Ischia islands, characterized by active tectonics and volcanism since the Pleistocene. Numerous monogenic volcanoes occur close to the shoreline and volcanic debris interpreted as submarine counterpart of subaerial flows and surges, have been detected offshore. In the Pozzuoli area the most recent eruptive volcanic activity occurred from 10.0 to 8.0 ky B.P and 4.5 to 3.7 ky B.P. followed by the September 1538 Monte Nuovo eruption. Here magma-related activity is testified by extensive hydrothermalism, and recent episodes (1970-71 and 1982-84 on Pozzuoli coast) of shallow seismicity and ground deformation, exceeding rates of 100 cm/year in the years 1983-1984. The most recent volcanic activity on Ischia island starts around 10.0 ky B.P. to which associates several eruptive centres mostly located in the western sector. The last eruption dates back to Arso flow in 1302. Nevertheless the landscape of Ischia is dominated by Mount Epomeo in the central part of the island, which is the highest peak (788 m). It is a volcano-tectonic structure that raised above sea level between 33 and 28 ka BP, due to the intrusion of magma at shallow depth. Procida island is composed of five monogenic Volcanoes (Vivara, Terra Murata, Pozzo Vecchio, Fiumicello and Solchiaro) that have been active over the last 80 ky producing pyroclastic deposits and a lava dome. A sixth volcanic structure has been reported recently off P.ta Serra by marine investigations and confirmed by airborne magnetic surveys. The emplacement of large amount of volcanoclastic material from volcanic and volcano-tectonic activity in the Campi Flegrei coastal area produced extensive avalanche deposits off Ischia island, seafloor instabilities in the form of creep/slump, channelled sediment flow and deep sedimentary fans, and is largely responsible for aggradation/progradation of the coastal area during the Quaternary. Moreover, numerous volcanic bank

  1. Wood textures in Jinman copper deposit in western Yunnan and their genetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiajun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Shuai Dequan, On the biological textures of metallic minerals, Acta Mineralogica and Petrologica (in Chinese with Eng-lish abstract), 1985, 5(4): 80-84.[2]Shuai Dequan, On the Biological Fabrics of Metallic Minerals (in Chinese), Chengdu: Sichuan University Press, 1988, 70-76.[3]Picot, P., Johan, Z., Atlas of Ore Minerals (in German), 2nd ed., Amsterdam: B.R.G.M.Elsevier, 1980, 455.[4]Ramdohr, P., The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrodoths, 2nd ed., (English translation of the 4th edition, with additions and corrections by the authors), Vol. 2, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1980, 164-1062.[5]Ramdohr, P., The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrodoths (in German), Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1975.[6]Picot, P., Johan, Z., Atlas of Ore Minerals (Translation by Guiloux, J., Reviewed by Watkinson, D. H.), Amsterdam: B.R.G.M.Elsevier, 1982, 54.[7]Yan Wen, Li Chaoyang, Geochemical characteristics and hydrothermal sedimentary origin of a new type of copper depos-its, Geochimica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1997, 26(1): 55-63.[8]Shi Xingjian, Li Xingxue, Plant Fossils in China (in Chinese), Vol. 2, Beijing: Science Press, 1963, 341.[9]Ji Hongbing, Li Chaoyang, Geochemical characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids in Jinman copper deposit, west-ern Yunnan, Acta Mineralogica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1998, 18(1): 28-37.[10]Zhuang Hanping, Ran Chongying, He Mingqing et al., Interactions between copper, salt and organic matter and the for-mation of sandstone-hosted copper deposits, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 1996, 70(2): 162-172.[11]Yang Yingxuan, Chou Dingmao, Kan Meiying et al., Precambrian Stratabound Copper Deposits in Xichang-Central Yun-nan (in Chinese), Chongqing: Chongqing Publishing House, 1988, 291-299.[12]Li Feng, Pu Weimin, Ran Chongying, Ore-forming material source of Jinman copper deposit in Lanping, western Yunnan, Bulletin of Kunming College of Technology (in Chinese

  2. Copper-nickel-rich, amalgamated ferromanganese crust-nodule deposits from Shatsky Rise, NW Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Conrad, T.A.; Frank, M.; Christl, M.; Sager, W.W.

    2012-01-01

    A unique set of ferromanganese crusts and nodules collected from Shatsky Rise (SR), NW Pacific, were analyzed for mineralogical and chemical compositions, and dated using Be isotopes and cobalt chronometry. The composition of these midlatitude, deep-water deposits is markedly different from northwest-equatorial Pacific (PCZ) crusts, where most studies have been conducted. Crusts and nodules on SR formed in close proximity and some nodule deposits were cemented and overgrown by crusts, forming amalgamated deposits. The deep-water SR crusts are high in Cu, Li, and Th and low in Co, Te, and Tl concentrations compared to PCZ crusts. Thorium concentrations (ppm) are especially striking with a high of 152 (mean 56), compared to PCZ crusts (mean 11). The deep-water SR crusts show a diagenetic chemical signal, but not a diagenetic mineralogy, which together constrain the redox conditions to early oxic diagenesis. Diagenetic input to crusts is rare, but unequivocal in these deep-water crusts. Copper, Ni, and Li are strongly enriched in SR deep-water deposits, but only in layers older than about 3.4 Ma. Diagenetic reactions in the sediment and dissolution of biogenic calcite in the water column are the likely sources of these metals. The highest concentrations of Li are in crust layers that formed near the calcite compensation depth. The onset of Ni, Cu, and Li enrichment in the middle Miocene and cessation at about 3.4 Ma were accompanied by changes in the deep-water environment, especially composition and flow rates of water masses, and location of the carbonate compensation depth.

  3. Flank collapse at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, recorded by volcanic mass-flow deposits in the Copper River lowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waythomas, C.F.; Wallace, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    An areally extensive volcanic mass-flow deposit of Pleistocene age, known as the Chetaslina volcanic mass-flow deposit, is a prominent and visually striking deposit in the southeastern Copper River lowland of south-central Alaska. The mass-flow deposit consists of a diverse mixture of colorful, variably altered volcanic rocks, lahar deposits, glaciolacustrine diamicton, and till that record a major flank collapse on the southwest flank of Mount Wrangell. The deposit is well exposed near its presumed source, and thick, continuous, stratigraphic exposures have permitted us to study its sedimentary characteristics as a means of better understanding the origin, significance, and evolution of the deposit. Deposits of the Chetaslina volcanic mass flow in the Chetaslina River drainage are primary debris-avalanche deposits and consist of two principal facies types, a near-source block facies and a distal mixed facies. The block facies is composed entirely of block-supported, shattered and fractured blocks with individual blocks up to 40 m in diameter. The mixed facies consists of block-sized particles in a matrix of poorly sorted rock rubble, sand, and silt generated by the comminution of larger blocks. Deposits of the Chetaslina volcanic mass flow exposed along the Copper, Tonsina, and Chitina rivers are debris-flow deposits that evolved from the debris-avalanche component of the flow and from erosion and entrainment of local glacial and glaciolacustrine diamicton in the Copper River lowland. The debris-flow deposits were probably generated through mixing of the distal debris avalanche with the ancestral Copper River, or through breaching of a debris-avalanche dam across the ancestral river. The distribution of facies types and major-element chemistry of clasts in the deposit indicate that its source was an ancestral volcanic edifice, informally known as the Chetaslina vent, on the southwest side of Mount Wrangell. A major sector collapse of the Chetaslina vent initiated

  4. Microplastics in the Mediterranean Sea: Deposition in coastal shallow sediments, spatial variation and preferential grain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, Carme; Estarellas, Fernando; Deudero, Salud

    2016-04-01

    Marine litter loads in sea compartments are an emergent issue due to their ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses microplastic quantification and morphological description to test spatial differences along an anthropogenic gradient of coastal shallow sediments and further on to evaluate the preferential deposition of microplastics in a given sediment grain fraction. Sediments from Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) contained the highest concentrations of microplastics (MPs): up to 0.90 ± 0.10 MPs/g suggesting the transfer of microplastics from source areas to endpoint areas. In addition, a high proportion of microplastic filaments were found close to populated areas whereas fragment type microplastics were more common in MPAs. There was no clear trend between sediment grain size and microplastic deposition in sediments, although microplastics were always present in two grain size fractions: 2 mm > x > 1 mm and 1 mm > x 0.5 mm.

  5. Hydrothermal alteration and its effects on the magnetic properties of Los Pelambres, a large multistage porphyry copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Joseline; Townley, Brian; Córdova, Loreto; Poblete, Fernando; Arriagada, César

    2016-09-01

    The Los Pelambres porphyry copper deposit is located 190 km north of Santiago, Chile. A paleomagnetic and mineralogical study was conducted at this deposit to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the magnetic properties and minerals of rocks within the deposit when compared to the surrounding country rock. In the Los Pelambres deposit, magnetic properties of rocks are carried by titano-hematite and titano-magnetite solid solution minerals, where the former commonly indicates the exsolution of rutile. Magnetic minerals of intrusive rocks from the greater Los Pelambres region show that magmatic titano-magnetites and magnetites are the main magnetization carriers. The hydrothermal fluid associated with rutile exsolution textures could have played an important role in the mineralization of Cu in this deposit. The paleomagnetic properties in the Los Pelambres deposit can be divided in three main groups: (i) HMRG (high magnetic remanence group), (ii) HMSG (high magnetic susceptibility group), and (iii) LMSG (low magnetic susceptibility/remanence group). In-situ magnetic properties of the HMSG and LMSG are similar to the formations and units present regionally, however HRMG samples clearly differ from the country rocks. The high variability of in-situ magnetic properties presented in the Los Pelambres deposit has also been characteristic of other porphyry copper deposits in Chile (e.g., Chuquicamata and El Teniente). Regarding the field of exploration geophysics and porphyry copper deposits, this study suggests that phyllic, chloritic, and potassic alterations are related to low, intermediate, and high in-situ NRM, respectively, suggesting that geophysical methods must target a noisy magnetic signal depending on the scale of the study. The knowledge and results obtained are especially meaningful because magnetic surveys conducted for exploration do not commonly allow for the detection of ore mineralization.

  6. In Situ Structural Studies of the Underpotential Deposition of Copper onto an Iodine Covered Platinum Surface Using X-Ray Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    ABSTRAc C We present initial results of an in situ structural investigation of the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum...compare the result of surface coverage isotherms derived from both electrochemical and x-ray measurements. 1. INTRODUCIION The underpotential deposition ...the underpotential deposition of copper on an iodine covered platinum/carbon layered synthetic microstructure. 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND X-ray standing

  7. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  8. Metallogenetic Mechanism and Timing of Late Superimposing Fluid Mineralization in the Dongguashan Diplogenetic Stratified Copper Deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaowen; LU Xiancai; LING Hongfei; LU Jianjun; JIANG Shoyong; NIE Guiping; HUANG Shunsheng; HUA Ming

    2005-01-01

    An important diplogenetic mineralization event superimposed on pre-existing exhalation sediments in the Tongling area, Anhui province, was triggered by widespread granitic magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block during 140-135 Ma under extensional tectonic circumstances following the collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks. The main orebodies of the Dongguashan copper deposit, a typical diplogenetic stratified deposit among many polymetallic ore deposits in China, are hosted by strata between Upper Devonian sandstone and Carboniferous limestone, and its mineralization was genetically related to the Qingshanjiao intrusive. The Rb-Sr isotopic isochron of the Qingshanjiao intrusive yields an age of about 136.5±1.4 Ma. The ore-forming fluid reflected by the inclusion fluid in quartz veins is characterized by high temperature and high salinity, and its age was also determined by Rb-Sr isotope dating as 134±11 Ma. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition data suggest that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from magmatism. By integrating these isotopic dating data, characteristics of fluid inclusions and the geology of the deposit, the mineralization of the Dongguashan copper deposit is divided into two stages. First, a stratiform sedimentary deposit or protore layer formed in the Late Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, while in the second stage the pre-existing protore was superimposed by hydrothermal fluid that was derived from the Yanshanian magmatic activities occurring around 135 Ma ago. This two-stage mineralization formed the Dongguashan statiform copper deposit.Associated "porphyry" mineralization found in the bottom of and in surrounding intrusive rocks of the orebodies might have occurred in the same period as a second-stage mineralization of this deposit.

  9. Determination of copper pollution and associated ecological risk in coastal sediments of southeastern Black Sea region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozseker, Koray; Eruz, Coskun; Cılız, Sadi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the natural and anthropogenic copper (Cu) pollution in coastal sediments near the city Trabzon which exhibits an increasing population and industrial activity in the Southeastern Black Sea Region, were investigated spatially and temporally. The sediment along the coast of Trabzon is influenced by three rivers called Degirmendere, Yanbolu and Solakli resulting in a spatial separation. The highest Cu sediment concentration was measured in the section influenced by Solakli (88.07 μg g(-1)) and the lowest at the sites affected by Yanbolu (56.86 μg g(-1)). Also a strong temporal trend was observed displaying the highest Cu concentration in autumn (107.06 μg g(-1)) and the lowest in spring (52.06 μg g(-1)). Based upon the results of this study and; according to the Sediment Quality Guideline, Cu is the major contributor to toxicity in the coastal zones of all regions.

  10. Geochemistry and S, Pb isotope of the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan, China: Implication for ore genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-An; Liu, Jia-Jun; Cao, Ye; Han, Si-Yu; Gao, Bing-yu; Wang, Huan; Liu, Yue-Dong

    2012-07-01

    The Yangla copper deposit, situated in the middle section of Jinshajiang tectonic belt between Zhongza-Zhongdian block and Changdu-Simao block, is a representative and giant copper deposit that has been discovered in Jinshajiang-Lancangjiang-Nujiang region in recent years. There are coupled relationships between Yangla granodiorite and copper mineralization in the Yangla copper deposit. Five molybdenite samples yielded a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 233.3 ± 3 Ma, the metallogenesis is therefore slightly younger than the crystallization age of the granodiorite. S, Pb isotopic compositions of the Yangla copper deposit indicate that the ore-forming materials were derived from the mixture of upper crust and mantle, also with the magmatic contributions. In the late Early Permian, the Jinshajiang Oceanic plate was subducted to the west, resulting in the formation of a series of gently dipping thrust faults in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, meanwhile, accompanied magmatic activities. In the early Late Triassic, which was a time of transition from collision-related compression to extension in the Jinshajiang tectonic belt, the thrust faults were tensional; it would have been a favorable environment for forming ore fluids. The ascending magma provided a channel for the ore-forming fluid from the mantle wedge. After the magma arrived at the base of the early-stage Yangla granodiorite, the platy granodiorite at the base of the body would have shielded the late-stage magma from the fluid. The magma would have cooled slowly, and some of the ore-forming fluid in the magma would have entered the gently dipping thrust faults near the Yangla granodiorite, resulting in mineralization.

  11. Magmatic context of Bou Skour copper deposit (Eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco): Petrogrography, geochemistry and alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL Azmi, Daoud; Aissa, M.; Ouguir, H.; Mahdoudi, M. L.; El Azmi, M.; Ouadjo, A.; Zouhair, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Bou Skour copper deposit is located in the western part of the Saghro massif (Eastern Anti-Atlas), about 50 km East of the city of Ouarzazate. It is subdivided into several areas that are, from North to South: “Panthère”, “Chaigne”, “Anne Marie”, “Chapeau de fer” and “Patte d'Oie”. The latter is economically the most important and is the object of this study. The “Patte d'Oie” district consists mainly of extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks. The extrusive rocks are represented by andesites spatially associated with pyroclastic terms (ignimbrites and pyroclastic breccias). This volcanic unit is intruded by a pink granite pluton and a I-type granodiorite with equigranular texture (Bou Skour granodiorite) showing to the border a microgranular facies (microgranodiorite). All these magmatic formations are intersected by rhyolitic dykes (NNE-SSW) and doleritic dykes (WNW-ESE to NW-SE). The granodiorite and andesite have undergone a polyphase hydrothermal alteration: (i) potassic alteration, (ii) phyllitic alteration, (iii) silicification, (iv) argillic alteration and (v) propylitic alteration. The analysis of geochemical data of granodiorite, granite, andesite and dolerite confirmed: (i) their petrographic natures, (ii) the medium-K calc-alkaline affiliation of andesite and granodiorite, which would have been set up into an active geotectonic environment, probably of island arc or collision, during the Pan-African orogeny, (iii) The high-K calc-alkaline character of granite indicating a post-collision development during the Pan-African orogeny and (iv) The alkaline affinity of the dolerite which is linked to an extensive post-orogenic setting (post-Pan-African). The copper mineralization of “Patte d'Oie” area is hosted, exclusively, in the andesitic and granodioritic facies. It is represented, essentially, by chalcopyrite and bornite minerals and is, probably, related to a porphyry system (disseminated and stockwork mineralization

  12. Palladium-free electroless deposition of pure copper film on glass substrate using hydrazine as reducing agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobari, N.; Behboudnia, M.; Maleki, Ramin

    2016-11-01

    Thin copper films were fabricated on glass substrates by palladium-free electroless deposition, using hydrazine. The effects of modifying the deposition parameters like temperature, initial concentration and pH of electroless bath on the deposition rate and morphology of resulting films were studied and optimized. The film deposition is performed in two simple steps which shortens the pretreatment time and avoids applying expensive components and is environmentally benign. FESEM images show a uniform dispersion of Cu nanoparticles on the glass substrates in the first step. These nanoparticles act as an activator in the growth of homogeneous Cu thin film in the second step. The activation energy for the growth of Cu films was found to be 62 kJ/mol. EDX and XRD analysis demonstrates that the composition of the deposits was pure Cu with FCC crystal structure. The Cu films of 260 nm thickness showed a resistivity of about 2 × 10-6 Ω cm.

  13. Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal fluid evolution in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nateghi, Arash; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2013-09-01

    The Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit is associated with a quartz monzonitic-granodioritic-porphyritic stock hosted by an Eocene volcanic sedimentary complex in which magmatic hydrothermal fluids were introduced and formed veins and alteration. Within the deepest quartz-rich and chalcopyrite-poor group A veins, LVHS2 inclusions trapped high salinity, high temperature aqueous fluids exsolved directly from a relatively shallow magma (0.5 kbar). These late fluids were enriched in NaCl and reached halite saturation as a result of the low pressure of magma crystallization and fluid exsolution. These fluids extracted Cu from the crystallizing melt and transported it to the hydrothermal system. As a result of ascent, the temperature and pressure of these fluids decreased from 600 to 415 °C, and approximately 500-315 bars. At these conditions, K-feldspar and biotite were stabilized. Type A veins were formed at a depth of ∼1.2 km under conditions of lithostatic pressure and abrupt cooling. Upon cooling and decompressing, the fluid intersected with the liquid-vapor field resulting in separation of immiscible liquid and vapor. This stage was recorded by formation of LVHS1, LVHS3 and VL inclusions. These immiscible fluids formed chalcopyrite-pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration envelopes (B veins) under the lithostatic-hydrostatic pressure regime at temperatures between 415 and 355 °C at 1.3 km below the paleowater table. As the fluids ascended, copper contents decreased and these fluids were diluted by mixing with the low salinity-external fluid. Therefore, pyrite-dominated quartz veins were formed in purely hydrostatic conditions in which pressure decreased from 125 bars to 54 bars and temperature decreased from 355 to 298 °C. During the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution, the composition and P-T regime changed drastically and caused various types of veins and alterations. The abundance of chalcopyrite precipitation in group B veins suggests that boiling and

  14. In-Plane Structure of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold (111) Determined by Surface EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-28

    D-Al 263 INN-PLANE STRUCTURE OF UNDERPOTENTIALLY DEPOSITED COPPER /. ON GOLD (Iii) DET (U) PUERTO RICO UNIV RIO PIEDRAS DEPT OF PHVS I CS 0 R...051-0776 TECHNICAL REPORT #33 In-Plane Structure of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold (111) Determined by Surface EXAFS by O.R. Melroy*, M.G...Strueture of Underpotentially Deposited Copper on Gold ( 11) determincd hv Surface EXAFS 0. R. Melroy*, N1. G. Samant, G. L. Borges. and J. G. Gordon

  15. The discrepancy between the absence of copper deposition and the presence of neuronal damage in the brain of Atp7b(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Shi, Sheng-Sheng; Chen, Sheng; Ni, Wang; Zhu, Min; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-02-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is caused by mutations within the copper-transporting ATPase (ATP7B), characterized by copper deposition in various organs, principally the liver and the brain. With the availability of Atp7b(-/-) mice, the valid animal model of WD, the mechanism underlying copper-induced hepatocyte necrosis has been well understood. Nonetheless, little is known about the adverse impact of copper accumulation on the brain in WD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify copper disturbances according to various brain compartments and further dissect the causal relationship between copper storage and neuronal damage using Atp7b(-/-) mice. Copper levels in the liver, whole brain, brain compartments and basal ganglia mitochondria of Atp7b(-/-) mice and age-matched controls were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Delicate electron microscopic studies on hepatocytes and neurons in the basal ganglia were performed. Here we further confirmed the remarkably elevated copper content and abnormal ultrastructure findings in livers of Atp7b(-/-) mice. Interestingly, we found the ultrastructure abnormalities in neurons of the basal ganglia of Atp7b(-/-) mice, whereas copper deposition was not detected in the whole brain, even within the basal ganglia and its mitochondria. The disparity provided a new understanding of neuronal dysfunction in WD, and strongly indicated that copper might not be the sole causative player and other unidentified pathogenic factors could enhance the toxic effects of copper on neurons in WD.

  16. Energy deposition in a thin copper target downstream and off-axis of a proton-radiography target

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, G A; Snead, C L; Hanson, A L; Murray, M M

    2002-01-01

    A series of proton energy-deposition experiments was conducted to measure the energy deposited in a copper target located downstream and off-axis of a high-energy proton-radiography target. The proton/target interactions involved low-intensity bunches of protons at 24 GeV/c onto a spherical target consisting of concentric shells of tungsten and copper. The energy-deposition target was placed at five locations downstream of the proton-radiography target, off-axis of the primary beam transport, and was either unshielded or shielded by 5 or 10 cm of lead. Maximum temperature rises measured in the energy-deposition target due to single bunches of 5x10 sup 1 sup 0 protons on the proton-radiography target were approximately 20 mK per bunch. The data indicated that the scattered radiation was concentrated close to the primary transport axis of the beam line. The energy deposited in the energy-deposition target was reduced by moving the target radially away from the primary transport axis. Placing lead shielding in f...

  17. A reconnaissance of the Cu isotopic compositions of hydrothermal vein-type cop-per deposit, Jinman, Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Jinman deposit is a low-temperature hydrothermal vein-type copper deposit, which occurs along faults and fractures within Middle Jurassic sandstone and mudstone units of the Lanping-Simao Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin of Yunnan Province. In this note, we report for the first time the Cu isotopic compositions of Cu-sulfides from the Jinman deposit. The data show large variations and low 65Cu values of 3.70‰ to +0.30‰, which are in sharp contrast to the 65Cu values of high-temperature magmatic-hydrothermal copper deposits (0.62‰ to +0.40‰) and the modern ocean-floor massive sulfide deposits (0.48‰ to +1.15‰). It is suggested that the Cu isotope fractionation at Jinman is affected mainly by the following factors, i.e. a low temperature of ore formation (150-286℃); a sedimentary source for ore materials; various stages of ore deposition; and involvement of organic matter in the ore-forming processes.

  18. A study of the initial stages of the electrochemical deposition of thallium on copper, Part IV. The potential step results: Underpotential deposition on (111), (110) and (100) oriented copper single c

    OpenAIRE

    Jovićević Jovan N.; Bewick Alan

    2005-01-01

    The underpotential deposition and dissolution of thallium onto carefully chemically polished single crystal copper (111), (110) and (100) electrode surfaces from acetate, sulphate and perchlorate solutions have been investigated using single and double potential step techniques. It appeared that the different anions used did not change the current-time response characteristics significantly. Current-time responses to the potential steps applied strongly resemble those observed in the case of ...

  19. Diversity of Mineralization and Spectrum of the Gejiu Superlarge Tin-Copper Polymetallic Deposit,Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shouting; Xia Qinglin; Zhao Pengda; Gao Yang

    2008-01-01

    The Gejiu (个旧) deposit is a superlarge tin-copper polymetallic ore-forming concentration area characterized by excellent metallogenic geological settings and advantageous ore-controlling factors. The deposit displays diverse mineralization properties due to different minerals and mineral deposit types. Based on the principal metallogenic factors, metallogenic mechanisms, mineralized components, and occurrence of mineral deposits or ore bodies, the Gejiu mineral district can be divided into 2 combinations of metallogenic series, 4 metallogenic series, 8 subseries, and 27 mineral deposit types. Spatial zonality is evident. The distribution regularity of the elements in both plane and section is Be-W, Sn (Cu, Mo, Bi, Be)-Sn, Pb, Ag-Pb, Zn around a granitic intrusion. The metallogenic epoch is mainly concentrated in the late Yanshanian. During this period, large-scale metallogenic processes related to movement caused by tectonics and magmatism occurred, and a series of magmatic hydrothermal deposits formed. The ore-forming processes can be divided into 4 stages: the silicate stage, the oxide stage, the sulphide stage, and the carbonate stage. Based on the orderliness and diversity (in terms of time, space, and genesis) of the mineralization, the authors have developed a comprehensive spectrum of ore deposits in the Gejiu area. This newly proposed diversity of mineralization and the spectrum developed in this work are useful not only for interpreting the genesis of the Gejiu deposit but also for improving mineral exploration in the area, and in particular, for finding large deposits.

  20. Landsat-4 thematic mapper and thematic mapper simulator data for a porphyry copper deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft thematic mapper (TM) data were analyzed to evaluate the potential utility of the Landsat-4 thematic mapper for geologic mapping and detection of hydrothermal alteration zones in the Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit in southern Arizona. The data allow a comparison between aircraft TV simulator data and the Landsat-4 TM satellite data which possess similar spectral bands. A color rationcomposite of 30-m pixels was resampled, in order to clearly define a number of hydroxyl bearing minerals, (kaolinite, sericite, white mica), pyrite and iron oxide/hydroxide minerals. The iron oxide minerals have diagnostic absorption bands in the 0.45 and 0.85 micron regions of the spectrum, and the hydrous minerals are characterized by an absorption in the 2.2 micron region. The position of the spectral bands allow the TM to identify regions of hydrothermal alteration without resorting to a data processing algorithm. The comparison of the aircraft and Landsat-4 TM data showed considerable agreement, and confirmed the utility of TM data for identifying hydrothermal alteration zones. Samples of some color TM images are provided.

  1. Factors governing adsorption and distribution of copper in Samut Prakarn coastal sediment, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratasuk, Phanit; Parkpian, Preeda; Jugsujinda, Aroon; DeLaune, R D

    2003-09-01

    The Chao Phraya River (near Bangkok) discharges into Gulf of Thailand. Sediment in near shore areas of the gulf contained elevated Cu levels as a result of industry and urban inputs into the region. Adsorption and fractionation studies were conducted for determining availability and retention of Cu in the sediment. Adsorption studies showed that the coastal sediment has a very high capacity to adsorb Cu (in a range of 1500-4000 microg g(-1)). The high organic matter content and clay content of the sediment contributed significantly to the binding of Cu. Increased salinity levels up to 50 ppt had no effect on the adsorption of Cu by the sediment. The results from Cu partitioning and adsorption study further indicate that Cu in sediment in this coastal region is not likely to be easily released into the water phase where the Cu could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Result shows over the short term current inputs of Cu in Samut Prakarn Coastal region will be rapidly adsorbed by the sediment with little return into water column.

  2. Coastal vulnerability to typhoon inundation in the Bay of Bangkok, Thailand? Evidence from carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Jankaew, Kruawun; Dunne, Kieran

    2015-11-01

    At the head of the Gulf of Thailand, the subsiding Chao Phraya delta and adjacent low-lying coastlines surrounding the Bay of Bangkok are at risk of coastal flooding. Although a significant marine inundation event has not been experienced in historical times, this work identifies coastal depositional evidence for high-energy waves in the past. On Ko Larn island in eastern Bay of Bangkok, numerous coastal carbonate boulders (CCBs) were discovered at elevations up to 4+ m above sea level, the largest weighing over 1.3 tonnes. For the majority of CCBs, their karstified appearance bears testimony to long periods of immobility since original deposition, whilst their geomorphic settings on coastal slopes of coarse blocky talus is helpful in recognising lifting (saltation) as the probable mode of wave transport. In the absence of local tsunamigenic potential, these CCBs are considered to be prehistoric typhoon deposits, presumably sourced from fringing coral reefs by high-energy wave action. Application of existing hydrodynamic flow transport equations reveals that 4.7 m/s and 7.1 m/s are the minimum flow velocities required to transport 50% and 100% of the measured CCBs, respectively. Such values are consistent with cyclone-impacted coastlines studied elsewhere in the tropical Asia-Pacific region. Overall, the evidence of elevated carbonate boulder deposits on Ko Larn implies that typhoons before the modern record may have entered the Bay of Bangkok. The recurrence of a similar event in future would have the potential to cause damaging marine inundation on surrounding low-lying coastlines.

  3. Historical extreme wave and landslide deposits on the Shirasuka coastal lowlands, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Riedesel, Svenja; Fujiwara, Osamu; Walstra, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Schmidt, Sabine; Brill, Dominik; Roberts, Helen; Duller, Geoff; Brückner, Hulmut; De Batist, Marc; Heyvaert, Vanessa

    2017-04-01

    Future megathrust earthquakes and consequential tsunamis pose exceptional hazards to densely populated and highly industrialised coastlines facing the Nankai-Suruga Trough, south central Japan. Geological investigations of coastal sedimentary sequences play a key role in understanding megathrust behaviour and developing seismic and tsunami hazard assessments. In this study, we revisit a previously published palaeoseismic site at Shirasuka, located on the Enshu-nada coastline of Shizuoka Prefecture, seeking both to provide further information on past earthquakes and tsunamis and to explore the prospects and limitations of geological data with respect to assessing seismic and tsunami hazards. At Shirasuka, six closely-spaced vibrocores reveal four sand layers interbedded with organic muds. Photographs, X-ray CT scans and grain size analysis reveal a variety of sedimentary structures within these layers, including abrupt contacts, massive sands, rip-up clasts, internal mud drapes and cross bedding. Microfossil assemblages (diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs) and optically stimulated luminescence overdispersion values of single grain feldspars highlight varying sediment sources and transport mechanisms. We suggest that the uppermost sand layer records a landslide from the landward margin of the site, while the remaining three sand layers reflect at least four extreme wave events, some of which are overprinted. We refine the published chronology using AMS radiocarbon, radionuclide and infrared stimulated luminescence approaches. Our Bayesian age models suggest that the oldest two sand layers relate to historically documented tsunamis in AD 1361 and 1498. The second youngest sand layer provides ages consistent with tsunamis in AD 1605 and 1707 and potentially also storm surges in 1680 and/or 1699. The modelled age of the landslide sand layer is consistent with the AD 1944 earthquake. The presence of a fresh scarp in US military aerial photographs from 1947 and

  4. Formation of copper tin sulfide films by pulsed laser deposition at 248 and 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Crovetto, Andrea; Canulescu, Stela;

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the laser wavelength on the deposition of copper tin sulfide (CTS) and SnS-rich CTS with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser (pulse length τ = 20 ns) and a 355-nm frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (τ = 6 ns) was investigated. A comparative study of the two UV wavelengths shows that the CTS...

  5. TECHNICAL DESIGN NOTE: The method for controlling dew droplets deposited on a copper plate by scattered laser light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shigeaki

    2008-01-01

    Tiny dew droplets deposited on a copper plate were controlled constantly by a developed control technique using scattered laser light for studying initial dropwise condensation. The technique employs proportional control combined with shifting movement by an integrator. The droplets were controlled for 60 min at almost constant diameters in a range from only a few micrometers to tens of micrometers and were almost hemispherical in the initial condensation at room temperature.

  6. Formation of copper tin sulfide films by pulsed laser deposition at 248 and 355 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Crovetto, Andrea; Canulescu, Stela

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the laser wavelength on the deposition of copper tin sulfide (CTS) and SnS-rich CTS with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser (pulse length τ = 20 ns) and a 355-nm frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser (τ = 6 ns) was investigated. A comparative study of the two UV wavelengths shows that the CTS...

  7. Assessment of undergorund mining of Nussir copper deposit: With special emphasize on cut-off and mining method

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Audun Mortveit

    2012-01-01

    The narrow steeply dipping strata bound sediment hosted copper deposit, Nussir, located in Kvalsund community, Finmark, Norway, have been subject to an assessment of underground mining. Resources classified as Indicated, within a 0,9%Cu cut-off limit have been identified as suitable for sublevel open stoping mining method, accessed by 590m long tunnel from fjord, a 2000m haulage tunnel in footwall progressing westward along strike and two individual ramps separated by 1280m along strike. Stop...

  8. Sheltered coastal environments as archives of paleo-tsunami deposits: Observations from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Vanessa; Rajendran, Kusala; Rajendran, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 earthquake left several traces of coseismic land deformation and tsunami deposits, both on the islands along the plate boundary and distant shores of the Indian Ocean rim countries. Researchers are now exploring these sites to develop a chronology of past events. Where the coastal regions are also inundated by storm surges, there is an additional challenge to discriminate between the deposits formed by these two processes. Paleo-tsunami research relies largely on finding deposits where preservation potential is high and storm surge origin can be excluded. During the past decade of our work along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the east coast of India, we have observed that the 2004 tsunami deposits are best preserved in lagoons, inland streams and also on elevated terraces. Chronological evidence for older events obtained from such sites is better correlated with those from Thailand, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, reiterating their usefulness in tsunami geology studies.

  9. The effects of a magnetic field on the morphologies of nickel and copper deposits: the concept of “effective overpotential”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEBOJSA D. NIKOLIC

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of nickel and copper deposits obtained without applied magnetic fields, and with both parallel and perpendicular applied magnetic fields were examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Changes in the morphologies of the metals caused by the effect of the magnetic fields are explained by the concept of “effective overpotential”. The morphologies of the nickel and copper deposits obtained under parallelly oriented magnetic fields were similar to those obtained at some lower cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field. The magnetic field with a perpendicular orientation to the electrode surface increased the dispersity of the nickel and copper deposits. Nickel and copper deposits obtained under this orientation of the magnetic field were similar to those obtained at some higher cathodic potentials without an applied magnetic field.

  10. Morphology and Thickness Control of Thin Copper Films Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition onto Mo-sputtered Stainless Steel Substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Chi Woo [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Su Byeong; Yang, Jeom Sik [ILJIN Materials Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Electrodeposition of CIGS precursor films can be performed by using either single step or multistep process. Although Bhattacharya et al. have reported the development of a 15.4% efficiency CIGS cell by employing a single-bath electrochemical deposition following physical vapor deposition, no other laboratory has reproduced it. We succeeded in producing copper thin films suitable for industrial purpose. Work is in progress to find the mechanistic aspect of Cu film formation and the electrodeposition conditions of other elements (In, Ga, and Se) as well with high speed for commercialization of CIGS solar cells.

  11. Magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper deposits related to picrite and (or) tholeiitic basalt dike-sill complexes-A preliminary deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Chandler, Val W.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (?) platinum-group elements (PGEs), account for approximately 60 percent of the world's Ni production and are active exploration targets in the United States and elsewhere. On the basis of their principal metal production, magmatic sulfide deposits in mafic rocks can be divided into two major types: those that are sulfide-rich, typically with 10 to 90 percent sulfide minerals, and have economic value primarily because of their Ni and Cu contents; and those that are sulfide-poor, typically with 0.5 to 5 percent sulfide minerals, and are exploited principally for PGE. Because the purpose of this deposit model is to facilitate the assessment for undiscovered, potentially economic magmatic Ni-Cu?PGE sulfide deposits in the United States, it addresses only those deposits of economic significance that are likely to occur in the United States on the basis of known geology. Thus, this model focuses on deposits hosted by small- to medium-sized mafic and (or) ultramafic dikes and sills that are related to picrite and tholeiitic basalt magmatic systems generally emplaced in continental settings as a component of large igneous provinces (LIPs). World-class examples (those containing greater than 1 million tons Ni) of this deposit type include deposits at Noril'sk-Talnakh (Russia), Jinchuan (China), Pechenga (Russia), Voisey's Bay (Canada), and Kabanga (Tanzania). In the United States, this deposit type is represented by the Eagle deposit in northern Michigan, currently under development by Kennecott Minerals.

  12. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four layers of cherts were found for the first time in the Yanglacopper deposit, western Yunnan Province. The cherts possessed the following geochemical characteristics: ① Low TiO2 and Al2O3 contents, but high ore-forming element (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag) contents; ② low total REE contents and clear negative Eu anomalies when normalized to chondrite similar to the REE contents and distribution patterns of associated massive sulfide ores; ③ silicon isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being the same as cherts and geyserite of hot-water sedimentary origin; ④ lead and sulfur isotopic compositions of cherts in the Yangla deposit being similar to those of the massive sulfide ores in the Yangla deposit; ⑤ Rb-Sr isochron age of cherts from the Yangla deposit being identical with that of host strata. Hence, we conclude that the cherts in the Yangla deposit are of hot-water sedimentary origin, which have a close relationship with the massive sulfide ores. The discovery of hydrothermal cherts from the Yangla copper deposit provides further evidence for the hydrothermal exhalative origin of the massive sulfide deposits.

  13. Macro controlling of copper oxide deposition processes and spray mode by using home-made fully computerized spray pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Mohammed Sh.; Chiad, Bahaa T.; Shafeeq, Omer Sh.

    2017-09-01

    Thin Films of Copper Oxide (CuO) absorption layer have been deposited using home-made Fully Computerized Spray Pyrolysis Deposition system FCSPD on glass substrates, at the nozzle to substrate distance equal to 20,35 cm, and computerized spray mode (continues spray, macro-control spray). The substrate temperature has been kept at 450 °c with the optional user can enter temperature tolerance values ± 5 °C. Also that fixed molar concentration of 0.1 M, and 2D platform speed or deposition platform speed of 4mm/s. more than 1000 instruction program code, and specific design of graphical user interface GUI to fully control the deposition process and real-time monitoring and controlling the deposition temperature at every 200 ms. The changing in the temperature has been recorded during deposition processes, in addition to all deposition parameters. The films have been characterized to evaluate the thermal distribution over the X, Y movable hot plate, the structure and optical energy gap, thermal and temperature distribution exhibited a good and uniform distribution over 20 cm2 hot plate area, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature and can be assigned to monoclinic CuO structure. Optical band gap varies from 1.5-1.66 eV depending on deposition parameter.

  14. Study of the structure and electrical properties of the copper nitride thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo-Vega, C. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2732, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gallardo@ccmc.unam.mx; Cruz, W. de la [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, UNAM, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, A. Postal 2681, 22860, Ensenada B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-09-15

    Copper nitride thin films were prepared on glass and silicon substrates by ablating a copper target at different pressure of nitrogen. The films were characterized in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nitrogen content in the samples, x = [N]/[Cu], changed between 0 and 0.33 for a corresponding variation in nitrogen pressure of 9 x 10{sup -2} to 1.3 x 10{sup -1} Torr. Using this methodology, it is possible to achieve sub-, over- and stoichiometric films by controlling the nitrogen pressure. The XPS results show that is possible to obtain copper nitride with x = 0.33 (Cu{sub 3}N) and x = 0.25 (Cu{sub 4}N) when the nitrogen pressure is 1.3 x 10{sup -1} and 5 x 10{sup -2} Torr, respectively. The lattice constants obtained from XRD results for copper nitride with x = 0.25 is of 3.850 A and with x = 0.33 have values between 3.810 and 3.830 A. The electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of the lattice constant. These results show that the electrical resistivity increases when the lattice parameter is decreasing. The electrical resistivity of copper nitride with x = 0.25 was smaller than samples with x = 0.33.

  15. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  16. Chemical mechanism of flocculation and deposition of clay colloids in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Qiu, Lixia; Lin, Guoqing; Yan, Xiaoyun; Chen, Xiaolan; Pang, Honglu

    2016-10-01

    Seawater intrusion has become one of serious environmental problems in coastal areas. During the replacement of saline water by fresh water in the aquifers, in-situ clay could be released, transport and deposit in the porous media due to the change of hydrodynamic and geochemical conditions, which resulted in the increasing of particle size, plugging of pores and reduction of the permeability. Batch experiments and sand column experiments were explored to study the relationships between the flocculation of in-situ clay and geochemical conditions, by changing ionic strength and ionic type of clay suspension. Column outflow was analyzed for suspended particles and electrical conductivity. The total percentage of colloid straining and interception distribution in porous media was calculated. The results indicate that porous media had an effect on the interception of clay colloid particles with about 10 percent clay colloids captured due to the rough surfaces and spatial structure of porous media. Ionic strength played a key role on the permeability reductions. The higher ionic strength is, the greater the amount of colloidal particles trapped. Ionic type also had a significant effect on the interception of clay colloid particles. Ripening was the main mechanism for the interception within porous media when the bulk solution was potassium chloride while blocking happened when the bulk solution was sodium chloride. The distribution of clay colloids in porous media was heterogeneous. The closer to the sand column inlet was the less interception of clay colloids was. The results can provide the scientific basis for preventing the water sensitivity during the process of salty aquifer restoration.

  17. Age and correlation of emerged pliocene and pleistocene deposits, U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Bybell, L.M.; Poore, R.Z.; Blackwelder, B. W.; Liddicoat, J.C.; Hazel, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Paleontologic and paleomagnetic investigations were conducted on several hundred Pliocene and Pleistocene marine samples from five regions of the emerged Atlantic Coastal Plain: (1) the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) eastern Virginia, (3) central and northern North Carolina, (4) southern North Carolina and northeastern South Carolina, and (5) the Charleston area, South Carolina. Molluscan and ostracode interval and assemblage zonations, which are the primary means of regional correlation, have been calibrated using planktic biochronologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and amino-acid recemization data. These multiple dating criteria were used to determine the age and, where possible, the duration of marine transgressive/regressive sequences. A correlation chart illustrates the age relationships of 27 formations from five regions. One important conclusion is some of the Yorktown Formation of Virginia and North Carolina (including the "Duplin" Formation), and some of the Raysor of South Carolina are late Pliocene in age. The late Pliocene Chowan River Formation of North Carolina is older than the early Pleistocene Waccamaw Formation of South Carolina, which in turn may be older than the James City Formation of North Carolina. During the last 1.0 million years, multiple marine transgressions occurred in each region, but the age of these middle and late Pleistocene formations often may differ from one area to the next. A significant result of the study is the evidence for the lack of time equivalence of formations in the five different regions; that is, the sequence of marine transgressions in one region does not necessarily correspond to that in another. This appears to be the result of differing subsidence and uplift histories, the patchiness of the depositional record, and the limitations of the dating techniques in light of the rapidity and frequency of sea-level fluctuations. ?? 1984.

  18. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-09-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  19. Facile and Cost-Effective Synthesis and Deposition of a YBCO Superconductor on Copper Substrates by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Abdul Hai; Assad, Mhd Adel; Aokal, Camilia

    2016-12-01

    The article investigates the synthesis and deposition of YBCO on a copper substrate for various functional purposes. The superconductor is first prepared by mechanically alloying elemental components (yttrium, barium, and copper) for 50 hours in a high-energy ball mill with subsequent protocol of heat treatment in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to arrive at stoichiometric ratios of YBa2Cu3O7. The material is then deposited on a thin copper substrate also by ball milling under various parameters of rotational speed and deposition time to select the best and most homogenous substrate coverage. Atomic force microscopy has confirmed the desired results, and other microstructural, thermal, and electrical techniques are used to characterize the obtained material. High-energy ball milling proved to be a versatile means to synthesize and deposit the material in a straightforward manner and controllable parameters for different deposit thicknesses and coverages.

  20. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  1. Nanostructured Multilayer Composite Films of Manganese Dioxide/Nickel/Copper Sulfide Deposited on Polyethylene Terephthalate Supporting Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awangku Nabil Syafiq Bin Awangku Metosen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured multilayer manganese dioxide/nickel/copper sulfide (MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were successfully deposited onto supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate through the sequential deposition of CuS, Ni, and MnO2 thin films by chemical bath deposition, electrodeposition, and horizontal submersion deposition techniques, respectively. Deposition of each thin-film layer was optimized by varying deposition parameters and conditions associated with specific deposition technique. Both CuS and Ni thin films were optimized for their electrical conductivity whereas MnO2 thin film was optimized for its microstructure and charge capacity. The electrochemical properties of nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry as electrode materials of an electrochemical capacitor prototype in a dual-planar device configuration. Cyclic voltammogram in mild Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte exhibited a featureless and almost rectangular shape which was indicative of the ideal capacitive behavior and high cycling reversibility of the electrochemical capacitor prototype. Nanostructured multilayer MnO2/Ni/CuS composite films on supporting polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate could potentially be utilized as electrode materials for the fabrication of high performance electrochemical capacitors.

  2. Investigation of defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on pure copper by the atomic layer deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, M.L.; Wang, L.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.C., E-mail: hclinntu@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.J., E-mail: mjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, K.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Road, Seatwen, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Some residual OH ligands originating from incomplete reaction between TMA and surface species of OH* during ALD process induce the defects in deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. Three possible types of defects are suggested. The analytic results indicate the defects are Type-I and/or Type-II but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes (Type-III). - Highlights: • Oxidation trials were conducted to investigate the defects in ultra-thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited ALD technique on pure copper. • The residual OH ligands in the deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films induce looser micro-structure which has worse oxidation resistance. • Superficial contamination particles on substrate surface are confirmed to be one of nucleation sites of the defects. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films with various thicknesses were deposited by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique on pure copper at temperatures of 100–200 °C. Oxidation trials were conducted in air at 200 °C to investigate the defects in these films. The analytic results show that the defects have a looser micro-structure compared to their surroundings, but do not directly expose the substrate, like pinholes. The film's crystallinity, mechanical properties and oxidation resistance could also be affected by these defects. Superficial contamination particles on the substrate surface are confirmed to be nucleation sites of the defects. A model for the mechanism of defect formation is proposed in this study.

  3. Remote sensing evaluation of the regional chemistry and element dispersion of porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Nieves, Lorna G.

    Porphyry copper deposits in southeastern Arizona belong to a cluster of 38 mineralized centers covering a region extending from northern Mexico to western New Mexico and southern Arizona. Presently, some of these deposits are being actively mined and the rest are prospects or abandoned mining sites. As a result of the large number of porphyry copper deposits in this region, research on the interaction between mineralized centers and the environment is important; in particular, the dispersion characteristics of acid-generating metal-enriched materials at the shallow alluvial margins of these centers. The present research uses remote sensing techniques, groundwater chemistry, trace element, and mineralogical analysis to characterize dispersion chemistry surrounding porphyry copper deposits in the Silver Bell Mountains. Hyperspectral imagery obtained by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Spectrometer and HyMap are used to map supergene minerals by analyzing their spectral profiles in the visible and short wave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Reflectance profiles are characteristic of each mineral and shifts in absorption features within one mineral are a result of differences in cation content. Image reflectance profiles are compared with stream sediment mineralogy and reflectance spectral profiles to better outline concentrations of Fe, S, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, and Al. In addition, groundwater modeling in the Silver Bell Mountains is considered for various flow paths within shallow aquifers in the region and compared to actual groundwater chemistry and surface lithology. The Silver Bell Mountains serve as a case study for element mobility and concentration distribution in other areas where undisturbed deposits, historic and present-day excavation activity occurs, where semi-arid climate and a deep vadose zone are variables that influence element mobility and concentration. Results obtained from hyperspectral image processing indicate the possible enrichment

  4. Evolution of the microstructure in electrochemically deposited copper films at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature evolution of the microstructure in copper electrodeposits (self-annealing) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and simultaneous measurement of the electrical resistivity as a function of time with an unprecedented time resolution. Independent of the copper...

  5. Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless deposition process for electromagnetic shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Qian; Lu, Yinxiang [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Materials Science

    2013-09-15

    Copper/bamboo fabric composite prepared via a silver catalytic electroless plating process is reported. The microstructure of the composite was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, which illustrated that the copper coating was composed of spherical particles and clusters. The composition and chemical state of the metal layer were measured using X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis spectra; copper and a small amount of nickel were detected. Mechanical properties were measured based on a standard (ISO 13934-1:1999) for the fabrics with and without copper coating. The breaking force for the composite was improved by about 16.8% compared to uncoated bamboo fabric. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of the composite was more than 40 dB at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 1000MHz. The copper coating on bamboo fabric passed the Scotch {sup registered} -tape test. (orig.)

  6. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC, and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  7. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting. PMID:28772519

  8. Electrical Properties Analysis of Copper doped CdTe/CdS Deposited Thin Films on ITO Coated Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Darren; Flaherty, James; Sahiner, M. Alper

    CdTe proves to be a viable source for renewable energy in the form of photovoltaic conversion. While CdTe/CdS naturally provide interesting results adding dopants to the cell can yield higher conversion efficiencies. Copper, famous for its electrical properties, can be used as a dopant in the CdTe layer. In conjunction with its dopant characteristics Copper also improves cell performance by acting as a low resistant and high current back contact. All thin films were synthesized using pulsed laser deposition onto ITO coated glass substrates. The CdS layer across all cells has an approximate thickness of 1500 Angstroms. The following CdTe layer has an approximate thickness of 5500 Angstroms. This created the base cell that was then doped. Cu, typically deposited using sublimation or vapor deposition, was done by PLD as well. Two of the three base cells were treated with Cu using the same deposition parameters. The third cell also received a CdCl treatment on top of the Cu layer to understand the effect when the oxygen layer is deferred. Ellipsometer measurements were used to confirm layer thickness. XRD analysis was used to confirm the presence of Cu and the crystal structure of the thin films. A Hall Effect Measurement system was used to measure active charge carrier concentration introduced by dopant. Also, a Keithley sourcemeter was utilized to determine photovoltaic properties. Notable results discussed will be the effects of Copper dopant on the electrical properties of CdS/CdTe based solar cells.

  9. A vapor-phase deposited polymer film to improve the adhesion of electroless-deposited copper layer onto various kinds of substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jae Bem; Kim, Shin Young; Park, Yong Jin; Ko, Young Gwan; Im, Sung Gap

    2014-01-28

    The adhesion of electrodeposited metal film to polymeric circuit board substrate is one of the key elements to successful miniaturization of electronic devices. However, as the size of the circuit pattern continuously decreases, a novel method is urgently required to increase the adhesion of the metal film on the substrate, especially on the smooth surface, which is critical to decrease the minimum feature size of the metal pattern. In this research, we developed an adhesion promoter layer by depositing metal chelating poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) film onto various organic and inorganic substrates via initiated chemical vapor deposition process (iCVD) to enhance the adhesion between the electroless deposited copper (Cu) layer and the substrate. The highest peel strength obtained between the electroless deposited Cu layer and P4VP coated substrate was 1.22 kgf/cm. Many advantageous characteristics of the adhesion promoter layer, including extreme thinness, the improved adhesion strength, conformal coverage, scalability of the deposition process, and short process time, will prompt the applicability of this adhesion promoter layer to industrial scale production.

  10. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  11. The influence of the modification of acidic montmorillonites with polyacrylamide and copper deposition on SCR-NH3 catalytic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świrk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of the modification of montmorillonites by carbonaceous and Al species as well as copper deposition. Commercial acid-treated montmorillonites, K5 and K30 (Sigma-Aldrich GmBH, were modified and used as catalysts in Selective Catalytic Reduction process of nitrogen oxides by ammonia. The characterisation was carried out by low-temperature nitrogen sorption, Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Catalytic performance in SCR-NH3 of so-modified montmorillonites was compared under the following conditions: mass of catalyst: 200 g, flow 100 cm3/min, reaction mixture: 800 ppm NO, 800 ppm NH3, 3 % O2, and He. The modification with copper and polyacrylamide led to the increase in NO conversion. The studied catalysts showed low N2O formation.

  12. Characterization of Copper Coatings Deposited by High-Velocity Oxy-Fuel Spray for Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimijazi, H. R.; Aghaee, M.; Salehi, M.; Garcia, E.

    2017-08-01

    Copper coatings were deposited on steel substrates by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying. The microstructure of the feedstock copper powders and free-standing coatings were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The x-ray diffraction pattern was utilized to determine phase compositions of powders and coatings. Oxygen content was determined by a LECO-T300 oxygen determiner. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was measured in two directions, through-thickness and in-plane by laser flash apparatus. The electrical resistivity of the coatings was measured by the four-point probe method. Oxygen content of the coatings was two times higher than that of the initial powders (0.35-0.37%). The thermal and electrical conductivities of the coatings were different depending on the direction of the measurement. The thermal and electrical conductivity of the coatings improved after annealing for 6 h at a temperature of 600°C.

  13. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  14. Fluid inclusion characteristics and molybdenite Re-Os geochronology of the Qulong porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Selby, David; Feely, Martin; Costanzo, Alessandra; Li, Xian-Hua

    2017-02-01

    The Qulong porphyry copper and molybdenum deposit is located at the southwest margin of the Lhasa Terrane and in the eastern region of the Gangdese magmatic belt. It represents China's largest porphyry copper system, with ˜2200 million tonnes of ore comprising 0.5 % Cu and 0.03 % Mo. The mineralization is associated with Miocene granodiorite, monzogranite and quartz-diorite units, which intruded into Jurassic volcanic units in a post-collisional (Indian-Asian) tectonic setting. Field observations and core logging demonstrate the alteration and mineralization at Qulong are akin to typical porphyry copper systems in subduction settings, which comprise similar magmatic-hydrothermal, potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration assemblages. Molybdenite Re-Os geochronology confirms the relative timeframe defined by field observations and core logging and indicates that the bulk copper and molybdenum at Qulong were deposited within 350,000 years: between 16.10 ± 0.06 [0.08] (without and with decay constant uncertainty) and 15.88 ± 0.06 [0.08] Ma. This duration for mineralization is in direct contrast to a long-lived intrusive episode associated with mineralization based on previous zircon U-Pb data. Our fluid inclusion study indicates that the ore-forming fluid was oxidized and contained Na, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mo, Cl and S. The magmatic-hydrothermal transition occurred at ˜425 °C under lithostatic pressure, while potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration occurred at hydrostatic pressure with temperature progressively decreasing from 425 to 280 °C. The fluid inclusion data presented here suggests that there has been ˜2.3 km of erosion at Qulong after its formation, and this erosion may be related to regional uplift of the Lhasa Terrane.

  15. Formation of TiO2 photoanodes by simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of anatase and rutile particles for photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeimmy Y. Peralta-Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Anatasa/Rutile ratio on TiO2 films, grown by electrophoretic deposition was studied in the photoassisted electrolytic copper ions removal from cyanide solutions. The proper dispersant dosage allowing the simultaneous electrophoretic deposition of Anatase and Rutile was chosen based on electrokinetic measurements; evidenced by the XRD spectra of the formed films. The evaluation of films photoassisted electrolytic copper ion removal showeds that it is possible to enhance the activity of Anatase films by adding some Rutile exploiting the synergetic interaction between these two materials, achieve by its proper deposition.

  16. Co-sputter deposited nickel-copper bimetallic nanoalloy embedded carbon films for electrocatalytic biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Shunsuke; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d-mannitol, which should be detected with a low detection limit in urine samples for the diagnosis of severe intestinal diseases. With a Ni/Cu ratio of around 64/36, the electrocatalytic current per metal area was 3.4 times larger than that of an alloy film electrode with a similar composition (~70/30). This improved electrocatalytic activity realized higher stability (n = 60, relative standard deviation (RSD): 4.6%) than the alloy film (RSD: 32.2%) as demonstrated by continuous measurements of d-mannitol.We report the fabrication of a nickel (Ni)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoalloy (~3 nm) embedded carbon film electrode with the unbalanced magnetron (UBM) co-sputtering technique, which requires only a one-step process at room temperature. Most of each nanoalloy body was firmly embedded in a chemically stable carbon matrix with an atomically flat surface (Ra: 0.21 nm), suppressing the aggregation and/or detachment of the nanoalloy from the electrode surface. The nanoalloy size and composition can be controlled simply by individually controlling the target powers of carbon, Ni and Cu, which also makes it possible to localize the nanoalloys near the electrode surface. This electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity for d

  17. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Mugil cephalus from seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, Martin G; Osuna-López, J Isidro; Jiménez-Vega, Martha A; Castillo-Bueso, Daniel; Muy-Rangel, Maria D; Rubio-Carrasco, Werner; López-López, Gabriel; Izaguirre-Fierro, Gildardo; Voltolina, Domenico

    2011-11-01

    The increasing order of the mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the tissues of Mugil cephalus of seven coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State (NW Mexico) was liver > gills > muscle, while for Pb it was gills > muscle ≥ liver. There were no differences between the mean concentrations of Cd and Pb of the three tissues determined in the samples of the seven lagoons and, although there were some significant differences, there was no indication of a latitude-related trend in the distribution of Cu and Zn: the Cu content of the muscle tended to be higher in the northern than in the southern lagoons, although in the case of the gills the highest and lowest mean values indicated an opposite trend, with the highest and lowest values in one southern and one northern lagoon. In the case of the liver, there were no differences and no indication of a regional trend. There were no differences in the mean Zn contents of muscle and gills; in the case of the liver, one of the lagoons of the central part of the state had a significantly higher value than one of the southern lagoons and all the rest had similar values. In addition, there was no clear indication of season-related differences in any of the three tissues. According to our results, the metal contents of the muscle of this species are not of concern for human health, since the allowable ingestion would be in the order of 0.9 kg/day.

  18. Geochemistry of the Jinman Vein—Type Copper Deposit,Western Yunnan Province,China——I.Element Geochemical Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季宏兵; 李朝阳

    1996-01-01

    The Jinman copper deposit,which is situated on the northern margin of the Lanping-Simao back-arc basin,western Yunnan Province,is a silver-bearing,high-grade vein-type copper deposit.Comprehensive element geochemical studies of the host rocks and hydrothermal minerals revealed the regularities in the distribution,mobilization and transport of elements from the host rocks to hydrothermal minerals.In conjunction with the fluid inclusion and isotope data,it is suggested that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from a deep source characterized by CO2 enrichment and reduction in nature.It is also suggested that the oreforming materials come largely from a deep source.although the contribution of the country rocks should not be ruled out.It is also found that some hydrothermal minerals are possessed of MREE-enrichment patterns.It is deduced that the REEs in the deep-source ore fluid were transported in the form of CO32- complexes and were deposited in a continental basin(or a hot-spring basin).

  19. Qualitative assessment of selected areas of the world for undiscovered sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits: Chapter Y in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Parks, Heather L.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Causey, J. Douglas; Hatch, Shyla A.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Williams, David J.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Johnson, Kathleen M.

    2015-12-14

    A qualitative mineral resource assessment of sediment-hosted stratabound copper mineralized areas for undiscovered copper deposits was performed for 10 selected areas of the world. The areas, in alphabetical order, are (1) Belt-Purcell Basin, United States and Canada; (2) Benguela and Cuanza Basins, Angola; (3) Chuxiong Basin, China; (4) Dongchuan Group rocks, China; (5) Egypt–Israel–Jordan Rift, Egypt, Israel, and Jordan; (6) Maritimes Basin, Canada; (7) Neuquén Basin, Argentina; (8) Northwest Botswana Rift, Botswana and Namibia; (9) Redstone Copperbelt, Canada; and (10) Salta Rift System, Argentina. This assessment (1) outlines the main characteristics of the areas, (2) classifies known deposits by deposit model subtypes, and (3) ranks the areas according to their potential to contain undiscovered copper deposits.

  20. Deposition of copper from Cu(i) and Cu(ii) precursors onto HOPG surface: Role of surface defects and choice of a precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yichen; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    The surface reactivity of two copper-containing precursors, (Cu(hfac)2 and Cu(hfac)VTMS, where hfac is hexafluoroacetyloacetonate and VTMS is vinyltrimethylsilane), was investigated by dosing the precursors onto a surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at room temperature. The behavior of these precursors on a pristine HOPG was compared to that on a surface activated by ion sputtering and subsequent oxidation to induce controlled surface defects. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to confirm copper deposition and its surface distribution, and to compare with the results of scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations. As expected, surface defects promote copper deposition; however, the specific structures deposited depend on the deposition precursor. Density functional theory was used to mimic the reactions of each precursor molecule on this surface and to determine the origins of this different reactivity.

  1. In situ study of key material and process reliability issues in the chemical vapor deposition of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ishing

    With the limitations of current aluminum based metallization schemes used in microelectronics, the development of a manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for copper metallization schemes is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sub-quarter micron device technology and beyond. The work presented herein focused on investigating key material and process reliability issues pertaining to Cu CVD processing. In particular, a unique combination of in-situ gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was employed to study the role of hydrogen in thermal CVD of copper using (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). These studies showed that hydrogen provides significant enhancement in the deposition rate of copper interconnects. Based on the QMS and FTIR data, this enhancement could be attributed to the role of hydrogen in assisting in the removal of tmvs from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac), thus enhancing the conversion of Cusp{I}(hfac) intermediates to Cusp{o} and Cusp{II}(hfac)sb2 and providing a wider process window with higher conversion efficiency. In addition, in-situ real time QMS studies were performed of the gas phase evolution and decomposition pathways of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) during thermal CVD of copper. The QMS investigations focused on determining the ionization efficiency curves and appearance potentials of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) under real CVD processing conditions. The resulting curves and associated potentials were then employed to identify the most likely precursor decomposition pathways and examine relevant implications for thermal CVD of copper from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). Finally, a hydrogen-plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) process was developed for the growth of device quality gold for incorporation as dopant in emerging Cu CVD based metallization interconnects. In particular, it was demonstrated that the PACVD gold process window identified can maintain very low gold deposition rates (gold is a promising in-situ Cu doping technique

  2. Copper phthalocyanine films deposited by liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, K R; Sathaye, S D; Hawaldar, R; Sathe, B R; Mandale, A B; Mitra, A

    2007-11-15

    The simple recrystallization process is innovatively used to obtain the nanoparticles of copper phthalocyanine by a simple method. Liquid-liquid interface recrystallization technique (LLIRCT) has been employed successfully to produce small sized copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles with diameter between 3-5 nm. The TEM-SAED studies revealed the formation of 3-5 nm sized with beta-phase dominated mixture of alpha and beta copper phthalocyanine nanoparticles. The XRD, SEM, and the UV-vis studies were further carried out to confirm the formation of copper phthalocyanine thin films. The cyclic voltametry (CV) studies conclude that redox reaction is totally reversible one electron transfer process. The process is attributed to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox reaction.

  3. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  4. Simultaneous synthesis of nanodiamonds and graphene via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW PE-CVD) on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Steven; Wöhrl, Nicolas; Schulz, Stephan; Buck, Volker

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous growth of both nanodiamonds and graphene on copper samples is described for the first time. A PE-CVD process is used to synthesize graphene layers and nanodiamond clusters from a hydrogen/methane gas mixture as it is typically done successfully in thermal CVD processes for graphene synthesis. However, the standard thermal CVD process is not without problems since the deposition of graphene is affected by the evaporation of a notable amount of copper caused by the slow temperature increase typical for thermal CVD resulting in a long process time. In sharp contrast, the synthesis of graphene by PE-CVD can circumvent this problem by substantially shortening the process time at holding out the prospect of a lower substrate temperature. The reduced thermal load and the possibility to industrially scale-up the PE-CVD process makes it a very attractive alternative to the thermal CVD process with respect to the graphene production in the future. Nanodiamonds are synthesized in PE-CVD reactors for a long time because these processes offer a high degree of control over the film's nanostructure and simultaneously providing a significant high deposition rate. To model the co-deposition process, the three relevant macroscopic parameters (pressure, gas mixture and microwave power) are correlated with three relevant process properties (plasma ball size, substrate temperature and C2/Hα-ratio) and the influence on the quality of the deposited carbon allotropes is investigated. For the evaluation of the graphene as well as the nanodiamond quality, Raman spectroscopy used whereas the plasma properties are measured by optical methods. It is found that the diamond nucleation can be influenced by the C2/Hα-ratio in the plasma, while the graphene quality remains mostly unchanged by this parameter. Moreover it is derived from the experimental data that the direct plasma contact with the copper surface is beneficial for the nucleation of the diamond while the growth and

  5. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle form and shape on toxicity and bioaccumulation in the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Lina; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2015-01-01

    Few in vivo studies have been conducted to assess how nanoparticle (NP) characteristics such as particle form and shape affect their toxicity and bioaccumulation. In the present study, the deposit feeder, Capitella teleta, was used to investigate the influence of copper form (CuO NPs, micron...... increased to approximately 26.3% on average in all Cu treatments after the depuration period indicating a delayed effect of Cu exposure, despite more than 90% depuration of Cu during this period. A significant effect of nanoparticle shape was detected on body burden, the gross uptake rate constant...

  6. USING FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED (FTIR TO CHARACTERIZE TSUNAMI DEPOSITS IN NEAR-SHORE AND COASTAL WATERS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pongpiachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the tsunami cycle requires a simple method for identification of tsunami backwash deposits. This study investigates Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy followed by careful analysis of variance (ANOVA, Gaussian distribution, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA for the discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits. In order to test the suitability of FTIR spectra as innovative methods for classifications of tsunami deposits, typical marine sediments and terrestrial soils were classified into three zones, namely zone-1 (i.e. typical marine sediments, zone-2 (i.e. including tsunami backwash deposits and zone-3 (i.e. coastal terrestrial soils. HCA was performed to group the spectra according to their spectral similarity in a dendrogram and successfully separate FTIR spectra of all three sampling zones into two main clusters with five sub-clusters. The simplicifolious (i.e. single-leafed type of dendrogram was observed with the strong dissimilarity of terrestrial components in subcluster- 5. Graphical displays of PC1 vs PC2 highlight the prominent features of zone-1, which is explicitly different from those of zone-2 and zone-3. The acceptable discrimination of typical marine sediments and tsunami backwash deposits, even six years after the tsunami on Boxing Day 2004, dramatically demonstrates the potential of the method for the identification of paleotsunami.

  7. Genetic and grade and tonnage models for sandstone-hosted roll-type uranium deposits, Texas Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan M.; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tureck, Kathleen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hannon, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The coincidence of a number of geologic and climatic factors combined to create conditions favorable for the development of mineable concentrations of uranium hosted by Eocene through Pliocene sandstones in the Texas Coastal Plain. Here 254 uranium occurrences, including 169 deposits, 73 prospects, 6 showings and 4 anomalies, have been identified. About 80 million pounds of U3O8 have been produced and about 60 million pounds of identified producible U3O8 remain in place. The development of economic roll-type uranium deposits requires a source, large-scale transport of uranium in groundwater, and deposition in reducing zones within a sedimentary sequence. The weight of the evidence supports a source from thick sequences of volcanic ash and volcaniclastic sediment derived mostly from the Trans-Pecos volcanic field and Sierra Madre Occidental that lie west of the region. The thickest accumulations of source material were deposited and preserved south and west of the San Marcos arch in the Catahoula Formation. By the early Oligocene, a formerly uniformly subtropical climate along the Gulf Coast transitioned to a zoned climate in which the southwestern portion of Texas Coastal Plain was dry, and the eastern portion humid. The more arid climate in the southwestern area supported weathering of volcanic ash source rocks during pedogenesis and early diagenesis, concentration of uranium in groundwater and movement through host sediments. During the middle Tertiary Era, abundant clastic sediments were deposited in thick sequences by bed-load dominated fluvial systems in long-lived channel complexes that provided transmissive conduits favoring transport of uranium-rich groundwater. Groundwater transported uranium through permeable sandstones that were hydrologically connected with source rocks, commonly across formation boundaries driven by isostatic loading and eustatic sea level changes. Uranium roll fronts formed as a result of the interaction of uranium-rich groundwater

  8. The role of oxygen in the deposition of copper–calcium thin film as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhinong, E-mail: znyu@bit.edu.cn [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ren, Ruihuang [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xue, Jianshe; Yao, Qi; Li, Zhengliang; Hui, Guanbao [Beijing BOE Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100176 (China); Xue, Wei [School of Optoelectronics and Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film. • The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film is necessary to improve the adhesion of Cu film. • The CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate. - Abstract: The properties of copper (Cu) metallization based on copper–calcium (CuCa) diffusion barrier as a function of oxygen flux in the CuCa film deposition were investigated in view of adhesion, diffusion and electronic properties. The CuCa film as the diffusion barrier of Cu film improves the adhesion of Cu film, however, and increases the resistance of Cu film. The introduction of oxygen into the deposition of CuCa film induces the improvement of adhesion and crystallinity of Cu film, but produces a slight increase of resistance. The increased resistance results from the partial oxidation of Cu film. The annealing process in vacuum further improves the adhesion, crystallinity and conductivity of Cu film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) show that the CuCa alloy barrier layer deposited at oxygen atmosphere has perfect anti-diffusion between Cu film and substrate due to the formation of Ca oxide in the interface of CuCa/substrate.

  9. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  10. Enhancement of surface integrity of titanium alloy with copper by means of laser metal deposition process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erinosho, MF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser metal deposition process possesses the combination of metallic powder and laser beam respectively. However, these combinations create an adhesive bonding that permanently solidifies the laser-enhanced-deposited powders. Titanium alloys (Ti...

  11. Tantalum Coating of Steel, Copper, Aluminum, and Titanium by Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    Tantalum coatings ranging from 0.5 to 120 mm has been deposited by CVD at 625-1000 C using tantalum pentachloride as precursor. Deposition rates range from 1 to 80mm/h and an activation energy of 103 kJ/mole is calculated. Well adhering deposits has been obtained on stainless steel, carbon steels...

  12. The role of bitumen in strata-bound copper deposit formation in the Copiapo area, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, M. Eugenia; Hermosilla, Juan

    2006-07-01

    In northern Chile, between 27 and 33°S, there are numerous deposits where residual petroleum is associated with Cu-(Ag) mineralisation (the most famous being El Soldado). All of these deposits are hosted by Lower Cretaceous volcanic or volcanoclastic facies along the axis of a former backarc basin. This close relationship suggests that the generation, migration and emplacement of hydrocarbons in the Cretaceous volcanic units is a regional process, associated with the evolution of the Cretaceous backarc basin and points to the importance of pyrobitumen as an exploration tool for similar Cu-(Ag) deposits. The present work analyses four small strata-bound copper deposits located along a north-south belt approximately 10 km east of Copiapó in northern Chile. These deposits are typically hosted by pyrobitumen-rich andesitic volcanic to volcanoclastic rocks intercalated with the marine carbonate Pabellón Formation, the youngest formation within the Chañarcillo Group. The strong genetic and spatial relationships between the pyrobitumen-rich lavas and the mineral deposits allow us to define this volcanic belt as the Ocoita-Pabellón Metallotect. Two hydrothermal events can be distinguished based on the mineralogical, textural, fluid inclusion and isotope data of ore and gangue and on the optical properties of residual petroleum. During the early event, petroleum was mobilised from the source rocks into the primary and secondary porosity of the lavas by Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids, which precipitated pyrite as an early sulphide phase. The second event is characterised by Cu-rich hydrothermal fluids, which induced three successive sub-stages of Cu-sulphide precipitation. The hydrothermal fluids chemically and thermally altered the first-stage bitumen, transforming it into pyrobitumen. The present work documents similarities between the Ocoita-Pabellón Metallotect and the El Soldado ore deposit and emphasises important differences. In the El Soldado host rocks, a

  13. Oscillatory Changes of the Heterogeneous Reactive Layer Detected with the Motional Resistance during the Galvanostatic Deposition of Copper in Sulfuric Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Alejandro; Agrisuelas, Jerónimo; García-Jareño, José J; Vicente, Francisco

    2015-11-24

    Metallic copper was galvanostatically deposited on quartz|gold resonant electrodes by applying a constant current in a 0.5 M CuSO4/0.1 M H2SO4 aqueous solution. Galvanostatic copper deposition is one of the best methodologies to calibrate the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalances (EQCM), a gravimetric sensor to evaluate changes in mass during the electrochemical reactions through the Sauerbrey equation. The simultaneous measurement of mass, current density, and motional resistance by an EQCM with motional resistance monitoring allows us to characterize the processes occurring on the electrode surface and at the interfacial regions with unprecedented detail. During the galvanostatic copper deposition, Cu(H2O)4(OH)2 is accumulated close to the copper surface, generating a passive layer. This passive layer can act as Cu(2+) reservoir for the Cu(2+) → Cu process since the copper deposition is not affected. The analysis of motional resistance evolution in different experimental conditions reveals that the passive layer is formed by the reaction of oxidizing agents generated at the counter electrode with the metallic copper surface. The simplistic Cu(2+) → Cu process is completed with a more detailed mechanism, which includes the passive layer formation/dissolution and the transport of species from the counter electrode surface (Pt) to the working electrode surface. The results further support the calibration procedure of EQCM by the galvanostatic deposition of copper in sulfuric solutions. However, we suggest applying high current densities, separating the counter electrode and quartz|gold resonant electrode about 0.5 cm, and keeping oxygen in solution for the EQCM calibration. Moreover, the better interval time to calculate the Sauerbrey's constant from charge and resonant frequency data is between 150 and 300 s.

  14. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in cultured oysters under two contrasting climatic conditions in coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2011-09-01

    In order to determine the metal concentrations in cultured oysters from four coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their cadmium, copper, lead and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentration of metals in oyster soft tissue was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. In two lagoons, Cd concentrations (10.1-13.5 μg g(-1) dw) exceeded the maximum level allowed according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-031-SSA1-1993), which is equivalent to the WHO recommended Cd levels in organisms used for human consumption.

  15. Debris reduction for copper and diamond-like carbon thin films produced by magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Tsui, Y Y; Vick, D; Fedosejevs, R

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of debris reduction using magnetically guided pulsed laser deposition (MGPLD) is reported here. KrF laser pulses (248 nm) of 100 mJ energy were focused to intensities of 6x10 sup 9 W/cm sup 2 onto the surface of a copper or a carbon source target and a magnetic field of 0.3 T as used to steer the plasma around a curved arc of 0.5 m length to the deposition substrate. Debris counts were compared for films produced by the MGPLD and conventional PLD (nonguided) techniques. A significant reduction in particulates of size greater than 0.1 mu m was achieved using MGPLD. For the copper films, particulate count was reduced from 150 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 50 particulates/cm sup 2 /nm and for diamond-like carbon thin films particulate count was reduced from 25 000 particles/cm sup 2 /nm to 1200 particles/cm sup 2 /nm.

  16. Mineralization and leaching process in the Jian copper deposit, northeastern Fars province: Application of petrography and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Moore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the first principles in the formation of a reserve is mineralogical, construction and mineral textures studies and investigation of paragenetic relations in the ore minerals. In addition, to petrographic studies, isotopic investigates have wide applications in economic geology. In general, copper isotope variability in primary (high temperature mineralization forms a tight cluster, in contrast to secondary mineralization, which has a much larger isotope range. A distinct pattern of heavier copper isotope signatures is evident in supergene samples, and a lighter signature characterizes the leached cap and oxidation-zone minerals. This relationship has been used to understand oxidation–reduction processes (Hoefs, 2009. Also for a better understanding of the origin of the Jian Cu deposit, this research focuses on the origin and composition of the fluid and elucidation of its evolution during the mineralization process. In order to achieve this end, field observations, vein petrography, microthermometry of fluid inclusions and stable isotope analyses of veins and minerals were investigated. The present study also compares high and low temperature sulfide samples in an attempt to document and explain diagnostic δ65Cu ranges in minerals from the Jian deposit. Materials and methods The samples were taken from different depths to measure Cu isotope variations within each reservoir. Mineralogical composition was determined using X-ray diffractometry. In addition, chromatographic separation was carried out on all samples (except for native Cu samples in a clean lab and was conducted as outlined in Mathur et al. (Mathur et al., 2009. These samples were measured into a Multicollector Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS, the Micro mass Isoprobe at the University of Arizona in low resolution mode using a microconcentric nebulizer to increase sensitivity for the samples with lower concentrations of copper. Preparation

  17. Daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside from Tongguanshan Copper Deposit by SEM/EDS and LRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Zengqian Hou; Zhusen Yang; Wenyi Xu; Yifeng Meng; Baohua Wang

    2004-01-01

    Tongguanshan copper deposit of Tongling large ore belt is one of the typical skarn copper deposits. Based on careful observation under microscope many daughter minerals including transparent ones and opaque ones have been distinguished in the fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside. The results of SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer) and LRM (laser Raman microprobe) analysis show that these daughter minerals in garnet are sylvite, halite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and carbonate. Sylvite daughter mineral is very popular in garnet and diopside. The existence of so much sylvite daughter mineral and other daughter minerals in the fluid inclusions indicates that the ore-forming fluid is of supper-high salinity and high potassium concentration. High potassium concentration in the fluid inclusions agrees with K-rich mesotype-acid rock and K-silicate alteration that occurred widely in this area. The daughter mineral assemblage in garnet and diopside is similar to the mineral assemblage of oreforming stage that followed skarn stage.

  18. Spray-Deposited Large-Area Copper Nanowire Transparent Conductive Electrodes and Their Uses for Touch Screen Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsun-Chen; Chang, Yen-Chen; Lin, Yow; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Wei-Chung; Li, Guo-An; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2016-05-25

    Large-area conducting transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) were prepared by a fast, scalable, and low-cost spray deposition of copper nanowire (CuNW) dispersions. Thin, long, and pure copper nanowires were obtained via the seed-mediated growth in an organic solvent-based synthesis. The mean length and diameter of nanowires are, respectively, 37.7 μm and 46 nm, corresponding to a high-mean-aspect ratio of 790. These wires were spray-deposited onto a glass substrate to form a nanowire conducting network which function as a TCE. CuNW TCEs exhibit high-transparency and high-conductivity since their relatively long lengths are advantageous in lowering in the sheet resistance. For example, a 2 × 2 cm(2) transparent nanowire electrode exhibits transmittance of T = 90% with a sheet resistance as low as 52.7 Ω sq(-1). Large-area sizes (>50 cm(2)) of CuNW TCEs were also prepared by the spray coating method and assembled as resistive touch screens that can be integrated with a variety of devices, including LED lighting array, a computer, electric motors, and audio electronic devices, showing the capability to make diverse sizes and functionalities of CuNW TCEs by the reported method.

  19. The Cretaceous sediment-hosted copper deposits of San Marcos (Coahuila, Northeastern Mexico): An approach to ore-forming processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Donají; Canet, Carles; González-Partida, Eduardo; Villanueva-Estrada, Ruth Esther; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; Alfonso, Pura; Caballero-Martínez, Juan Antonio; Lozano-Santa Cruz, Rufino

    2011-04-01

    In the San Marcos ranges of Cuatrociénegas, NE Mexico, several sediment-hosted copper deposits occur within the boundary between the Coahuila Block, a basement high mostly granitic in composition and Late Paleozoic to Triassic in age, and the Mesozoic Sabinas rift basin. This boundary is outlined by the regional-scale synsedimentary San Marcos Fault. At the basin scale, the copper mineralization occurs at the top of a ˜1000 m thick red-bed succession (San Marcos Formation, Berrisian), a few meters below a conformable, transitional contact with micritic limestones (Cupido Formation, Hauterivian to Aptian). It consists of successive decimeter-thick roughly stratiform copper-rich horizons placed just above the red-beds, in a transitional unit of carbonaceous grey-beds grading to micritic limestones. The host rocks are fine- to medium-grained arkoses, with poorly sorted and subangular to subrounded grains. The detrital grains are cemented by quartz and minor calcite; besides, late iron oxide grain-coating cement occurs at the footwall unmineralized red-beds. The source area of the sediments, indicated by their modal composition, is an uplifted basement. The contents of SiO 2 (40.70-87.50 wt.%), Al 2O 3 (5.91-22.00 wt.%), K 2O (3.68-12.50 wt.%), Na 2O (0.03-2.03 wt.%) and CaO (0.09-3.78 wt.%) are within the ranges expected for arkoses. Major oxide ratios indicate that the sedimentary-tectonic setting was a passive margin. The outcropping copper mineralization essentially consists in a supergene assemblage of chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. All that remains of the primary mineralization are micron-sized chalcocite grains shielded by quartz cement. In addition, pyrite subhedral grains occur scattered throughout the copper-mineralized horizons. In these weathered orebodies copper contents range between 4.24 and 7.72 wt.%, silver between 5 and 92 ppm, and cobalt from 8 to 91 ppm. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite crystals from

  20. Identification of hydrothermal alteration zones of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposits in northwest China using ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    Remote sensing technology plays a vital role in the initial stages of ore deposits exploration, with special significance in arid and semiarid regions. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) creates opportunities for geologists and many researchers to study the extraction of hydrothermal alterations of the porphyry copper and epithermal gold deposits. ASTER data were used to map distribution of hydrothermal alteration of deposits in the Baogutu region which is located in western Junggar, Xinjiang, China, including Baogutu II and Baogutu V deposits. Band ratio logical operator (BRLO), principal component analysis (PCA), mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF), and constrained energy minimization (CEM) techniques were used for detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. The alteration zones were identified using BRLO and PCA. The minerals subject to alteration were extracted by MTMF and CEM. The results were validated through field observation, spectral measurements, and petrographic studies. By comparing the extraction results and accuracy rates of four methods, CEM boasts the highest accuracy and identifies the altered minerals corresponding to three types of alterations at accuracy of over 80%. The identifying result of CEM method indicates that the prospect areas that were located in the southeast part of the Baogutu II rocks and in the southwest part of the Baogutu V rocks are valuable for further exploration.

  1. Study on the origin of the Hongshan brecciated copper deposit in Huichang County,Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Hongshan copper deposit is a typical cryptoexplosive breccia-type deposit, which occurs in a Metamorphic rock series of the Mesoproterozoic Taoxiyuan Formation. Orebodies are distributed inside and outside porphyry-cryptoexplosive breccia pipes. The isotope geochemistry of the deposit is consistent with the origin of porphyry breccia: the δ18OH2O values ranging from 1.2‰ to 6.1‰ and the δ34S values varying from 0 to 2.5‰.206Pb/204Pb,207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of pyrite, which coexists with ore minerals, indicate it was derived from the orogenic belt. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that the main metals were deposited largely as a result of the decreasing of proton concentrations associated with H2S and CO2 exsolution during exploslon and temperature dropping.Based on K-Ar dating of quartz coexisting with ore minerals,the age of mineralization was estimated to be 97.1-98.8 Ma,which suggests that mineralization occurred between the Early and Late Cretaceous. According to the relevant informtion obtained,a diagenetic and metallogenic pattern in the area has been presented in this paper.

  2. Effects of sediment-associated copper to the deposit-feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Chengfang; Selck, Henriette; Misra, Superb K

    2012-01-01

    the case of metal oxide NPs using CuO to understand if the effects of NPs differ from micron-sized particles of CuO and aqueous Cu (CuCl2). To address this issue, we compared effects of copper added to the sediment as aqueous Cu, nano- (6 nm) and micro- (snail...

  3. Database of significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Ludington, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the largest mineral deposits contain most of the known mineral endowment (Singer and DeYoung, 1980). Sometimes called giant or world-class deposits, these largest deposits account for a very large share of historic and current mineral production and resources in industrial society (Singer, 1995). For example, Singer (1995) shows that the largest 10 percent of the world’s gold deposits contain 86 percent of the gold discovered to date. Many mineral resource issues and investigations are more easily addressed if limited to the relatively small number of deposits that contain most of the known mineral resources. An estimate of known resources using just these deposits would normally be sufficient, because considering smaller deposits would not add significantly to the total estimate. Land-use planning should treat mainly with these deposits due to their relative scarcity, the large share of known resources they contain, and the fact that economies of scale allow minerals to be produced much more cheaply from larger deposits. Investigation of environmental and other hazards that result from mining operations can be limited to these largest deposits because they account for most of past and current production.

  4. Mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and sulfur isotope evidence for the genesis of Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit, Eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, Azadeh; Karimpour, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    The Sechangi lead-zinc (-copper) deposit lies in the Lut block metallogenic province of Eastern Iran. This deposit consists of ore-bearing vein emplaced along fault zone and hosted by Late Eocene monzonite porphyry. Hydrothermal alteration minerals developed in the wall rock include quartz, kaolinite, illite, and calcite. Microscopic studies reveal that the vein contains galena and sphalerite with minor chalcopyrite and pyrite as hypogene minerals and cerussite, anglesite, covellite, malachite, hematite, and goethite as secondary minerals. Fluorite and quartz are the dominant gangue minerals and show a close relationship with sulfide mineralization. Calculated δ34S values for the ore fluid vary between -9.9‰ and -5.9‰. Sulfur isotopic compositions suggest that the ore-forming aqueous solutions were derived from magmatic source and mixed with isotopically light sulfur, probably leached from the volcanic and plutonic country rocks. Microthermometric study of fluid inclusions indicates homogenization temperatures of 151-352 °C. Salinities of ore-forming fluids ranged from 0.2 to 16.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The ore-forming fluids of the Sechangi deposit are medium- to low-temperature and salinity. Fluid mixing may have played an important role during Pb-Zn (-Cu) mineralization. The key factors allowing for metal transport and precipitation during ore formation include the sourcing of magmatic fluids with high contents of metallogenic elements and the mixing of these hydrothermal fluids with meteoric waters resulting in the formation of deposit. In terms of the genetic type of deposit, the Sechangi is classified as a volcanic-subvolcanic hydrothermal-related vein deposit.

  5. Evolution and preservation potential of fluvial and transgressive deposits on the Louisiana inner shelf: Understanding depositional processes to support coastal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, J.; Miner, M.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Lavoie, D.L.; Kindinger, J.

    2009-01-01

    The barrier-island systems of the Mississippi River Delta plain are currently undergoing some of the highest rates of shoreline retreat in North America (???20 m/year). Effective management of this coastal area requires an understanding of the processes involved in shoreline erosion and measures that can be enacted to reduce loss. The dominant stratigraphy of the delta plain is fluvial mud (silts and clays), delivered in suspension via a series of shallow-water delta lobes that prograded across the shelf throughout the Holocene. Abandonment of a delta lobe through avulsion leads to rapid land subsidence through compaction within the muddy framework. As the deltaic headland subsides below sea level, the marine environment transgresses the bays and wetlands, reworking the available sands into transgressive barrier shorelines. This natural process is further complicated by numerous factors: (1) global sea-level rise; (2) reduced sediment load within the Mississippi River; (3) diversion of the sediment load away from the barrier shorelines to the deep shelf; (4) storm-induced erosion; and (5) human alteration of the littoral process through the construction of hardened shorelines, canals, and other activities. This suite of factors has led to the deterioration of the barrier-island systems that protect interior wetlands and human infrastructure from normal wave activity and periodic storm impact. Interior wetland loss results in an increased tidal prism and inlet cross-sectional areas, and expanding ebb-tidal deltas, which removes sand from the littoral processes through diversion and sequestration. Shoreface erosion of the deltaic headlands does not provide sufficient sand to balance the loss, resulting in thinning and dislocation of the islands. Abatement measures include replenishing lost sediment with similar material, excavated from discrete sandy deposits within the muddy delta plain. These sand bodies were deposited by the same cyclical processes that formed the

  6. Bioavailability of heavy metals for the deposit feeder Macoma balthica with special emphasis on copper.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In coastal and estuarine regions of Western Europe, concentrations of contaminants in the sediment are often relatively high compared to the waterphase. Consequently, these contaminants might form a serious threat to animals living in and associated with the sediment.As a biological monitor for sedi

  7. Bioavailability of heavy metals for the deposit feeder Macoma balthica with special emphasis on copper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In coastal and estuarine regions of Western Europe, concentrations of contaminants in the sediment are often relatively high compared to the waterphase. Consequently, these contaminants might form a serious threat to animals living in and associated with the sediment.

    As a biologica

  8. Coastal plain and fluvial deposits in the tertiary of central and northern Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moechtar, H.

    1994-01-01

    The Ebro Basin represents purely fluvial deposition with a relatively high, but steady tectonic activity in relation to uplift of the Pyrenees and thrust fault activity. The cyclic pattern in the fluvial deposits can be attributed to Milankovitch related climatological changes. In the Loranca Basin

  9. Nanosecond laser ablation and deposition of silver, copper, zinc and tin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzaniga, Andrea Carlo; Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt; Canulescu, Stela

    2014-01-01

    Nanosecond pulsed laser deposition of different metals (Ag, Cu, Sn, Zn) has been studied in high vacuum at a laser wavelength of 355 nm and pulse length of 6 ns. The deposition rate is roughly similar for Sn, Cu and Ag, which have comparable cohesive energies, and much higher for the deposition o...... be explained by the continuous erosion by nanoparticles during deposition of the Sn films which appear to have a much rougher surface than those of the other metals studied in the present work....

  10. A contemporary look at the sedimentary system of the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi (UAE): Primary deposition vs. early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Andreas; Wang, Jiayi; Court, Wesley; Lokier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, the Abu Dhabi coastline was subject to intensive research efforts by institutions from all over the world. This activity was mostly related to the onset of oil exploration in the region and the hypothesis that the modern Abu Dhabi Sabkha provides a direct analogue to the ancient deposits of the hydrocarbon-bearing Arab Formation. While research initially concentrated on a characterisation of the bulk depositional system, focus has recently shifted to answer more specific questions such as the role of microbial mats in the formation of dolomite. Through this shift to a smaller scale, the remainder of the sabkha, including its microbial mats, was neglected and little further activity was undertaken to characterise the coastal sabkha using modern, state-of-the-art, research tools and methods. This paper will not attempt to reinvent the wheel with respect to the work of the early researchers; we will instead present an updated model of the sedimentary system of the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi. This model will focus on establishing the relationship and controlling factors between primary deposits of the carbonate ramp system and secondary early diagenetic precipitates. Initial results show that primary deposits of the UAE's carbonate ramp are equivalent to carbonate mudstones, packstones, grainstones, and occasional rudstones with a packstone matrix, that form above a Holocene to Recent hardground. These deposits occur mostly in a subtidal to lower intertidal setting, landward of which they are gradually being covered by a green cyanobacterial layer that binds the primarily unconsolidated sediment. Further landward, in the middle and upper intertidal zones, these cyanobacterial layers grade into more complex microbial mat layers of potentially highly diverse bacterial and algal faunal composition. Microbial mat layers in the upper intertidal and the lower supratidal zones are increasingly interspersed with gypsum crystals and white

  11. Structural characteristics of copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films prepared by microwave plasma-assisted deposition processes from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiery, F.; Pauleau, Y.; Grob, J.J.; Babonneau, D

    2004-11-01

    Copper/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Cu/a-C:H) composite films have been deposited on silicon substrates by a hybrid technique combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and sputter-deposition from methane-argon and acetylene-argon gas mixtures. The major objective of this work was to investigate the effect of the carbon gas precursor on the structural characteristics of Cu/a-C:H composite films deposited at ambient temperature. The major characteristics of CH{sub 4}-argon and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-argon plasmas were analyzed by Langmuir probe measurements. The composition of films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, energy recoil detection analyses and nuclear reaction analyses. The carbon content in the films was observed to vary in the range 20-77 at.% and 7.5-99 at.% as the CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} concentrations in the gas phase increased from 10 to 100%, respectively. The atom number ratio H/C in the films was scattered approximately 0.4 whatever the carbon gas precursor used. The crystallographic structure and the size of copper crystallites incorporated in the a-C were determined by X-ray diffraction techniques. The copper crystallite size decreased from 20 nm in pure copper films to less than 5 nm in Cu/a-C:H films containing more than 40 at.% of carbon. Grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering measurements were performed to investigate the size distribution and distance of copper crystallites as functions of the deposition parameters. The structural characteristics of copper crystallites were dependent on the hydrocarbon gas precursor used. The crystallite size and the width of the size distribution were homogeneous in films deposited from CH{sub 4}. Copper crystallites with an anisotropic shape were found in films deposited from C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The major radicals formed in the plasma and condensed on the surface of growing films, namely CH and C{sub 2}H radicals for films produced from CH{sub 4} and C

  12. Quaternary sea level high-stand deposits of the southeast U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain: Age, distribution, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, R. K.; Cronin, T. M.; Ghaleb, B.; Portell, R.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; Wehmiller, J. F.; Thompson, W. G.; Oches, E. A.; Willard, D. A.; Katz, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerged Quaternary paleo-shorelines and marine deposits provide a more direct way to reconstruct and analyze sea-level variability than methods using oxygen isotope analyses of deep ocean benthic foraminifera. New Uranium-series dates on fossil corals (primarily Astrangia spp. and Septastrea spp.) combined with previously published dates have allowed us to constrain the age, elevation, and geographical distribution of marine sediments deposited in the United States Atlantic Coastal Plain (ACP) from Virginia to Florida during periods of past high relative sea level (SL). We present new dates from deposits (VA/NC: Tabb/Norfolk, Nassawadox, & Omar Formations; SC: Wando, Socastee, & Canepatch Formations; FL: Anastasia, Ft. Thompson, & Bermont Formations) representing interglacial high-stands during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5, 7, 9, and 11. In addition, we incorporate stratigraphic, marine micropaleontologic, and palynologic records with our SL chronology to reconstruct a more complete history of middle-to-late Pleistocene interglacial climates of the ACP. Ultimately, these results will test modeled sea-level fingerprint studies based on various melting scenarios of the Greenland and/or Antarctic ice sheets.

  13. Occurrence model for magmatic sulfide-rich nickel-copper-(platinum-group element) deposits related to mafic and ultramafic dike-sill complexes: Chapter I in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Klaus J.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Nicholson, Suzanne W.; Seal, Robert R., II; Piatak, Nadine M.; Chandler, Val W.; Mars, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Magmatic sulfide deposits containing nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu), with or without (±) platinum-group elements (PGE), account for approximately 60 percent of the world’s nickel production. Most of the remainder of the Ni production is derived from lateritic deposits, which form by weathering of ultramafic rocks in humid tropical conditions. Magmatic Ni-Cu±PGE sulfide deposits are spatially and genetically related to bodies of mafic and/or ultramafic rocks. The sulfide deposits form when the mantle-derived mafic and/or ultramafic magmas become sulfide-saturated and segregate immiscible sulfide liquid, commonly following interaction with continental crustal rocks.

  14. Mercury speciation in wet deposition samples collected from a coastal area of Minamata Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Matsuyama, Akito

    2014-04-01

    To better understand the methylation and demethylation of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in wet deposition samples collected in the Minamata Bay area from September, 2009 to August, 2010 were determined. The concentrations of total Hg (dissolved Hg + particulate Hg) and dissolved reactive Hg were also measured. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of dissolved MMHg and total Hg were 0.061 and 5.9 ng L-1, respectively. Almost 90% of total Hg was in the dissolved phase and dissolved reactive Hg was the dominant Hg species in the wet deposition. The wet deposition fluxes of total Hg and reactive Hg increased in the rainy season (summer and fall), while the concentrations and wet deposition fluxes of MMHg were higher in winter and spring than in summer. Factors affecting this seasonal variation of MMHg were also considered. The MMHg in wet depositions may be decomposed by the increased levels of UV radiation in summer months, although MMHg can also be emitted from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and/or produced by photochemical reactions. Long-range transport from the Asian continent may also contribute to the seasonal variation of the wet MMHg deposition flux.

  15. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  16. Ball clay and bentonite deposits of the central and western Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain produces approximately 85 percent of the ball clay used in the United States. The best commercial-grade clay deposits are composed of poorly crystalline kaolinite and small amounts of Md illite and (or) smectite. Sand and silt and iron oxide minerals are virtually absent, but quartz is present in the clay-size fraction. The best grade ball clays are found as lenses limited to the Wilcox Group (Paleocene and lower Eocene) and Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). Reserves of ball clay are sufficient for the present, but because of the lenticular nature of the clay bodies, close-spaced drilling, detailed sampling, mineralogic analyses, and ceramic testing are needed to prove future reserves.Approximately 11 percent of the total bentonite produced in the United States comes from the Gulf Coast region. The commercial-grade bentonites are composed primarily of smectite with little or no Md illite and kaolinite. The nonclay impurities are quartz, feldspar, muscovite, biotite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, and heulandite. Commercial bentonites occur in the Upper Cretaceous formations in Alabama and Mississippi, in Paleocene formations in Mississippi and Tennessee, and in Eocene and Miocene formations in Texas. The demand for low-swelling bentonite of the Gulf Coastal Plain has not increased along with the demand for swelling bentonite; therefore the reserves are adequate.

  17. Sedimentary architecture and depositional evolution of the Quaternary coastal plain of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available The coastal geomorphology of Maricá (Rio de Janeiro state is characterized by a large lagoon and by two sandy barriers that confine a series of small isolated chain-like lagoons. Data collected from ground-penetrating radar and boreholes from the central coastal plain of Maricá provided information on the sedimentary architecture and evolution of this area in the Quaternary. Six lithological units were identified comprising three depositional sequences limited by erosional surfaces, related to barrier-lagoon systems that migrated onshore, offshore, and longshore, giving rise to a sedimentary deposit 25 m thick or more. The data reveal a retrograding barrier overlying a basal mud unit which rests in unconformity upon Precambrian basement, thus characterizing an important Pleistocene transgression. A second Pleistocene barrier of 45,000 cal years BP migrated over a lagoonal mud unit (48,000-45,000 cal years BP reaching over the previous barrier. A progradational phase followed due to a fall of sea level. A long interval of erosion of the barrier created an unconformity that represents the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. A beachrock in nearby Itaipuaçu, 100 m offshore from the present-day beach, dated as 8,500 cal years BP marks the onset of Holocene sedimentation due to gradually rising sea level, which continued until at about 5,000 years ago. This promoted the retrogradation of the barrier-lagoon system. A brief episode of progradation is observed as a series of paleobeach scarps. Today's rising sea level is causing the retrogradation of the barrier.

  18. A reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy study of underpotential deposition of copper onto Au(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. I.; Farell, T.; Lucas, C. A.; Nichols, R. J.; Weightman, P.

    2005-11-01

    The underpotential deposition of Cu on Au(110) has been monitored by Reflection Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS). The changes in the intensity of spectral features observed at 2.6 eV and 3.4 eV in the RA spectrum of Au(110) that are induced by the deposition of Cu occur on different timescales. It is suggested that these changes arise, respectively, from the partial quenching of surface states and from changes in surface morphology.

  19. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad B., E-mail: mbgholivand@razi.ac.ir [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Abbas [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS–MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS–MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800 μM with a low detection limit of 70 nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50–800 μM with the detection limit of 4.3 μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. - Highlights: • The Copper nanostructures (CuNS) were prepared by cyclic voltammetry deposition. • The CuNS-MWCNT/PGE sensor shows high activity toward hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}). • The proposed sensor exhibits a wide linear range (0.1 to 800 μM), low detection limit (70 nM), high sensitivity and stability for hydrazine.

  20. Late Holocene depositional environments and coastal evolution of the Mekong River Delta, Southern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lap Nguyen, Van; Ta, Thi Kim Oanh; Tateishi, Masaaki

    2000-08-01

    The Mekong River Delta in Southern Vietnam is a tide-dominated delta and has been formed by the Mekong River system. The sediments are dominantly fine grained and were deposited in the receiving basin with slight inclination of pre-existing deposits in the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand. Around 6000 to 5000 yr BP maximum Holocene transgression occurred and seawaves surrounded uplands of the Late Pleistocene terrace, basement rock and weathered land in the northern parts of the delta. Double notches were undercut by seawaves on the limestone hill in Hatien at about 4.5 and 2.5 m above present sea level. Marine deposits prevailed throughout the delta. During the highstand and regressions of relative sea level over the last 4550 yr BP, delta progradation has produced a great flat-plain of 62,520 km 2. This extremely fast progradation could be due to: (a) very high sediment supply depositing in the slight inclination of the receiving basin; (b) neotectonic movements and relative sea-level changes; (c) widespread mangrove forests playing an important role to enhance sediment accumulation. Former mangrove marshy deposits were significantly developed in the Plain of Reeds and Longxuyen Quadrangle. Mangrove marshes have also been developing well in the Camau Peninsula and present coastlines. Moreover, regressions over the last 4550 yr BP have produced many distinct sets of relict beach ridges which are useful in distinguishing the former coastlines and evolutionary history of the delta.

  1. Novel Microbial Assemblages Dominate Weathered Sulfide-Bearing Rock from Copper-Nickel Deposits in the Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S; Lapakko, Kim A; Wenz, Zachary J; Olson, Michael C; Roepke, Elizabeth W; Sadowsky, Michael J; Novak, Paige J; Bailey, Jake V

    2017-08-15

    The Duluth Complex in northeastern Minnesota hosts economically significant deposits of copper, nickel, and platinum group elements (PGEs). The primary sulfide mineralogy of these deposits includes the minerals pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pentlandite, and cubanite, and weathering experiments show that most sulfide-bearing rock from the Duluth Complex generates moderately acidic leachate (pH 4 to 6). Microorganisms are important catalysts for metal sulfide oxidation and could influence the quality of water from mines in the Duluth Complex. Nevertheless, compared with that of extremely acidic environments, much less is known about the microbial ecology of moderately acidic sulfide-bearing mine waste, and so existing information may have little relevance to those microorganisms catalyzing oxidation reactions in the Duluth Complex. Here, we characterized the microbial communities in decade-long weathering experiments (kinetic tests) conducted on crushed rock and tailings from the Duluth Complex. Analyses of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts showed that differences among microbial communities correspond to pH, rock type, and experimental treatment. Moreover, microbial communities from the weathered Duluth Complex rock were dominated by taxa that are not typically associated with acidic mine waste. The most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were from the genera Meiothermus and Sulfuriferula, as well as from diverse clades of uncultivated Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria Specific taxa, including putative sulfur-oxidizing Sulfuriferula spp., appeared to be primarily associated with Duluth Complex rock, but not pyrite-bearing rocks subjected to the same experimental treatment. We discuss the implications of these results for the microbial ecology of moderately acidic mine waste with low sulfide content, as well as for kinetic testing of mine waste.IMPORTANCE Economic sulfide mineral deposits in the Duluth Complex may represent the largest undeveloped

  2. Surface chemistry of copper metal and copper oxide atomic layer deposition from copper(ii) acetylacetonate: a combined first-principles and reactive molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Schuster, Jörg; Schulz, Stefan E; Gessner, Thomas

    2015-10-28

    Atomistic mechanisms for the atomic layer deposition using the Cu(acac)2 (acac = acetylacetonate) precursor are studied using first-principles calculations and reactive molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that Cu(acac)2 chemisorbs on the hollow site of the Cu(110) surface and decomposes easily into a Cu atom and the acac-ligands. A sequential dissociation and reduction of the Cu precursor [Cu(acac)2 → Cu(acac) → Cu] are observed. Further decomposition of the acac-ligand is unfavorable on the Cu surface. Thus additional adsorption of the precursors may be blocked by adsorbed ligands. Molecular hydrogen is found to be nonreactive towards Cu(acac)2 on Cu(110), whereas individual H atoms easily lead to bond breaking in the Cu precursor upon impact, and thus release the surface ligands into the gas-phase. On the other hand, water reacts with Cu(acac)2 on a Cu2O substrate through a ligand-exchange reaction, which produces gaseous H(acac) and surface OH species. Combustion reactions with the main by-products CO2 and H2O are observed during the reaction between Cu(acac)2 and ozone on the CuO surface. The reactivity of different co-reactants toward Cu(acac)2 follows the order H > O3 > H2O.

  3. Remote-sensing ore prediction in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal deposit, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Zhao, B.; Wu, J. J.; Liao, Y. Z.; Zhang, T.

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the band-ratioing operation, principal component analysis (PCA), and multifractal model, the OLI image was employed to extract iron - stained and hydroxyl alteration in and around the Linghou copper-polymetal mine. Findings showed that the extraction results successfully bypassed the interferences caused by the quite thick vegetational and sedimentary covers, and can accurately locate the Linghou diggings, as well as several suspected ore spots. This study may have contributed a useful case study for in-depth geological remote-sensing analysis.

  4. REDBED RELATED GOLD DEPOSIT,LUBINSIEROSZOWICE COPPER DISTRICT,SW POLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Piestrzynski; J.Pieczonka

    2001-01-01

    @@ Underground prospecting within the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area which took place during last 5 years,led to a discovery of a new type of Au,Pt and Pd mineralisation located0-0.5 m below the copper-silver orebody in the south-western part of the Polish Permian Basin.The gold-bearing zone lies mainly in the Weissliegendes sandstone (Iower Permian),but locally transgresses the stratigraphic sequence into the overlying kupferschiefer and Werra limestone (Zechstein).

  5. REDBED RELATED GOLD DEPOSIT,LUBINSIEROSZOWICE COPPER DISTRICT,SW POLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Piestrzynski; J.Pieczonka

    2001-01-01

    Underground prospecting within the Lubin-Sieroszowice mining area which took place during last 5 years,led to a discovery of a new type of Au,Pt and Pd mineralisation located0-0.5 m below the copper-silver orebody in the south-western part of the Polish Permian Basin.The gold-bearing zone lies mainly in the Weissliegendes sandstone (Iower Permian),but locally transgresses the stratigraphic sequence into the overlying kupferschiefer and Werra limestone (Zechstein).……

  6. Cherts from the Yangla copper deposit, western Yunnan Province: geochemical characteristics and relationship with massive sulfide mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Jiayong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Wei Junqi, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa et al., Geochemistry of granitoid from the Yangla ore district, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1997 (4): 50.[2]He Longqing, Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Division of sequence stratigraphy and study on ore-bearing beds in the Yangla copper orefield, western Yunnan, Geology and Mineral Resources of South China (in Chinese), 1998 (3): 37.[3]Zhan Mingguo, Lu Yuanfa, Chen Shifang et al., Formation condition and type of the Yangla large scale copper deposit, Western Yunnan, Mineral Deposits (in Chinese), 1998, 17 (supplement): 183.[4]Lu Yuanfa, Chen Kaixu, Zhan Mingguo et al., Geochemical evidence of exhalative-sedimentary ore-bearing skarns in Yangla copper mineralization concentrated Area, Earth Science (in Chinese), 1999, 24(3): 298.[5]Yomamoto, K., Geochemical characteristics and depositional environments of cherts and associated rocks in the Franciscan and Shimanto terranes, Sedimentary Geology, 1987, 52: 65.[6]Zhou, Y. Z., Geochemical characteristics of siliceous rocks originated from a fossil hydrothermal system in the upper Devonian strata, Guangxi, southern China, Acta Sedimentologia, 1990, 8 (3): 75.[7]Zhou Yongzhang, Geology and Geochemistry of Hetai Gold Field, Southern China, Guangzhou: South China University of Technology Press, 1993, 53-107.[8]Bostroem, K., Harold, R., Oiva, J., Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Fe, Tl, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in Pacific pelagic sediment, Chem. Geol., 1973, 11: 123.[9]Herzig, P. M., Becker, K. P., Stoffers, P. et al., Hydrothermal silica chimney field in the Galapagos rift center at 81°W, Earth Pla. Sci. Lett., 1987, 52: 65.[10] Douthitt, C. B., The geochemistry of the stable isotopes of the silicon, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 1982, 16: 129.[11] Ying Hanlong, Cai Xinping, Liu Bingguang, Geochemical features and formation of auriferous cherts in Mojiang Gold Mine, Yunnan, Geochemistry (in Chinese), 1999

  7. Simultaneous coastal measurements of ozone deposition fluxes and iodine-mediated particle emission fluxes with subsequent CCN formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Whitehead

    2010-01-01

    of hours; sizes at which they may readily behave as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN under reasonable supersaturations that may be expected to pertain at the top of the marine boundary layer. These results link direct depositional loss and photochemical destruction of ozone to the formation of particles and hence CCN from macroalgal emissions at a coastal location.

  8. Electrochemical deposition of copper decorated titania nanotubes and its visible light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y. C.; Siti, A. S.; Nur Amiera, P.; Devagi, K.; Lim, Y. P.

    2017-09-01

    Coupling of titania with narrow band gap materials has been a promising strategy in preparing visible light responsive photocatalyst. In this work, self-organized copper decorated TiO2 nanotube (Cu/TNT) was prepared via electrodeposition of Cu onto highly ordered titania nanotube arrays (TNT). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The DRS studies clearly show the extended absorption of Cu/TNT into the visible region and present a red shift of band gap to 2.1 eV. FESEM analysis has shown the dispersion of cubic-like Cu particles upon electrodeposition and EDX analysis supports the presence of copper species on the nanotubes surface. The photocatalytic ability of Cu/TNT was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange from aqueous solution under low power visible light illumination. Compared to TNT, an appreciable improvement in methyl orange removal was observed for Cu/TNT and the highest removal efficiency of 80% was achieved. The effects of catalyst loading and samples repeatability were investigated and under optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of methyl orange over Cu/TNT had further increased to 93.4%. This work has demonstrated a feasible and simple way to introduce narrow band gap transition metal into nanotube arrays, which could create novel properties for functionalized nanotube arrays as well as promise a wide range of applications.

  9. Magnetic properties related to hydrothermal alteration processes at the Escondida porphyry copper deposit, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, K.; Veloso, E.; Campos, E.; Menzies, A.; Véliz, W.

    2014-08-01

    Fluid-rock interaction related to the circulation of hydrothermal fluids can strongly modify the physicochemical properties of wall rocks in porphyry Cu deposits. These processes can also produce compositional and textural changes in ferromagnetic minerals, which can be quantified using magnetic methods. In the Escondida porphyry Cu deposit of northern Chile, each hydrothermally altered lithology is characterized by a discrete assemblage of Fe-Ti oxide minerals. These minerals have distinctive bulk magnetic susceptibility ( K bulk), temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility, and magnetic hysteresis parameters. Selectively altered rocks (i.e., potassic and chloritic alteration types) exhibit the highest K bulk values (>3.93 × 10-3 SI units), and their hysteresis parameters indicate multidomain magnetic mineral behavior. This suggests that these rocks are composed of the coarsest magnetic grain sizes within the deposit. Optical analyses and susceptibility-temperature curves confirm that the magnetic signals in selectively altered rocks are mainly carried by secondary magnetite. In contrast, pervasively altered rocks (i.e., quartz-sericite and argillic alteration types) exhibit low K bulk values (hydrothermal alteration processes, Fe-Ti oxide minerals, and magnetic properties of the wall rock in the Escondida deposit. These magnetic methods can be considered a sensitive and efficient petrophysical tool for the identification and semi-quantification of alteration assemblages, and facilitating the recognition and mapping of discrete hydrothermal zones during exploration and operation of porphyry Cu deposits.

  10. Long-term impacts of nitrogen deposition on coastal plant communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakeman, Robin J.; Brooker, Rob; Alexander, Jim

    2016-01-01

    in species composition that could be accounted for by nitrogen deposition. There was an overall increase in the Ellenberg Indicator Value for nitrogen (EIV-N) of 0.15 between the surveys, with a clear shift to species characteristic of more eutrophic situations. This was most evident for Acid grassland...

  11. Characterization and dating of coastal deposits of NW Portugal (Minho-Neiva area): A record of climate, eustasy and crustal uplift during the Quaternary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalhido, Ricardo P.; Pereira, Diamantino I.; Cunha, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the characterization and numerical dating of Quaternary coastal deposits of NW Portugal, located between the mouths of the Minho and Neiva rivers. They record continental (small alluvial fans and streams) and transitional (aeolian dunes, interdune ponds, estuary, sandy...... and gravelly beaches) paleoenvironments. Quartz and K-feldspar optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is employed as well as AMS C-14 dating. A staircase of coastal terraces (abrasion shore platforms) was identified (altimetry, a.s.l.) and ascribed to the following probable Marine Isotope Stages (MIS......) the lower sub-unit, corresponding to ferruginous stream deposits and aeolian dunes dated ca. 67-61 ka (MIS4), probably related with sub-humid to arid mid-cold conditions; b) on the slopes, the lower sub-unit is overlapped by sandy-silty colluvium and sandy alluvial deposits dated ca. 56-28 ka (MIS3...

  12. Sulfide oxidation and distribution of metals near abandoned copper mines in coastal environments, Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, R.A.; Munk, L.; Foster, A.L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Stillings, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation of sulfide-rich rocks, mostly leftover debris from Cu mining in the early 20th century, is contributing to metal contamination of local coastal environments in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Analyses of sulfide, water, sediment, precipitate and biological samples from the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites show that acidic surface waters generated from sulfide weathering are pathways for redistribution of environmentally important elements into and beyond the intertidal zone at each site. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits composed of pyrrhotite and (or) pyrite + chalcopyrite + sphalerite with subordinate galena, arsenopyrite, and cobaltite represent potent sources of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Co, Cd, and Hg. The resistance to oxidation among the major sulfides increases in the order pyrrhotite ??? sphalerite Hg (to 4100 ng/L) in the pore waters probably result from oxidation of sphalerite-rich rocks. The low-pH and high concentrations of dissolved Fe, Al, and SO4 are conducive to precipitation of interstitial jarosite in the intertidal gravels. Although pore waters from the intertidal zone at the Threeman mine site have circumneutral pH values, small amounts of dissolved Fe2+ in the pore waters are oxidized during mixing with seawater, resulting in precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxide flocs along the beach-seawater interface. At the Beatson site, surface waters funneled through the underground mine workings and discharged across the waste dumps have near-neutral pH (6.7-7.3) and a relatively small base-metal load; however, these streams probably play a role in the physical transport of metalliferous particulates into intertidal and offshore areas during storm events. Somewhat more acidic fluids, to pH 5.3, occur in stagnant seeps and small streams emerging from the Beatson waste dumps. Amorphous Fe precipitates in stagnant waters at Beatson have high Cu (5.2 wt%) and Zn (2.3 wt%) concentrations that probably reflect adsorption onto the extremely high

  13. Application of the fractal method to determine the membership function parameter for geoelectrical data (case study: Hamyj copper deposit, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi Ferdows, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    The selection of a suitable membership function and its parameters plays a critical role in the integration of layer information by the fuzzy method. In this paper, parameters of membership function for induced polarization (IP) and resistivity (RS) data (in the Hamyj copper deposit) have been determined by the threshold parameter of IP and resistivity data, already determined by expert opinion or drilling data. The Hamyj deposit is located about 80 km west of Birjand city, South Khorasan province, Iran. In this area, resistivity and induced polarization data have been surveyed by dipole-dipole array. In this paper, outlier-induced polarization data have been corrected by the Doerffel method and then IP and resistivity data have been inversed by the Newton and Gauss-Newton methods. The threshold of the IP data is recognized by statistical (gap statistic) and fractal (concentration-area) methods. The determined threshold by the fractal method is higher than the gap statistic. These two thresholds have been used to determine the S-shape function for the IP data. The thresholds of the RS data are recognized by the fractal method. These two thresholds have been used to determine the Z-shape function for the RS data. The integration of geoelectrical layer information has been carried out by the Gama method. Finally, the best drilling points were proposed based on fuzzy modelling for the area. The results show that the optimum exploration borehole is located at a depth of 25 m.

  14. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  15. Mapping hydrothermal alteration using aircraft VNIR scanners at the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit. [Visible-Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, R. M.; Abrams, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Two Visible-Near Infrared (VNIR) scanners, the NS-001 and the M2S, were flown over the Rosemont porphyry copper deposit as part of the NASA/JPL/GEOSAT test site program. This program was established to determine the feasibility and limitations of mapping hydrothermal alteration with multispectral scanners. Data from the NS-001 at 0.83 and 2.2 microns were used to identify Fe(3+) and OH enriched outcrops. These areas were then correlated with three alteration assemblages. The first correlation, hematite-epidote, was the most obvious and appeared as a strong ferric iron signature associated with hematite stained Cretaceous arkoses and andesites. The second correlation, qtz-sericite, showed a combined ferric-hydroxyl signature for a phyllicly altered quartz monzonite. The third correlation, skarn, was identified only after a review of calc-silicate mineral VNIR spectra. Altered limestones that outcrop west of the deposit have a similar ferric iron-hydroxyl signature as the quartz-sericite altered quartz monzonite. This skarn signature has been interpreted to indicate the presence of andradite, hydro-grossularite and idocrase. Data from the second scanner, M2S, was used to search for variation in ferric iron mineral type. Resulting imagery data indicated that hematite was the dominant ferric iron mineral present in the Rosemont area.

  16. Sedimentology of Coastal Deposits in the Seychelles Islands—Evidence of the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwig, Vanessa; Bahlburg, Heinrich; Monthy, Devis

    2015-03-01

    The Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean at a distance of 4,500-5,000 km from the west coast of Sumatra, were severely affected by the December 26, 2004 tsunami with wave heights up to 4 m. Since the tsunami history of small islands often remains unclear due to a young historical record, it is important to study the geological traces of high energy events preserved along their coasts. We conducted a survey of the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami on the inner Seychelles islands. In detail we studied onshore tsunami deposits in the mangrove forest at Old Turtle Pond in the Curieuse Marine National Park on the east coast of Curieuse Island. It is thus protected from anthropogenic interference. Towards the sea it was shielded until the tsunami in 2004 by a 500 m long and 1.5 m high causeway which was set up in 1909 as a sediment trap and assuring a low energetic hydrodynamic environment for the protection of the mangroves. The causeway was destroyed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. The tsunami caused a change of habitat by the sedimentation of sand lobes in the mangrove forest. The dark organic rich mangrove soil (1.9 Φ) was covered by bimodal fine to medium carbonate sand (1.7-2.2 Φ) containing coarser carbonate shell fragments and debris. Intertidal sediments and the mangrove soil acted as sources of the lobe deposits. The sand sheet deposited by the tsunami is organized into different lobes. They extend landwards to different inundation distances as a function of the morphology of the onshore area. The maximum extent of 180 m from the shoreline indicates the minimum inundation distance to the tsunami. The top parts of the sand lobes cover the pneumatophores of the mangroves. There is no landward fining trend along the sand lobes and normal grading of the deposits is rare, occurring only in 1 of 7 sites. The sand lobe deposits also lack sedimentary structures. On the surface of the sand lobes numerous mostly fragmented shells of bivalves and

  17. Mechanism for the atomic layer deposition of copper using diethylzinc as the reducing agent: a density functional theory study using gas-phase molecules as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gangotri; Elliott, Simon D

    2012-09-06

    We present theoretical studies based on first-principles density functional theory calculations for the possible gas-phase mechanism of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of copper by transmetalation from common precursors such as Cu(acac)(2), Cu(hfac)(2), Cu(PyrIm(R))(2) with R = (i)Pr and Et, Cu(dmap)(2), and CuCl(2) where diethylzinc acts as the reducing agent. An effect on the geometry and reactivity of the precursors due to differences in electronegativity, steric hindrance, and conjugation present in the ligands was observed. Three reaction types, namely, disproportionation, ligand exchange, and reductive elimination, were considered that together comprise the mechanism for the formation of copper in its metallic state starting from the precursors. A parallel pathway for the formation of zinc in its metallic form was also considered. The model Cu(I) molecule Cu(2)L(2) was studied, as Cu(I) intermediates at the surface play an important role in copper deposition. Through our study, we found that accumulation of an LZnEt intermediate results in zinc contamination by the formation of either Zn(2)L(2) or metallic zinc. Ligand exchange between Cu(II) and Zn(II) should proceed through a Cu(I) intermediate, as otherwise, it would lead to a stable copper molecule rather than copper metal. Volatile ZnL(2) favors the ALD reaction, as it carries the reaction forward.

  18. Copper deposit resource potential and prospecting targets in Afghanistan%阿富汗铜矿资源潜力与找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 梅燕雄; 王浩琳; 范世家

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan is located in the convergence of Ancient India subcontinent and Asia plate, and it is sure to be a preferable regional prospecting area where Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt and magmatic arc running through. There are good conditions for mineralization and extremely metal - rich mineral resources in the region. About more than 300 documented copper deposits (occurrences) have been discovered in Afghanistan, which are composed of sediment - hosted, skarn, porphyry and vein -hosted type, including the world - class sedimentary stratabound Aynak deposit. The research indicates that Tethys - Himalaya metallogenic belt has undergone alternative deposition and uplift during the old and new Tethys Ocean's expansion and closure, and two large - scale phases of subduction and collision of tectonic plate as well, and then folded and formed the youngest Mesozoic and Cenozoic Orogenic Belts on Earth. Afghanistan has also undergone a complicated tectonic evolution of long history with regional metallogenic background environment' s conversion from the former Cambrian inner continent to convergent orogenic environment. The pre Neo - proterozoic and Meso - proterozoic ore - sourced terranes and the magma reactivated, and the magmatism and derivative mineralization/process occurred, and the mineralization had the favorable conditions such as the mineralization preferentiality and the best coupling. The porphyry copper deposits and sand shale copper deposits developed broadly in Afghanistan with huge copper resources potential. The sand shale copper deposits and the porphyry copper deposits are significant exploration targets. The skarn copper deposits and vein copper deposits, which developed broadly, are the symbols and favorable zones for deep exploration of porphyry copper/gold deposit.%阿富汗位于远古印度次大陆同亚洲大陆板块碰撞的交汇处,也是全球性成矿带——特提斯—喜马拉雅造山带(岩浆弧)成矿有利区段,金属

  19. Morphology, origin and infrared microthermometry of fluid inclusions in pyrite from the Radka epithermal copper deposit, Srednogorie zone, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bailly, Laurent; Ramboz, Claire; Rouer, Olivier; Bény, Jean-Michel

    2002-08-01

    Pyrite samples from the Radka epithermal, replacement type, volcanic rock-hosted copper deposit, Bulgaria, have been studied using near-infrared (IR) microscopy. Two generations of pyrite based on their textures, composition and behaviour in IR light can be distinguished. Electron microprobe analyses, X-ray elemental mapping and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to study the relationship between crystal zoning, trace element contents and IR transmittance of pyrite. The observed crystal zoning is related to variable arsenic contents in massive fine-grained and colloform pyrite from the early pyrite-quartz assemblage, and cobalt contents in pyrite crystals from the late quartz-pyrite vein assemblage. There is a negative correlation between trace element content and IR transmittance of pyrite. The IR transparency of pyrite is thus a sensitive indicator of changes in trace element concentrations. Fluid inclusions have only been found in the second pyrite generation. Scanning electron microscopy observations on open fluid inclusion cavities permitted the crystallographic features of vacuoles to be determined. A characteristic feature of primary fluid inclusions in pyrite is a negative crystal habit, shaped mainly by {100}, {111} and {210}. This complicated polyhedral morphology is the reason for the observed opacity of some isometric primary inclusions. Secondary fluid inclusion morphology depends on the nature of the surface of the healed fracture. Recognition of the primary or secondary origin of fluid inclusions is enhanced by using crystallographically oriented sections. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions indicate that the second pyrite generation was deposited at maximum P-T conditions of 400 °C and 430 bar and from a fluid of low bulk salinity (3.5-4.6 wt%), possibly KCl-dominant. There are large ranges for homogenisation temperatures in secondary inclusions because of necking-down processes. Decrepitation features of some of

  20. Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Pan, Hongdi; Li, Xian-hua; Dong, Lianhui; Wang, Jingbin; Zhu, Heping; Dai, Huawu; Guan, Weina

    2012-04-01

    The Baogutu copper deposit, a newly-discovered middle-sized porphyry copper deposit, is located in the West Junggar region of Xinjiang, NW China. Baogutu is associated with a Late Carboniferous intrusive complex that was emplaced into Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary strata. The intrusive complex comprises main-stage diorites and minor late-stage diorite porphyries. Their intrusive activity occurred in 313.0 ± 2.2 Ma to 312.3 ± 2.2 Ma based on U-Pb zircon SIMS analyses. Molybdenite separated from ore-bearing quartz veins yields Re-Os model ages from 309.4 ± 4.4 Ma to 314.1 ± 4.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 312.4 ± 1.8 Ma. Biotites, separated from fresh diorite and hydrothermal breccias in main-stage diorites, yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 308.26 ± 1.88 and 305.69 ± 1.76 Ma, respectively. These dates obtained from three independent dating techniques constrain the ore-forming age of the Baogutu deposit. Stable isotopes (H, O, S) and radiogenic isotope (Pb) have been used to discriminate the sources of the ore-forming fluid at Baogutu. The δ18O (1.14-1.74‰) and δD (-74‰ to -98‰) data indicate that the water of the ore-forming fluids was derived from magmatic water. The δ34S values (-0.24‰ to +0.4‰) show that the sulfur isotope composition of the ore fluids is characterized by magma sulfur. Lead isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 17.92-18.89, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.45-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.68-38.36) indicate that the lead of the ore fluids is derived from the mantle. These data confirm the occurrence of a Cu-Au-Mo mineralizing event at Late Carboniferous in the Baogutu region and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from the mantle. The event is inferred to be associated with Late Carboniferous Junggar oceanic crust subduction.

  1. Study on mineralization at Jian copper deposit, Fars province, using petrographical and geochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Rajabzade

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Jian Cu deposit is hosted by Surian volcano-sedimentary complex of Permo-Triassic age on the eastern edge of the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone at a distance of 195 km from Shiraz, southwestern Iran. The complex consists mainly of metabasalt, chlorite-quartz schist, chlorite-muscovite schist, mica schist and graphite schist. Pyrite is the most important sulfide and chalcopyrite is the major Cu-bearing mineral occurring as disseminated grains and veinlets in host chlorite-quartz schist and chlorite-muscovite schist. Chondrite-normalized REE pattern of metabasalt with La/LuN=2/9 indicates mantle tholeiitic basalt as the source of metamorphosed igneous rocks. Geochemical data on the metabasalts, especially the content of immobile elements (e.g., Ti and High Field Strength Elements (HFSE (e.g., Zr، Nb and Y, show low degree of partial melting for parental magma with E-MORB affinity. Chloritic, silicification and minor sericitic assemblages are the main alteration types associated with the Jian Cu deposit. The Y/Ho ratio of Cu ores varies from 29.9 to 32.5, indicating the important role of sea water in the mineralizing system. Petrographical and geochemical data indicate that the Jian Cu deposit was formed as volcano-sedimentary hosted massive sulfide. The Ishikawa alteration index (AI in association with chlorite-carbonate-pyrite index (CCP is useful for the geochemical exploration of Cu deposits in the study area.

  2. Formation of tilted clusters in the electrochemical deposition of copper on n-gas(001)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgies, D.M.; Feidenhans'l, Robert Krarup; Scherb, G.

    1996-01-01

    Using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we have studied the epitaxial properties of Cu clusters electrochemically deposited on n-GaAs(001) substrates. The Cu clusters have (001) base planes and their [100] directions are aligned with the [110] directions of the GaAs(001) surface unit cell, b...

  3. Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} using copper-deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panglipur, Hanum Sekar; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan); Wibowo, Rahmat

    2016-04-19

    Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was studied at copper-modified boron-doped diamond (Cu-BDD) electrodes as the working electrode. The Cu-BDD electrodes were prepared by electrochemical reduction with various concentrations of CuSO{sub 4} solutions. FE-SEM was utilized to characterize the electrodes. At Cu-BDD electrodes, a reduction peak at around -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) attributtable to CO{sub 2} reductions could be observed by cyclic voltammetry technique of CO{sub 2} bubbled in water containing 0.1M NaCl. Accordingly, electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was conducted at -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) using amperometry technique. The chemical products of the electroreduction analyzed by using HPLC showed the formation of formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid at Cu-BDD electrodes.

  4. Fabrication of copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods within SBA-15 by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; Frank Leung-Yuk Lam; YAN ZiFeng; HU XiJun

    2009-01-01

    Copper (Ⅰ) nitride nanorods grown in channels of mesoporous silica SBA-15 by chemical vapor depo- sition method has been synthesized. The morphology and microstructure of the resulting product were characterized by XRD patters, TEM images, EDS analysis and Raman spectra. The XRD and TEM re-vealed that the Cu3N phase was confined in channels of SBA-15 forming continuous nanowires with 6 nm around and hundreds of nanometers in length. Raman spectra of the final product and pure Cu3N showed peaks shift due to the quantum confinement effect of the nanowires. This preparation meth-odology only requires a mild working condition and is capable of template synthesis of other binary nitride nanostructures with controlled morphology inside the channels of mesoporous materials.

  5. Distribution of Energy Deposited in Plastic Tubing and Copper-Wire Insulation by Electron Beam Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Walther Batsberg; Miller, Arne; Pejtersen, K.

    1978-01-01

    Scanned electron beam treatment is used to improve the physical properties of certain polymers, such as shrinkable plastic tubing and insulated wire and cable. Tubing or wires are passed at high speed under the beam scanner, and the material is irradiated to absorbed doses of several Mrad...... as uniformly as possible, usually by means of a multipass arrangement. In the present study, using irradiation by a scanned 0.4 MeV electron beam, measurements were made of high-resolution distributions of absorbed dose in polyethylene tubing and copper wire coated with polyethylene, nylon, or polyvinyl...... chloride insulation. Radiochromic dye films equivalent to the insulating materials were used as accurate dosimeters having a response independent of dose rate. Irradiations were in various geometries, wire and plastic thicknesses, positions along the beam scan, and with different backing materials near...

  6. Effect of adding sorbitol to the electroplating solution on the process of depositing lead on copper and the morphology of the film produced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, J. L. P.; Carlos, I. A.

    The electrodeposition of lead on to a copper substrate from a plumbite solution, 0.1 M Pb(NO 3) 2 + 0.2 M sorbitol + NaOH, was investigated over a range of concentrations of the hydroxide. Interactions between the copper electrode surface and the lead deposit were investigated by the voltammetric technique. From these experiments, it was concluded that underpotential deposition (upd) of lead does not occur on copper and that lead nucleation occurs as soon as deposition is operative from -0.78 V. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the lead films corroborates this result. Lead films obtained at -0.78 and -0.90 V were adherent and could be used as a support in battery plates, but this adhesion of lead to copper cannot be attributed to upd. SEM analysis showed that films produced at potentials down to -0.90 V were smooth and that this is the critical potential for a transition from dense to pyramidal or dendritic crystals patterns. The dendritic crystallites can be transformed into a high-purity lead powder.

  7. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  8. Luminescence dating of interglacial coastal depositional systems: Recent developments and future avenues of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Luminescence dating offers new opportunities to explore the evolution of Quaternary marine coastal facies and landforms. This review highlights the main advances in luminescence geochronology of interglacial coastal sediments through the analysis of 547 luminescence ages, most of which were published during the last decade. The majority of these reported luminescence investigations have been carried out along passive margin coasts. Since the turn of the century, the discovery of a normalization procedure known as Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) has drastically reduced data scatter and improved precision, with the consequence that quartz SAR optically-stimulated luminescence OSL has become the dating protocol of choice for the Last Interglacial (LIG) period. A more complex technique, known as thermally-transferred OSL (TT-OSL), is presumably proposed for dating older interglacials of the Mid-Pleistocene and beyond. Feldspar luminescence is increasingly being applied to dating Pleistocene sea level high stands due to a much higher dose saturation level than quartz OSL. The use of feldspar IRSL (Infrared-stimulated luminescence) is limited by the occurrence of variable, but ubiquitous anomalous fading (AF). Following the advent of AF-correction methods, several Middle Pleistocene sites have been amenable to dating, albeit with significant related uncertainties. Recently, new protocols involving the measurement of post-IR IRSL at elevated temperatures have yielded relatively coherent ages for interglacial sediments up to ca. 300 ka. Quartz OSL/TT-OSL, AF-corrected IRSL, and post-IR IRSL ages are generally correlated with periods of sea level high stands. A few ages are reported from the early and middle part of the Middle Pleistocene, as MIS11, 9 and more commonly MIS7 high stands are documented in strongly uplifting active margin coasts. However, by far the most obvious age peak corresponds to the end of the LIG. The MIS5e shoreline is probably the most studied and

  9. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  10. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  11. Surface Characteristics and Catalytic Activity of Copper Deposited Porous Silicon Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusri Abdul Halim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous structured silicon or porous silicon (PS powder was prepared by chemical etching of silicon powder in an etchant solution of HF: HNO3: H2O (1:3:5 v/v. An immersion time of 4 min was sufficient for depositing Cu metal from an aqueous solution of CuSO4 in the presence of HF. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis revealed that the Cu particles aggregated upon an increase in metal content from 3.3 wt% to 9.8 wt%. H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR profiles reveal that re-oxidation of the Cu particles occurs after deposition. Furthermore, the profiles denote the existence of various sizes of Cu metal on the PS. The Cu-PS powders show excellent catalytic reduction on the p-nitrophenol regardless of the Cu loadings.

  12. Pattern transfer during deposition and fixation of oligomeric bisphenol A on pre-structured copper surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szillat, Florian; Fechner, Renate; Mayr, Stefan G

    2013-09-01

    Pattern transfer during deposition of oligomeric bisphenol A (OBA) on pre-structured Cu surfaces is investigated by means of a combined experimental-computational approach. Aiming for quantitative prediction of experiments, as characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), we explore the capabilities of stochastic rate equations to quantitatively account for the spatio-temporal evolution of surface topography. While surface diffusion and deposition noise constitute the main mechanisms, pattern transfer is affected by the inclusion of retardation in the interface potential, which appears to be necessary beyond a critical initial surface slope. In addition, routes for successful surface fixation by cross-linking are also demonstrated, which may pave the way for further technological use.

  13. Micro CT characterization of a coastal mine tailings deposit, Portmán Bay, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigola, Jaime; Cerdà-Domènech, Marc; Barriuso, Eduardo; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Amblas, David; Canals, Miquel

    2017-04-01

    Scanning of sediment cores by means of high-resolution non-destructive techniques provides researchers with huge amounts of highly valuable data allowing fast and detailed characterization of the materials. In the last decades several devoted instruments have been developed and applied to the study of sedimentary sequences, mainly multi-sensor core loggers (MSCL) for the physical properties and XRF core scanners for the chemical elemental composition. The geoscientific community started using computed tomography (CT) systems about two decades ago. These were mainly medical systems as dedicated instruments were essentially lacking by that time. The resolution of those medical systems was limited to several hundreds of micrometres voxel size. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) systems have also spread into geoscientific research, although their limited workspace dimensions prevents their use for large objects, such as long sediment cores. Recently, a new micro-CT system, the MultiTom Core X-ray CT, conceived by University of Barcelona (UB) researchers and developed by X-ray Engineering, became operational. It is able of scanning sediment cores up to 1.5 m long, and allows adjustable resolutions from 300 microns down to 3-4 microns. The system is now installed at UB's CORELAB Laboratory for non-destructive analyses of geological materials. Here we present, as an example, the results of MultiTom scans of a set of sediment cores recovered offshore Portmán Bay, SE Spain, in order to characterize at very high-resolution the metal-enriched deposit generated after 33 years of direct discharge into the sea of mine tailings resulting from the exploitation of Pb and Zn ores. In total 52 short cores and 6 long gravity cores from the mine tailings infilled bay were scanned with the MultiTom system at a mean voxel resolution of 125 microns. The integrated study of micro-CT data allowed differentiating the main tailings units from deposits formed after disposal cessation

  14. Two series of copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and the hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotopes of their ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛发; 袁峰; 岳书仓; 赵勇

    2000-01-01

    Based on studies on the geological characteristics of the copper-gold deposits in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River area (MLYRA) and their hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur and lead isotope compositions, it is concluded that there existed two series of copper-gold deposits. They are evolutional products of two ore-forming hydrothermal systems in different geodynamic settings and geological era. Series I is stratiform or stratabound copper-gold deposits. These deposits were formed by submarine exhalation and sedimentation of hydrothermal solutions in Her-cynian tensional tectonic environment after bot brine ascending along contemporaneous faults and exhaled into the sea-floor. Series II consists of copper-gold deposits related to medium and acidic magmatic intrusions. Their mineralizations took place in Yanshanian in a tensional or a transitional period to the tensional tectonic environment from the composite of the tethys tectonic regime and the Paleo-Pacific ocean tectonic regime, as well as in

  15. Audiomagnetotelluric data to characterize the Revett-type copper-silver deposits at Rock Creek in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    The Revett-type deposits at Rock Creek are part of the concealed stratabound copper-silver deposits located in the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness of Montana. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources data are being evaluated with existing and new mineral deposit models to predict the possibility and probability of undiscovered deposits in covered terranes. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and depth of the mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional southwest-northeast audiomagnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. Further studies will attempt to determine if induced polarization parameters can be extracted from the magnetotelluric data to determine the size of the mineralized area. The purpose of this report is to release the audiomagnetotelluric sounding data collected along that southwest-northeast profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  16. Preliminary mineralogical data on epithermal ore veins associated with Rosia Poieni porphyry copper deposit, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatan, E. L.; Popescu, Gh. C.

    2012-04-01

    Rosia Poieni is the largest porphyry copper (±Au±Mo) deposits associated with Neogene magmatic rocks from the South Apuseni Mountains, being located approximately 8 km northeast of the town of Abrud. During a recent examination of some epithermal mineralized veins, crosscutting the porphyry mineralization from the Roşia Poieni deposit, two species of tellurides and one tellurosulfide minerals were identified. The studied samples were collected from the + 1045 m level, SW side of the open pit and are represented by epithermal veins, crosscutting the porphyry copper mineralized body. The thickness of the veins is almost 4 cm. Following reflected-polarized light microscopy to identify the ore-mineral assemblages, the polished sections were studied with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scattered electron (BSE) detector to study fine-sized minerals. Quantitative compositional data were determined using a Cameca SX 50 electron microprobe (EMP). Based on optical microscopy, SEM and EMPA three mineral associations have been separated inside the epithermal vein, from the margins to the centre: 1. quartz+tennantite-tetrahedrite+goldfieldite+pyrite+sphalerite; 2. quartz+pyrite+tellurobismutite; 3. chalcopyrite+hessite+vivianite. Goldfieldite occurs in anhedral grains and it is associated with tennantite-tetrahedrite and quartz. The electron microprobe analysis gave a variable content in Te between 13.28-13.39 wt.%, 43.34 wt.% Cu, 0.1 wt. % Fe, 0.2 wt.% Zn, 14.68 wt.% As, 4.35 wt.% Sb and 24.84 wt.% S. The calculated formula for the goldfieldite is Cu11.8Te1.8(Sb,As)4S13.4. The EPM analyses on tetrahedrite-tennantite revealed a low content in Te (0.02-0.03 wt.%) and 42.23 wt.% Cu, 2.67 wt.% Fe, 7.34 wt.% Zn, 0.04 wt.% Sb, 19.28 wt.% As and 28.4 wt.% S. The calculated formula is Cu9.8(Fe,Zn)2.4(Sb,As,Te)3.8S13. The variable ratio of the Te content may reflect a variable content of Te in the hydrothermal fluids from which the tellurian tetrahedrite

  17. Numerical Studies of Radioactive Sediment Deposition on Reservoirs in Fukushima Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Susumu; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    The transportation of radioactive Cs is mainly brought about by movement of silt- and clay-sized particles in rivers. Therefore, predicting such a fine sediment flow and deposition in rivers has been one of central issues toward environmental recovery after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. For the purpose of the Cs transport prediction, we concentrate on a few reservoirs in Fukushima costal area, since they are temporal destinations for contaminated silt and clay transported by rivers. We numerically study how the river water together with floating silt and clays penetrate into the reservoirs and where the sediments settle on the bottom surface of the reservoirs by using 2D river simulation framework named iRIC developed by Shimizu et al. In this presentation, we reveal the typical deposition pattern in the target reservoirs and compare the results with direct sampling data for the sediments on the reservoir bottom surfaces. We believe that the obtained information is useful in planning the water supply and treatment for highly-contaminated districts in Fukushima costal area.

  18. Organic nitrogen deposition on land and coastal environments: a review of methods and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, S. E.; Jickells, T. D.; Cape, J. N.; Rowland, A. P.; Duce, R. A.

    Despite over a century of published reports of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in precipitation, its implications are still being appraised. The number of studies focusing on atmospheric organic nitrogen deposition has increased steadily in recent years, but comparatively little has been done to draw together this disparate knowledge. This is partly a consequence of valid concerns about the comparability of analysis and sampling methodologies. Given the current global trends in anthropogenic nitrogen fixation, an improved qualitative and quantitative understanding of the organic nitrogen component is needed to complement the well-established knowledge base pertaining to nitrate and ammonium deposition. This global review confirms the quantitative importance of bulk DON in precipitation. This cumulative data set also helps to resolve some of the uncertainty that arises from the generally locally and temporally limited scale of the individual studies. Because of analytical and procedural changes in recent decades, assessments are made of the comparability of the data sets; caution is needed in comparisons of individual studies, but the overall trends in the compiled set are more robust. Despite the large number of reports considered, evidence for long-term temporal changes in rainwater organic nitrogen concentrations is ambiguous. With regard to sources, it is likely that some of the organic material observed is not locally generated, but undergoes extensive or long-range atmospheric transport. The compiled data set shows a land-to-sea gradient in organic nitrogen concentration. Possible precursors, reported data on the most likely component groups, and potential source mechanisms are also outlined.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of mercury in Antarctica and the role of cryptogams to assess deposition patterns in coastal ice-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2016-11-01

    Mercury in the Antarctic troposphere has a distinct chemistry and challenging long-term measurements are needed for a better understanding of the atmospheric Hg reactions with oxidants and the exchanges of the various mercury forms among air-snow-sea and biota. Antarctic mosses and lichens are reliable biomonitors of airborne metals and in short time they can give useful information about Hg deposition patterns. Data summarized in this review show that although atmospheric Hg concentrations in the Southern Hemisphere are lower than those in the Northern Hemisphere, Antarctic cryptogams accumulate Hg at levels in the same range or higher than those observed for related cryptogam species in the Arctic, suggesting an enhanced deposition of bioavailable Hg in Antarctic coastal ice-free areas. In agreement with the newest findings in the literature, the Hg bioaccumulation in mosses and lichens from a nunatak particularly exposed to strong katabatic winds can be taken as evidence for a Hg contribution to coastal ecosystems by air masses from the Antarctic plateau. Human activities on the continent are mostly concentrated in coastal ice-free areas, and the deposition in these areas of Hg from the marine environment, the plateau and anthropogenic sources raises concern. The use of Antarctic cryptogams as biomonitors will be very useful to map Hg deposition patterns in costal ice-free areas and will contribute to a better understanding of Hg cycling in Antarctica and its environmental fate in terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Growth kinetics of disk-shaped copper islands in electrochemical deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian; Zhang, Shouliang; Searson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The ability to independently dictate the shape and crystal orientation of islands in electrocrystallization remains a significant challenge. The main reason for this is that the complex interplay between the substrate, nucleation, and surface chemistry is not fully understood. Here we report on the kinetics of island growth for copper on ruthenium oxide. The small nucleation overpotential leads to enhanced lateral growth and the formation of hexagonal disk-shaped islands. The amorphous substrate allows the nuclei to achieve the thermodynamically favorable orientation, i.e., a ⟨111⟩ surface normal. Island growth follows power law kinetics in both lateral and vertical directions. At shorter times, the two growth exponents are equal to (1)/(2) whereas at longer times lateral growth slows down while vertical growth speeds up. We propose a growth mechanism, wherein the lateral growth of disk-shaped islands is initiated by attachment of Cu adatoms on the ruthenium oxide surface onto the island periphery while vertical growth is initiated by two-dimensional nucleation on the top terrace and followed by lateral step propagation. These results indicate three criteria for enhanced lateral growth in electrodeposition: (i) a substrate that leads to a small nucleation overpotential, (ii) fast adatom surface diffusion on substrate to promote lateral growth, and (iii) preferential anion adsorption to stabilize the basal plane.

  1. Paleoenvironmental analyses of an organic deposit from an erosional landscape remnant, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisner, W R; Bockheim, J G; Hinkel, K M; Brown, T A; Nelson, F E; Peterson, K M; Jones, B M

    2005-01-02

    The dominant landscape process on the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska is the formation and drainage of thaw lakes. Lakes and drained thaw lake basins account for approximately 75% of the modern surface expression of the Barrow Peninsula. The thaw lake cycle usually obliterates lacustrine or peat sediments from previous cycles which could otherwise be used for paleoecological reconstruction of long-term landscape and vegetation changes. Several possible erosional remnants of a former topographic surface that predates the formation of the thaw lakes have been tentatively identified. These remnants are characterized by a higher elevation, a thick organic layer with very high ground ice content in the upper permafrost, and a plant community somewhat atypical of the region. Ten soil cores were collected from one site, and one core was intensively sampled for soil organic carbon content, pollen analysis, and {sup 14}C dating. The lowest level of the organic sediments represents the earliest phase of plant growth and dates to ca. 9000 cal BP. Palynological evidence indicates the presence of mesic shrub tundra (including sedge, birch, willow, and heath vegetation); and microfossil indicators point to wetter eutrophic conditions during this period. Carbon accumulation was rapid due to high net primary productivity in a relatively nutrient-rich environment. These results are interpreted as the local response to ameliorating climate during the early Holocene. The middle Holocene portion of the record contains an unconformity, indicating that between 8200 and 4200 cal BP sediments were eroded from the site, presumably in response to wind activity during a drier period centered around 4500 cal BP. The modern vegetation community of the erosional remnant was established after 4200 cal BP, and peat growth resumed. During the late Holocene, carbon accumulation rates were greatly reduced in response to the combined effects of declining productivity associated with climatic

  2. Colour-Difference Measurement Method for Evaluation of Quality of Electrolessly Deposited Copper on Polymer after Laser-Induced Selective Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedvilas, Mindaugas; Ratautas, Karolis; Kacar, Elif; Stankevičienė, Ina; Jagminienė, Aldona; Norkus, Eugenijus; Li Pira, Nello; Račiukaitis, Gediminas

    2016-03-01

    In this work a novel colour-difference measurement method for the quality evaluation of copper deposited on a polymer is proposed. Laser-induced selective activation (LISA) was performed onto the surface of the polycarbonate/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PC/ABS) polymer by using nanosecond laser irradiation. The laser activated PC/ABS polymer was copper plated by using the electroless copper plating (ECP) procedure. The sheet resistance measured by using a four-point probe technique was found to decrease by the power law with the colour-difference of the sample images after LISA and ECP procedures. The percolation theory of the electrical conductivity of the insulator conductor mixture has been adopted in order to explain the experimental results. The new proposed method was used to determine an optimal set of the laser processing parameters for best plating conditions.

  3. Petrography, sulfide mineral chemistry, and sulfur isotope evidence for a hydrothermal imprint on Musina copper deposits, Limpopo Province, South Africa: Evidence for a breccia pipe origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumba, Jeff B.; Mundalamo, Humbulani R.; Ogola, Jason S.; Cox, J. A.; Fleisher, C. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Musina copper deposits are located in the Central Zone of the Limpopo orogenic belt in Limpopo Province, South Africa. We carried out a petrographic, sulfide composition, and δ34S study on samples from Artonvilla and Campbell copper deposits and a country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine to place some constrains on the origin of these deposits. The assemblages at both Artonvilla and Campbell Mines of brecciated quartz, potassium feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, calcite, and amphibole are consistent with sericitic alteration. Quartz, amphibole, feldspars, and micas often display angular textures which are consistent with breccias. Sulfur concentrations in pyrite from Artonvilla Mine plot in a narrow range, from 50.2 wt. % to 55.7 wt. %. With the exception of a positive correlation between Fe and Cu, no well defined correlations are shown by data from the Musina copper deposits. The occurrence of sulfides both as inclusions in, or as interstitial phases in silicates, suggests that hydrothermal alteration that affected these deposits most likely helped concentrate the mineralization at the Musina copper deposits. Sulfur concentrations in chalcopyrite samples investigated vary widely whereas the copper concentrations in chalcopyrite are not unusually higher compared to those from chalcopyrite from other tectonic settings, probably indicating that either the Cu in the Musina copper deposits occurs in native form, and/or that it is hosted by other phases. This observation lends support to the Cu having been concentrated during a later hydrothermal event. One sample from Artonvilla Mine (AtCal01) yielded pyrite δ34S values of 3.1and 3.6‰ and chalcopyrite from the same sample yielded a value of 3.9‰. A country rock granitic gneiss to Artonvilla Mine yielded a δ34Spyrite value of 8.2‰. For Campbell Mine samples, one quartz vein sample has a δ34Spyrite value of 0.5‰ whereas chalcopyrite samples drilled from different areas within the same sample yielded

  4. Lores, legends and lodes from lake superior - Mother of copper deposits

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.

    "), operated by the Quincy Mining Company from 1865 to 1945, was the first of the lower-grade, altered amygdaloidal basalt deposits. The Cu- bearing conglomerates, discovered in 1859, led to the opening of mines on the Calumet lode in 1864. The conglomerates... tonnes. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.60, NOV. 2002 In 1864, the Calumet Conglomerate Lode was found by E.D. Hulbert. After some years, the Hecla Mining Company operated this mine (C&H). In 1867, Quincy the president of C&H, appointed his brother...

  5. In situ observations during chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride on polycrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Blume, Raoul; Kling, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of complementary in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we study the fundamental mechanisms underlying the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on polycrystalline Cu. The nucleation and growth of h-BN layers is found to occur...... processing, and that this negatively affects the stability of h-BN on the catalyst. For extended air exposure Cu oxidation is observed, and upon re-heating in vacuum an oxygen-mediated disintegration of the h-BN film via volatile boron oxides occurs. Importantly, this disintegration is catalyst mediated, i...

  6. Impact of nitrogen pollution/deposition on extracellular enzyme activity, microbial abundance and carbon storage in coastal mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ling; Meng, Han; Wu, Ruo-Nan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2017-06-01

    This study applied different concentration of NaNO3 solution to simulate the effect of inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition/pollution on carbon (C) storage in coastal mangrove sediment through observing the changes of enzyme activity and microbial abundance. Sediment collected from mangrove forest (MG) and intertidal zone (IZ) were incubated with different N rates (0 (control), 5 (low-N) and 20 (high-N) μg N g(-1) dry sediment, respectively). After incubation, the activities of phenol oxidase (PHO) and acid phosphatase (ACP) were enhanced, but β-glucosidase (GLU) and N-β-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) activities were reduced by N addition. The altered enzymatic stoichiometries by N input implied that microbial phosphorus (P) limitation was increased, whereas C and N limitation were alleviated. Besides, N input decreased the bacterial abundance but increased fungal abundance in both types of sediment. The increased pH and soluble phenolics along with the exacerbated P limitation by N addition might explain these changes. Furthermore, sediment with N addition (except high-N treated MG sediment) showed a trend of C sequestration, which might be largely caused by the decrease of bacterial abundance and GLU activity. However, MG sediment with high-N suggested a trend of C loss, and the possible reason for this discrepancy might be the relatively higher increase of PHO and ACP activity. To better understand the influence of N deposition/pollution on C cycling, the long-term N effect on microorganisms, enzymes, and thus C storage should be paid more attention in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multimillion year thermal history of a porphyry copper deposit: application of U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He chronometers, Bajo de la Alumbrera copper-gold deposit, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony C.; Dunlap, W. James; Reiners, Peter W.; Allen, Charlotte M.; Cooke, David R.; White, Noel C.; Campbell, Ian H.; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2008-03-01

    Application of multiple chronometers (including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology) to porphyry intrusions at the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry copper-gold deposit, Argentina, reveals a complex history of reheating that spans millions of years. Previous U-Pb geochronology, combined with our new 40Ar/39Ar data, shows that the multiple porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera were emplaced during two episodes, the first at about 8.0 Ma (P2 and associated porphyries) and the second about a million years later (Early and Late P3 porphyries). Complex overprinting alteration events have obscured the earliest hydrothermal history of the deposit. By contrast, 40Ar/39Ar data reveal the close temporal relationship of ore-bearing potassic alteration assemblages (7.12 ± 0.13 Ma; biotite) to the emplacement of the P3 intrusions. Consistent with low closure temperatures, younger ages have been determined for associated hydrothermal alkali feldspar (6.82 ± 0.05 Ma and 6.64 ± 0.09 Ma). The temperature-sensitive Ar data also record an unexpected prolonged cooling history (to below 200°C) extending to 5.9 Ma. Our data suggest that the Bajo de la Alumbrera system underwent protracted cooling, after the collapse of the main hydrothermal system, or that one or more low-temperature (~100-200°C) reheating events occurred after emplacement of the porphyritic intrusions at Bajo de la Alumbrera. These have been constrained in part by our new 40Ar/39Ar data (including multidomain diffusion modeling) and (U-Th)/He ages. Single-grain (U-Th)/He ages ( n = 5) for phenocrystic zircon from P2 and P3 intrusive phases bracket these thermal events to between 6.9 (youngest crystallization of intrusion) and 5.1 Ma. Multidomain modeling of alkali feldspar data (from both igneous and hydrothermal crystals) is consistent with the deposit cooling rapidly from magmatic temperatures to below about 300°C, with a more protracted history down to 150

  8. Fate of copper in intensive shrimp farms: bioaccumulation and deposition in pond sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD. Lacerda

    Full Text Available We present the distribution of Cu in water, sediments and biomass from intensive shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 farming in northeastern Brazil. The results show no difference in dissolved Cu concentrations between waters entering and leaving the ponds. However, there was a large export of particulate Cu to adjacent environments, showed by extremely high particulate (112 µg.L-1 Cu concentrations in draining waters. Copper concentrations in the bottom sediments of the pond varied with depth from 10 to 20 µg.g-1, being 5 to 7 times higher than the local background. Pond management procedures result in a peculiar vertical distribution of Cu with peak values occurring at sub-surface depths in pond bottom sediments. Bioavailable Cu reaches about 20% of the total Cu content in sediments. Notwithstanding the relatively high Cu bioavailability, concentrations in shrimp muscle (23.2 to 63.4 µg.g-1 d.w. were similar to reported values for reared and natural L. vannamei populations, and much lower than acceptable maximum limits for human consumption. Concentrations in the exoskeleton were always higher than in muscle. Increasing Cu mass, and to a lesser extent Cu concentrations in muscle tissues, occurred simultaneously to a decrease in Cu mass and concentrations in the exoskeleton and vice versa, suggesting a dynamical exchange of Cu between the two compartments. Although Cu fate in intensive shrimp culture does not result in increasing Cu exposure to consumers, the activity is an important source of this metal to adjacent ecosystems, in particular in the pristine environments where most aquaculture activities in NE Brazil takes place.

  9. Comparative studies of spray pyrolysis deposited copper sulfide nanostructural thin films on glass and FTO coated glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehdi Adelifard; Hosein Eshghi; Mohamad Mehdi Bagheri Mohagheghi

    2012-10-01

    CuS thin films with different Cu to S molar ratios (0.33 and 0.43) have been deposited by spray pyrolysis method on glass and FTO coated glass substrates using an aqueous solution of copper (II) acetate and thiourea at a substrate temperature of 285°C. The structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical characterizations of the samples were carried out using XRD, FESEM, UV-Vis and PL spectrophotometer and four-probe apparatus, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that while the layer/glass sample has an individual CuS (covellite) crystalline phase, the layer/FTO sample includes two additional phases of Cu2S (chalcocite) and Cu1.8S (digenite) as well. Optical measurements showed that all these materials have a relatively high absorption coefficient (∼5 × 104–2.3 × 105 cm-1) in the visible region and direct bandgap of the layers was confirmed with the corresponding room temperature PL spectra. With the resistivity measurements at room and higher temperatures (up to 100°C) confirm that all samples are degenerate in nature with high electrical conductivities of ∼103 (.cm)-1.

  10. Growth of magnesium diboride films on 2 inch diameter copper discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Xi, X. X.; Nassiri, Alireza; Lee, Namhoon; Wolak, Matthäus A.; Tan, Teng; Welander, Paul B.; Franzi, Matthew; Tantawi, Sami; Kustom, Robert L.

    2017-04-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) coating is a potential candidate to replace bulk niobium (Nb) for superconducting radio frequency cavities due to the appealing superconducting properties of MgB2. MgB2 coating on copper may allow cavity operation near 20–25 K as a result of the high transition temperature (T c) of MgB2 and excellent thermal conductivity of Cu. We have grown MgB2 films on 2 inch diameter Cu discs by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition for radio frequency characterization. Structural and elemental analyses showed a uniform MgB2 coating on top of a Mg–Cu alloy layer with occasional intrusion of Mg–Cu alloy regions. High T c values of around 37 K and high critical current density (J c) on the order of 107 A cm‑2 at zero field were observed. Radio frequency measurements at 11.4 GHz confirmed a high T c and showed a quality factor (Q 0) much higher than for Cu and close to that of Nb.

  11. Durability tests and up-scaling of selective absorbers based on copper-manganese oxide deposited by dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayon, Rocio; San Vicente, Gema; Morales, Angel [Unidad de Concentracion Solar, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Selective absorbers based on copper-manganese oxide were prepared by dip-coating method. The optical properties of the 2-layer configuration (Al/CuMnO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}) were improved by introducing an additional absorber-protective layer directly in contact with the aluminium substrate (i.e. 3-layer absorber), for which solar absorptance up to 0.950 was achieved. Long-term durability of these absorbers was investigated by applying both thermal stability and humidity tests established by the IEA-SHC Task X. All the analyzed samples qualified for both tests leading to similar or even better results than some commercial absorbers. In order to prove the feasibility of the up-scaling process, 3-layer absorber samples of 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} size were prepared. It was observed that sintering process was determinant for obtaining fully homogenous films within the whole large-area surface. By using a sintering process with increasing temperature, 30 x 30 cm{sup 2} samples with {alpha}{sub s}=0.935{+-}0.005 (100 measurements) could be obtained. This study reveals that it is possible to deposit CuMn-oxide absorbers on large-area substrates and that they could be a good alternative to the materials present today in the market, not only in terms of optical properties but also in terms of long term durability. (author)

  12. Characteristics and origin of ore-forming fluids of Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit (s) in Xiangyun, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; LIU Jiajun; LI Chaoyang

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of results of the studies of primary fluid inclusions, and the hydrogen and oxygen isotope data, the authors concluded that the early-stage ore-forming fluid from the Jinchangqing gold (copper) ore deposit is a kind of sulfate type hot brine characterized by medium temperature and salinity, genetically related to the late-stage ore-forming fluid derived from an acidic and more reductive environment. However, the late-stage ore-forming fluid is a sort of low temperature and low salinity chloride-type hot brine which originated from a lower pressure, acidic and more oxidative environment. In general, the ore fluids were derived from the late-stage, or largely from the early-stage groundwater-derived meteoric water, which has a 12‰-17‰ heavier oxygen isotopic composition than the original rain water (δ 18 O= -15.3‰ ), and were formed during gold mineralization as a product of oxygen isotope exchange during the reaction between ore-forming fluid and wall rocks under a lower water/rock ratio condition.

  13. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hamid; Gholivand, Mohammad B; Abdolmaleki, Abbas

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS-MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS-MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800μM with a low detection limit of 70nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50-800μM with the detection limit of 4.3μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  15. The geological setting and style of copper mineralization at the Bushman group of deposits, northeastern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. M.; Blaine, J. L.; Doig, R.; Byron, C. L.

    1994-02-01

    The Bushman group of CuPbZn deposits occur within the north-northeasterly trending Bushman shear zone in northeastern Botswana. The deposits are hosted by a sliver of sheared and altered, carbonate rocks and chloritic and graphitic schists that resemble and are presumed correlative with metasedimentary rocks of the Matsitama schist belt to the east. This sliver is surrounded by sheared and altered granitic gneisses. Within the sliver, the mineralized zones are a chalcopyrite and pyrite bearing quartz-calcite±alkali feldspar vein breccias near the sheared contact between the carbonate rocks and the chloritic and graphitic schists. Elsewhere within the granitic gneisses, those zones are marked by barren quartz breccias surrounded by a zone dominated by red, turbid orthoclase in turn surrounded by a zone dominated by green epidote. Initially hydrothermal alteration propylitized the host rocks and then porphyroblasts of orthoclase, albite and quartz grew with the introduction of calcite. Away from the mineralized zones, four generations of veins occur, the first two directly traceable to CuPbZn mineralization and the third carrying galena and sphalerite. Isotopic data suggest that the protolith of the granitic gneisses was emplaced sometime between about 2.57 Ga and 2.3 Ga ago. After this protolith was deformed and metamorphosed, CuPbZn mineralization occurred about 1926 Ma ago from fluids at a temperature of about 360°C. The Pb isotopic compositions of the sulfide minerals indicate that the fluids giving rise to the CuPbZn mineralization were possibly the same as those giving rise to Pb and Zn mineralization. In both instances, however, the Pb came from several sources. More recently, shear zones parallel to the Bushman shear zone may have controlled in part the emplacement of kimberlite pipes.

  16. A comparison of TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL dating of coastal deposits on Cap Bon peninsula, north-eastern Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study thermally transferred (TT) OSL and post-IR elevated temperature IRSL (290 °C) (pIRIR290) dating are applied to deposits covering coastal terraces on the Cap Bon peninsula, Tunisia. Both methods perform well under standard performance tests; dose recovery tests using a modern analogue...... that the geological setting on Cap Bon is not as simple as previously suggested....

  17. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Paz, M. G.; Rodríguez, C. A.; Porcile-Saavedra, P. F.; Trejo-Cruz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films.

  18. 智利MARCIA铜矿地质特征及成矿机理%Geological characteristics and metallogenic mechanism of the Marcia copper deposit in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠烈

    2012-01-01

    MARCIA铜矿位于智利海岸山脉成矿带,通过对矿区地层、地质特征、矿体特征与构造的关系等分析,对该矿区铜矿的形成机理进行了初步探讨,认为该矿区铜矿的形成与断裂关系密切,F2断裂是导矿和容矿断裂,该区找矿前景巨大.%The Marcia copper deposit is located in IOCG belt. Through analyzing the strata, geological characteristics, the orebody characteristics and tectonic features of the mining area, the metallogenic mechanism of the copper deposit was discussed. It has concluded that the formation of copper deposit in the mine are closely to the fault, the F2 fault is ore-transmitting and ore-containing fault and it has great prospecting potential in this area.

  19. 铜电化学沉积在微孔金属化中的应用%Application of Copper Electrochemical Deposition for the Metallization of Micropores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨防祖; 吴伟刚; 田中群; 周绍民

    2011-01-01

    以分布有微孔的印刷线路板(PCB)作为模板,按照PCB孔金属化工艺路线,研究乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系铜电沉积工艺在PCB微孔金属化中的应用.结果表明,乙醛酸化学镀铜和柠檬酸盐体系电沉积铜可以成功地应用于PCB微孔金属化加工工艺中.微孔化学镀铜金属化导电处理后,铜附着于微孔内壁,颗粒细小,但排列疏松且局部区域发生漏镀现象.微孔一经电镀铜加厚,镀层电阻显著下降;孔壁内外的铜沉积速率达到0.8∶1.0;铜颗粒具有一定的侧向生长能力,能够完全覆盖化学镀铜时产生的微小漏镀区域;微孔内壁铜镀层连续、结构致密并紧密附着于内壁,大大增强了PCB 上下层互连的导电性能.%According to established routes for the microporous metallization of printed circuit boards (PCB), electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath were used for microporous metallization with PCB distributing micropores as a template. The results show that electroless copper plating using glyoxylic acid as a reducing agent and copper electroplating in a citrate bath can be successfully applied to the microporous metallization of PCB. After an electric conducting treatment of the micropores by electroless copper plating the copper deposited as fine grains and attached to the inner walls of the micropores. The copper deposit was also found in the loose grain arrangement and the leak plating area. Immediately after thickening treatment by copper electroplating, the resistance toward the copper coating of the inner wall decreased notably. The ratio of the copper electroplating rates at the inner and outer micropores was found to be 0.8:1.0. The copper electrodeposit fully covered the surface of the inner wall including the leak plating area, which means that the electroplated copper grains have a certain sideway growing ability. The copper coating on the

  20. Pollen deposition in tauber traps and surface soil samples in the Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon area, pampa grasslands (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Latorre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of airborne pollen loadings deposited in Tauber traps were studied in a coastal lagoon from south-eastern Pampa grasslands, Argentina, in order to assess their relationship with surface samples and to interpret the representativeness of local, regional and extraregional vegetation. Three different environments were considered: a coastal dune barrier with a psammophytic community, a salt marsh with a halophytic community in Mar Chiquita lagoon, and a freshwater community at Hinojales freshwater lake. Based on a record of surface samples taken from a previous paper, a parametric model was built to classify Tauber samples gathered from the natural vegetation communities of the study area. Results revealed that just like their surface counterparts, Tauber trap records qualitatively reflect the predominant vegetation types, although ecological groups feature different quantitative representations depending on the record type. Pollen loadings showed that airborne pollen transport was predominantly of local range, in accordance with previous results from the same study area. Airborne - surface samples relationships enrich our knowledge of the present environment that could be useful to improve paleoecological interpretations of the area.Se estimó el depósito polínico atmosférico de trampas Tauber en una laguna costera del sudeste de la estepa pampeana argentina, con el objetivo de analizar su relación con muestras de polen superficial e interpretar la representatividad de la vegetación local, regional y extraregional. Se consideraron tres ambientes diferentes: una barrera costera de dunas con vegetación psamofítica, la marisma de la laguna costera Mar Chiquita, con vegetación halofítica, y la laguna continental Hinojales, con vegetación hidrofítica. En base a las muestras de superficie y análisis de un trabajo previo, se construyó un modelo paramétrico para clasificar las muestras Tauber tomadas en la vegetación natural del

  1. Direct-Liquid-Evaporation Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nanocrystalline Cobalt Metal for Nanoscale Copper Interconnect Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gong, Xian; Lou, Xiabing; Gordon, Roy G

    2017-03-29

    In advanced microelectronics, precise design of liner and capping layers become critical, especially when it comes to the fabrication of Cu interconnects with dimensions lower than its mean free path. Herein, we demonstrate that direct-liquid-evaporation chemical vapor deposition (DLE-CVD) of Co is a promising method to make liner and capping layers for nanoscale Cu interconnects. DLE-CVD makes pure, smooth, nanocrystalline, and highly conformal Co films with highly controllable growth characteristics. This process allows full Co encapsulation of nanoscale Cu interconnects, thus stabilizing Cu against diffusion and electromigration. Electrical measurements and high-resolution elemental imaging studies show that the DLE-CVD Co encapsulation layer can improve the reliability and thermal stability of Cu interconnects. Also, with the high conductivity of Co, the DLE-CVD Co encapsulation layer have the potential to further decrease the power consumption of nanoscale Cu interconnects, paving the way for Cu interconnects with higher efficiency in future high-end microelectronics.

  2. Ultra-deep oxidation and exotic copper formation at the late pliocene boyongan and bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits, surigao, philippines: Geology, mineralogy, paleoaltimetry, and their implications for Geologic, physiographic, and tectonic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braxton, D.P.; Cooke, D.R.; Ignacio, A.M.; Rye, R.O.; Waters, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Boyongan and Bayugo porphyry copper-gold deposits are part of an emerging belt of intrusion-centered gold-rich deposits in the Surigao district of northeast Mindanao, Philippines. Exhumation and weathering of these Late Pliocene-age deposits has led to the development of the world's deepest known porphyry oxidation profile at Boyongan (600 m), and yet only a modest (30-70 m) oxidation profile at adjacent Bayugo. Debris flows, volcanic rocks, and fluviolacustrine sediments accumulating in the actively extending Mainit graben subsequently covered the deposits and preserved the supergene profiles. At Boyongan and Bayugo, there is a vertical transition from shallower supergene copper oxide minerals (malachite + azurite + cuprite) to deeper sulfide-stable assemblages (chalcocite ?? hypogene sulfides). This transition provides a time-integrated proxy for the position of the water table at the base of the saturated zone during supergene oxidation. Contours of the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface based on this min- eralogical transition show that the thickest portions of the unsaturated zone coincided with a silt-sand matrix diatreme breccia complex at Boyongan. Within the breccia complex, the thickness of the unsaturated zone approached 600 in, whereas outside the breccia complex (e.g., at Bayugo), the thickness averaged 50 m. Contours of the paleopotentiometric surface suggest that during weathering, groundwater flowed into the breccia complex from the north, south, and east, and exited along a high permeability zone to the west. The high relief (>550 m) on the elevation of the paleopotentiometric surface is consistent with an environment of high topographic relief, and the outflow zone to the west of the breccia complex probably reflects proximity to a steep scarp intersecting the western breccia complex margin. Stable isotope paleoaltimetry has enabled estimation of the elevation of the land surface, which further constrains the physiographic setting

  3. Influence of nonionic surfactant on electroless copper deposition%非离子型表面活性剂对化学沉铜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞; 胡光辉; 潘湛昌; 庞文萍; 魏志钢; 肖楚民; 张晃初; 曾祥福

    2013-01-01

    Electroless copper plating was carried out with brass sheet as substrate. The basic bath composition and process conditions are as follows: CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L, EDTA-2Na 40 g/L, NaOH 12 g/L, HCHO 10 mL/L, pH 13.0, temperature 35 ℃, and time 10 min. The effects of nonionic surfactants such as OP-10, Triton X-100, and Tween-80 on the starting time of copper deposition, deposition rate, ductility, and grain refinement of Cu coating were studied. The results showed that the three kinds of surfactant can reduce copper deposition rate. The ductility and grain refinement of copper coating are improved by Triton X-100 and OP-10 when their mass concentration is 1-9 mg/L, while the starting time of copper deposition is delayed. Tween-80 can reduce the deposition rate significantly but has little impact on the ductility of Cu coating. Compared to Triton X-100 and Tween-80, OP-10 is the favorable agent for ductility improvement of electroless Cu coating.%以黄铜片为基体进行化学镀铜,基础镀液组成和工艺条件为:CuSO4·5H2O 10 g/L,EDTA-2Na40 g/L,NaOH 12 g/L,HCHO 10 mL/L,pH 13.0,温度35℃,时间10 min.研究了非离子型表面活性剂OP-10、曲拉通X-100和吐温-80对起镀时间、沉积速率、铜镀层韧性和晶粒细化的影响.结果表明,3种表面活性剂都会降低铜的沉积速率.质量浓度为1 ~9 mg/L时,曲拉通X-100和OP-10都能使铜镀层的韧性改善和晶粒细化,同时延长起镀时间;吐温-80会显著降低铜的沉积速率,但对铜镀层韧性的影响不大.与曲拉通X-100和吐温-80相比,OP-10是较理想的沉铜韧性改善剂.

  4. Fabrication of copper decorated tungsten oxide–titanium oxide nanotubes by photochemical deposition technique and their photocatalytic application under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen, E-mail: mm.momeni@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic presentation of the pretreatment method of titanium sheets and producing process of WTNs and Cu/WTNs films on titanium foils. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (WTNs) were synthesized by one-step electrochemical anodizing. • Copper decorated WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) were successfully prepared by photochemical deposition. • Photocatalytic activity of Cu/WTNs is higher than that of bare WTNs. • These photocatalysts showed good stability and it could be recycled several times without significant loss of its activity. - Abstract: Copper decorated WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) with a high photocatalytic activity were prepared by anodizing and photochemical deposition. Highly ordered WO{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (WTNs) on pure titanium foils were successfully fabricated by electrochemical anodizing and copper deposited on these nanotubes (Cu/WTNs) by photoreduction method. The resulting samples were characterized by various methods. Only the anatase phase was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of copper in the structure of thin films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The extension of optical absorption into the visible region of as-prepared films was indicated by UV/Vis spectroscopy. The degradation of methylene blue was used as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples. Results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Cu/WTNs samples is higher than bare WTNs sample. Kinetic research showed that the reaction rate constant of Cu/WTNs is approximately 2.5 times higher than the apparent reaction rate constant of bare WTNs. These results not only offer an economical method for constructing Cu/WTNs photocatalysts, but also shed new insight on the rational design of a low cost and high-efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  5. A high-resolution angiosperm pollen reference record covering Albian mid-latitude coastal deposits (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the

  6. Iron oxide copper-gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 79): Chapter M in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernette, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Mauritania hosts one significant copper-gold deposit, Guelb Moghrein and several occurrences, which have been categorized as iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits but which are atypical in some important respects. Nonetheless, Guelb Moghrein is an economically significant mineral deposit and an attractive exploration target. The deposit is of Archean age and is hosted by a distinctive metacarbonate rock which is part of a greenstone-banded iron formation (BIF) package within a thrust stack in the northern part of the Mauritanide Belt. The surrounding area hosts a number of similar copper-gold occurrences. Based on the characteristics of the Guelb Moghrein deposit and its geologic environment, five tracts which are considered permissive for IOCG type mineralization similar to Guelb Moghrein have been delineated.

  7. [Study of the last glacial loess-like deposits in the coastal area of South China with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser particle size analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Guo-neng

    2014-11-01

    Newly discovered yellow silt widely distributed in the coastal area of south China was analyzed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser particle size (LPS) methods in the present paper. The authors take the lead in trying to synthetically judge the depositional environment, transporting agent and forming mechanism of the yellow silt from angles of output forms of iron minerals as well as grain size distribution features of the samples chose from three representative sections and a drill core. The DRS first derivative curves show the peak height of iron minerals decreasing from hematite (565 nm) to goethite (505 and 435 nm), which reflects a relatively dry, cold climate that coincides with the aeolian loess widely distributed in the northwest China, but reverses of the fluvial and marine deposits which experienced a well hydration in humid conditions over a long period of time in study area. LPS analysis show that grain size from top to bottom of the sections and drill core are homogeneous and typical of aeolian sediments. The grain size distribution in the yellow silt is characterized by double peaks with main peak of 10-50 μm and a secondary peak of landforms and buried topographies in the coastal area of south China have this kind of sediments, the yellow silt is considered to represent an aeolian deposit formed during the last glacial period, which is called "loess-like deposits" in our study.

  8. Abiogenic Fischer-Tropsch synthesis of methane at the Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit, western Junggar, NW-China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; Jin, LuYing

    2014-09-01

    Methane is widely developed in hydrothermal fluids from reduced porphyry copper deposits, but its origin remains enigmatic. The occurrence of methane in fluid inclusions at the Late Carboniferous Baogutu reduced porphyry copper deposit in western Junggar, Xinjiang, NW-China, presents an excellent opportunity to address this problem. A systematic study including fluid inclusion Laser-Raman and CO2-CH4 carbon isotope analyses, igneous and hydrothermal mineral H-O isotope analyses, and in situ major, trace element and Sr isotopic analyses of hydrothermal epidote was conducted to constrain the origin of CH4 and CH4-rich fluids. The δ2H and δ18O of water in equilibrium with igneous biotite ranges from -65.0‰ to -66.0‰ and +7.2‰ to +7.4‰, respectively, indicating notable degassing of probably supercritical fluids in the magma chamber. The wide range of δ2H (-58.0‰ to -107.0‰, n = 23) for water within quartz suggests the existence of significant hydrothermal fluid boiling. Water-rock interaction is the most likely mechanism leading to the wide range of δ18O values for water in vein quartz with water/rock ratios (wt.% in O) of 0.15 to 0.75 and 0.13 to 0.46 for a closed and open system, respectively. Detailed Laser-Raman analyses indicate CO2 in apatite included in granodiorite porphyry phenocrystic biotite that records the carbon species of the early stage magmatic stage, whereas later hydrothermal fluids containing CH4 with trace or without CO2 are found in inclusions of vein quartz. We propose that CH4 is probably transformed from CO2 by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions at 500 °C, assumed from CO2-CH4 C isotope equilibrium. The (87Sr/86Sr)i of hydrothermal epidote yields values of 0.70369-0.70404, consistent with that reported for the whole rocks. The δ13CCH4 (-28.6‰ to -22.6‰) and δ2HCH4 (-108.0‰ to -59.5‰) are characteristic of abiogenic methane. The measured δ13CCO2 shows a slightly depleted 13C (-13.5‰ to -7.2‰) relative to upper mantle

  9. Evidence of North Africa’s Green Revolution Preserved in Sedimentary Organic Matter Deposited in Three Coastal Lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of longer residence times and limited mixing in coastal lagoons, the impacts of anthropogenic nutrient loading to lagoon food webs are often more pronounced than in other coastal ecosystems. For these reasons, many lagoons also provide an excellent environment for the dep...

  10. The high-grade Las Cruces copper deposit, Spain: a product of secondary enrichment in an evolving basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Slack, John F.; Delgado, Antonio; Gomez-Miguelez, Nieves; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Gomez, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    The Las Cruces deposit (Iberian Pyrite Belt) includes a large, high-grade cementation zone capped by unusual rocks that contain carbonates, galena, iron sulphides, and quartz. Between the Late Cretaceous(?) and Tortonian, the volcanogenic massive sulphides were exhumed and affected by subaerial oxidation that formed paired cementation and gossan zones. Onset of Alpine extension produced accelerated growth of the cementation zone along extensional faults, leading to formation of the high-grade copper ore at ca. 11 Ma. Later, replacement of the overlying gossan by sulphide- and carbonate-rich rocks beneath sealing marl sediments is thought to have involved microbial processes, occurring between the Messinian (ca. 7.2 Ma) and today. Isotope data show that the cementation zone formed by the mixing of descending acidic waters derived from oxidation of the massive sulphides, with upwelling geothermal waters flowing at temperatures above 100 °C. The C, O, and Sr isotope values of the mineralization (87Sr/86Sr 0.7101-0.7104) and of the local groundwater (0.7102-0.7104) reflect equilibration with basement rocks, and indicate that influence on the ore-forming process by marl-equilibrated water (0.7091-0.7093) or Miocene seawater (0.7086-0.7092) was negligible. The high sulphur isotope values of the sulphides in the biogenic zone (most +19 to +24 ‰) are well above those of the primary sulphides (δ34S ca. -6.8 to +10.3 ‰) and likely reflect formation of the biogenic sulphides by reduction of aqueous sulphate in the groundwaters. Sulphur isotope values of the cementation zone (δ34S ca. -2.4 to +21.7 ‰) are also consistent with some contribution of sulphur from the biogenic reduction of aqueous sulphate.

  11. The relationship between stabilizer and copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution%化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂与铜沉积速率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建芳; 姚陈忠; 孙鸿

    2012-01-01

    It was researched for stabilizer on the copper deposition rate in the electroless copper plating solution. It was fully consider for main complexing agent, side effects of inhibitors and formaldehyde capture agent which concentration of electroless copper plating. The base formula as copper sulfate 3 g/L, formaldehyde 8 g/L, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid 28 g/L, sodium hydroxide 7.5 g/L, the process parameters were temperature being 50℃, the pH value being 12.5 and plating time being 40 min. The a-mount of the three types of stabilizers were determined for methanol 8 mg/L, potassium ferrocyanide 6 mg/L bipyridyl. The coating obtained under the optimal technical conditions was Hongliang appearance, surface roughness, grain size and detailed electroless copper plating solution stability.%研究了化学镀铜溶液中稳定剂对铜沉积速率的影响,着重考虑主配位剂、副反应的抑制剂、甲醛捕获剂对化学镀铜的影响.结果表明,在基本配方8 g/L CuSO4·5H2O,3 g/L HCHO,28 g/L EDTA,7.5 g/L NaOH,工艺参数pH=12.5,温度50℃,时间40 min的基础上,各种稳定剂的适宜用量为6 mL/L CH3OH、8 mg/L K4Fe(CN)6、6 mg/L2,2’-bipy.在最佳工艺下得到的镀层外观红亮,表面平整,晶粒细致,化学镀铜液稳定.

  12. Superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Pihui; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-01

    Cu2S and Cu2O composite (Cu2S@Cu2O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu2S@Cu2O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  13. Methods for accelerating nitrate reduction using zerovalent iron at near-neutral pH: effects of H2-reducing pretreatment and copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y H; Lo, S L; Lin, C I; Hu, C Y; Kuan, W H; Weng, S C

    2005-12-15

    Both surface treatments, H2-reducing pretreatment at 400 degrees C and the deposition of copper as a catalyst, were attempted to enhance the removal of nitrate (40 (mg N) L(-1)) using zerovalent iron in a HEPES buffered solution at a pH of between 6.5 and 7.5. After the iron surface was pretreated with hydrogen gas, the removal of the passive oxide layers that covered the iron was indicated by the decline in the oxygen fraction (energy dispersive X-ray analysis) and the overlap of the cyclic polarization curves. The reaction rate was doubled, and the lag of the early period disappeared. Then, the deposition of copper onto freshly pretreated iron promoted nitrate degradation more effectively than that onto a nonpretreated iron surface, because of the high dispersion and small size of the copper particles. An optimum of 0.25-0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe accelerated the rate by more than six times that of the nonpretreated iron. The aged 0.5% (w/w) Cu/Fe with continual dipping in nitrate solution for 20 days completely restored its reactivity by a regeneration process with H2 reduction. Hence, these two iron surface treatments considerably promoted the removal of nitrate from near-neutral water; the reactivity of Cu/Fe was effectively recovered.

  14. 辽东半岛滨海砂金矿成矿规律%Metallogenic Regularity of the Coastal Gulch-gold Deposit in Liaodong Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长纯; 姚志宏; 孙鹏慧

    2016-01-01

    Liaodong peninsula coastal gulch-gold mine is not development,less resources,in order to provide the theoretical reference for the prospecting work of coastal gulch-gold deposit in Liaodong pen-insula,the metallogenic conditions of the coastal gulch-gold deposit are analyzed,the results show that:①the new archean strata and ancient proterozoic strata are developed in Liaodong peninsula,intrusive rocks and native gold deposits (points)with the characteristics of more material source and multi-stage forma-tion;②the climatic conditions along the Yellow sea coast are conducive to weathering and erosion,with more rainfall and large rive transport capacity,a large number of ore-forming materials are transported for the gulch-gold deposit;③the favorable metallogenic environment for the formation of coastal gulch-gold deposits is provided by the abundant land physiognomy,sea bottom physiognomy,coastal types physiogno-my and Quaternary type physiognomy with alluvial-diluvial causes;④the new tectonic movement is mainly for overall lift long up,which caused the the peninsula suffered the strong erosion in the entire Quaterna-ry,so,the sufficient material source for the gulch-gold deposit is provided.Based on the above analysis re-sults,the metallogenic material source,metallogemnic dynamic and metallogenic environment are dis-cussed from the aspects of ore-forming material supply conditions,climate and hydrodynamic conditions and sedimentary environment.The above study results can provide some reference for the prospecting work of coastal gulch-gold deposit in Liaodong peninsula.%辽东半岛滨海砂金矿不发育、资源量少,为进一步加强寻找滨海砂金矿,对滨海砂金矿的成矿条件进行了分析,结果表明:①区内具有新太古、古中元古代地层,侵入岩和原生金矿床(点)具有多物质来源和形成的多阶段性;②半岛黄海沿岸的气候条件有利于风化剥蚀作用的进行,伴随着降雨较多

  15. Copper allergy from dental copper amalgam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Björkner, Bert; Karlsteen, Magnus; Schütz, Andrejs

    2002-05-06

    A 65-year-old female was investigated due to a gradually increasing greenish colour change of her plastic dental splint, which she used to prevent teeth grinding when sleeping. Furthermore, she had noted a greenish/bluish colour change on the back of her black gloves, which she used to wipe her tears away while walking outdoors. The investigation revealed that the patient had a contact allergy to copper, which is very rare. She had, however, had no occupational exposure to copper. The contact allergy may be caused by long-term exposure of the oral mucosa to copper from copper-rich amalgam fillings, which were frequently used in childhood dentistry up to the 1960s in Sweden. The deposition of a copper-containing coating on the dental splint may be caused by a raised copper intake from drinking water, increasing the copper excretion in saliva, in combination with release of copper due to electrochemical corrosion of dental amalgam. The greenish colour change of the surface of the splint is probably caused by deposition of a mixture of copper compounds, e.g. copper carbonates. Analysis by the X-ray diffraction technique indicates that the dominant component is copper oxide (Cu2O and CuO). The corresponding greenish/bluish discoloration observed on the back of the patient's gloves may be caused by increased copper excretion in tears.

  16. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  17. Coastal Sand Deposits 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The supplemental information lists the geology data files, by county, and the name of the ESRI shapefile used in the creation of this dataset. All data was projected...

  18. Formation of the adakite-like granitoid complex and porphyry copper-gold deposit in Shaxi from southern Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt: A clue to the West Pacific plate subduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xianghua; YANG Xiaoyong; YU Liangfan; ZHANG Qianming

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the geological and geochemical studies, including chemical analysis of bulk rocks, rare-earth and trace element studies, fluid inclusion, and S and O isotopic analyses, the authors described the geo-logical background of the deposit in detail and presented significant proofs for the conditions of formation of the Shaxi porphyry copper-gold deposit. Compared with other large and supper-large porphyry copper deposits in China and the adjacent Cu-Au mineralized areas, the ore-forming processes and conditions were analyzed; and the possibil-ity of forming large porphyry copper deposits in the Shaxi area was discussed. The present study indicated that the ore-forming fluid and material were mainly of magmatic origin, while meteoric water played a certain role in the ore-forming processes. Interactions between subducting and overriding plates provided a major driving force for the formation of igneous rocks and the deposition of metal elements in East China since Jurassic. Based on the geo-chemical data of the Shaxi intrusive, it is found that the copper (gold) mineralization is closely related to the genesis of adakite-like intrusive in the Shaxi area. This adakite-like intrusive was formed in the subduction environment as a result of the subduction of the West Pacific plate toward the East China continent, where there is a great potential-ity to form a large porphyry copper deposit.

  19. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc contents of the mangrove oyster, Crassostrea corteziensis, of seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-Espericueta, M G; Osuna-López, I; Bañuelos-Vargas, I; López-López, G; Muy-Rangel, M D; Izaguirre-Fierro, G; Rubio-Carrasco, W; Meza-Guerrero, P C; Voltolina, D

    2009-10-01

    The ranges of concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn of the soft tissues of C. corteziensis collected in seven coastal lagoons of NW Mexico were 1.55-7.45, 17.50-166.36, 4.13-9.49 and 245.34-2,304.12 microg/g (dry weight), respectively. Their distributions were not consistent and there were no seasonal trends, indicating different point sources of the metals in each lagoon. The mean Cd and Pb concentrations were 5.34 and 6.30 microg/g (dry weight), which are higher than the values indicative of polluted areas. Our data indicate that only the levels of Cd are a possible health risk in six of these lagoons, and only in the case of regular local consumers. In one, Cu and Zn reach levels of concern.

  20. Mineralized and Barren Tourmaline Breccia at Río Blanco-Los Bronces Copper Deposit, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohf, Michael; Seifert, Thomas; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Rabbia, Osvaldo; Krause, Joachim; Haser, Sabine; Cuadra, Patricio

    2014-05-01

    The Río Blanco-Los Bronces porphyry copper-molybdenum cluster (14.8-4.3 Ma) in central Chile is one of the largest mining districts of the world with more than 200 Mt of contained Cu; almost 30% of these resources are hosted by hydrothermal breccias. These breccia complexes are tourmaline-, biotite-, chlorite-, or iron oxide-cemented and are widespread in the Paleo-Eocene and Mio-Pliocene porphyry Cu-Mo belt of the central Andes. The ongoing research project aims to understand the time-space relationships between the different breccia bodies and the multiple porphyry intrusions. For this, two cross sections in the southern part of the deposit (Sur-Sur and La Americana areas) are studied. Most interesting from the economic/genetic point of view is the intermineral breccia (tourmaline- and biotite-cemented), which have high copper grades. It is under debate whether there is a vertical mineralogical zonation of the cement of the breccia body from tourmaline-rich at the top to biotite-dominated at the bottom, or there are two superimposed breccia formation events. Textural and mineralogical observations of benches- and tunnels-outcrops, drill cores, and polished-thin sections support the first hypothesis. Our work has been focused on tourmaline chemistry due to its high resistance to alteration and weathering, which allows this mineral to retain its original isotopic signature. Preliminary results of 127 microprobe measurements of tourmaline chemistry from the early mineralized breccia (BXT) and the late barren one (BXTTO) show that all the tourmalines belong to the alkali group and the composition ranges between the dravite-schorl end members. There is a pronounced negative correlation between Fe (ferric?) and Al, probably due to exchange at the Z octahedral position. The backscatter images of tourmaline show oscillatory and sector zonings, i.e., alternating light bands/zones (high CaO, FeO, Na2O) and darker ones (enriched in Al2O3 and MgO). There is no significant

  1. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  2. Electro-deposition metallic tungsten coatings in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt on copper based alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.H., E-mail: dreamerhong77@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Y.C.; Liu, Q.Z.; Li, X.L.; Jiang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tungsten coating (>1 mm) was obtained by electro-deposition method in molten salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different thickness tungsten coatings were obtained by using different durations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good performance of coating was obtained when pulse parameters were modulated. - Abstract: The tungsten coating was prepared by electro-deposition technique on copper alloy substrate in a Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}-WO{sub 3} melt. The coating's surface and cross-section morphologies as well as its impurities were investigated by XPS, SEM and line analysis. Various plating durations were investigated in order to obtain an optimal coating's thickness. The results demonstrated that the electro-deposited coating was compact, voidless, crackless and free from impurities. The tungsten coating's maximum Vickers hardness was measured to be 520 HV. The tungsten coating's minimum oxygen content was determined to be 0.018 wt%. Its maximum thickness was measured to be 1043.67 {mu}m when the duration of electrolysis was set to 100 h. The result of this study has demonstrated the feasibility of having thicker tungsten coatings on copper alloy substrates. These electrodeposited tungsten coatings can be potentially implemented as reliable armour for the medium heat flux plasma facing component (PFC).

  3. Holocene Depositional History of Shad Pond, a Hypersaline Coastal Lagoon, Eleuthera, Bahamas and Its Influence on Lucayan Occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boush, L. E.; Fentress, S.; Conroy, M.; Cook, A.; Miseridina, D.; Buynevich, I. V.; Myrbo, A.; Brown, E. T.; Berman, M.; Gnivecki, P.; Kjellmark, E.; Savarese, M.; Brady, K.

    2013-12-01

    Shad Pond, an enclosed hypersaline lagoon on the southeastern tip of Eleuthera, Bahamas reveals a ~5000-year record of hurricane activity, as well as sea-level and climate change history. Three sediment cores recovered 1.04-2.54 m of sediment over bedrock along a transect perpendicular to shoreline. Sediment composition and grain size, loss on ignition, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the cores along with dune transects and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles adjacent to the lake provide a comprehensive dataset to interpret the history of this coastal basin. The sedimentary sequence was composed of alternating lithofacies that included microbial mats, sand, and peat. Laminated mats often alternated with sandy layers in thin to medium-bedded units. Two peat layers were found in the basal part of the shore-distal core (Site 1) between 1.82-2.40 m and 2.53-2.54 m and were separated by a 13-cm-thick gray mud layer. In general, organic matter and carbonate content tracked granulometry and composition in all cores. High-resolution XRF scans of Ca and Sr at Site 1 show elevated levels ~3,700 cal yBP, which correlate with the top of the peat layer, but these elemental concentrations vary at Site 3. XRF measurements of Fe indicate a dust flux that has been recorded regionally throughout the Caribbean. Dune transects and GPR profiles indicate a phased history of the pond, beginning with initial stages as an open lagoon dominated by red mangrove, with black mangrove and buttonwood also present. The lake likely closed at approximately 3,700 cal yBP indicated by the transition between the upper peat and microbial mat layers. This could have been due to increased storm events in a regime of rising sea level. Aeolian aggradation continued to heighten the barrier between the bedrock headlands to its present position. Hurricane overwash deposits punctuated the algal mat accumulation throughout this time period. Present-day hypersaline conditions sustain algal mats

  4. Mineral potential for sediment-hosted copper deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 75): Chapter K in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Neoproterozoic through Cambrian, continental, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks interbedded with dolomitic carbonates, shales, and glacial tillites similar to the Katanga Supergroup host rocks of the Central African Copperbelt and other sediment-hosted copper-bearing Proterozoic sequences worldwide, is first order criteria for consideration of the Neoproterozoic units of the Taoudeni Basin in Mauritania as prospective for sediment-hosted copper deposits. Review of the National Mineral Occurrences Database (Marsh and Anderson, 2015) and previous literature suggest that only a handful of small sediment-hosted copper occurrences have been found to date in Mauritania and that the resource potential for this deposit type is low. In the northern Taoudeni Basin, the most important occurrence is at Taradent. This occurrence consists of three mineralized horizons in the lower Neoproterozoic Char Group in three outcrop areas separated by alluvium over a strike length of 12 kilometers (km). The most extensively mineralized horizon consists of malachite and disseminated copper sulfides, and is concentrated at the base of a dolomitic interval, consistent with a reduced faciestype sediment-hosted copper deposit model. Additional and poorly described copper occurrences in the Taoudeni Basin margin sedimentary rocks in northeastern Mauritania, such as Chegga Guettatira and Sidi Bara, may be sediment-hosted copper occurrences and extend the potential throughout this portion of the Basin.

  5. Lead isotopic composition and lead source of the Tongchanghe basalt-type native copper-chalcocite deposit in Ninglang, western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Zhengwei

    2006-01-01

    The Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang occurs in low-Ti basalts of western Yunnan, and the mode of fault-filling & metasomatism metallogenesis indicates that this deposit is of late-stage hydrothermal origin. This makes it more complicated to define the source of ore-forming materials. This paper introduces the Pb isotope data of Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries, regional Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rock basement and various types of rocks of the mining district in western Yunnan with an attempt to constrain the origin of the Tongchanghe native copper-chalcocite deposit at Ninglang.The results showed that the ores are relatively homogeneous in Pb isotopic composition, implying a simple ore-forming material source. The three sets of Pb isotopic ratios in the Himalayan alkali-rich porphyries are all higher than those of the ores; the regional basement metamorphic rocks show a wide range of variations in Pb isotopic ratio, quite different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; the Pb isotopic composition of the Triassic sedimentary rocks and mudstone and siltstone interbeds in the Late Permian Heinishao Formation (corresponding to the forth cycle of basaltic eruption) in the mining district has the characteristics of radiogenic lead and is significantly different from the isotopic composition of ore lead; like the ores, the Emeishan basalts in the mining district and those regionally distributed possess the same Pb isotopic composition, showing a complete overlap with respect to their distribution range. From the above, the possibilities can be ruled out that the ore-forming materials of the Tongchanghe deposit were derived from the basement, a variety of Himalayan magmatic activities, etc. It is thereby defined that the ore-forming materials were derived largely from the Emeishan basalts. From the data available it is deduced that the native cupper-chalcocite-type metallogenesis that occurred in the Emeishan basalt-distributed area

  6. Intensity of quartz cathodoluminescence and trace-element content in quartz from the porphyry copper deposit at Butte, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, B.G.; Reed, M.H.; Dilles, J.H.; Kent, A.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Textures of hydrothermal quartz revealed by cathodoluminescence using a scanning electron microscope (SEM-CL) reflect the physical and chemical environment of quartz formation. Variations in intensity of SEM-CL can be used to distinguish among quartz from superimposed mineralization events in a single vein. In this study, we present a technique to quantify the cathodoluminescent intensity of quartz within individual and among multiple samples to relate luminescence intensity to specific mineralizing events. This technique has been applied to plutonic quartz and three generations of hydrothermal veins at the porphyry copper deposit in Butte, Montana. Analyzed veins include early quartz-molybdenite veins with potassic alteration, pyrite-quartz veins with sericitic alteration, and Main Stage veins with intense sericitic alteration. CL intensity of quartz is diagnostic of each mineralizing event and can be used to fingerprint quartz and its fluid inclusions, isotopes, trace elements, etc., from specific mineralizing episodes. Furthermore, CL intensity increases proportional to temperature of quartz formation, such that plutonic quartz from the Butte quartz monzonite (BQM) that crystallized at temperatures near 750 ??C luminesces with the highest intensity, whereas quartz that precipitated at ???250 ??C in Main Stage veins luminesces with the least intensity. Trace-element analyses via electron microprobe and laser ablation-ICP-MS indicate that plutonic quartz and each generation of hydrothermal quartz from Butte is dominated by characteristic trace amounts of Al, P, Ti, and Fe. Thus, in addition to CL intensity, each generation of quartz can be distinguished based on its unique trace-element content. Aluminum is generally the most abundant element in all generations of quartz, typically between 50 and 200 ppm, but low-temperature, Main Stage quartz containing 400 to 3600 ppm Al is enriched by an order of magnitude relative to all other quartz generations. Phosphorous

  7. The nature of hydrothermal fluids in the Kahang porphyry copper deposit (Northeast of Isfahan based on mineralography, fluid inclusion and stable isotopic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimeh Sadat Komeili

    2017-02-01

    hypogene sulfide mineral and chalcopyrite is the predominant Cu- sulfide in the Kahang mineralized area. Primary magnetite grains having irregular boundaries formed in association with phyllic –potassic altered zones (Afshooni et al., 2014. Chalcocite and covellite as secondary copper minerals in the enriched supergene zone replaced the chalcopyrite. Thermometric studies on fluid inclusions conducted on quartz veins was related to the phyllic zone. Almost all studied fluid inclusions were homogenized to the liquid phase. Hydrothermal solutions with salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl, comparable with those of the other porphyry deposits (Morales Ruano et al., 2002; Hezarkhani, 2006; Hezarkhani, 2009 were responsible for the formation of the Kahang porphyry copper deposit. Homogenization temperatures of 200-450°C and 500-550°C were obtained from heating- cooling experiments on the two and multi phase fluid inclusions. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling fluids. Result In the Kahang porphyry Cu- deposit, the oxidation zone is characterized by hematite, goethite, jarosite, malachite, and azurite; the supergene zone is identified by chalcocite, chalcopyrite and coevllite; and chalcopyrite, pyrite and magnetite are the mineral assemblage of the hypogene zone. The volcanic as well as the plutonic rocks of the area have been hydrothermally altered which gave rise to the formation of propyllitic, intermediate argillic and mineralized phyllic zones. Fluid inclusion study on quartz veins revealed salinity over 26% wt equivalent NaCl and homogenization temperature of 200-450°C and 500-550°C. The presence of gas riched fluid inclusions together with those of liquid riched and multiphase different salinities in the quartz veins as well as the occurrence of hydrothermal breccias are indicative of boiling

  8. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten and for stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver in the Butte 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Moll, S.H.; Wallace, C.A.; Lee, G.K.; Antweiler, J.C.; Lidke, D.J.; Rowan, L.C.; Hanna, W.F.; Trautwein, C.M.; Dwyer, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the assessment for potential occurrences of undiscovered porphyry and stockwork deposits of copper, molybdenum, and tungsten (porphyry Cu-Mo-W) and stockwork and disseminated deposits of gold and silver (disseminated Au-Ag) in the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. The Butte quadrangle, in west-central Montana, is one of the best known mineral producing regions in the U.S. Mining districts in the quadrangle, including the world famous Butte or Summit Valley district, have produced a variety of metallic and nonmetallic mineral commodities valued at more than $6.4 billion (at the time of production). Because of its importance as a mineral producing region, the Butte quadrangle was selected for study by the U.S. Geological Survey under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Under this program, new data on geology, geochemistry, geophysics, geochronology, mineral resources, and remote sensing were collected and synthesized. The field and laboratory studies were supported, in part, by funding from the Geologic Framework and Synthesis Program and the Wilderness Program. The methods used in this resource assessment for porphyry Cu-Mo-W and disseminated Au-Ag deposits in the quadrangle include a compilation of all data, the development of descriptive occurrence models, and the analysis of data using techniques provided by a Geographic Information System (GIS). This map is one of several maps on the Butte 1 °X2° quadrangle. Other deposit types have been assessed for the Butte quadrangle, and maps (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Miscellaneous Investigation Series Maps) for each of the following have been prepared: Vein and replacement deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, and tungsten (Elliott, Wallace, and others, 1992a) and skarn deposits of gold, silver, copper, tungsten, and iron (Elliott and others, 1992b ). Other publications resulting from this study include linear features map (Rowan and others, 1991

  9. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  10. 西藏雄村铜金矿床经济评价%Economic Evaluation of Xiongcun Copper-gold Deposit in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丕蓉; 李志军; 郎兴海

    2014-01-01

    西藏雄村铜金矿是最近在西藏日喀则地区发现的一个超大型矿床在对矿床地质特征、经济技术条件进行分析的基础上,采用静态和动态评价方法对矿床经济价值进行评价,通过投资利润率、投资收益率、投资回收期等经济技术指标开展盈亏分析,选取处理成本、铜价作为不确定因素进行了单变量敏感性分析,同时在保证边界品位的基础上以处理成本和回收率作为不确定因素进行了双变量敏感性分析,认为该矿床具有较高的经济价值,矿山生产建设的条件在经济上是可行的。%Xiongcun copper-gold deposit is a super-large deposit recently discovered in Shigatse District,Tibet.On the basis of analyzing the geological characteristics and the economic and technical conditions and evaluating the economic value of the deposit with static and dynamic evaluation method,this paper analyzes the gain and loss in terms of profit ratio of investment, rate of return on investment and investment payoff period.Then a univariate sensitivity analysis is done selecting such factors as the treatment cost and copper price and a bivariate sensitivity analysis is done with the treatment cost and the rate of recovery.The results indicate that Xiongcun copper-gold deposit has a relatively high economic value and that the conditions of productive construction of the deposit are economically feasible.

  11. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  12. Atmospheric particle dry deposition of major ions to the South Atlantic coastal area observed at Baía de Todos os Santos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELYUS L. MKOMA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The coastal atmosphere adjacent to large urban areas can be strongly affected by the emission of air pollutants, among them, major ions species. In this study, the chemical composition and sources of carboxylates and other water-soluble ions in fine and coarse aerosols as well as estimates of particle dry deposition fluxes were studied at a tropical coastal site affected by an urban environment. The mean concentrations of the total carboxylates were 78 ng m–3 in fine fraction and 81 ng m–3 in coarse fraction of particulate matter (PM. The corresponding values for the total inorganic ions were 2143 ng m–3 and 4880 ng m–3 respectively. Main sources for fine particles were: (i photochemical formation of carboxylic acids in vapor phase and a posterior gas-to-particle conversion onto sea salt particles; (ii emissions from anthropic sources with long range transportation processes; and (iii the interchanging of volatile species among atmospheric phases. In turn, for coarse particles, the predominant sources were: (i gas-phase species and ab/adsorbed onto pre-existing particles afterwards; (ii primary emission of coarse particles from anthropogenic sources; and (iii sea salt spray and/or soil resuspension. Finally, particle dry deposition was a very important mechanism representing air-to-sea fluxes of major species.

  13. Effect of the polyacrylamide concentration on the quality of the copper deposit obtained by electrolytic refining; Efecto de la concentracion de poliacrilamida sobre la calidad del deposito de cobre obtenido por refino electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, J.; Ipinza, J.; Camus, J.; Vargas, A.; Saavedra, R.

    2013-07-01

    The effect of the additive non ionic polyacrylamide (PAM), was studied at the laboratory level, as refining crystalline grain in the copper electrorefining. Experiments were performed 24 h of electrolysis, using an electrolyte of copper sulphate acid, with 0.5 to 10 mg{sup -}1 polyacrylamide at 55 degree centigrade and a current density of 260 Am{sup -}2. The effectiveness of these organic additives in copper electrorefining was determined by directly measuring the surface roughness of the copper deposit and contrasted with the results of other instrumental techniques (SEM and metallographic analysis). The results of the analysis SEM, metallographic analysis and measurement of the surface roughness of the copper deposit, show that to concentrations as low as 0.5 mg{sup -}1 of this additive is manifested its property of tuner of grain. However, in the range of 7 to 10 mg{sup -}1 of polyacrylamide, it reaches an optimum size of grain for the deposit of copper in the cathodes. (Author)

  14. Copper binding by terrestrial versus marine organic ligands in the coastal plume of River Thurso, North Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, François L. L.; Batchelli, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    It is generally assumed that terrestrial humic matter contains a high density of metal complexing ligands spanning a wide range of stability constants. From equilibrium modelling it would be anticipated that carboxyl groups, which are known to be abundant in humic matter, should be capable of binding Cu quantitatively in humic-rich estuarine systems such as the river plume outflow of River Thurso, on Scotland's north coast, where concentrations along the full mixing gradient typically range for Cu: 1-25 nM and for DOC (Dissolved Organic Carbon): 150-1500 μM. Using a combination of reverse and forward titrations monitored by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (ACSV), we show that terrestrial humic substances were the likely source of high-affinity (class 1), low abundance ligands (1-4 nM) found throughout the coastal plume, but that weaker (class 2), more abundant ligands (90-170 nM) appeared to be produced largely in situ, probably as a biological response to Cu inputs into the estuary. Conditional stability constants for Cu-binding were respectively log K1‧ = 14.9-15.9 and log K2‧ = 11.8-12.6. Class 2 ligands were evenly distributed between the low and high molecular weight fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM), both in March and May. Class 1 ligands were more abundant in the low molecular weight fraction in March, but not in May. The latter could be related to seasonal differences in the nature of peatland derived organic matter carried by River Thurso. Since class 1 ligands (terrestrial, humic) were saturated with Cu throughout the plume, it effectively fell upon class 2 ligands (marine, biological) to control Cu speciation in Thurso Bay, in particular keeping the free Cu concentration [Cu2+] within a relatively narrow range (10-13.6 M to 10-12.4 M). On the other hand, class 1 ligands were responsible for solubilising small amounts of Cu derived from this peatland catchment and effectively transporting Cu, in dissolved and colloidal forms, to

  15. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    The research is part of an ongoing project of geo-archaeology from Rio de Moinhos beach (Esposende, NW Portugal), where an extensive area of dark sedimentary outcrops and a large amount of ceramic remains from a Roman shipwreck are present. The dark sedimentary deposit, presenting tree stumps and roots in life position, partially covers a rocky platform that extends seawards. Over the platform, that presents many pits of sea urchins (infralittoral environment) as well as salt pans (supratidal environment), a marine rusty conglomerate is present in some places. Several hand gauge cores were extracted in the sedimentary deposit whose maximum depth do not exceed 50cm. Samples from cores and outcrops were analysed for grain size, mineralogical composition, pollen and diatom content and radiocarbon dated. This work concerns sediment size analysis, dating and pollen. Tree stumps and roots of Alnus glutinosa dated 6310-6220 cal BP are in the base of the sedimentary sequence that presents a gradual passage from very fine sands to clayey silts, all of them organic and very poorly sorted. Pollen analysis revealed an initial wetland habitat containing Alnus, inundated ca 5645-5585 cal BP due to rising sea level at the time. A brackish lagoon formed at the site presumably protected by a clastic barrier seaward. Similar formations of lagoons are detected all along the Portuguese coast, typically disappearing with time due to sand infilling. In this case, however, the brackish lagoon turned into a fresh water lake ca 4485-4440 cal BP. This may have been a natural development caused by permanent closing of the clastic barrier but human interference cannot be excluded as anthropic activity was detected since formation of the lagoon. The lake seems to have filled in with sand at some point in time subsequent to ca 3750-3725 cal BP, the date of the top lake sediment. However, shipwreck vestiges from the Roman Period presently dispersed over the lake sediment, suggests a later date

  16. Investigation of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on TiN substrates using CupraSelect as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    Copper films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates covered with TiN using a novel chemical vapor deposition reactor in which reactions were assisted by a heated tungsten filament (hot-wire CVD, HWCVD). Liquid at room temperature hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) was directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a direct-liquid injection (DLI) system using N2 as carrier gas. The deposition rates of HWCVD Cu films obtained on TiN covered substrates were found to increase with filament temperature (65 and 170 degrees C were tested). The resistivities of HWCVD Cu films were found to be higher than for thermally grown films due to the possible presence of impurities into the Cu films from the incomplete dissociation of the precursor and W impurities caused by the presence of the filament. For HWCVD films grown at a filament temperature of 170 degrees C, smaller grains are formed than at 65 degrees C as shown from the taken SEM micrographs. XRD diffractograms taken on Cu films deposited on TiN could not reveal the presence of W compounds originating from the filament because the relative peak was masked by the TiN [112] peak.

  17. Sedimentary Characteristics of Buried Sand Layers Deposited in a Coastal Swamp in West Aceh, Indonesia, in the Early 15th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Monecke, K.; Meilianda, E.; Pilarczyk, J.; Rusydy, I.; Moena, A.; Muzhaffat, H.; Rais, A.; Yolanda, I. P.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment cores from the coastal region of West Aceh, Indonesia, an area largely affected by the December 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and resulting Indian Ocean tsunami, preserve evidence of two buried sand layers of possible tsunamigenic origin deposited in the early 15th century. The study site is dominated by beach ridge morphology with an alternation of beach ridges and swales characteristic of long-term coastal progradation. We targeted a low-lying area landward of a prominent beach ridge that is thought to have formed in the aftermath of the last predecessor of the 2004 event, and marks the position of the coastline in the late 14th and early 15th century. Using a hand auger and plastic tubes, 80 core samples up to 2.5 m in depth were recovered. Sand samples were analyzed using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer and prepared for microfossil analysis. The swale deposits are mostly composed of peat and overlie shallow marine sands forming the base of the beach ridge plain. Within the uppermost centimeters, a number of cores show a <1 cm thick sand layer possibly deposited during tsunami inundation in 2004. Intercalated within the peat deposits we found two buried sand layers at a depth of 70-100 cm below the surface. The lower sand layer is 1-6 cm thick and could only be traced in a handful of cores; the upper layer is more widespread and consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 5-14 cm of peat in between the two sand sheets. The sand layers consist of massive to normally graded fine to medium sand and show sharp upper and lower boundaries indicating abrupt depositional events. Grain size distributions of the 2004 tsunami sand as well as of buried sand layers match shoreface sediment samples retrieved in 10 m water depth, suggesting a predominantly offshore source. Based on initial radiocarbon ages and estimates of sedimentation rates, the two buried sand layers were deposited in the early 15th century and are separated by only a few decades.

  18. 改进电解液中自催化沉淀铜及其特性%Autocatalytic deposition of copper from modified electrolytes and its characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. SEKAR; K. K. JAGADESH; G. N. K. RAMESH BAPU

    2015-01-01

    The electroless deposition process of copper plating consisting of TEA and EDTA as complexing agents, paraformaldehyde as reducing agent, and 2-mercaptobenzothiozole as stabilizer and gelatin and animal glue as additives was investigated. The stability of the electroless copper solution was monitored by measuring the absorbance of the solution with a UV-Visible spectrophotometer and the solution was quite stable up to 15 h. The adhesion of copper films on mild steel foil was assessed by standard bend test and exhibited good adhesion. The XRD results indicate that the copper films have a (111) texture. Moreover, the additives suppress the predominant (111) plane crystal growth and increase the rate of (220) texture crystal growth. The crystal size of the copper films was calculated using the Scherrer formula from the predominant peak. SEM and AFM studies reveal that these two additives modify the crystal structure, grain size and surface morphology of the copper films. The cyclic voltammetry studies reveal that the additives are adsorbed on the electrode surface and inhibit the rate of deposition. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies reveal that the deposits produced in the presence of additives display higher corrosion resistance.%研究了以TEA和 EDTA为络合剂、多聚甲醛为还原剂、二硫基苯并噻唑为稳定剂、凝胶和动物胶为添加剂的镀铜化学沉积过程。化学镀铜溶液的稳定性可通过紫外可见分光光度仪测量溶液的吸光度来监测,在15 h内溶液都相当稳定。采用标准弯曲试验评估在低碳钢箔上铜膜的附着力,显示了很好的吸附性。XRD结果表明,铜膜具有(111)织构,而且,添加剂能够抑制(111)面的优先晶体生长,提高(220)织构的晶体生长速度。利用Scherrer公式从主峰计算铜膜的晶粒尺寸。SEM和 AFM研究表明,这两种添加剂能够改善铜膜的晶体结构、晶粒尺寸和表面形貌。循环

  19. GEOLOGY AND METALLOGENY OF THE COPPER DEPOSITS IN THE SHANGSHAXIMAO FORMATION IN NORTHWEST GUIZHOU: A case study of the Tiaotai copper deposit in Xishui County%黔北上沙溪庙组铜矿地质特征及成矿作用——以习水县条台铜矿为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光龙; 崔登伟; 杨旭; 钟祖峰; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    黔北仁怀-习水地区含铜砂岩型铜矿产于四川台拗边缘大型内陆盆地红层组合中,含矿岩石主要为中侏罗统上沙溪庙组浅灰绿色富含硅(碳)化木的长石砂岩.以习水县条台铜矿为例,对上沙溪庙组铜矿床地质特征和成矿条件进行了总结和分析.其成矿作用过程经历了:①含铜砂岩层原生沉积;②表生氧化作用;③次生富集成矿3个阶段.该矿是一个含铜砂岩层原生沉积后经地下水渗滤再造的淋积矿床.%The cupreous sandstone type of copper deposit in Renhuai-Xishui area, Northern Guizhou Province occurs in the red beds in the large inland basin on the edge of Sichuan platform-depression. The ore-bearing rocks are mainly the arkose containing silicified or carbonized wood of Middle Jurassic Shangshaximiao Formation. Taking the Tiaotai copper deposit as an example, this paper summarizes and studies the geologic characters and metallogenic conditions of the copper deposits in Shangshaximiao Formation. The metallogenesis experienced three stages, I.e. 1) primary sedimentation of cupreous sandstone layer; 2) surface oxidation; and 3 ) secondary enrichment and mineralization. The deposit is formed by the groundwater leaching after the primary sedimentation of the cupreous sandstone layer.

  20. Magnetic and gravity gradiometry framework for Mesoproterozoic iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Phillips, Jeffrey; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradiometry data provide the geophysical framework for evaluating the exploration potential of hidden iron oxide deposits in Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri. The data are used to calculate mineral prospectivity for iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element (REE) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Results delineate the geophysical footprints of all known iron oxide deposits and reveal several previously unrecognized prospective areas. The airborne data are also inverted to three-dimensional density and magnetic susceptibility models over four concealed deposits at Pea Ridge (IOA ± REE), Boss (IOCG), Kratz Spring (IOA), and Bourbon (IOCG). The Pea Ridge susceptibility model shows a magnetic source that is vertically extensive and traceable to a depth of greater than 2 km. A smaller density source, located within the shallow Precambrian basement, is partly coincident with the magnetic source at Pea Ridge. In contrast, the Boss models show a large (625-m-wide), vertically extensive, and coincident dense and magnetic stock with shallower adjacent lobes that extend more than 2,600 m across the shallow Precambrian paleosurface. The Kratz Spring deposit appears to be a smaller volume of iron oxides and is characterized by lower density and less magnetic rock compared to the other iron deposits. A prospective area identified south of the Kratz Spring deposit shows the largest volume of coincident dense and nonmagnetic rock in the subsurface, and is interpreted as prospective for a hematite-dominant lithology that extends from the top of the Precambrian to depths exceeding 2 km. The Bourbon deposit displays a large bowl-shaped volume of coincident high density and high-magnetic susceptibility rock, and a geometry that suggests the iron mineralization is vertically restricted to the upper parts of the Precambrian basement. In order to underpin the evaluation of the prospectivity and three

  1. Early Carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: Slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ping; Yang, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Ze-Nan; Zhao, Yun-Jiang; Liu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Existing geochronological and geochemical data for the Early Carboniferous magmatic rocks in the eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, have been interpreted in a variety of theories regarding petrogenesis and geodynamic setting. The proposed settings include rift, back-arc basin, passive continental margin, island arc, ridge subduction, and post-collisional environment. To evaluate these possibilities, we present new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical data, whole-rock geochemical, Hf isotope, and S isotope data for tonalitic rocks and ores associated with the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit located in the center of the late Paleozoic Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, eastern Tianshan. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the magmatic activity and thus associated copper mineralization occurred ca.332 Ma. The tonalitic rocks are calc-alkaline granites with A/CNK values ranging from 1.16 to 1.58; are enriched in K, Rb, Sr, and Ba; and are markedly depleted in Nb, Ta, Ti, and Th. They show geochemical affinities similar to adakites, with high Sr, Al2O3, and Na2O contents and La/Yb ratios; low Y and Yb contents; and slight positive Eu anomalies. In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons yielded positive initial εHf(t) values ranging from 6.9 to 17.2. The δ34S values of the ore sulfides range from -3.0‰ to +1.7‰, reflecting a deep sulfur source. Our results indicate that the paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab was being simultaneously subducted northward beneath the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc, and southward beneath the Aqishan-Yamansu arc during the Early Carboniferous. The Tuwu adakitic tonalitic rocks were derived from the partial melting of the subducted paleo-Tianshan oceanic slab, which was subsequently hybridized by mantle wedge peridotites. The slab-derived magmas have considerably high copper contents and are highly oxidized, thus leading to porphyry copper mineralization. Such Early Carboniferous tonalitic rocks that are widespread in the eastern Tianshan define a province

  2. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H; Storlazzi, Curt D; Draut, Amy E; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2013-06-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of (7)Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of (7)Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of (7)Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3-4.4 Bq L(-1), with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L(-1), and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L(-1). The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18-188 Bq m(-2) per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m(-2). Dry deposition fluxes of (7)Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m(-2) month(-1). Annualized (7)Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m(-2) yr(-1), with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate (7)Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate (7)Be data over the storm to accurately model a (7)Be load, but the results suggest enhanced watershed export of (7)Be from small, mountainous river systems compared to other watershed types.

  3. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  4. Influence of atmospheric dry deposition of inorganic nutrients on phytoplankton biomass in the coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yadav, K.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Rao, D.B.; DileepKumar, M.

    suggests that atmospheric deposition of nutrients enhances phytoplankton biomass in waters along the central east coast of India during the winter monsoon period, in particular, supporting the hypothesis stated above...

  5. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  6. Palynology of Lower Palaeogene (Thanetian-Ypresian) coastal deposits from the Barmer Basin (Akli Formation, Western Rajasthan, India): palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S.K.M.; Kumar, M.; Srivastava, D. [Birbal Sahni Instititue of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-03-15

    The 32-m thick sedimentary succession of the Paleocene-Eocene Akli Formation (Barmer basin, Rajasthan, India), which is exposed in an open-cast lignite mine, interbed several lignite seams that alternate with fossiliferous carbonaceous clays, green clays and widespread siderite bands and chert nodules. The palynofloral assemblages consist of spore, pollen and marine dinoflagellate cysts that indicate a Thanetian to Ypresian age. The assemblage is dominated by angiospermic pollen and specimens showing affinity with the mangrove Palm Nypa are also very abundant. The Nypa-like pollen specimens exhibit a wide range of morphological variation, some of the recorded morphotypes being restricted to this Indian basin. Preponderance of these pollen taxa indicates that the sediments were deposited in a coastal swamp surrounded by thick, Nypa-dominated mangrove vegetation. The dispersed organic matter separated from macerated residues indicates the dominance of anoxic conditions throughout the succession, although a gradual transition to oxic conditions is recorded in the upper part.

  7. Isotope Geochemistry of the Dongchuan Copper Deposit,Yunnan,SW China: Stratigraphic Chronology and Application of Lead Isotopes in Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the Pb-Pb isochron method was used to determine the isotopic ages of te Luoxue Formation dolomites(1716±56Ma),th Heishan Formation carbonaceous slated (1607±128Ma) of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group and the Dayingpan Formation carbonaceous slates(1258±Ma) of the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group.The age of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1800-1600Ma,belonging to the Late Paleo-Proterozoic,and that of the Dayingpan Formation in the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1200-1300Ma, belonging to the Middle Poroterozoic.In addition,the Pb isotope chemical exploration techniques were used to study systematically the Pb isotopic compositions of rocks and ores across the No.14 vein in the middle segment of the No.1 pit of the Tangdan copper deposit and the result showed that the Pb isotope V1 values are neatively correlated with the copper contents.In is the first trial to use the systematic section method to conduct Pb isotope chemical exploration.

  8. Isotope Geochemistry of the Dongchuan Copper Deposit, Yunnan, SW China:Stratigraphic Chronology and Application of Lead Isotopes in Geochemical Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 朱炳泉

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the Pb-Pb isochron method was used to determine the isotopic ages of the Luoxue Formation dolomites (1716 ± 56 Ma), the Heishan Formation carbonaceous slates(1607 ± 128 Ma) of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group and the Dayingpan Formation carbonaceous slates ( 1258 ± 70Ma) of the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group. The age of the middle sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1800 - 1600 Ma, belonging to the Late Paleo-Proterozoic, and that of the Dayingpan Formation in the upper sub-group of the Kunyang Group is about 1200 - 1300 Ma, belonging to the Middle Proterozoic. In addition, the Pb isotope chemical exploration techniques were used to study systematically the Pb isotopic compositions of rocks and ores across the No. 14 vein in the middle segment of the No. 1 pit of the Tangdan copper deposit and the result showed that the Pb isotope V1 values are negatively correlated with the copper contents. It is the first trial to use the systematic section method to conduct Pb isotope chemical exploration.

  9. Numerical simulations of energy deposition caused by 50 MeV—50 TeV proton beams in copper and graphite targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y.; Schmidt, R.; Chetvertkova, V.; Rosell-Tarragó, G.; Burkart, F.; Wollmann, D.

    2017-08-01

    The conceptual design of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) is being carried out actively in an international collaboration hosted by CERN, for the post-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era. The target center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions for the FCC is 100 TeV, nearly an order of magnitude higher than for LHC. The existing CERN accelerators will be used to prepare the beams for FCC. Concerning beam-related machine protection of the whole accelerator chain, it is critical to assess the consequences of beam impact on various accelerator components in the cases of controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. In this paper, we study the energy deposition of protons in solid copper and graphite targets, since the two materials are widely used in magnets, beam screens, collimators, and beam absorbers. Nominal injection and extraction energies in the hadron accelerator complex at CERN were selected in the range of 50 MeV-50 TeV. Three beam sizes were studied for each energy, corresponding to typical values of the betatron function. Specifically for thin targets, comparisons between fluka simulations and analytical Bethe equation calculations were carried out, which showed that the damage potential of a few-millimeter-thick graphite target and submillimeter-thick copper foil can be well estimated directly by the Bethe equation. The paper provides a valuable reference for the quick evaluation of potential damage to accelerator elements over a large range of beam parameters when beam loss occurs.

  10. Cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) removal and hydrogen evolution in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Liping; Pan, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Quan, Xie; Logan, Bruce E; Chen, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) were first operated in microbial fuel cell mode for recovering Cu(II), and then shifted to microbial electrolysis cells for Cd(II) reduction on the same cathodes of titanium sheet (TS), nickel foam (NF) or carbon cloth (CC). Cu(II) reduction was similar to all materials (4.79-4.88mg/Lh) whereas CC exhibited the best Cd(II) reduction (5.86±0.25mg/Lh) and hydrogen evolution (0.35±0.07m(3)/m(3)d), followed by TS (5.27±0.43mg/Lh and 0.15±0.02m(3)/m(3)d) and NF (4.96±0.48mg/Lh and 0.80±0.07m(3)/m(3)d). These values were higher than no copper controls by factors of 2.0 and 5.0 (TS), 4.2 and 2.0 (NF), and 1.8 and 7.0 (CC). These results demonstrated cooperative cathode electrode and in situ deposited copper for subsequent enhanced Cd(II) reduction and hydrogen production in BESs, providing an alternative approach for efficiently remediating Cu(II) and Cd(II) co-contamination with simultaneous hydrogen production.

  11. The effect of spraying parameters on micro-structural properties of WC-12%Co coating deposited on copper substrate by HVOF process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathwara, Nishit, E-mail: nishit-25@live.in [Fusion Rector Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sec-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India); Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Indus University, Ahmedabad-382115 (India); Jariwala, C., E-mail: chetanjari@yahoo.com; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P. M. [Fusion Rector Material Development & Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sec-25, Gandhinagar-382016 (India); Basa, D. K. [Metallurgical & Materials Engineering Department, Indus University, Ahmedabad-382115 (India)

    2015-08-28

    High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatingmade from Tungsten Carbide (WC) isconsidered as one of the most durable materials as wear resistance for industrial applications at room temperature. WC coating offers high wear resistance due to its high hardness and tough matrix imparts. The coating properties strongly depend on thermal spray processing parameters, surface preparation and surface finish. In this investigation, the effect of variousHVOF process parameters was studied on WC coating properties. The WC-12%Co coating was produced on Copper substrate. Prior to coating, theCopper substrate surface was prepared by grit blasting. WC-12%Co coatings were deposited on Coppersubstrates with varying process parameters such as Oxygen gas pressure, Air pressure, and spraying distance. Microstructure of coating was examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and characterization of phasespresentin the coating was examined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Microhardness of all coatingswas measured by VickerMicrohardness tester. At low Oxygen Pressure(10.00 bar), high Air pressure (7bar) and short nozzle to substrate distance of 170mm, best coating adhesion and porosity less structure isachieved on Coppersubstrate.

  12. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  13. 陶瓷化学镀铜沉积速度及镀层外观的研究%Study on Deposition Rate and Coating Appearance of Electroless Copper Plating on Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 宣天鹏; 孙衍乐; 许少楠

    2011-01-01

    探讨了硫酸铜质量浓度、络合剂质量浓度比例、甲醛质量浓度、稀土质量浓度及温度变化对陶瓷表面化学镀铜的沉积速率和镀铜层微观形貌的影响.结果表明:随着硫酸铜质量浓度的增加、温度的升高和络合比的降低,化学镀铜的沉积速率提高,但镀液稳定性有所降低;增加甲醛或稀土含量,镀速先升高后下降,有一个最佳值.加入稀土Ce细化了铜颗粒,铜在基体表面的沉积变得均匀,当p(硫酸铈)为0.8g/L时,镀铜层平整细密、孔洞较少.%Effects of copper sulfate concentration, complexing agent concentration ratio, formaldehyde concentration, rare earth content and temperature on copper deposition rate, coating microstructure of elec-troless copper plating on ceramic were discussed. Results showed that with the increase in copper sulfate concentration and temperature and decrease in complexing agent ratio, the Cu deposition rate was increased but bath stability decreased; with increasing formaldehyde concentration and rare earth content, the Cu deposition rate was increased at first and then decreased. By adding rare earth Ce salt, copper particles got refined and copper depositon became even, especially when cerium sulfate content was 0. 8g/L, copper coating became more level,finer and less pores.

  14. Remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit and the importance of water-rock interaction on element cycling in the coastal aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Bernhard; Diaby, Nouhou; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2011-06-01

    We present the study of the geochemical processes associated with the first successful remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit in a coastal desert environment (Bahía de Ite, in the Atacama Desert of Peru). The remediation approach implemented a wetland on top of the oxidized tailings. The site is characterized by a high hydraulic gradient produced by agricultural irrigation on upstream gravel terraces that pushed river water (∼500 mg/L SO(4)) toward the sea and through the tailings deposit. The geochemical and isotopic (δ(2)H(water) and δ(18)O(water), δ(34)S(sulfate), δ(18)O(sulfate)) approach applied here revealed that evaporite horizons (anhydrite and halite) in the gravel terraces are the source of increased concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to ∼1500 mg/L in the springs at the base of the gravel terraces. Deeper groundwater interacting with underlying marine sequences increased the concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to 6000 mg/L and increased the alkalinity up to 923 mg/L CaCO(3) eq. in the coastal aquifer. These waters infiltrated into the tailings deposit at the shelf-tailings interface. Nonremediated tailings had a low-pH oxidation zone (pH 1-4) with significant accumulations of efflorescent salts (10-20 cm thick) at the surface because of upward capillary transport of metal cations in the arid climate. Remediated tailings were characterized by neutral pH and reducing conditions (pH ∼7, Eh ∼100 mV). As a result, most bivalent metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni had very low concentrations (around 0.01 mg/L or below detection limit) because of reduction and sorption processes. In contrast, these reducing conditions increased the mobility of iron from two sources in this system: (1) The originally Fe(III)-rich oxidation zone, where Fe(III) was reduced during the remediation process and formed an Fe(II) plume, and (2) reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides present in the original shelf lithology formed an Fe-Mn plume at 10-m depth. These

  15. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  16. 篦子沟矿铜床2号矿体地质特征及成因探讨%On geological features of copper deposit at second mine of Bizigou deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛卫红

    2012-01-01

    According to the production survey of the second mine of Bizigou deposit,from the geological features,ore geological features and metallogenic mechanism at zhongtiao mountain region,the paper points out new opinions on the reasons for the formation of the Bizigou copper Mine by combining with relative documents,so as to provide the reference for discovering mines at surrounding areas.%通过篦子沟矿床2号矿体的生产勘探,结合有关资料,从中条山区域地质特征和矿体地质特征及成矿机理入手,对篦子沟铜矿的成因提出了新的看法,为外围找矿提供了依据。

  17. Remelting of Neoproterozoic relict volcanic arcs in the Middle Jurassic: Implication for the formation of the Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Li, Qiu-Li; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-10-01

    The Dexing copper deposit in southeastern China is a typical non-arc porphyry deposit, the origin of which has been a topic of debate for several decades. Here we present new results from U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock chemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic investigations on the ore-forming granodioritic porphyry. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data suggest that the granodioritic porphyry was formed in the Middle Jurassic (ca. 172.5 Ma) probably associated with lithospheric thinning driven by either sub-continental lithospheric mantle delamination or asthenospheric upwelling. The porphyry displays both arc-like and adakitic trace element signatures. The adakitic features suggest that HREE (heavy rare earth elements)-rich minerals such as garnet and hornblende, in the absence of plagioclase resided in the source region. The arc-like signatures are broadly comparable with those of the proximal Neoproterozoic island arc rocks including the keratophyre from Shuangxiwu Group and associated granitoids indicating a potential genetic relationship. The porphyry has chondritic ɛNd(t) of - 0.28 to 0.25 and radiogenic ɛHf(t) of 2 to 7, and correspondingly, uniform two stage depleted mantle Nd model ages of 940-980 Ma and Hf model ages of 800-1100 Ma (mean ~ 920 Ma). On Nd and Hf isotopic evolution diagrams, these values are markedly similar to those of the adjacent Neoproterozoic arc rocks when calculated forward to the Mid-Jurassic. Zircons of the porphyry show mantle-like oxygen isotope characters with δ18O values clustering in the range of 4.7-5.9‰, similar to the values for the Neoproterozoic arc rocks mentioned above. The geochemical and isotopic features recorded in our study suggest mantle-derived magmas with no significant supracrustal input for the source of the porphyry. With regard to the source of the Cu ore, we consider a model involving the remelting of sulfide-bearing arc-related lower crustal source. Furthermore, the occurrence of a Neoproterozoic VMS (volcanic massive

  18. Bioaccumulation and effects of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the deposit-feeding snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Tina; Selck, Henriette; Banta, Gary; Misra, Superb K; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-09-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most widely used engineered NPs and are thus likely to end up in the environment, predominantly in sediments. Copper oxide NPs have been found to be toxic to a variety of (mainly pelagic) organisms, but to differing degrees. In the present study, the influence of CuO NP shape on bioavailability and toxicity in the sediment-dwelling freshwater gastropod Potamopyrgus antipodarum was examined. In 2 separate studies, snails were exposed to either clean sediment or sediment spiked with either aqueous Cu or CuO NPs of different shapes (rods, spheres, or platelets) at 240 µg Cu/g dry weight of sediment (nominal). In neither of the studies was survival found to be related to Cu form (i.e., free ion vs particle) or shape, whereas snail growth was severely influenced by both form and shape. Reproduction was affected (by CuO NP spheres and aqueous Cu) only when estimated as the total number (live plus dead) of juveniles produced per snail per week. Both the aqueous and particulate forms of Cu were available for uptake by snails when mixed into sediment. However, Cu body burden was not directly related to observed effects. The present study stresses the need for both a better understanding of uptake mechanisms and internal distribution pathways of NPs and an assessment of long-term consequences of NP exposure. © 2014 SETAC.

  19. Facile one-step electrochemical deposition of copper nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide as nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Woi, Pei Meng; Alias, Yatimah

    2017-08-01

    For several decades, hydrogen peroxide has exhibited to be an extremely significant analyte as an intermediate in several biological devices as well as in many industrial systems. A straightforward and novel one-step technique was employed to develop a sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor by simultaneous electrodeposition of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The electroreduction performance of the CuNPs-rGO for hydrogen peroxide detection was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (AMP) methods The CuNPs-rGO showed a synergistic effect of reduced graphene oxide and copper nanoparticles towards the electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide, indicating high reduction current. At detection potential of -0.2 V, the CuNPs-rGO sensor demonstrated a wide linear range up to 18 mM with a detection limit of 0.601 mM (S/N = 3). Furthermore, with addition of hydrogen peroxide, the sensor responded very quickly (<3 s). The CuNPs-rGO presents high selectivity, sensitivity, stability and fast amperometric sensing towards hydrogen peroxide which makes it favorable for the development of non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor.

  20. The Influence of Iodide Adsorption on Copper Underpotential Deposition on Polycrystalline Palladium Electrodes in Mildly Acidic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinola; Castro Luna AM

    1999-01-15

    The effects of I- adsorption on the electrodeposition (under and overpotential deposition) of Cu on polycrystalline Pd electrodes were studied in dilute perchloric acid solutions at 18 degreesC. It had been found that Cu underpotential deposition on polycrystalline Pd exhibits different potentiodynamic features, which are characteristic of defined crystallographic planes of Pd. However, these features varied when the voltammograms were performed in the presence of strongly adsorbable anions, such as I-. In spite of having found a partial inhibition of the Cu voltammetric features in the presence of I-, we calculated integer numbers in the electron transfer to Cu2+ and I- ions. The change in the values of Cu massive deposition potential due to the presence of I- was caused by the appearence of a new electrode, that is, the Cu/CuI/I- interface. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Characterizations of chemical bath-deposited zinc oxysulfide films and the effects of their annealing on copper-indium-gallium-selenide solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tsung-Min; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Ao, Jianping; Sun, Yun; Feng, Wu-Shiung; Chang, Liann-Be

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxysulfide (Zn(S,O)) thin films are fabricated using a chemical bath deposition method onto glass substrates and the surface of copper-indium-gallium-selenide (CIGS) adsorption layers for solar cell fabrication. The light and electric properties of the Zn(S,O) layers are improved after rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The Zn(S,O) properties of samples annealed under various atmospheres are compared. The resulting annealed Zn(S,O) films are 80-100 nm thick. The band gap decreases from 3.8 eV to 3.3 eV and the light transmittance is improved by more than 95% after annealing under oxygen atmosphere. The oxygen-annealed sample has a S/(S + O) ratio of 0.28 and a S/Zn ratio of 0.72. The CIGS solar cell that consists of the annealed Zn(S,O) buffer layer is more efficient (6.15%) than that of the non-annealed Zn(S,O) (4.56%). The solar cell performance is correlated with the deposited Zn(S,O) characteristics. The significantly higher carrier concentration, increases light transmittance, and improves crystalline structure of the oxygen-annealed Zn(S,O) film contributes to the improved cell performance.

  2. Identification of extreme sedimentary event deposits in Yilan coastal area, Taiwan, and the western coast of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. L.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Sawai, Y.; Kunz, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Yilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located west of the Ryukyu Trench. In AD 1771, a M7.4 earthquake occurred near the Ryukyu Trench, and generated a tsunami (the Meiwa Tsunami) with run-up height of more than 30 m on the Ishigaki Island, only 250 km away from the Yilan Plain. Therefore, we suggest that tsunami poses potential threats to the Yilan Plain. Offshore western Myanmar, a M8.5 earthquake occurred in 1762 on the nearby Sunda Trench. The 2004 Sumatra Tsunami also reached approximately 3 m high along the western coast of Myanmar according to local residents. These observations also point out the potential for a future tsunami hazard along the rapidly developing western Myanmar coast. Therefore, we attempted to search for geological record of previous extreme sedimentary events in these two areas in this study. Many previous studies have pointed out that paleo-tsunami deposits are most likely present in inter-ridge lowlands, and have distinctive characteristics such as a coarse sand layer covering soil layers (or other terrestrial facies sediment layers) with a very sharp boundary. Thus we excavated several trenches in our two study areas to observe and record the deposits, collect samples, and use C-14 dating, Cs-137 analyses and diatom analyses to help us understand the age and sedimentary environment of the deposits. In one trench in northern Yilan Plain, we found a 25 cm thick sand layer covering a mud layer with a sharp and horizontal boundary. We infer that this sand layer deposited during a fluvial flooding event. In southern Yilan Plain, we found another sand layer covering a black mud layer with a sharp and irregular boundary. This clearly indicates a high-energy depositional event, but the source of such an event remains unknown. In trenches excavated along the western coast of Myanmar, we found a gray sand layer covering an organic mud layer that has abundant plant debris with a sharp boundary. Thus we infer that the gray sand is also an

  3. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Oyu Tolgoi cluster of seven porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits in southern Mongolia, define a narrow, linear, 12 km long, almost continuously mineralised trend, which contains in excess of 42 Mt of Cu and 1850 t of Au, and is among the largest high grade porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the world. These deposits lie within the Gurvansayhan island-arc terrane, a fault bounded segment of the broader Silurian to Carboniferous Kazakh-Mongol arc, located towards the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, a collage of magmatic arcs that were periodically active from the late Neoproterozoic to Permo-Triassic, extending from the Urals Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Mineralisation at Oyu Tolgoi is associated with multiple, overlapping, intrusions of late Devonian (w372 to 370 Ma) quartz-monzodiorite intruding Devonian (or older) juvenile, probably intra-oceanic arc-related, basaltic lavas and lesser volcaniclastic rocks, unconformably overlain by late Devonian (w370 Ma) basaltic to dacitic pyroclastic and volcano sedimentary rocks. These quartz-monzodiorite intrusions range from early-mineral porphyritic dykes, to larger, linear, syn-, late- and post-mineral dykes and stocks. Ore was deposited within syn-mineral quartz-monzodiorites, but is dominantly hosted by augite basalts and to a lesser degree by overlying dacitic pyroclastic rocks. Following ore deposition, an allochthonous plate of older Devonian (or pre-Devonian) rocks was overthrust and a post-ore biotite granodiorite intruded at w365 Ma. Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite

  4. Textured tape substrates from binary copper alloys with vanadium and yttrium for the epitaxial deposition of buffer and superconducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Suaridze, T. R.

    2016-05-01

    The structure of tapes of binary Cu-0.6 wt % V and Cu-1 wt % Y alloys and texturing process of them in the course of cold deformation by rolling to 99% and subsequent recrystallizing annealing have been studied. The possibility of achieving the perfect cube texture in thin tapes made from binary copper-based alloys with vanadium and yttrium additions has in principle been shown. This opens the prospect of using them as substrates when manufacturing tapes of second-generation high-temperature superconductors. Optimum annealing conditions for the studied alloys have been determined, which have made it possible to produce the perfect biaxial texture with a content of cube {001} ± 10° grains on the surfaces of textured tapes of more than 95%.

  5. How depositional conditions control input, composition, and degradation of organic matter in sediments from the Chilean coastal upwelling region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard;

    2007-01-01

    In a comprehensive study, we compared depositional conditions, organic matter (OM) composition, and organic carbon turnover in sediments from two different depositional systems along the Chilean continental margin: at ~23°S off Antofagasta and at ~36°S off Concepción. Both sites lie within...... investigated for excess 210Pb (210Pbxs) activity, total organic and total inorganic carbon concentrations (TOC and TIC, respectively), C/N-ratios, organic carbon isotopic compositions (d13C), chlorin concentrations, Chlorin Indices (CI), and sulfate reduction rates (SRR). Sediment accumulation rates obtained...... from 210Pb-analysis were similar in both regions (0.04‑0.15 cm yr‑1 at 23°S, 0.10‑0.19 cm yr‑1 at 36°S), although total 210Pbxs fluxes indicated that the vertical particle flux was higher at 36°S than at 23°S. We propose that sediment focusing in isolated deposition centers led to high sediment...

  6. The Occurrence State of Associated Silver in Red Bed Copper Deposit in Lanping-Simao Basin%兰坪-思茅盆地红层型铜矿中伴生银的赋存状态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道红

    2011-01-01

    红层铜矿中普遍伴生银多金属,分布于铜的硫化物中,尤以黝铜矿中最高,呈微粒、超微粒自然银或类质同象存在,具有工业价值.%Red bed copper deposit commonly associates with silver polymetallic elements, such silver of industrial value occurs as micro particles and ultrafine particles of native silver or isomorphism in copper sulfide, and especially the highest contents of silver are found in tetrahedrite.

  7. The geology, structure and mineralisation of the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposits, Mongolia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    Mineralisation is characterised by varying, telescoped stages of intrusion and alteration. Early A-type quartz veined dykes were followed by Cu-Au mineralisation associated with potassic alteration, mainly K-feldspar in quartz-monzodiorite and biotite-magnetite in basaltic hosts. Downward reflux of cooled, late-magmatic hydrothermal fluid resulted in intense quartz-sericite retrograde alteration in the upper parts of the main syn-mineral intrusions, and an equivalent chlorite-muscovite/illite-hematite assemblage in basaltic host rocks. Uplift, facilitated by syn-mineral longitudinal faulting, brought sections of the porphyry deposit to shallower depths, to be overprinted and upgraded by late stage, shallower, advanced argillic alteration and high sulphidation mineralisation. Key controls on the location, size and grade of the deposit cluster include (i a long-lived, narrow faulted corridor; (ii multiple pulses of overlapping intrusion within the same structure; and (iii enclosing reactive, mafic dominated wall rocks, focussing ore.

  8. Influence of both the composition of impregnation solution and impregnation method on copper(II, chromium(VI and silver(I deposition on activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Slavica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of a solution for impregnating activated carbon (AC for use in a gas filter was investigated. The solution components were tetraaminocop-per(II complex, chromium(VI, silver(l and carbonate ions. Two methods of impregnation were investigated: ion adsorption from aqueous solution in excess and the incipient wetness method. Copper, chromium and silver con-tents on AC Were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The largest copper contents (4.38 and 5.00 % (w/w for two AC samples were achieved at: c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.0 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3.75: 1; M(Cu i M(Ag = 62: 1 and M(Cu: M(CO3 = 2: 1, using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method with 2.4 mL of solution per 3 g AC. The contents of chromium and silver on the same AC samples Were 1.06 and 0.0098 % for the first and 1.14 and 0.009 % for the second AC. A larger Cr content (1.57 % was achieved from an impregnation solution in excess (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 1.25 mol/L; M(Cu i M(Cr = 3: 1; without Ag. The largest Ag content (0.17 % was obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method (c([Cu(NH34]2+ = 0.8 mol/L; M(Cu: M(Cr = 3.75: 1<; M(Cu i M(Ag ( 80: 1 and M(Cu i M(CO3 = 1 i 1.32. Larger metal contents were obtained using two fold impregnation by the incipient wetness method. Further work is needed on the determination of the influence of carbonate ions both on the solution stability and metal deposition on AC.

  9. Feed additive interactions in the chicken: reduction of tissue copper deposition by dietary roxarsone in healthy and in Eimeria acervulina-infected or Eimeria tenella-infected chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, G L; Baker, D H

    1984-07-01

    Interactions among roxarsone, copper, and coccidiosis were studied in growing crossbred chicks. Corn-soy or corn-soy-corn gluten meal diets were fed in all assays. In the absence of supplemental copper, 50 mg/kg roxarsone did not affect gain. However, in the presence of 250 mg/kg supplemental copper, there was a depression in gain due to feeding 50 mg/kg roxarsone. In contrast, at a toxic level of copper (1000 mg/kg), a growth response resulted from feeding roxarsone. In all instances, roxarsone markedly decreased liver copper concentration in birds fed high levels of copper. Multiple crop intubations of Eimeria acervulina or Eimeria tenella depressed performance and exacerbated copper toxicity symptoms. Copper supplementation as well as coccidial infection resulted in depressed plasma pigmentation.

  10. Zinc, copper, and lead in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the source rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    The contents of Zn, Cu, and Pb in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and the MORB source-rock control on Zn/Pb in ocean-ridge hydrothermal deposits are examined. The values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for submarine mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) are, respectively (in ppm): average MORB-75, 75, and 0.7; West Valley, Juan de Fuca Ridge (JFR)-87, 64, and 0.5; southern JFR-120 and 0.5; and 21??N, East Pacific Rise (EPR)-73, 78, and 0.5. Values of Zn/Pb range from about 100-240 and Cu/ Pb from 100-156. In this study, Zn is found to correlate positively with TiO2 + FeO (mean square of weighted deviates, MSWD, of 1.6 for JFR basalt), and inversely with Mg number (MSWD of 3.5). Therefore, contrary to statements in the literature that Zn should be compatible in MORB, Zn is a mildly incompatible element and must be enriched in the glass phase relative to olivine as Zn does not fit into the other major phenocryst phase, plagioclase. In the source of MORB, Zn likely is most enriched in oxides: spinel, magnetite, and titanomagnetite. Copper generally does not correlate well with other elements in most MORB data examined. When differentiation is dominated by olivine, Cu has a tendency to behave incompatibly (e.g., at Mg numbers > 70), but, overall, Cu shows some tendency towards being a compatible element, particularly along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a behavior presumably due to separation of sulfides in which Cu (but not Zn) is markedly enriched. Copper thus may be in dispersed sulfides in the source of MORB. Ocean ridges provide important data on source-rock controls for sulfide deposits because, in sediment-starved ridges, much is known about the possible source rocks and mineralization is presently occurring. In contrast to Zn/Pb ~5 in continental hot Cl-rich brines, Zn/Pb in the hottest sediment-starved ridge black smoker hydrothermal fluids at 21 ??N, EPR is about 110, similar to local MORB (145), but Cu/Pb is closer to 30, possibly due to subsurface deposition of Cu. At the JFR, the best

  11. Copper isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation in the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Symons, David T. A.; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun

    2017-08-01

    Although it has been recently demonstrated that Cu isotope fractionation during mantle melting and basaltic magma differentiation is limited, the behavior of Cu isotopes during magmatic differentiation involving significant sulfide segregation remains unclear. Magmatic Ni-Cu deposits, which formed via sulfide segregation from basaltic or picritic magmas, are appropriate targets to address this issue. Here we report Cu isotope data for sulfides (chalcopyrite) from the Tulaergen Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in Xinjiang, NW China. Sulfides, including sparsely disseminated (hosted by hornblende gabbro), moderately disseminated (hosted by hornblende olivine websterite), densely disseminated (hosted by hornblende lherzolite) and massive sulfides (sandwiched between country rocks and mafic-ultramafic rocks), were collected from adits at 1050 m, 1100 m and 1150 m levels. The sparsely and moderately disseminated sulfides on 1150 m and 1050 m levels have a restricted range of δ65Cu values from - 0.38‰ to 0.15‰, whereas disseminated and massive sulfides on 1100 m level have δ65Cu values ranging widely from - 1.98‰ to - 0.04‰ and from - 1.08‰ to - 0.52‰, respectively. The δ65Cu values of disseminated sulfides are negatively correlated with whole-rock S and Cu concentrations, and sulfides formed at later stages have heavier δ65Cu values. These observations suggest significant Cu isotope fractionation during sulfide-magma differentiation above 600 °C. During the formation of the Tulaergen magmatic Ni-Cu deposit, sulfide segregation and crystallization of olivine and pyroxene caused the increase of Fe3 + contents in the residual magmas, which would move the redox reaction Cu+ + Fe3 + = Fe2 + + Cu2 + toward larger amounts of Cu2 + in the melt. The presence of Cu2 + in melt allowed redox transformation to happen during sulfide segregation. The residual magmas are enriched in heavy Cu isotopes due to the removal of 65Cu-depleted sulfides, and sulfides formed at later

  12. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.M. Mike Porter

    2016-01-01

    The Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit (>500 Mt@1.2%Ni, 0.7%Cu, w0.4 g/t PGE), one of the largest magmatic sulphide deposits in the world, is located within the westernmost terrane of the North China Craton. It is hosted within the 6.5 km long, Neoproterozoic (w0.83 Ga) Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, emplaced as a sill-like body into a Palaeoproterozoic suite of gneisses, migmatites, marbles and amphibolites, below an active intracratonic rift. The parental magma was high-Mg basalt, generated through melting of sub-crustal lithospheric mantle by a mantle plume during the initiation of Rodinia supercontinent breakup. The lower Palaeozoic collision of the exotic Qilian Block with the breakup-related southern margin of the craton accreted a subduction complex, and emplaced voluminous granitic intrusions and foreland basin sequences within the craton, to as far north as Jinchuan. During the Cainozoic, allochthonous lower Palaeozoic rocks were thrust up to 300 km to the northeast over cratonic basement, to within 25 km of the Jinchuan deposit. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (w80%), with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide), pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The

  13. Global assessment of undiscovered copper resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Deposits, prospects, and permissive tracts for porphyry and sediment-hosted copper resources worldwide, with estimates of undiscovered copper resources. pCu_tracts...

  14. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  15. 青海纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床:蚀变%THE NARIGONGMA PORPHYRY MOLYBDENUM (-COPPER) DEPOSIT IN QINGHAI PROVINCE: Alteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞雄飞

    2012-01-01

    The Narigongma porphyry molybdenum (-copper) deposit in Southern Qinghai Province is located in the northern part of Yulong metallogenic belt. Research on the deposit recognizes three types of alteration in the orefield, i.e. K-silicate alteration (biotite-K feldspar), propylitic alteration (chlorite-epidote ± calcite) and feldspar-destructive alteration (sericite ± kaolin ± calcite ± anhydrite). The metallogenesis is closely related to the quartz-molybdenite ± anhydrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite vein and molybdenite ± pyrite ± chalcopyrite vein.%通过对纳日贡玛斑岩钼(铜)矿床的蚀变类型的详细研究,识别了矿床蚀变的3种主要类型:钾硅酸盐化、青磐岩化和长石分解蚀变.前二者为矿区早期形成的蚀变,长石分解蚀变形成于晚期.钾硅酸盐化蚀变主要以黑云母化、钾长石化为特征,青磐岩化以脉状绿泥石、绿帘石、方解石等蚀变矿物的发育为基本特征,长石分解蚀变则发育绢云母、高岭土、方解石、硬石膏等矿物.研究认为矿化与石英-辉钼矿±硬石膏±黄铜矿±黄铁矿脉、辉钼矿±黄铁矿±黄铜矿脉有较为密切的联系.

  16. Dry and wet atmospheric deposition of organic carbon in coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, V. V.; Soier, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The paper reports on new data focusing on organic carbon contained in aeolian material and precipitation falling on coastal and water areas of the northeastern part of the Sea of Azov. Atmospheric deposition was sampled in 2006-2014. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 4 to 27% in aeolian dust samples. The concentration of the organic carbon dissolved in rainwater was from 1.6 to 4.3 mg C/L, and from 0.9 to 16.6 mg C/L in snow. The particulate organic carbon content varied from 2 to 43% in snow. Intensity of aeolian dust settling decreased from 178 to 33 mg/m2 per day with distance from a source of dust; in contrast, the relative content of organic matter increased. In a spring-summer season the aeolian organic carbon fluxes varied from 12 to 18 mg C/m2 per day in Rostov-on-Don, from 28 to 48 mg C/m2 per day on the Gulf of Taganrog coast, and from 20 to 80 mg C/m2 per day in the water area of the Gulf of Taganrog.

  17. 沉积岩型层状铜矿床研究进展%Research Progresses on Sediment-hosted Stratiform Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玄; 范宏瑞; 胡芳芳; 杨奎锋; 邱正杰

    2015-01-01

    沉积岩型层状铜矿床是全球第二重要的铜矿类型,重要性仅次于斑岩型铜矿床。并且,它们常伴生一定规模的钴、银、铅、锌、铀、金、铂族元素等其他金属资源。其矿体通常呈层状、似层状发育在沉积盆地的还原性岩石或地层中。大多数沉积岩型层状铜矿床形成于围岩的成岩作用或者成岩晚阶段,但也经常会受到成矿后变质作用、变形作用的改造,发生成矿物质的活化—再沉淀。原生成矿作用的发生通常要经历成矿流体(低温、中—高盐度、含硫)在矿体下盘的红层中持续、长期的循环,萃取铜等金属元素,随后沿着盆地边界断裂迁移至盆地还原性地层中或者被迁移的还原性物质(石油、天然气)还原而发生铜等成矿物质的沉淀。超大规模的层状铜矿化可能对应地球地质历史时期特殊的地质事件和地质条件,其中包括超大陆裂解、炎热干旱的古气候、大氧化事件以及冰期和富镁的海洋等。%Sediment-hosted Stratiform Copper Deposits (SSC ) are one of the most important copper suppliers around the world and are also significant sources for Co,Ag,Pb,Zn,U,Ag and PGE.They normally occur as sulfide disseminates in restricted layers within a sedimentary sequence but do not necessarily follow sedimentary bedding.Most SSCs are formed during or at the late stage of host rock lithification (diagenesis ) by low temperature,intermediate to high salinity and sulfur-rich basinal fluids which circulated in the footwall red bed sequences so as to acquire ore-forming elements such as Cu and S.Metal (copper)precipitation is primarily induced by chemical reduction of the upward-migrating basinal fluids by in-situ reductant in the hanging wall sediments or mobile hydrocarbon within the red beds.Some of them may have been altered and remobilized during regional deformation or metamorphism later on.Supergiant sediment-hosted copper

  18. Formation of Hierarchical CuO Nanostructures on Copper Foil by Chemical Bath Deposition for Applications in Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felizco Jenichi Clairvaux

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical CuO nanostructures (urchin-like and grassy island structure were successfully synthesized by a simple chemical bath deposition method at low temperature of 70°C in a short reaction time of 1h. XRD analysis revealed the presence of pure crystalline monoclinic CuO. Morphological analysis revealed the formation of spherical structures composed of numerous hair-like structures. The pH of the solution was also investigated to have a great effect on the morphology of the CuO nanostructures. At lower pH, the structures tend to form urchin-like structures; while at higher pH, the structures tend to form grass-like islands. A growth mechanism was also proposed in this paper. Lastly, wettability test proved the stable superhydrophobic property of the CuO nanostructured thin film surface.

  19. Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Copper-doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia ZHAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide-based thin films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technology, in which Cu addition is introduced to enhance the gas sensing performance by H2S detection. The thin films are porous and comprise nano-sized crystallites. One of the Cu-containing thin film sensors demonstrates a fast and significant response to H2S gas. The values of power law exponent n are calculated to discuss the sensitivity of the sensors, which is significantly promoted by Cu additive. The sensitivity of Cu-doped SnO2 gas sensors is determined by two mechanisms. One is the normal gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 grains, and the other is the promoted mechanism caused by the transformation between CuO and CuS in the H2S detection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12917

  20. A Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition Study Around the Lead and Copper-Zinc Smelters in Baia Mare, Romania, Employing the Moss Biomonitoring Technique, ENAA and FAAS

    CERN Document Server

    Culicov, O A; Steinnes, E; Okina, O S; Santa, Z; Todoran, R

    2001-01-01

    The mosses Pleurozium schreberi, Pseudoscleropodium purum and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus were used as biomonitors to study the atmospheric deposition of metals around the lead and copper-zinc smelters in Baia Mare. Samples representing the last three years' growth of moss or its green part, collected on the ground at 28 sites located 2-20 km from the source area, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) and by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A total of 30 elements were determined, including most of the heavy metals known to be released into the air from this kind of industry. Obtained concentrations for As and Cu are comparable with those observed in Karabash, South Ural Mountains, one of the most polluted regions in Europe. Besides, these two elements correlate very well with each other. The mean values for Zn (136 ppm) and Pb (41 ppm) are substantially higher than those normally found in the literature. The highest value for Pb (175 ppm) was obs...

  1. Effect of copper doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of Cd0.8Zn0.2S films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hadasa; G Yellaiah; M Nagabhushanam

    2014-02-01

    Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films of 1.3–6.1 mole percentage of copper have been grown on mica substrate by using chemical bath deposition technique. The films have been characterized by using XRD, SEM and UV spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the films are polycrystalline. The average crystallite size as measured from XRD data is in the range of 125–130 nm. The activation energies of Cd0.8Zn0.2S:Cu films, as observed from d.c. conductivity studies in the temperature range (77–300 K) studied, decreased with the increase in Cu concentration. The optical absorption studies have revealed that the energy gap increases gradually with an increase in Cu concentration, whereas conductivity studies have shown an anomalous increase in conductivity in films of 3.8 mole percentage of Cu. SEM pictures have revealed the presence of defects with spherical structure having fibre network. The variation of electrical conductivity is explained based on the defects present and by adopting tunneling mechanism.

  2. Numerical simulations of energy deposition caused by 50 MeV—50 TeV proton beams in copper and graphite targets

    CERN Document Server

    Nie, Y; Chetvertkova, V; Rosell-Tarrago, G; Burkart, F; Wollmann, D

    2017-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) is being carried out actively in an international collaboration hosted by CERN, for the post–Large Hadron Collider (LHC) era. The target center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions for the FCC is 100 TeV, nearly an order of magnitude higher than for LHC. The existing CERN accelerators will be used to prepare the beams for FCC. Concerning beam-related machine protection of the whole accelerator chain, it is critical to assess the consequences of beam impact on various accelerator components in the cases of controlled and uncontrolled beam losses. In this paper, we study the energy deposition of protons in solid copper and graphite targets, since the two materials are widely used in magnets, beam screens, collimators, and beam absorbers. Nominal injection and extraction energies in the hadron accelerator complex at CERN were selected in the range of 50 MeV–50 TeV. Three beam sizes were studied for each energy, corresponding to typical values ...

  3. Regional tectonics, geology, magma chamber processes and mineralisation of the Jinchuan nickel-copper-PGE deposit, Gansu Province, China: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. (Mike Porter

    2016-05-01

    The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion was injected into three interconnected sub-chambers, each containing a separate orebody. It essentially comprises an olivine-orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate, with interstitial orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite, and is predominantly composed of lherzolite (∼80%, with an outer rim of olivine pyroxenite and cores of mineralised dunite. Mineralisation occurs as disseminated and net-textured sulphides, predominantly within the dunite, with lesser, PGE rich lenses, late massive sulphide accumulations, small copper rich pods and limited mineralised diopside skarn in wall rock marbles. The principal ore minerals are pyrrhotite (the dominant sulphide, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, mackinawite and pyrite, with a variety of platinum group minerals and minor gold. The deposit underwent significant post-magmatic tremolite-actinolite, chlorite, serpentine and magnetite alteration. The volume of the Jinchuan intrusion accounts for <3% of the total parental magma required to generate the contained olivine and sulphide. It is postulated that mafic melt, intruded into the lower crust, hydraulically supported by density contrast buoyancy from below the Moho, ponded in a large staging chamber, where crystallisation and settling formed a lower sulphide rich mush. This mush was subsequently injected into nearby shallow dipping faults to form the Jinchuan intrusion.

  4. Synthesis of PVP stabilized Cu/Pd nanoparticles with citrate complexing agent and its application as an activator for electroless copper deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sylvia H Y; Wang, Yung-Yun; Wan, Chi-Chao

    2007-06-01

    A simple method has been developed to synthesize Cu/Pd nanoparticles in aqueous solution in ambient condition with the addition of complexing agent, trisodium citrate. UV-vis spectra confirmed the complexing behavior of trisodium citrate and metal ions. The particles synthesized with trisodium citrate were well dispersed with particle size ranging between 3-4 nm while the particles without trisodium citrate were larger and aggregated, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles without impurities in the complexing agent-supplemented system. In contrast, large amounts of PdO and Cu(OH)(2) were precipitated along with the formation of particles in the complexing agent-free system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed small amounts of oxidized Pd on the surface of particles and the existence of zerovalent Cu and oxidized Cu in particles with trisodium citrate. With a simpler process for electroless copper deposition, the Cu/Pd nanoparticle activator with less Pd metal used exhibited comparable catalytic activity to conventional Pd/Sn colloidal activator. In summary, application of Cu/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with the complexing agent as an activator suggested a novel, simpler and inexpensive process in PCB industry.

  5. Systematic sulfur stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies on veinlet groups in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit: based on new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralization occurred by intrusion of granodioritic stock of middle Miocene in volcano–sedimenrary rocks in Sarcheshmeh of early Tertiary age. This research is based on samples of new drilled boreholes and benches of 2500m elevation. Based on mineralogy and crosscutting relationships, at least four groups of veinlets pertaining to four stages of mineralization were recognized. Sulfur isotope studies in the Sarcheshmeh porphyry copper deposit were conducted on pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite and anhydrites of four groups of veinlets. The δ34S values in the sulfides and sulfates range from -2.2 to 1.27‰ and from 10.2 to 14.5 ‰, respectively. The average δ34S value in the sulfides is 1‰ and that for the sulfates is about 13‰. Considering these results, it can be concluded that the sulfides made up of a fluid that its sulfur has a magmatic origin. Also, fluid inclusions of different veinlet groups were studied, showing high temperature, high salinity and the occurrence of boiling in the mineralizing fluids. Moreover, these studies indicate presence of three types of fluids including magmatic, meteoritic and mixture of these two fluids in alteration and mineralizion processes.

  6. A deposit scale mineral prospectivity analysis: A comparison of various knowledge-driven approaches for porphyry copper targeting in Seridune, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Maysam; Mostafavi Kashani, Seyed Bagher; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain; Yousefi, Mahyar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, an application of a knowledge-driven mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) approach so-called ;the evidential belief functions (EBFs) using Dempster-Shafer's rule of combination; is proposed. This technique is used to weight and integrate a large scale exploration dataset in order to localize prospects for definition of further exploration drilling sites. In this study, exploration datasets of Seridune copper deposit in the Kerman province, SE Iran used for the methodology. In this regard, geophysical evidence layers extracted from interpretation of magnetic and electrical surveys, geological evidence layers derived via the geological datasets (i.e. lithology, fault and alteration), and geochemical evidence maps were generated and integrated for MPM. Furthermore, various MPM approaches including outranking, index overlay and fuzzy logic methods were examined for comparison with the introduced method. To evaluate and compare the efficiency of the methods, the productivity of the drilled boreholes (Cu concentration multiplied by its ore thickness along each drilled borehole) was used to validate the generated prospectivity models. The results showed higher efficiency of the Dempster-Shafer's model in comparison with the prospectivity models generated using other MPM approaches.

  7. Deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh: Research progress%滨海盐沼湿地有机碳的沉积与埋藏研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹磊; 宋金明; 李学刚; 袁华茂; 李宁; 段丽琴

    2013-01-01

    滨海盐沼湿地有着较高的碳沉积速率和固碳能力,在缓解全球变暖方面发挥着重要作用,而盐渍土壤是滨海盐沼湿地碳收支研究中最大的有机碳库,研究其碳沉积与埋藏对于理解滨海湿地碳收支有着重要的意义.本文从滨海盐沼湿地土壤有机碳的来源、土壤有机碳库与沉积速率、盐沼湿地有机碳的埋藏机制、全球变化与滨海盐沼湿地碳封存等几方面对滨海盐沼湿地有机碳沉积与埋藏的相关研究进行综述.今后研究应侧重:1)加强对控制滨海盐沼湿地碳储存变异的基本因素的迸一步研究;2)对测量滨海盐沼湿地沉积物碳储量和沉积碳埋藏速率的方法进行标准化;3)对潮汐影响下滨海盐沼湿地碳与邻近生态系统之间的横向交换通量进行量化;4)探明全球变暖的影响和生产力的提高是否可以抵消因呼吸增强而造成的有机碳降解速率的升高.确定固碳速率变化驱动因子,理解气候变化和人类活动对碳埋藏的影响机制,有助于提升我国滨海盐沼湿地的固碳能力.%Coastal salt marsh has higher potential of carbon sequestration,playing an important role in mitigating global warming,while coastal saline soil is the largest organic carbon pool in the coastal salt marsh carbon budget.To study the carbon deposition and burial in this soil is of significance for clearly understanding the carbon budget of coastal salt marsh.This paper summarized the research progress on the deposition and burial of organic carbon in coastal salt marsh from the aspects of the sources of coastal salt marsh soil organic carbon,soil organic carbon storage and deposition rate,burial mechanisms of soil organic carbon,and the relationships between the carbon sequestration in coastal salt marsh and the global climate change.Some suggestions for the future related researches were put forward:1) to further study the underlying factors that control the variability of

  8. Sandy inland braidplain deposition with local aeolian sedimentation in the lower and middle parts of the buntsandstein and sandy coastal braidplain deposition in the topmost zechstein in the sudetes (Lower Silesia, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczkowski, Jerzy; Mader, Detlef

    restricted to a narrow range between the end members of a pebbly to sandy highly-braided stream system representing the coarser facies tracts and a sandy to pebbly moderately-braided river complex representing the finer facies tracts. The evolution in time and space is characterized by mainly random lateral shifting and vertical overlapping of two coexistent fluvial styles within an irregularly zoned braidplain lacking organization of the two facies realms into discrete belts. Palaeogeographically, the two end members of the spectrum of fluvial style may sometimes even be equivalent to a more proximal and a more distal facies belt. In terms of position within the general depositional framework of the whole Mid-European Triassic Basin, the inland braidplain of the Sudetes is situated within the transitional reach from the proximal zone to the medial zone I. Based on comparative interpretation of the topmost Zechstein beds in the region of Chemsko and Kochanów in the Intra Sudetic Trough, the overall depositional history in parts of the area comprises the passage from marine carbonate sedimentation via a narrow coastal fluvial braidplain with pedogenesis in semi-arid climate at the margin of the Zechstein sea to an extensive inland fluvial braidplain with probably local aeolian deposition in almost arid climate in the Buntsandstein. Comparative evaluation of the marginal Zechstein in the Intra Sudetic Trough in Lower Silesia in Poland and of the marginal Lower Muschelkalk in Luxembourg allows to assess the Buntsandstein succession near the borders of the basin as an overall symmetrical major clastic wedge prograding into the depositional area with retreat of the Zechstein ocean and retrograding from the basin with transgression of the Muschelkalk sea. In view of a general model of continental sedimentation, the alluvial marginal belt of the Zechstein sea in Lower Silesia in Poland represents a predecessor, and the fluvial marginal seam of the Muschelkalk ocean in Luxembourg

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Metallic Copper and Copper Oxide Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *H. S. Virk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoflowers have been fabricated using two different techniques; electro-deposition of copper in polymer and anodic alumina templates, and cytyltrimethal ammonium bromide (CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images record some interesting morphologies of metallic copper nanoflowers. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM has been used to determine morphology and composition of copper oxide nanoflowers. X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic phase of CuO in the crystallographic structure of copper oxide nanoflowers. There is an element of random artistic design of nature, rather than science, in exotic patterns of nanoflowers fabricated in our laboratory.

  10. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Methane to Carbon Nanotubes: Copper Promoted Effect of Ni/MgO Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts were prepared by sol-gel method and used as the catalysts for synthesis of carbon nanotubes by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The effect of Cu on the carbon yield and structure was investigated, and the effects of calcination temperature and reaction temperature were also investigated. The catalysts and synthesized carbon materials were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results showed that the addition of Cu promoted the reduction of nickel species, subsequently improving the growth and yield of CNTs. Meanwhile, CNTs were synthesized by the Ni/MgO and Ni-Cu/MgO catalysts with various calcination temperatures and reaction temperatures, and results suggested that the obtained CNTs on Ni-Cu/MgO catalyst with the calcination temperature of 500°C and the reaction temperature of 650°C were of the greatest yield and quantity of 927%.

  11. Arctic Sediment Transport from Land to Sea - An Integrated Study of Coastal - Marine Processes and Deposits in Dicksonfjorden, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M.; Choi, K.; Forwick, M.; Howe, J. A.; Husum, K.; Korsun, S.; Maat, D.; Nam, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Valleys and fjords are the key transport and storage systems for sediments and biogeochemical elements from high arctic landscapes to the ocean. Sediment and nutrient fluxes are important for the biochemical cycle in the fjords and eventually in the ocean, and are important input data to earth system models. At present, high latitude systems are underrepresented in such models (Russell, 2014). Dicksonfjorden is a fjord in the larger Isfjorden system, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has no direct glacial input, in contrast to fjords affected by tidewater glaciers. The sediment supply is very high and the inner fjord receives sediment from a tide-influenced delta. This study is part of a multidisciplinary project aiming at mapping and quantifying sediment types and dispersal patterns in present Arctic valley - fjord systems and is the first comprehensive study of the depositional system in Dicksonfjorden. The first field campaign took place in summer 2016, when detailed mapping of the tidal delta and the sea floor in the inner fjord, coring onshore and offshore and sampling for foraminifera, nutrients and microbial abundances were performed. The surface mapping is based on high-resolution drone images, which will be processed to a high-resolution digital elevation model, and the bathymetry and sediment distribution data from the sea floor has been collected with a Gavia Offshore Surveyor AUV, providing high-resolution bathymetry and backscatter data of the seabed. Core transects from the delta surface will be described and compared to marine cores from the fjord basin retrieved from R/V Helmer Hanssen. Sediment accumulation rates will be assessed from 210Pb and 137Cs radionuclides. Preliminary results on the physical and chemical characteristics of the sedimentation system in inner Dicksonfjorden will be presented and implications for the fjord ecosystem will be discussed. References Russell , J.L., 2014. Control on the Latitudinal distribution of climate processes

  12. 电沉积制备铜铟硫薄膜的研究%Preparation of Copper Indium Sulfide Film by Electro-Deposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽波; 李琦; 王珩; 杨秀春; 田海燕; 谢菁琛; 王文涛

    2015-01-01

    Copper indium sulfide (CuinS2,CIS2) film was prepared by an electro-deposition method.Uv-vis spectrophotometer test result shows that the band gap of the electroplated CIS2 film is 1.5 eV.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis reveals that the Cu,In and S signals corresponded to valence state (+1,+3 and-2) of three elements in CIS2 film,respectively.The photoelectrical properties of the CIS2 film were characterized by linear sweep voltammetry measurements under the dark and illumination.The I-V characteristic is linear under the dark and illumination,and the slope gap is 0.6× 10-3.We also simulated the band gap (1.5 eV) of the C[S2 film with chalcopyrite structure prepared by electroplating experiment using DMol3 and CASTEP modules,respectively.The molecular structure model of electroplated copper indium sulfide film has been established,and the X-ray diffraction simulative spectrum has been obtained by Materials Studio,which has good agreement with the experiment result.%采用电沉积的方法制备铜铟硫(CuInS2,CIS2)薄膜,紫外可见光谱仪测试结果表明电沉积制备的CIS2薄膜的禁带宽度为1.5 eV.X射线光电子能谱(XPS)分析表明,薄膜中的铜、铟、硫元素的价态分别为+1,+3和-2.采用线性伏安扫描测试了薄膜的光电性质,在黑暗和光照的条件下,I-V曲线斜率变化率为0.6×10-3.运用DMol3和CASTEP模块计算了电沉积制备的铜铟硫薄膜的禁带宽度,其数值为1.5 eV.通过Materials Studio建立了电沉积制备出的铜铟硫薄膜的结构和XRD模拟谱图,与实验结果一致.

  13. Effects of Dietary Copper Level on Copper Apparent Biological Utilization and Copper Deposition in Tissue and Organ of Silver Foxes during the Winter Hair Period%饲粮铜水平对冬毛期银狐铜表观生物学利用率及组织器官铜沉积量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟; 鲍坤; 张婷; 刘凤华; 杨雅涵; 张海华; 李光玉

    2014-01-01

    This experment was conducted to study the effects of dietary copper level on copper apparent biolog-ical utilization and copper deposition in tissue and organ of silver foxes during the winter hair period. Fifty 120-day-old female silver foxes with an average body weight of ( 5 134 ± 540 ) g were selected and randomly as-signed into 5 groups with 10 replicates in each group and 1 silver fox in each replicate. Foxes in the 6 groups were fed the basal diets supplemented 6 ( group Ⅰ) , 30 ( group Ⅱ) , 60 ( group Ⅲ) , 90 ( group Ⅳ) and 150 mg/kg ( groupⅤ) citric acid copper, respectively. The copper content in basal diet was 4.92 mg/kg. The pre-trial period lasted for 7 days and the trial period lasted for 51 days. The results showed as follows:1) diet-ary copper level did not significantly affect average daily feed intake, fecal output and copper apparent biologi-cal utilization ( P>0.05) , but significantly affected the copper intake and fecal copper output ( P0.05) . It is concluded that adding 60 mg/kg citric acid copper ( actual dietary copper content appropriately 65 mg/kg) in the basal diet is beneficial for digestion and utilization of copper of silver foxesx during the win-ter hair period.%本试验旨在研究饲粮铜水平对冬毛期银狐铜表观生物学利用率及组织器官铜沉积量的影响。选择50只120日龄、平均体重为(5134±540)g的健康雌性银狐,随机分成5组,每组设10个重复,每个重复1只银狐。各组分别饲喂在基础饲粮中添加6(Ⅰ组)、30(Ⅱ组)、60(Ⅲ组)、90(Ⅳ组)和150 mg/kg(Ⅴ组)柠檬酸铜的试验饲粮,基础饲粮中铜含量为4.92 mg/kg。预试期7 d,正试期51 d。结果表明:1)饲粮铜水平对平均日采食量、粪排出量和铜表观生物学利用率均无显著影响(P>0.05),对铜摄入量和粪铜排出量有极显著影响(P<0.01)。随着饲粮铜水平增加,铜摄入量和粪

  14. 滨海砂矿重砂样品淘洗次数探讨%The washing times of the coastal placer deposit samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊敬亮; 丁存根; 沈华光; 刘峻; 黄殿君

    2011-01-01

    文章以莫桑比克赞比西亚省某滨海矿区的39个重砂样品为试验对象,分析了淘洗次数与钛铁矿回收率、损失率和品位之间的关系.基于上述试验结果,得出以下结论:目前砂矿规范中有关淘洗与重矿物损失率之间的规定,会大大增加淘洗工作量;在滨海砂矿勘查中,可从淘洗对品位的影响上确定淘洗次数;对非贵金属滨海砂矿进行预查和详查时,分别淘洗3次和4次可满足生产要求.%Thirty - nine coastal placer deposit samples, from Zambezi province, Mozambique, have been taken as experimental subjects to analyze the relationship between the washing times and ilmenite recovery, losses, and grade.. According to the above -mentioned results, conclusions are drawn as follows; first, the workload of washing will be increased heavily according to the current specification between washing and heavy mineral losses; second, the washing times can be determined based on the influence washing putting on grade; third, three washing times for not - precious - metal reconnaissance and four washing times for not - precious - metal general exploration could both satisfy the production requirement.

  15. 江西东乡铜矿流体包裹体研究%Study on the fluid inclusion from Dongxiang copper deposit, Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡逸涛; 倪培; 沈昆; 朱筱婷; 黄苏锦; 张秀昌; 徐积辉

    2011-01-01

    According to the study on the metallogenic fluid characteristic from Dongxiang copper deposit, we examine themetallogenic mechanism, the nature and origin of ore-forming fluid. Based on petrographic observations of ore-bearing quartz collected from the deposit, we have found that there are three different generations of quartz. Fluid inclusion studies show that the homogenization temperature and primary salinities are 144 ~ 195℃ and 0.35% ~4. 95% NaCleqv in the first generation, respectively. The second generation formed in relatively higher temperature range 193-298℃, and salinities are 1. 40% ~ 6. 59% NaCleqv. The thrid generation of quartz mainly consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite and quartz, the primary inclusions are generally three types; vapor (type II), brine (type I), and daughter-mineral bearing multiphase inclusions (type V) in the third generation. The statistics on the measured filling temperatures of type II and type V reveal peaks at 300 ~ 340℃ and 280 - 320℃ respectively, while those on the salinities of fluid inclusions peak at 0. 35% ~ 5. 86% NaCleqv and 29. 4% ~41. 9% NaCleqv respectively. Raman analysis of the fluid inclusions indicates that, in the gaseous phase, water vapor is dominant with small amount of CO2 and CH4. Hydrogen and Oxygen isotopic compositions are within the range of magmatic water. Fluid boiling resulted in the discharge of a large amount of copper from Cu-bearing fluid.%本文主要对江西东乡铜矿成矿流体进行研究,探讨其成矿机制,分析成矿流体性质以及成矿流体来源.通过石英中流体包裹体的岩相学研究和显微测温可以发现,第一阶段石英中流体包裹体的温度介于144~195℃,流体盐度0.35%~4.95%NaCleqv,第二阶段的流体温度有所升高,均一温度193~298℃,盐度1.40%~6.59%NaCleqv.第三阶段属于成矿期流体,捕获了富气相、富液相和含子晶三相包裹体,其端员均一温度主要在300~340℃和280~320

  16. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    O. S. Komarov; I. V. Provorova; V. I. Volosatikov; D. O. Komarov; N. I. Urbanovich

    2009-01-01

    The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  17. ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT OF COPPER RECYCLING OF DEAD COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of processing of copper-bearing dead catalysts, which includes leaching and deposition of copper by means of electrolysis and also their application in composition of the mixture for alloy doping is offered.

  18. The integrated exploration model of Dahenglu copper-cobalt deposit of Baishan City,Jilin Province%吉林省白山市大横路铜钴矿综合找矿模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪顺; 王景明

    2012-01-01

    Dahenglu is a large copper-cobalt deposit,which is a rare demonstrated mainly-cobalt deposit in recent years.On the basis of researching the of mining area ore-controlling factors,and information of geochemistry and geophysics,induced and extracted ore-controlling geological factors of deposit,and prospecting criteria of geophysical and geochemical exploration,thus established geological-geophysical-geochemical integrated prospecting model of Dahenglu copper-cobalt deposit.%大横路铜钴矿床是近年来我国探明的少有的一处以钴为主的大型铜钴矿床。本文在系统研究矿区控矿因素、地球化学及地球物理综合信息的基础上,归纳并提取了矿床控矿地质因素和物化探找矿标志,从而建立了大横路铜钴矿床的地质-地球物理-地球化学综合找矿模型。

  19. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    . Molybdenum, W, and Sn display excellent co-correlation and shared zonation patterns on LA-ICP-MS maps of garnet, indicating substitution in the crystal lattice. As well as assisting in interpreting skarn evolution in time and space, and providing constraints on ore genesis, the trace element data for garnet explain the range of colours observed. The discovery of garnets carrying significant concentrations of W, Sn and Mo is a valuable finding that deserves evaluation in post-collisional skarns elsewhere, and is potentially of critical significance in prospecting. Together with a conspicuous trace ore mineral signature, garnet compositions at Zhibula support a genetic connection and sharing of ore-forming fluids between the skarn and the Qulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, 2 km to the north. Within the Gangdese belt, or in analogous settings elsewhere, the presence of deep-seated porphyry mineralization beneath exposed skarns could be tested for by studying garnet chemistry. As more data become available, such trace element signatures could be viable tools for distinguishing barren from mineralized skarn systems.

  20. Value of molecular analysis of Wilson's disease in the absence of tissue copper deposits: a novel ATP7B mutation in an adult patient.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.F.; Hoevenaars, B.; Waanders, E.; Drenth, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is a disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and in extrahepatic organs, such as brain and cornea. We present a patient with liver disease who did not fulfil the biochemical criteria for WD. Mutational analysis was necessary to make the diagnos

  1. A copper vapor laser by using a copper-vapor-complex reaction at a low temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kano, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser performance by using ametal-vapor-complex reaction (Cu+AlBr3) is reported. The laser operation is obtained at a low temperature without externalheating because of the AlBr3 vapors evaporating at a room temperature. The copper vapor laser using this metal-vapor-complex reaction has an advantage of deposition-free of a metallic copper to the laser tube wall, which is different from the copper halide and the organometallic copper lasers.

  2. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  3. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C L Aravinda; S M Mayanna; V R Muralidharan

    2000-10-01

    A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the deposition of copper involves the slow formation of a monovalent species. Adsorption of this species obeys Langmuir isotherm. In TEA solutions the deposition involves the formation of monovalent ions obeying the non-activated Temkin isotherm. Conversion of divalent to monovalent copper is also slow. In TEA and TSC alkaline copper solutions, the predominant species that undergo stepwise reduction contain only TEA ligands

  4. First report on the occurrence of CO2-bearing fluid inclusions in the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, Iran: implications for mineralisation processes in a continental collision setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Khosrojerdi, Majid

    2013-12-01

    Hydrothermal alteration of the Meiduk porphyry copper deposit, south of the Kerman Cenozoic magmatic arc and southeast of the central Iranian volcano-plutonic belt has resulted in three stages of mineralisation characterised by veins and veinlets. These are, from early to late: (1) quartz + K-feldspar + biotite + pyrite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± magnetite (early potassic alteration and type-A veins); (2) quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite + bornite + pyrrhotite + K- -feldspar + biotite + magnetite (potassic-sericitic alteration and type-B veins); and (3) quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite + sericite (sericitic alteration and type-C veins). Most ores were formed during stages 2 and 3. Three main types of fluid inclusions are distinguished based on petrographical, microthermometrical and laser Raman spectroscopy analyses, i.e. type I (three-phase aqueous inclusions), type II (three-phase liquid-carbonic inclusions) and type III (multi-phase solid inclusions). The fluid inclusions in quartz veins of the stages are mainly homogenised at 340-530°C (stage 1), 270-385°C (stage 2) and 214-350°C (stage 3), respectively, with salinities of 3.1-16 wt.% NaCl equivalent, 2.2-43 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 8.2-22.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The estimated trapping pressures are 97.9-123.6 MPa (3.7-4.6 km) in stage 1 and 62.5-86.1 MPa (2.3-3.1 km) in stage 2, respectively. These fluid inclusions are homogenised in different ways at similar temperatures, suggesting that fluid boiling took place in stages 2 and 3. The fluid system evolved from high-temperature, medium-salinity, high-pressure and CO2-rich to low-temperature, low-pressure, high-salinity and CO2-poor, with fluid boiling being the dominating mechanism, followed by input of meteoric water. CO2 escape may have been a factor in increasing activities of NaCl and S2- in the fluids, diminishing the oxidation of the fluids from stage 1 to 3. The result was precipitation of sulphides and trapping of multi-phase solid

  5. Discrimination between mineralized and unmineralized alteration zones using primary geochemical haloes in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit in Kerman, southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapoor, A.; Khalili, M.; Maghami, M.

    2017-08-01

    Primary geochemical haloes were studied at the Darreh-Zar porphyry Cu-deposit, southern Iran. In terms of geochemical signatures, high K2O/Na2O enrichment, HREEs and HFSE's depletion in the potassic alteration, high (La/Sm)cn, (La/Yb)cn and (Gd/Yb)cn ratios in mineralized sericitic and potassic zones and notable depletion in the REEs content in argillic alteration is recognized. Further, Mg, Li, Sc, P enrichment and W depletion can serve to separate potassic alteration from the other altered zones, while (Eu/Eu*)cn and (Ce/Ce*)cn don't show pronounced changes in different alteration zones. The coupled positive Tl, Se, S, Rb, Co, Cs, Mo, K and negative Te, Ta, Ti, Sr, Rb, As, Bi, Ga, Hf, In, Mn, Zn and Zr anomalies can be adequately used in discriminating between the mineralized zones (potassic, chlorite-sericite and sericite alterations) and the barren (propylitic zone). The behavior of the trace elements on isocon diagrams reveal that HFSEs are depleted in mineralized altered zones and display variations in the amounts in the barren facies. Zonality index in the axial direction from drill holes 146 to 124 estimates the zonality sequence as Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu-Pb-Zn in the surface horizons. The calculated zonality in five drill holes and six levels indicates that the level of 550 m at the DH 117 in the central part of the area has the highest value (0.76) for Cu. The zonality sequence from the surface to the depth is variable and can be demonstrated as follow: DH 146: Pb-Zn-Cu-Mo-Ag; DH 137: Zn-Cu-Mo-Pb-Ag; DH 117: Ag-Zn-Pb-Mo-Cu; DH: 121: Cu-Mo-Zn-Ag-Pb; DH 136: Pb-Ag-Zn-Cu-Mo; DH 124: Zn-Mo-Cu-Pb-Ag. Available data of the enrichment factors shows different enrichment for copper and molybdenum (i.e. EF > 10), selenium and silver (i.e. EF > 5), tin and LREEs (i.e. 1 < EF < 5).

  6. 甘肃龙尾沟斑岩型铜(钨)矿床成矿特征及形成环境%Geological Characteristics and Metallogenic Environment of the Longweigou Porphyry Copper(tungsten) Deposit,Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾群子; 马云海; 全守村; 王建军; 肖朝阳; 李金超

    2012-01-01

    龙尾沟铜(钨)矿床是祁连山地区新近发现的一处斑岩型矿床,其评价及研究对祁连山地区铜矿勘查具有重要的指导和借鉴作用.本文通过对含矿斑岩年代学及地球化学、矿体产出特征及矿石物质组成、围岩蚀变等进行了系统研究,结果表明,花岗闪长斑岩形成年龄为358.7 Ma;矿体呈似层状、透镜状和脉状产出,主要产于高钾碱性系列斑岩体内,并受近南北向构造控制;矿石矿物主要为黄铜矿、黄铁矿、磁黄铁矿、白钨矿,呈细脉一浸染状、浸染状产出;矿化以富铜、钨、金贫钼为特征;与成矿关系密切的围岩蚀变主要为绢英岩化,次为钾硅酸盐化和硅化;矿床成矿时代为海西早期,形成于陆内造山伸展环境.从成矿背景分析认为祁连山地区陆内造山环境所形成的斑岩型铜矿具有良好的找矿前景.%The Longweigou porphyry copper( tungsten) deposit, a newly found deposit, lies in the Oulongbuluke uplift belt of the Qilian orogenic belt. The evaluation and research of the Longweigou copperCtungsten) ore deposit will present important guidance and reference for copper exploration in the Qilian Mountain area. The chronology and the geochemistry of the ore-bearing porphyry deposit were studied and the occurrence features of the deposit, the components of gold mineral and the alteration of the wall rock were investigated. Results showed that the formation age of the granodiorite porphyry is 358. 7Ma; and that the ore-body, which has occurrences of stratiform or lenticular or vein, occurs mainly in the high potassium alkali series porphyry and is controlled by NS structures; and that chalcopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and scheelite are main ore minerals, which have veinlet-disseminated and disseminated structures; and that mineralization is characterized by enriching copper, tungsten and gold and depleting molybdenum; and that the mineralization related wall-rock alterations are

  7. BIOMONITORING OF AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CADMIUM,COPPER, LEAD AND ZINC IN THE COASTAL WETLAND WATER BY USING GILLS OF THE GREEN- LIPPED MUSSEL PERNA VIRIDIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Kong Yap; Ahmad Ismail; Abdul Rahim Ismail; Soon Guan Tan

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in the gills and remaining soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from 12 geographical sites ( 10 from the west and 2 from the east coastal waters) of Peninsular Malaysia. All samples showed that the levels of Cd, Pb and Zn were generally higher in the gill than those in the remaining soft tissues. These results could be due to the fact that gills are the first organ of metal accumulation and larger surface area with mucus sheets in the organ. Since the mussel gill is a better accumulator of Cd, Pb and Zn of ambient seawater than remaining soft tissue, it is a potential indicator of ambient levels of dissolved metals in the ambient seawater. However, further validations based on laboratory conditions are needed.

  8. 四川省九龙县中咀铜矿构造与成矿关系研究%Structure Types and Mineralization in the Zhongzui Copper Deposit, Jiulong County, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠华; 冯孝良; 唐高林; 周清; 李同柱; 祝向平; 吴振波; 夏祥标

    2013-01-01

    Jianglang Dome lies at the western margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which has been identified as a metamorphic core complex. It has good ore-forming physicochemical conditions and is well known in China because it contains several Cu-sulfide deposits. Zhongzui copper deposit is characterised by polyphyletic, polyphase and polygenetic features, and has very close relationship with the evolution of Jianglang metamorphic core complex. This study is focused on the structure and metallogenic conditions of the Zhongzui copper deposit from the northern portion of the Jianglang Dome. On the basis of detailed field observations, structural previous, and previous radiometric ages, we suggest that the ore-bearing rock series in Zhongzui copper deposit underwent at least six stages of deformation, which were recorded by a series of foliations, and the ore bodies are mainly controlled by Variscan ductile shear zone and major Yanshanian gravitational sliding zones. In this contribution, we studied the ore-forming process and origin of the Zhongzui copper deposit including its ore-forming source, heating source, metal mobilization, enriching process and precipitation locations, established a single metallogenetic model, and presented some prospecting locations for similar copper deposits in the Jianglang Dome.%  江浪穹隆是扬子地台西缘变质核杂岩带中比较典型的一个变质核杂岩体,具有良好的成矿物理化学条件,以存在一系列铜硫化物矿床而著称。中咀铜矿的成矿作用表现出多期次、多成因的特点,其成矿与江浪变质核杂岩的形成和演化有着密切的成因联系。本文应用构造解析方法,对江浪穹隆北部的中咀铜矿进行了构造解析和成矿规律研究。通过野外构造解析,结合相关同位素测年资料,初步确定中咀铜矿含矿岩系经历至少6个世代的构造变形,并认为矿体主要受华力西期顺层韧性剪切带和燕山期成穹过程中形

  9. 赞比亚巴鲁巴铜矿矿床地质特征及找矿方向研究%Study on Geological Characteristics of Baluba Copper Deposit in Zambia and Its Prospecting Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国平

    2015-01-01

    According to three years working experience in Baluba Copper Mine of Luanshya in Zambia ,com-bined raletive geological data , through analyzing and studying the geological characteristics , cause of for-mation of deposit , stratigraphic marker and ore -controlled structure of Baluba Copper Mine , the key parts and primary target area in ore district prospecting were definitely put foward and a very good pros-pecting potential about edge and deep of Baluba Copper Mine was pointed out .%本文主要根据笔者在赞比亚卢安夏巴鲁巴铜矿三年的工作实践 ,结合相关的地质资料 ,通过对巴鲁巴铜矿区矿床地质特征、矿床成因、地层标志及控矿构造等相关地质资料的分析与研究 ,明确了矿区找矿的重点部位和主要靶区 ,指出了巴鲁巴铜矿边深部有着很好的找矿远景.

  10. 金川三矿区低品位铜镍矿石工艺矿物学研究%Study on the Process Mineralogy of Low-grade Copper-nickel Ore in Jinchuan No.3 Deposit Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程少逸; 赵礼兵; 袁致涛; 赵毕文

    2011-01-01

    The prooess mineralogy study was made to identify the mineral composition, occurrence forms of coppernickel, and the dissemination characteristics of main minerals in low-grade copper-nickel ores of Jinchuan No. 3 deposit.The results showed that copper and nickel ores mainly occurs in form of pentlandite, violarite, chalcopyrite and wallerite,but other sulfides and gangues have close and complex dissemination relation with these minerals.Serpentine has a critical argillic alteration, which brings unfavorable effect on the separation of copper and nickel.%通过工艺矿物学研究,查明了金川二矿区低品位铜镍矿石的矿物组成、铜镍的赋存形式及主要有用矿物的嵌布特性.研究结果表明:矿石中的铜、镍主要以镍黄铁矿、紫硫镍铁矿、黄铜矿、墨铜矿形式存在,但其他硫化矿物及脉石矿物与它们嵌布关系密切而复杂;矿石蛇纹石蚀变严重,易于泥化.这些将给铜、镍的分选带来不利影响.

  11. 青海德尔尼铜矿床成因最新研究进展%New Progress on the Ore-Genesis of the De'erni Copper Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董富权; 钱壮志; 王建中; 仲佳鑫; 孙涛; 徐刚; 段俊

    2012-01-01

    德尔尼铜矿床位于青海省玛沁县积石山中段德尔尼山南坡,是一个以铜为主,钴、锌等多元素可以综合利用的大型矿床.矿床成因存在较大分歧,因此,笔者运用宏观观察、矿相学研究及电子探针测试分析相结合的方法,重点对该矿床金属矿物矿相学、矿石矿物组合及矿床成因进行了系统研究,首次在德尔尼铜矿床中发现重晶石和石膏.石英-碳酸盐-重晶石-石膏为海底热液矿床的典型低温矿物组合.通过构造成矿环境、成矿物质来源研究,结合草莓状结构、矿体顶部的硅质岩、重晶石和石膏的发现等,种种迹象表明该矿床为海底热液喷流沉积矿床.%De' erni copper deposit, located in the southern slope of De' erni, in the middle of Jishi Mountain, Maqin country, Qinghai Province, is a comprehensive utilization deposit which is dominated by copper. Because there are considerable differences in its ore-genesis, we have studied its ore-genesis by macro-observation, mineralogical studies and electron probe analysis in detail. This is the first time that barite and gypsum were discovered. Quartz-carbonate-barite-gypsum is not only a low-temperature mineral assemblage but also is a typical mineral composition of submarine hydrothermal deposit. By mineral environment of structure, material source, strawberry-like structure, siliceous rocks lying at the top of the orebodies, the discovery of barite and gypsum, we suggest that De'erni copper deposit is hydrothermal ex-halative-sedimentary deposit in seafloor.

  12. Production of ultrahigh purity copper using waste copper nitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J Y; Kim, D S

    2003-04-25

    The production of ultrahigh purity copper (99.9999%) by electrolysis in the presence of a cementation barrier has been attempted employing a waste nitric copper etching solution as the electrolyte. The amount of copper deposited on the cathode increased almost linearly with electrolysis time and the purity of copper was observed to increase as the electrolyte concentration was increased. At some point, however, as the electrolyte concentration increased, the purity of copper decreased slightly. As the total surface area of cementation barrier increased, the purity of product increased. The electrolyte temperature should be maintained below 35 degrees C in the range of investigated electrolysis conditions to obtain the ultrahigh purity copper. Considering that several industrial waste solutions contain valuable metallic components the result of present study may support a claim that electrowinning is a very desirable process for their treatment and recovery.

  13. Copper hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-10-01

    The world production of copper is steadily increasing. Although humans are widely exposed to copper-containing items on the skin and mucosa, allergic reactions to copper are only infrequently reported. To review the chemistry, biology and accessible data to clarify the implications of copper hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common. As a metal, it possesses many of the same qualities as nickel, which is a known strong sensitizer. Cumulative data on subjects with presumed related symptoms and/or suspected exposure showed that a weighted average of 3.8% had a positive patch test reaction to copper. We conclude that copper is a very weak sensitizer as compared with other metal compounds. However, in a few and selected cases, copper can result in clinically relevant allergic reactions.

  14. Quantitative analysis of coastal erosion and deposition on Wuzhizhou Island of Sanya City%三亚市蜈支洲岛海岸侵蚀与沉积的定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓浩; 黄华梅; 吴秋生; 娄全胜; 杨帆; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    传统的海岸侵蚀和沉积信息的获取多以实地测量为主, 且多用一维或二维指标来表示, 缺少海岸形态变化的三维立体表达.利用中国海监南海航空支队获取的两个时期高密度机载激光雷达点云数据, 构建了蜈支洲岛高精度的5m分辨率数字高程模型; 在此基础上结合同步获取的航空影像生成了蜈支洲岛 0.45m 分辨率的数字正射影像, 并对两期数字正射影像进行监督分类和叠置分析, 提取出发生海岸侵蚀与沉积的区域; 这些侵蚀与沉积区域基本上交替出现在砂质海岸附近.结合蜈支洲岛两期数字高程模型, 提取了12个海岸侵蚀与沉积对象多边形的典型几何属性、形状属性、表面属性和体积属性, 如面积、周长、紧凑系数、平均坡度差、平均坡向差、平均曲率差、总体积变化等.分析结果实现了海岸形变的立体多角度表达, 为海岸带资源的管理和控制规划提供新的研究方法.%Traditionally, information on coastal erosion and deposition is acquired by field surveying, using one-dimensional (1D) or 2D indices, not 3D expression of coastal morphology change. This article shows 5-m resolution high-precision DEMs (digital elevation models ) on Wuzhizhou Island using two periods of airborne Lidar point cloud data acquired by the South China Sea Airborne Detachment of China Marine Surveillance. In combination with synchronously acquired aerial images, 0.45m resolution DOMs (digital orthophoto maps) are created for this area based on the above DEM models. We also execute supervised classification and overlay analysis using DOMs to extract information on coastal erosion and deposition. These erosion and deposition patches appear alternately near the sandy coast. Combining DEMs and coastal erosion/deposition object polygons, we extract geometry, shape, surface, and volume attributes of these 12 polygons, such as area, perimeter, compact index, average slope

  15. Granitoid intrusions and related deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟良义; 李绪俊

    1996-01-01

    Taking the Bainaimiao copper and gold deposits, Inner Mongolia and the Wushan copper deposits, Jiangxi Province as examples, a discussion is devoted to the relationship between the granitoid intrusions and related deposits from different lines of evidence: the spatial distribution, country rocks and alteration of the deposits, trace element contents and vertical zoning of elements in deposits, the metallogenic preference of granitoid intrusions, the metallogenic models and stable isotopic geology. It is concluded that the ore-bearing fluids mainly come from granitoid magmas and granitoid intrusions are closely associated with the related deposits in space.

  16. Copper transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats.

  17. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  18. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  19. Deposit model for volcanogenic uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, George N.; Hall, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanism is a major contributor to the formation of important uranium deposits both close to centers of eruption and more distal as a result of deposition of ash with leachable uranium. Hydrothermal fluids that are driven by magmatic heat proximal to some volcanic centers directly form some deposits. These fluids leach uranium from U-bearing silicic volcanic rocks and concentrate it at sites of deposition within veins, stockworks, breccias, volcaniclastic rocks, and lacustrine caldera sediments. The volcanogenic uranium deposit model presented here summarizes attributes of those deposits and follows the focus of the International Atomic Energy Agency caldera-hosted uranium deposit model. Although inferred by some to have a volcanic component to their origin, iron oxide-copper-gold deposits with economically recoverable uranium contents are not considered in this model.

  20. Geological Characteristics and Prospecting Direction of Taishanmiao Copper Deposits in Fengxian County,Shaanxi Province%陕西凤县太山庙铜矿地质特征及找矿方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永勤; 王瑞廷; 孟德明; 代军治; 黄长青

    2015-01-01

    凤县太山庙铜矿点位于凤(县)太(白)矿集区南部铅硐山苇子坪铜牌沟铜铅锌多金属成矿带之铁炉湾九子沟矿化区,区内从西到东矿化分带明显,成矿条件十分有利。太山庙铜矿赋存于中泥盆统古道岭组灰岩与星红铺组千枚岩接触界面及其附近,属沉积改造型矿床;背斜构造、中泥盆统古道岭组灰岩与上泥盆统星红铺千枚岩接触带和硅化、黄铁矿化等蚀变是其主要找矿标志。目前,在太山庙铜矿区已发现 K1、K2两条铜矿体,矿石类型以硅化灰岩型为主,其次为硅化千枚岩型、含铜石英方解石脉型及硅质岩型。通过与东部凤县九子沟铜矿床对比研究,认为二者处于同一含矿层位,区内找矿应关注背斜构造转折端及其翼部的古道岭组灰岩和星红铺组千枚岩接触界面这2个主要找矿标志,注意背斜南翼铁碳酸岩脉及平行背斜构造,结合化探异常和物探异常,进而优选靶位开展深部工程验证,按照这一指导思想和工作方法,在区内及太山庙铜矿点有望取得新的找矿突破。%The Taishanmiao copper deposit of Fengxian County is located in Tieluwan-Jiuzigou mineralized district of Qiandongshan-Weiziping-Tongpaigou Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic mineraliza-tionbelt,south of Fengxian-Taibai ore-concentrated area.Mineralization zoning is clear from east to west of this area and metallogenetic conditions are favorable.Ore body occurs at the contact zone or nearby of Middle Devonian Gudaoling formation limestone and Upper Devonian Xinghong-pu formation phyllite,belonging to sedimentary-reformation deposit.Anticline,contact zone of limestone and phyllite,silication and pyritization are the main indicators for prospecting.Ore bodies including K1 and K2 are found in this deposit,in which silicified limestone is the main ore type,followed by silicified phyllite type,copper-bearing quartz-calcite vein type and siliceous rock type

  1. Pulse electro-deposition of copper on molybdenum for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and Cu2ZnSnSe4 solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jinlian; Yao, Liyong; Ao, Jianping; Gao, Shoushuai; Sun, Guozhong; He, Qing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The issues of rough surface morphology and the incorporated additives of the electro-deposited Cu layers, which exists in electrodeposition-based processes, is one of the major obstacles to improve the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) solar cells. In this study, the pulse current electro-deposition method is employed to deposit smooth Cu film on Mo substrate in CuSO4 solution without any additives. Grain size of the deposited Cu film is decreased by high cathode polarization successfully. And the concentration polarization, which results from high pulse current density, is controlled successfully by adjusting the pulse frequency. Flat Cu film with smooth surface and compact structure is deposited as pulse current density @ 62.5 mA cm-2, pulse frequency @100,000 Hz, and duty cycle @ 25%. CIGSe and CZTSe absorber films with flat surface and uniform elemental distribution are prepared by selenizing the stacking metal layers electro-deposited by pulse current method. Finally, the CIGSe and CZTSe solar cells with conversion efficiency of 10.39% and 7.83% respectively are fabricated based on the smooth Cu films, which are better than the solar cells fabricated by the rough Cu film deposited by direct current electro-deposition method.

  2. Discussion of prospecting models for Skarn copper polymetallic deposit in Liushudi%柳树底矽卡岩型铜多金属矿找矿模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程培起

    2015-01-01

    柳树底铜多金属矿床地处胶辽隆起带的太子河‐浑江坳陷西部,是典型的矽卡岩铜矿床。在结合前人资料研究成果的基础上从其矿床地质特征、地球化学特征、矿床的成因等方面分析矿床的形成过程。从其铅、硫‐氢氧稳定同位素组成反映成矿物质来源于岩浆,流体包裹体数据反映了该矿床为中高温热液矿床,成矿流体以岩浆水为主。在岩浆及构造作用下矿床经历了三次构造热蚀变及矿化作用,建立了该矿床为花岗斑岩与灰岩接触带矽卡岩型矿床的成矿模式,结合矿区内的低阻、高激化体地球物理电性特征进而建立了找矿模式。矿床地质环境为灰岩及侵入其中的花岗斑岩,加上近东西向构造岩浆活动带,矿床内高激化的物性特征,其指示矿体的分布,为寻找盲矿体提供了方向。%Liushudi copper polymetallic deposit is a typical skarn copper deposit ,w hich is located in the western Taiz river‐ HunJiang depression ,Jiaoliao uplift belt .Based on the combination of previous data ,the paper analysed the process of forming deposit from its geological features of ore deposit ,geochemical characteristics and the genesis of ore deposit etc .Stable isotope composition of lead ,sulfur ,hydrogen and oxygen refect the ore‐forming material is derived from magma ,fluid inclusion data reflects the deposit is a meso‐hypothermal deposit ,ore‐forming fluid mainly from magmatic water .The deposit had experienced three times of tectonic thermal alteration and mineralization by the influence of magmatism and tectonism .We established skarn deposit metallogenic model ,which is in the contact zone between the granite porphyry and limestone .The author establish the prospecting model for the kind of deposits ,which is based on the geophysical electrical features of the geological bodies with lowr resistivity and higher activation .

  3. U-Pb Chronology of the Granites in the Shilu Copper Ore Deposit and its Geological Significance%广东阳春盆地石菉铜矿床U-Pb年代学及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段瑞春; 杨红梅; 张利国; 刘重芃; 蔡应雄; 张富铁; 林伟鹏; 梅玉萍

    2013-01-01

    菉广东阳春石铜矿区位于北东向吴川-四会断裂西南端,对矿床中黄铁(铜)矿化的花岗闪长岩进行锆石 U-Pb 年代学研究,获得了107.2±2.0 Ma的206Pb/238U加权平均年龄,菉与区内石岩体中两件非矿化花岗闪长岩的形成时代(分别为106.7±1.4 Ma和104.1±2.0 Ma)在误差内一致;石菉岩体侵入寒武系、泥盆系和石炭系,在接触带形成的矽卡岩发育程度与矿化程度具有明显的相关性,菉指示了石铜矿床的成矿作用与花岗闪长岩体的侵位密切相关。矿区内分布有燕山早期至燕山晚期的侵入岩,岩性由钾玄质系列过渡到钙碱性系列,反映了区域岩石圈伸展-菉拉张的构造背景。石铜矿床应是区域岩石圈伸展-拉张背景下岩浆作用的产物。%The Shilu copper deposit in Yangchun city, Guangdong province is located at southwest of the NNE-strike Wuchuan-Sihui fault. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons from a pyrite (-chalcopyrite)-mineralized granodiorite sample from the Shilu Copper deposit yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 107.2±2.0 Ma, consistent with the results obtained from two non-mineralized granodiorite samples of the Shilu pluton (106.7±1.4 Ma and 104.1±2.0 Ma, respectively) within analytical errors. This indicates that the mineralization was closely related to the emplacement of the granodiorite pluton. Early to Late Yanshanian shoshonitic to calc-alkaline intrusive rocks are widespread in the Shilu area, suggestive of a lithospheric extension tectonic setting. Accordingly, the formation of the Shilu copper deposit might have resulted from the magmatic activity induced by this lithospheric extension.

  4. Ocular copper deposition associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: case report Depósito ocular de cobre associado a gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F. Tzelikis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of ocular copper deposition in both eyes at the level of Descemet's membrane associated with a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. A 49-year-old white woman had golden-brown metallic dust-like deposits on Descemet's membrane of both eyes. A systemic examination revealed an elevated serum copper, normal serum ceruloplasmin and a normal level of total protein. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated a single peak (M-spike in the gamma region (M-protein in serum = 11 g/l. Flow cytometric analysis of the marrow aspirate identified a monoclonal plasma cell population that represents approximately 2% of the total marrow cells consistent with the diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Copper deposits at the level of Descemet's membrane may be a finding in a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.Relatar um caso de depósito corneano de cobre em ambos os olhos a nível da membrana de Descemet associado a gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada (GMSI. Paciente feminina, 49 anos, leucodérmica, apresentando depósito corneano de aspecto marrom-ouro a nível da membrana de Descemet em ambos os olhos. Exame sistêmico revelou cobre sérico elevado, ceruloplasmina sérica normal, e proteína total normal. Eletroforese de proteínas séricas demonstrou um pico único na região gama (proteína M = 11 g/l. Análise citométrica de aspirado medular evidenciou uma população de células plasmáticas monoclonais de aproximadamente 2% do total de células medulares consistente com o diagnóstico de gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada. Depósitos de cobre a nível da membrana de Descemet podem ser encontrados em pacientes com gamopatia monoclonal de significância indeterminada.

  5. Application of disorganized monolayer films on gold electrodes to the prevention of surfactant inhibition of the voltammetric detection of trace metals via anodic stripping of underpotential deposits: detection of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Grégoire; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2003-01-15

    Development of an approach to prevention of electrode surface fouling by surfactants in samples is demonstrated. Spontaneously adsorbed monolayer systems employing short alkyl chains and bulky end groups are used to form porous disorganized monolayers on gold electrodes. Detection of copper by stripping of underpotential deposits formed at electrodes modified with disorganized films of mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES), mercaptopropanesulfonate, mercaptoacetic acid, and mercaptopropanoic acid was possible, and to a much lesser extent at aminoethanethiol and L-cysteine films. Use of short deposition times in conjunction with linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry allowed detection of Cu2+ ions down to 1 x 10(-6) M in sulfuric acid solution, using underpotential deposition as the deposition step of the procedure. Calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range (1-80) x 10(-6) M Cu2+ using 15-s deposition at 0.00 V versus Ag/AgCl. The surfactants Tween 20, Tween 80, and Triton X-100 were found to have no affect on detection of Cu2+ ions in the calibration curve concentration range using MES-modified gold electrodes, whereas at unmodified gold electrodes very severe attenuation of the detection capability was manifested. The average slope for all calibration curves at the MES-modified electrode in the absence and presence of the surfactants at two different concentration levels was 0.0710 +/- 0.0024 microA microM(-1); in contrast, the slope of the calibration line at uncoated gold electrodes in the presence of surfactant was 0.0268 microA microM(-1). These results indicate the excellent ability of a disorganized, porous monolayer for prevention of fouling of the electrode surface by the surfactants.

  6. 小西南岔金铜矿床金的赋存状态研究%Study on occurrence status of gold in Xiaoxinancha Copper-Gold Deposit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董国振

    2014-01-01

    小西南岔金铜矿床属次火山—斑岩型矿床,矿化类型主要为浸染型和硫化物方解石石英脉型。通过电子探针及显微镜下分析,结果表明,矿石中金矿物主要为自然金、银金矿;金矿物形态复杂多样,以显微金和细粒金为主;金矿物的嵌存状态以包裹金、粒间金为主。金主要富集于硫化物方解石石英脉中,在空间上金多分布在矿体中上部。%Xiaoxinancha Copper -Gold Deposit is a secondary volcanic-porphyry type deposit .The mineralization type is mainly dissemination and sulfide calcite quartz vein type .Electronic probe and microscope analyses show that gold minerals mainly take the form of native gold and electrum;gold minerals are complex ,dominated by micro gold and fine particle gold;gold minerals are embedded as locked gold and intergranular gold .Gold is primarily enriched in sulfide calcite quartz veins and is spatially deposited in the middle and upper part of orebodies .

  7. Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the United States: A Portable Document (PDF) Recompilation of USGS Open-File Report 96-96 and Circular 1178

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team Recompiled by Schruben, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the results of a national mineral resource assessment study. The study (1) identifies regional tracts of ground believed to contain most of the nation's undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in conventional types of deposits; and (2) includes probabilistic estimates of the amounts of these undiscovered resources in most of the tracts. It also contains a table of the significant known deposits in the tracts, and includes descriptions of the mineral deposit models used for the assessment. The assessment was previously released in two major publications. The conterminous United States assessment was published in 1996 as USGS Open-File Report 96-96. Subsequently, the Alaska assessment was combined with the conterminous assessment in 1998 and released as USGS Circular 1178. This new recompilation was undertaken for several reasons. First, the graphical browser software used in Circular 1178 was ONLY compatible with the Microsoft Windows operating system. It was incompatible with the Macintosh operating system, Linux, and other types of Unix computers. Second, the browser on Circular 1178 is much less intuitive to operate, requiring most users to follow a tutorial to understand how to navigate the information on the CD. Third, this release corrects several errors and numbering inconsistencies in Circular 1178.

  8. Transparent heavy minerals in the coastal sediments of south Maharashtra and their significance in delineating source and environment of transportation and deposition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.

    of transportation and deposition. 16 transparent minerals have been identified which represent three different mineral assemblage viz. (1) tourmaline, amphibole, epidote and pyroxene (2) zircon, rutile and titanite (3) staurolite kynaite garnet and olivine...

  9. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  10. Deposition of thin films by magnetron sputtering molybdenum in samples of pure copper; Deposicao de filmes finos de molibdenio por magnetron sputtering em amostra de cobre puro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, N.M.; Almeida, E.O. de; Alves Junior, C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario Lagoa Nova, PPGCEM - Natal, RN (Brazil); Lourenco, J.M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencias e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The deposition surface is a process of thermochemical treatment, which involves the deposition of a thin film usually about one to two microns on a metallic substrate, which constitutes one of the most important surface engineering techniques. The plasma deposition process with the configuration of magnetron sputtering it is removing material from a solid surface (target) through the impact of energetic particles from plasma. The aim of this study is to characterize the microstructure of the material under study using the techniques of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  11. Treatment of copper-nickel mixed wastewater by spouted bed electro-deposition method%喷射床电沉积法处理铜镍混合废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈熙; 徐新阳; 赵冰; 李海波

    2015-01-01

    Constant current spouted bed particle electro-deposition method had been studied with simulated wastewater containing copper and nickel as the research object under different experimental conditions such as pH, current, temperature with N2. experimental results showed that under the experiment conditions of pH 3 (first 210 min) and 4.5 (next 270 min), electrolyte concentration 1 g·L-1, constant current 15 A, cathode particle size 1.8 mm, electrolyte temperature 25℃ with blowing N2, the largest removal rate of Cu2+ was 99.88% and Ni2+ was 85.21% after 480 min. During the experiments, DO first rapid increased to the maximum, and then came down slowly. Blowing N2 into electrolyte could significantly reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration, which could effectively inhibit deposited Cu and Ni once again return to dissolve and improve the removal rate of deposited metals. The replacement reaction between Ni and Cu2+ weakened, the corrosion rate of deposited copper while it was intensified for nickel. Thus, the electro-deposition of mixed copper and nickel showed a certain order, which suggested that the separate recycling of metals in wastewater was feasible with the spouted bed particle electro-deposition method under certain conditions.%以实验室模拟酸性铜镍废水为研究对象,采用自制喷射床电沉积实验装置在恒电流条件下对铜镍混合酸性废水进行了沉积实验,研究了pH、电流值、温度和鼓入氮气对沉积效果和电解液DO的影响规律.实验结果表明,在前210 min控制pH为3,后270 min为4.5,电流值15 A,温度25℃,鼓入氮气的条件下,沉积480 min,铜镍离子沉积率可以分别达到99.88%和85.21%;实验过程中 DO 先迅速增大至最大值,之后缓慢降低;鼓入氮气可以有效降低溶液中溶解氧,提高金属的沉积率;由于 Ni 和 Cu2+之间置换反应的存在,削弱了沉积铜的腐蚀但加剧了镍的腐蚀,使得铜镍混合电沉积在宏观上表现出一定的顺序

  12. Microstructure and Properties of Copper Alloy Fabricated by Laser Direct Deposition%激光直接堆积成形铜合金的组织及性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永忠; 章萍芝; 石力开; 程晶; 徐骏; 席明哲

    2001-01-01

    Based upon the mechanism of rapid prototyping,copper alloy components with complicated shape were directed deposited on base table through laser melting metallic powders which were delivered coaxially.The obtained microstructure is fully dense and evenly distributed.The mechanical properties are somewhat higher than that for casting,and meet the requirement for real usage.%基于快速成型原理,采用激光熔化同轴输送的铜合金粉末,在沉积基板上直接制备出具有一定复杂外形的零件。零件组织致密,成分均匀,力学性能较铸态有所提高,能满足直接使用的性能要求。

  13. Research on the Characteristics of Wall Rock Alteration and Ore Fabric of Shizishan Copper Deposit, Yimeng, Yunnan%云南易门狮子山铜矿床围岩蚀变岩相与矿石组构特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雪山

    2013-01-01

    云南省易门狮子山铜矿床为昆阳裂谷典型的沉积-改造型铜矿床之一.矿床深部铜矿化与围岩蚀变有关,碳酸岩化与铜矿化关系密切.硅质白云岩类型铜矿体,矿石构造以脉状构造、浸染状构造为主;飘带矿矿石构造以层状构造为主.白云岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较细,为斑铜矿和黄铜矿;板岩型铜矿中金属颗粒较粗,为黄铜矿和黄铁矿.矿石化学成分具有高Si、Ca、Mg的特点,落雪组