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Sample records for copper compounds

  1. Nanoscale Copper and Copper Compounds for Advanced Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Juann

    2016-12-01

    Copper has been in use for at least 10,000 years. Copper alloys, such as bronze and brass, have played important roles in advancing civilization in human history. Bronze artifacts date at least 6500 years. On the other hand, discovery of intriguing properties and new applications in contemporary technology for copper and its compounds, particularly on nanoscale, have continued. In this paper, examples for the applications of Cu and Cu alloys for advanced device applications will be given on Cu metallization in microelectronics devices, Cu nanobats as field emitters, Cu2S nanowire array as high-rate capability and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries, Cu-Te nanostructures for field-effect transistor, Cu3Si nanowires as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers, single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high-efficiency solar cell, multilevel Cu2S resistive memory, superlattice Cu2S-Ag2S heterojunction diodes, and facet-dependent Cu2O diode.

  2. COPPER RESISTANT STRAIN CANDIDA TROPICALIS RomCu5 INTERACTION WITH SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE COPPER COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ie. P. Prekrasna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study was interaction of Candida tropicalis RomCu5 isolated from highland Ecuador ecosystem with soluble and insoluble copper compounds. Strain C. tropicalis RomCu5 was cultured in a liquid medium of Hiss in the presence of soluble (copper citrate and CuCl2 and insoluble (CuO and CuCO3 copper compounds. The biomass growth was determined by change in optical density of culture liquid, composition of the gas phase was measured on gas chromatograph, redox potential and pH of the culture fluid was defined potentiometrically. The concentration of soluble copper compounds was determined colorimetrically. Maximal permissible concentration of Cu2+ for C. tropicalis RomCu5 was 30 000 ppm of Cu2+ in form of copper citrate and 500 ppm of Cu2+ in form of CuCl2. C. tropicalis was metabolically active at super high concentrations of Cu2+, despite the inhibitory effect of Cu2+. C. tropicalis immobilized Cu2+ in the form of copper citrate and CuCl2 by it accumulation in the biomass. Due to medium acidification C. tropicalis dissolved CuO and CuCO3. High resistance of C. tropicalis to Cu2+ and ability to interact with soluble and insoluble copper compounds makes it biotechnologically perspective.

  3. Thermoluminescence in some copper-doped compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.R.; Moharil, S.V.; Dhopte, S.M.; Muthal, P.L.; Kondawar, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) in various Cu + -doped materials is studied. A good correlation between the presence of copper in the Cu + form and TL sensitivity is observed. Correlation between TL emission spectra and photoluminescence suggests that Cu + acts as the emission center in the TL process. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Superconductivity in copper-oxygen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackl, Rudi [Walther-Meissner-Inst. der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The discovery of superconductors on copper-oxygen basis in 1986 was one of the most celebrated events in condensed matter physics. The maximal transition temperature T{sub c} close to 150 K was observed in HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8+{delta}} at high pressure. In spite of enormous progress in both the experimental knowledge and theoretical understanding, the origin of the high T{sub c} remains elusive. Although the materials properties require unexpectedly complicated technical solutions several applications have been commercialized. (orig.)

  5. Unusual Features of Crystal Structures of Some Simple Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Bodie

    2009-01-01

    Some simple copper compounds have unusual crystal structures. Cu[subscript 3]N is cubic with N atoms at centers of octahedra formed by 6 Cu atoms. Cu[subscript 2]O (cuprite) is also cubic; O atoms are in tetrahedra formed by 4 Cu atoms. These tetrahedra are linked by sharing vertices forming two independent networks without linkages between them.…

  6. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Oxy-Alkynylation of Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durga Prasad; Waser, Jerome

    2017-06-28

    Enantioselective catalytic methods allowing the addition of both a nucleophile and an electrophile onto diazo compounds give a fast access into important building blocks. Herein, we report the highly enantioselective oxyalkynylation of diazo compounds using ethynylbenziodoxol-(on)e reagents and a simple copper bisoxazoline catalyst. The obtained α-benzoyloxy propargylic esters are useful building blocks, which are difficult to synthesize in enantiopure form using other methods. The obtained products could be efficiently transformed into vicinal diols and α-hydroxy propargylic esters without loss in enantiopurity.

  7. Effects on Tomato Bacterial Canker of Resistance Inducers and Copper Compounds in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Baştaş, Kubilay

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. In this study, the effectiveness of some chemicals, a plant growth regulator (Prohexadione-Ca (PC)), two plant activators (hydrogen peroxide (HP)) and harpin protein (Hrp), fungicides, maneb+copper (MC), copper compounds (copper sulfate pentahydrate (CSP) copper hydroxide (CH) and copper oxychloride (CO)) an...

  8. Thermophysical properties of copper compounds in copper-chlorine thermochemical water splitting cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfirescu, C.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relevant thermophysical properties of compounds of chlorine and copper that are found in thermochemical water splitting cycles. There are four variants of such Cu-Cl cycles that use heat and electricity to split the water molecule and produce H 2 and O 2 . Since the energy input is mainly in the form of thermal energy, the Cu-Cl water splitting cycle is much more efficient than water electrolysis, if the electricity generation efficiency for electrolysis is taken into account. A number of copper compounds (Cu 2 OCl 2 , CuO, CuCl 2 , CuCl) and other chemicals (Cu, HCl) are recycled within the plant, while the overall effect is splitting of the water molecule. The system includes a number of chemical reactors, heat exchangers, spray dryer and electrochemical cell. This paper identifies the available experimental data for properties of copper compounds relevant to the Cu-Cl cycle analysis and design. It also develops new regression formulas to correlate the properties, which include: specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, density, formation enthalpy and free energy. No past literature data is available for the viscosity and thermal conductivity of molten CuCl, so estimates are provided. The properties are evaluated at 1 bar and a range of temperatures from ambient to 675-1000K, which are consistent with the operating conditions of the cycle. Updated calculations of chemical exergies are provided as follows: 21.08, 6.268, 82.474, and 75.0 kJ/mol for Cu 2 OCl 2 , CuO, CuCl 2 and CuCl, respectively. For molten CuCl, the estimated viscosity varies from 2.6 to 1.7mPa.s. (author)

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Copper System Compound Semiconductor Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper system compound semiconductor solar cells were produced by a spin-coating method, and their cell performance and structures were investigated. Copper indium disulfide- (CIS- based solar cells with titanium dioxide (TiO2 were produced on F-doped SnO2 (FTO. A device based on an FTO/CIS/TiO2 structure provided better cell performance compared to that based on FTO/TiO2/CIS structure. Cupric oxide- (CuO- and cuprous oxide- (Cu2O- based solar cells with fullerene (C60 were also fabricated on FTO and indium tin oxide (ITO. The microstructure and cell performance of the CuO/C60 heterojunction and the Cu2O:C60 bulk heterojunction structure were investigated. The photovoltaic devices based on FTO/CuO/C60 and ITO/Cu2O:C60 structures provided short-circuit current density of 0.015 mAcm−2 and 0.11 mAcm−2, and open-circuit voltage of 0.045 V and 0.17 V under an Air Mass 1.5 illumination, respectively. The microstructures of the active layers were examined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Electrochemical properties of copper-based compounds with polyanion frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Hata, Shoma; Suzuki, Kota; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji, E-mail: kanno@echem.titech.ac.jp

    2016-03-15

    The copper-based polyanion compounds Li{sub 6}CuB{sub 4}O{sub 10} and Li{sub 2}CuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} were synthesized using a conventional solid-state reaction, and their electrochemical properties were determined. Li{sub 6}CuB{sub 4}O{sub 10} showed reversible capacity of 340 mA g{sup −1} at the first discharge–charge process, while Li{sub 2}CuP{sub 2}O{sub 7} showed large irreversible capacity and thus low charge capacity. Ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements revealed that the electrochemical Li{sup +} intercalation/deintercalation reaction in Li{sub 6}CuB{sub 4}O{sub 10} occurred via reversible Cu{sup 2+}/Cu{sup +} reduction/oxidation reaction. These differences in their discharge/charge mechanisms are discussed based on the strength of the Cu–O covalency via their inductive effects. - Graphical abstract: Electrochemical properties for Cu-based polyanion compounds were investigated. The electrochemical reaction mechanisms are strongly affected by their Cu–O covalentcy. - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of Cu-based polyanion compounds were investigated. • The Li{sup +} intercalation/deintercalation reaction progressed in Li{sub 6}CuB{sub 4}O{sub 10}. • The electrochemical displacement reaction progressed in Li{sub 2}CuP{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • The strength of Cu–O covalency affects the reaction mechanism.

  11. Neutral Red versus MTT assay of cell viability in the presence of copper compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Perez, Mariela; Fourcade, Lyvia; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru; Paquin, Joanne

    2017-10-15

    Copper is essential for numerous physiological functions, and copper compounds may display therapeutic as well as cytotoxic effects. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay is a standard test largely used in cytotoxicity studies. This report shows that low micromolar levels of copper compounds such as Cu(II)Urea 2 , Cu(II)Ser 2 and CuCl 2 can interfere with the MTT assay making improper the detection of formazan product of MTT reduction. Comparatively, the Neutral Red assay appears to be sensitive and showing no interference with these compounds. The lactate dehydrogenase alternative assay cannot be used because of inhibitory effect of these copper compounds on the enzyme activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dextran-Catechin: An anticancer chemically-modified natural compound targeting copper that attenuates neuroblastoma growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorio, Orazio; Brandl, Miriam; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Kimpton, Kathleen; Hinde, Elizabeth; Gaus, Katharina; Yee, Eugene; Kumar, Naresh; Duong, Hien; Fleming, Claudia; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray; Boyer, Cyrille; Kavallaris, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is frequently diagnosed at advanced stage disease and treatment includes high dose chemotherapy and surgery. Despite the use of aggressive therapy survival rates are poor and children that survive their disease experience long term side effects from their treatment, highlighting the need for effective and less toxic therapies. Catechin is a natural polyphenol with anti-cancer properties and limited side effects, however its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we report that Dextran-Catechin, a conjugated form of catechin that increases serum stability, is preferentially and markedly active against neuroblastoma cells having high levels of intracellular copper, without affecting non-malignant cells. Copper transporter 1 (CTR1) is the main transporter of copper in mammalian cells and it is upregulated in neuroblastoma. Functional studies showed that depletion of CTR1 expression reduced intracellular copper levels and led to a decrease in neuroblastoma cell sensitivity to Dextran-Catechin, implicating copper in the activity of this compound. Mechanistically, Dextran-Catechin was found to react with copper, inducing oxidative stress and decreasing glutathione levels, an intracellular antioxidant and regulator of copper homeostasis. In vivo, Dextran-Catechin significantly attenuated tumour growth in human xenograft and syngeneic models of neuroblastoma. Thus, Dextran-Catechin targets copper, inhibits tumour growth, and may be valuable in the treatment of aggressive neuroblastoma and other cancers dependent on copper for their growth. PMID:27374085

  13. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  14. A novel compound cleaning solution for benzotriazole removal after copper CMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhangbing; Liu Yuling; Gao Baohong; Wang Chenwei; Deng Haiwen

    2015-01-01

    After the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process, the copper surface is contaminated by a mass of particles (e.g. silica) and organic residues (e.g. benzotriazole), which could do great harm to the integrated circuit, so post-CMP cleaning is essential. In particular, benzotriazole (BTA) forms a layer of Cu-BTA film with copper on the surface, which leads to a hydrophobic surface of copper. So an effective cleaning solution is needed to remove BTA from the copper surface. In this work, a new compound cleaning solution is designed to solve two major problems caused by BTA: one is removing BTA and the other is copper surface corrosion that is caused by the cleaning solution. The cleaning solution is formed of alkaline chelating agent (FA/O II type), which is used to remove BTA, and a surfactant (FA/O I type), which is used as a corrosion inhibitor. BTA removal is characterized by contact angle measurements and electrochemical techniques. The inhibiting corrosion ability of the surfactant is also characterized by electrochemical techniques. The proposed compound cleaning solution shows advantages in removing BTA without corroding the copper surface. (paper)

  15. Evaluation of low copper content antifouling paints containing natural phenolic compounds as bioactive additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Blustein, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is the most commonly used biocide in antifouling paints. However, copper has harmful effects not only on the fouling community but also on non-target species. In the current study, we investigated the use of thymol, eugenol and guaiacol in this role combined with small quantities of copper. Phenolic compounds were tested for anti-settlement activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and for their toxicity to nauplius larvae. Thymol, eugenol and guaiacol were active for anti-settlement but guaiacol had the disadvantage of being toxic to nauplius larvae. However, all of them showed therapeutic ratio>1. Antifouling paints with thymol (low copper content/thymol, LCP/T), eugenol (low copper content/eugenol, LCP/E) and guaiacol (low copper content/guaiacol, LCP/G) combined with small copper content were formulated for field trials. After 12 months exposure in the sea, statistical analysis revealed that LCP/T and LCP/E paints were the most effective combinations and had similar performances to control paints with high copper content (traditional cuprous oxide based paints). In contrast, LCP/G paint was only partially effective in preventing and inhibiting biofouling and was colonized by some hard and soft foulers. However, this antifouling paint was effective against calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans. In the light of various potential applications, thymol, eugenol and guaiacol have thus to be considered in future antifouling formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fracton pairing mechanism for unconventional superconductors: Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Self-assembling organic polymers and copper-oxide compounds are two classes of unconventional superconductors, whose challenging behavior does not comply with the traditional picture of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductivity in regular crystals. In this paper, we propose a theoretical...... or holes) exchange fracton excitations, quantum oscillations of fractal lattices that mimic the complex microscopic organization of the unconventional superconductors. For the copper oxides, the superconducting transition temperature T-c as predicted by the fracton mechanism is of the order of similar to......150 K. We suggest that the marginal ingredient of the high-temperature superconducting phase is provided by fracton coupled holes that condensate in the conducting copper-oxygen planes owing to the intrinsic field-effect-transistor configuration of the cuprate compounds. For the gate...

  17. Copper(I) coordination compounds with closododecaborate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinina, E.A.; Drozdova, V.V.; Mustyatsa, V.N.; Goeva, L.V.; Polyakova, I.N.; Votinova, N.A.; Zhizhin, K.Yu.; Kuznetsov, N.T.

    2006-01-01

    Cu(I) Complexes with closo-dodecaborate anion Cat[CuB 12 H 12 ], where Cat= Cs + , Ph 4 P + , Ph 4 As + , R x NH 4-x + (R=Me, Et, Pr, Bu, X=3-4) are synthesized. Synthesis of complexes was conducted in the copper(II) salt-salt of dodecaborate anion-sulfur dioxide (sodium sulfite) system. Structure of the complex [Cu 2 (NCCH 3 ) 4 B 12 H 12 ] assigned by X-ray structural analysis discloses that B 12 H 12 2- anion enters into the inner sphere of metal-complexing agent, and connection of closo-borate ligand with the metal is caused by the formation of three-centric metal-hydrogen-boron bonds [ru

  18. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  19. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  20. The effect of silicon addition to the interfilamentary copper on Jc, compound formation and interdiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Gregory, E.; Zeitlin, B.A.; Faase, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the reasons why high critical current density is difficult to achieve in fine filament Nb-Ti superconducting wire is that a reaction occurs between the copper matrix and Nb-Ti filaments. A diffusion barrier around each filament was introduced in the processing of fine filament wire in order to achieve J c values close to the intrinsic ones. One study of diffusional reaction rates through the Nb barrier has indicated that, for typical SSC composites, a barrier area of 4% and 9% is necessary for producing 6 μm and 2.5 μm diameter filaments respectively. Consequently, if diffusional interactions can be eliminated without adding a large volume of barrier material, it is possible to achieve higher J c 's at lower cost. Another limitation on the J c in fine filament Nb-Ti superconducting wire results from the mismatch in mechanical properties of Nb-Ti filaments and copper matrix at high wave strains. The hardness and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Nb-Ti filaments increase with increasing amount of the cold work and no UTS saturation has been seen, whereas the UTS of copper saturates. An improper filament array also adversely affects J c , but this can be resolved by changing the filament distribution geometry, i.e., by reducing the interfilamentary spacing. Improving mechanical strength of copper matrix is important for reducing the amount of fine filament sausaging. Recently, in work that was primarily directed towards the development of material for ac applications, it was reported that, when silicon is added to the copper matrix, the formation of intermetallic compounds can be greatly reduced. Cu-Si alloy also has mechanical properties more compatible with NbTi than copper. If the above results can be verified, the technique can probably be applied to the manufacture of high J c SSC type conductors and large filamentary NbTi superconductor materials for general use

  1. Luminescence properties of copper(I), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds with picoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan Grzegorz, E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl; Maroń, Anna

    2017-06-15

    Mononuclear coordination compounds of copper(I) – [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(picoline)(NO{sub 3})], zinc(II) – [ZnCl{sub 2}(picoline){sub 2}] (picoline=3– and 4–methylpyridine) and polymeric cadmium(II) – [CdCl{sub 2}(β-picoline){sub 2}]{sub n} were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed distorted tetrahedral geometry around the central ions of the compounds. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. The emission of copper(I) compounds originated from metal-to-ligand charge transfer state combined with nitrato-to-picoline charge transfer state i.e. ({sup 1}(M+X)LCT). The presence of nitrato ligand in the coordination sphere of copper(I) compounds quenches the emission. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution). - Graphical abstract: Coordination compounds of copper(I), zinc(II) and polymeric cadmium(II) with picoline ligands were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. Emission of copper(I) compounds originated from {sup 1}(M+X)LCT state. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution).

  2. Effects of Copper-based Compounds, Antibiotics and a Plant Activator on Population Sizes and Spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Greenhouse Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Milijašević

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin and a plant activator (ASM significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomatoseedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the region most distant from the inoculumfocus. Copper hydroxide mixed with streptomycin significantly limited the pathogen population, compared with copper hydroxide alone, the other copper-based compounds, ASM and kasugamycin. However, combining streptomycin with copper hydroxide did notcontribute to its greater efficacy against the pathogen population. Copper-based compounds, in general, were less effective in limiting pathogen population sizes than the other treatments in all three sampling regions, primarily copper oxychloride and the combinationof copper hydroxide and mancozeb. Among copper compounds, copper hydroxide was the most prominent in reducing the bacterial population, especially in the region closest to the inoculum focus, while its combination with mancozeb did not improve the effects. Kasugamycin significantly limited pathogen population size, compared to copper bactericides, but it was less effective than the other antibiotic compound, i.e. streptomycin. The plant activator ASM significantly reduced population density, and it was more effectivewhen used three days prior to inoculation than six days before inoculation.

  3. Copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization-oxygenation of thiocarbonyl compounds using molecular oxygen: an efficient method for the preparation of oxygen isotopically labeled carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibahara, Fumitoshi; Suenami, Aiko; Yoshida, Atsunori; Murai, Toshiaki

    2007-06-21

    A novel copper-catalyzed oxidative desulfurization reaction of thiocarbonyl compounds, using molecular oxygen as an oxidant and leading to formation of carbonyl compounds, has been developed, and the utility of the process is demonstrated by its application to the preparation of a carbonyl-18O labeled sialic acid derivative.

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Oxy-Alkynylation of Diazo Compounds with Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Durga Prasad; Waser, Jerome

    2016-02-24

    Alkynes have found widespread applications in synthetic chemistry, biology, and materials sciences. In recent years, methods based on electrophilic alkynylation with hypervalent iodine reagents have made acetylene synthesis more flexible and efficient, but they lead to the formation of one equivalent of an iodoarene as side-product. Herein, a more efficient strategy involving a copper-catalyzed oxy-alkynylation of diazo compounds with ethynylbenziodoxol(on)e (EBX) reagents is described, which proceeds with generation of nitrogen gas as the only waste. This reaction is remarkable for its broad scope in both EBX reagents and diazo compounds. In addition, vinyl diazo compounds gave enynes selectively as single geometric isomers. The functional groups introduced during the transformation served as easy handles to access useful building blocks for synthetic and medicinal chemistry.

  5. Behavior of [185W]thiotungstates injected into sheep and the influence of copper: their fate and the effect of the compounds upon plasma copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.; Mulryan, G.; Lamand, M.; LaFarge, C.

    1989-01-01

    [185W]trithio- and tetrathiotungstates (0.5 mg W) were injected intravenously into sheep. The compounds circulated in plasma bound reversibly to plasma proteins, particularly to albumin. After the first few minutes, levels declined exponentially with a T 1/2 of 12-14 hr. The initial movement of [185W]trithiotungstate from the plasma compartment was delayed transiently by the immediate injection of copper (2-6 mg); the longer-term metabolism was unaffected. The final fate of the compounds appeared to be hydrolysis and excretion in urine as [185W]tungstate. 185W from [185W]trithiotungstate appeared more rapidly than from [185W]tetrathiotungstate, but in both the rate was unaffected by copper injections. Since the appearance in urine did not correspond to the disappearance from plasma, it was suggested that the hydrolysis occurred in extravascular tissues and that the liver might be the site. A control experiment showed that [185W]tungstate in plasma was very rapidly cleared (and appeared in urine). At higher W levels (25-50 mg W per sheep per day), systematic copper metabolism was perturbed since plasma copper levels rose. The experiments demonstrated that in sheep the behavior and the effects of thiotungstates and thiomolybdates are sufficiently similar for 185W to be used as a more convenient alternative to 99Mo for longer-term studies on the interaction of the compounds with copper metabolism in animals

  6. Corrosion inhibition properties of pyrazolylindolenine compounds on copper surface in acidic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadi Mehdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corrosion inhibition performance of pyrazolylindolenine compounds, namely 4-(3,3-dimethyl-3H-indol-2-yl-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide (InPzTAm, 4-(3,3-dimethyl-3H-indol-2-yl-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothiohydrazide (InPzTH and 3,3-dimethyl-2-(1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl-3H-indole (InPzPh, on copper in 1M HCl solution is investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, open circuit potential (OCP and linear scan voltammetry (LSV techniques. Results The results show that the corrosion rate of copper is diminished by the compounds with the inhibition strength in the order of: InPzTAm> InPzTH > InPzPh. The corrosion inhibition efficiencies for the three inhibitors are 94.0, 91.4 and 79.3, for InPzTAm, InPzTH and InPzPh respectively with the same inhibitor concentration (2 mM. Conclusion From the EIS, OCP and LSV results it was concluded that pyrazolylindolenine compounds with S-atom (with an amine group have illustrated better corrosion inhibition performance compared to hydrazine and phenyl group.

  7. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric behaviour of copper complexes of some heterocyclic azo compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, P A; Ferreira, S L; Ohara, A K; Bastos, M B; Goulart, M S

    1992-10-01

    Controlled adsorptive accumulation of copper complexed with TAN, TAC, TAR and TAM (heterocyclic azo-compounds) on a static mercury drop electrode provides the basis for the direct stripping measurement of this element in the nanomolar concentration level. The ligand TAN exhibited great sensitivity and better separation of the peak current of the ligand in relation to the complex. The reduction current of adsorbed complex ions of copper is measured by linear scan cathodic stripping voltammetry, preceded by a period of accumulation of a few minutes. The peak potential is at approximately -0.37 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Optimal experimental parameters were found to be a TAN concentration of 1 x 10(-5)M, an accumulation potential of -0.22 V, and a solution pH of 3.7 (acetate buffer). The detection limit is 0.8nM after a 5-min accumulation with a stirred solution, and the response is linear up to 50 mug/l. Many common cations and anions do not interfere in the determination of copper. The interference of titanium is eliminated by addition of fluoride ion. Results are reported for a fresh water sample.

  8. Effects of copper-based compounds, antibiotics and a plant activator on population sizes and spread of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in greenhouse tomato seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Milijašević Svetlana; Todorović Biljana; Potočnik Ivana; Rekanović Emil; Stepanović Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Three copper-based compounds (copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate), two antibiotics (streptomycin and kasugamycin) and a plant activator (ASM) significantly reduced population sizes and spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis among tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. Streptomycin had the best effect in reducing pathogen population size in all sampling regions. Moreover, this antibiotic completely stopped the spread of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in the regi...

  9. Atomic absorption determination of iron and copper impurities in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyukova, Yu.V.; Kravchenko, J.B.; Kucher, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    An extraction atomic absorption method for the determination of copper and iron impurities in rare earth compounds has been developed. The extraction separation of determined elements as hydroxy quinolinates with isobuthyl alcohol was used. It increased the sensitivity of these element determination and excluded the effect of the analysed sample. Cu, Te, Zn, Bi, Sn, In, Ga, Tl and the some other elements can be determined at pH 2.0-3.0 but rare earths are remained in an aqueous phase. The condition of the flame combustion does not change during the introduction of isobutyl extract but the sensitivity of the determination of the elements increased 2-3 times. The limit of Fe determination is 0.01 mg/ml and the limit of Cu determination is 0.014 mg/ml

  10. Thermodynamic properties of copper compounds with oxygen and hydrogen from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhavyi, P.A.; Johansson, B.

    2010-02-01

    We employ quantum-mechanical calculations (based on density functional theory and linear response theory) in order to test the mechanical and chemical stability of several solid-state configurations of Cu 1+ , Cu 2+ , O 2- , H 1- , and H 1+ ions. We begin our analysis with cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O, cuprite structure), cupric oxide (CuO, tenorite structure), and cuprous hydride (CuH, wurtzite and sphalerite structures) whose thermodynamic properties have been studied experimentally. In our calculations, all these compounds are found to be mechanically stable configurations. Their formation energies calculated at T = 0 K (including the energy of zero-point and thermal motion of the ions) and at room temperature are in good agreement with existing thermodynamic data. A search for other possible solid-state conformations of copper, hydrogen, and oxygen ions is then performed. Several candidate structures for solid phases of cuprous oxy-hydride (Cu 4 H 2 O) and cupric hydride (CuH 2 ) have been considered but found to be dynamically unstable. Cuprous oxy-hydride is found to be energetically unstable with respect to decomposition onto cuprous oxide and cuprous hydride. Metastability of cuprous hydroxide (CuOH) is established in our calculations. The free energy of CuOH is calculated to be some 50 kJ/mol higher than the average of the free energies of Cu 2 O and water. Thus, cuprite Cu 2 O is the most stable of the examined Cu(I) compounds

  11. Weight loss studies of fastener materials corrosion in contact with timbers treated with copper azole and alkaline copper quaternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kear, Gareth [Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) Ltd., Science and Engineering Services, Private Bag 50 908, Porirua City 5240 (New Zealand)], E-mail: G.Kear@soton.ac.uk; Wu Haizhen; Jones, Mark S. [Building Research Association of New Zealand (BRANZ) Ltd., Science and Engineering Services, Private Bag 50 908, Porirua City 5240 (New Zealand)

    2009-02-15

    Corrosion rates of mild steel, AISI 316 stainless steel and hot-dipped galvanised steel in contact with preservative-treated Pinus radiata have been determined using four distinct accelerated (49 {+-} 1 deg. C) and non-accelerated (21 {+-} 2 deg. C) weight loss methodologies. The data were measured as a function of timber moisture content and copper concentration over periods of exposure ranging from 2 weeks to 14 months. The results show that the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel was not influenced by classification or magnitude of preservative loading. Corrosion rates of this material were multiple orders of magnitude lower than those of the mild and galvanised steels. In most instances, corrosion rates of hot-dipped galvanised layers in contact with alkaline copper quaternary-treated timbers were up to a factor of 10 times, or greater, than those measured for copper-chrome-arsenate treatments. A direct negative influence of copper ion concentration on the corrosion resistance of mild steel was also observed for each preservative type.

  12. A novel asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper compound: Synthesis, supramolecular structure and magnetic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Du, Ke-Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Xue-Li; Nie, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    A new polynuclear Cu(II) compound, [Cu4(bpy)4(OH)4(H2O)(BTC)]NO3·8H2O (1), was prepared by self-assembly from the solution of copper(II) nitrate and two kinds of ligands, 2,2‧-bipyridine (bpy) and benzene-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC). Single crystal structure analysis reveals that 1 features a rare asymmetric chair-like hydroxyl-bridged tetra-copper cluster: [Cu4(OH)4] core along with one H2O and one BTC3- occupied each terminal coordinated site. In addition, the magnetic property has been investigated.

  13. Ionic compounds lamination reaction and characteristics of photosensitive copper indium sulfide on titania nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Horng-Yi, E-mail: hychang@mail.ntou.edu.tw [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, Wei-Jei [Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Syh-Yuh [Ceramic Microengineering Laboratory, Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung 31060, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Only good photocurrent density under UV irradiation for TiO{sub 2} (or TiCl{sub 4}) modified titania nanotubes (T-TNAs) demonstrates the response to visible light actually due to the CuInS{sub 2} photosensitivity on T-TNAs. > The suitable CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) film thickness can be completed to achieve the well crystallinity, coverage and high photosensitivity of CIS by combining the precursor concentration with deposition cycles. > An n-type CIS with a lower band gap (<1.5 eV) extending the absorption of the large solar spectrum into the infra-red range demonstrates the inorganic CIS potentially instead of organic dye to use in photosensitive solar cells by simple ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) process. - Abstract: This study investigates using an inorganic photosensitive CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) coating instead of an organic dye on TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs). The stoichiometric characteristics by use of various deposition parameters such as precursor concentrations (0.1 M, 0.05 M, and 0.01 M) and deposition cycles (1-60 cycles) are then analyzed in relation to the crystallinity and photosensitivity. TNAs are synthesized by anodic oxidation of Ti metal, modified by the TiO{sub 2} film, and are subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C for 30 min, producing what are named T-TNAs. They show high photocatalytic efficiency and photosensitivity under UV-illumination. The photosensitive CIS coatings on the T-TNAs are processed by an ionic compounds lamination reaction (ICLR) method. The more immersion cycles and the higher the precursor concentration of copper sulfide, the more CIS peeled off as precipitates formed, which result in less indium sulfide deposition being required for reacting with the copper sulfide to reach stoichiometry. Near stoichiometric CIS can be obtained by controlling the precursor concentration and deposition cycles of the ICLR process. Good crystallinity and n-type characteristics are achieved by controlling

  14. Thermodynamic properties of copper compounds with oxygen and hydrogen from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhavyi, P.A.; Johansson, B. (Applied Materials Physics, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    We employ quantum-mechanical calculations (based on density functional theory and linear response theory) in order to test the mechanical and chemical stability of several solid-state configurations of Cu1+, Cu2+, O2-, H1-, and H1+ ions. We begin our analysis with cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O, cuprite structure), cupric oxide (CuO, tenorite structure), and cuprous hydride (CuH, wurtzite and sphalerite structures) whose thermodynamic properties have been studied experimentally. In our calculations, all these compounds are found to be mechanically stable configurations. Their formation energies calculated at T = 0 K (including the energy of zero-point and thermal motion of the ions) and at room temperature are in good agreement with existing thermodynamic data. A search for other possible solid-state conformations of copper, hydrogen, and oxygen ions is then performed. Several candidate structures for solid phases of cuprous oxy-hydride (Cu{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) and cupric hydride (CuH{sub 2}) have been considered but found to be dynamically unstable. Cuprous oxy-hydride is found to be energetically unstable with respect to decomposition onto cuprous oxide and cuprous hydride. Metastability of cuprous hydroxide (CuOH) is established in our calculations. The free energy of CuOH is calculated to be some 50 kJ/mol higher than the average of the free energies of Cu{sub 2}O and water. Thus, cuprite Cu{sub 2}O is the most stable of the examined Cu(I) compounds

  15. Analysis of uranium and of some of its compounds and alloys. Copper spectrophotometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper determination in uranium, uranium oxides (UO 2 , UO 3 , U 3 O 8 ), ammonium diuranate, U-Al-Fe alloy (700 ppm Al and 300 ppm Fe) and U-Mo alloy (1.1 percent Mo) by acid dissolution reduction of copper by hydroxylamine hydrochloride and formation of a complex with diquinolyle-2,2' amyl alcohol (pH value 6 to 7) and spectrophotometry at 550 nm. The method is applicable for copper content between 5 to 40 ppm in respect of uranium contained in the material [fr

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the Ambient Air Of Concentration Unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Zrandi, A.; Akhgar, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollutants including gases, vapors and particles, are emitted from different sources. Volatile organic compounds are the most important pollutants in the ambient air of industries. The present study was carried out to identify and measurement of volatile organic compounds in concentration unit of Sar-Cheshmeh Copper Complex. In this study, sampling of the volatile organic compounds was done by using activated charcoal tube. To identify and measure these compounds gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy were used. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were identified in the ambient air of concentration unit. Among these compounds, the mean value and maximum concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane were 255, 640 μg/m3 and 1577, 14400 μg/m3, respectively. By using SPSS software and independent sample t- test, showed that there were no significant difference between mean value concentration of isopropyl alcohol and nonane in the ambient air and TLV values of these compounds (isopropyl alcohol; 200 ppm and nonane; 200 ppm) (P >0.05).

  17. Phenolic compounds composition and physiological attributes of Matricaria chamomilla grown in copper excess

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováčik, J.; Grúz, Jiří; Bačkor, M.; Tomko, J.; Strnad, Miroslav; Repčák, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2008), s. 145-152 ISSN 0098-8472 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Cu * copper * DW * dry weight * GMCAs Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2008

  18. Charge and spin coupling in copper compounds with hemilabile noninnocent ligands – Ambivalence in three dimensions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaim, W.; Beyer, K.; Filippou, V.; Záliš, Stanislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 355, JAN 2018 (2018), s. 173-179 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17052 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : copper complexes * electronic structure * hemilabile ligands Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 13.324, year: 2016

  19. Probing the Intramolecular Metal-Selenoether Interaction in a Bis(iminosemiquinone) copper(II) Compound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubrin, M.; Paretzki, A.; Hübner, R.; Beyer, K.; Schwederski, B.; Neugebauer, P.; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 21 (2017), s. 1621-1627 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LTC17052 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : EPR spectroscopy * Molecular structure * Selenium ligand * Spectroelectrochemistry * Copper Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2016

  20. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, G.K.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu 6 Sn 5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux

  1. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  2. Copper isotope fractionation between aqueous compounds relevant to low temperature geochemistry and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moynier, Frédéric; Abe, Minori; Nemoto, Keisuke; Albarède, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Isotope fractionation between the common Cu species present in solution (Cu+, Cu2+, hydroxide, chloride, sulfide, carbonate, oxalate, and ascorbate) has been investigated using both ab initio methods and experimental solvent extraction techniques. In order to establish unambiguously the existence of equilibrium isotope fractionation (as opposed to kinetic isotope fractionation), we first performed laboratory-scale liquid-liquid distribution experiments. Upon exchange between HCl medium and a macrocyclic complex, the 65Cu/63Cu ratio fractionated by -1.06‰ to -0.39‰. The acidity dependence of the fractionation was appropriately explained by ligand exchange reactions between hydrated H2O and Cl- via intramolecular vibrations. The magnitude of the Cu isotope fractionation among important Cu ligands was also estimated by ab initio methods. The magnitude of the nuclear field shift effect to the Cu isotope fractionation represents only ˜3% of the mass-dependent fractionation. The theoretical estimation was expanded to chlorides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, and carbonates under different conditions of pH. Copper isotope fractionation of up to 2‰ is expected for different forms of Cu present in seawater and for different sediments (carbonates, hydroxides, and sulfides). We found that Cu in dissolved carbonates and sulfates is isotopically much heavier (+0.6‰) than free Cu. Isotope fractionation of Cu in hydroxide is minimal. The relevance of these new results to the understanding of metabolic processes was also discussed. Copper is an essential element used by a large number of proteins for electron transfer. Further theoretical estimates of δ65Cu in hydrated Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions, Cu(II) ascorbates, and Cu(II) oxalate predict Cu isotope fractionation during the breakdown of ascorbate into oxalate and account for the isotopically heavy Cu found in animal kidneys.

  3. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYL)ETHANONE N(4)-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilii GRAUR; Serghei SAVCIN; Victor TSAPKOV; Aurelian GULEA

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethanone N(4)-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L) and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 ce...

  4. Palladium- and copper-mediated N-aryl bond formation reactions for the synthesis of biological active compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Koenig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available N-Arylated aliphatic and aromatic amines are important substituents in many biologically active compounds. In the last few years, transition-metal-mediated N-aryl bond formation has become a standard procedure for the introduction of amines into aromatic systems. While N-arylation of simple aromatic halides by simple amines works with many of the described methods in high yield, the reactions may require detailed optimization if applied to the synthesis of complex molecules with additional functional groups, such as natural products or drugs. We discuss and compare in this review the three main N-arylation methods in their application to the synthesis of biologically active compounds: Palladium-catalysed Buchwald–Hartwig-type reactions, copper-mediated Ullmann-type and Chan–Lam-type N-arylation reactions. The discussed examples show that palladium-catalysed reactions are favoured for large-scale applications and tolerate sterically demanding substituents on the coupling partners better than Chan–Lam reactions. Chan–Lam N-arylations are particularly mild and do not require additional ligands, which facilitates the work-up. However, reaction times can be very long. Ullmann- and Buchwald–Hartwig-type methods have been used in intramolecular reactions, giving access to complex ring structures. All three N-arylation methods have specific advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting the reaction conditions for a desired C–N bond formation in the course of a total synthesis or drug synthesis.

  5. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Behavior of Two New Dinuclear Carbonato-Bridged Copper(II) Compounds. Superexchange Pathway for the Different Coordination Modes of the Carbonato Bridge in Polynuclear Copper(II) Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuer, Albert; Mautner, Franz A.; Peñalba, Evaristo; Vicente, Ramon

    1998-08-24

    Four new &mgr;-CO(3)(2-) copper(II) complexes with different coordination modes for the carbonato bridge have been obtained by fixation of atmospheric CO(2): {(&mgr;(3)-CO(3))[Cu(3)(ClO(4))(3)(Et(3)dien)(3)]}(ClO(4)) (1), Et(3)dien = N,N',N"-triethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine; {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(Et(4)dien)(2)]}(ClO(4))(2).H(2)O (2), Et(4)dien = N,N,N",N"-tetraethyl-bis(2-aminoethane)amine; {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(2)(EtMe(4)dien)(2)]} (ClO(4))(2).2H(2)O (3), EtMe(4)dien = N'-ethyl-N,N,N",N"-tetramethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine; and {(&mgr;-CO(3))[Cu(2)(H(2)O)(Me(5)dien)(2)]}(ClO(4))(2).H(2)O (4), Me(5)dien = N,N,N',N",N"-pentamethylbis(2-aminoethane)amine. The crystal structures have been solved for 2, monoclinic system, space group P2(1)/n, formula [C(25)H(62)Cl(2)Cu(2)N(6)O(13)] with a = 12.763(6) Å, b = 25.125(8) Å, c = 13.261(4) Å, beta = 111.85(3) degrees, Z = 4, and for 3, triclinic system, space group P&onemacr;, formula [C(21)H(58)Cl(2)Cu(2)N(6)O(15)] with a = 8.412(3) Å, b = 14.667(4) Å, c = 16.555(5) Å, alpha = 99.66(2) degrees, beta = 102.14(2) degrees, gamma = 104.72(2) degrees, Z = 2. Susceptibility measurements show ferromagnetic behavior (J = +6.7(6) cm(-)(1)) for the trinuclear compound 1 whereas 2-4 are antiferromagnetically coupled with J = -17.8(8), -125.5(9), and -21.2(3) cm(-)(1) respectively. Certain synthetic aspects that may be related to the nuclearity of the copper(II) &mgr;-CO(3)(2-) compounds and the superexchange pathway for the different coordination modes of the carbonato bridge are discussed.

  6. MBE growth of compounds on the copper rich side of the (Sr,Ca)CuO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eustache, B. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, Paris (France). Lab. Surfaces et Supraconducteurs]|[Wintici S.A., 17 Rue Jean Moulin, 94300, Paris (France); Beuran, F.C.; Hatterer, C.J.; Mairet, V.; Partiot, C.; Xu, X.Z.; Germain, P.; Lagues, M. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, Paris (France). Lab. Surfaces et Supraconducteurs; Deville Cavellin, C. [Universite Paris XII, 61 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil, Paris (France)

    1997-04-01

    Thin films belonging to the copper rich family in the (Sr,Ca)-Cu-O system have been synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) deposition. The growth conditions have been optimized on two different substrates, MgO (100) and SrTiO{sub 3} (100). We discuss in this paper the variations of the electron diffraction pattern (RHEED) during the growth. The films obtained present a single orientation with good crystallization. The average composition measured by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) is (Sr,Ca){sub 0.6}CuO{sub z}. This stoichiometry is close to the composition expected for the first members of the spin ladders homologous series Sr{sub n-1}Cu{sub n+1}O{sub 2n}. High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and X-ray diffraction measurements on a four circles diffractometer are in progress. Preliminary results confirm that the structure is consistent with spin-ladders structures. Typical room temperature resistivity is of the order of 0.5 m{Omega} cm. The search for superconducting properties in these compounds is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Separation of copper-64 from copper phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglin, R.I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of copper-64 from irradiated copper phthalocyanine by Szilard-Chalmers effect is studied. Two methods of separation are used: one of them is based on the dissolution of the irradiated dry compound in concentrated sulfuric acid following its precipitation in water. In the other one the compound is irradiated with water in paste form following treatment with water and hydrochloric acid. The influence of the crystal form of the copper phthalocyanine on the separation yield of copper-64 is shown. Preliminary tests using the ionic exchange technique for purification and changing of copper-64 sulfate to chloride form are carried out. The specific activity using the spectrophotometric technique, after the determination of the copper concentration in solution of copper-64, is calculated. (Author) [pt

  8. Occurrence of lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic compounds in atmospheric dusts, and the sources of these impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J T; Bloxam, H C.L.

    1933-06-30

    The authors indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal for industrial and electrical power causes the deposition of zinc, arsenic, copper, and lead which are then found in the dust and soots of most urban areas. They express the fear that these dusts, if not poisonous, may be expected to be injurious to the health of man, animals, and plants.

  9. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  10. Fabrication of new carbon paste electrodes based on gold nano-particles self-assembled to mercapto compounds as suitable ionophores for potentiometric determination of copper ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Pourtaghavi Talemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the potentiometric behavior of Cu2+ carbon paste electrodes based on two mercapto compounds 2-ethylmino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (EAMT and 2-acetylamino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AAMT self-assembled on gold nano-paricle (GNP as ionophore. Then, the obtained results from the modified electrodes are compared. The self-assembled ionophores exhibit a high selectivity for copper ion (Cu2+, in which the sulfur and nitrogen atoms in their structure play a significant role as the effective coordination donor site for the copper ion. Among these electrodes, the best performance was obtained with the sensor with a EAMT/graphite powder/paraffin oil weight ratio of 4.0/68/28 with 200 µL of GNP which exhibits the working concentration range of 1.6×10−9 to 6.3×10−2 M and a nernstian slope of 28.9±0.4 mVdecade−1 of copper(II activity. The detection limit of electrode was 2.9(±0.2×10−10M and potential response was pH ; in other words, it was independent across the range of 2.8–6.3. The proposed electrode presented very good selectivity and sensitivity towards the Cu2+ ions over a wide variety of cations including alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. Moreover, the proposed electrode was successfully applied as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Cu(II ions with EDTA and also the potentiometric determination of copper ions in spiked water samples.

  11. Influence of organic nitro-compounds and of surface active compounds on the inverse voltametric determination of cadmium, lead and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahdat, F; Neeb, R

    1983-12-01

    The influence of surface active agents and of organic nitro-compounds alone and in combination on the potentiometric stripping analysis and anodic-stripping differential-pulse-polarography of Cd, Pb and Cu is investigated. In some cases PSA offers advantages for the determination of these elements in the presence of organic nitro-compounds in comparison with differential pulse-polarography.

  12. Copper Powder and Chemicals: edited proceedings of a seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Various papers are presented covering the following topics: Status of Copper Chemical Industry in India, Copper Powder from Industrial Wastes, Manufacture of Copper Hydroxide and High Grade Cement Copper from Low Grade Copper Ore, Manufacture of Copper Sulphate as a By-Product, Hydrometallurgical Treatments of Copper Converter and Smelter Slage for Recovering Copper and other Non-Ferrous Metals, Recovery of Copper from Dilute Solutions, Use of Copper Compounds as Fungicides in India, Copper in Animal Husbandry, and Use of Copper Powder and Chemicals for Marine Applications. The keynote paper given at the Seminar was on Conservation of Copper for Better Use.

  13. Structure-dependent photophysical properties of singlet and triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer states in copper(I) bis(diimine) compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Zainul Abedin; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Ohno, Takeshi; Nozaki, Koichi

    2003-10-06

    The photophysical properties of singlet and triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states of [Cu(I)(diimine)(2)](+), where diimine is 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmphen), 2,9-dibutyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dbphen), or 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmbpy), were studied. On 400 nm laser excitation of [Cu(dmphen)(2)](+) in CH(2)Cl(2) solution, prompt (1)MLCT fluorescence with a quantum yield of (2.8 +/- 0.8) x 10(-5) was observed using a picosecond time-correlated single photon counting technique. The quantum yield was dependent on the excitation wavelength, suggesting that relaxation of the Franck-Condon state to the lowest (1)MLCT competes with rapid intersystem crossing (ISC). The fluorescence lifetime of the copper(I) compound was 13-16 ps, unexpectedly long despite a large spin-orbit coupling constant of 3d electrons in copper (829 cm(-1) ). Quantum chemical calculations using a density functional theory revealed that the structure of the lowest (1)MLCT in [Cu(dmphen)(2)](+) (1(1)B(1)) was flattened due to the Jahn-Teller effect in 3d(9) electronic configuration, and the dihedral angle between the two phenanthroline planes (dha) was about 75 degrees with the dha around 90 degrees in the ground state. Intramolecular reorganization energy for the radiative transition of 1(1)B(1) was calculated as 2.1 x 10(3) cm(-1), which is responsible for the large Stokes shift of the fluorescence observed (5.4 x 10(3) cm(-1)). To understand the sluggishness of the intersystem crossing (ISC) of (1)MLCT of the copper(I) compounds, the strength of the spin-orbit interaction between the lowest (1)MLCT (1(1)B(1)) and all (3)MLCT states was calculated. The ISC channels induced by strong spin-orbit interactions (ca. 300 cm(-1)) between the metal-centered HOMO and HOMO - 1 were shown to be energetically unfavorable in the copper(I) compounds because the flattening distortion caused large splitting (6.9 x 10(3) cm(-1)) between these orbitals. The possible ISC is therefore

  14. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; Van Hest, Maikel [Lakewood, CO; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Nekuda, Jennifer A [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  15. Preliminary Data on the In Vitro Effect of Copper-Based Compounds on Aerobic Bacterial Microflora Isolated from Sheep Footrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore CHIRILĂ

    2018-05-01

    The results demonstrated that 7 of the samples (58.33 % are sensitive to the product I, 6 samples (50% to the product III, 4 samples (33.33 % to the product 2 and the 0.5% Copper sulphate solution only has a bacteriostatic effect. In comparison to the two antibiotics, 9 samples (75 % are sensitive to enrofloxacin and only 5 samples (41.66 % to oxytetracycline. Regarding the associations of microorganisms in the samples with resistance, we have found that these are represented by the most common germs of genus Bacillus, Corynebacterium and Gram negative bacteria, and rarer associations with Micrococcus and Staphylococcus.

  16. [Effect of different soil types on the remediation of copper-pyrene compound contaminated soils by EK-oxidation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guang-Ping; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Zhou, Li-Xiang

    2011-11-01

    The effect of different soil types (red soil,yellow-brown soil and black soil) on the electrokinetic (EK)-oxidation remediation of heavy metals-organic pollutant contaminated soil was studied in laboratory-scale experiments. Copper and pyrene were chosen as model pollutant, and 12% H2O2, 10% hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and 0.01 mol x L(-1) NaNO3 solution were added into the anode and cathode cell. The applied voltage was 1 V x cm(-1). After 15 days of EK remediation, the removal rate of pyrene and copper in red soil, yellow-brown soil and black soil were 38.5%, 46.8%, 51.3% for pyrene and 85.0%, 22.6%, 24.1% for Cu, respectively. The high pH of black soil produced high electroosmotic flow and increased the exposure of oxidants and pollutants, meanwhile the low clay content was also conducive to the desorption of pyrene. The low pH and organic matter of red soil affected the chemical species distribution of Cu and increased its removal rate. It is concluded that soil pH, clay content and heavy metal speciation in soil are the dominant factors affecting the migration and removal efficiency of pollutants.

  17. Copper-chromium compounds formed in the preparation of a low-temperature water gas shift catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkina, V I; Salomatin, G I; Boevskaya, E A

    1978-12-01

    IR and X-ray phase analyses of commercial water gas shift catalyst samples prepared by mixing solid chromic anhydride, basic copper carbonate (malachite), aluminum hydroxide, and water at 70/sup 0/-100/sup 0/C and 0.35:1 to 1.2:1 ratio of water to solid components (R) showed the formation of a basic copper chromate (BCC) CuCrO/sub 4/-2CuO-2H/sub 2/O at 80/sup 0/C (any R) and at 100/sup 0/C and R Vertical Bar3: 1.2:1, but at 100/sup 0/C and lower R (especially at R 0.7:1), a different, unidentified phase was formed. The samples containing these two phases had different colors; the high-temperature, low-water phase showed lower thermal stability but higher catalytic activity than the BCC. The BCC catalyst samples contained less unreacted malachite and their IR spectra contained a 3100-3200/cm band characteristic of hydroxyls associated by hydrogen bonds, and more molecular water, suggesting the formation of a hydroxo-polymeric structured system.

  18. Coordination compounds of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) with pantothenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabilalov, A.A.; Yunuskhodzhaev, A.N.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Azizov, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The compounds Ni(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O (PANA stands for pantothenic acid, and - H indicates a deprotonated ligand), Cu(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, Zn(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O, Co(PANA - H)Cl x H/sub 2/O, and Ni(PANA - H)Cl x 3H/sub 2/O have been synthesized on the basis of pantothenic acid and Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts in aqueous media. The compounds have been identified by elemental and x-ray diffraction analysis. Some physicochemical properties (solubility, melting point, molar conductivity) of the compounds obtained have been studied. The structure of the compounds isolated has been established on the basis of an analysis of their IR, ESR, and electronic spectra, as well as derivatograms.

  19. Copper and silver halates

    CERN Document Server

    Woolley, EM; Salomon, M

    2013-01-01

    Copper and Silver Halates is the third in a series of four volumes on inorganic metal halates. This volume presents critical evaluations and compilations for halate solubilities of the Group II metals. The solubility data included in this volume are those for the five compounds, copper chlorate and iodate, and silver chlorate, bromate and iodate.

  20. Structures of the two new compounds distrontium copper(II) triselenite(IV) and distrontium copper(II) bis[hydrogenselenite(IV)] bisselenite(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effenberger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Sr 2 Cu(SeO 3 ) 3 , M r =619.68, triclinic, Panti 1, a=7.229(3), b=7.710(3), c=8.656(3) A, α=102.68(3), β=105.31(3), γ=96.12(3) 0 , V=447.0 A 3 , Z=2, D x =4.60 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ=26.0 mm -1 , F(000)=558, room temperature, R=0.033 for 3330 reflections up to 2θ=70 0 . Sr 2 Cu(SeO 2 OH) 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 , M r =748.65, triclinic, Panti 1, a=5.260(1), b=6.961(1), c=9.052(2) A, α=67.86(1), β=75.40(1), γ=80.41(1) 0 , V=296.6A 3 , Z=1, D x =4.19 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ=22.6 mm -1 , F(000)=339, room temperature, R=0.036 for 2362 reflections up to 2θ=70 0 . In the two compounds the Sr atoms are [8] and [9] coordinated (Sr-O=2.52 to 2.93 A), the Cu atoms have a tetragonal-pyramidal [4+1] and a square-planar [4] coordination, respectively. The distance Se-O h (1.80 A) is significantly longer than the other Se-O bonds (1.66 to 1.73 A). In Sr 2 Cu(SeO 3 ) 3 , the SrO 8 polyhedra form a three-dimensional network; in Sr 2 Cu(SeO 2 OH) 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 , the SrO 9 polyhedra are edge-linked to form sheets which are connected by CuO 4 squares, SeO 3 groups and the hydrogen bond (O-H...O=2.88 A). (orig.)

  1. Copper Leaching from Copper-ethanolamine Treated Wood: Comparison of Field Test Studies and Laboratory Standard Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Nejc Thaler; Miha Humar

    2014-01-01

    Copper-based compounds are some of the most important biocides for the protection of wood in heavy duty applications. In the past, copper was combined with chromium compounds to reduce copper leaching, but a recent generation of copper-based preservatives uses ethanolamine as a fixative. To elucidate the leaching of copper biocides from wood, Norway spruce (Picea abies) wood was treated with a commercial copper-ethanolamine solution with two different copper concentrations (cCu = 0.125% and 0...

  2. COMPOSITIONS BASED ON PALLADIUM(II AND COPPER(II COMPOUNDS, HALIDE IONS, AND BENTONITE FOR OZONE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Rakitskaya

    2017-05-01

    bromide ion. For Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, kinetic and calculation data show that, in the presence of bromide ions, copper(II inhibits the ozone decomposition. For Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition, it has been found that the maximum activity is attained at СPd(II = 1.02·10-5 mol/g. For bimetallic Pd(II- Cu(II-KBr/N-Bent composition, changes in τ0, τ1/2, k1/2, and Q1/2 parameters depending on a Pd(II content are similar to those for monometallic Pd(II-KBr/NBent composition; however, values of the parameters are higher for the monometallic system. Thus, the inhibiting effect of Cu(II is observed even in the presence of palladium(II.

  3. Inhibitory action of an heterocyclic organic compound containing amine group for copper corrosion in 5,0 M nitric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, M.M.; Abdallah, M. [Benha Univ., Benha (Egypt). Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science

    2000-10-01

    An heterocyclic organic compound containing amine group namely: 3-mercaptomethyl-4amino-5-hydroxy-1, 2, 4-triazole compound 1{sub a} was tested as a new inhibitor for copper corrosion in 5.0 M HNO{sub 3} solution. It proved to have a high value of inhibition efficiency (> 99.9%) at an inhibitor concentration of {>=} 2.5 x 10{sup -}3 M. A parallelism is established between the results obtained from weight loss, thermometric and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The high protective effect of compound I{sub a} is related to the decomposition of HNO{sub 2} formed through the autocatalytic cycle. The decomposition of HNO{sub 2} could be attributed to its reaction with the adsorbed inhibitor amine group. Furthermore, the results indicated that compound I{sub a} provides long-term protection and behaves as a mixed inhibitor type with a predominant cathodic effectiveness. [Italian] E' stato valutato, quale nuovo inibitore della corrosione del rame in soluzione 5.0 M di HNO{sub 3}, un composto organico eterociclico contenente un amino gruppo, chiamato: 3-mercaptometil-4amino-5-idrossi-1, 2, 4-triazolo composto I{sub a}. Questi, ad una concentrazione {>=} 2.5 x 10{sup -}3 M, ha dimostrato di possedere un elevato valore di efficienza di inibizione (> 99.9%). E' stato stabilito un parallelismo tra i risultati ottenuti dalla perdita di peso, da misure termometriche e di polarizzazione galvanostatica. L'elevato effetto protettivo del composto I{sub a} e' correlato alla decomposizione dell'HNO{sub 2} formatosi attraverso il ciclo autocatalitico. La decomposizione di HNO{sub 2} puo' essere attribuita alla sua reazione con il gruppo inibitore aminico adsorbito. Inoltre, i risultati indicano che il composto I{sub a} fornisce una protezione a lungo termine e si comporta come un inibitore di tipo misto con una predominante efficienza catodica.

  4. Toxic effects of copper-based nanoparticles or compounds to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Rico, Cyren M; Zhao, Lijuan; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Keller, Arturo A; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The increased production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns about their impact on living organisms. In this study, nCu, bulk Cu, nCuO, bulk CuO, Cu(OH)2 (CuPRO 2005, Kocide 3000), and CuCl2 were exposed for 15 days to 10 days-old hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Each compound was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1). At harvest, we measured the size of the plants and determined the concentration of Cu, macro and microelements by using ICP-OES. Catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was also determined. Results showed that all Cu NPs/compounds reduced the root length by 49% in both plant species. All Cu NPs/compounds increased Cu, P, and S (>100%, >50%, and >20%, respectively) in alfalfa shoots and decreased P and Fe in lettuce shoot (>50% and >50%, respectively, excluding Fe in CuCl2 treatment). Biochemical assays showed reduced catalase activity in alfalfa (root and shoot) and increased ascorbate peroxidase activity in roots of both plant species. Results suggest that Cu NPs/compounds not only reduced the size of the plants but altered nutrient content and enzyme activity in both plant species.

  5. Copper complexes as 'radiation recovery' agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copper and its compounds have been used for their remedial effects since the beginning of recorded history. As early as 3000 BC the Egyptians used copper as an antiseptic for healing wounds and to sterilise drinking water; and later, ca 1550 BC, the Ebers Papyrus reports the use of copper acetate, copper sulphate and pulverised metallic copper for the treatment of eye infections. These historical uses of copper and its compounds are particularly interesting in the light of modern evidence concerning the use of certain copper complexes for the treatment of radiation sickness and more recently as an adjunct to radiotherapy for cancer patients. (author)

  6. Precipitation and ion floatation of molybdenum, tungsten, copper, and cobalt compounds by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strizhko, V.S.; Shekhirev, D.V.; Ignatkina, V.A.; Alimova, R.Eh.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on application of ion-flotation in purification of low-concentration (less than 10 -3 M) acid solutions from molybdenum, tungsten, copper and cobalt ions. Two collectors, i.e. DEDC and CTMAB have been tested, their optimal consumption is determined. It is shown that CTMAB provides for selective purification from Mo and W ions and allows foam product with little water on flotation in a column to be obtained. But the achieved residual W and Mo concentration of 20 to 10 mg/l require deeper finishing purification in order to meet a sanitary permissible limiting concentration value employing other methods. DEDC provides for sufficient purification from nonferrous metal ions but does not possess selectivity with respect to some metals. The obtained results have shown the possibility to apply ion-flotation in concentration of metal ions in foam product in the process of waste water purification with further finishing purification up to a sanitary permissible limiting concentration value. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Synthesis, thermogravimetric study and crystal structure of an N-rich copper(II) compound with tren ligands and nitrate counter-anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Toro, Inmaculada; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane [Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, IACT, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, Av. de las Palmeras 4, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Vílchez-Rodríguez, Esther [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Castiñeiras, Alfonso [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Niclós-Gutiérrez, Juan, E-mail: jniclos@ugr.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    The N-rich salt [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ{sub 3}-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been studied by XRD and by coupled TG and FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases. After water loss, thermal decomposition of the nitrate ions and some tren ligands in the salt are overlapped. - Highlights: • A novel N-rich copper(II)-tren complex has been crystallized as a 3-hydrated nitrate salt. • Tren acts both as tripodal tetradentate and as μ{sub 3}-tren bridging ligand. • Copper(II) centers exhibit distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination. • Coupled thermogravimetry and FT-IR spectra of evolved gases have been used. • Decomposition of nitrate anions and tren ligands occurs in an overlapped step. - Abstract: The compound [{Cu(tren)}{sub 3}(μ3-tren)]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 12}·3H{sub 2}O has been synthesized, crystallized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry (TG) coupled to FT-IR spectroscopy of the evolved gases, TG–differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electronic (diffuse reflectance) and FT-IR spectroscopies. The sample loses the crystallization water between room temperature and 200 °C. The decomposition of the salt begins with an overlapped decomposition of nitrate anions and some tren ligands where CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, NH{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NO{sub 2} are evolved (205–235 °C). Then decomposition of additional tren ligands takes place (235–725 °C). Finally a non-pure CuO residue is obtained at 725 °C.

  8. Pressure effects on the magnetic behaviour of copper (II) compounds: magnetic ordering of layered organic/inorganic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, G; Varyukhin, V N; Berezhnaya, L V; Rusakov, V F

    2012-01-01

    The high hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic properties of the layered hybrid compounds Cu 2 (OH) 3 (C n H 2n+1 CO 2 )⋅mH 2 O with distance between magnetic layers of up to 40 Å is studied. It is shown that the temperature of the ferromagnetic ordering decreases linearly with pressure increase. From measurements of susceptibility in the paramagnetic region, using both quantum Heisenberg and Ising exchange coupling models in layers and dipole interaction between layers, the in- and interlayer interactions are deduced. The dipole interactions are calculated and are shown to coincide with the model of Ising interactions in the layers. The value and decrease of T c under pressure are mainly driven by the value and decrease of the in-plane interactions. The formation of the long range ordering in the layered sample with dipolar interaction between layers is analysed. As a conclusion it is suggested that for designing high temperature ferromagnetism in layer compounds it is enough to have large in-plane interactions of ions with specific symmetry in layers and weak dipole interactions between layers. (paper)

  9. Resistance of Coatings for Boiler Components of Waste-to-Energy Plants to Salt Melts Containing Copper Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetz, Mathias Christian; Bauer, Johannes Thomas; Schütze, Michael; Noguchi, Manabu; Cho, Hiromitsu

    2013-06-01

    The accelerating effect of heavy metal compounds on the corrosive attack of boiler components like superheaters poses a severe problem in modern waste-to-energy plants (WTPs). Coatings are a possible solution to protect cheap, low alloyed steel substrates from heavy metal chloride and sulfate salts, which have a relatively low melting point. These salts dissolve many alloys, and therefore often are the limiting factor as far as the lifetime of superheater tubes is concerned. In this work the corrosion performance under artificial salt deposits of different coatings, manufactured by overlay welding, thermal spraying of self-fluxing as well as conventional systems was investigated. The results of our studies clearly demonstrate the importance of alloying elements such as molybdenum or silicon. Additionally, the coatings have to be dense and of a certain thickness in order to resist the corrosive attack under these severe conditions.

  10. Synergistic Extraction of Copper from Nitrate Solutions Using β-Hydroxy-Naphthaldoxime and Organophosphorus Compounds into Carbon-Tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pulak; Basu, Sukalyan

    2011-12-01

    The extraction behavior of Cu(II) from an aqueous nitrate medium employing β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated in the presence of several organophosphorus donors like tri-octyl phosphine oxide, tri-butyl phosphine oxide, and tri-butyl phosphate at pH 1.5. The concentration of the metal was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Synergism was observed when neutral donor was added because of the formation of the adduct [Cu(L)2.(S)] in CCl4 (S denotes neutral donor). The equilibrium constants of the binary system using β-hydroxy-naphthaldoxime and the ternary system involving another addition of an organophosphorus compound were calculated from the extraction date obtained. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constants was also investigated to evaluate standard enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (Δ S°), and free energy (Δ G°) of the reactions proposed.

  11. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY OF COPPER, NICKEL AND COBALT COORDINATION COMPOUNDS WITH 1-(2-HYDROXYPHENYLETHANONE N(4-ALLYL-3-THIOSEMICARBAZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilii GRAUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the synthesis of the ligand 1-(2-hydroxyphenylethanone N(4-allyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (H2L and six coordination compounds of copper, nickel and cobalt with this ligand. The structure of thiosemicarbazone H2L was studied using 1H and 13С NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized coordination compounds were studied using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis of water content, molar conductivity, and magnetochemistry. For H2L the antitumor activity towards human leukemia HL-60 cells and cervical cancer HeLa cells was determined. It was established that the substitution of hydrogen atom with methyl group in the azomethinic fragment leads to the growth of antitumor activity.SINTEZA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTITUMORALĂ A COMPUŞILOR COMPLECŞI AI CUPRULUI, NICHELULUI ŞI COBALTULUI CU N(4-ALIL-3-TIOSEMICARBAZONA 1-(2-HIDROXIFENILETANONEILucrarea conţine descrierea sintezei N(4-alil-3-tiosemicarbazonei 1-(2-hidroxifeniletanonei (H2L şi a şase compuşi coordinativi ai cuprului, nichelului şi cobaltului cu acest ligand. Structura tiosemicarbazonei H2L a fost stabilită în baza datelor spectroscopiei RMN 1H şi 13C. Compuşi coordinativi au fost studiaţi cu ajutorul analizei elementale, analizei gravimetrice a conţinutului de apă, conductivitaţii molare şi magnetochimiei. Pentru H2L a fost determinată activitatea antitumorală faţă de celulele leucemiei umane HL-60 şi ale cancerului cervical HeLa. S-a stabilit că înlocuirea atomului de hidrogen cu o grupare metil în fragmentul azomethinic conduce la creşterea activitaţii antitumorale.

  12. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  13. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  14. Correlation between DNA interactions and cytotoxic activity of four new ternary compounds of copper(II) with N-donor heterocyclic ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscila P; Guerra, Wendell; Dos Santos, Geandson Coelho; Fernandes, Nelson G; Silveira, Josiane N; da Costa Ferreira, Ana M; Bortolotto, Tiago; Terenzi, Hernán; Bortoluzzi, Adailton João; Neves, Ademir; Pereira-Maia, Elene C

    2014-03-01

    Four new ternary complexes of copper(II) were synthesized and characterized: [Cu(hyd)(bpy)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (1), [Cu(hyd)(phen)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (2), [Cu(Shyd)(bpy)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (3) and [Cu(Shyd)(phen)(acn)(ClO4)](ClO4)] (4), in which acn=acetonitrile; hyd=2-furoic acid hydrazide, bpy=2,2-bipyridine; phen=1,10-phenanthroline and Shyd=2-thiophenecarboxylic acid hydrazide. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes in a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line was investigated. All complexes are able to enter cells and inhibit cellular growth in a concentration-dependent manner, with an activity higher than that of the corresponding free ligands. The substitution of Shyd for hyd increases the activity, while the substitution of bpy for phen renders the complex less active. Therefore, the most potent complex is 4 with an IC50 value of 1.5±0.2μM. The intracellular copper concentration needed to inhibit 50% of cell growth is approximately 7×10(-15)mol/cell. It is worth notifying that a correlation between cytotoxic activity, DNA binding affinity and DNA cleavage was found: 1<3<2<4. © 2013.

  15. Knigth's Move in the Periodic Table, From Copper to Platinum, Novel Antitumor Mixed Chelate Copper Compounds, Casiopeinas, Evaluated by an in Vitro Human and Murine Cancer Cell Line Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Mora, I; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Gómez-Ruiz, C; Tinoco-Méndez, M; Márquez-Quiñones, A; Lira, L R; Marín-Hernández, A; Macías-Rosales, L; Bravo-Gómez, M E

    2001-01-01

    We synthesized a novel anticancer agents based on mixed chelate copper (II) complexes, named Casiopeínas((R)) has of general formula [Cu(N-N)(N-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where, N-N = diimines as 1,10- phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine, or substituted and N-O=aminoeidate or [Cu(N-N)(O-O)H(2)O]NO(3) (where NN= diimines as 10-phenanthroline, 2,2-bipyridine or substituted Casiopeínas I, II, IV, V, VI, VII VIII and O-O=acetylacetonate, salicylaldehidate Casiopínas III). We evaluated the in vitro antitumor activity using a human cancer cell panel and some nurine cancer cells. Eleven Casiopeinas are evaluated in order to acquire some structure-activity correlations and some monodentated Casiopeinäs analogues; cisplatinum was used as control drug. The 50% growth inhibition observed is, in all cases reach with concentrations of Casiopeina's 10 or 100 times lower than cisplatinum. In a previous work we reported the induction of apoptosis by Casiopeina II. The results indicate that Casiopeinass are a promising new anticancer drug candidates to be developed further toward clinical trials.

  16. Uranyl citrate dimers as guests in a copper-bipyridine framework: a novel hetero-metallic inorganic-organic hybrid compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, P.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of uranyl nitrate with citric acid (H 4 cit) in the presence of copper(II) bis(tri-fluoro-methane-sulfonate) and 4,4'-bipyridine (bipy) under hydrothermal conditions gave the mixed complex[Cu(bipy) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][UO 2 (Hcit)(H 2 O)] 2 .5H 2 O, in which di-anionic uranyl citrate dimers are incorporated in the interlayer spaces of the [Cu(bipy) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] n 2n+ square grid assemblage. An extended hydrogen bonding network links the uranyl complex units together and also to the grid framework, resulting in the formation of a 3-D assemblage held by weak interactions. (author)

  17. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  18. Synthesis of the compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate -(Cu[MIBI]4BF4): substance used in the production of the radiopharmaceutical sestamibi 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Katia Suzi da Silveira

    2005-01-01

    The radiopharmaceutical SESTAMIBI- 99m Tc presents interest and application in the clinical routine in Nuclear Medicine, especially for evaluation of the myocardium function and in the diagnosis of some tumors types, and the Center of Radiopharmacy of the IPEN has interest in the development of this radiopharmaceutical for attendance of the nuclear medicine class necessities. In this work it was demonstrated the synthesis and characterization of the active compound tetrakis (2- methoxy isobutyl isonitrile) copper (I) tetrafluoroborate - Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - to be used in the preparation of lyophilized reagents for labeling with technetium- 99m as well as labeling studies and biological distribution. The synthesis of the reagent Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 was carried out in accordance with previously described procedures, in 5 steps and the compounds were characterized for infra-red, magnetic nuclear resonance, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The characterization of the chelate of MIBI -Cu[MIBI] 4 BF 4 - was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography, compared with a standard sample of the product and presented similar results, as described in literature. The lyophilized reagent was prepared and labeled with technetium- 99m , showing high radiochemical purity, higher than 97%, with high stability. Biological distribution in different animals showed good uptake in the heart, in time compatible with the acquisition of scintigraphy images, demonstrating the applicability of the reagent synthesized in the attainment of cardiac scintigraphy images. (author)

  19. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  20. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL(II, COPPER(II AND COBALT(II BASED ON S-METHYLISOTHIOSEMICARBAZIDE AS DYES FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Manole

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have researched the color properties of coordination compounds synthesized by us previously [1] (8-(1',2'-naphthyl-1- R3-methyl-6-thiomethyl-4,5,7-triazaocta-1,3,5,7-tetraenato-1,1'-diolato(-O, O', N4, N7-M(II, where R=CH3, C6H5, M=Ni, Co, Cu, which can be used for coloring thermoplastic masses. They meet the requirements for use as a pigment for coloring thermoplastic masses.

  1. COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF NICKEL(II), COPPER(II) AND COBALT(II) BASED ON S-METHYLISOTHIOSEMICARBAZIDE AS DYES FOR THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Manole; Maria Cocu

    2011-01-01

    We have researched the color properties of coordination compounds synthesized by us previously [1] (8-(1',2'-naphthyl)-1- R3-methyl-6-thiomethyl-4,5,7-triazaocta-1,3,5,7-tetraenato-1,1'-diolato(-)O, O', N4, N7-M(II), where R=CH3, C6H5, M=Ni, Co, Cu), which can be used for coloring thermoplastic masses. They meet the requirements for use as a pigment for coloring thermoplastic masses.

  2. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearling, J.L.

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ( 64 Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64 Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64 Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  3. Interesting properties of some iron(II), copper(I) and copper(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridendate ligands with nitrogen centers, generally well-known as the tripod ligands, have been of considerable interest to inorganic chemists dealing with the preparation of model compounds for hemocyanin, tyrosinase etc. We have found that such ligands when complexed with iron(II) and copper(II) and copper(I) ions ...

  4. Formation of trimetallic compounds containing redox-active nitrosyl molybdenum tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl-borato groups. Schiff base complexes containing two molybdenum centres linked by meta hydroxy copper schiff base ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley M. Kagwanja

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of [Mo(NOTp*Cl2] [Tp* = tris(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazolylborate] with copper(II Schiff base complexes derived by condensation of two mole equivalents of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde with a diamine [1,2-C6H4(NH22, NH2(CH2nNH2, n = 2-5] affords trimetallic species containing three potential redox centres. The IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopic properties of these compounds are described and it is shown that, with increasing polymethylene bridges of the Schiff base ligands, the complexes distort from planarity probably towards tetrahedral structures. From cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry it is shown that the trimetallic species primarily undergo two sequential one electron reduction associated with the reduction of [Mo(NOTp*Cl]+ centres. By determination of conproportionation constants for the mono-reduced species, it is established that there is very weak interaction between the two [Mo(NOTp*Cl]+ centres in the trimetallic complexes. It is also demonstrated that the meta-substituted [Mo(NOTp*Cl]+ centres reduce at potentials more anodic than their para-substituted analogues. Reduction potentials of these complexes are also shown to be solvent dependent.

  5. Two solvent and temperature dependent copper(II) compounds formed by a flexible ligand: syntheses, structures and SC-SC transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haixia; Xie, Wenli; Lv, Shenghong; Xu, Yan; Wu, Yong; Zhou, Yaoming; Ma, Zhenmao; Fang, Min; Liu, Hong-Ke

    2012-07-07

    A nonporous neutral framework [CuCl(2)(m-bttmb)(2)](n) (1) was changed into a porous ionic {[Cu(m-bttmb)(2)(H(2)O)Cl]Cl(CH(3)CN)(0.5)(H(2)O)(2.75)}(n) (2) by simply increasing the amount of CH(3)CN in the mixed solvent (CH(3)CN and H(2)O) or temperature in the reactions of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O with 1,3-bis(triazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene (m-bttmb). 1 undergoes transformation into 2 when treated with CH(3)CN. Both 1 and 2 have 2D 4-connected (4,4) network architectures but in different packing arrangements. These compounds have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. This work may provide a way to control the formation of neutral or ionic frameworks, as well as porosities by adjusting the polarity and components of the solvents.

  6. Improving Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag by Modifying the Molten Copper Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new technology was developed to improve the beneficiation of copper and iron components from copper slag, by modifying the molten slag to promote the mineralization of valuable minerals and to induce the growth of mineral grains. Various parameters, including binary basicity, dosage of compound additive, modification temperature, cooling rate and the end point temperature of slow cooling were investigated. Meanwhile, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS was employed to determine the mineralogy of the modified and unmodified slag, as well as to reveal the mechanisms of enhancing beneficiation. The results show that under the proper conditions, the copper grade of rougher copper concentrate was increased from 6.43% to 11.04%, iron recovery of magnetic separation was increased significantly from 32.40% to 63.26%, and other evaluation indexes were changed slightly, in comparison with unmodified copper slag. Moreover, matte and magnetite grains in the modified slag aggregated together and grew obviously to the mean size of over 50 μm, resulting in an improvement of beneficiation of copper and iron.

  7. Cupriferous peat: embryonic copper ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D C

    1961-07-01

    A Canadian peat was found to contain up to 10% (dry weight) Cu, and a mechanism for Cu accumulation in peat was discussed. Wet chemical techniques and x-ray diffraction were utilized to identify Cu compounds. Copper was organically bound in peat as a chelate complex and did not occur as an oxide, sulfide, or as elemental Cu. Because of the low S content of peat the Cu was assumed to be bound to nitrogen or oxygen-containing components. Copper, having a greater affinity for N, tended to form the more stable Cu-N chelate. The element was concentrated as circulating cupriferous ground waters filtered through the peat.

  8. Influence of branched quaternary ammonium surfactant molecules as levelers for copper electroplating from acidic sulfate bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, An-yin; Chen, Biao; Fang, Lei; Yu, Jian-jun; Wang, Li-min

    2013-01-01

    A family of branched quaternary ammonium surfactants (compounds 1a–1c) with different carbon chains were synthesized for levelers applied in copper electroplating. Their inhibitory actions on copper electroplating were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Compound 1b, as representative structure type, was tested by means of different electrochemical methods including CV, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with different concentrations. The interaction between compound 1b and copper surface was investigated using atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The results indicated that our newly synthesized compounds, particular 1b, were effective levelers used for copper electroplating. Compound 1b could adsorb on copper surface to form an adsorption layer. The adsorption behavior of compound 1b on copper surface indicated that compound 1b could inhibit the copper electrodeposition, which provided favorable conditions used as a leveler. Moreover, the addition of compound 1b could increase the cathodic polarization, which was attributed to the adsorption of compound 1b during copper electroplating process. In addition, various surface morphologies and crystalline orientation of the plated copper films caused by different concentrations of compound 1b were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Effects of compound 1b on refining the grain size and changing the preferential orientation of the plated copper films were exhibited

  9. Low-dimensional compounds containing cyanido groups. XXVIII. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of two copper(II) tetracyanidoplatinate complexes with 1,2-diaminopropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavra, Martin; Potočňák, Ivan; Dušek, Michal; Čižmár, Erik; Ozerov, Mykhaylo; Zvyagin, Sergei A.

    2015-01-01

    Violet crystals of ([Cu(pn) 2 ] 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ])[Pt(CN) 4 ]·2H 2 O (1, pn=1,2-diaminopropane) and blue crystals of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n ·nH 2 O (2) were prepared under hydrothermal conditions and characterized using elemental analysis, IR and UV–vis spectroscopy and by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Different number of ν(C≡N) absorption bands of these two compounds reflects their different structures. An X-ray crystal structure analysis has shown that complex 1 is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear [Cu(pn) 2 –Pt(CN) 4 –Cu(pn) 2 ] 2+ complex cation and discrete [Pt(CN) 4 ] 2– anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, complex 2 is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. Magnetic measurements show the presence of a weak antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in complex 1 (Θ=–0.2 K), while the magnetic susceptibility of complex 2 is well described by the model of uniform S=1/2 spin chain with exchange interaction J/k B =–1.64 K. - Graphical abstract: Two complexes of different structural types from the system Cu(II) – 1,2–diaminopropane – [Pt(CN) 4 ] 2– have been isolated. These were characterized by IR and UV–VIS spectroscopy, X–ray crystal structure analysis together with the magnetic measurements. On one hand ([Cu(pn) 2 ] 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ])[Pt(CN) 4 ]∙2H 2 O is of ionic character and is formed from trinuclear complex cation and discrete anion together with two molecules of crystal water. On the other hand, [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n ∙nH 2 O is of polymeric character and is formed by 2D networks of [Cu(pn)Pt(CN) 4 ] n composition and completed by n molecules of crystal water. - Highlights: • Two complexes of different compositions from one system have been isolated. • First complex is of ionic character and second one is of polymeric character. • Polymeric complex described as a spin chain in contrast to

  10. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Copper Wire Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, E.; Sampson, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper wire bonds have replaced gold wire bonds in the majority of commercial semiconductor devices for the latest technology nodes. Although economics has been the driving mechanism to lower semiconductor packaging costs for a savings of about 20% by replacing gold wire bonds with copper, copper also has materials property advantages over gold. When compared to gold, copper has approximately: 25% lower electrical resistivity, 30% higher thermal conductivity, 75% higher tensile strength and 45% higher modulus of elasticity. Copper wire bonds on aluminum bond pads are also more mechanically robust over time and elevated temperature due to the slower intermetallic formation rate - approximately 1/100th that of the gold to aluminum intermetallic formation rate. However, there are significant tradeoffs with copper wire bonding - copper has twice the hardness of gold which results in a narrower bonding manufacturing process window and requires that the semiconductor companies design more mechanically rigid bonding pads to prevent cratering to both the bond pad and underlying chip structure. Furthermore, copper is significantly more prone to corrosion issues. The semiconductor packaging industry has responded to this corrosion concern by creating a palladium coated copper bonding wire, which is more corrosion resistant than pure copper bonding wire. Also, the selection of the device molding compound is critical because use of environmentally friendly green compounds can result in internal CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) mismatches with the copper wire bonds that can eventually lead to device failures during thermal cycling. Despite the difficult problems associated with the changeover to copper bonding wire, there are billions of copper wire bonded devices delivered annually to customers. It is noteworthy that Texas Instruments announced in October of 2014 that they are shipping microcircuits containing copper wire bonds for safety critical automotive applications

  11. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A.; Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G.; Barragan V, A.

    1997-01-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  12. Chemistry of the copper silicon interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.J.; Sashin, V.A.; Nixon, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Copper and silicon readily interdiffuse, even at room temperature, to form an interface which can be several nanometers thick. Over the years considerable effort has gone into investigating the diffusion process and chemical nature of the interface formed. Photoemission measurements give evidence for the formation of a stable suicide with a definite stoichiometry, Cu 3 Si. This is evidenced by splitting of the Si LVV Auger line and slight shifts and change in shape of the copper valence band density of states as measured by ultra-violet photoemission. In this paper we present calculations of the electronic structure of copper suicide, bulk copper and silicon, and preliminary measurements of the interface by electron momentum spectroscopy. Densities of states for copper and copper suicide are dominated by the copper 3d bands, and difference between the two compounds are relatively small. By contrast, the full band structures are quite distinct. Hence, experimental measurements of the full band structure of the copper on silicon interface, for example by EMS, have the potential to reveal the chemistry of the interface in a detailed way

  13. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  14. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  15. SOURCES OF COPPER IONS AND SELECTED METHODS OF THEIR REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER FROM THE PRINTED CIRCUITS BOARD PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the issues related to the presence and removal of copper compounds from industrial effluents with including wastewater from plants involved in the production of printed circuit boards. Characterized the toxicological properties of selected copper compounds, described the applicable technological processes, sources of copper ions in the effluents and selected methods for their removal.

  16. Copper (II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...

  17. Trend analysis of copper and zinc in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Polanen, van A.; Bikker, P.; Jong, de J.

    2011-01-01

    The EC has introduced maximum inclusion levels of copper and zinc salts in animal diets from 1970 onwards and reduced these levels in recent years. In this report historical values are used to give insight into trends in levels of copper and zinc in compound feeds for animals in the Netherlands. The

  18. Refining processes of selected copper alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rzadkosz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the refining effectiveness of the liquid copper and selected copper alloys by various micro additions and special refiningsubstances – was performed. Examinations of an influence of purifying, modifying and deoxidation operations performed in a metal bath on the properties of certain selected alloys based on copper matrix - were made. Refining substances, protecting-purifying slag, deoxidation and modifying substances containing micro additions of such elements as: zirconium, boron, phosphor, sodium, lithium, or their compounds introduced in order to change micro structures and properties of alloys, were applied in examinations. A special attention was directed to macro and micro structures of alloys, their tensile and elongation strength and hot-cracks sensitivity. Refining effects were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of micro structure changes with property changes of copper and its selected alloys from the group of tin bronzes.

  19. Sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, D; Fukuta, T; Onyango, M S; Matsuda, H

    2006-11-02

    The present study is concerned with the sulfidation treatment of copper-containing plating sludge towards copper resource recovery by flotation of copper sulfide from treated sludge. The sulfidation treatment was carried out by contacting simulated or real copper plating sludge with Na(2)S solution for a period of 5 min to 24 h. The initial molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) (S(2-) to Me(2+) in the case of real sludge) was adjusted to 1.00, 1.25 or 1.50, while the solid to liquid ratio was set at 1:50. As a result, it was found that copper compounds were converted to various copper sulfides within the first 5 min. In the case of simulated copper sludge, CuS was identified as the main sulfidation product at the molar ratio of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.00, while Cu(7)S(4) (Roxbyite) was mainly found at the molar ratios of S(2-) to Cu(2+) of 1.50 and 1.25. Based on the measurements of oxidation-reduction potential, the formation of either CuS or Cu(7)S(4) at different S(2-) to Cu(2+) molar ratios was attributed to the changes in the oxidation-reduction potential. By contrast, in the case of sulfidation treatment of real copper sludge, CuS was predominantly formed, irrespective of S(2-) to Me(2+) molar ratio.

  20. Copper alloys deterioration due to anthropogenic action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Perez-Rodriguez, J. L.; Herrera, L. K.; Jimenez-de-Haro, M. C.; Robador, M. D.; Justo, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Perez-Ferrer, J. C.

    2008-07-01

    Results are presented from several samples taken from leaves of the Pardon Portico of Mosque-Cathedral or Cordoba, where an alteration on their surface was detected. Metal samples analyzed using X-ray microanalysis and powder x-ray diffraction were predominantly constituted by copper with some amounts of zinc attributed to brass, whereas other samples were also constituted by copper, tin and lead attributed to bronze. surface samples were analyzed using the same techniques. In addition Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was also used. The main compound identified in all the surface of the leaves is copper chloride hydroxide (atacamite). Lead chlorides have also been found. These data show that the sudden alteration that appears may be attributed to the use of some cleaning product containing chloride. Other compounds detected in the surface were gypsum, quartz and oxalates coming from environmental contamination. (Author) 17 refs.

  1. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  2. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  3. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  4. A new crystal form of Aspergillus oryzae catechol oxidase and evaluation of copper site structures in coupled binuclear copper enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Rutanen, Chiara; Saloheimo, Markku; Kruus, Kristiina; Rouvinen, Juha; Hakulinen, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Coupled binuclear copper (CBC) enzymes have a conserved type 3 copper site that binds molecular oxygen to oxidize various mono- and diphenolic compounds. In this study, we found a new crystal form of catechol oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCO4) and solved two new structures from two different crystals at 1.8-Å and at 2.5-Å resolutions. These structures showed different copper site forms (met/deoxy and deoxy) and also differed from the copper site observed in the previously solved structure of AoCO4. We also analysed the electron density maps of all of the 56 CBC enzyme structures available in the protein data bank (PDB) and found that many of the published structures have vague copper sites. Some of the copper sites were then re-refined to find a better fit to the observed electron density. General problems in the refinement of metalloproteins and metal centres are discussed.

  5. A new crystal form of Aspergillus oryzae catechol oxidase and evaluation of copper site structures in coupled binuclear copper enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Penttinen

    Full Text Available Coupled binuclear copper (CBC enzymes have a conserved type 3 copper site that binds molecular oxygen to oxidize various mono- and diphenolic compounds. In this study, we found a new crystal form of catechol oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AoCO4 and solved two new structures from two different crystals at 1.8-Å and at 2.5-Å resolutions. These structures showed different copper site forms (met/deoxy and deoxy and also differed from the copper site observed in the previously solved structure of AoCO4. We also analysed the electron density maps of all of the 56 CBC enzyme structures available in the protein data bank (PDB and found that many of the published structures have vague copper sites. Some of the copper sites were then re-refined to find a better fit to the observed electron density. General problems in the refinement of metalloproteins and metal centres are discussed.

  6. Thermodynamic data for copper. Implications for the corrosion of copper under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomenech, I.; Taxen, C.

    2000-08-01

    The stability of copper canisters has a central role in the safety concept for the planned nuclear spent fuel repository in Sweden. The corrosion of copper canisters will be influenced by the chemical and physical environment in the near-field of the repository, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations provide the basis for understanding this system. Thermodynamic data have been selected in this work for solids and aqueous species in the system: Cu - H 2 O - H + - H 2 - F - - Cl - - S 2- - SO 4 2- - NO 3 - - NO 2 - - NH 4 + PO 4 3- - CO 3 2+ . For some reactions and compounds, for which no experimental information on temperature effects was available, entropy and heat capacity values have been estimated. The compiled data were used to calculate thermodynamic equilibria for copper systems up to 100 deg C. The stability of copper in contact with granitic groundwaters has been illustrated using chemical equilibrium diagrams, with he following main conclusions: Dissolved sulphide and O 2 in groundwater are the most damaging components for copper corrosion. If available, HS - will react quantitatively with copper to form a variety of sulphides. However, sulphide concentrations in natural waters are usually low, because it forms sparingly soluble solids with transition metals, including Fe(II), which is wide-spread in reducing environments. Chloride can affect negatively copper corrosion. High concentrations (e.g., [Cl - ]TOT > 60 g/l) may be unfavourable for the general corrosion of copper in combination with in the following circumstances: Low pH ( + . The negative effects of Cl - are emphasised at higher temperatures. The chloride-enhancement of general corrosion may be beneficial for localised corrosion: pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The concept of redox potential, E H , has been found to be inadequate to describe copper corrosion in a nuclear repository. The available amounts of oxidants/reductants, and the stoichiometry of the corrosion reactions are

  7. Electrometallurgy of copper refinery anode slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. D.

    1990-08-01

    High-selenium copper refinery anode slimes form two separate and dynamically evolving series of compounds with increasing electrolysis time. In one, silver is progressively added to non-stoichiometric copper selenides, both those originally present in the anode and those formed subsequently in the slime layer, and in the other, silver-poor copper selenides undergo a dis-continuous crystallographic sequence of anodic-oxidative transformations. The silver-to-selenium molar ratio in the as-cast anode and the current density of electrorefining can be used to construct predominance diagrams for both series and, thus, to predict the final bulk “mineralogy” of the slimes. Although totally incorrect in detail, these bulk data are sufficiently accurate to provide explanations for several processing problems which have been experienced by Kidd Creek Division, Falconbridge Ltd., in its commercial tankhouse. They form the basis for a computer model which predicts final cathode quality from chemical analyses of smelter feed.

  8. NDE of explosion welded copper stainless steel first wall mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taehtinen, S.; Kauppinen, P.; Jeskanen, H.; Lahdenperae, K.; Ehrnsten, U.

    1997-04-01

    The study showed that reflection type C-mode scanning acoustic microscope (C-SAM) and internal ultrasonic inspection (IRIS) equipment can be applied for ultrasonic examination of copper stainless steel compound structures of ITER first wall mock-ups. Explosive welding can be applied to manufacture fully bonded copper stainless steel compound plates. However, explosives can be applied only for mechanical tightening of stainless steel cooling tubes within copper plate. If metallurgical bonding between stainless steel tubes and copper plate is required Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) method can be applied. (orig.)

  9. The flotation as separation method of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese by means of bromopyrogallol red and o-phemanthroline. Examination of compounds obtained in the floatation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorko-Trybula, Z.; Kozinska, E.

    1981-01-01

    The high degree of concentration obtained during flotation and application of atomic absorption as a method of final determination, being characterized by low determination limits (Cd 0.2 ng/ml; Zn 0.5 ng/ml; Mn 1 ng/ml; Cu 1 ng/ml) have enabled analysis of real containing 10 -4 -10 -6 % of trace metals. Various tests were carried out to investigate the composition and structure of the metal-bromopyrogallol red (BPGR)-phenanthroline (fen) systems formed in the aqueous phase. It may be also assumed that cadmium and zinc cations, coordinated by phenanthroline form ion-pairs with the anions of Bromopyrogallol Red whereas copper and manganese form ternary complexes which have two kinds of ligands in the coordination sphere of the cation. (author)

  10. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as accelerator of the rate of copper cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer A. El-Saharty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Cu2+ ion concentration and temperature on the cementation rate of copper from copper sulphate on zinc and the effect of additives of the organic compound “sodium diethyldithiocarbamate” (NaDDC were studied. It was noticed that the cementation increases significantly by increasing the concentrations of NaDDC. The rate of cementation increased by 58.58−100.31%. Our data showed that sodium diethyldithiocarbamate reacts with the Cu2+ solution giving a complex of copper diethyldithiocarbamate, which enhances the rate of cementation.

  11. Selective leaching process for the recovery of copper and zinc oxide from copper-containing dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Yi; Chang, Fang-Chih; Wang, H Paul; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Ko, Chun-Han; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resource recovery procedure for recovering copper and zinc from dust produced by copper smelting furnaces during the manufacturing of copper-alloy wires. The concentrations of copper in copper-containing dust do not meet the regulation standards defined by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration; therefore, such waste is classified as hazardous. In this study, the percentages of zinc and copper in the dust samples were approximately 38.4% and 2.6%, respectively. To reduce environmental damage and recover metal resources for industrial reuse, acid leaching was used to recover metals from these inorganic wastes. In the first stage, 2 N of sulphuric acid was used to leach the dust, with pH values controlled at 2.0-3.0, and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10. The results indicated that zinc extraction efficiency was higher than 95%. A selective acid leaching process was then used to recover the copper content of the residue after filtration. In the second stage, an additional 1 N of sulphuric acid was added to the suspension in the selective leaching process, and the pH value was controlled at 1.5-2.0. The reagent sodium hydroxide (2 N) was used as leachate at a pH greater than 7. A zinc hydroxide compound formed during the process and was recovered after drying. The yields for zinc and copper were 86.9-93.5% and 97.0-98.9%, respectively.

  12. The Hyrkkoelae native copper mineralization as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1996-10-01

    The Hyrkkoelae U-Cu mineralization is located in southwestern Finland, near the Palmottu analogue site. The age of the mineralization is estimated to be between 1.8 and 1.7 Ga. Petrological and mineralogical studies have demonstrated that this mineralization has many geological features that parallel those of the sites being considered for nuclear waste disposal in Finland. A particular feature is the existence of native copper and copper sulfides in open fractures in the near-surface zone. This allows us to study the native copper corrosion process in analogous conditions as expected to dominate in the nuclear fuel waste repository. The occurrence of uranyl compounds at these fractures permits also considerations about the sorption properties of the engineered barrier material (metallic copper) and its corrosion products. From the study of mineral assemblages or paragenesis, it appears that the formation of copper sulfide (djurleite, Cu 1.934 ) after native copper (Cu 0 ) under anoxic (reducing) conditions is enhanced by the availability of dissolved HS - in the groundwater circulating in open fractures in the near-surface zone. The minimum concentration of HS - in the groundwater is estimated to be of the order of 10 -5 M (∼ 10 -4 g/l) and the minimum pH value not lower than about 7.8 as indicated by the presence of calcite crystals in the same fracture. The present study is the first one that has been performed on findings of native copper in reducing, neutral to slightly alkaline groundwaters. Thus, the data obtained is of most relevance in improving models of anoxic corrosion of copper canisters. (orig.)

  13. Evidence for organic complexed copper in sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slowey, J F; Jeffrey, L M; Hood, D W

    1967-04-22

    A few attempts have been made to characterize the chemical components contributing to the copper content of seawater. About 0.3 mu/liter of particulate copper in 2 stations in the English Channel and 15 mu/liter of ultrafilterable (10 mu) but non-dialyzable copper in a sample from Texas Bay has been reported. Also the evidence has been shown for copper in the organic form in waters of the Florida Current. The occasional presence of non- dialyzable copper for many samples from the Gulf of Mexico suggests that strongly complexed copper-organic compounds are present in seawater. This communication presents evidence for such complexes that are extractable into a nonpolar solvent in the absence of any added chelating agent. Preliminary results have shown that the copper- organic complex isolated by chloroform extraction occurs in the eighth fraction of the Hirsch and Ahrens lipid separation method using silica gel chromatography. This would indicate that copper complex is associated with the phospholipid, amino lipid, or porphyrin fraction of the lipids.

  14. Copper carrier protein in copper toxic sheep liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, A L; Dean, P D.G.

    1973-01-01

    The livers of copper-toxic sheep have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis followed by staining the gels for copper with diethyldithiocarbamate and for protein with amido schwartz. These gels were compared with similar gels obtained from the livers of normal and copper-deficient animals. The copper-toxic livers contained an extra protein band which possessed relatively weakly bound copper. Possible origins of this protein are discussed. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  15. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  16. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  17. Posttranslational regulation of copper transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berghe, P.V.E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal copper is an essential cofactor for many redox-active enzymes, but excessive copper can generate toxic reactive oxygen species. Copper homeostasis is maintained by highly conserved proteins, to balance copper uptake, distribution and export on the systemic and cellular level.

  18. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  19. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  20. Micromachining with copper lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Martyn R. H.; Bell, Andy; Foster-Turner, Gideon; Rutterford, Graham; Chudzicki, J.; Kearsley, Andrew J.

    1997-04-01

    In recent years the copper laser has undergone extensive development and has emerged as a leading and unique laser for micromachining. The copper laser is a high average power (10 - 250 W), high pulse repetition rate (2 - 32 kHz), visible laser (511 nm and 578 nm) that produces high peak power (typically 200 kW), short pulses (30 ns) and very good beam quality (diffraction limited). This unique set of laser parameters results in exceptional micro-machining in a wide variety of materials. Typical examples of the capabilities of the copper laser include the drilling of small holes (10 - 200 micrometer diameter) in materials as diverse as steel, ceramic, diamond and polyimide with micron precision and low taper (less than 1 degree) cutting and profiling of diamond. Application of the copper laser covers the electronic, aerospace, automotive, nuclear, medical and precision engineering industries.

  1. Homogeneous weldings of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campurri, C.; Lopez, M.; Fernandez, R.; Osorio, V.

    1995-01-01

    This research explored the metallurgical and mechanical properties of arc welding of copper related with influence of Argon, Helium and mixtures of them. Copper plates of 6 mm thickness were welded with different mixtures of the mentioned gases. The radiography of welded specimens with 100% He and 100% Ar does not show show any porosity. On the other hand, the copper plates welded different gas mixtures presented uniform porosity in the welded zone. The metallographies show recrystallized grain in the heat affected zone, while the welding zone showed a dendritic structure. The results of the tensile strength vary between a maximum of 227 MPa for 100% He and a minimum of 174 MOa for the mixture of 60% He and 40% Ar. For the elongation after fracture the best values, about 36%, were obtained for pure gases. As a main conclusion, we can say that arc welding of copper is possible without loosing the mechanical and metallurgical properties of base metal. 6 refs

  2. copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptadionato)copper(II) ... Abstract. Equilibrium concentrations of various condensed and gaseous phases have been thermodyna- ... phere, over a wide range of substrate temperatures and total reactor pressures.

  3. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  4. Determination of Cu(III) and Cu(II)+Cu(III) in superconducting copper ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedelcheva, T.; Kostadinova, L.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.; Ivanova, I.

    1992-01-01

    Copper(III) and total copper in superconducting Y-Ba-Cu oxide and related compounds can be determinated by two successive iodimetric titrations after the sample has been dissolved under Ar in HCl/KI medium. First, the iodine equivalent to copper(III) is titrated with Na 2 S 2 O 3 solution at pH 4.8, copper(II) being masked with EDTA. The total copper is then determined in the same solution by demasking with acid and iodide, followed by iodimetric titration. The method is both accurate and reproducible. The relative standard deviations for 1.074% copper(III) and 23.37% total copper are 0.8% and 0.3%, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Group IB Organometallic Chemistry XXXIV: Thermal behavior and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarylpropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1, 2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi{2}CU{4}Br{2} and Z-Vi{2}Cu{4}R{2} [Vi @? (2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4})C@?C(Me)-(C{6}H{4}Me-4), R @? 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4} or 4-MeC{6}H{4}C@?C] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were

  6. Quick photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al2O3-MCM-41 under visible light irradiation: small particle size, stabilization of copper, easy reducibility of Cu and visible light active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Nanda, Binita; Parida, K M; Das, Mira

    2013-01-14

    The present study reports the photo-Fenton degradation of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol) in aqueous solution using mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 nanocomposite as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton-like catalyst. The in situ incorporation of mesoporous Al(2)O(3) (MA) into the framework of MCM-41 (sol-gel method) forms Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 and wetness impregnation of Cu(II) on Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 generates mesoporous Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 composite. The effects of pH and H(2)O(2) concentration on degradation of phenol, 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol and 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol are studied. Kinetics analysis shows that the photocatalytic degradation reaction follows a first-order rate equation. Mesoporous 5 Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41 is found to be an efficient photo-Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of phenolic compounds. It shows nearly 100% degradation in 45 min at pH 4. The combined effect of small particle size, stabilization of Cu(2+) on the support Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41, ease reducibility of Cu(2+) and visible light activeness are the key factors for quick degradation of phenolic compounds by Cu/Al(2)O(3)-MCM-41.

  7. LEP copper accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    These copper cavities were used to generate the radio frequency electric field that was used to accelerate electrons and positrons around the 27-km Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider at CERN, which ran from 1989 to 2000. The copper cavities were gradually replaced from 1996 with new superconducting cavities allowing the collision energy to rise from 90 GeV to 200 GeV by mid-1999.

  8. Copper intoxication in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazaryan, V.S.; Sogoyan, I.S.; Agabalov, G.A.; Mesropyan, V.V.

    1966-01-01

    Of 950 sheep fed hay from a vineyard sprayed regularly with copper sulfate, 143 developed clinical copper poisoning and 103 died. The Cu content of the hay was 10.23 mg%, of the liver of dead sheep 17-52 mg%, and of the blood serum of affected sheep 0.86 mg%. The symptoms and the histological findings in kidneys and liver are described.

  9. Copper wire bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  10. Influence of copper on morphologic properties of roots of Vicia faba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1973-01-01

    Relatively few papers deal with anatomic-morphological changes taking place due to deficiency or toxical influence of copper. There are few papers relating to the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological properties. Comparative studies investigating copper toxicity have not been worked out in detail. Experiments determining toxicity have been carried out on different substrates. This substrate is very important since there is the question of the bond of copper with various substances, which are found in substrate and which reduce, to a certain extent, the toxicity of copper. Maximum toxicity can be found out in aqueous and sand cultures. High toxicity of copper ions depends, to a large extent, on the stability of its complex compounds, which results in the stability of copper to separate other metals from different compounds. In this way copper inactivates enzymes and various biologically active substances. The problem of toxicity has been widely studied. The author considers the concentration of 0.5 mg Cu/l is a limit of copper toxicity with oat, whereas the concentration of 0.25 mg is toxical for the sprouts of citruses. It is obvious that the limit of toxicity cannot be exactly determined since there are several factors involved (sort of plant, use of cultivation method etc.) This paper was aimed at finding out the influence of higher copper concentrations on morphological changes of roots, stem and leaves of bean Vicia faba.

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE INFLUENCE OF COMPLEXATION IN THE COPPER UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEMAGHIUL BIRGHILA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The actual knowledge about food and the environment underlines the fact that agricultural and environmental sciences must solve various problems regarding copper uptake from soil to plants and its bioaccumulation, being important issues for copper concentration in crops and also for phytoremediation of polluted soils. We studied the relation between the form in which copper is applied to soil and the consequential copper bioavailability, uptake and translocation, using as examples simple and complex copper compounds. The copper concentration in basil plants harvested from soils treated with copper compounds and the calculated values of transfer coefficient, translocation factor, bioaccumulation factor, and uptake coefficient demonstrated that the ionic copper (from simple salts is not necessarily easier to uptake than complex ions, but is easier translocated in plants, while the copper given as complex ions is most likely to be retained by roots. The results indicated that the involvement of copper complexes in agricultural treatments is a solution for soils phytoremediation, concerning the phytostabilization technology.

  12. Group ib organometallic chemistry. XXXIV. Thermal behaviour and chemical reactivity of tetranuclear Me2N-substituted diarypropenylcopper-copper anion (Vi2Cu4X2) and mixed diarylpropenyl/organocopper (Vi2Cu4R2) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedt, R.W.M. ten; Koten, G. van; Noltes, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of configurationally pure 1,2-diarylpropenylcopper compounds Z-Vi2CU4Br2 and Z-Vi2Cu4R2 [Vi = (2-Me2NC6H4)C=C(Me)-(C6H4Me-4), R = 2-Me2NC6H4 or 4-MeC6H4CC] predominantly results in the formation of ViH. In contrast, only dimers (ViVi) were formed on thermolysis of (Z-ViCu2OTf)η

  13. Solid state diffusion in zirconium-copper and zirconium-nickel systems. Study of the intermetallic compounds formed; Diffusion a l'etat solide dans les systemes zirconium-cuivre et zirconium-nickel. Etude des composes intermetalliques formes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meny, L; Champigny, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Solid state diffusion has been provoked in pure Zr-Cu and Zr-Ni metal couples. The tests were carried out in the following experimental conditions : the samples were maintained at a mechanical pressure of 30 kg/cm{sup 2}; annealing was carried out in a secondary vacuum during 100 and 500 hours, at temperatures of between 650 C and 900 C. In all cases, a diffusion zone made up of several parallel layers was formed. The various intermetallic compounds have been studied by metallography (optical microscopy and micro-hardness) X-ray diffraction and micro-analysis with an electronic probe. In the Zr-Cu system, six compounds have been determined, Zr{sub 2}Cu, ZrCu, Zr{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}, ZrCu{sub 4} and ZrCu{sub 5}. These results confirm a recent publication mentioning for the first time the existence of ZrCu{sub 5} and demonstrating the formulae ZrCu{sub 3} and ZrCu{sub 4}. In a similar manner, we have found six compounds, stable at room temperature, in the Zr-Ni system: these are Zr{sub 2}Ni, ZrNi, Zr{sub 7}Ni{sub 10}, ZrNi{sub 3}, ZrNi{sub 4} and ZrNi{sub 5}; the results of American workers are confirmed for four of these compounds; however we identify as ZrNi{sub 3} and ZrNi{sub 4} the compounds for which they proposed the formulae Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 5} and Zr{sub 2}Ni{sub 7}. A comparison of these results suggests that the two systems ZrCu and ZrNi have the same type of equilibrium diagrams. (authors) [French] Des diffusions a l'etat solide ont ete effectuees entre les couples de metaux purs Zr-Cu et Zr-Ni. Les essais ont eu lieu dans les conditions experimentales suivantes: les echantillons ont ete maintenus par une pression mecanique de 3O kg/cm{sup 2}; les recuits ont ete effectues sous vide secondaire pendant des temps de 100 et 500 heures, a des temperatures comprises entre 650 C et 900 C. Dans tous les cas, il y a eu formation d'une zone de diffusion formee de plusieurs couches paralleles. Les differents composes intermetalliques ont ete etudies par metallographie

  14. (Pt1-xCux)3Cu2B and Pt9Cu3B5, the first examples of copper platinum borides. Observation of superconductivity in a novel boron filled β-Mn-type compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamakha, Leonid P.; Sologub, Oksana; Stöger, Berthold; Michor, Herwig; Bauer, Ernst; Rogl, Peter F.

    2015-09-01

    New ternary copper platinum borides have been synthesized by arc melting of pure elements followed by annealing at 600 °C. The structures have been studied by X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction. (Pt1-xCux)3Cu2B (x=0.33) forms a B-filled β-Mn-type structure (space group P4132; a=0.6671(1) nm). Cu atoms are distributed preferentially on the 8c atom sites, whereas the 12d site is randomly occupied by Pt and Cu atoms (0.670(4) Pt±0.330(4) Cu). Boron is located in octahedral voids of the parent β-Mn-type structure. Pt9Cu3B5 (space group P-62m; a=0.9048(3) nm, c=0.2908(1) nm) adopts the Pt9Zn3B5-δ-type structure. It has a columnar architecture along the short translation vector exhibiting three kinds of [Pt6] trigonal prism columns (boron filled, boron semi-filled and empty) and Pt channels with a pentagonal cross section filled with Cu atoms. The striking structural feature is a [Pt6] cluster in form of an empty trigonal prism at the origin of the unit cell, which is surrounded by coupled [BPt6] and [Pt6] trigonal prisms, rotated perpendicularly to the central one. There is no B-B contact as well as Cu-B contact in the structure. The relationships of Pt9Cu3B5 structure with the structure of Ti1+xOs2-xRuB2 as well as with the structure families of metal sulfides and aluminides have been elucidated. (Pt1-xCux)3Cu2B (x=0.3) (B-filled β-Mn-type structure) is a bulk superconductor with a transition temperature of about 2.06 K and an upper critical field μ0HC2(0)WHH of 1.2 T, whereas no superconducting transition has been observed up to 0.3 K in Pt9Cu3B5 (Pt9Zn3B5-δ-type structure) from electrical resistivity measurements.

  15. Synthesis of copper nanocolloids using a continuous flow based microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 (United States); Peng, Jinhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Program, The petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 253 (United Arab Emirates); Chen, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Shen, Amy Q., E-mail: amy.shen@oist.jp [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle 98195 (United States); Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Technology Graduate University, Okinawa (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The copper nanocolloidal were synthesized in a T-shaped microreactor at room temperature. • The morphology of copper nanocolloidal are spherical, and with good size distribution. • The mean particle diameter increased with decreases the NaBH{sub 4} molar concentration. • With increasing particle size, the more obvious localized surface plasmon resonance absorption. - Abstract: The copper (Cu) nanocolloids were prepared by sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) reduction of metal salt solutions in a T-shaped microreactor at room temperature. The influence of NaBH{sub 4} molar concentrations on copper particle's diameter, morphology, size distribution, and elemental compositions has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) was used to verify the chemical compounds of nanocolloids and estimate the average size of copper nanocolloids. The synthesized copper nanocolloids were uniform in size and non-oxidized. A decrease in the mean diameter of copper nanocolloids was observed with increasing NaBH{sub 4} molar concentrations. The maximum mean diameter (4.25 nm) occurred at the CuSO{sub 4}/NaBH{sub 4} molar concentration ratio of 1:2.

  16. Type I fitting of copper tubes from a water distribution system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available with a greenish scale of a copper compound called malachite. Beneath this scale, the tube surface is covered with a smooth, shiny layer of dark cuprite which is very friable and easily spalled off. Pits are usually...

  17. Wetting of refractory metals with copper base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, E.F.; Kostikov, V.I.; Chepelenko, V.N.; Batov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect is studied of phosphorus upon the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum by an alloy of the system copper-silver (10%) as a function of contact time and phosphorus concentration. Experiments have been conducted in vacuum of 5x10 -4 mm Hg at 900 deg C. It is established that the introduction of phosphorus into a copper-silver alloy improves the wetting of molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. Formation of intermetallic compounds on the alloy-refractory metal interface can be avoided by adjusting the time of contact of the solder with molybdenum, niobium and tantalum. As a solder with 2.9% phosphorus spreads well over copper, it is suggested to use said solder for brazing copper and the investigated refractory metals in items intended for service at temperatures of up to 600 deg C

  18. Copper : recession and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick-Ching, T.

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the world output for copper will fall for the first time in nearly a decade because of financial pressure and voluntary constraints. Cutbacks at copper mines amount to 760,000 tonnes per year. These cutbacks have occurred mostly in the United States which holds the largest share of high cost mines. This paper discussed recent developments in both copper supply and demand. The United States is unique as both a large consumer and producer of copper. At 1.35 million tonnes, US mine output in 2001 was at its lowest since 1987. The cutbacks in mining in general were described in this paper with particular reference to the huge loss of mining and metallurgical activity in the United States during a prolonged period of low prices in the mid 1980s. The author noted that this period was followed by an exceptional decade when much of the industry rebounded. Only 8 mines closed outright in the United States and a handful in Canada since the recession of the 1980s, but that is partly because mines got bigger and there are fewer small mines in North America. There are only 4 electrolytic refineries and 3 smelters still active in the entire United States, of which 2 are operating at a fraction of capacity. It was noted that only the buoyancy of China prevented a much bigger decline in copper demand on a global scale

  19. Coprecipitation of cadmium with copper 8-hydroxyquinolate from homogeneous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Kazuyoshi; Kozen, Terumi; Ueki, Yasuyo; Ishida, Hiromi

    1976-01-01

    The coprecipitation of copper and cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolates from homogeneous solution was conducted from the viewpoint of crystal and analytical chemistry. To the mixed solution containing copper and cadmium ions an 8-acetoxyquinoline solution was added by keeping the pH of the solution at 9 and the resulted solution was stirred at 25 0 C. The precipitate formed at each stage of the reaction was analyzed. The precipitates in an initial stage were composed of needle crystals which characterizes copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, and were associated with a slight amount of cadmium. The first half of the coprecipitation curve for the needle crystal formation resembles the logarithmic distribution curve of lambda equal to about 0.01. The precipitation of most of the copper ions was followed by the precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate crystal in the plate form. The needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate started to dissolve and transformed to plate crystals. In the second half of the coprecipitation, both crystals, owing to the identical crystal structure, precipitated simultaneously and form a solid solution. When cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate was precipitated by the PFHS method (precipitation from homogeneous solution) in the presence of the needle crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, the above mentioned phenomenon was observed. The precipitation of cadmium 8-hydroxyquinolate in the plate form is due to the seeding effect of the plate crystals of copper 8-hydroxyquinolate, which were scantily transformed from the needle crystals. The plate crystals of cadmium compound acts as a seed to transform the needle crystals of copper compound to plate crystals. (auth.)

  20. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  1. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core-copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of nanometre-sized copper core-copper oxide shell with diameters in the range 6.1 to 7.3 nm dispersed in a silica gel were synthesised by a technique comprising reduction followed by oxidation of a suitably chosen precursor gel. The hot pressed gel powders mixed with nanometre-sized copper particles ...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of the structural and magnetic properties of new uranium and copper-based silicides and germanides: study of the physical and hydridation properties of some compounds belonging to the Gd-Ni-X systems, where X = Ga, Al, Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechev, St.

    1998-01-01

    Three novel phases, U 3 Cu 4 Si 4 , U 3 Cu 4 Ge 4 and UCuGe 1,77 , were prepared in the U - Cu - X (X = Si or Ge) ternary system. Their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. The magnetic structures of the first two compounds were determined by neutron diffraction. Structural and magnetic behaviour transitions occur as copper substitutes silicon atoms in the UCu x Si 2-x (0,28 ≤ x ≤ 0,96) solid solution. Thus, the structure of the compositions changes in the α-ThSi 2 (tetragonal) → AlB 2 (hexagonal) → Ni 2 In(hexagonal) sequence while a transition from a nonmagnetic to ferromagnetic then antiferromagnetic behaviour is observed. The magnetic properties of the different compositions are governed by a Kondo - RKKY -type interactions competition. Crystallographic disorder and magnetic frustrations are at the origin of a spin glass state between the ferro- and antiferromagnetic areas. The investigations of the GdNi 3 X 2 (X =Ga, Al, Sn) compounds revealed that their structural and magnetic properties are strongly dependent on the nature of the X element as well as the on thermal treatment. A CaCu 5 → HoNi 2,6 Ga 2,4 - type structure transition and a ferro - to antiferromagnetic behaviour evolution are favoured by the increase of the X - atom size. A commensurate modulated crystal structure (described also as a a HoNi 2,6 Ga 2,4 x a HoNi 2,6 Ga 2,4 x 2c HoNi 2,6 Ga 2,4 -type superstructure) has been observed for GdNi 3 Al 2 . Hydrogen absorption in Gd 3 Ni 6 Al 2 and GdNi 3 Al 2 weakens the strength of the magnetic interactions. (author)

  3. Organocopper Compounds: From Elusive to Isolable Species, from Early Supramolecular Chemistry with RCuI Building Blocks to Mononuclear R2–nCuII and R3–mCuIII Compounds. A Personal View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koten, G.

    2012-01-01

    The first reports on copper-mediated organic reactions and speculations about the role of presumed organocopper compounds as intermediates or transient species date back to the early 20th century. Since that time, copper salt mediated and much later, copper-catalyzed C–X bond forming reactions (X =

  4. Study of copper fluorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.

    1967-02-01

    This report deals with the action of fluorine on copper. Comprehensive descriptions are given of the particular technological methods and of the preparation of the reactants. This fluorination reaction has been studied at medium and low fluorine pressures. A nucleation and growth phenomenon is described. The influence of a pollution of the gas phase on the fluorination process is described. The solid-state reaction between cupric fluoride and cooper has also been studied. A special study has been made of the growth of copper deposits by thermal decomposition of gaseous fluorides. (author) [fr

  5. Thermodynamic data for copper. Implications for the corrosion of copper under repository conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdomenech, I. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The stability of copper canisters has a central role in the safety concept for the planned nuclear spent fuel repository in Sweden. The corrosion of copper canisters will be influenced by the chemical and physical environment in the near-field of the repository, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations provide the basis for understanding this system. Thermodynamic data have been selected in this work for solids and aqueous species in the system: Cu - H{sub 2}O - H{sup +} - H{sub 2} - F{sup -} - Cl{sup -} - S{sup 2-} - SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} - NO{sub 3}{sup -} - NO{sub 2}{sup -} - NH{sub 4}{sup +} PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} - CO{sub 3}{sup 2+} . For some reactions and compounds, for which no experimental information on temperature effects was available, entropy and heat capacity values have been estimated. The compiled data were used to calculate thermodynamic equilibria for copper systems up to 100 deg C. The stability of copper in contact with granitic groundwaters has been illustrated using chemical equilibrium diagrams, with he following main conclusions: Dissolved sulphide and O{sub 2} in groundwater are the most damaging components for copper corrosion. If available, HS{sup -} will react quantitatively with copper to form a variety of sulphides. However, sulphide concentrations in natural waters are usually low, because it forms sparingly soluble solids with transition metals, including Fe(II), which is wide-spread in reducing environments. Chloride can affect negatively copper corrosion. High concentrations (e.g., [Cl{sup -}]TOT > 60 g/l) may be unfavourable for the general corrosion of copper in combination with in the following circumstances: Low pH (< 4 at 25 deg C, or < 5 at 100 deg C). The presence of other oxidants than H{sup +}. The negative effects of Cl{sup -} are emphasised at higher temperatures. The chloride-enhancement of general corrosion may be beneficial for localised corrosion: pitting and stress corrosion cracking. The concept of redox potential, E

  6. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  8. Creative Copper Crests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to create an art activity that would link the computer-created business cards of fourth-grade students with an upcoming school-wide medieval event. Creating family crests from copper foil would be a great connection, since they, like business cards, are an individual's way to identify themselves to others.…

  9. and copper(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (II) and copper(II)–zinc(II) complexes. SUBODH KUMAR1, R N PATEL1*, P V KHADIKAR1 and. K B PANDEYA2. 1 Department of Chemistry, APS University, Rewa 486 003, India. 2 CSJM University, Kanpur 208 016, India e-mail: (R N Patel) ...

  10. Reagent conditions of the flotation of copper, copper - molybdenum and copper -zinc ores in foreing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Reagents-collectors and frothers, used abroad in reagent regimes of flotation of copper, copper-molybdenum and copper zinc ores, have been considered. Xanthogenates, aerofloats, xanthogenformiates, thionocarbamates are mainly used as reagents-collectors. Methylizobutylcarbinol and Daufros are used as reagents-frothers

  11. Chronic intoxication with copper in sheep: prophylaxis and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomov, A

    1964-01-01

    In the period 1961-1962 chronic intoxication of sheep with copper was observed on 7 farms, the number of sheep totaling about 9000. In one of the flocks intoxication occurred after feeding the sheep for a long time with aftermath collected from orchards which had been sprinkled with copper compounds. The aftermath was proven to contain from 11 to 17 mg. per cent of copper. The other flocks were put to pasture in vineyards after the grapes had been gathered. Intoxication in these flocks was caused by vineleaves. No accumulation of copper through the soil was established in the investigated fresh grass found in the vineyards and which the sheep had also grazed. From 36 to 81 mg. per cent of copper was established in the livers of dead sheep. In order to protect the sheep from this intoxication, 100-200 mg. of ammonium or sodium molybdate and 5-10 g. of sodium sulfate were used in the case of each sheep daily for 2-3 weeks. The concentrated fodder of the sheep was moistened with an aqueous solution of these compounds. A very good prophylactic effect was obtained. At the same time oats, maize, oilcakes and others, which constitute a fodder rich in fats, were eliminated from the food rations of the sheep. The above substances, given at larger doses simultaneously with vitamin B/sub 12/ were also used for the treatment of diseased sheep, and of 10 ill sheep, 7 recovered.

  12. Solid state solubility of copper oxides in hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykin, Mikhail A.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Trusov, Lev A.; Dinnebier, Robert E.; Jansen, Martin; Kazin, Pavel E.

    2018-06-01

    Samples containing copper oxide doped hydroxyapatite with the composition Ca10(PO4)6(CuxOH1-x-δ)2, x = 0.054 - 0.582, in the mixture with CuO/Cu2O were prepared by a solid-state high-temperature treatment at varying annealing temperatures and at different partial water vapor and oxygen pressures. The crystal structures of the apatite compounds were refined using powder X-ray diffraction patterns and the content of copper ions x in the apatite was determined. Copper ions enter exclusively into the apatite trigonal channels formally substituting protons of OH-groups and the hexagonal cell parameters grow approximately linearly with x, the channel volume mostly expanding while the remaining volume of the crystal lattice changing only slightly. The equilibrium copper content in the apatite increases drastically, by almost a factor of 10 with the annealing temperature rising from 800° to 1200°C. The reduction of the water partial pressure leads to a further increase of x, while the dependence of x on the oxygen partial pressure exhibits a maximum. The observed relations are consistent with the proposed chemical reactions implying the copper introduction is followed by the release of a considerable quantity of gaseous products - water and oxygen. The analysis of interatomic distances suggests that the maximum content of copper ions in the channel cannot exceed 2/3.

  13. Identifying Marine Copper-Binding Ligands in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, H.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Maldonado, M. T.; Ouchi, S.; van den Berg, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Complexation reactions are important because they affect the bioavailability of trace metals such as copper and iron. For example, organic complexation can determine whether copper is a limiting or a toxic micronutrient at natural levels. Copper competes with iron for complexing ligands, and when iron is limiting, copper can also substitute for iron in some metabolic pathways. The speciation of copper can be measured using complexing capacity titrations, which provide the concentration of individual ligand classes (L1, L2 etc.) and the complex stabilities (log K). Using methods recently developed in our laboratory, we show that the ligands within these classes can be measured independently of titrations, thus confirming the titration method and simultaneously identifying the ligands within each class. Thiols were identified as the L1 ligand class and humic compounds as the weaker L2 class in samples from coastal Georgia, USA, collected monthly from April to December. Log K values of the ligand complexes were consistent with values expected for thiols and humic substances. Recent results from culture studies and from samples collected along Line P, a coastal - oceanic transect in the HNLC region of the NE subarctic Pacific, will be presented in comparison to the estuarine results. This comparison will help to broaden our perspective on copper complexation and the ligands responsible, furthering our understanding of ligand sources and life cycles.

  14. Copper(I) in fogwater: Determination and interactions with sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanbin Xue; Reutlinger, M.; Sigg, L.; Stumm, W. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Duebendorf (Switzerland)); Lurdes S. Goncalves, M. de (Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal))

    1991-10-01

    The copper(I)/(II) redox system was examined in fogwater with respect to the occurrence of Cu(I), the role of sulfite as a reductant of Cu(II) and as a complexing ligand, and the speciation of Cu(I) and Cu(II). Copper(I) was measured in fogwater by the bathocuproine method, which was evaluated for the conditions typically encountered in atmospheric water droplets. Concentrations of Cu(I) in the range 0.1-1 {mu}M were found, which represented between 4 and > 90% of the total copper in these samples. In experiments using concentration ranges of copper and S(IV) close to that of fogwater, the reduction of copper(II) to copper(I) by sulfite was shown to be pH-dependent and to occur rapidly at pH > 6. Calculations of the equilibrium complexation of Cu(I) and Cu(II) under fogwater conditions show that complexes of Cu(I) with sulfite predominate, while for Cu(II) oxalato complexes are important. Sulfite plays an important role as a ligand for Cu(I) in fogwater; Cu(I) may be produced by various reduction reactions, e.g., by organic compounds, and appears to be oxidized only slowly in the presence of S(IV).

  15. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors.

  16. Copper(II hydrogenphosphate, CuHPO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Stachel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CuHPO4, has been synthesized from a mixture of phosphoric acid and copper oxide. It has the same composition as MHPO4 (M = Ca, Ba, Pb, Sr or Sn, but adopts a rhombohedral structure with all atoms on general positions. The structure features distorted PO4 tetrahedra linked by copper, forming 12-membered rings. The CuII atom is coordinated by five O atoms in a distorted square-pyramidal manner. O—H...O hydrogen bonding leads to an additional stabilization of the structure.

  17. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  18. Determination of copper oxidizing power in superconducting yttrium ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontaler, R.P.; Lebed', N.B.

    1989-01-01

    A new photometric method for determining the formal copper degree of oxidation and oxygen deficiency in superconducting high-temperature oxides containing yttrium, barium and copper is developed. The method is based on oxidation of Co(2) complex with EDTA by Cu(3) ions in acetrate buffer solution with pH 4.2-4.7 and allows one to determine 1-10% of Cu(3). Relative standard deviation when determining Cu(3) makes up 0.03-0.05. Using a qualitative reaction with the application of sodium vanadate hydrochloride solution the absence of peroxide compound in superconducting yttrium ceramics is ascertained

  19. Bis[2-(cyclopentyliminomethyl-5-methoxyphenolato]copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Ji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu(C13H16NO22], is a mononuclear copper(II complex derived from the Schiff base ligand 2-(cyclopentyliminomethyl-5-methoxyphenol and copper acetate. The CuII atom is four-coordinated by the phenolate O atoms and imine N atoms from two Schiff base ligands, in a highly distorted square-planar geometry. The O- and N-donor atoms are mutually trans and the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings is 55.8 (3°.

  20. Detention of copper by sulfur nanoparticles inhibits the proliferation of A375 malignant melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yikai; Zheng, Shanyuan; Weng, Zeping; Ma, Jun; Li, Yangqiu; Xie, Xinyuan; Zheng, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Selective induction of cell death or growth inhibition of cancer cells is the future of chemotherapy. Clinical trials have found that cancer tissues are enriched with copper. Based on this finding, many copper-containing compounds and complexes have been designed to “copper” cancer cells using copper as bait. However, recent studies have demonstrated that copper boosts tumor development, and copper deprivation from serum was shown to effectively inhibit the promotion of cancer. Mechanistically, copper is an essential cofactor for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular activating kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), a central molecule in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Therefore, depleting copper from cancer cells by directly sequestering copper has a wider field for research and potential for combination therapy. Based on the affinity between sulfur and copper, we therefore designed sulfur nanoparticles (Nano-S) that detain copper, achieving tumor growth restriction. We found that spherical Nano-S could effectively bind copper and form a tighter surficial structure. Moreover, this Nano-S detention of copper effectively inhibited the proliferation of A375 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with minimum toxicity to normal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Nano-S triggered inactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway followed by inhibition of the proliferation of the A375 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, lower Nano-S concentrations and shorter exposure stimulated the expression of a copper transporter as compensation, which further increased the cellular uptake and anticancer activities of cisplatin. Collectively, our results highlight the potential of Nano-S as an anticancer agent or adjuvant through its detention of copper. - Highlights: • Nano-S selectively inhibited the mitosis of A375 and MCF-7 cells by depleting copper. • Nano-S inactivated MEK/ERK pathway through the detention of copper. • Nano-S improved the cellular uptake and anticancer activities

  1. Detention of copper by sulfur nanoparticles inhibits the proliferation of A375 malignant melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hao [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Yikai [Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Zheng, Shanyuan [School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Weng, Zeping; Ma, Jun [First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yangqiu [Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632 (China); Xie, Xinyuan [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Zheng, Wenjie, E-mail: tzhwj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-09-02

    Selective induction of cell death or growth inhibition of cancer cells is the future of chemotherapy. Clinical trials have found that cancer tissues are enriched with copper. Based on this finding, many copper-containing compounds and complexes have been designed to “copper” cancer cells using copper as bait. However, recent studies have demonstrated that copper boosts tumor development, and copper deprivation from serum was shown to effectively inhibit the promotion of cancer. Mechanistically, copper is an essential cofactor for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular activating kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK), a central molecule in the BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway. Therefore, depleting copper from cancer cells by directly sequestering copper has a wider field for research and potential for combination therapy. Based on the affinity between sulfur and copper, we therefore designed sulfur nanoparticles (Nano-S) that detain copper, achieving tumor growth restriction. We found that spherical Nano-S could effectively bind copper and form a tighter surficial structure. Moreover, this Nano-S detention of copper effectively inhibited the proliferation of A375 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells with minimum toxicity to normal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that Nano-S triggered inactivation of the MEK-ERK pathway followed by inhibition of the proliferation of the A375 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, lower Nano-S concentrations and shorter exposure stimulated the expression of a copper transporter as compensation, which further increased the cellular uptake and anticancer activities of cisplatin. Collectively, our results highlight the potential of Nano-S as an anticancer agent or adjuvant through its detention of copper. - Highlights: • Nano-S selectively inhibited the mitosis of A375 and MCF-7 cells by depleting copper. • Nano-S inactivated MEK/ERK pathway through the detention of copper. • Nano-S improved the cellular uptake and anticancer activities

  2. Search of a plant hiperacumuladora of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Colorado, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to find inside the flora of Costa Rica, a plant copper hiperacumuladora. Once identified the species, you would proceed to cultivate it in vitro, stops later to make experiments of copper absorption in vitro. If the selected species was capable of hiperacumular the metal, the influence of the agents quelantes sour etilendiaminotetraacetico would be investigated (EDTA) and citric acid, in the absorption of the metal. To carry out the investigation, vegetable species were collected inside the banana property Probana located in Limon and inside a coffee plantation in Carrizal de Alajuela. The dried vegetable samples were analyzed the copper content and in the same way, with collected floor samples of the surrounding area to the plants. As satisfactory results were not obtained, the species Tagetes foetidissima and Coccosypselum hirsutum were selected. The first one was selected with base in their metabolism, which allowed to synthesize sulfurated compounds. The second were selected with base in the available information in the literature about the aluminum hiperacumulation on the part of species belonging to the family Rubiaceae, to which it belongs. The species T. foetidissima and C. hirsutum, were cultivated in vitro stops later to make experiments of copper absorption. The results obtained starting from the experiments of copper absorption for T. foetidissima were of 3626 - 7402 mg kg -1 it has more than enough it bases dry, for an environment of concentration of the metal in the means of cultivation of 20-30 mg L -1 for a lapse of fifteen days. For this species an environment of accumulation of 4251 was obtained - 6481 mg kg -1 it has more than enough it bases dry, to 20 mg L -1 of the metal, when adding him EDTA to an experimentation group and citric acid to another. In the case of C. hirsutum, hiperacumulo gets paid in concentrations of 7648 - 8786 mg kg -1 it has more than enough it bases dry, for an environment of

  3. The Effect of Copper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment, where fishes are found, stuns them ... of earthen ponds are springing up near cocoa ... farm, which posses toxicological risk to farmed ... Veg. oil. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. 1.0. Copper sulphate 0. 1.0. 2.5. 5.0. 7.5. Total ..... Cellulase Production by Wild Strains of Aspergillus Niger, ... Mangrove Area of Lagos, Nigeria.

  4. Copper Pyrimidine based MOFs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesized hydrothermally in a 23-mL Teflon lined stainless steel bomb by heating copper(II) 2-pyrazinecarboxylate (31 mg, 0.1 mmol) and tin(II) iodide (75 mg, 0.2 mmol) in 4 mL water at 150±C for 24 h. The reaction vessel was subsequently cooled to 70±C at 1±C/min and held at that temperature for 6 h before returning ...

  5. Distribution and chemical forms of copper in the root cells of castor seedlings and their tolerance to copper phytotoxicity in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wei; Bao, Jianguo; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hongqin; Du, Jiangkun

    2015-05-01

    The subcellular localization and chemical forms of copper in castor (Ricinus communis L.) seedlings grown in hydroponic nutrient solution were identified by chemical extraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The wild castor seeds were harvested from an abandoned copper mine in Tonglu Mountain, Daye City of Hubei Province, China. The results revealed that (1) the seedlings grew naturally in MS liquid medium with 40.00 mg kg(-1) CuSO4, in which the seedling growth rate and biomass index were 0.14 and 1.23, respectively, which were the highest values among all the treatments. The copper content in castor seedlings increased along with elevated CuSO4 concentration in the medium, reaching a maximum value of 16 570.12 mg kg(-1)(DW) when exposed to 60.00 mg L(-1) CuSO4, where 91.31% of the copper was accumulated in roots. (2) The copper existed in various chemical forms in the roots of the castor seedlings. Copper of 67.66% was extracted from the components of cell walls, such as exchangeable acidic polar compounds, cellulose and lignin, protein and pectin, and less concentrated in cell cytoplasm and nuclei. (3) Furthermore, the root cell walls were thickened when the castor seedlings exposed to CuSO4, with a large amount of high-density electron bodies, attached to the thickened cell walls. In the cell walls, most copper was bound to the carboxyl (-COOH) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups of acidic polar compounds, cellulose, hemicellulose, and polysaccharides. The conclusion showed that castor exhibited a strong tolerance to copper, the copper were accumulated mainly in the root cell, the root cell walls of castor were the major location of patience and detoxification in copper stress.

  6. Supersonic copper clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, D.E.; Hansen, S.G.; Geusic, M.E.; Michalopoulos, D.L.; Smalley, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Copper clusters ranging in size from 1 to 29 atoms have been prepared in a supersonic beam by laser vaporization of a rotating copper target rod within the throat of a pulsed supersonic nozzle using helium for the carrier gas. The clusters were cooled extensively in the supersonic expansion [T(translational) 1 to 4 K, T(rotational) = 4 K, T(vibrational) = 20 to 70 K]. These clusters were detected in the supersonic beam by laser photoionization with time-of-flight mass analysis. Using a number of fixed frequency outputs of an exciplex laser, the threshold behavior of the photoionization cross section was monitored as a function of cluster size.nce two-photon ionization (R2PI) with mass selective detection allowed the detection of five new electronic band systems in the region between 2690 and 3200 A, for each of the three naturally occurring isotopic forms of Cu 2 . In the process of scanning the R2PI spectrum of these new electronic states, the ionization potential of the copper dimer was determined to be 7.894 +- 0.015 eV

  7. New data on the Hyrkkoelae U-Cu mineralization: the behaviour of native copper in a natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.; Ahonen, L.

    1999-05-01

    The Hyrkkoelae Cu-U mineralisation (SW Finland) is studied as an analogue to the behaviour of copper canister in crystalline bedrock. Uranium-native copper and uranium-copper corrosion products interactions are also addressed in this study. The integration of uranium series disequilibrium (USD) studies gives an estimate of the time-scales of the corrosion processes. The mineral assemblages native copper-copper sulfide, copper sulfides - copper iron sulfides, and native copper-copper oxide (cuprite) occur in open fractures at several depth intervals within granite pegmatites (GP). The surfaces of these open fractures have accumulations of uranophane crystals and other unidentified uranyl compounds. The secondary uranium minerals are mainly distributed around copper sulfide grains. Microscopic intergrowths of copper sulfides and uranyl compounds also have been observed. The surface of the fracture where native copper and cuprite occur is covered with uranium-rich smectite. The very low 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (0.29 - 0.39) in the main uranium fraction in smectite indicates chemical stable conditions (e.g., oxidising) during at least a time period comparable to the half-life of the 234 U isotope (T 1/2 = 2.44 x 10 5 a). Groundwater samples were collected from intervals where copper minerals occur within open fractures. The Eh and pH conditions were measured during long-term pumping (2-4 weeks per sample). Eh was measured both in situ and an the surface using three electrodes (Pt, Au, C). The actual groundwater conditions are oxidising and would not allow the sulfidization of native copper. Sulfidization may be considered as on old phenomenon, older than the precipitation of uranyl phases in the samples. The end of sulfidization may be earlier than the precipitation and/or remobilisation of U(VI) phases in a time span from about 2 x 10 5 years (precipitation of uranophane) to 2.44 x 10 5 (remobilisation of U from smectite). (orig.)

  8. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  9. Effect of weathering on chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood : leaching of metal salts and change in water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Stan Lebow; Patricia Lebow

    2003-01-01

    Wood pressure-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative is commonly used for outdoor construction. Oxides of arsenic, copper, and chromium are bound in the wood by a complex series of chemical reactions, but a small percentage of these compounds are gradually released by leaching and weathering. Recent studies suggest that the release of these...

  10. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  11. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchi Nenkova; Peter Velev; Mirela Dragnevska; Diyana Nikolova; Kiril Dimitrov

    2011-01-01

    Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of co...

  12. Copper tolerance in Becium homblei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, C; Stone, J

    1971-04-09

    Analyses show that Becium homblei has apparently no mechanism for limiting copper uptake. As growth proceeds, the concentration of metal increases in leaves and stems. Much of the copper is bound to structural material of the cells. There is a significant difference between the amount of extractable material in root and leaf tissues. These differences, in conjunction with the extrinsic factor of regular bush fires, were important factors in the evolution of this copper-resistant species of Becium. 9 references.

  13. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  14. Copper and copper-nickel-alloys - An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klassert, Anton; Tikana, Ladji [Deutsches Kupferinstitut e.V. Am Bonneshof 5, 40474 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    With the increasing level of industrialization the demand for and the number of copper alloys rose in an uninterrupted way. Today, the copper alloys take an important position amongst metallic materials due to the large variety of their technological properties and applications. Nowadays there exist over 3.000 standardized alloys. Copper takes the third place of all metals with a worldwide consumption of over 15 millions tons per year, following only to steel and aluminum. In a modern industrial society we meet copper in all ranges of the life (electro-technology, building and construction industry, mechanical engineering, automotive, chemistry, offshore, marine engineering, medical applications and others.). Copper is the first metal customized by humanity. Its name is attributed to the island Cyprus, which supplied in the antiquity copper to Greece, Rome and the other Mediterranean countries. The Romans called it 'ore from Cyprus' (aes cyprium), later cuprum. Copper deposited occasionally also dapper and could be processed in the recent stone age simply by hammering. Already in early historical time copper alloys with 20 to 50 percent tin was used for the production of mirrors because of their high reflecting power. Although the elementary nickel is an element discovered only recently from a historical perspective, its application in alloys - without any knowledge of the alloy composition - occurred at least throughout the last 2.000 years. The oldest copper-nickel coin originates from the time around 235 B.C.. Only around 1800 AD nickel was isolated as a metallic element. In particular in the sea and offshore technology copper nickel alloys found a broad field of applications in piping systems and for valves and armatures. The excellent combination of characteristics like corrosion resistance, erosion stability and bio-fouling resistance with excellent mechanical strength are at the basis of this success. An experience of many decades supports the use

  15. Influence of oxygen, albumin and pH on copper dissolution in a simulated uterine fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, D M; Cano, E; Mora, E M

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the influence of albumin content, from 5 to 45 g/L, on copper dissolution and compounds composition in a simulated uterine solution. Experiments were performed in atmospheric pressure conditions and with an additional oxygen pressure of 0.2 atmospheres, at 6.3 and 8.0 pH values, and at a temperature of 37 +/- 0.1 degrees C for 1, 3, 7, and 30 days experimentation time. The copper dissolution rate has been determined using absorbance measurements, finding the highest value for pH 8.0, 35 g/L albumin, and with an additional oxygen pressure of 0.2 atmospheres: 674 microg/day for 1 day, and 301 microg/day for 30 days. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show copper(II) as the main copper oxidation state at pH 8.0; and copper(I) and metallic copper at pH 6.3. The presence of albumin up to 35 g/L, accelerates copper dissolution. For high albumin content a stabilisation on the copper dissolution takes place. Corrosion product layer morphology is poorly protective, showing paths through which copper ions can release.

  16. [Exposure to metal compounds in occupational galvanic processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgiewicz, Jolanta; Domański, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Occupational galvanic processes are provided in more than 600 small and medium enterprises in Poland. Workers who deal with galvanic coating are exposed to heavy metal compounds: tin, silver, copper and zinc. Some of them are carcinogenic, for example, hexavalent chromium compounds, nickel and cadmium compounds. Research covered several tens of workstations involved in chrome, nickel, zinc, tin, silver, copper and cadmium plating. Compounds of metals present in the air were determined: Cr, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ag--by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) and Zn--by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (F-AAS). The biggest metal concentrations--of silver and copper--were found at workstations of copper, brass, cadmium, nickel and chrome plating, conducted at the same time. Significant concentrations of copper were found at workstations of maintenance bathing and neutralizing of sewage. The concentrations of metals did not exceed Polish MAC values. MAC values were not exceeded for carcinogenic chromium(VI), nickel or cadmium, either. In galvanic processes there was no hazard related to single metals or their compounds, even carcinogenic ones. Combined exposure indicators for metals at each workstation did not exceed 1, either. However, if there are even small quantities of carcinogenic agents, health results should always be taken into consideration.

  17. Effect of oral contraceptive progestins on serum copper concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Kohlmeier, L; Brenner, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown an increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases in people with higher serum copper levels. Even though higher serum copper concentration in women using oral contraceptives is well known, there is still uncertainty about the influence of newer...... progestin compounds in oral contraceptives on serum copper concentration. This issue is of particular interest in the light of recent findings of an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in users of oral contraceptives containing newer progestins like desogestrel compared to users of other oral...... contraceptives. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Examinations included a detailed questionnaire on medical history and lifestyle factors, a seven day food record, and blood samples. SETTING: National health and nutrition survey among healthy people living in private homes in West Germany in 1987...

  18. Toxicities of triclosan, phenol, and copper sulfate in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumegen, Rosalind A; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; Chisti, Yusuf

    2005-04-01

    The effect of toxicants on the BOD degradation rate constant was used to quantitatively establish the toxicity of triclosan, phenol, and copper (II) against activated sludge microorganisms. Toxicities were tested over the following ranges of concentrations: 0-450 mg/L for phenol, 0-2 mg/L for triclosan, and 0-35 mg/L for copper sulfate (pentahydrate). According to the EC(50) values, triclosan was the most toxic compound tested (EC(50) = 1.82 +/- 0.1 mg/L), copper (II) had intermediate toxicity (EC(50) = 18.3 +/- 0.37 mg/L), and phenol was the least toxic (EC(50) = 270 +/- 0.26 mg/L). The presence of 0.2% DMSO had no toxic effect on the activated sludge. The toxicity evaluation method used was simple, reproducible, and directly relevant to activated sludge wastewater treatment processes.

  19. Spectrographic determination of impurities in copper and copper oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Lordello, A.R.

    1990-11-01

    An emission spectrographic method for the determination of Al, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Fe, Ge, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn and Zn in copper and copper oxide is described. Two mixtures (Graphite and ZnO: graphite and GeO sub(2)) were used as buffers. The standard deviation lies around 10%. (author)

  20. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fascinating supramolecular architecture. Electrochemical ... hybrid materials attract great attention in the fields of crystal ... erful potential applications in various areas, such as nonlinear ... Transition metal elements of ruthenium, iron, plat- inum ...

  1. Chitosan and Laminarin as Alternatives to Copper for Plasmopara viticola Control: Effect on Grape Amino Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; Mancini, V; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Servili, A; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Foglia, R; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Romanazzi, G

    2017-08-30

    Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids. Moreover, treatments that have mostly decreased these compounds are those with copper hydroxide, especially when applied individually. LamE applied individually or alternately with copper hydroxide had the least negative effect on grape amino acid content. These results provide further information about the negative effects of copper on grape quality, which can be reduced when it is used in strategy with LamE or chitosan in GDM control.

  2. Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate Induced by Photochemical Reduction of Various Copper Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mosnáček

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Photochemically mediated reversible-deactivation radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate was successfully performed using 50–400 ppm of various copper compounds such as CuSO4·5H2O, copper acetate, copper triflate and copper acetylacetonate as catalysts. The copper catalysts were reduced in situ by irradiation at wavelengths of 366–546 nm, without using any additional reducing agent. Bromopropionitrile was used as an initiator. The effects of various solvents and the concentration and structure of ligands were investigated. Well-defined polymers were obtained when at least 100 or 200 ppm of any catalyst complexed with excess tris(2-pyridylmethylamine as a ligand was used in dimethyl sulfoxide as a solvent.

  3. Modification of polycrystalline copper by proton irradiation; Modificacion de cobre policristalino por irradiacion con protones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, F.; Cabral P, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Hipodromo Condesa, 06100 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saniger B, J.M.; Banuelos, J.G. [UNAM Centro de Instrumentos, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Barragan V, A. [UNAM Instituto de Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Polished copper samples were irradiated with proton beams of 300 and 700 keV at room temperature and at -150 Centigrade. In this work the obtained results are reported when such copper irradiated samples are analysed with Sem, Tem, AFM. The Sem micrographs showed evident changes in surface of these copper samples, therefore an EDAX microanalysis was done for its characterization. additionally, the Tem micrographs showed heaps formation until 200 nm. Its electron diffraction spectra indicated that these heaps consist of a copper compound. Finally with AFM were observed changes in coloration of the irradiated sample surface, as well as changes in texture and rugosity of them. These results show in general that irradiation process with protons which is known as an innocuo process produces changes in the copper properties. (Author)

  4. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  5. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  6. Copper patinas formed in different atmospheres and exposure times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, V.M.M.; Almeida, M.E.; Balmayor, M.; Tomas, H.M.L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric corrosion products in copper samples, known as patinas, formed in industrial-marine, severe-marine and rural atmospheres exposed for 1,2,3, and 4 years, have been studied. The nature and structure of the products formed, characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR) depend on the time of exposure and the type of atmosphere. Copper patinas have been extensively mentioned in the literature, but the structural nature of their compounds, which vary according to the time of exposure and types of atmospheres, is still not adequately described in the literature. In order to give a contribution to this area, copper panels were exposed for 1,2,3, and 4 years in different types of atmospheres representing situations commonly observed, and subsequently the patinas were studied by XRD and FTIR 150 mm x 1 mm copper panels from commercial copper were exposed to three different atmospheric conditions in Portugal: industrial-marine (Leixoes, near Oporto, highly industrialized city close to the Ocean, subject to SO 2 from refineries); rural (Pego, small village in rural environment). The panels, attached to the appropriate stands, in accordance with ISO 8565 (1), were exposed for periods of 1,2,3 and 4 years, adequately collected for laboratory analysis by infrared spectrometry (FTIR). (Author)

  7. Synthesis and thermal behavior of double copper and potassium pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciopec, Mihaela; Muntean, Cornelia; Negrea, Adina; Lupa, Lavinia; Negrea, Petru; Barvinschi, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis and thermal behavior of double copper and potassium pyrophosphate, which can be used as a PK fertilizer containing copper as micronutrient. In order to find the conditions for the synthesis of this compound from copper sulphate and potassium pyrophosphate, various Cu 2+ :P 2 O 7 4- molar ratios (0:1-2:1), various molar concentrations of the solutions (0.075; 0.1; 0.15 and 0.2 mol L -1 ) and various temperatures (25, 50, 75 and 100 o C) have been used. The solid product synthesized in optimum conditions for the separation of micronutrient copper from the reaction mass (Cu 2+ :P 2 O 7 4- molar ratio 1:1, concentration 0.1 mol L -1 ) was subjected to a complex study: chemical analysis, thermal analysis, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. During heating up to 1000 o C, K 2 Cu 3 (P 2 O 7 ) 2 .3H 2 O loses the crystallization water; several transformations of the phosphates also take place: the decomposition of pyrophosphates to ortho-phosphates; the transformation of ortho-phosphates; the polymerization of a fraction of ortho-phosphates to amorphous phosphates with longer chains; the reorganization of ortho-phosphates and poly-phosphates to pyrophosphates and their crystallization. The decomposition mechanism was confirmed when using the X-ray diffraction patterns of the compound, thermally treated at several temperatures.

  8. Comparative effects of cobalt, nickel and copper on plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, W E

    1938-11-01

    An account is given of the present position of our knowledge with regard to the distribution and the physiological importance of nickel and cobalt, in relation to plants and animals. Experiments on barley and broad beans were carried out in water cultures with the sulfates and chlorides of cobalt, nickel and copper. In every case a range of low concentrations did little or no damage, but toxic action occurred abruptly above a concentration which varied with the species and with the compound. With barley, copper was the most poisonous element in either compound, but the differences were not striking. Low concentrations of the sulfate were innocuous, but parallel low strengths of the chloride caused a slight, significant depression in growth. With broad beans, cobalt was much more poisonous than either nickel or copper, particularly with the sulfate. No slight depression with low concentrations of the chloride was noticeable with this species. The morphological response to toxicity varied with the element concerned. Copper, in poisonous strengths, caused shortening and bunching of barley roots, whereas nickel and cobalt permitted the growth of elongated roots of a very attenuated nature. The individuality of plant response to poison was frequently shown by the great variation in growth in the borderline concentrations just below those which caused marked depression of growth.

  9. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  10. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Organic Chemistry. Kamatak University,. Dharwad. Her research interests are synthesis, reactions and synthetic utility of sydnones. She is currently working on electrochemical and insecticidal/antifungal activities for some of these compounds. Keywords. Aromaticity, mesoionic hetero- cycles, sydnones, tandem re- actions.

  11. Copper: From neurotransmission to neuroproteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Opazo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is critical for the Central Nervous System (CNS development and function. In particular, different studies have shown the effect of copper at brain synapses, where it inhibits Long Term Potentation (LTP and receptor pharmacology. Paradoxically, according to recent studies copper is required for a normal LTP response. Copper is released at the synaptic cleft, where it blocks glutamate receptors, which explain its blocking effects on excitatory neurotransmission. Our results indicate that copper also enhances neurotransmission through the accumulation of PSD95 protein, which increase the levels of AMPA receptors located at the plasma membrane of the post-synaptic density. Thus, our findings represent a novel mechanism for the action of copper, which may have implications for the neurophysiology and neuropathology of the CNS. These data indicate that synaptic configuration is sensitive to transient changes in transition metal homeostasis. Our results suggest that copper increases GluA1 subunit levels of the AMPA receptor through the anchorage of AMPA receptors to the plasma membrane as a result of PSD-95 accumulation. Here, we will review the role of copper on neurotransmission of CNS neurons. In addition, we will discuss the potential mechanisms by which copper could modulate neuronal proteostasis (neuroproteostasis in the CNS with focus in the Ubiquitin Proteasome System, which is particularly relevant to neurological disorders such Alzheimer’s disease (AD where copper and protein dyshomeostasis may contribute to neurodegeneration. An understanding of these mechanisms may ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches to control metal and synaptic alterations observed in AD patients.

  12. Advanced Copper Composites Against Copper-Tolerant Xanthomonas perforans and Tomato Bacterial Spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer-Scherer, A; Liao, Y Y; Young, M; Ritchie, L; Vallad, G E; Santra, S; Freeman, J H; Clark, D; Jones, J B; Paret, M L

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a widespread and damaging bacterial disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). For disease management, growers rely on copper bactericides, which are often ineffective due to the presence of copper-tolerant Xanthomonas strains. This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the new copper composites core-shell copper (CS-Cu), multivalent copper (MV-Cu), and fixed quaternary ammonium copper (FQ-Cu) as potential alternatives to commercially available micron-sized copper bactericides for controlling copper-tolerant Xanthomonas perforans. In vitro, metallic copper from CS-Cu and FQ-Cu at 100 μg/ml killed the copper-tolerant X. perforans strain within 1 h of exposure. In contrast, none of the micron-sized copper rates (100 to 1,000 μg/ml) from Kocide 3000 significantly reduced copper-tolerant X. perforans populations after 48 h of exposure compared with the water control (P copper-based treatments killed the copper-sensitive X. perforans strain within 1 h. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that all copper composites significantly reduced bacterial spot disease severity when compared with copper-mancozeb and water controls (P copper composites significantly reduced disease severity when compared with water controls, using 80% less metallic copper in comparison with copper-mancozeb in field studies (P copper composites have the potential to manage copper-tolerant X. perforans and tomato bacterial spot.

  13. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  14. XPS investigation of copper corrosion in hydro-carbonate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieber, I.; Hildebrand, H.; Schmuki, P. [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Kaluzhina, S.A. [Voronezh State University, University Sq.1, 394006 Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Problems of corrosion and effective methods of metal protection are still actual in the present days. Special interest is in copper material, which as basic component of heat exchanger constructions can corrode in contact with carbonate water. The intensity of the corrosion destruction depends on the carbon water concentration and thermal conditions in the system. The present paper provides new insights into the role of the HCO{sub 3}{sup -} - ions in the corrosion process of copper. Copper samples after anodic oxidation in 0.02 and 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} have been studied using XPS and SEM. The presence of carbonate compounds in the passive film in 0.1 M NaHCO{sub 3} was established by XPS analysis all over the surface. These compounds are responsible for the protective character of the passive film towards local destruction. In the 0.02 M NaHCO{sub 3} electrolyte carbonate compounds were not found at places of pit formation after multi-cycling of the sample. (authors)

  15. Pitting corrosion of copper. Further model studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxen, C.

    2002-08-01

    The work presented in this report is a continuation and expansion of a previous study. The aim of the work is to provide background information about pitting corrosion of copper for a safety analysis of copper canisters for final deposition of radioactive waste. A mathematical model for the propagation of corrosion pits is used to estimate the conditions required for stationary propagation of a localised anodic corrosion process. The model uses equilibrium data for copper and its corrosion products and parameters for the aqueous mass transport of dissolved species. In the present work we have, in the model, used a more extensive set of aqueous and solid compounds and equilibrium data from a different source. The potential dependence of pitting in waters with different compositions is studied in greater detail. More waters have been studied and single parameter variations in the composition of the water have been studied over wider ranges of concentration. The conclusions drawn in the previous study are not contradicted by the present results. However, the combined effect of potential and water composition on the possibility of pitting corrosion is more complex than was realised. In the previous study we found what seemed to be a continuous aggravation of a pitting situation by increasing potentials. The present results indicate that pitting corrosion can take place only over a certain potential range and that there is an upper potential limit for pitting as well as a lower. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the model gives meaningful predictions of the minimum pitting potential also when relatively large errors in the input parameters are allowed for

  16. 21 CFR 73.1647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.1647 Section 73.1647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1647 Copper powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive copper powder is a very fine free-flowing metallic powder prepared from virgin electrolytic copper. It...

  17. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (<1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  18. Copper uptake and retention in liver parenchymal cells isolated from nutritionally copper-deficient rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.J. van den; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bock, I.; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Brouwer, A.; Lei, K.Y.; Hendruiks, H.F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Copper uptake and retention were studied in primary cultures of liver parenchymal cells isolated from copper-deficient rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a copper-deficient diet (< 1 mg Cu/kg) for 10 wk. Copper-deficient rats were characterized by low copper concentrations in plasma and liver,

  19. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  20. Copper naphthenate: an update and status report on an effective wood pole and crossarm preservative for Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation was three-fold: (1) tp provide information on copper naphthenate and treated wood, (2) to demonstrate that copper naphthenate is an excellent choice for wood poles, and (3) to provide an evaluation of copper naphthenate-treated poles in service. The author proceeded by describing the nature of naphthenic acid and copper naphthenate. Only those petroleum-based alicyclic carboxylic acids with acid numbers between 180-250 milligram KOH/gram. The author specified that two samples produced in Europe and Australia contain either naphthenic acid blends or 100 per cent synthetic acids, which could result in reduced preservatives performance. As for copper naphthenate, it is produced by the reaction of naphthenic acid and copper compounds. A drawing of the molecule was displayed. The toxicity for humans is low, minimal to avian, and moderate to high aquatic toxicity. Discovered in the late 1800s, copper naphthenate is used for pressure and non-pressure treatment, and the anticipated annual growth rate is 5 per cent. The regulatory status of copper naphthenate was described in both the United States and Canada. Results from field skate decay measurements were presented. The author concluded by stating that copper naphthenate is an excellent choice, recognized for its performance and efficacy. It is considered as an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) unrestricted use pesticide, imposes minimal regulatory requirements on treaters and users, and there are no federal disposal restrictions. Copper naphthenate is a safe and effective wood preservative. refs., figs.

  1. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Gallium and copper radionuclides have a long history of use in nuclear medicine. Table 1 presents the nuclear properties of several gallium and copper isotopes that either are used in the routine practice of clinical nuclear medicine or exhibit particular characteristics that might make them useful in diagnostic or therapeutic medicine. This paper will provide some historic perspective along with an overview of some current research directions in gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry. A more extensive review of gallium radiopharmaceutical chemistry has recently appeared and can be consulted for a more in-depth treatment of this topic

  2. Brazing Inconel 625 Using the Copper Foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Cheng-Yen; Shiue, Ren-Kae

    2013-12-01

    Brazing Inconel 625 (IN-625) using the copper foil has been investigated in this research. The brazed joint is composed of nanosized CrNi3 precipitates and Cr/Mo/Nb/Ni quaternary compound in the Cu/Ni-rich matrix. The copper filler 50 μm in thickness is enough for the joint filling. However, the application of Cu foil 100 μm in thickness has little effect on the shear strength of the brazed joint. The specimen brazed at 1433 K (1160 °C) for 1800 seconds demonstrates the best shear strength of 470 MPa, and its fractograph is dominated by ductile dimple fracture with sliding marks. Decreasing the brazing temperature slightly decreases the shear strength of the brazed joint due to the presence of a few isolated solidification shrinkage voids smaller than 15 μm. Increasing the brazing temperature, especially for the specimen brazed at 1473 K (1200 °C), significantly deteriorates the shear strength of the joint below 260 MPa because of coalescence of isothermal solidification shrinkage voids in the joint. The Cu foil demonstrates potential in brazing IN-625 for industrial application.

  3. Bis(morpholine) hydrogen bond pincer - a novel series of heteroleptic Cu(II) coordination compounds as receptors for electron rich guests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stilinovic, Vladimir; Uzarevic, Krunoslav; Cvrtila, Ivica; Kaitner, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Crystallisation from morpholine (morph) solutions of copper(II) salts with monovalent anions (A) and 1,3-diketones (Hdkt) yielded nine heteroleptic coordination compounds [Cu(dkt)(morph)(2)A]. The coordination polyhedron of the copper ion in these compounds is a square pyramid with a monovalent

  4. Copper tailings in stucco mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Pavez

    Full Text Available Abstract This investigation addressed the evaluation of the use of copper tailings in the construction industry in order to reduce the impact on the environment. The evaluation was performed by a technical comparison between stucco mortars prepared with crushed conventional sand and with copper tailings sand. The best results were achieved with the stucco mortars containing tailings. The tailings presented a fine particles size distribution curve different from that suggested by the standard. The values of compressive strength, retentivity, and adherence in the stucco mortars prepared with copper tailings were much higher than those obtained with crushed sand. According to the results from this study, it can be concluded that the preparation of stucco mortars using copper tailings replacing conventional sand is a technically feasible alternative for the construction industry, presenting the benefit of mitigating the impact of disposal to the environment.

  5. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, with nominal formula Cu(2)ScZr(PO(4))(3), has a beige coloration and displays fast Cu(+) cation conduction at elevated temperatures. It adopts a NASICON-type structure in the space group R3c. The examined crystal was an obverse-reverse twin with approximately equal twin compon...

  6. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  7. Copper atomic-scale transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fangqing; Kavalenka, Maryna N; Röger, Moritz; Albrecht, Daniel; Hölscher, Hendrik; Leuthold, Jürgen; Schimmel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ) in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate). The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and -170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes ( U bias ) influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1 G 0 ( G 0 = 2e 2 /h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck's constant) or 2 G 0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  8. Atmospheric corrosion effects on copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franey, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Studies have been performed on the naturally formed patina on various copper samples. Samples have been obtained from structures at AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (40,2,1 and <1 yr) and the Statue of Liberty (100 yr). The samples show a distinct layering effect, that is, the copper base material shows separate oxide and basic sulfate layers on all samples, indicating that patina is not a homogeneous mixture of oxides and basic sulfates

  9. Chronic copper poisoning in lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D B

    1964-08-08

    This communication presented evidence of the elevation of plasma GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase or aspartate transaminase) concentration during the development of copper toxicity in some experimental lambs, and also demonstrated that plasma GOT concentration can be used to assess the course of the disease during treatment. A group of Kerry Hill lambs were fed 1 1/2 lb per day of a proprietary concentrate containing 40 parts of copper per million on a dry-matter basis in addition to hay and water ad lib. Data was included for the plasma GOT concentrations of the lambs, bled weekly after weaning from pasture to this diet. There was some variation between the individual lambs, and in one there was no increase in plasma GOT by the 20th week when all the surviving lambs were slaughtered. The concentrations of copper found in the caudate lobe of the liver and in the kidney cortex post mortem were given. The overall findings showed that the liver gave a reliable indication of the copper status of an animal whereas the kidney cortex copper concentration was a better criterion for the diagnosis of copper poisoning and was in agreement with the results of Eden, Todd, and Grocey and Thompson. Observations demonstrated the benefits resulting from the early diagnosis of chronic copper poisoning in lambs, when treatment of affected animals may be commenced before the haemolytic crisis develops. Treatment included reducing the copper intake and dosing with ammonium molybdate and sodium sulfate, and the plasma GOT concentration may be used to assess the rate of recovery. 4 references, 3 tables.

  10. Study of Selected Composites Copper Concentrate-Plastic Waste Using Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents thermal analysis of selected composites (copper concentrate, plastic waste) in two stages. The first stage consisted in thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis on the applied plastic waste and copper concentrate, and subsequently, a comparative study has been carried out on products obtained, constituting composites of those materials. As a result of analyses, it was found that up to ca. 400 °C composites show high thermal stability, whereas above that temperature, a thermal decomposition of the composite occurs, resulting in emissions of organic compounds, i.e. hydrocarbon compounds and organic oxygenate derivatives.

  11. Copper sulphate poisoning in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M

    1975-01-01

    In the archives of the Clinic for Internal Diseases of Domestic Animals at the Veterinary Faculty of Zagreb University some thirty cases of horse disease diagnosed as copper sulphate poisoning were noted. The data correspond in many respects to the clinical findings of copper sulphate poisoning in other domestic animals. A series of experimental horse poisonings were undertaken in order to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate. The research results are as follows: Horses are sensitive to copper sulphate. Even a single application of 0.125 g/kg body weight in 1% concentration by means of incubation into the stomach causes stomach and gut disturbances and other poisoning symptoms. Poisoning occurs in two types: acute and chronic. The former appears after one to three applications of copper sulphate solution and is characterized by gastroenteritis, haemolysis, jaundice and haemoglobinuria with signs of consecutive damage of kidney, liver and other organs. The disease, from the first application to death lasts for two weeks. Chronic poisoning is caused by ingestion of dry copper sulphate in food (1% solution dried on hay or clover) for two or more months. There are chronic disturbances of stomach and gut and loss of weight, and consecutive (three to four) haemolytic crises similar to those of acute poisoning. From the beginning of poisoning to death six or more months can elapse.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  13. Genome Sequences of Two Copper-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Copper-Fed Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Freja L.; Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances.......The draft genome sequences of two copper-resistant Escherichia coli strains were determined. These had been isolated from copper-fed pigs and contained additional putative operons conferring copper and other metal and metalloid resistances....

  14. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M.; Smith, S.; Mercer, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and 67 Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  15. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-01-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76 Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76 Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76 Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  17. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  19. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  20. Copper metallurgy at the crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habashi F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper technology changed from the vertical to the horizontal furnace and from the roast reaction to converting towards the end of the last century. However, the horizontal furnace proved to be an inefficient and polluting reactor. As a result many attempts were made to replace it. In the past 50 years new successful melting processes were introduced on an industrial scale that were more energy efficient and less polluting. In addition, smelting and converting were conducted in a single reactor in which the concentrate was fed and the raw copper was produced. The standing problem in many countries, however, is marketing 3 tonnes of sulfuric acid per tonne of copper produced as well as emitting large amounts of excess SO2 in the atmosphere. Pressure hydrometallurgy offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. Heap leaching technology has become a gigantic operation. Combined with solvent extraction and electrowinning it contributes today to about 20% of copper production and is expected to grow. Pressure leaching offers the possibility of liberating the copper industry from SO2 problem. The technology is over hundred years old. It is applied for leaching a variety of ores and concentrates. Hydrothermal oxidation of sulfide concentrates has the enormous advantage of producing elemental sulfur, hence solving the SO2 and sulfuric acid problems found in smelters. Precipitation of metals such as nickel and cobalt under hydrothermal conditions has been used for over 50 years. It has the advantage of a compact plant but the disadvantage of producing ammonium sulfate as a co-product. In case of copper, however, precipitation takes place without the need of neutralizing the acid, which is a great advantage and could be an excellent substitute for electrowinning which is energy intensive and occupies extensive space. Recent advances in the engineering aspects of pressure equipment design open the door widely for increased

  1. Assessment of strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato from Tanzania for resistance to copper and streptomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Wydra, K.; Mabagala, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-six strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (P.s. pv. tomato) were collected from tomato-producing areas in Tanzania and assessed for resistance to copper and antibiotics. The collection was done from three tomato-producing regions (Morogoro, Arusha and Iringa), representing three...... different ecological conditions in the country. After isolation and identification, the P. s. pv. tomato strains were grown on King's medium B (KB) amended with 20% copper sulphate (w/v). The strains were also assessed for resistance to antibiotics. Results indicated that there was widespread resistance...... strains of the pathogen were moderately resistant to copper sulphate, such that 54.0% of them were able to grow on the KB medium amended with 20% (w/v) of the copper compound....

  2. Investigation of copper nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    An extensive study has been performed on copper isotopes in the mass region A=63-66. The results of a precise measurement are presented on the properties of levels of 64 Cu and 66 Cu. They were obtained by bombarding the 63 Cu and 65 Cu nuclei with neutrons. The gamma spectra collected after capture of thermal, 2-keV, 24-keV neutrons have been analysed and combined to give a rather extensive set of precise level energies and gamma transition strengths. From the angular distribution of the gamma rays it is possible to obtain information concerning the angular momentum J of several low-lying states. The level schemes derived from such measurements have been used as a test for calculations in the framework of the shell model. The spectral distributions of eigenstates in 64 Cu for different configuration spaces are presented and discussed. In this study the relative importance of configurations with n holes in the 1f7/2 shell with n up to 16, are investigated. It is found that the results strongly depend on the values of the single-particle energies. The results of the spectral-distribution method were utilized for shell-model calculations. From the information obtained from the spectral analysis it was decided to adopt a configuration space which includes up to one hole in the 1f7/2 shell and up to two particles in the 1g9/2 shell. Further, restrictions on seniority and on the coupling of the two particles in the 1g9/2 orbit have been applied and their effects have been studied. It is found that the calculated excitation energies reproduce the measured values in a satisfactory way, but that some of the electromagnetic properties are less well in agreement with experimental data. (Auth.)

  3. LIGNOCELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITE CONTAINING COPPER SULFIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchi Nenkova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-containing lignocellulose nanocomposites with improved electroconductivity were obtained. Two methods for preparing the copper sulfide lignocellulose nanocomposites were developed. An optimization of the parameters for obtaining of the nanocomposites with respect to obtaining improved electroconductivity, economy, and lower quantities and concentration of copper and sulfur ions in waste waters was conducted. The mechanisms and schemes of delaying and subsequent connection of copper sulfides in the lignocellulosic matrix were investigated. The modification with a system of 2 components: cupric sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4. 5H2O and sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate (Na2S2O3.5H2O for wood fibers is preferred. Optimal parameters were established for the process: 40 % of the reduction system; hydromodule M=1:6; and ratio of cupric sulfate pentahydrate:sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate = 1:2. The coordinative connection of copper ions with oxygen atoms of cellulose OH groups and aromatic nucleus in lignin macromolecule was observed.

  4. Current trends in copper theft prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrofrancesco, A. [Electrical Safety Authority, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Copper is used in electrical wiring, water and gas piping, currency, and in household items. An increase in the price and demand for copper has made copper theft a profitable venture for some thieves. Copper consumed in North America is typically supplied by recycling. Scrap dealers may pay near-market prices for pure copper wires. However, copper theft poses a serious threat to the safety of utility workers and the public. Power outages caused by copper theft are now affecting grid reliability. This paper examined technologies and techniques used to prevent copper theft as part of a security strategy for utilities. Attempts to steal copper can leave utility substations unsecured and accessible to children. The theft of neutral grounds will cause the local distribution company (LDC) to malfunction and may cause power surges in homes as well as appliance fires. Utilities are now looking at using a hybrid steel and copper alternative to prevent copper theft. Asset identification techniques are also being used to identify the original owners of the copper and more easily prosecute thieves. Automated monitoring techniques are also being used to increase substation security. Utilities are also partnering with law enforcement agencies and pressuring governments to require scrap dealers to record who they buy from. It was concluded that strategies to prevent copper theft should be considered as part of an overall security strategy for utilities. tabs., figs.

  5. Determination of copper in powdered chocolate samples by slurry-sampling flame atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Silva, Erik G.P. da; Fernandes, Marcelo S.; Araujo, Rennan G.O.; Costa, Anto' ' enio C.S.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Nucleo de Excelencia em Quimica Analitica da Bahia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Quimica, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Vale, M.G.R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2005-06-01

    Chocolate is a complex sample with a high content of organic compounds and its analysis generally involves digestion procedures that might include the risk of losses and/or contamination. The determination of copper in chocolate is important because copper compounds are extensively used as fungicides in the farming of cocoa. In this paper, a slurry-sampling flame atomic-absorption spectrometric method is proposed for determination of copper in powdered chocolate samples. Optimization was carried out using univariate methodology involving the variables nature and concentration of the acid solution for slurry preparation, sonication time, and sample mass. The recommended conditions include a sample mass of 0.2 g, 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid solution, and a sonication time of 15 min. The calibration curve was prepared using aqueous copper standards in 2.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. This method allowed determination of copper in chocolate with a detection limit of 0.4 {mu}g g{sup -1} and precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), of 2.5% (n=10) for a copper content of approximately 30 {mu}g g{sup -1}, using a chocolate mass of 0.2 g. The accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1568a rice flour and NIES CRM 10-b rice flour. The proposed method was used for determination of copper in three powdered chocolate samples, the copper content of which varied between 26.6 and 31.5 {mu}g g{sup -1}. The results showed no significant differences with those obtained after complete digestion, using a t-test for comparison. (orig.)

  6. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions

  7. Rapid Microwave-Assisted Copper-Catalyzed Nitration of Aromatic Halides with Nitrite Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Seung Uk; Jung, Myoung Geun [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A rapid and efficient copper-catalyzed nitration of aryl halides has been established under microwave irradiation. The catalytic systems were found to be the most effective with 4-substituted aryl iodides leading to nearly complete conversions. Nitration of aromatic compounds is one of the important industrial processes as underlying intermediates in the manufacture of a wide range of chemicals such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and explosives. General methods for the nitration of aromatic compounds utilize strongly acidic conditions employing nitric acid or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, sometimes leading to problems with poor regioselectivity, overnitration, oxidized byproducts and excess acid waste in many cases of functionalized aromatic compounds. Several other nitrating agents or methods avoiding harsh reaction conditions have been explored using metal nitrates, nitrite salts, and ionic liquid-mediated or microwave-assisted nitrations. Recently, copper or palladium compounds have been successfully used as efficient catalysts for the arylation of amines with aryl halides under mild conditions.

  8. Surface modification of calcium-copper hydroxyapatites using polyaspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bachoua, Hassen; Debbabi, Mongi

    2013-01-01

    Mixed calcium-copper hydroxyapatite (Ca-CuHAp), with general formula Ca(10-x)Cux(PO4)6(OH)2, where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75 was prepared in aqueous medium in the presence of different concentrations of poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP). XRD, IR, TG-DTA, TEM-EDX, AFM and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. All techniques show the formation of new hybrid compounds Ca-CuHAp-PASP. The presence of the grafting moiety on the apatitic material is more significant with increasing of copper amount and/or organic concentration in the starting solution. These increases lead to the affectation of apatite crystallinity. The IR spectroscopy shows the conservation of (Psbnd OH) band of (HPO4)2- groups, suggesting that PASP acid was interacted only with metallic cations of hydroxyapatite.

  9. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  10. Laser sintering of copper nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, Michael; Saar, Amir; Ermak, Oleg; Kotler, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (NP) inks serve as an attractive potential replacement to silver NP inks in functional printing applications. However their tendency to rapidly oxidize has so far limited their wider use. In this work we have studied the conditions for laser sintering of Cu-NP inks in ambient conditions while avoiding oxidation. We have determined the regime for stable, low-resistivity copper (< ×3 bulk resistivity value) generation in terms of laser irradiance and exposure duration and have indicated the limits on fast processing. The role of pre-drying conditions on sintering outcome has also been studied. A method, based on spectral reflectivity measurements, was used for non-contact monitoring of the sintering process evolution. It also indicates preferred spectral regions for sintering. Finally, we illustrated how selective laser sintering can generate high-quality, fine line (<5 µm wide) and dense copper circuits. (paper)

  11. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  12. Biliary copper excretion by hepatocyte lysosomes in the rat. Major excretory pathway in experimental copper overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, J.B. Jr.; Myers, B.M.; Kost, L.J.; Kuntz, S.M.; LaRusso, N.F.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that lysosomes are the main source of biliary copper in conditions of hepatic copper overload. We used a rat model of oral copper loading and studied the relationship between the biliary output of copper and lysosomal hydrolases. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given tap water with or without 0.125% copper acetate for up to 36 wk. Copper loading produced a 23-fold increase in the hepatic copper concentration and a 30-65% increase in hepatic lysosomal enzyme activity. Acid phosphatase histochemistry showed that copper-loaded livers contained an increased number of hepatocyte lysosomes; increased copper concentration of these organelles was confirmed directly by both x ray microanalysis and tissue fractionation. The copper-loaded rats showed a 16-fold increase in biliary copper output and a 50-300% increase in biliary lysosomal enzyme output. In the basal state, excretory profiles over time were similar for biliary outputs of lysosomal enzymes and copper in the copper-loaded animals but not in controls. After pharmacologic stimulation of lysosomal exocytosis, biliary outputs of copper and lysosomal hydrolases in the copper-loaded animals remained coupled: injection of colchicine or vinblastine produced an acute rise in the biliary output of both lysosomal enzymes and copper to 150-250% of baseline rates. After these same drugs, control animals showed only the expected increase in lysosomal enzyme output without a corresponding increase in copper output. We conclude that the hepatocyte responds to an increased copper load by sequestering excess copper in an increased number of lysosomes that then empty their contents directly into bile. The results provide direct evidence that exocytosis of lysosomal contents into biliary canaliculi is the major mechanism for biliary copper excretion in hepatic copper overload

  13. Figurines in Pietrele: Copper Age ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Hansen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Major trends in figurine production of the copper age settlement of Pietrele (Romania are discussed. The bone figurines are seen as an ideological innovation of the Early Copper Age system in the Eastern Balkans.

  14. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(I) and Cu(II). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  15. Human copper transporter 2 is localized in late endosomes and lysosomes and facilitates cellular copper uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghe, van den P.V.E; Folmer, D.E.; Malingré, H.E.M.; Beurden, van E.; Klomp, A.E.M.; Sluis, van de B.; Merkx, M.; Berger, R.J.; Klomp, L.W.J.

    2007-01-01

    High-affinity cellular copper uptake is mediated by the CTR (copper transporter) 1 family of proteins. The highly homologous hCTR (human CTR) 2 protein has been identified, but its function in copper uptake is currently unknown. To characterize the role of hCTR2 in copper homoeostasis,

  16. Copper nitrate redispersion to arrive at highly active silica-supported copper catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munnik, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228524; Wolters, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829560; Gabrielsson, A.; Pollington, S.D.; Headdock, G.; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain copper catalysts with high dispersions at high copper loadings, the gas flow rate and gas composition was varied during calcination of silica gel impregnated with copper nitrate to a loading of 18 wt % of copper. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2O chemisorption, and

  17. Copper and Anesthesia: Clinical Relevance and Management of Copper Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Adrian; Dameron, Charles T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has implicated abnormal copper homeostasis in the underlying pathophysiology of several clinically important disorders, some of which may be encountered by the anesthetist in daily clinical practice. The purpose of this narrative review is to summarize the physiology and pharmacology of copper, the clinical implications of abnormal copper metabolism, and the subsequent influence of altered copper homeostasis on anesthetic management.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1125 - Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.1125 Section 73.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....1125 Potassium sodium copper chloropyhllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity. (1) The color...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2125 - Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). 73.2125 Section 73.2125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 73.2125 Potassium sodium copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyllin-copper complex). (a) Identity and...

  20. Surface modification of calcium–copper hydroxyapatites using polyaspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bachoua, Hassen; Debbabi, Mongi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reaction of polyaspartic acid with calcium hydroxyapatite and mixed calcium–copper hydroxyapatite is tested. ► Chemical analysis shows that the presence of copper in the apatitic structure increases the reactivity of the apatite surface. ► X-ray powder analysis shows the conservation of unique crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite after copper incorporation and/or PASP acid reacting. ► IR spectra show the formation of the formation of organometallic bond M-O-C (M=Ca or Cu) on the apatitic surface. ► Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the texture surface was changed by the grafting. - Abstract: Mixed calcium–copper hydroxyapatite (Ca–CuHAp), with general formula Ca (10−x) Cu x (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.75 was prepared in aqueous medium in the presence of different concentrations of poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP). XRD, IR, TG-DTA, TEM-EDX, AFM and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. All techniques show the formation of new hybrid compounds Ca–CuHAp–PASP. The presence of the grafting moiety on the apatitic material is more significant with increasing of copper amount and/or organic concentration in the starting solution. These increases lead to the affectation of apatite crystallinity. The IR spectroscopy shows the conservation of (P-OH) band of (HPO 4 ) 2− groups, suggesting that PASP acid was interacted only with metallic cations of hydroxyapatite.

  1. Surface modification of calcium-copper hydroxyapatites using polyaspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othmani, Masseoud; Aissa, Abdallah; Bachoua, Hassen [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Debbabi, Mongi, E-mail: m.debbabi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reaction of polyaspartic acid with calcium hydroxyapatite and mixed calcium-copper hydroxyapatite is tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical analysis shows that the presence of copper in the apatitic structure increases the reactivity of the apatite surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray powder analysis shows the conservation of unique crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite after copper incorporation and/or PASP acid reacting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR spectra show the formation of the formation of organometallic bond M-O-C (M=Ca or Cu) on the apatitic surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the texture surface was changed by the grafting. - Abstract: Mixed calcium-copper hydroxyapatite (Ca-CuHAp), with general formula Ca{sub (10-x)}Cu{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, where 0 {<=} x {<=} 0.75 was prepared in aqueous medium in the presence of different concentrations of poly-L-aspartic acid (PASP). XRD, IR, TG-DTA, TEM-EDX, AFM and chemical analyses were used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the products. All techniques show the formation of new hybrid compounds Ca-CuHAp-PASP. The presence of the grafting moiety on the apatitic material is more significant with increasing of copper amount and/or organic concentration in the starting solution. These increases lead to the affectation of apatite crystallinity. The IR spectroscopy shows the conservation of (P-OH) band of (HPO{sub 4}){sup 2-} groups, suggesting that PASP acid was interacted only with metallic cations of hydroxyapatite.

  2. Refining processes in the copper casting technology

    OpenAIRE

    Rzadkosz, S.; Kranc, M.; Garbacz-Klempka, A.; Kozana, J.; Piękoś, M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of technology of copper and alloyed copper destined for power engineering casts. The casts quality was assessed based on microstructure, chemical content analysis and strength properties tests. Characteristic deoxidising (Logas, Cup) and modifying (ODM2, Kupmod2) formulas were used for the copper where high electrical conductivity was required. Chosen examples of alloyed copper with varied Cr and Zr content were studied, and the optimal heat treatment parameter...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1261 - Copper sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copper sulfate. 184.1261 Section 184.1261 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1261 Copper sulfate. (a) Copper sulfate (cupric sulfate, CuSO4·5H2O, CAS... the reaction of sulfuric acid with cupric oxide or with copper metal. (b) The ingredient must be of a...

  4. The Bauschinger Effect in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Brown, L .M.; Stobbs, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the Bauschinger effect in pure copper shows that by comparison with dispersion hardened copper the effect is very small and independent of temperature. This suggests that the obstacles to flow are deformable. A simple composite model based on this principle accounts for the data semi......-quantitatively and also accounts for the stored energy of cold-work. An interesting feature of the model is that it shows very clearly that, although dislocation pile-ups may exist, the flow stress of the composite is entirely due to the resistance to dislocation motion in the tangles of forest dislocations....

  5. Tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniukov, E; Yakimchuk, D; Kozlovsky, A; Shlimas, D; Zdorovets, M; Kadyrzhanov, K

    2016-01-01

    Simple method of tunable synthesis of copper nanotubes based on template synthesis was developed. A comprehensive study of the structural, morphological and electrical characteristics of the obtained nanostructures was carried out. Characterization of structural features was made by methods of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry analysis. Evaluation of wall thickness is made by methods of gas permeability. Electrical conductivity of nanotubes was define in the study of their current-voltage characteristics. The possibility to control of copper nanotubes physical properties by variation of the deposition parameters was shown. (paper)

  6. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  7. Electrical conduction in composites containing copper core–copper ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of Mott's small polaron hopping conduction model. ... sample exhibited a metallic conduction confirming the formation of a percolative chain of ..... value of εp. Also the oxide layer formation on the initially unoxidized copper particles will increase the resistivity level of the nanocomposite. This is borne out by results shown in ...

  8. Ab initio calculations of non-stoichiometric copper nitride, pure and with palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Armenta, Maria G.; Soto, Gerardo; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The most stable arrangement corresponds to the Cu 3 N-anti ReO 3 structure. → Formation energy of Cu 32 Vac 0 N 8 and Cu 24 Pd 8 Vac 0 N 8 are very similar. → The biggest volume in the compound is Cu 31 Pd 1 Vac 0 N 8/ . → Small amount introduction of extra metal atoms in copper nitride is possible. - Abstract: We present first principles calculations of copper nitride by using periodic density functional theory within a plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme. The insertions of extra Cu and/or Pd atoms in the empty sites, vacancy reorganization, and substitution of Cu by Pd atoms were studied. We have used an equivalent reduced-symmetry 2 x 2 x 2 Cu 3 N-like cubic super-cell. Small Cu and/or Pd concentrations and vacancy rearrangements in the copper sub-lattice were conveniently calculated in these low-symmetry cells. We cover probable situations like: the occupation of the initially empty copper sites by (1) copper atoms, and by (2) palladium; (3) the relocation of vacancies in the copper sub-lattice; and (4) the substitution of small quantities of copper by palladium atoms in the copper sub-lattice. The equilibrium volumes and energies after relaxing the atomic positions are compared to those of intrinsic copper nitride. We found that the most stable arrangement corresponds to the ideal stoichiometric Cu 3 N. We also found that any deviation from this ideal configuration shift the semiconductor state to a metallic or semi-metallic one.

  9. A Versatile Room-Temperature Route to Di- and Trisubstituted Allenes Using Flow-Generated Diazo Compounds**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Jian-Siang; Tran, Duc N; Battilocchio, Claudio; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    A copper-catalyzed coupling reaction between flow-generated unstabilized diazo compounds and terminal alkynes provides di- and trisubstituted allenes. This extremely mild and rapid transformation is highly tolerant of several functional groups. PMID:26013774

  10. Experimental Consequences of Mottness in High-Temperature Copper-Oxide Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shiladitya

    2009-01-01

    It has been more than two decades since the copper-oxide high temperature superconductors were discovered. However, building a satisfactory theoretical framework to study these compounds still remains one of the major challenges in condensed matter physics. In addition to the mechanism of superconductivity, understanding the properties of the…

  11. Synthesis, characterization and behaviour to gamma radiation of the bis-L-alaninato-copper (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B.F.T.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of coordinated compound obtained from the copper (II) and the L-(+)- alanine to gamma radiation was determined. A study of synthesis and characterization of this complex was made with elementary analysis, ultraviolet and visible electronic spectroscopy, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. (C.G.C.)

  12. Use of copper sulfate and peracetic acid as therapeutants on fish: can these replace formalin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) are compounds that have been found to be useful in several areas of aquaculture around the world. In the United States, CuSO4 is used for treatment of an ectoparasite (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) on fish (Straus 1993; Tieman and Goodwin 2001), and s...

  13. Use of Copper Sulfate and a New Disinfectant called Peracetic Acid in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate treatments are currently used for water treatments to control algae and snails, but also to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs. This compound has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common tr...

  14. Copper sulfate toxicity to various fish: role of alkalinity/hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate has been used in fisheries since the 1890’s. This compound is currently used to control parasites (mainly Ich) on fish and fungus (Saprolegnia) on fish eggs, and has also been used in the past to control columnaris on fish, although antibiotics are the common treatment now. In our l...

  15. RESULTS OF COPPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION (CCPO) OF TANK 48H SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Pareizs, J.; Newell, J.; Fondeur, F.; Nash, C.; White, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-14

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed a series of laboratory-scale experiments that examined copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) aided destruction of organic components, most notably tetraphenylborate (TPB), in Tank 48H simulant slurries. The experiments were designed with an expectation of conducting the process within existing vessels of Building 241-96H with minimal modifications to the existing equipment. Results of the experiments indicate that TPB destruction levels exceeding 99.9% are achievable, dependent on the reaction conditions. The following observations were made with respect to the major processing variables investigated. A lower reaction pH provides faster reaction rates (pH 7 > pH 9 > pH 11); however, pH 9 reactions provide the least quantity of organic residual compounds within the limits of species analyzed. Higher temperatures lead to faster reaction rates and smaller quantities of organic residual compounds. Higher concentrations of the copper catalyst provide faster reaction rates, but the highest copper concentration (500 mg/L) also resulted in the second highest quantity of organic residual compounds. Faster rates of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition lead to faster reaction rates and lower quantities of organic residual compounds. Testing with simulated slurries continues. Current testing is examining lower copper concentrations, refined peroxide addition rates, and alternate acidification methods. A revision of this report will provide updated findings with emphasis on defining recommended conditions for similar tests with actual waste samples.

  16. 21 CFR 73.2647 - Copper powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper powder. 73.2647 Section 73.2647 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2647 Copper powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive copper powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 73...

  17. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The chemical reactions between copper and triazinedithiolsilane were revealed. • The structure of triazinedithiolsilane's polymeric nanofilm was demonstrated. • The morphology and microstructure of the polymeric nanofilm was observed. - Abstract: In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  18. Copper nanoparticles in zeolite Y

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, A.; Loos, J.; Boddenberg, B.

    1999-01-01

    CuCl has been dispersed in the supercages of a Y-type zeolite by heating a mechanical salt/host mixture in vacuo. The occluded salt was subsequently reduced to copper metal in a hydrogen atmosphere. Virtually complete reduction of the salt is achieved at 460°C. Under the same conditions,

  19. Effects of copper on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, L

    1971-01-01

    The author deals with the effects of copper on mitosis. He found that a Cu concentration of 1 mg per liter is very toxic and strongly inhibits the course of mitosis in Vicia fabia. The effects of 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg Cu concentrations per liter were similar but a much weaker character.

  20. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    anticancer drug famotidine has been shown as a better catalyst than CuCl2 for sulfite ... Effect of addition of bis-chelate copper(II) complexes (dpq, •; phen, ; ..... Reproduction, Development & Genetics for their help in the DNA cleavage studies ...

  1. Copper, lead and zinc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, J.; Ternan, S.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter provides information on the by-products and residues generated during the production of copper, lead and zinc. The purpose of this chapter is to describe by-products and residues which are generated, how these may be avoided or minimised, and available options for the utilization and management of residues. (author)

  2. on THICKNESS OF COPPER (|) OXIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... known materials to be used as semiconductor devices. The oxide is. Observed to be an attractive starting material for the production of solar cells for low cost terrestrial conversion of solar energy to electricity. Copper (I) oxide is one Of the earliest known photovoltaic materials and the first in which the ...

  3. Lab Tracker and Copper Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to do with factors of asymmetric neurologic development, such as being right or left-handed. The copper is often seen most prominently in the basal ganglia, the area deep within the brain that coordinates movements. The face of the giant ...

  4. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  5. COPPER CORROSION AND SOLUBILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster provides a very cursory summary of TTEB in-house copper research experimental systems, and extramural research projects. The field studies summarized are the Indian Hill (OH) study of the use of orthophosphate for reducing cuprosolvency in a high alkalinity water, an...

  6. Spectroscopic studies of copper enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, D.M.; Moog, R.; Zumft, W.; Koenig, S.H.; Scott, R.A.; Cote, C.E.; McGuirl, M.

    1986-01-01

    Several spectroscopic methods, including absorption, circular dichroism (CD), magnetic CD (MCD), X-ray absorption, resonance Raman, EPR, NMR, and quasi-elastic light-scattering spectroscopy, have been used to probe the structures of copper-containing amine oxidases, nitrite reductase, and nitrous oxide reductase. The basic goals are to determine the copper site structure, electronic properties, and to generate structure-reactivity correlations. Collectively, the results on the amine oxidases permit a detailed model for the Cu(II) sites in these enzymes to be constructed that, in turn, rationalizes the ligand-binding chemistry. Resonance Raman spectra of the phenylhydrazine and 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine derivatives of bovine plasma amine oxidase and models for its organic cofactor, e.g. pyridoxal, methoxatin, are most consistent with methoxatin being the intrinsic cofactor. The structure of the Cu(I) forms of the amine oxidases have been investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS); the copper coordination geometry is significantly different in the oxidized and reduced forms. Some anomalous properties of the amine oxidases in solution are explicable in terms of their reversible aggregation, which the authors have characterized via light scattering. Nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases display several novel spectral properties. The data suggest that new types of copper sites are present

  7. The Copper concentration variation to physical properties of high copper amalgam alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminatun Aminatun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of copper (Cu inside amalgam is to increase hardness and impact force and to decrease thermal expansion coefficient. In general, amalgam which is used in dentistry and available in the market is contain Cu 22%, while the maximum Cu concentration is 30%. It is necessary to determine the concentration Cu does generate the best physical properties to be used as dental restorative agent. Amalgam is made by mixing blended-metal Ag-Sn-Cu (with Cu concentration of 13%, 21%, 22%, and 29% and Hg, stirred manually in a bowl for 15 minutes,leave it in temperature 27°C for 24 hours to become hardened. The result of X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD, analyzed by Rietveld method and Rietica program, shows amalgam with Cu 29% concentration for Cu3Sn compound density is 31.790 sma/Å3, for Ag2Hg3 compound is 41.733 sma/ Å3, a Cu3Sn relative weight percentage of 43.23%, Ag2Hg3 of 54.54%, Cu 7Hg6 of 2.23% and hardness of Cu 29% is 90.700 ± 0.005 kgf/mm2. These numbers are the highest values on Cu 29% concentrations compared to other copper concentration variants. Whereas amalgam thermal expansion coefficient on Cu 29% is (2.17 ± 0.9110-3 mm/°C is the lowest value compared to other Cu concentration. The conclution is that adding Cu concentration into amalgam will increase density value, Cu3Sn relative weight percentage, hardness level and will decrease amalgam thermal expansion coefficient. Amalgam 29% Cu concentration has better physical properties compared to amalgam Cu 22% concentration.

  8. A Study of Protection of Copper Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. A.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile treatment of high capacity boiler water with hydrazine and ammonia is studied. Ammonia comes from the decomposition of excess hydrazine injected to treat dissolved oxygen. Ammonia is also injected for the control of pH. To find an effect of such ammonia on the copper alloy, the relations between pH and iron, and ammonia and copper are studied. Since the dependence of corrosion of iron on pH differs from that of copper, a range of pH was selected experimentally to minimize the corrosion rates of both copper and iron. Corrosion rates of various copper alloys are also compared

  9. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  10. New data on the Hyrkkoelae U-Cu mineralization: the behaviour of native copper in a natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, N. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-05-01

    The Hyrkkoelae Cu-U mineralisation (SW Finland) is studied as an analogue to the behaviour of copper canister in crystalline bedrock. Uranium-native copper and uranium-copper corrosion products interactions are also addressed in this study. The integration of uranium series disequilibrium (USD) studies gives an estimate of the time-scales of the corrosion processes. The mineral assemblages native copper-copper sulfide, copper sulfides - copper iron sulfides, and native copper-copper oxide (cuprite) occur in open fractures at several depth intervals within granite pegmatites (GP). The surfaces of these open fractures have accumulations of uranophane crystals and other unidentified uranyl compounds. The secondary uranium minerals are mainly distributed around copper sulfide grains. Microscopic intergrowths of copper sulfides and uranyl compounds also have been observed. The surface of the fracture where native copper and cuprite occur is covered with uranium-rich smectite. The very low {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratio (0.29 - 0.39) in the main uranium fraction in smectite indicates chemical stable conditions (e.g., oxidising) during at least a time period comparable to the half-life of the {sup 234}U isotope (T{sub 1/2} = 2.44 x 10{sup 5} a). Groundwater samples were collected from intervals where copper minerals occur within open fractures. The Eh and pH conditions were measured during long-term pumping (2-4 weeks per sample). Eh was measured both in situ and an the surface using three electrodes (Pt, Au, C). The actual groundwater conditions are oxidising and would not allow the sulfidization of native copper. Sulfidization may be considered as on old phenomenon, older than the precipitation of uranyl phases in the samples. The end of sulfidization may be earlier than the precipitation and/or remobilisation of U(VI) phases in a time span from about 2 x 10{sup 5} years (precipitation of uranophane) to 2.44 x 10{sup 5} (remobilisation of U from smectite). (orig.)

  11. Tribological properties of copper-based composites with copper coated NbSe2 and CNT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Beibei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Hong; Li, Hongping; Tang, Hua; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Morphology of copper coated NbSe 2 and CNT; friction coefficient and wear rate of copper-based composites. - Highlights: • NbSe 2 and CNT were coated with copper layers by the means of electroless plating. • The mechanical and tribological properties of copper composites were studied. • The enhancement mechanisms of copper coated NbSe 2 and CNT were proposed. • Copper–copper coated (12 wt.%NbSe 2 –3 wt.%CNT) composite had the best wear resistance. - Abstract: Copper-based composites with copper coated NbSe 2 and/or CNT were fabricated by the powder metallurgy technique. The morphology and phase composition of copper coated NbSe 2 and carbon nanotube (CNT) were observed using high solution transmission electronic microscope (HRTEM), scanning electronic microscope (SEM equipped with EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The density, hardness, and bending strength of as-prepared copper-based composites were measured, and their tribological properties were investigated using UMT-2 tester. Results indicated that all copper-based composites showed decreased density and bending strength, but increased hardness in comparison with copper matrix. Besides, the incorporation of copper coated NbSe 2 improved the friction-reducing and anti-wear properties of copper matrix. Addition of copper coated CNT greatly enhanced the mechanical and tribological properties. In particular, when the content of copper coated CNT was 3 wt.%, the corresponding composite exhibited the best tribological properties. This was because NbSe 2 was distributed chaotically in matrix, which greatly improved the friction-reducing property of copper, while CNT with superior mechanical strength enhanced the wear resistance by increasing the load-carrying capacity. More importantly, copper layers coated on NbSe 2 and CNT favored the good interfacial combination between fillers and copper matrix showing beneficial effect for the stresses transferring from matrix to fillers

  12. Reactivity test between beryllium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.; Kato, M.

    1995-01-01

    Beryllium has been expected for using as plasma facing material on ITER. And, copper alloy has been proposed as heat sink material behind plasma facing components. Therefore, both materials must be joined. However, the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper alloy does not clear in detail. For example, other authors reported that beryllium reacted with copper at high temperature, but it was not obvious about the generation of reaction products and increasing of the reaction layer. In the present work, from this point, for clarifying the elementary process of reaction between beryllium and copper, the out-of-pile compatibility tests were conducted with diffusion couples of beryllium and copper which were inserted in the capsule filled with high purity helium gas (6N). Annealing temperatures were 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 degrees C, and annealing periods were 100, 300 and 1000h. Beryllium specimens were hot pressed beryllium, and copper specimens were OFC (Oxygen Free Copper)

  13. Layered copper hydroxide n-alkylsulfonate salts: synthesis, characterization, and magnetic behaviors in relation to the basal spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Hun; Lee, Cheol Eui

    2005-01-27

    A series of hybrid inorganic-organic copper(II) hydroxy n-alkylsulfonate with a triangular lattice, Cu(2)(OH)(3)(C(n)H(2)(n)(+1)SO(3)) (n = 6, 8, 10), are prepared by anion exchange, starting from copper hydroxy nitrate Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3). These compounds show a layered structure as determined by X-ray diffraction, with interlayer distances of 14.3-34.8 A in alternation with interdigitated bilayer packing. Magnetic properties have been investigated by means of dc and ac measurements. All the compounds show similar metamagnet behaviors, with a Neel temperature of about 11 K. A subtle difference in the ac magnetic susceptibility among the compounds is understood by the existence of hydrogen bonding between the sulfonate headgroup and the hydroxide anion. A detailed molecular structure of the alkyl chains incorporated to the inorganic copper hydroxide layer is also discussed from the FTIR data.

  14. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  15. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Carboetherification of Unactivated Alkenes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Michael T.; Liwosz, Timothy W.; Kendel, Nicole E.; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein is reported a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols that terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. PMID:24798697

  16. catena-Poly[copper(II)-mu-L-tyrosyl-L-leucinato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Ricardo; Casado, Nieves M C; Calvo, Rafael; Rapp, Raul E; Garland, María Teresa

    2005-05-01

    In the title compound, [Cu(C15H20N2O4)]n, the copper(II) coordination is square planar. The anionic L-tyrosyl-L-leucinate ligand binds in an N,N',O-tridentate mode to one Cu(II) cation on one side and in an O-monodentate mode to a second Cu(II) cation on the other side, thus defining -Cu-O-C-O-Cu'- chains which run along the a axis. These chains are held together by a strong hydrogen bond involving the hydroxy H atom.

  17. Copper economy in Chlamydomonas: Prioritized allocation and reallocation of copper to respiration vs. photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropat, Janette; Gallaher, Sean D.; Urzica, Eugen I.; Nakamoto, Stacie S.; Strenkert, Daniela; Tottey, Stephen; Mason, Andrew Z.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic elements, although required only in trace amounts, permit life and primary productivity because of their functions in catalysis. Every organism has a minimal requirement of each metal based on the intracellular abundance of proteins that use inorganic cofactors, but elemental sparing mechanisms can reduce this quota. A well-studied copper-sparing mechanism that operates in microalgae faced with copper deficiency is the replacement of the abundant copper protein plastocyanin with a heme-containing substitute, cytochrome (Cyt) c6. This switch, which is dependent on a copper-sensing transcription factor, copper response regulator 1 (CRR1), dramatically reduces the copper quota. We show here that in a situation of marginal copper availability, copper is preferentially allocated from plastocyanin, whose function is dispensable, to other more critical copper-dependent enzymes like Cyt oxidase and a ferroxidase. In the absence of an extracellular source, copper allocation to Cyt oxidase includes CRR1-dependent proteolysis of plastocyanin and quantitative recycling of the copper cofactor from plastocyanin to Cyt oxidase. Transcriptome profiling identifies a gene encoding a Zn-metalloprotease, as a candidate effecting copper recycling. One reason for the retention of genes encoding both plastocyanin and Cyt c6 in algal and cyanobacterial genomes might be because plastocyanin provides a competitive advantage in copper-depleted environments as a ready source of copper. PMID:25646490

  18. Copper absorption from human milk, cow's milk, and infant formulas using a suckling rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennerdal, B.B.; Bell, J.G.; Keen, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Since copper deficiency is known to occur during infancy, it becomes important to assess copper uptake from various infant diets. The authors have investigated the uptake of copper from human milk, cow's milk, cow's milk formulas, cereal/milk formula and soy formula, compensating for the decay of 64 Cu and using the suckling rat as a model. Radiocopper was added to the diet in trace amounts. Ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, and gel filtration were used to show that the added 64 Cu bound to milk fractions and individual binding compounds in a manner analogous to the distribution of native copper, thus validating the use of extrinsically labeled diets. Labeled diets were intubated into 14-day-old suckling rats. Animals were killed after 6 h and tissues removed and counted. Liver copper uptake was 25% from human milk, 23% from cow's milk formula, 18% from cow's milk, 17% from premature (cow's milk based) infant formula, 17% from cereal/milk formula and 10% from soy formula. These results show that the rat pup model may provide a rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive method to assay bioavailability of copper from infant foods

  19. What is the Potential for More Copper Fabrication in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The copper fabrication industry lies between: (1) the industry that produces copper (as a commodity metal from mined ores as well as from recycling), and (2) the users of copper in finished products such as electronic goods. Copper fabrication involves the manufacture of products such as copper wire, wire rod, low-voltage cable, and other copper based semi-manufactures. Copper is clearly a...

  20. Uptake and internalisation of copper by three marine microalgae: comparison of copper-sensitive and copper-tolerant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jacqueline L; Angel, Brad M; Stauber, Jennifer L; Poon, Wing L; Simpson, Stuart L; Cheng, Shuk Han; Jolley, Dianne F

    2008-08-29

    Although it has been well established that different species of marine algae have different sensitivities to metals, our understanding of the physiological and biochemical basis for these differences is limited. This study investigated copper adsorption and internalisation in three algal species with differing sensitivities to copper. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was particularly sensitive to copper, with a 72-h IC50 (concentration of copper to inhibit growth rate by 50%) of 8.0 microg Cu L(-1), compared to the green algae Tetraselmis sp. (72-h IC50 47 microg Cu L(-1)) and Dunaliella tertiolecta (72-h IC50 530 microg Cu L(-1)). At these IC50 concentrations, Tetraselmis sp. had much higher intracellular copper (1.97+/-0.01 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)) than P. tricornutum (0.23+/-0.19 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)) and D. tertiolecta (0.59+/-0.05 x 10(-13)g Cu cell(-1)), suggesting that Tetraselmis sp. effectively detoxifies copper within the cell. By contrast, at the same external copper concentration (50 microg L(-1)), D. tertiolecta appears to better exclude copper than Tetraselmis sp. by having a slower copper internalisation rate and lower internal copper concentrations at equivalent extracellular concentrations. The results suggest that the use of internal copper concentrations and net uptake rates alone cannot explain differences in species-sensitivity for different algal species. Model prediction of copper toxicity to marine biota and understanding fundamental differences in species-sensitivity will require, not just an understanding of water quality parameters and copper-cell binding, but also further knowledge of cellular detoxification mechanisms.

  1. A novel dumbbell-like polyoxometalate assembled of copper(II)-disubstituted monovacant keggin polyoxoanions with a tetranuclear copper cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hao; Xu, Xiao; Ju, Wei-Wei; Wan, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Dun-Ru; Xu, Yan

    2014-03-17

    A dimeric Keggin polyoxometalate, [Cu(bpy)(μ2-OH)]4[(H2O)(bpy)2HPW11Cu2O39]2·2CH3CH2OH·10H2O (1), constructed from two dicopper(II)-substituted monovacant Keggin polyoxoanions bridged by a Cu4 cluster, has been hydrothermally synthesized. Magnetic analysis indicates predominantly an antiferromagnetic interaction between copper(II) centers. Compound 1 also shows very high catalytic activity for the esterification of phosphoric acid with equimolar lauryl alcohol to monoalkyl phosphate ester.

  2. Electrochemical in-situ impregnation of wood using a copper nail as source for copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Block, Thomas; Nymark, Morten

    2011-01-01

    A new method for copper impregnation of wood in structures was suggested and tested in laboratory scale with specimen of new pine sapwood. A copper nail and a steel screw were placed in the wood, and an electric direct current field was applied, so the copper nail was anode and the screw...... was cathode. At the anode, copper ions were generated. The copper ions were transported into the wood by electromigration (movement of ions in an applied electric field) towards the cathode, and a volume between the two electrodes was thereby impregnated. Copper also moved to a lesser degree in the opposite...

  3. Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation.

  4. The effective removal method of copper and cyanide in waste water of metal plating factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Won Mok; Hong, Zong Doo; Kim, Myun Sup

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effective removal method of cooper and cyanide compounds in metal plating waste water, removal ratio of cooper and cyanide compounds in solution are measured with varying pH, concentration and contact time. As results of the present experiment, cyanide compounds in the solution are removed to 0.03mg/l or less with 5% NaOCl solution. The present result is satisfied to environmental disposal standards. The removal ratio against pH values show 99% over pH8. As results of neutral precipitation method, copper including solution are removed to 99% at pH8 in short time. The removal ratios of cyanide mixed copper solution against pH values show high efficiency(over 95%) at pH8 and 11 and removal ratios are decreased at pH10.(Author)

  5. Rubber compounding and processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents an overview on the compounding and processing techniques of natural rubber compounds. The introductory portion deals with different types of rubbers and principles of rubber compounding. The primary and secondary fillers used...

  6. Toxicity of copper chelates of azomethines and amino acids for Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barashkov, G.K.; Rukhadze, E.G.; Talyzenkova, G.P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors have attempted to assess the toxicity of copper-containing compounds from the point of view of their interrelationship with the structural characteristics of the chelate compound and the structure of the ligand. The copper chelates of the azomethines tested may be provisionally divided into three types: A - complexes with N-alkly-azomethines; B - complexes with N-aryl-azomethines; C - binuclear complexes. Consideration was also given to chelates with aromatic and heterocyclic amino acids and to heteroligand chelates in which the copper atom coordinates azomethine and an amino acid simultaneously. Toxicity was determined by the method previously described and expressed as a critical concentration (C/sub cr/, mg Cu/liter) and in relative toxicity units (T/sub c/). The compounds investigated were obtained from the interaction between a bidentant ligand of an azomethine or anamino acid and copper acetate in a water-alcohol medium at pH 6-8. Since they are not very soluble in water, true solutions were obtained by using dimethyl sulfoxide.

  7. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Fernando Sílvio de; Giacomelli, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Reinaldo Simões; Spinelli, Almir

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L −1 H 2 SO 4 solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative ∆G° ads value of − 31.1 kJ mol −1 signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0–10.0 mmol L −1 . Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: ► We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. ► Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. ► Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. ► There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a protective barrier. ► This corrosion inhibitor covers up to 72% of the total active surface of copper.

  8. Tuning of structural, light emission and wetting properties of nanostructured copper oxide-porous silicon matrix formed on electrochemically etched copper-coated silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrices of copper oxide-porous silicon nanostructures have been formed by electrochemical etching of copper-coated silicon surfaces in HF-based solution at different etching times (5-15 min). Micro-Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the nature of copper oxide in the matrix changes from single-phase copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) to single-phase copper (II) oxide (CuO) on increasing the etching time. This is accompanied with important variation in the content of carbon, carbon hydrides, carbonyl compounds and silicon oxide in the matrix. The matrix formed at the low etching time (5 min) exhibits a single broad "blue" room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) band. On increasing the etching time, the intensity of this band decreases and a much stronger "red" PL band emerges in the PL spectra. The relative intensity of this band with respect to the "blue" band significantly increases on increasing the etching time. The "blue" and "red" PL bands are attributed to Cu2O and porous silicon of the matrix, respectively. In addition, the water contact angle measurements reveal that the hydrophobicity of the matrix surface can be tuned from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic state by controlling the etching time.

  9. Thermal conductivity of glass copper-composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Makoto; Terai, Ryohei; Haidai, Haruki

    1980-01-01

    Glass-metal composites are to be one of the answers for promoting thermal conduction in the glassy solids containing high-level radioactive wastes. In order to investigate the effect of metal addition on thermal conductivity of glasses, glass-copper composites were selected, and the conductivities of the composites were measured and discussed in regards to copper content and microstructure. Fully densified composites were successfully prepared by pressure sintering of the powder mixtures of glass and copper at temperatures above the yield points of the constituent glasses if the copper content was not so much. The conductivity was measured by means of a comparative method, in which the thermal gradient of the specimen was compared with that of quartz glass as standard under thermally steady state. Measurements were carried out at around 50 0 C. The thermal conductivity increased with increasing content of copper depending on the kind of copper powder used. The conductivities of the composites of the same copper content differed considerably each another. Fine copper powder was effective on increasing conductivity, and the conductivity became about threefold of that of glass by mixing the fine copper powder about 10 vol%. For the composites containing the fine copper powder less than 5 vol%, the conductivity obeyed so-called logarithmic rule, one of the mixture rules of conductivity, whereas for composites containing more than 5 vol%, the conductivity remarkably increased apart from the rule. This fact suggests that copper becomes continuous in the composite when the copper content increased beyond 5 vol%. For the composites containing coarse copper powder, the conductivity was increased not significantly, and obeyed an equation derived from the model in which conductive material dispersed in less conductive one. (author)

  10. Oxidation of aromatic alcohols on zeolite-encapsulated copper amino acid complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, S.; Teixeira Florencio, J.M. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry, Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    Copper complexes of the amino acids histidine, arginine and lysine have been introduced into the supercages of zeolite Y and, for the first time, into the large intracrystalline cavities of zeolites EMT and MCM-22. The resulting host/guest compounds are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, UV/VIS-spectroscopy in the diffuse reflectance mode and by catalytic tests in the liquid-phase oxidation of aromatic alcohols (viz. benzyl alcohol, 2- and 3-methylbenzyl alcohol and 2,5-dimethylbenzyl alcohol) with tertiary-butylhydroperoxide as oxidant. It was observed that intracrystalline copper-amino acid complexes possess remarkable catalytic activity, yielding the corresponding aromatic aldehydes and acids. (orig.)

  11. trans-Bis(perchlorato-κOtetrakis(1H-pyrazole-κN2copper(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Zapol'skii

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Cu(ClO42(C3H4N24], was obtained unexpectedly by the reaction of copper(II perchlorate hexahydrate with equimolar amounts of 1-chloro-1-nitro-2,2,2-tripyrazolylethane in methanol solution. The crystal structure comprises octahedrally coordinated Cu2+ ions, located on an inversion centre, with four pyrazole ligands in the equatorial plane. The average Cu—N distance is 2.000 (1 Å. Two perchlorate ions are coordinated to copper in trans positions [Cu—O = 2.4163 (11 Å].

  12. Investigation of chlorination of zirconium and hafnium and their compounds in discharge from hollow cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, R.B.; Korovin, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility is investigated of chlorinating various zirconium and hafnium compounds (metal, oxide, carbide) in a hot discharge from a hollow cathode with various chlorinating reagents: copper monochloride, nickel chloride, magnesium chloride, for the purpose of accelerating their entrance into the excitation zone. It has been shown thermodynamically and experimentally that chlorination of metal zirconium and hafnium and their carbides with copper monochloride in hot hollow cathode conditions provides a sharp increase in the intensity of the lines of these elements

  13. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  14. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  15. A cytosolic copper storage protein provides a second level of copper tolerance in Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Megan L; Chaplin, Amanda K; Hough, Michael A; Paps, Jordi; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Wilson, Michael T; Vijgenboom, Erik; Worrall, Jonathan A R

    2018-01-24

    Streptomyces lividans has a distinct dependence on the bioavailability of copper for its morphological development. A cytosolic copper resistance system is operative in S. lividans that serves to preclude deleterious copper levels. This system comprises of several CopZ-like copper chaperones and P 1 -type ATPases, predominantly under the transcriptional control of a metalloregulator from the copper sensitive operon repressor (CsoR) family. In the present study, we discover a new layer of cytosolic copper resistance in S. lividans that involves a protein belonging to the newly discovered family of copper storage proteins, which we have named Ccsp (cytosolic copper storage protein). From an evolutionary perspective, we find Ccsp homologues to be widespread in Bacteria and extend through into Archaea and Eukaryota. Under copper stress Ccsp is upregulated and consists of a homotetramer assembly capable of binding up to 80 cuprous ions (20 per protomer). X-ray crystallography reveals 18 cysteines, 3 histidines and 1 aspartate are involved in cuprous ion coordination. Loading of cuprous ions to Ccsp is a cooperative process with a Hill coefficient of 1.9 and a CopZ-like copper chaperone can transfer copper to Ccsp. A Δccsp mutant strain indicates that Ccsp is not required under initial copper stress in S. lividans, but as the CsoR/CopZ/ATPase efflux system becomes saturated, Ccsp facilitates a second level of copper tolerance.

  16. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  17. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of a compound library of triazolylcyclitols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrau, Gonzalo; Drewes, Carine C; Shimada, Ana Lúcia B; Bertucci, Ana; Farsky, Sandra H P; Stefani, Helio A; Gonzalez, David

    2013-07-15

    A small library of compounds was prepared by a combination of toluene dioxygenase (TDO)-catalyzed enzymatic dihydroxylation and copper(I)-catalyzed Hüisgen cycloaddition. Some compounds were obtained by coupling an alkyne and a conduritol derivative, while more complex structures were obtained by a double Hüisgen reaction of a dialkyne and two molecules of the cyclitol. The compounds were fully characterized and subjected to preliminary biological screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Copper as a target for prostate cancer therapeutics: copper-ionophore pharmacology and altering systemic copper distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denoyer, Delphine; Pearson, Helen B.; Clatworthy, Sharnel A.S.; Smith, Zoe M.; Francis, Paul S.; Llanos, Roxana M.; Volitakis, Irene; Phillips, Wayne A.; Meggyesy, Peter M.; Masaldan, Shashank; Cater, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Copper-ionophores that elevate intracellular bioavailable copper display significant therapeutic utility against prostate cancer cells in vitro and in TRAMP (Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate) mice. However, the pharmacological basis for their anticancer activity remains unclear, despite impending clinical trails. Herein we show that intracellular copper levels in prostate cancer, evaluated in vitro and across disease progression in TRAMP mice, were not correlative with copper-ionophore activity and mirrored the normal levels observed in patient prostatectomy tissues (Gleason Score 7 & 9). TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells harbored markedly elevated oxidative stress and diminished glutathione (GSH)-mediated antioxidant capacity, which together conferred selective sensitivity to prooxidant ionophoric copper. Copper-ionophore treatments [CuII(gtsm), disulfiram & clioquinol] generated toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TRAMP adenocarcinoma cells, but not in normal mouse prostate epithelial cells (PrECs). Our results provide a basis for the pharmacological activity of copper-ionophores and suggest they are amendable for treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Additionally, recent in vitro and mouse xenograft studies have suggested an increased copper requirement by prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that prostate adenocarcinoma development in TRAMP mice requires a functional supply of copper and is significantly impeded by altered systemic copper distribution. The presence of a mutant copper-transporting Atp7b protein (tx mutation: A4066G/Met1356Val) in TRAMP mice changed copper-integration into serum and caused a remarkable reduction in prostate cancer burden (64% reduction) and disease severity (grade), abrogating adenocarcinoma development. Implications for current clinical trials are discussed. PMID:27175597

  19. Gallium and copper radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; John, E.K.; Barnhart, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Several isotopes of gallium and copper exhibit nuclear properties that make them attractive for applications in nuclear medicine, most notably Ga-67, Ga-68, Cu-67 and Cu-62. Of these, gamma-emitting Ga-67 has historically found the greatest clinical use, based on the observation that tracer gallium(III) citrate rapidly produces Ga-67 transferrin upon intravenous injection and then slowly affords selective Ga-67 localization in sites of abscess and certain tumors. Copper-67 has received attention as a potential label for tissue-selective monoclonal antibodies, since its associated γ-photons can be used for external imaging and its β - -emissions could be used for radiation therapy. Positron-emitting gallium-68 and copper-62, being available from parent/daughter generator systems, have attracted interest as potential labels for radiopharmaceuticals used in positron emission tomography (PET) because they could reduce the dependence of this imaging technology on hospital-based cyclotrons. The 10 min. half-life of Cu-62 is particularly well-suited to the time frame of PET studies of tissue perfusion, an application for which Cu(II)-bis(thiosemicarbazone) derivatives appear promising. The 68 min. half-life of Ga-68 makes it appropriate for PET studies over longer imaging time spans

  20. The polymeric nanofilm of triazinedithiolsilane fabricated by self-assembled technique on copper surface. Part 2: Characterization of composition and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yabin; Liu, Zhong; Huang, Yudong; Qi, Yutai

    2015-11-01

    In the first part, a novel design route for metal protection against corrosion was proposed, and a class of triazinedithiolsilane compounds was conceived as protector for copper. The protective capability of the polymeric nanofilm, fabricated by self-assembling one representative (abbreviated as TESPA) of triazinedithiolsilane compounds onto copper surface, has been investigated and evaluated by electrochemical tests. The results show that the polymeric nanofilm significantly inhibits copper corrosion. This study, on the one hand, concentrates on the chemical composition of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS results reveal that the chemical bonds between copper and TESPA monomers, three dimensional disulfide units and siloxane networks are responsible for the satisfactory protection of TESPA polymeric nanofilm against copper corrosion. On the other hand, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) are utilized to reveal the morphology and the uniformity of the TESPA polymeric nanofilm. The SEM-EDS results demonstrate that the copper surfaces are uniformly covered with TESPA self-assembled monolayer and the polymeric nanofilm. The TESPA-covered copper surfaces turn out to be smoother than that of the bare copper surface.

  1. Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites: processing routes and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Petitcorps, Y. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Poueylaud, J.M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Albingre, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Berdeu, B. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Lobstein, P. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Silvain, J.F. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB

    1997-06-01

    Copper matrix composites are of interest for applications in the electronic field which requires materials with high thermal conductivity properties. The use of carbon fibres can (1) decrease the density and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and (2) increase the stiffness and strength to rupture of the resulting composite. In order to produce cheap materials, chemical plating and uniaxial hot pressing processing routes were chosen. 1D-C{sub (P55Thornel)} / Cu prepregs were hot pressed in an argon atmosphere at 750 C during 30 min. The volume fraction of the fibres within the composite was in the range of 10-35%. Physical (density and thermal expansion coefficient) and thermal conductivity properties of the composite were in good agreement with the predictions. However this material exhibits very poor mechanical properties (Young`s modulus and tensile strength). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the surfaces of ruptures have shown that (1) a very weak bonding between the graphite fibres and the copper matrix was formed and (2) the rupture of the composite was initiated in the matrix at the copper grain boundaries. In order to overcome these two difficulties, the carbon fibres were pre-coated with a thin layer (100 nm) of cobalt. The aim of the cobalt was to react with the carbon to form carbide compounds and as a consequence to increase the bonding between the metal and the fibre. The tensile properties ({sigma}{sub c}{sup R} and E{sub c}) of this composite were then increased by 50% in comparison with the former material; however the strain to rupture was still too weak ({epsilon}{sub c}{sup R} = 0.5%). In order to explain the role of each constituents, X-ray profiles and TEM analyses were done at the fibre/matrix interface and at the grain boundaries. Some modifications of the chemical plating steps were done to improve the purity of the copper. (orig.)

  2. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150mgkg^-^1 dry...... matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212@mm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order...... to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles...

  3. Preparation of copper and silicon/copper powders by a gas ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    aCentre for Materials Research, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, ... Copper powder; Si/Cu composite particle; gas evaporation–condensation method; characteriza- tion. .... from the liquid metal surface, the mixed vapour of copper.

  4. Copper Bioleaching in China: Review and Prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Shenghua Yin; Leiming Wang; Eugie Kabwe; Xun Chen; Rongfu Yan; Kai An; Lei Zhang; Aixiang Wu

    2018-01-01

    The commercial application of copper bioleaching, an environmentally-friendly approach for low-grade and secondary mineral resources recycling, has increased worldwide since the 2000s. As the world’s second-largest economic entity and the largest developing country, China has the largest demand for metal resources, significantly advancing the theory and industrial technology of copper bioleaching. This paper reviews the exploration and application of copper bioleaching in China. Two typical b...

  5. World Copper Market Outlook: 2003-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Florela Stoian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents synthetically the copper market outlook (demand, supply, and prices) during 2003-2014, highlighting the impact of economic crisis of 2008-2009 on the world copper market. During the crisis, the decline in demand caused increases in excess supply of metal, as the supply has followed an upward trend, contributing to the imbalances of the copper market and putting pressure on stock prices at LME London Metal Exchange.

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits

  7. Functional understanding of the versatile protein copper metabolism MURR1 domain 1 (COMMD1) in copper homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedoseienko, Alina; Bartuzi, Paulina; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Copper is an important cofactor in numerous biological processes in all living organisms. However, excessive copper can be extremely toxic, so it is vital that the copper level within a cell is tightly regulated. The damaging effect of copper is seen in several hereditary forms of copper toxicity in

  8. Silver(I), Copper(I) and Copper(II) Complex of the New N,Se-Chelate Ligand 2-Phenylselenomethyl-1H-benzimidazole: Electrochemistry and Structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leboschka, M.; Sieger, M.; Sarkar, B.; Niemeyer, M.; Schurr, T.; Fiedler, Jan; Záliš, Stanislav; Kaim, W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 635, 6-7 (2009), s. 1001-1007 ISSN 0044-2313 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702; GA MŠk OC 139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : copper compounds * solid-state structures * electrochemistry * selenother ligand * silver complex Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2009

  9. Potentiation of the Cytotoxic Activity of Copper by Polyphosphate on Biofilm-Producing Bacteria: A Bioinspired Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz C. Schröder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion and accumulation of organic molecules represent an ecologically and economically massive problem. Adhesion of organic molecules is followed by microorganisms, unicellular organisms and plants together with their secreted soluble and structure-associated byproducts, which damage unprotected surfaces of submerged marine structures, including ship hulls and heat exchangers of power plants. This is termed biofouling. The search for less toxic anti-biofilm strategies has intensified since the ban of efficient and cost-effective anti-fouling paints, enriched with the organotin compound tributyltin, not least because of our finding of the ubiquitous toxic/pro-apoptotic effects displayed by this compound [1]. Our proposed bio-inspired approach for controlling, suppressing and interfluencing the dynamic biofouling complex uses copper as one component in an alternative anti-fouling system. In order to avoid and overcome the potential resistance against copper acquired by microorganisms we are using the biopolymer polyphosphate (polyP as a further component. Prior to being functionally active, polyP has to be hydrolyzed to ortho-phosphate which in turn can bind to copper and export the toxic compound out of the cell. It is shown here that inhibition of the hydrolysis of polyP by the bisphosphonate DMDP strongly increases the toxic effect of copper towards the biofilm-producing Streptococcus mutans in a synergistic manner. This bisphosphonate not only increases the copper-caused inhibition of cell growth but also of biofilm production by the bacteria. The defensin-related ASABF, a marine toxin produced by the sponge Suberites domuncula, caused only an additive inhibitory effect in combination with copper. We conclude that the new strategy, described here, has a superior anti-biofilm potential and can be considered as a novel principle for developing bio-inspired antifouling compounds, or cocktails of different compounds, in the future.

  10. Thermal conductivity of tungsten–copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Su Yong; Ham, Hye Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present the temperature dependence of the thermophysical properties for tungsten–copper composite from room temperature to 400 °C. The powders of tungsten–copper were produced by the spray conversion method and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated by the metal injection molding. Thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of tungsten–copper composite was controllable by volume fraction copper. - Abstract: As the speed and degree of integration of semiconductor devices increases, more heat is generated, and the performance and lifetime of semiconductor devices depend on the dissipation of the generated heat. Tungsten–copper alloys have high electrical and thermal conductivities, low contact resistances, and low coefficients of thermal expansion, thus allowing them to be used as a shielding material for microwave packages, and heat sinks for high power integrated circuits (ICs). In this study, the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of several types of tungsten–copper (W–Cu) composites are investigated, using compositions of 5–30 wt.% copper balanced with tungsten. The tungsten–copper powders were produced using the spray conversion method, and the W–Cu alloys were fabricated via the metal injection molding. The tungsten–copper composite particles were nanosized, and the thermal conductivity of the W–Cu alloys gradually decreases with temperature increases. The thermal conductivity of the W–30 wt.% Cu composite was 238 W/(m K) at room temperature.

  11. Unraveling the Amycolatopsis tucumanensis copper-resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila Costa, José Sebastián; Kothe, Erika; Abate, Carlos Mauricio; Amoroso, María Julia

    2012-10-01

    Heavy metal pollution is widespread causing serious ecological problems in many parts of the world; especially in developing countries where a budget for remediation technology is not affordable. Therefore, screening for microbes with high accumulation capacities and studying their stable resistance characteristics is advisable to define cost-effective any remediation strategies. Herein, the copper-resistome of the novel copper-resistant strain Amycolatopsis tucumanensis was studied using several approaches. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that proteins of the central metabolism, energy production, transcriptional regulators, two-component system, antioxidants and protective metabolites increased their abundance upon copper-stress conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed that in presence of copper, superoxide dismutase, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and mycothiol reductase genes were markedly induced in expression. The oxidative damage of protein and lipid from A. tucumanensis was negligible compared with that observed in the copper-sensitive strain Amycolatopsis eurytherma. Thus, we provide evidence that A. tucumamensis shows a high adaptation towards copper, the sum of which is proposed as the copper-resistome. This adaptation allows the strain to accumulate copper and survive this stress; besides, it constitutes the first report in which the copper-resistome of a strain of the genus Amycolatopsis with bioremediation potential has been evaluated.

  12. Electroforming copper targets for RTNS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, W.K.; Dini, J.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    Copper targets used in RTNS II, which is the world's most intense 14-MeV neutron source, contain water cooling channels for temperature control. There are two methods for fabricating these targets: (1) diffusion bonding a copper panel containing photoetched channels to another copper panel, and (2) an electroforming technique which involves filling the photoetched channels with wax, plating thick copper to seal over the channels and then removing the wax. Development of this latter process and results obtained with it are described

  13. Nearly 60% Copper Rod & Wire Companies Neutral about Future Copper Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>How about the trend of copper price recently? According to the survey result of Shanghai Metals Market, amongst 21 domestic copper rod & wire companies, 57% of the companies are neutral about the future copper price, while 14% and 19% of the companies consider that

  14. The copper-transporting ATPase pump and its potential role in copper-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Ohno; C.A. Clausen; Frederick Green; G. Stanosz

    2016-01-01

    Copper-tolerant brown-rot decay fungi exploit intricate mechanisms to neutralize the efficacy of copper-containing preservative formulations. The production and accumulation oxalate is the most widely recognized theory regarding the mechanism of copper-tolerance in these fungi. The role of oxalate, however, may be only one part of a series of necessary components...

  15. Forms of adsorption and transition states of oxidation of carbon monoxide by molecular oxygen and dissociation of nitrogen monooxide, catalyzed by monovalent copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A. I.; Mashutin, V. Y.; Vishnjakov, A. V.

    With the help of the results of semiempirical (parametric method 3) and ab initio (second-order Møller-Plesset [MP2] unrestricted Hartree-Fock [UHF] 6-31G**, unrestricted density functional theory [UDFT] 6-31G** Becke's three-parameter exchange functional and the gradient-corrected functional of Lee, Yang, and Paar [B3LYP] and UDFT LANL2DZ B3LYP) quantum-chemical calculations has been studied the complexation CO and NO with molecular hydroxide of copper(I). The influence of charge defects has been simulated by the calculations of anionic, neutral, and cationic systems. It is shown that CO and NO are mainly coordinated by nonoxygen atom on an atom of copper(I) hydroxide as one- and two-center forms. These forms are suitable for appearance of prereactionary complexes of catalytic oxidation CO by molecular oxygen and decomposition NO into atoms of nitrogen and oxygen. The corresponding prereactionary complexes for systems with participation of copper(II) hydroxide and copper(III) hydroxide are not revealed. The calculations predict inhibiting impact of copper(II) and copper(III) of the observed reactions. Computed stability of complexes CO and NO with copper(I) hydroxide and activation energy of catalytic conversion of monooxides essentially depend on an excessive charge of the system. Introduction of electron-donating additives into copper(I) hydroxide promotes rise of catalytic activity of copper(I) compound.

  16. Fusaric acid induces a notochord malformation in zebrafish via copper chelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Emily S; Rakhmankulova, Malika; Kucera, Kaury; de Sena Filho, Jose Guedes; Portero, Carolina E; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Holley, Scott A; Strobel, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over a thousand extracts were tested for phenotypic effects in developing zebrafish embryos to identify bioactive molecules produced by endophytic fungi. One extract isolated from Fusarium sp., a widely distributed fungal genus found in soil and often associated with plants, induced an undulated notochord in developing zebrafish embryos. The active compound was isolated and identified as fusaric acid. Previous literature has shown this phenotype to be associated with copper chelation from the active site of lysyl oxidase, but the ability of fusaric acid to bind copper ions has not been well described. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that fusaric acid is a modest copper chelator with a binding constant of 4.4 × 10(5) M(-1). These results shed light on the toxicity of fusaric acid and the potential teratogenic effects of consuming plants infected with Fusarium sp.

  17. Sanskrit Compound Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Mittal, Vipul; Kulkarni, Amba

    Sanskrit is very rich in compound formation. Typically a compound does not code the relation between its components explicitly. To understand the meaning of a compound, it is necessary to identify its components, discover the relations between them and finally generate a paraphrase of the compound. In this paper, we discuss the automatic segmentation and type identification of a compound using simple statistics that results from the manually annotated data.

  18. Leaching for recovery of copper from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash: influence of ash properties and metal speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassesson, Henric; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2014-08-01

    Recovery of metals occurring in significant amounts in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, such as copper, could offer several advantages: a decreased amount of potentially mobile metal compounds going to landfill, saving of natural resources and a monetary value. A combination of leaching and solvent extraction may constitute a feasible recovery path for metals from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. However, it has been shown that the initial dissolution and leaching is a limiting step in such a recovery process. The work described in this article was focused on elucidating physical and chemical differences between two ash samples with the aim of explaining the differences in copper release from these samples in two leaching methods. The results showed that the chemical speciation is an important factor affecting the release of copper. The occurrence of copper as phosphate or silicate will hinder leaching, while sulphate and chloride will facilitate leaching. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Copper diffusion in Ti-Si-N layers formed by inductively coupled plasma implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ee, Y.C.; Chen, Z.; Law, S.B.; Xu, S.; Yakovlev, N.L.; Lai, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Ternary Ti-Si-N refractory barrier films of 15 nm thick was prepared by low frequency, high density, inductively coupled plasma implantation of N into Ti x Si y substrate. This leads to the formation of Ti-N and Si-N compounds in the ternary film. Diffusion of copper in the barrier layer after annealing treatment at various temperatures was investigated using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and sheet resistance measurement. The current study found that barrier failure did not occur until 650 deg. C annealing for 30 min. The failure occurs by the diffusion of copper into the Ti-Si-N film to form Cu-Ti and Cu-N compounds. FESEM surface morphology and EDX show that copper compounds were formed on the ridge areas of the Ti-Si-N film. The sheet resistance verifies the diffusion of Cu into the Ti-Si-N film; there is a sudden drop in the resistance with Cu compound formation. This finding provides a simple and effective method of monitoring Cu diffusion in TiN-based diffusion barriers

  20. Copper oxide--copper sulfate water-splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foh, S. E.; Schreiber, J. D.; Dafler, J. R.

    1978-08-01

    A hybrid copper oxide--copper sulfate thermochemical water-splitting cycle, IGT's H-5, has been demonstrated in the laboratory with recycled materials. The optimum configuration and operating conditions for the electrolytic hydrogen-producing step have not yet been defined. With cooperative funding (A.G.A./G.R.I./DOE) a conceptual flowsheet was developed for this cycle and a load-line efficiency of about 37% calculated. This figure is the result of a single iteration on the original base case flow sheet and compares well with the values calculated for other processes at this stage of development. An iterative optimization of process conditions would improve efficiency. The data required to perform an economic analysis are not yet available and the electrolysis step must be more fully defined. An attractive process efficiency, relatively few corrosive materials, and few gas-phase separations are attributes of Cycle H-5 that lead us to believe hydrogen costs (to be developed during future analyses) would be improved significantly over similar processes analyzed to date.

  1. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/

  2. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  3. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  4. Synthesis of Commercial Products from Copper Wire-Drawing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, J.; Fernández, B.

    2014-06-01

    Copper powder and copper sulfate pentahydrate were obtained from copper wire-drawing scale. The hydrometallurgical recycling process proposed in this article yields a high-purity copper powder and analytical grade copper sulfate pentahydrate. In the first stage of this process, the copper is dissolved in sulfuric acid media via dismutation of the scale. In the second stage, copper sulfate pentahydrate is precipitated using ethanol. Effects such as pH, reaction times, stirring speed, initial copper concentration, and ethanol/solution volume ratio were studied during the precipitation from solution reaction. The proposed method is technically straightforward and provides efficient recovery of Cu from wire-drawing scale.

  5. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.P.; Duarte, G.W.; Caldart, C.; Kniess, C.T.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  6. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  7. Pure and Oxidized Copper Materials as Potential Antimicrobial Surfaces for Spaceflight Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C.; Hans, M.; Hein, C.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Mücklich, F.; Wirth, R.; Rettberg, P.; Hellweg, C. E.; Moeller, R.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial biofilms can lead to persistent infections and degrade a variety of materials, and they are notorious for their persistence and resistance to eradication. During long-duration space missions, microbial biofilms present a danger to crew health and spacecraft integrity. The use of antimicrobial surfaces provides an alternative strategy for inhibiting microbial growth and biofilm formation to conventional cleaning procedures and the use of disinfectants. Antimicrobial surfaces contain organic or inorganic compounds, such as antimicrobial peptides or copper and silver, that inhibit microbial growth. The efficacy of wetted oxidized copper layers and pure copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents was tested by applying cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus cohnii to these metallic surfaces. Stainless steel surfaces were used as non-inhibitory control surfaces. The production of reactive oxygen species and membrane damage increased rapidly within 1 h of exposure on pure copper surfaces, but the effect on cell survival was negligible even after 2 h of exposure. However, longer exposure times of up to 4 h led to a rapid decrease in cell survival, whereby the survival of cells was additionally dependent on the exposed cell density. Finally, the release of metal ions was determined to identify a possible correlation between copper ions in suspension and cell survival. These measurements indicated a steady increase of free copper ions, which were released indirectly by cells presumably through excreted complexing agents. These data indicate that the application of antimicrobial surfaces in spaceflight facilities could improve crew health and mitigate material damage caused by microbial contamination and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that cuprous oxide layers were superior to pure copper surfaces related to the antimicrobial effect and that cell density is a significant factor that influences the time dependence of

  8. COPPER AND COPPER-CONTAINING PESTICIDES: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Husak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the current knowledge regarding metabolism and toxicity of copper and copper-based pesticides in living organisms. Copper is an essential trace element in all living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, because it participates in different metabolic processes and maintain functions of organisms. The transport and metabolism of copper in living organisms is currently the subject of many studies. Copper is absorbed, transported, distributed, stored, and excreted in the body via the complex of homeostatic processes, which provide organisms with a needed constant level of this micronutrient and avoid excessive amounts. Many aspects of copper homeostasis were studied at the molecular level. Copper based-pesticides, in particularly fungicides, bacteriocides and herbicides, are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. Copper is an integral part of antioxidant enzymes, particularly copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and plays prominent roles in iron homeostasis. On the other hand, excess of copper in organism has deleterious effect, because it stimulates free radical production in the cell, induces lipid peroxidation, and disturbs the total antioxidant capacity of the body. The mechanisms of copper toxicity are discussed in this review also.

  9. Determination of HCl and VOC Emission from Thermal Degradation of PVC in the Absence and Presence of Copper, Copper(II Oxide and Copper(II Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad J. Jafari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC has played a key role in the development of the plastic industry over the past 40 years. Thermal degradation of PVC leads to formation of many toxic pollutants such as HCl, aromatic and volatile organic carbon vapors. Thermal degradation of PVC and PVC in the present of copper, cupric oxide and copper(II chloride were investigated in this study using a laboratory scale electrical furnace. HCl and Cl- ion were analyzed by a Dionex ion chromatograph and VOCs compounds were analyzed using GC or GC-MS. The results showed that HCl plus Cl- ion and benzene formed about 99% and 80% respectively in the first step of thermal degradation under air atmosphere. The presence of cupric oxide increases the percentage of short chain hydrocarbons more than 184% and decreases the amount of the major aromatic hydrocarbon and HCl plus Cl- ion to 90% and 65% respectively. The total aromatic hydrocarbon emitted less than when atmosphere was air and difference was statistically significant (Pvalue<0.000

  10. Mesophilic leaching of copper sulphide sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR B. CVETKOVSKI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper was precipitated using a sodium sulphide solution as the precipitation agent from an acid solution containing 17 g/l copper and 350 g/l sulphuric acid. The particle size of nearly 1 µm in the sulphide sludge sample was detected by optical microscopy. Based on chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, covellite was detected as the major sulphide mineral. The batch bioleach amenability test was performed at 32 °C on the Tk31 mine mesophilic mixed culture using a residence time of 28 days. The dissolution of copper sulphide by direct catalytic leaching of the sulphides with bacteria attached to the particles was found to be worthy, although a small quantity of ferrous ions had to be added to raise the activity of the bacteria and the redox potential of the culture medium. Throughout the 22-day period of the bioleach test, copper recovery based on residue analysis indicated a copper extraction of 95 %, with copper concentration in the bioleach solution of 15 g/l. The slope of the straight line tangential to the exponential part of the extraction curve gave a copper solubilisation rate of 1.1 g/l per day. This suggests that a copper extraction of 95 % for the period of bioleach test of 13.6 days may be attained in a three-stage bioreactor system.

  11. The copper metallome in prokaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rensing, Christopher Günther T; Alwathnani, Hend A.; McDevitt, Sylvia F.

    2016-01-01

    and protozoans also utilize heavy metals such as copper and zinc in the killing of phagocytized bacteria. It seems, therefore, not surprising that many bacteria including pathogens harbor additional copper resistance determinants. However, the occurrence of these resistance determinants is more widespread than...

  12. Copper laser diagnostics and kinetics support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    In the effort MSNW participated with the LINL copper-Vapor Laser Program by providing a useful plasma diagnostic for interpretation of Copper-vapor laser kinetics. MSNW developed and delivered a pulsed interferometric diagnostic package to LLNL. Moreover MSNW provided personal services at the request and direction of LLL in the implementation of the diagnostic and interpretation of the data

  13. Photocleavage of DNA by copper (II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of ternary and binary copper(II) complexes showing efficient visible lightinduced DNA cleavage activity is summarized in this article. The role of the metal in photo-induced DNA cleavage reactions is explored by designing complex molecules having a variety of ligands. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino ...

  14. Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A search for non-cyanide plating baths for copper resulted in the development of alkaline copper complex baths containing trisodium citrate [TSC] and triethanolamine [TEA]. Voltammetric studies were carried out on platinum to understand the electrochemical behaviour of these complexes. In TSC solutions, the.

  15. Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores as practised in different countries is reviewed. In world practice the production process including depression of copper and iron sulfides and flotation of molybdenite is widely spread. At two USA factories the process of a selective flotation with molybdenite depression by dextrin is used

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  17. Extra-Hepatic Storage of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else; Horn, N.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of copper among the organs of an aborted, male foetus, expected to develop Menkes' syndrome, was entirely different from the distribution in 4 normal foetuses. Copper concentrations determined by neutron activation analysis showed a considerably reduced content in the liver...

  18. Investigations on the Formation of Copper Polyvanadates as a Function of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Shiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and composition of copper vanadates obtained by the interaction of copper sulfate with different sodium vanadates (ortho, pyro, meta and poly have been studied by means of electrometric techniques involving glass electrode and conductometric titrations between the reactants at several concentrations in aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic media. The well defined inflections and breaks in the titration curves provide cogent evidence for the formation and precipitation of copper ortho-3CuO.V2O5, pyro-2CuO.V2O5 and meta-CuO.V2O5 vanadates in the vicinity of pH 8.1, 7.4 and 6.2, respectively. The studies on formation of copper poly-vanadate failed to give any dependable results. Analytical investigations of the compounds formed confirm the results of the electrometric study. The precipitation of copper ortho-vanadate is almost quantitative and the glass electrode titrations ofers a simple and rapid method for determination of vanadium(V in solutions.

  19. Physicochemical, antioxidant, DNA cleaving properties and antimicrobial activity of fisetin-copper chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łodyga-Chruscińska, Elżbieta; Pilo, Maria; Zucca, Antonio; Garribba, Eugenio; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Rowińska-Żyrek, Magdalena; Symonowicz, Marzena; Chrusciński, Longin; Cheshchevik, Vitalij T

    2018-03-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) metal chelates are of interest as this plant polyphenol has revealed broad prospects for its use as natural medicine in the treatment of various diseases. Metal interactions may change or enhance fisetin biological properties so understanding fisetin metal chelation is important for its application not only in medicine but also as a food additive in nutritional supplements. This work was aimed to determine and characterize copper complexes formed in different pH range at applying various metal/ligand ratios. Fisetin and Cu(II)-fisetin complexes were characterized by potentiometric titrations, UV-Vis (Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy), EPR, ESI-MS, FTIR and cyclic voltammetry. Their effects on DNA were investigated by using circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetry and gel electrophoresis methods. The copper complex with the ratio of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 exhibited significant DNA cleavage activity, followed by complete degradation of DNA. The influence of copper(II) ions on antioxidant activity of fisetin in vitro has been studied using DPPH, ABTS and mitochondrial assays. The results have pointed out that fisetin or copper complexes can behave both as antioxidants or pro-oxidants. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds has been investigated towards several bacteria and fungi. The copper complex of Cu(II)/fisetin 1/2 ratio showed higher antagonistic activity against bacteria comparing to the ligand and it revealed a promising antifungal activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the anti-biofouling potentials of a copper iodide-doped nylon mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Fujimori, Yoshie; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Gotoh, Yasuo; Sunaga, Yoshihiko; Nemoto, Michiko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2012-08-01

    We propose a copper iodide (CuI)-doped nylon mesh prepared using polyiodide ions as a precursor toward anti-biofouling polymer textile. The CuI-doped nylon mesh was subjected to the prevention of biofouling in marine environments. The attachment of the marine organisms was markedly inhibited on the CuI-doped nylon mesh surface until 249 days. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that copper compounds were maintained in the nylon mesh after the field experiment, although copper content in the nylon mesh was reduced. Therefore, the copper ions slowly dissolved from nylon mesh will contribute to the long-term prevention of biofouling. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis revealed the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from CuI-doped nylon mesh after the field experiment. One of the possibilities for toxic action of copper ions will be the direct effect of Cu+ -induced ROS on biofilm forming on nylon mesh surface. The proposed polymer textile can be applied to fishing and aquafarming nets, mooring rope for ship, or silt fence to restrict polluted water in marine environments.

  1. The Use of Copper Pesticides in Germany and the Search for Minimization and Replacement Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuehne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper pesticides used to control fungal and bacterial diseases such as grapes downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, downy mildew of hops (Pseudoperonospora humili, apple scab (Venturia spp., fireblight (Erwinia amylovora and potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans, play an important role in plant protection. In a 2013 survey of copper application in Germany we found, that while the amounts of copper used per hectare in conventional grape (0.8 kg ha−1, hop (1.7 kg ha−1 and potato-farming (0.8 kg ha−1 were well below those used in organic farming (2.3, 2.6 and 1.4 kg ha−1, respectively, they were nearly identical to those used in apple growing (1.4 kg ha−1. Due to the smaller farming area, only 24% (26.5 tonnes of the total amount of copper was applied in organic farming compared to 76% (84.8 tonnes in conventional farming. Since 2001, the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE promoted a copper research and minimization strategy which was funded with a total of C10.2 million. Our status quo analysis of research in this field shows that some progress is being made concerning alternative compounds, resistant varieties and decision support systems. However, it also shows that new approaches are not yet able to replace copper pesticides completely, especially in organic farming. In integrated pest management, copper preparations are important for the necessary active substance rotation and successful resistance management. The availability of such products is often essential for organic grapes, hops and fruit production and for extending the organic farming of these crops. We conclude that the complete elimination of copper pesticides is not yet practicable in organic farming as the production of several organic crops would become unprofitable and may lead to organic farmers reverting to conventional production. Several existing copper reduction strategies were, however, identified, and some, like modified forecast models adapted to

  2. Synthesis, characterization and polymerization of methacrylates of copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II). Generation of new materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Bolanos, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Coordination compounds of the species copper (II), cobalt (II) and molybdenum (II) with methacrylic acid were synthesized and characterized. Besides, it realized reactions of bromine addition to the doubles links of the species obtained previously, also too like reactions with dry HCl. Finally, it got hybrids materials by polymerization of the first compounds in an acrylic matrix. Research concluded with the characterization of all the products. (author) [es

  3. Activation of ADAM 12 protease by copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Wewer, Ulla M.

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of latent proteases to the active form occurs by various mechanisms characteristic for different protease families. Here we report that the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM 12-S is activated by Cu(II). Copper activation is distinct from the cysteine switch component of latency: elimina......Conversion of latent proteases to the active form occurs by various mechanisms characteristic for different protease families. Here we report that the disintegrin metalloprotease ADAM 12-S is activated by Cu(II). Copper activation is distinct from the cysteine switch component of latency......: elimination of the ADAM 12 cysteine switch by a point mutation in the propeptide had no effect on copper activation, whereas mutation of an unpaired cysteine residue in the catalytic domain resulted in a mutant form of ADAM 12-S that was insensitive to copper. This suggests a multi-step activation mechanism...... for ADAM 12 involving both furin cleavage and copper binding....

  4. Microbial leaching of low grade copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ashfaq, M.

    1991-01-01

    Biotechnology is regarded as one of the most promising and revolutionary solution to various problems which are generally faced in the extraction of metals from their ores such as high energy, capital costs and environmental pollution. The paper deals with the study of low grade copper ores for their beneficiation and extraction of copper. The ores used were chalcopyrite and oxidized copper ores. Microorganisms play a vital role in the solubilization of valuable contents from ores such as copper and other metals. Studies have been conducted on the indigenous copper ores by using thiobacillus ferro oxidans and thiobacillus thio oxidans. For comparison purpose some experiments have also been conducted by chemical leaching. The results of bacterial leaching are encouraging. (author)

  5. Engineering kinetic barriers in copper metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Wei, H.L.; Woo, C.H.; Zhang, X.X.

    2002-01-01

    In metallization processes of integrated circuits, it is desirable to deposit the metal lines (aluminum or copper) fast and at low temperatures. However, the lines (films) usually consist of undesirable columns and voids, because of the absence of sufficient diffusion--a direct result of large kinetic barriers. Following the proposal and realization of the three-dimensional Ehrlich-Schwoebel (3D ES) barrier, we present here a method to engineer this kinetic barrier so as to improve quality of deposited copper films. We deposit copper films by magnetron sputtering, characterize the film structure and texture by using the scanning electron microscope and the x-ray diffraction, respectively. Taking indium as surfactant during copper deposition, we have achieved much better density and bottom coverage of copper filled trenches. The characterizations show that the improvement is the result of the 3D ES barrier reduction caused by indium addition. Engineering the 3D ES barrier therefore leads to improved film quality

  6. Uranium accompanying recovery from copper ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golynko, Z.Sh.; Laskorin, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    In the search for new raw material sources for nuclear power engineering a review of the technique of uranium accompaning recovery from copper ores reprocessing products in some countries is presented. In the USA a sorption method of uranium extraction by means of strongly basic ion exchange resins from solutions upon copper case- hardening with subsequent extraction from eluates by solutions of tertiary amines is realized. Elution is realized with sulphuric acid. In South Africa an extraction reprocessing of gravitational concentrate extracted from copper sulphide flotation tailings is organized. In India the uranium extraction from copper ores flotation enrichment tailings is organized on a commerical scale. Presented are data on the scale of uranium recovery, various conditions of its recovery as well as block diagrams of the processes. It is shown that copper ores become an additional source of uranium recovery [ru

  7. Activation determination of copper in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, V.; Bludovsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for determining copper content in food. Analyzed were dried milk, flour, coffee, tea, husked rice, and liver. Bowen's kale powder with a guaranteed copper content of 3.6 to 6.5 ppm was used as a reference biological material. The instruments, chemicals and solutions used are reported. The method is described of copper separation with α-benzoinoxime and pyridine as is the procedure for the destructive activation analysis of samples. The copper concentrations in the foods under analysis were found to range within usual limits. The copper concentration determined in the reference material agreed with the measured value. The analysis confirms that the method yields reliable results. (J.B.)

  8. (II) COMPLEX COMPOUND

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    electrochemical sensors, as well as in various chromatographic ... were carried out using Jenway pH meter Model 3320 and a conductivity ... Figure 1: the proposed molecular structure of the copper (II) Schiff base complex. M = Cu (II) or Mn (II).

  9. Comparative analysis of copper and zinc based agrichemical biocide products: materials characteristics, phytotoxicity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikishan Kannan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, copper based biocides have been extensively used in food crop protection including citrus, small fruits and in all garden vegetable production facilities. Continuous and rampant use of copper based biocides over decades has led to accumulation of this metal in the soil and the surrounding ecosystem. Toxic levels of copper and its derivatives in both the soil and in the run off pose serious environmental and public health concerns. Alternatives to copper are in great need for the agriculture industry to produce food crops with minimal environmental risks. A combination of copper and zinc metal containing biocide such as Nordox 30/30 or an improved version of zinc-only containing biocide would be a good alternative to copper-only products if the efficacy can be maintained. As of yet there is no published literature on the comparative study of the materials characteristics and phyto-compatibility properties of copper and zinc-based commercial products that would allow us to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of both versions of pesticides. In this report, we compared copper hydroxide and zinc oxide based commercially available biocides along with suitable control materials to assess their efficacy as biocides. We present a detailed material characterization of the biocides including morphological studies involving electron microscopy, molecular structure studies involving X-ray diffraction, phytotoxicity studies in model plant (tomato and antimicrobial studies involving surrogate plant pathogens (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Zinc based compounds were found to possess comparable to superior antimicrobial properties while exhibiting significantly lower phytotoxicity when compared to copper based products thus suggesting their potential as an alternative.

  10. Anaerobic biodegradability and methanogenic toxicity of key constituents in copper chemical mechanical planarization effluents of the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeremy; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Zhou, Michael; Ogden, Kimberly L; Field, Jim A

    2005-06-01

    Copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) effluents can account for 30-40% of the water discharge in semiconductor manufacturing. CMP effluents contain high concentrations of soluble copper and a complex mixture of organic constituents. The aim of this study is to perform a preliminary assessment of the treatability of CMP effluents in anaerobic sulfidogenic bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic granular sludge by testing individual compounds expected in the CMP effluents. Of all the compounds tested (copper (II), benzotriazoles, polyethylene glycol (M(n) 300), polyethylene glycol (M(n) 860) monooleate, perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate, citric acid, oxalic acid and isopropanol) only copper was found to be inhibitory to methanogenic activity at the concentrations tested. Most of the organic compounds tested were biodegradable with the exception of perfluoro-1-octane sulfonate and benzotriazoles under sulfate reducing conditions and with the exception of the same compounds as well as Triton X-100 under methanogenic conditions. The susceptibility of key components in CMP effluents to anaerobic biodegradation combined with their low microbial inhibition suggest that CMP effluents should be amenable to biological treatment in sulfate reducing bioreactors.

  11. Ecology of subtropical, shallow water environments: chemistry of copper and chlorine introduced into marine systems during energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    During the last three contract years, we have been involved in the study of the chemistry of the copper binding compounds occurring in coastal seawater. Initially our efforts were oriented towards the study of the complexing capacity of waters collected at various locations in the Miami, Florida area. Our study then shifted towards the concentration and the elucidation of these chelators

  12. Mass spectrum of secondary ions knocked-out from copper surface by argon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval', A.G.; Bobkov, V.V.; Klimovskij, Yu.A.; Fogel', Ya.M.

    1976-01-01

    The mass-spectrum of secondary ions was studied within a mass range of 1-400. The ions were knocked-out by the beam of ions Ar + from the copper surface with different content of oxygen and sulphur solved in the volume. The studies were conducted at three temperatures of the target. The atomic and molecular ions of the metal matrix, volumetric impurities of metal and ions of chemical compounds molecules of the metal under study with gas particles adsorbed on its surface and atoms of the metal volumetric admixtures may be observed in the mass spectrum. Detection of secondary ions of the copper multi-atomic complexes and ions of these complexes compounds with the adsorbed molecules is of interest

  13. Kinetics of the conversion of copper sulfide to blister copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, F.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The desulfurization of copper sulfide by air and oxygen has been studied in two laboratory reactors where the gas is blown onto the melt surface. Rates of oxidation in a vertical resistance furnace may be explained by the mass transfer control in the gas phase. However, results for a horizontal tube suggest that the chemical resistance is controlling.

    La desulfuración del sulfuro cuproso con aire y oxígeno se ha estudiado en dos reactores de laboratorio, en los cuales el gas se sopla sobre la superficie del fundido. La velocidad de reacción en un horno de resistencias verticales se puede explicar considerando como controlante la resistencia a la transferencia de materia de la fase gas. Sin embargo, los resultados del horno horizontal indican que la resistencia química es la controlante.

  14. Surface films and corrosion of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilden, J.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-03-01

    In Sweden and Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be encapsulated in cast iron canisters that have an outer shield made of copper. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister construction. General corrosion of the copper is not expected to be the limiting factor in the waste repository environment when estimating the life-time of the canister construction. However, different forms of localised corrosion, i.e. pitting, stress corrosion cracking, or environmentally assisted creep fracture may cause premature failure of the copper shield. Of the probable constituents in the groundwater, nitrites, chlorides, sulphides and carbonates have been suggested to promote localised corrosion of copper. The main assumption made in planning this research program is that the surface films forming on copper in the repository environment largely determine the susceptibility of copper to the different forms of localised corrosion. The availability of reactants, which also may become corrosion rate limiting, is investigated in several other research programs. This research program consists of a set of successive projects targeted at characterising the properties of surface films on copper in repository environment containing different detrimental anions. A further aim was to assess the significance of the anion-induced changes in the stability of the oxide films with regard to localised corrosion of copper. This report summarises the results from a series of investigations on properties of surface films forming on copper in water of pH = 8.9 at temperature of 80 deg C and pressure of 2 MPa. The main results gained so far in this research program are as follows: The surface films forming on copper in the thermodynamic stability region of monovalent copper at 80 deg C consist of a bulk part (about 1 mm thick) which is a good ionic and electronic conductor, and an outer, interfacial layer (0.001 - 0.005 mm thick) which shows p-type semiconductor

  15. Emprego do carvão ativado para remoção de cobre em cachaça Using activated carbon to remove copper from sugar cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de J. Boari Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper content is of great concern among sugarcane-spirit producers. It is released from copper-made distillers, during the distillation process. Activated carbon has been used to remove copper. However, depending on the amount of carbon and the duration of reaction, it can also remove higher alcohols and esters, which are important in the final product. A sugarcane spirit with 9 mg L-1 of copper was shaken with 2 to 26 g L-1 of activated carbon, during 10 to 1440 minutes. Then, copper and organic compounds were measured. At least 12 g L-1 of carbon and 60 min shaking time were necessary to decrease copper bellow 5 mg L-1. However, other components of the product were also affected.

  16. Industrial Tests to Modify Molten Copper Slag for Improvement of Copper Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Congcong

    2018-04-01

    In this article, to improve the recovery of copper from copper slag by flotation process, industrial tests of the modification process involving addition of a composite additive into molten copper slag were conducted, and the modified slag was subjected to the flotation process to confirm the modification effect. The phase evolution of the slag in the modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that more copper was transformed and enriched in copper sulfide phases. The magnetite content in the modified slag decreased, and that of "FeO" increased correspondingly, leading to a better fluidity of the molten slag, which improved the aggregation and growth of fine particles of the copper sulfide minerals. Closed-circuit flotation tests of the original and modified slags were conducted, and the results show that the copper recovery increased obviously from 69.15% to 73.38%, and the copper grade of concentrates was elevated slightly from 20.24% to 21.69%, further confirming that the industrial tests of the modification process were successful. Hence, the modification process has a bright future in industrial applications for enhancing the recovery of copper from the copper slag.

  17. (Pt{sub 1–x}Cu{sub x}){sub 3}Cu{sub 2}B and Pt{sub 9}Cu{sub 3}B{sub 5}, the first examples of copper platinum borides. Observation of superconductivity in a novel boron filled β-Mn-type compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamakha, Leonid P. [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Sologub, Oksana, E-mail: oksana.sologub@univie.ac.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Stöger, Berthold [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, TU Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Michor, Herwig; Bauer, Ernst [Institute of Solid State Physics, TU Wien, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Rogl, Peter F. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    New ternary copper platinum borides have been synthesized by arc melting of pure elements followed by annealing at 600 °C. The structures have been studied by X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction. (Pt{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}){sub 3}Cu{sub 2}B (x=0.33) forms a B-filled β-Mn-type structure (space group P4{sub 1}32; a=0.6671(1) nm). Cu atoms are distributed preferentially on the 8c atom sites, whereas the 12d site is randomly occupied by Pt and Cu atoms (0.670(4) Pt±0.330(4) Cu). Boron is located in octahedral voids of the parent β-Mn-type structure. Pt{sub 9}Cu{sub 3}B{sub 5} (space group P-62m; a=0.9048(3) nm, c=0.2908(1) nm) adopts the Pt{sub 9}Zn{sub 3}B{sub 5–δ}-type structure. It has a columnar architecture along the short translation vector exhibiting three kinds of [Pt{sub 6}] trigonal prism columns (boron filled, boron semi-filled and empty) and Pt channels with a pentagonal cross section filled with Cu atoms. The striking structural feature is a [Pt{sub 6}] cluster in form of an empty trigonal prism at the origin of the unit cell, which is surrounded by coupled [BPt{sub 6}] and [Pt{sub 6}] trigonal prisms, rotated perpendicularly to the central one. There is no B–B contact as well as Cu–B contact in the structure. The relationships of Pt{sub 9}Cu{sub 3}B{sub 5} structure with the structure of Ti{sub 1+x}Os{sub 2−x}RuB{sub 2} as well as with the structure families of metal sulfides and aluminides have been elucidated. (Pt{sub 1–x}Cu{sub x}){sub 3}Cu{sub 2}B (x=0.3) (B-filled β-Mn-type structure) is a bulk superconductor with a transition temperature of about 2.06 K and an upper critical field μ{sub 0}H{sub C2}(0){sup WHH} of 1.2 T, whereas no superconducting transition has been observed up to 0.3 K in Pt{sub 9}Cu{sub 3}B{sub 5} (Pt{sub 9}Zn{sub 3}B{sub 5–δ}-type structure) from electrical resistivity measurements. - Highlights: • First two copper platinum borides, (Pt{sub 0.67}Cu{sub 0.33}){sub 3}Cu{sub 2}B and Pt{sub 9}Cu{sub 3}B

  18. Grain boundary corrosion of copper canister material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennell, P.A.H.; Graham, A.J.; Smart, N.R.; Sofield, C.J.

    2001-03-01

    The proposed design for a final repository for spent fuel and other long-lived residues in Sweden is based on the multi-barrier principle. The waste will be encapsulated in sealed cylindrical canisters, which will then be placed in granite bedrock and surrounded by compacted bentonite clay. The canister design is based on a thick cast inner container fitted inside a corrosion-resistant copper canister. During fabrication of the outer copper canisters there will be some unavoidable grain growth in the welded areas. As grains grow they will tend to concentrate impurities within the copper at the new grain boundaries. The work described in this report was undertaken to determine whether there is any possibility of enhanced corrosion at grain boundaries within the copper canister. The potential for grain boundary corrosion was investigated by exposing copper specimens, which had undergone different heat treatments and hence had different grain sizes, to aerated artificial bentonite-equilibrated groundwater with two concentrations of chloride, for increasing periods of time. The degree of grain boundary corrosion was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. AFM showed no increase in grain boundary 'ditching' for low chloride groundwater. In high chloride groundwater the surface was covered uniformly with a fine-grained oxide. No increases in oxide thickness were observed. No significant grain boundary attack was observed using optical microscopy either. The work suggests that in aerated artificial groundwaters containing chloride ions, grain boundary corrosion of copper is unlikely to adversely affect SKB's copper canisters

  19. Normal macrophage function in copper deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasewycz, O.A.; Kolquist, K.L.; Prohaska, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Copper deficiency (-Cu) was produced in C57 BL and C58 mice by feeding a low copper diet (modified AIN-76A) from birth. Mice given supplemental copper in the drinking water (+Cu) served as controls. Copper status was monitored by assay of ceruloplasmin (CP) activity. Macrophages (M0) were obtained from matched +Cu and -Cu male 7 week-old mice by peritoneal lavage 3 days after thioglycollate stimulation. M0 were assayed in terms of lipopolysaccharide-induced hexose monophosphate shunt activity by monitoring 14 CO 2 production from [1- 14 C]-glucose and by the determination of phagocytic index using fluorescein labelled latex bead ingestion. M0 from -Cu mice were equivalent to those of +Cu mice in both these parameters. However, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase activities were both significantly lower in -Cu M0, confirming a functional copper deficiency. Previous results from this laboratory have shown that -Cu mice have a decreased antibody response to sheep erythrocyte antigens and a diminished reactivity to B and T cell mitogens. These immunological insufficiencies appear to be proportional to the severity of copper depletion as determined by CP levels. Furthermore, -Cu lymphocytes exhibit depressed mixed lymphocyte reactivity consistent with alterations at the membrane surface. The present results suggest that M0/monocytes are less severely affected than lymphocytes in copper deficiency states

  20. Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: Implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, T.S.; Akhtar, T.A.; Lampi, M.A.; Tripuranthakam, S.; Dixon, D.G.; Greenberg, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Metals and ultraviolet (UV) radiation are two environmental stressors that can cause damage to plants. These two types of stressors often impact simultaneously on plants and both are known to promote reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, little information is available on the potential parallel stress responses elicited by metals and UV radiation. Using the aquatic plant Lemna gibba, we found that copper and simulated solar radiation (SSR, a light source containing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UV radiation) induced similar responses in the plants. Both copper and SSR caused ROS formation. The ROS levels were higher when copper was combined with SSR than when applied with PAR. Higher concentrations of copper plus PAR caused toxicity as monitored by diminished growth and chlorophyll content. This toxicity was more pronounced when copper was combined with SSR. Because the generation of ROS was also higher when copper was combined with SSR, we attributed this enhanced toxicity to elevated levels of ROS. In comparison to PAR-grown plants, SSR treated plants exhibited elevated levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). These enzyme levels were further elevated under both PAR and SSR when copper was added at concentrations that generated ROS. Interestingly, copper treatment in the absence of SSR (i.e. copper plus PAR) induced synthesis of the same flavonoids as those observed in SSR without copper. Finally, addition of either dimethyl thiourea or GSH (two common ROS scavengers) lowered in vivo ROS production, alleviated toxicity and diminished induction of GR as well as accumulation of UV absorbing compounds. Thus, the potential of ROS being a common signal for acclimation to stress by both copper and UV can be considered. (author)

  1. Copper adsorption in tropical oxisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Maria Lucia Azevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu adsorption, at concentrations between 0 to 800 mg L-1, was evaluated in surface and subsurface samples of three Brazilian soils: a heavy clayey-textured Rhodic Hapludalf (RH, a heavy clayey-textured Anionic ''Rhodic'' Acrudox (RA and a medium-textured Anionic ''Xanthic'' Acrudox (XA. After adsorption, two consecutive extractions were performed to the samples which received 100 mg L-1 copper. Surface samples adsorbed higher amounts of Cu than the subsurface, and exhibited lower Cu removed after the extractions, reinforcing the influence of the organic matter in the reactions. Cu adsorption was significant in the subsurface horizons of the Oxisols, despite the positive balance of charge, demonstrating the existence of mechanisms for specific adsorption, mainly related to the predominance of iron and aluminum oxides in the mineral fractions. In these samples, Cu was easily removed from the adsorption sites. RH demonstrated a higher capacity for the Cu adsorption in both horizons.

  2. Copper accumulation by stickleback nests containing spiggin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, G L L; Martins, C M G; Barber, I

    2016-07-01

    The three-spined stickleback is a ubiquitous fish of marine, brackish and freshwater ecosystems across the Northern hemisphere that presents intermediate sensitivity to copper. Male sticklebacks display a range of elaborate reproductive behaviours that include nest construction. To build the nests, each male binds nesting material together using an endogenous glycoprotein nesting glue, known as 'spiggin'. Spiggin is a cysteine-rich protein and, therefore, potentially binds heavy metals present in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of stickleback nests to accumulate copper from environmental sources. Newly built nests, constructed by male fish from polyester threads in laboratory aquaria, were immersed in copper solutions ranging in concentration from 21.1-626.6 μg Cu L(-1). Bundles of polyester threads from aquaria without male fish were also immersed in the same copper solutions. After immersion, nests presented higher amounts of copper than the thread bundles, indicating a higher capacity of nests to bind this metal. A significant, positive correlation between the concentration of copper in the exposure solution and in the exposed nests was identified, but there was no such relationship for thread bundles. Since both spiggin synthesis and male courtship behaviour are under the control of circulating androgens, we predicted that males with high courtship scores would produce and secrete high levels of the spiggin protein. In the present study, nests built by high courtship score males accumulated more copper than those built by low courtship score males. Considering the potential of spiggin to bind metals, the positive relationship between fish courtship and spiggin secretion seems to explain the higher amount of copper on the nests from the fish showing high behaviour scores. Further work is now needed to determine the consequences of the copper binding potential of spiggin in stickleback nests for the health and survival of

  3. 21 CFR 74.3045 - [Phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper. 74.3045 Section 74...-)] copper. (a) Identity. The color additive is [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper (CAS Reg. No. 147-14-8) having... [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other...

  4. Possibilities of radioisotopic fluorescence analysis application in copper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parus, J.; Kierzek, J.

    1983-01-01

    The main applications of X-ray fluorescence analysis in copper industry such as: copper ores and other materials from flotation analysis, lead and silver determination in blister copper, analysis of metallurgic dusts and copper base alloys analysis are presented. (A.S.)

  5. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper... hard drawn. (b) Copper pipe used in service lines must have wall thickness not less than that indicated...

  6. Conditions for precipitation of copper phases in DWPF waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) precipitate hydrolysis process requires the use of copper formate catalyst. The expected absorbed radiation doses to the precipitate require levels of copper formate that increase the potential for the precipitation of metallic copper in the DWPF Melter. The conditions required to avoid the precipitation of copper are described

  7. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Department of Medical Radiography, Al-Azhar University, Gaza Strip, Palestine (Country Unknown); Hashim, S., E-mail: suhairul@utm.my [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Oncology Treatment Centre, Sultan Ismail Hospital, 81100 Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ghoshal, S.K. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Bradley, D.A. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mhareb, M. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Saleh, M.A. [Department of Physics, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); National Atomic Energy Commission (NATEC), Sana' a (Yemen)

    2014-11-15

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup ++}) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu{sup +} ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated

  8. Copper doped borate dosimeters revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alajerami, Y.S.M.; Hashim, S.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Bradley, D.A.; Mhareb, M.; Saleh, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We render a panoramic overview on copper (Cu) doped borate dosimeters. Preparing a dosimeter by mixing specific materials with precise weights and methods is a never-ending quest. The recommended composition is highly decisive for accurate estimation of the absorbed dose, prediction of the biological outcome, determination of the treatment dose for radiation therapy and facilitation of personal monitoring. Based on these principles, the proposed dosimeter must cover a series of dosimetric properties to realize the exact results and assessment. The doped borate dosimeters indeed demonstrate attractive thermoluminescence (TL) features. Several dedicated efforts are attempted to improve the luminescence properties by doping various transition metals or rare-earth elements. The Cu ion being one of the preferred activators shows excellent TL properties as revealed via detail comparison with other dosimeters. Two oxide states of Cu (Cu + and Cu ++ ) with reasonable atomic number allow easy interaction with boron network. Interestingly, the intrinsic luminescent centers of borate lattice are in cross linked with that of Cu + ions. Thus, the activation of borate dosimeter with Cu ions for the enhancement of the TL sensitivity is recognized. These dosimeters reveal similar glow curves as the standard TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti) one irrespective of the use of modifiers and synthesis techniques. They display high sensitivity, low fading, dose response linearity over wide range and practical minimum detectable dose. Furthermore, the effective atomic number being the most beneficial aspect (equivalent to that of human tissue) of borate dosimeters do not show any change due to Cu ion activations. The past development, major challenges, excitement, applications, recent progress and the future promises of Cu doped borate TL dosimeters are highlighted. - Highlights: • The manuscript gives a panoramic overview on copper doped borate dosimeters. • Cu ions activated technique in borate

  9. Highly efficient aerobic oxidation of alcohols by using less-hindered nitroxyl-radical/copper catalysis: optimum catalyst combinations and their substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yusuke; Kogure, Naoki; Nishiyama, Tomohiro; Nagasawa, Shota; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2015-04-01

    The oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds is one of the most fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. In our recent report, 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO)/copper catalysis promoted the highly chemoselective aerobic oxidation of unprotected amino alcohols into amino carbonyl compounds. Herein, we investigated the extension of the promising AZADO/copper-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of alcohols to other types of alcohol. During close optimization of the reaction conditions by using various alcohols, we found that the optimum combination of nitroxyl radical, copper salt, and solution concentration was dependent on the type of substrate. Various alcohols, including highly hindered and heteroatom-rich ones, were efficiently oxidized into their corresponding carbonyl compounds under mild conditions with lower amounts of the catalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Graphene-protected copper and silver plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravets, V. G.; Jalil, R.; Kim, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    suitable for plasmonic applications. To this end, there has been a continuous search for alternative plasmonic materials that are also compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Here we show that copper and silver protected by graphene are viable candidates. Copper films covered...... with one to a few graphene layers show excellent plasmonic characteristics. They can be used to fabricate plasmonic devices and survive for at least a year, even in wet and corroding conditions. As a proof of concept, we use the graphene-protected copper to demonstrate dielectric loaded plasmonic...

  11. Copper Promoted Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Rajshekhar; Samuelson, Ashoka G

    2004-01-01

    An efficient protocol using copper based reagents for the coupling of aryl halides with phenols to generate diaryl ethers is described. Acopper( I) complex, [ Cu( CH3CN) (4)] ClO4, or the readily available copper( II) source, CuCO3 . Cu( OH) (2) . H2O ( in combination with potassium phosphate), can be used. Aryl halides and phenols with different steric and electronic demands have been used to assess the efficiency of the procedure. The latter source of copper gives better yields under all co...

  12. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  13. Present status and prospect of copper radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huawei; Li Hongfeng; Liu Boli

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade most of the efforts of copper radiopharmaceuticals research has been focused on bis(thiosemicarbazonato) copper complexes for use in myocardial and brain imaging agents. In the present work, the analogs of bis(thiosemicarbazone) is studied in labeling antibodies and tumors. The retention mechanism of Cu-PTSM is investigated. Other kinds of ligands, BAT (N 2 S 2 ) for example, can be used to prepare neutral copper complexes in order to obtain brain radiopharmaceuticals in future. (60 refs.)

  14. Underwater explosive compaction-sintering of tungsten-copper coating on a copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Saiwei

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated underwater explosive compaction-sintering for coating a high-density tungsten-copper composite on a copper surface. First, 50% W-50% Cu tungsten-copper composite powder was prepared by mechanical alloying. The composite powder was pre-compacted and sintered by hydrogen. Underwater explosive compaction was carried out. Finally, a high-density tungsten-copper coating was obtained by diffusion sintering of the specimen after explosive compaction. A simulation of the underwater explosive compaction process showed that the peak value of the pressure in the coating was between 3.0 and 4.8 GPa. The hardness values of the tungsten-copper layer and the copper substrate were in the range of 87-133 and 49 HV, respectively. The bonding strength between the coating and the substrate was approximately 100-105 MPa.

  15. Preparation of graphite dispersed copper composite on copper plate with CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Muizz, M. N. A.; Hisyamudin, M. N. N.; Nishiyama, K.; Sasano, J.; Izaki, M.

    2018-01-01

    It was tried in this work to prepare the graphite dispersed copper composite locally on a copper plate with a CO2 laser. The objectives of this study were to clear whether copper graphite composite was prepared on a copper plate and how the composite was prepared. The carbon content at the laser spot decreased with the laser irradiation time. This mainly resulted from the elimination by the laser trapping. The carbon content at the outside of the laser spot increased with time. Both the laser ablation and the laser trapping did not act on the graphite particles at the outside of the laser spot. Because the copper at the outside of the laser spot melted by the heat conduction from the laser spot, the particles were fixed by the wetting. However, the graphite particles were half-floated on the copper plate. The Vickers hardness decreased with an increase with laser irradiation time because of annealing.

  16. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierra from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour.

  17. Copper localization, elemental content, and thallus colour in the copper hyperaccumulator lichen Lecanora sierrae from California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O.W.; Bennett, J.P.; Spratt, J.

    2011-01-01

    An unusual dark blue-green lichen, Lecanora sierrae, was discovered over 30 years ago by Czehura near copper mines in the Lights Creek District, Plumas County, Northern California. Using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Czehura found that dark green lichen samples from Warren Canyon contained 4% Cu in ash and suggested that its colour was due to copper accumulation in the cortex. The present study addressed the hypothesis that the green colour in similar material we sampled from Warren Canyon in 2008, is caused by copper localization in the thallus. Optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis of specimens of L. sierrae confirmed that copper localization took place in the cortex. Elemental analyses of L. sierrae and three other species from the same localities showed high enrichments of copper and selenium, suggesting that copper selenates or selenites might occur in these lichens and be responsible for the unusual colour. Copyright ?? 2011 British Lichen Society.

  18. Effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Lixiao; Li Shiyin

    2008-01-01

    The morphology and elemental composition of the corrosion products of copper teapot's inner-surface were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray surface analysis (SEM/EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. It was revealed that Cu, Fe, Ca, P, Si and Al were the main elements of corrosion by-products, and the α-SiO 2 , Cu 2 O and CaCO 3 as the main mineral components on the inner-surface of copper teapot. The effects of organic matters coming from Chinese tea on soluble copper release from copper teapots in tap water were also investigated. The results showed that the doses of organic matter (as TOC), temperate and stagnation time have significant effects on the concentration of soluble copper released from copper teapots in tap water

  19. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Application of the crystalline structure determination method by X-ray diffraction to natural products and organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vencato, I.

    1984-01-01

    The structures of two natural compounds, a synthetic phosphate and a copper complexe were determined and the structure of another copper complex was refined. The reflection intensities were measured with a CAD-4 automatic diffractometer. The structures were solved by direct methods using either MULTAN-80 or the Patterson function and were refined by the least squares method, with a full matrix. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Mobilization of Intracellular Copper by Gossypol and Apogossypolone Leads to Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cell Death: Putative Anticancer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haseeb Zubair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that serum, tissue and intracellular levels of copper are elevated in all types of cancer. Copper has been suggested as an important co-factor for angiogenesis. It is also a major metal ion present inside the nucleus, bound to DNA bases, particularly guanine. We have earlier proposed that the interaction of phenolic-antioxidants with intracellular copper leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS that ultimately serve as DNA cleaving agents. To further validate our hypothesis we show here that the antioxidant gossypol and its semi-synthetic derivative apogossypolone induce copper-mediated apoptosis in breast MDA-MB-231, prostate PC3 and pancreatic BxPC-3 cancer cells, through the generation of ROS. MCF10A breast epithelial cells refractory to the cytotoxic property of these compounds become sensitized to treatment against gossypol, as well as apogossypolone, when pre-incubated with copper. Our present results confirm our earlier findings and strengthen our hypothesis that plant-derived antioxidants mobilize intracellular copper instigating ROS-mediated cellular DNA breakage. As cancer cells exist under significant oxidative stress, this increase in ROS-stress to cytotoxic levels could be a successful anticancer approach.

  2. Induction of oxidative DNA damage by mesalamine in the presence of copper: A potential mechanism for mesalamine anticancer activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Ryan P.; Jia, Zhenquan; Zhu, Hong; Vandjelovic, Nathan; Misra, Hara P.; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Yunbo

    2011-01-01

    Mesalamine is the first line pharmacologic intervention for patients with ulcerative colitis, and recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a protective association between therapeutic use of the drug and colorectal carcinoma. However, the mechanism by which this protection is afforded has yet to be elucidated. Because copper is found at higher than normal concentrations in neoplastic cell nuclei and is known to interact with phenolic compounds to generate reactive oxygen species, we investigated whether the reaction of mesalamine/copper was able to induce oxidative DNA strand breaks in φX-174 RF I plasmid DNA, and the various components of the mechanism by which the reaction occurred. Plasmid DNA strand breaks were induced by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of mesalamine in the presence of a micromolar concentration of Cu(II), and damage was inhibited by bathocuproinedisulfonic acid (BCS) and catalase. Further, we showed that the reaction of copper with mesalamine consumed molecular oxygen, which was inhibited by BCS. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral analysis of the reaction of copper/mesalamine indicated the presence of the hydroxyl radical, which was inhibited by both BCS and catalase. This study demonstrates for the first time that through a copper-redox cycling mechanism, the copper-mediated oxidation of mesalamine is a pro-oxidant interaction that generates hydroxyl radicals which may participate in oxidative DNA damage. These results demonstrate a potential mechanism of the anticancer effects of mesalamine in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  3. Uncovering the Terahertz Spectrum of Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Korter, Timothy M

    2016-01-21

    Terahertz vibrational spectroscopy has evolved into a powerful tool for the detection and characterization of transition metal sulfate compounds, specifically for its ability to differentiate between various hydrated forms with high specificity. Copper(II) sulfate is one such system where multiple crystalline hydrates have had their terahertz spectra fully assigned, and the unique spectral fingerprints of the forms allows for characterization of multicomponent systems with relative ease. Yet the most commonly occurring form, copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4·5H2O), has proven elusive due to the presence of a broad absorption across much of the terahertz region, making the unambiguous identification of its spectral signature difficult. Here, it is shown that the sub-100 cm(-1) spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O is obscured by absorption from adsorbed water and that controlled drying reveals sharp underlying features. The crystalline composition of the samples was monitored in parallel by X-ray diffraction as a function of drying time, supporting the spectroscopic results. Finally, the terahertz spectrum of CuSO4·5H2O was fully assigned using solid-state density functional theory simulations, helping attribute the additional absorptions that appear after excessive drying to formation of CuSO4·3H2O.

  4. The in vivo behavior of copper-64-labeled azamacrocyclic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones-Wilson, Teresa M.; Deal, Kim A.; Anderson, Carolyn J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Kovacs, Zoltan; Motekaitis, Ramunas J.; Sherry, A. Dean; Martell, Arthur E.; Welch, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    The use of copper radioisotopes in imaging and therapy applications has created a greater need for bifunctional chelates (BFCs) for complexing copper radioisotopes to biomolecules. It has been demonstrated that the charge and lipophilicity of the Cu-BFC complex has a significant effect on the in vivo behavior of the radiolabeled Cu-BFC-biomolecule conjugate. To evaluate the effects of charge, stability, and macrocyclic backbone size on the biological behavior of 64 Cu complexes, a series of macrocyclic 64 Cu complexes have been prepared, and the biodistributions of these agents were evaluated in normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Two macrocyclic backbones, dodecane and tetradecane, were evaluated; cyclen, DOTA, and DO2A were dodecane backbone derivatives, and cyclam, TETA, and et-cyclam were tetradecane backbone derivatives. The biodistributions of the 64 Cu-labeled complexes correlated with differences in the size of the macrocycle backbone and the formal charge of the complex. All compounds showed uptake and clearance through the liver and kidneys; however, the positively charged 64 Cu complexes showed significantly higher uptake in both of these organs than did the negatively charged or neutral complexes. 64 Cu-TETA, a negatively charged complex with the tetradecane backbone, had the most efficient clearance by 24 hours' postinjection. These data suggest that negatively charged complexes may have more favorable clearance properties when used as BFCs

  5. Binary copper oxide semiconductors: From materials towards devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B.K.; Polity, A.; Reppin, D.; Becker, M.; Hering, P.; Klar, P.J.; Sander, T.; Reindl, C.; Benz, J.; Eickhoff, M.; Heiliger, C.; Heinemann, M. [1. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen (Germany); Blaesing, J.; Krost, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics (IEP), Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg (Germany); Shokovets, S. [Institute of Physics, Ilmenau University of Technology (Germany); Mueller, C.; Ronning, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Copper-oxide compound semiconductors provide a unique possibility to tune the optical and electronic properties from insulating to metallic conduction, from bandgap energies of 2.1 eV to the infrared at 1.40 eV, i.e., right into the middle of the efficiency maximum for solar-cell applications. Three distinctly different phases, Cu{sub 2}O, Cu{sub 4}O{sub 3}, and CuO, of this binary semiconductor can be prepared by thin-film deposition techniques, which differ in the oxidation state of copper. Their material properties as far as they are known by experiment or predicted by theory are reviewed. They are supplemented by new experimental results from thin-film growth and characterization, both will be critically discussed and summarized. With respect to devices the focus is on solar-cell performances based on Cu{sub 2}O. It is demonstrated by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that the heterojunction system p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-AlGaN is much more promising for the application as efficient solar cells than that of p-Cu{sub 2}O/n-ZnO heterojunction devices that have been favored up to now. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Influence of 8-aminoquinoline on the corrosion behaviour of copper in 0.1 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubillos, M.; Sancy, M.; Pavez, J.; Vargas, E.; Urzua, R.; Henriquez-Roman, J.; Tribollet, B.; Zagal, J.H.; Paez, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of copper in aerated 0.1 M NaCl solution in presence of 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ), using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM), was studied. The measurements revealed that the effect of 8-AQ is dependent on its concentration. For concentrations up to 10 -3 M, the organic compound displaces the corrosion potential following no trend and also reduces the anodic current. In contrast, for concentrations higher than 10 -3 , 8-AQ reduces markedly both, the anodic and cathodic currents and consequently, the corrosion current density of copper. After 9 days of exposure in chloride solution, containing the organic compound, potentiodynamic polarization analyses showed a significant reduction in the anodic response and a less significant reduction in the cathodic response, which is associated with a film formed at the copper surface of about 10 μm in thickness and visually observed by a colour change of the copper surface. In order to elucidate the most likely interaction between the 8-AQ molecule and the different molecular structures probably present on copper surfaces in chloride solutions, some results obtained from theoretical calculations are presented. The following molecular structures were considered: CuCl molecule, CuCl 2 - complex, and little copper clusters defect representation built as five atoms on C 4v symmetry. Thus, based on the geometric, energetic, frontier orbital, and Total Electronic Density analysis done for the optimized states found for the systems investigated, we suggest that the most probable interaction of 8-AQ proceeds above CuCl units and free copper sites.

  7. Theft in Price-Volatile Markets: On the Relationship between Copper Price and Copper Theft

    OpenAIRE

    Sidebottom, A.; Belur, J.; Bowers, K.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, against a backdrop of general reductions in acquisitive crime, increases have been observed in the frequency of metal theft offences. This is generally attributed to increases in metal prices in response to global demand exceeding supply. The main objective of this article was to examine the relationship between the price of copper and levels of copper theft, focusing specifically on copper cable theft from the British railway network. Results indicated a significant positive correl...

  8. “Pulling the plug” on cellular copper: The role of mitochondria in copper export

    OpenAIRE

    Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria contain two enzymes, Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) and cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), that require copper as a cofactor for their biological activity. The copper used for their metallation originates from a conserved, bioactive pool contained within the mitochondrial matrix, the size of which changes in response to either genetic or pharmacological manipulation of cellular copper status. Its dynamic nature implies molecular mechanisms exist that functionally couple mitochondria...

  9. Polyoxometalates as antitumor agents: Bioactivity of a new polyoxometalate with copper on a human osteosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, I E; Porro, V; Astrada, S; Egusquiza, M G; Cabello, C I; Bollati-Fogolin, M; Etcheverry, S B

    2014-10-05

    Polyoxometalates (POMs) are early transition metal oxygen anion clusters. They display interesting biological effects mainly related to their antiviral and antitumor properties. On the other hand, copper compounds also show different biological and pharmacological effects in cell culture and in animal models. We report herein for the first time, a detailed study of the mechanisms of action of a copper(II) compound of the group of HPOMs with the formula K7Na3[Cu4(H2O)2(PW9034)2]20H2O (PW9Cu), in a model of human osteosarcoma derived cell line, MG-63. The compound inhibited selectively the viability of the osteosarcoma cells in the range of 25-100μM (pcells. Cytotoxicity studies also showed deleterious effects for PW9Cu. The increment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decrease of the GSH/GSSG ratio were involved in the antiproliferative effects of PW9Cu. Moreover, the compound caused cell cycle arrest in G2 phase, triggering apoptosis as determined by flow cytometry. As a whole, these results showed the main mechanisms of the deleterious effects of PW9Cu in the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63, demonstrating that this compound is a promissory agent for cancer treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reparatory adaptation to copper-induced injury and occurrence of a copper-binding protein in the polycheate, Eudistylia vancouveri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Roesijadi, G.

    1983-01-01

    Chemically injured branchial pinnae of copper-treated polychaetes, Eudistylia vancouveri, regenerated while still exposed to copper. The first observations of pinna regeneration coincided with the apparent induction of a low molecular weight (approx.5000 daltons) copper-binding protein. This protein may play a role in the detoxification of copper and subsequent tissue regeneration. 7 references, 5 figures.

  11. Acclimation and tolerance of Artemia salina to copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, L.J.; Krzyz, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia salina L. was acclimated in sea water with cupric chloride, acetate, carbonate, and sulfate, each at concentrations of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 ppM Cu/sup + +/, together with sea water controls. Growth inhibition was observed in all four compounds, generally in direct relationship to the concentration. It was least in sulfate, and increased progressively in chloride, acetate and carbonate in that order. In toxicity tests, 2-week old larvae from each solution were exposed to concentrations of 10, 7.5, 5, 2.5 and 1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ of the same compounds, together with unacclimated larvae of the same age. Similar tests were held with 6-week old adults. Toxicity to unacclimated larvae and adults differed with the compounds, carbonate being the least toxic, followed by sulfate, chloride and acetate in increasing order. Larvae acclimated in chloride and sulfate showed an increased tolerance to 1 and 2.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to untreated controls. Tolerance was not enhanced from 5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ upwards. In both compounds, adults acclimated in 0.1 ppM Cu/sup + +/ showed an increased tolerance to concentrations between 1 and 7.5 ppM Cu/sup + +/ compared to controls. Considerable precipitation occurred with the high levels of this compound, thus effecting the ''final'' concentrations. No acclimation effect was observed in acetate for either larvae or adults. It is suggested that in A. salina, copper toxicity depends on the particular form of the metal, and that this difference is also evident in growth inhibition and in the potential acquisition of increased tolerance through exposure to low concentrations.

  12. RECYCLING OF SCRAP AND WASTE OF COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS IN BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a new casting and mechanical shop of unitary enterprise «Tsvetmet» in December 2015 has allowed to solve the complex problem of processing and utilization of scrap and wastes of copper and copper alloys in the Republic of Belarus. The technological processes of fire refinement of copper and manufacturing of copper rod from scrap and production of brass rod by hot pressing (extrusion of the continuously casted round billet have been mastered for the first time in the Republic of Belarus.

  13. Effects of stimulation of copper bioleaching on microbial community in vineyard soil and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Okeke, Benedict C; Pieniz, Simone; Bortolon, Leandro; Lambais, Márcio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2012-04-01

    Long-term copper application in vineyards and copper mining activities cause heavy metal pollution sites. Such sites need remediation to protect soil and water quality. Bioremediation of contaminated areas through bioleaching can help to remove copper ions from the contaminated soils. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of different treatments for copper bioleaching in two diverse copper-contaminated soils (a 40-year-old vineyard and a copper mining waste) and to evaluate the effect on microbial community by applying denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons and DNA sequence analysis. Several treatments with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and FeSO(4) were evaluated by stimulation of bioleaching of copper in the soils. Treatments and extractions using FeSO(4) and H(2)SO(4) mixture at 30°C displayed more copper leaching than extractions with deionized water at room temperature. Treatment with H(2)SO(4) supported bioleaching of as much as 120 mg kg(-1) of copper from vineyard soil after 115 days of incubation. DGGE analysis of the treatments revealed that some treatments caused greater diversity of microorganisms in the vineyard soil compared to the copper mining waste. Nucleotide Blast of PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA gene bands from DGGE indicated the presence of Rhodobacter sp., Silicibacter sp., Bacillus sp., Paracoccus sp., Pediococcus sp., a Myxococcales, Clostridium sp., Thiomonas sp., a firmicute, Caulobacter vibrioides, Serratia sp., and an actinomycetales in vineyard soil. Contrarily, Sphingomonas was the predominant genus in copper mining waste in most treatments. Paracoccus sp. and Enterobacter sp. were also identified from DGGE bands of the copper mining waste. Paracoccus species is involved in the copper bioleaching by sulfur oxidation system, liberating the copper bounded in the soils and hence promoting copper bioremediation. Results indicate that stimulation of bioleaching with a combination of FeSO(4

  14. Enantioselective copper-catalyzed carboetherification of unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, Michael T; Liwosz, Timothy W; Kendel, Nicole E; Miller, Yan; Tyminska, Nina; Zurek, Eva; Chemler, Sherry R

    2014-06-16

    Chiral saturated oxygen heterocycles are important components of bioactive compounds. Cyclization of alcohols onto pendant alkenes is a direct route to their synthesis, but few catalytic enantioselective methods enabling cyclization onto unactivated alkenes exist. Herein reported is a highly efficient copper-catalyzed cyclization of γ-unsaturated pentenols which terminates in C-C bond formation, a net alkene carboetherification. Both intra- and intermolecular C-C bond formations are demonstrated, thus yielding functionalized chiral tetrahydrofurans as well as fused-ring and bridged-ring oxabicyclic products. Transition-state calculations support a cis-oxycupration stereochemistry-determining step. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ultralow-loss CMOS copper plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyanin, Dmitry Yu.; Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Kirtaev, Roman V.

    2016-01-01

    with microelectronics manufacturing technologies. This prevents plasmonic components from integration with both silicon photonics and silicon microelectronics. Here, we demonstrate ultralow-loss copper plasmonic waveguides fabricated in a simple complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process, which...

  16. Thermally modified bentonite clay for copper removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagnolli, C.; Kleinübing, S.J.; Silva, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bentonite clay coming from Pernambuco was thermally modified in order to increase its affinity and capacity in the copper removal in porous bed. The application of this procedure is justified by the low cost of clay, their abundance and affinity for various metal ions. Thermally treatment modifies the clay adsorption properties enables its use in porous bed system, with the increase in surface area and mechanical strength. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and N_2 physisorption. Then tests were carried out for adsorption of copper in various experimental conditions and evaluated the mass transfer zone, useful and total adsorbed removal amounts and total copper removal percentage. The results showed that the clay treated at higher temperature showed higher copper removal. (author)

  17. Formation of copper precipitates in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Christoph; Feick, Henning; McHugo, Scott A.; Mohammed, Amna; Seifert, Winfried; Hieslmair, Henry; Heiser, Thomas; Istratov, Andrei A.; Weber, Eicke R.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of copper precipitates in silicon was studied after high-temperature intentional contamination of p- and n-type FZ and Cz-grown silicon and quench to room temperature. With the Transient Ion Drift (TID) technique on p-type silicon a critical Fermi level position at EC-0.2 eV was found. Only if the Fermi level position, which is determined by the concentrations of the acceptors and the copper donors, surpasses this critical value precipitation takes place. If the Fermi level is below this level the supersaturated interstitial copper diffuses out. An electrostatic precipitation model is introduced that correlates the observed precipitation behavior with the electrical activity of the copper precipitates as detected with Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) on n-type and with Minority Carrier Transient Spectroscopy (MCTS) on p-type silicon.

  18. Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Efficacy of Ion, Nano, and Bulk Copper against the Brown Rot Fungus Rhodonia placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Chiara; Schubert, Mark; Fey, Angelika; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2015-01-01

    Recently introduced micronized copper (MC) formulations, consisting of a nanosized fraction of basic copper (Cu) carbonate (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2) nanoparticles (NPs), were introduced to the market for wood protection. Cu NPs may presumably be more effective against wood-destroying fungi than bulk or ionic Cu compounds. In particular, Cu- tolerant wood-destroying fungi may not recognize NPs, which may penetrate into fungal cell walls and membranes and exert their impact. The objective of this study was to assess if MC wood preservative formulations have a superior efficacy against Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungi due to nano effects than conventional Cu biocides. After screening a range of wood-destroying fungi for their resistance to Cu, we investigated fungal growth of the Cu-tolerant fungus Rhodonia placenta in solid and liquid media and on wood treated with MC azole (MCA). In liquid cultures we evaluated the fungal response to ion, nano and bulk Cu distinguishing the ionic and particle effects by means of the Cu2+ chelator ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) and measuring fungal biomass, oxalic acid production and laccase activity of R. placenta. Our results do not support the presence of particular nano effects of MCA against R. placenta that would account for an increased antifungal efficacy, but provide evidence that attribute the main effectiveness of MCA to azoles.

  19. Water requirements of the copper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1961-01-01

    The copper industry in 1955 used about 330 million gallons of water per day in the mining and manufacturing of primary copper. This amount is about 0.3 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1955. These facts were determined by a survey, in 1956, of the amount and chemical quality of the water used by the copper industry. A large part of this water was used in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, where about five-sixths of the domestic copper is mined. Much of the remaining water use was near New York City where most of the electrolytic refineries are located, and the rest of the water was used in widely scattered places. A little more than 100,000 gallons of water per ton of copper was used in the production of copper from domestic ores. Of this amount about 70,000 gallons per ton was used in mining and concentrating the ore, and about 30,000 gallons per ton was used to reduce the concentrate to refined copper. In areas where water was scarce or expensive, the unit water use was a little more than half the average. About 60 mgd (million gallons per day) or 18 percent of the water was used consumptively, and nearly all of the consumptive use occurred in the water-short areas of the West. Of the water used in mining and manufacturing primary copper 75 percent was surface water and 25 percent was ground water, 89 percent of this water was self-supplied by the copper companies and 11 percent came from public supplies. Much of the water used in producing primary copper was of comparatively poor quality; about 46 percent was saline containing 1,000 ppm (parts per million) or more of dissolved solids and 54 percent was fresh. Water that is used for concentration of copper ores by flotation or even any water that comes in contact with the ore at any time before it reaches the flotation plant must be free of petroleum products because they interfere with the flotation process. The water used in mining and ore concentration

  20. Application of humic compounds for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals: the benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motuzova, Galina; Barsova, Natalia; Stepanov, Andrey; Kiseleva, Violetta; Kolchanova, Ksenia; Starkova, Irina; Karpukhin, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Applicability of humic compound (HC) "Extra" (potassium humate produced from coal) was studied to remediate soils contaminated with copper in model experiments. Field experiments were carried out in 10-litter plastic containers. The upper layer was prepared as a mixture of loam (pH=5.3), sand (pH=7.4) and peat(pH=5.5). It was underlain consequently by loam and gravel. To study water migration we installed lysimeters. The experiment was conducted in 3 variants: 1) control, 2) control+Cu, 3) control+Cu+HC. Copper was applied in the form of dry powder (CuSO4*5H2O) over the upper layer of the soil column in a concentration of copper equaling to 1000 mg/kg. Total concentration of copper was determined by ICP AAS, its free ions was measured with the help of ion-selective electrode. Humic compound was sprayed on the surface in liquid form. The vessels stayed outdoors from July to October 2014 with additional watering in dry periods. Analysis of lysimetric waters obtained from this model field experiment revealed significant impact of pH. Application of the humic compound produces almost 5 times higher content of soluble organic substances than in the variant without it, and in the first portions of lysimetric waters the difference is 20-fold. Generation of extra organic content in soluble form was accompanied by the 2-6 times increase of the water soluble copper yield. However the content of the free copper ions in lysimetric waters in case of addition of the potassium humate was negligible, because almost all copper was bounded with water-soluble organic substances. The copper content in water extract from the top layer of soil in the variant with HC was about 1 mg/l, that was 2 times higher than without HC. The content of water-soluble organic carbon in HC variant was 100 mg/L, and without HC was 10 times lower (10 mg/l). The water extract from soils enriched in HC was passed through a column filled with weakly basic anion exchange resin DEAE (Cl-form), the eluate was

  1. Oxalic acid overproduction by copper-tolerant brown-rot basidiomycetes on southern yellow pine treated with copper-based preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation of oxalic acid (OA) by brown-rot fungi and precipitation of copper oxalate crystals in wood decayed by copper-tolerant decay fungi has implicated OA in the mechanism of copper tolerance. Understanding the role of OA in copper tolerance is important due to an increasing reliance on copper-based wood preservatives. In this study, four copper-tolerant brown-...

  2. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  3. Life cycle responses of the midge Chironomus riparius to compounds with different modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinkovic, M.; Verweij, R.A.; Nummerdor, G.A.; Jonker, M.J.; Kraak, M.H.S.; Admiraal, W.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds with different modes of action may affect life cycles of biota differently. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the impact of four chemicals with different modes of action, including the essential metal copper, the nonessential metal cadmium, the organometal

  4. Characterization of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al ball bonds: layer growth, mechanical properties and oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; O'Halloran, O.; Rongen, R.

    2011-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1 st level interconnects and therefore subjected to severe functional requirements. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds may deteriorate the

  5. Copper-resistant bacteria enhance plant growth and copper phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Renxiu; Luo, Chunling; Chen, Yahua; Wang, Guiping; Xu, Yue; Shen, Zhenguo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of rhizospheric bacteria in solubilizing soil copper (Cu) and promoting plant growth. The Cu-resistant bacterium DGS6 was isolated from a natural Cu-contaminated soil and was identified as Pseudomonas sp. DGS6. This isolate solubilized Cu in Cu-contaminated soil and stimulated root elongation of maize and sunflower. Maize was more sensitive to inoculation with DGS6 than was sunflower and exhibited greater root elongation. In pot experiment, inoculation with DGS6 increased the shoot dry weight of maize by 49% and sunflower by 34%, and increased the root dry weight of maize by 85% and sunflower by 45%. Although the concentrations of Cu in inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings did not differ significantly, the total accumulation of Cu in the plants increased after inoculation. DGS6 showed a high ability to solubilize P and produce iron-chelating siderophores, as well as significantly improved the accumulation of P and Fe in both maize and sunflower shoots. In addition, DGS6 produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and ACC deaminase, which suggests that it may modulate ethylene levels in plants. The bacterial strain DGS6 could be a good candidate for re-vegetation of Cu-contaminated sites. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Phytoremediation to view the supplemental file.

  6. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  7. Copper content in blood of Uzbek population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhol'skaya, I.N.; Agzamova, S.S.; Kutyakova, T.Yu.; Osinskaya, N.S.

    1990-01-01

    The content of copper in blood of Uzbekistan population, depending on place of residence, sex and age was studied to solve certain medicobiological problems. The method of neutron activation with radiochemcial isolation was employed for the analysis. According to the data obtained average content of copper for the points in the republic selected for men and women of different age groups were calculated. 5 refs

  8. Radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Guang; Wen Zhijian

    2010-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact of mineral exploitation on the surrounding environment has become a public concern. This paper presents the radiation environmental impact assessment of copper exploitation. Based on the project description and detailed investigations of surrounding environment, systematic radiation environmental impacts have been identified. The environmental impacts are assessed during both construction and operation phase. The environmental protection measures have also been proposed. The related conclusion and measures can play an active role in copper exploitation and environmental protection. (authors)

  9. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  10. Bonding and structure of copper nitrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Thomas R; Dinescu, Adriana; Kazi, Abul B

    2008-11-03

    Copper nitrenes are of interest as intermediates in the catalytic aziridination of olefins and the amination of C-H bonds. However, despite advances in the isolation and study of late-transition-metal multiply bonded complexes, a bona fide structurally characterized example of a terminal copper nitrene has, to our knowledge, not been reported. In anticipation of such a report, terminal copper nitrenes are studied from a computational perspective. The nitrene complexes studied here are of the form (beta-diketiminate)Cu(NPh). Density functional theory (DFT), complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) electronic structure techniques, and hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods are employed to study such species. While DFT methods indicate that a triplet (S = 1) is the ground state, CASSCF calculations indicate that a singlet (S = 0) is the ground state, with only a small energy gap between the singlet and triplet. Moreover, the ground-state (open-shell) singlet copper nitrene is found to be highly multiconfigurational (i.e., biradical) and to possess a bent geometry about the nitrene nitrogen, contrasting with the linear nitrene geometry of the triplet copper nitrenes. CASSCF calculations also reveal the existence of a closed-shell singlet state with some degree of multiple bonding character for the copper-nitrene bond.

  11. Corrosion mechanism of copper in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of copper in biodiesel increases with the increase of immersion time. ► The corrosion patina is found to be composed of CuO, Cu 2 O, CuCO 3 and Cu(OH) 2 . ► Green CuCO 3 was found as the major corrosion product. ► The mechanisms governing corrosion of copper in palm biodiesel are discussed. - Abstract: Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. However, it causes enhanced corrosion of automotive materials, especially of copper based components. In the present study, corrosion mechanism of copper was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compositional change of biodiesel due to the exposure of copper was also investigated. Corrosion patina on copper is found to be composed of Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 and CuCO 3. Dissolved O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 and RCOO − radical in biodiesel seem to be the leading factors in enhancing the corrosiveness of biodiesel.

  12. Susceptibility of different bacterial species isolated from food animals to copper sulphate, zinc chloride and antimicrobial substances used for disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    that Danish bacterial isolates from livestock so far have not or have only to a limited degree developed resistance to antimicrobial compounds commonly used for disinfection. Acquired copper resistance was only found in enterococci. There were large differences in the intrinsic susceptibility of the different...... of susceptibilities to the different antimicrobial agents. Large variations were observed in the susceptibility of the different bacterial species to the different compounds. Staphylococci were in general very susceptible to all antimicrobial compounds tested. The Salmonella isolates were in general less susceptible...

  13. Divalent Copper as a Major Triggering Agent in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, George J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is at epidemic proportions in developed countries, with a steady increase in the early 1900 s, and then exploding over the last 50 years. This epidemiology points to something causative in the environment of developed countries. This paper will review the considerable evidence that that something could be inorganic copper ingestion. The epidemic parallels closely the spread of copper plumbing, with copper leached from the plumbing into drinking water being a main causal feature, aided by the increasingly common use of supplement pills containing copper. Inorganic copper is divalent copper, or copper-2, while we now know that organic copper, or copper in foods, is primarily monovalent copper, or copper-1. The intestinal transport system, Ctr1, absorbs copper-1 and the copper moves to the liver, where it is put into safe channels. Copper-2 is not absorbed by Ctr1, and some of it bypasses the liver and goes directly into the blood, where it appears to be exquisitely toxic to brain cognition. Thus, while aggregation of amyloid-β has been postulated to be the cause of AD under current dogma, the great increase in prevalence over the last century appears to be due to ingestion of copper-2, which may be causing the aggregation, and/or increasing the oxidant toxicity of the aggregates. An alternative hypothesis proposes that oxidant stress is the primary injuring agent, and under this hypothesis, copper-2 accumulation in the brain may be a causal factor of the oxidant injury. Thus, irrespective of which hypothesis is correct, AD can be classified, at least in part, as a copper-2 toxicity disease. It is relatively easy to avoid copper-2 ingestion, as discussed in this review. If most people begin avoiding copper-2 ingestion, perhaps the epidemic of this serious disease can be aborted.

  14. Stage specific effects of soluble copper and copper oxide nanoparticles during sea urchin embryo development and their relation to intracellular copper uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Ramos-Torres, Karla M; Rahimoff, René; Cherr, Gary N

    2017-08-01

    The effects of exposure to either soluble copper (copper sulfate) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) during specific early developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were analyzed. Soluble copper caused significant malformations in embryos (skeletal malformations, delayed development or gut malformations) when present at any given stage, while cleavage stage was the most sensitive to nano-CuO exposure causing skeletal malformations and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The stage specificity was linked to higher endocytic activity during the first hours of development that leads to higher accumulation of copper in specific cells critical for development. Results indicate that nano-CuO results in higher accumulation of copper inside of embryos and this intracellular copper is more persistent as compared to soluble copper. The possible implications later in development are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative genomic analyses of copper transporters and cuproproteomes reveal evolutionary dynamics of copper utilization and its link to oxygen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry G Ridge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential trace element in many organisms and is utilized in all domains of life. It is often used as a cofactor of redox proteins, but is also a toxic metal ion. Intracellular copper must be carefully handled to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species which pose a threat to DNA, lipids, and proteins. In this work, we examined patterns of copper utilization in prokaryotes by analyzing the occurrence of copper transporters and copper-containing proteins. Many organisms, including those that lack copper-dependent proteins, had copper exporters, likely to protect against copper ions that inadvertently enter the cell. We found that copper use is widespread among prokaryotes, but also identified several phyla that lack cuproproteins. This is in contrast to the use of other trace elements, such as selenium, which shows more scattered and reduced usage, yet larger selenoproteomes. Copper transporters had different patterns of occurrence than cuproproteins, suggesting that the pathways of copper utilization and copper detoxification are independent of each other. We present evidence that organisms living in oxygen-rich environments utilize copper, whereas the majority of anaerobic organisms do not. In addition, among copper users, cuproproteomes of aerobic organisms were larger than those of anaerobic organisms. Prokaryotic cuproproteomes were small and dominated by a single protein, cytochrome c oxidase. The data are consistent with the idea that proteins evolved to utilize copper following the oxygenation of the Earth.

  16. Geochemical Exploration Techniques Applicable in the Search for Copper Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Maurice A.

    1975-01-01

    Geochemical exploration is an important part of copper-resource evaluation. A large number of geochemical exploration techniques, both proved and untried, are available to the geochemist to use in the search for new copper deposits. Analyses of whole-rock samples have been used in both regional and local geochemical exploration surveys in the search for copper. Analyses of mineral separates, such as biotite, magnetite, and sulfides, have also been used. Analyses of soil samples are widely used in geochemical exploration, especially for localized surveys. It is important to distinguish between residual and transported soil types. Orientation studies should always be conducted prior to a geochemical investigation in a given area in order to determine the best soil horizon and the best size of soil material for sampling in that area. Silty frost boils, caliche, and desert varnish are specialized types of soil samples that might be useful sampling media. Soil gas is a new and potentially valuable geochemical sampling medium, especially in exploring for buried mineral deposits in arid regions. Gaseous products in samples of soil may be related to base-metal deposits and include mercury vapor, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon oxysulfide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, the noble gases, the halogens, and many hydrocarbon compounds. Transported materials that have been used in geochemical sampling programs include glacial float boulders, glacial till, esker gravels, stream sediments, stream-sediment concentrates, and lake sediments. Stream-sediment sampling is probably the most widely used and most successful geochemical exploration technique. Hydrogeochemical exploration programs have utilized hot- and cold-spring waters and their precipitates as well as waters from lakes, streams, and wells. Organic gel found in lakes and at stream mouths is an unproved sampling medium. Suspended material and dissolved gases in any type of water may also be useful

  17. Surface characteristics, copper release, and toxicity of nano- and micrometer-sized copper and copper(II) oxide particles: a cross-disciplinary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Midander, Klara; Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Elihn, Karine; Moller, Lennart; Leygraf, Christofer; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary and multianalytical research effort is undertaken to assess the toxic aspects of thoroughly characterized nano- and micrometer-sized particles of oxidized metallic copper and copper(II) oxide in contact with cultivated lung cells, as well as copper release in relevant media. All particles, except micrometer-sized Cu, release more copper in serum-containing cell medium (supplemented Dulbecco's minimal essential medium) compared to identical exposures in phosphate-buffered ...

  18. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanov, Alexander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Science, G. Bonchev Str. Block 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: karama@ing.univaq.it; Aloisi, Mirko [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy); Pelino, Mario [Department of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials, University of L' Aquila, 67040 Monteluco di Roio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  19. The Copper Balance of Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Ulrich; Lin, Chih-Yi; Kellner, Katharina; Ma, Hwong-wen; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Material management faces a dual challenge: on the one hand satisfying large and increasing demands for goods and on the other hand accommodating wastes and emissions in sinks. Hence, the characterization of material flows and stocks is relevant for both improving resource efficiency and environmental protection. This article focuses on the urban scale, a dimension rarely investigated in past metal flow studies. We compare the copper (Cu) metabolism of two cities in different economic states, namely, Vienna (Europe) and Taipei (Asia). Substance flow analysis is used to calculate urban Cu balances in a comprehensive and transparent form. The main difference between Cu in the two cities appears to be the stock: Vienna seems close to saturation with 180 kilograms per capita (kg/cap) and a growth rate of 2% per year. In contrast, the Taipei stock of 30 kg/cap grows rapidly by 26% per year. Even though most Cu is recycled in both cities, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration represents an unused Cu potential accounting for 1% to 5% of annual demand. Nonpoint emissions are predominant; up to 50% of the loadings into the sewer system are from nonpoint sources. The results of this research are instrumental for the design of the Cu metabolism in each city. The outcomes serve as a base for identification and recovery of recyclables as well as for directing nonrecyclables to appropriate sinks, avoiding sensitive environmental pathways. The methodology applied is well suited for city benchmarking if sufficient data are available. PMID:25866460

  20. Vitrification of copper flotation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-02-09

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30wt% W were melted for 30min at 1400 degrees C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit.

  1. Vitrification of copper flotation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamanov, Alexander; Aloisi, Mirko; Pelino, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The vitrification of an hazardous iron-rich waste (W), arising from slag flotation of copper production, was studied. Two glasses, containing 30 wt% W were melted for 30 min at 1400 deg. C. The first batch, labeled WSZ, was obtained by mixing W, blast furnace slag (S) and zeolite tuff (Z), whereas the second, labeled WG, was prepared by mixing W, glass cullet (G), sand and limestone. The glass frits showed high chemical durability, measured by the TCLP test. The crystallization of the glasses was evaluated by DTA. The crystal phases formed were identified by XRD resulting to be pyroxene and wollastonite solid solutions, magnetite and hematite. The morphology of the glass-ceramics was observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. WSZ composition showed a high rate of bulk crystallization and resulted to be suitable for producing glass-ceramics by a short crystallization heat-treatment. WG composition showed a low crystallization rate and good sinterability; glass-ceramics were obtained by sinter-crystallization of the glass frit

  2. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  3. Earth's copper resources estimated from tectonic diffusion of porphyry copper deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    2008-03-01

    Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that 125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain 1.7 x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, 0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.

  4. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining: influence of particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-09-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150 mg kg (-1) dry matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212 microm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles, and the larger particles contained considerable amounts of sulphides.

  5. Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles in Ethylene Glycol by Chemical Reduction with Vanadium (+2 Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pietro Reverberi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copper nanoparticles have been synthesized in ethylene glycol (EG using copper sulphate as a precursor and vanadium sulfate as an atypical reductant being active at room temperature. We have described a technique for a relatively simple preparation of such a reagent, which has been electrolytically produced without using standard procedures requiring an inert atmosphere and a mercury cathode. Several stabilizing agents have been tested and cationic capping agents have been discarded owing to the formation of complex compounds with copper ions leading to insoluble phases contaminating the metallic nanoparticles. The elemental copper nanoparticles, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, have been characterized for composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and for size by dynamic light scattering (DLS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, giving a size distribution in the range of 40–50 nm for both stabilizing agents. From a methodological point of view, the process described here may represent an alternative to other wet-chemical techniques for metal nanoparticle synthesis in non-aqueous media based on conventional organic or inorganic reductants.

  6. The crystal structure of paramagnetic copper(ii) oxalate (CuC2O4):

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Axel Nørlund; Lebech, Bente; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic copper(ii) oxalate, CuC2O4, was obtained in a precipitation reaction between a copper(ii) solution and an aqueous solution of oxalic acid. The product was identified from its conventional X-ray powder patterns which match that of the copper mineral Moolooite reported to have...... the composition CuC2O4·0.44H2O. Time resolved in situ investigations of the thermal decomposition of copper(ii) oxalate using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction showed that in air the compound converts to Cu2O at 215 °C and oxidizes to CuO at 345 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis performed in an inert Ar....... The crystal structure consists of a random stacking of CuC2O4 micro-crystallites where half the Cu-atoms are placed at (2a) and the other half at (2b) positions with the corresponding oxalate molecules centred around the corresponding (2b) and (2a) site positions, respectively. The diffraction patterns...

  7. Pilot Study of Topical Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Acne and Large Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas J; McCook, John P; Herndon, James H

    2015-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases treated by dermatologists. Salts of copper chlorophyllin complex are semi-synthetic naturally-derived compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity that have not been previously tested topically in the treatment of acne-prone skin with enlarged pores. This single-center pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of a liposomal dispersion of topically applied sodium copper chlorophyllin complex in subjects with mild-moderate acne and large, visible pores over a course of 3 weeks. Subjects were supplied with the test product, a topical gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex (0.1%) with directions to apply a small amount to the facial area twice daily. Clinical assessments were performed at screening/baseline and at week 3. VISIA readings were taken and self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. 10 subjects were enrolled and completed the 3-week study. All clinical efficacy parameters showed statistically significant improvements over baseline at week 3. The study product was well tolerated. Subject questionnaires showed the test product was highly rated. In this pilot study, a topical formulation containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was shown to be clinically effective and well tolerated for the treatment of mild-moderate acne and large, visible pores when used for 3 weeks.

  8. Treatment of copper industry waste and production of sintered glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri; Cheng, Ta-Wui

    2006-06-01

    Copper waste is iron-rich hazardous waste containing heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Co, Pb. The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the Turkish and EPA regulatory limits. Consequently, this waste cannot be disposed of in its present form and therefore requires treatment to stabilize it or make it inert prior to disposal. Vitrification was selected as the technology for the treatment of the toxic waste under investigation. During the vitrification process significant amounts of the toxic organic and inorganic chemical compounds could be destroyed, and at the same time, the metal species are immobilized as they become an integral part of the glass matrix. The copper flotation waste samples used in this research were obtained from the Black Sea Copper Works of Samsun, Turkey. The samples were vitrified after being mixed with other inorganic waste and materials. The copper flotation waste and their glass-ceramic products were characterized by X-ray analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure test. The products showed very good chemical durability. The glass-ceramics fabricated at 850 degrees C/2 h have a large application potential especially as construction and building materials.

  9. Evaluation of copper slag to catalyze advanced oxidation processes for the removal of phenol in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huanosta-Gutiérrez, T.; Dantas, Renato F.; Ramírez-Zamora, R.M.; Esplugas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate the use of an industrial residue (copper slag) as catalyst in water treatment. ► The copper slag was effective to remove organic pollutants (phenol) from water. ► During experimentation, Cu and Fe leaching were not higher than the acceptable levels. ► Slag/H 2 O 2 /UV and slag/H 2 O 2 treatments promoted biodegradability increment of the contaminated water. ► The control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the produced effluents in terms of acute toxicity. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of copper slag to catalyze phenol degradation in water by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Copper slag was tested in combination with H 2 O 2 (slag/H 2 O 2 ) and H 2 O 2 /UV (slag/H 2 O 2 /UV). The studied methods promoted the complete photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Besides, they were able to reduce about 50% the TOC content in the samples. Slag/H 2 O 2 /UV and slag/H 2 O 2 treatments have favored biodegradability increment along the reaction time. Nevertheless, the irradiated method achieved higher values of the biodegradability indicator (BOD 5 /TOC). The toxicity assessment indicated the formation of more toxic compounds in both treatments. However, the control of the reaction time would minimize the environmental impact of the effluents.

  10. Experimental study of composition and influence factors on fouling of stainless steel and copper in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dazhang; Liu, Jianhua; E, Xiaoxue; Jiang, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An increase of seawater temperature deteriorates the fouling and corrosion. • The main compositions of crystals are Mg(OH) 2 , Al(OH) 3 and their complex compounds. • The images of the seawater fouling on stainless steel and copper were shown in the paper. • A higher heat flux and A higher Reynolds number are prone to crystallization fouling accumulation in seawater. - Abstract: Metals and alloys are easily fouled in marine environment. It is a big problem for heat exchangers using cooling seawater in power plants or ships. In the paper, a seawater-fouling dynamic test device was built to investigate the composition and influence factors on fouling of stainless steel and copper in the cooling seawater system. Moreover, the static trials were performed to study the fouling and corrosion of stainless steel and copper in marine environment. The experimental results show that the seawater fouling of stainless steel is crystallization fouling, and the main elements of fouling are magnesium and aluminum. In addition, the results show that the seawater fouling of copper is corrosion fouling. In the dynamic experiments, the effects of heat flux and Reynolds number on stainless steel fouling were studied. The results show that higher heat flux and higher Reynolds number of seawater lead to the accumulation of seawater fouling.

  11. An Evaluation of Kinetic Parameters of Cadmium and Copper Biosorption by Immobilized Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Georgieva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to reduce or eliminate environmental hazards resulting from the accumulation of toxic chemicals and other hazardous wastes. This technology is based on the utilization of microorganisms to transform organic and inorganic compounds. The filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum strain R57, immobilized and free cells was cultivated as batch culture on a liquid medium in the presence of various concentrations of cadmium and copper ions. The simultaneous uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions by Tr. cutaneum cells depending on the initial concentration of Cd2+ and Cu2+ in the medium were studied. The potential use of the free and immobilized cells of Trichosporon cutaneum to remove cadmium and copper ions, from aqueous solutions was evaluated. Two important physicochemical aspects for the evaluation of the sorption process as a unit operation are the equilibrium of sorption and the kinetics. The Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions biosorption capacities of all tested adsorbent were presented as a function of the initial concentration of metal ions within the aqueous biosorption medium. The individual, as well as bicomponent sorption kinetics of copper and cadmium ions by immobilised cells of Trichosporon cutaneum R57 is presented. A second order kinetic model obtains kinetic parameters for the copper and cadmium ions.

  12. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  13. Utilization of Copper Alloys for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, Andrew

    Utilization of copper alloy components in systems deployed in marine environment presents potential improvements by reducing maintenance costs, prolonging service life, and increasing reliability. However, integration of these materials faces technological challenges, which are discussed and addressed in this work, including characterization of material performance in seawater environment, hydrodynamics of copper alloy components, and design procedures for systems with copper alloys. To characterize the hydrodynamic behavior of copper alloy nets, mesh geometry of the major types of copper nets currently used in the marine aquaculture are analyzed and formulae for the solidity and strand length are proposed. Experimental studies of drag forces on copper alloy net panels are described. Based on these studies, empirical values for normal drag coefficients are proposed for various types of copper netting. These findings are compared to the previously published data on polymer nets. It is shown that copper nets exhibit significantly lower resistance to normal currents, which corresponds to lower values of normal drag coefficient. The seawater performance (corrosion and biofouling) of copper alloys is studied through the field trials of tensioned and untensioned specimens in a one-year deployment in the North Atlantic Ocean. The corrosion behavior is characterized by weight loss, optical microscopy, and SEM/EDX analyses. The biofouling performance is quantified in terms of the biomass accumulation. To estimate the effects of stray electrical currents on the seawater corrosion measurements, a low cost three-axis stray electric current monitoring device is designed and tested both in the lab and in the 30-day field deployment. The system consists of a remotely operated PC with a set of pseudo-electrodes and a digital compass. The collected data is processed to determine magnitudes of AC and DC components of electric field and dominant AC frequencies. Mechanical behavior of

  14. Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

  15. Hepatic copper content, urinary copper excretion, and serum ceruloplasmin in liver disease. [Activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritland, S; Skrede, S [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway); Steinnes, E [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1977-01-01

    Liver copper content, urinary copper output and plasma ceruloplasmin have been evaluated in a variety of liver disorders. An activation analysis procedure for the determination of liver copper content is described. Dried biopsy samples were irradiated for two days at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5x10/sup 13/ ncm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. After one day's delay the samples were dissolved in an acid mixture with copper carrier, and separated on an anion exchange column. The /sup 64/Cu activity in the separated fractions was recorded by gamma spectrometry using a Ge(Li) solid detector. The urinary copper excretion and the serum ceruloplasmin were determined by conventional laboratory methods.

  16. The effect of primary copper slag cooling rate on the copper valorization in the flotation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Mihajlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Technological procedure of slow cooling slag from primary copper production is applied in the purpose of copper recovery in the level of 98.5% to blister. This technological procedure is divided into two phases, first slow cooling of slag on the air for 24 hours, and then accelerated cooling with water for 48 hours. Within the research following methods were used: calculation of nonstationary slag cooling, verification of the calculation using computer simulation of slag cooling in the software package COMSOL Multiphysics and experimental verification of simulation results. After testing of the experimentally gained samples of slowly cooled slag it was found that this technological procedure gives the best results in promoting growth or coagulation of dispersed particles of copper sulfide and copper in the slag, thereby increasing the utilization of the flotation process with a decrease of copper losses through very fine particles.

  17. Transpassive Dissolution of Copper and Rapid Formation of Brilliant Colored Copper Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredj, Narjes; Burleigh, T. David; New Mexico Tech Team

    2014-03-01

    This investigation describes an electrochemical technique for growing adhesive copper oxide films on copper with attractive colors ranging from gold-brown to pearl with intermediate colors from red violet to gold green. The technique consists of anodically dissolving copper at transpassive potentials in hot sodium hydroxide, and then depositing brilliant color films of Cu2O onto the surface of copper after the anodic potential has been turned off. The color of the copper oxide film depends on the temperature, the anodic potential, the time t1 of polarization, and the time t2, which is the time of immersion after potential has been turned off. The brilliant colored films were characterized using glancing angle x-ray diffraction, and the film was found to be primarily Cu2O. Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also used to characterize these films.

  18. Development of highly faceted reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles on a copper foil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ortega-Amaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the formation of reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles (rGO-Cu2ONPs, rGO-CuNPs on the surface of a copper foil supporting graphene oxide (GO at annealing temperatures of 200–1000 °C, under an Ar atmosphere. These hybrid nanostructures were developed from bare copper oxide nanoparticles which grew at an annealing temperature of 80 °C under nitrogen flux. The predominant phase as well as the particle size and shape strongly depend on the process temperature. Characterization with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicates that Cu or Cu2O nanoparticles take rGO sheets from the rGO network to form core–shell Cu–rGO or Cu2O–rGO nanostructures. It is noted that such ones increase in size from 5 to 800 nm as the annealing temperature increases in the 200–1000 °C range. At 1000 °C, Cu nanoparticles develop a highly faceted morphology, displaying arm-like carbon nanorods that originate from different facets of the copper crystal structure.

  19. Adsorption behavior of caffeine as a green corrosion inhibitor for copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernando Silvio de [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Giacomelli, Cristiano [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97119-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Spinelli, Almir, E-mail: almir.spinelli@ufsc.br [Grupo de Estudos de Processos Eletroquimicos e Eletroanaliticos, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical and impedance experiments were carried out to evaluate the corrosion behavior of copper in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions in the presence of three xanthine derivatives with similar chemical structures. The corrosion rate of copper was found to increase in the presence of theophylline and theobromine and decrease in the presence of caffeine. The adsorption and inhibitory effect of caffeine on copper surfaces in aerated 0.1 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solutions were then investigated in detail by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and fluorescence experiments. The data obtained indicate that caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor adsorbing onto the copper surface according to the Temkin isotherm, with the negative Increment G Degree-Sign {sub ads} value of - 31.1 kJ mol{sup -1} signifying a spontaneous adsorption process. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased with caffeine concentration in the range of 1.0-10.0 mmol L{sup -1}. Furthermore, the EIS results obtained at the open-circuit potential and surface analysis (SEM, EDS and fluorescence) clearly demonstrated the adsorption of the organic compound onto the copper electrode. The contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a hydrophobic protective film. This film covers up to 72% of the total active surface, acts as a protective barrier and prevents interaction between the metal, water and oxygen molecules. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have investigated the adsorption and corrosion inhibition of caffeine on copper surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine behaves as a cathodic-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caffeine adsorbs onto copper surface according to Temkin isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists the formation of a hydrophobic film that acts as a

  20. Treatment of copper ores containing atacamite by the brisa process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carranza, F.; Mazuelos, A.; Romero, R.

    2003-01-01

    The current treatment of copper ores containing atacamite and secondary copper sulphides consists of heap leaching, by the TL process. copper recoveries by this treatment are very low (less than 50% for operating times higher than six months). In order to improve the copper extraction yields, several treatment options are presented in this work, wich consist on promoting the acid leaching of the atacamite and the indirect bio leaching (Brisk process) of the secondary copper sulphides. All the options lead to improved copper recoveries in comparison with the current treatment. An economic estimation of each option of treatment is included, with really attractive results. (Author) 13 refs

  1. Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

    2011-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste.

  2. A study on superoxide dismutase activity of some model compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z; Liu, W; Liu, J; Jiang, Y; Shi, J; Liu, C

    1994-08-15

    The synthesis and characteristics of a binuclear ligand N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2'-benzimidazolyl methyl)-1,4-diethylene amino glycol ether (EGTB) and its series of coordination compounds containing copper(II), iron(III), and manganese(II) with and without exogenous bridging ligand which was imidazolate ion (Im-), bipyridine (bpy), or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) are reported. Depending on the redox potentials by cyclic voltammetry, the coordination compounds can act as catalysts for the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2-). The detection of the rate constant of the reaction of superoxide ion with nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) which is inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its model compounds of the EGTB system has been performed by a modified illumination method. The rate constants kQ of the catalytic dismutation have been obtained.

  3. Protection of copper surface with phytic acid against corrosion in chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peca, Dunja; Pihlar, Boris; Ingrid, Milošev

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (inositol hexaphosphate) was tested as a corrosion inhibitor for copper in 3% sodium chloride. Phytic acid is a natural compound derived from plants, it is not toxic and can be considered as a green inhibitor. Electrochemical methods of linear polarization and potentiodynamic polarization were used to study the electrochemical behaviour and evaluate the inhibition effectiveness. To obtain the optimal corrosion protection the following experimental conditions were investigated: effect of surface pre-treatment (abrasion and three procedures of surface roughening), pre-formation of the layer of phytic acid, time of immersion and concentration of phytic acid. To evaluate the surface pre-treatment procedures the surface roughness and contact angle were measured. Optimal conditions for formation of phytic layer were selected resulting in the inhibition effectiveness of nearly 80%. Morphology and composition of the layer were further studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The layer of phytic acid with thickness in the nanometer range homogeneously covers the copper surface. The obtained results show that this natural compound can be used as a mildly effective corrosion inhibitor for copper in chloride solution.

  4. The impact of tertiary wastewater treatment on copper and zinc complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, C; Gardner, M; Comber, S D W; Scrimshaw, M D; Ellor, B

    2015-01-01

    Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1 mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters.

  5. Impacts of ambient salinity and copper on brown algae: 2. Interactive effects on phenolic pool and assessment of metal binding capacity of phlorotannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, Solene, E-mail: solene.connan@gmail.com [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Stengel, Dagmar B., E-mail: dagmar.stengel@nuigalway.ie [Botany and Plant Science, School of Natural Sciences, Environmental Change Institute and Martin Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this study was to establish in laboratory experiments a quantitative link between phenolic pool (production, composition and exudation) in Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus and their potential to bind metals. Additionally, the copper binding capacity of purified phlorotannin was investigated. A reduction in salinity decreased total phenolic contents, altered phenolic composition by increasing proportion of cell-wall phenolics, and also increased phenolic exudation of the two seaweed species. After 15 days at a salinity of 5, the inhibition of photosynthesis observed previously for A. nodosum coincided with the high exudation of phenolic compounds into the surrounding water of the seaweed tips which resulted in a significant reduction of phenolic contents. Increased copper concentration also reduced total phenolic contents, changed phenolic composition (increase in proportion and level of cell-wall phenolics), and positively affected phenolic exudation of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus. A decrease in salinity enhanced the copper toxicity and caused the earlier impact on the physiology of seaweed tips. An involvement of phlorotannins in copper binding is also demonstrated; purified phlorotannins from A. nodosum collected from a site with little anthropogenic activity contained all four metals tested. When placed in copper-enriched water, as for the seaweed material, copper contents of the phenolics increased, zinc and cadmium contents decreased, but no change in chromium content was observed. The use of cell-wall phenolic content as biomarker of copper contamination seems promising but needs further investigation.

  6. Copper-beryllium alloys for technical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    1976-01-01

    Data of physical properties are compiled for the most commonly used copper-beryllium alloys (CuBe 2, CuBe 1.7, CuCoBe, and CuCoAgBe), with emphasis on their temperature dependence and their variation with particular annealing and hardening treatments. The purpose is to provide a reference source and to indicate the versatility of these materials with respect to other copper alloys and to pure copper. The special features of CuBe alloys include high mechanical strength with reasonably high electrical conductivity, as well as good wear and corrosion resistance. For example, CuBe 2 has a yield strength of up to 1200 N/mm 2 , about three times that of pure copper, whilst the electrical conductivity of CuCoBe can be as high as 28 MS/m, nearly half that of pure copper. Typical applications are springs and electrical contacts. The importance of a proper heat treatment is discussed in some detail, notably the metallurgy and effects of low-temperature annealing (precipitation-hardening). A chapter on manufacturing processes covers machining, brazing, welding, and cleaning. This is followed by some remarks on safety precautions against beryllium poisoning. CuBe alloys are commercially available in the form of wires, strips, rods, and bars. Typical dimensions, specifications, a brief cost estimate, and addresses of suppliers are listed. (Author)

  7. Copper in the sea: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1977-04-01

    Life in the sea is vulnerable to the influx of trace metals resulting from man's activities. Although many pollutants introduced to the sea eventually degrade to less harmful forms, trace metals accumulate in sediments and have a continued potential for effect on biota. Copper has a toxic potential exceeding all other metals due to the quantity discharged and its toxicological effect. Fortunately, copper in the oceans is rendered less bioavailable or less toxic by its ready interaction with the complex chemical components of seawater. This bibliography was prepared to illustrate the status of current knowledge of the biogeochemistry of copper and to aid the development of research programs to define the effects of copper discharged to the marine environment. The references are categorized to aid the reader to locate literature concerning specific aspects of the biogeochemistry of copper. A brief comment describing the important findings in each category is given. Although this bibliography is not exhaustive, the listed references are likely representative of current knowledge.

  8. Optical properties of stabilized copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohindroo, Jeevan Jyoti, E-mail: jjmdav@gmail.com [Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala Punjab (India); Department of Chemistry, DAV College, Amritsar, Punjab India (India); Garg, Umesh Kumar, E-mail: Umeshkgarg@gmail.com [Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala Punjab (India); Guru Teg Bahadur Khalsa College of IT, Malout, Punjab (India); Sharma, Anshul Kumar [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Optical studies involving calculation of Band Gap of the synthesized copper nanoparticles were carried out in the wavelength range of 500 to 650 nm at room temperature, the particles showed high absorption at 550 nm indicating their good absorptive properties. In this method water is used as the medium for reduction of copper ions in to copper Nanoparticles the stabilization of copper Nanoparticles was studied with starch both as a reductant and stabilizer,. The reaction mixture was heated using a kitchen microwave for about 5 minutes to attain the required temp for the reaction. The pH of the solution was adjusted to alkaline using 5% solution of NaOH. Formation of Copper Nanoparticles was indicated by change in color of the solution from blue to yellowish black which is supported by the UV absorption at 570 nm.the synthesized particles were washed with water and alcohol. The optical properties depend upon absorption of radiations which in turn depends upon ratio of electrons and holes present in the material and also on the shape of the nanoparticles. In the present investigation it was observed that optical absorption increases with increase in particle size. The optical band gap for the Nanoparticles was obtained from plots between hv vs. (αhv){sup 2} and hv vs. (αhv){sup 1/2}. The value of Band gap came out to be around 1.98–2.02 eV which is in close agreement with the earlier reported values.

  9. Metallic copper corrosion rates, moisture content, and growth medium influence survival of copper ion-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elguindi, J; Moffitt, S; Hasman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of both copper ion-resistant E. coli and E. faecium strains when samples in rich medium were spread in a thin, moist layer on copper alloys with 85% or greater copper content. E. coli strains were rapidly killed under dry conditions, while E. faecium strains were less affected. Electroplated copper...... on electroplated copper surfaces with benzotriazole coating and thermal oxide coating compared to surfaces without anti-corrosion treatment. Control of surface corrosion affected the level of copper ion influx into bacterial cells, which contributed directly to bacterial killing....

  10. Compounding around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding is universal in its prevalence. Variations in disease patterns, culture, and tradition; the role of government in health care; and the availability of essential equipment and required agents shape a compounding profile unique to each country worldwide. In the following reflections, pharmacists form Argentina, Belgium, Colombia, Germany, Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States describe their experiences in the compounding setting unique to their practice and their nation. The unifying theme in their comments is the dedication of each contributor to enabling recovery and ensuring the good health of his or her clients.

  11. Copper Resistance of the Emerging Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Neu, Heather M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Michel, Sarah L J; Zurawski, Daniel V; Merrell, D Scott

    2016-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important emerging pathogen that is capable of causing many types of severe infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Since A. baumannii can rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance genes, many infections are on the verge of being untreatable, and novel therapies are desperately needed. To investigate the potential utility of copper-based antibacterial strategies against Acinetobacter infections, we characterized copper resistance in a panel of recent clinical A. baumannii isolates. Exposure to increasing concentrations of copper in liquid culture and on solid surfaces resulted in dose-dependent and strain-dependent effects; levels of copper resistance varied broadly across isolates, possibly resulting from identified genotypic variation among strains. Examination of the growth-phase-dependent effect of copper on A. baumannii revealed that resistance to copper increased dramatically in stationary phase. Moreover, A. baumannii biofilms were more resistant to copper than planktonic cells but were still susceptible to copper toxicity. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of copper allowed them to better adapt to and grow in high concentrations of copper; this copper tolerance response is likely achieved via increased expression of copper resistance mechanisms. Indeed, genomic analysis revealed numerous putative copper resistance proteins that share amino acid homology to known proteins in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcriptional analysis revealed significant upregulation of these putative copper resistance genes following brief copper exposure. Future characterization of copper resistance mechanisms may aid in the search for novel antibiotics against Acinetobacter and other highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii causes many types of severe nosocomial infections; unfortunately, some isolates have acquired resistance to almost every available antibiotic, and treatment options

  12. Copper Resistance of the Emerging Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L.; Neu, Heather M.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Michel, Sarah L. J.; Zurawski, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is an important emerging pathogen that is capable of causing many types of severe infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Since A. baumannii can rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance genes, many infections are on the verge of being untreatable, and novel therapies are desperately needed. To investigate the potential utility of copper-based antibacterial strategies against Acinetobacter infections, we characterized copper resistance in a panel of recent clinical A. baumannii isolates. Exposure to increasing concentrations of copper in liquid culture and on solid surfaces resulted in dose-dependent and strain-dependent effects; levels of copper resistance varied broadly across isolates, possibly resulting from identified genotypic variation among strains. Examination of the growth-phase-dependent effect of copper on A. baumannii revealed that resistance to copper increased dramatically in stationary phase. Moreover, A. baumannii biofilms were more resistant to copper than planktonic cells but were still susceptible to copper toxicity. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of copper allowed them to better adapt to and grow in high concentrations of copper; this copper tolerance response is likely achieved via increased expression of copper resistance mechanisms. Indeed, genomic analysis revealed numerous putative copper resistance proteins that share amino acid homology to known proteins in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transcriptional analysis revealed significant upregulation of these putative copper resistance genes following brief copper exposure. Future characterization of copper resistance mechanisms may aid in the search for novel antibiotics against Acinetobacter and other highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii causes many types of severe nosocomial infections; unfortunately, some isolates have acquired resistance to almost every available antibiotic

  13. Effect of Copper and Iron Ions on the Sulphidizing Flotation of Copper Oxide in Copper Smelting Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-qing Pan; Hui-qing Peng

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of smelting slag has attracted much attention nowadays. This study investigates the influence of Na2S, CuSO4, and FeCl3 on sulphidizing flotation of copper oxide. The results show that a proper Cu2+ concentration can increase the sulphidizing effect of copper oxide, while Fe3+ inhibits the sulphidizing effect. Further analysis shows that Cu2+ ions can reduce the surface potential, increase the S2− adsorption, then generate more polysulfide, and therefore promote the sulphidizing...

  14. Copper metabolism: a multicompartmental model of copper kinetics in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A qualitative multicompartmental model was developed that describes the whole-body kinetics of copper metabolism in the adult rat. The model was developed from radiocopper percent dose vs. time data measured over a three day period in plasma, liver, skin, skeletal muscle, bile and feces after the intravenous injection of 10 μg copper labeled with 64 Cu. Plasma radiocopper was separated into ceruloplasmin (Cp) and nonceruloplasmin (NCp) fractions. Liver cytosolic radiocopper was fractionated into void volume superoxide dismutase (SOD) containing and metallothionein fractions by gel filtration. Liver particulate fractions were isolated by differential centrifugation. The SAAM and CONSAM modeling programs were used to develop the model. The sizes of compartments, fractional rate constants and mass transfer rates between compartments were evaluated. The intracellular metabolism of copper was similar in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues being comprised of a faster turning over compartment (FTC) exchanging copper with NCp and a slower turning over compartment (STC) with input from Cp. Output from the STC was into the FTC. In the liver the STC was postulated to represent SOD copper which unlike the extrahepatic tissues received much of its input from the FTC. A small amount of biliary copper (9%) was postulated to return to plasma NCp by enterohepatic recycling. The model developed was contrasted and compared with two previous models of copper metabolism

  15. Critical review: Copper runoff from outdoor copper surfaces at atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Hedberg, Jonas F; Herting, Gunilla; Goidanich, Sara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chlorides, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  16. Dense Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Composites as High Performance Thermal Interface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Isaacson, Scott G; Lian, Feifei; Pop, Eric; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Goodson, Kenneth E; Tice, Jesse

    2017-12-06

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are essential for managing heat in modern electronics, and nanocomposite TIMs can offer critical improvements. Here, we demonstrate thermally conductive, mechanically compliant TIMs based on dense, vertically aligned copper nanowires (CuNWs) embedded into polymer matrices. We evaluate the thermal and mechanical characteristics of 20-25% dense CuNW arrays with and without polydimethylsiloxane infiltration. The thermal resistance achieved is below 5 mm 2 K W -1 , over an order of magnitude lower than commercial heat sink compounds. Nanoindentation reveals that the nonlinear deformation mechanics of this TIM are influenced by both the CuNW morphology and the polymer matrix. We also implement a flip-chip bonding protocol to directly attach CuNW composites to copper surfaces, as required in many thermal architectures. Thus, we demonstrate a rational design strategy for nanocomposite TIMs that simultaneously retain the high thermal conductivity of aligned CuNWs and the mechanical compliance of a polymer.

  17. Relative Performance of Alkynes in Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislukhin, Alexander A.; Hong, Vu P.; Breitenkamp, Kurt E.; Finn, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) has found numerous applications in a variety of fields. We report here only modest differences in the reactivity of various classes of terminal alkynes under typical bioconjugative and preparative organic conditions. Propargyl compounds represent an excellent combination of azide reactivity, ease of installation, and cost. Electronically activated propiolamides are slightly more reactive, at the expense of increased propensity for Michael addition. Certain alkynes, including tertiary propargyl carbamates, are not suitable for bioconjugation due to copper-induced fragmentation. A fluorogenic probe based on such reactivity is available in one step from rhodamine 110 and can be useful for optimization of CuAAC conditions. PMID:23566039

  18. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tension of the aqueous solution of salt and inversely proportional to the height of the foam. On the other hand, for organic reagents solutions (short chain amines, a reverse effect has been observed in relation to the inorganic compounds studied, that is the yield of copper-bearing shale flotation and the foam height were inversely proportional to the surface tension of the amine solution.

  19. Thermoeconomic analysis of a copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle for nuclear-based hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orhan, Mehmet F.; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Thermochemical water splitting with a copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle is a promising process that could be linked with nuclear reactors to decompose water into its constituents, oxygen and hydrogen, through intermediate copper and chlorine compounds. In this paper, a comprehensive exergoeconomic analysis of the Cu-Cl cycle is reported to evaluate the production costs as a function of the amount and quality of the energy used for hydrogen production, as well as the costs of the exergy losses and the exergoeconomic improvement potential of the equipment used in the process. An additional objective is to determine changes in the design parameters of the Cu-Cl cycle that improve the cost effectiveness of the overall system. (orig.)

  20. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about chromium, exposure to which can increase your risk of lung cancer and cancer of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. Hexavalent chromium compounds have been used as corrosion inhibitors in a wide variety of products and processes.

  2. MEA 86 Compound data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data file contains the full raw parameter data for the 86 compounds tested in the developmental MEA assay, as well as Area Under the Curve (AUC) calculations...

  3. REMOVAL OF COPPER ELECTROLYTE CONTAMINANTS BY ADSORPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gabai

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Selective adsorbents have become frequently used in industrial processes. Recent studies have shown the possibility of using adsorption to separate copper refinery electrolyte contaminants, with better results than those obtained with conventional techniques. During copper electrorefinning, many impurities may be found as dissolved metals present in the anode slime which forms on the electrode surface, accumulated in the electrolyte or incorporated into the refined copper on the cathode by deposition. In this study, synthetic zeolites, chelating resins and activated carbons were tested as adsorbents to select the best adsorbent performance, as well as the best operating temperature for the process. The experimental method applied was the finite bath, which consists in bringing the adsorbent into contact with a finite volume of electrolyte while controlling the temperature. The concentration of metals in the liquid phase was continuously monitored by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS

  4. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voinea, M.; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO x cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO x was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components

  5. Preparation of copper nanoparticles by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yajian; Guo Xiongbin; Li Zhaolong; Fu Junjie; Tan Yuanyuan; Zhou Xinyao; Xu Furong

    2013-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by 60 Co-γ radiation with aqueous solution of cupric sulfate under inert nitrogen-purged conditions. Cu nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), laser particle size distribution analyzer (LSPSDA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) techniques, respectively. The effects of solution system, pH, additive of surfactant and absorbed doses on the particle size and its distribution as well as stored stability of Cu naoparticles were investigated. High resolution TEM pictures showed the formation of homogeneous cubic-structured copper nanoparticles with different sizes depends on the synthetic conditions. This new kind of synthesis method shows the excellent stability, which may provide an efficient way to improve the fine tuning of the structure and size of copper nanoparticles. (authors)

  6. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  7. Biologic assessment of copper-containing amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjor, I A; Eriksen, H M; Haugen, E; Skogedal, O

    1977-12-01

    In order to reduce creep and avoid marginal fractures in amalgam restorations, new alloys containing higher proportions of copper have been introduced. Fillings of these materials were placed in cavities prepared in the deciduous teeth of monkeys or placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted subcutaneously in rats. Conventional silver/tin alloys and zinc oxide eugenol cement were used as reference materials. Despite limitations due to the varying depths of cavities and the small number of animals involved it was concluded that the high copper alloys caused more severe pulp damage than the other materials studied. In the implantation studies many of the high copper specimens were exfoliated before the end of the experimental period. It is concluded that in deep cavities these materials require the use of a non-toxic base or lining material although as they are commonly used in young children's teeth the placement of linings and the isolation of the cavity pose problems.

  8. He bubble sites in implanted copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.; Eliezer, D.

    1996-01-01

    Structural materials in fusion reactors will be exposed to helium implantation over a broad range of energies. The deformation and partial exfoliation of surface layers due to hydrogen isotopes and helium contribute to the total erosion of the first wall. For this reason, one of the most important criteria in the choice of materials for the first wall of fusion reactors is the material's damage resistance. Recent advances in developing nuclear fusion reactors reveal that efficient heat removal from plasma-facing components is very important. Copper and copper alloys are considered an attractive choice for transporting such a high heat flux without thermal damage as they have high thermal conductivity. In the present study the authors report on the structural changes in a copper alloy, due to the helium implantation on the very near surface area, observed by transmission electron microscopy

  9. Bulk Copper Electrodeposition on Gold Imaged by In Situ STM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Møller, Per

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical measurements were carried out simultaneously with acquisition of in situ STM images of copper electrodeposition at low cathodic overpotentials and subsequent dissolution from the underlying polycrystalline gold surfaces. The morphologies of the copper deposits were examined...

  10. Influence of diethyldithiocarbamate on cadmium and copper toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    Abstract. Toxic effects of two heavy metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu), and a fungicide, .... mining 50% morbid concentrations (MC50) and 50% inhibition .... WHITTON B and SHEHATA F (1982) Influence of cobalt, nickel, copper.

  11. Structural and magnetic studies on copper succinate dihydrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P BINITHA

    2017-08-21

    Aug 21, 2017 ... rials chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, gas storage, polymer magnets, etc. ... super exchange interactions among copper atoms through bridging .... Thus, these two water molecules in the structure of copper succinate are.

  12. potentiometric studies of the complexes formed by copper (ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    The overall stability constants of copper (II) and zinc (II) ions with some polar ... The average number of coordinated amino acids to the copper (II) and zinc (II) ions .... of chelated rings (Yamuchi and Odani, 1996). ... Synthesis and techniques in.

  13. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  14. Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of copper stress on antioxidative enzymes, chlorophyll and protein content in Atriplex ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 50 (2011) > ... The aim of this work was to investigate some enzymatic systems response of this plant to copper stress.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of Eichhornia-mediated copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we report the biosynthesis and characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles ... copper oxide nanoparticles by simple, cost-effective and ecofriendly method as an alternative to other available ... Currently, zinc oxide, gold, silver.

  16. In vitro susceptibility of filamentous fungi to copper nanoparticles assessed by rapid XTT colorimetry and agar dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemian, E; Naghoni, A; Tabaraie, B; Tabaraie, T

    2012-12-01

    Metal nanoparticles and their uses in various aspects have recently drawn a great deal of attention. One of the major applications is that it can be used as an antimicrobial agent. They can be considered in approaches targeted to decrease the harms caused by microorganisms, specifically fungi, threatening the medical and industrial areas. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of synthesized copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) against four filamentous fungi including Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani, and Penicillium chrysogenum. Zerovalent copper nanoparticles of mean size 8nm were synthesized by inert gas condensation (IGC) method. The antifungal activity of these synthesized copper nanoparticles was measured against selected fungi by using two different techniques including agar dilution method and XTT reduction assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for copper nanoparticles by agar dilution method were less or equal to 40mg/L for P. chrysogenum, less or equal to 60mg/L for A. alternata, less or equal to 60mg/L for F. solani, and less or equal to 80mg/L for A. flavus. And also MICs obtained by XTT reduction assay ranged from 40 to 80mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the copper nanoparticles inhibited fungal growth, but the fungal sensitivity to copper nanoparticles varies depending on the fungal species. Therefore, it is advisable that the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) be examined before using these compounds. It is hoped that, in future, copper nanoparticles could replace some antifungal agents, making them applicable to many different medical devices and antimicrobial control system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  18. Recovery of Copper from Copper Slag by Hydrometallurgy Method, from Iraqi Factories Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaa Sami Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available   In this research, the recovery of copper from copper slag is investigated using hydrometallurgy method. Slag samples were taken from Al-Shaheed State Company. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the slag contained 11.4% of copper. The recovery process included two stages; the first stage is leaching using diluted sulfuric acid. The most important variables that effect on the leaching process was studied, such as acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide adding, particle size, liquid to solid, stirring speed and leaching time by changing the condition and the stabilizing of other factors at room temperature.               The second stage is precipitation of copper from leaching solution by zinc powder with different weights and times, at room temperature and 1.5 PH value. The results of the first stage manifested that about 99.7% of the copper have been dissolved at the following operational conditions: 50% acid concentration, 5 ml hydrogen peroxide adding, particle size (-75+53 micron, 1:10 liquid to solid, 500 rpm stirring speed and 25 min of leaching time. The highest percentage of copper precipitation in the second stage was 99.8% when added 3gm zinc powder at 20 min. The XRD result revealed that the predominant phase was pure copper. The results of EDS exhibited that a few percentage of oxygen appeared with copper powder. The final of copper recovery ratio was 99.3% with 99.2% purity.

  19. Unlock your Compound Management

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Eller

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical industry faces the increased demand for innovative medicines against various diseases. In this regard, the compound library in pharmaceutical industry is the most valuable asset. However, the compound distribution from the library into the screening plates is often still done manually and binds highly qualified resources to very time-consuming, tedious and error-prone tasks. To overcome these challenges, Chemspeed launched the first automated true one-to-one gravimetric "pi...

  20. United States copper metal and scrap use and trade patterns, 1995‒2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-06-17

    In 1995, China accounted for 10 percent of world copper consumption. By 2014, China accounted for about 49 percent of world copper consumption. This change has affected global copper and copper scrap prices, the sources of copper supply, and U.S. trade of copper-containing materials.

  1. Copper removal using electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Safari, Salman; Yang, Han; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2015-06-03

    Removal of heavy metal ions such as copper using an efficient and low-cost method with low ecological footprint is a critical process in wastewater treatment, which can be achieved in a liquid phase using nanoadsorbents such as inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, attention has turned toward developing sustainable and environmentally friendly nanoadsorbents to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media. Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC), which can be prepared from wood fibers through periodate/chlorite oxidation, has been shown to have a high charge content and colloidal stability. Here, we show that ENCC scavenges copper ions by different mechanisms depending on the ion concentration. When the Cu(II) concentration is low (C0≲200 ppm), agglomerates of starlike ENCC particles appear, which are broken into individual starlike entities by shear and Brownian motion, as evidenced by photometric dispersion analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, at higher copper concentrations, the aggregate morphology changes from starlike to raftlike, which is probably due to the collapse of protruding dicarboxylic cellulose (DCC) chains and ENCC charge neutralization by copper adsorption. Such raftlike structures result from head-to-head and lateral aggregation of neutralized ENCCs as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to starlike aggregates, the raftlike structures grow gradually and are prone to sedimentation at copper concentrations C0≳500 ppm, which eliminates a costly separation step in wastewater treatment processes. Moreover, a copper removal capacity of ∼185 mg g(-1) was achieved thanks to the highly charged DCC polyanions protruding from ENCC. These properties along with the biorenewability make ENCC a promising candidate for wastewater treatment, in which fast, facile, and low-cost removal of heavy metal ions is desired most.

  2. Incineration method for plutonium recovery from alpha contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Kato, Michiharu; Kurihara, Masayoshi

    1985-01-01

    An incineration method for plutonium recovery from α contaminated organic compounds in a flow of controlled oxygen gas is stated. The species of such thermal decomposition products as hydrocarbons, free carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen were determined by mass spectrography. The mixture of the products which are the source of tar or soot was converted to CO 2 and H 2 O in contact with copper oxide catalyst without flaming. This incineration method is composed of two stages. The first stage is the decomposition of organic compounds in the streams of gas mixtures containing oxygen in low ratios. The second stage is the incineration of the decomposition products by catalytic reaction in the streams of gas with higher oxygen ratios. Plutonium was recovered as the form of plutonium dioxide from the incineration residues of the first stage. The behavior of oil was examined as a representative of liquid organic compounds. It was found to evaporate below ca. 500 0 C, but was completely incinerated by the catalytic reaction with copper oxide catalyst in the flow of gas with controlled oxygen amount and was changed to CO 2 and H 2 O. (author)

  3. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  4. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  5. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  6. Immunotoxicity of copper nanoparticle and copper sulfate in a common Indian earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arunodaya; Ray, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Soumalya; Das, Santanu; Pal, Kunal; Das, Subhadeep; Karmakar, Parimal; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2018-02-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate are established contaminants of water and soil. Metaphire posthuma is a common variety of earthworm distributed in moist soil of Indian subcontinent. Comparative toxicity of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate were investigated with reference to selected immune associated parameters of earthworm. Total count, phagocytic response, generation of cytotoxic molecules (superoxide anion, nitric oxide), activities of enzymes like phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein of coelomocytes were estimated under the exposures of 100, 500, 1000mg of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate per kg of soil for 7 and 14 d. A significant decrease in the total coelomocyte count were recorded with maximum depletion as 15.45 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 2 × 10 4 cells/ml under the treatment of 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate for 14 d respectively. A significant decrease in generation of nitric oxide and activity of phenoloxidase were recorded upon exposure of both toxins for 7 and 14 d indicating possible decline in cytotoxic status of the organism. A maximum inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity was recorded as 0.083 ± 0.0039 and 0.055 ± 0.0057 unit/mg protein/minute against 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate treatment for 14 d respectively. Activities of catalase and alkaline phosphatase were inhibited by all experimental concentrations of both toxins in the coelomocytes of earthworm. These toxins were recorded to be modifiers of the major immune associated parameters of M. posthuma. Unrestricted contamination of soil by sulfate and oxide nanoparticles of copper may lead to an undesirable shift in the innate immunological status of earthworm leading to a condition of immune compromisation and shrinkage in population density of this species in its natural habitat. This article is the first time report of immunological toxicity of

  7. Comparative effects of dissolved copper and copper oxide nanoparticle exposure to the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Samreen; Goddard, Russell H.; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K., E-mail: gkbielmyer@valdosta.edu

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Differences between CuO NP and CuCl{sub 2} exposure were characterized. • Copper accumulation in E. pallida was concentration-dependent. • E. pallida exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulated higher copper tissue burdens. • The oxidative stress response was greater in E. pallida exposed to CuO NP. • Both forms of copper inhibited CA activity in E. pallida. - Abstract: Increasing use of metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) by various industries has resulted in substantial output of these NP into aquatic systems. At elevated concentrations, NP may interact with and potentially affect aquatic organisms. Environmental implications of increased NP use are largely unknown, particularly in marine systems. This research investigated and compared the effects of copper oxide (CuO) NP and dissolved copper, as copper chloride (CuCl{sub 2}), on the sea anemone, Exaiptasia pallida. Sea anemones were collected over 21 days and tissue copper accumulation and activities of the enzymes: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and carbonic anhydrase were quantified. The size and shape of CuO NP were observed using a ecanning electron microscope (SEM) and the presence of copper was confirmed by using Oxford energy dispersive spectroscopy systems (EDS/EDX). E. pallida accumulated copper in their tissues in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with the animals exposed to CuCl{sub 2} accumulating higher tissue copper burdens than those exposed to CuO NP. As a consequence of increased copper exposure, as CuO NP or CuCl{sub 2}, anemones increased activities of all of the antioxidant enzymes measured to some degree, and decreased the activity of carbonic anhydrase. Anemones exposed to CuO NP generally had higher anti-oxidant enzyme activities than those exposed to the same concentrations of CuCl{sub 2}. This study is useful in discerning differences between CuO NP and dissolved copper exposure and the findings have implications for exposure of aquatic

  8. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500°C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000°C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to

  9. Oxidation-assisted graphene heteroepitaxy on copper foil

    OpenAIRE

    Reckinger, Nicolas; Tang, Xiaohui; Joucken, Frédéric; Lajaunie, Luc; Arenal, Raul; Dubois, Emmanuel; Hackens, Benoît; Henrard, Luc; Colomer, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    We propose an innovative, easy-to-implement approach to synthesize large-area singlecrystalline graphene sheets by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil. This method doubly takes advantage of residual oxygen present in the gas phase. First, by slightly oxidizing the copper surface, we induce grain boundary pinning in copper and, in consequence, the freezing of the thermal recrystallization process. Subsequent reduction of copper under hydrogen suddenly unlocks the delayed reconstruction, f...

  10. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  11. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D

    1972-01-01

    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  12. Inhibitory effects of copper on marine dinoflagellates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifullah, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of copper on three species of marine dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella faeroense (Paulsen) Balech et Soares, Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg, Gymnodinium splendens Lebour) was studied. It inhibited the growth of all species and was lethal to one species in batch cultures. The effect was more pronounced in semicontinuous culture than in batch cultures. Chlorophyll concentrations and rate of uptake of radioactive carbon by cells of S. faeroense were affected in a manner similar to cell numbers. Copper inhibited growth of cells, most probably either by arresting cell division or by penetrating inside the cell and affecting metabolism.

  13. Submillimeter wave ESR of copper-oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hitoshi; Motokawa, Mitsuhiro

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of high T c superconductors the magnetism of various copper-oxides has attracted much interest. Especially the magnetism of strong spin correlation systems in various CuO 4 networks is of great interest because it is well known that the superconductivity is occurring in the CuO 2 plane of the high T c superconductors. Here the authors will show some of their work done on copper-oxides by submillimeter wave ESR. The submillimeter wave ESR can provide the frequency region of 90 ∼ 3,100 GHz and the pulse magnetic field up to 30T

  14. Point defect relaxation volumes for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1979-11-01

    The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)

  15. Contribution to the study of the chemical effects of the (n, γ) reaction on copper N-benzoyl N-phenyl hydroxylaminate and copper N-benzoyl N-(o) Tolyl hydroxylaminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of some factors such as pre-heating and pre-irradiation with gamma rays on the retention and thermal annealing of copper N-benzoyl N-phenyl hydroxylaminate and of copper N-benzolyl N-(o) tolyl hydroxylaminate is studied. The complexes were synthesized and characterized by determination of the melting-point, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, infra-red and visible range absoption spectrometry-thermogravimetric analysis were examined and the stability of the compounds was checked against heating and gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Some experiments using the Szilard-Chalmers effect were carried out by irradiating the compound in the IEA-R 1 nuclear reactor and calculating its specific activities. (M.J.C.) [pt

  16. Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shovan; Celestine, Michael J; Khanal, Supreet; Huddleston, Alexis; Simms, Colin; Arca, Jessa Faye; Mitra, Amlan; Heller, Loree; Kraj, Piotr J; Ledizet, Michel; Anderson, John F; Neelakanta, Girish; Holder, Alvin A; Sultana, Hameeda

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ligand-derived from citral (compound 3) and a cobalt(III) complex with a citral-thiosemicarbazone ligand (compound 4) increased DENV2 and ZIKV replication in both mosquito C6/36 cells and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Treatment of both cell lines with compounds 2 or 4 showed increased dengue viral titers at all three tested doses. Enhanced dengue viral plaque formation was also noted at the tested dose of 100μM, suggesting higher production of infectious viral particles. Treatment with the compounds 2 or 4 enhanced ZIKV and DENV2 RNA levels in HeLa cell line and primary cultures of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Also, pre- or post treatments with conjugated compounds 2 or 4 showed higher loads of ZIKV or DENV2 envelope (E) protein in HaCaT cells. No changes in loads of E-protein were found in ZIKV-infected C6/36 cells, when compounds were treated after infection. In addition, we tested bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) chloride ([Cu(phen) 2 ]Cl 2 , (compound 5) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride ([Co(phen) 3 ]Cl 3 , (compound 6) that also showed enhanced DENV2 loads. Also, we found that copper(II) chloride dehydrate (CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O) or cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate (CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O) alone had no effects as "free" cations

  17. Atmospheric pollution with copper around the copper mine and flotation, 'Buchim', Republic of Macedonia, using biomonitoring moss and lichen technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanova, Biljana; Bacheva, Katerina; Shajn, Robert; Stafilov, Trajche

    2009-01-01

    This paper has studied the atmospheric pollution with copper due to copper mining and flotation 'Buchim' near Radovish, Republic of Macedonia. The copper ore and ore tailings continually are exposed to open air, which occur winds carry out the fine particles in to atmosphere. Moss (Hyloconium splendens and Pleurozium schrebery) and lichen (Hypogymnia physodes and Parmelia sulcata) samples were used for biomonitoring the possible atmospheric pollution with copper in the mine vicinity. Moss and lichen samples were digested by using of microwave digestion system and copper was analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICPAES). The obtained values for the content of copper in moss and lichen samples were statistically processed using the nonparametric and parametric analysis. Maps of areal deposition of copper show an increase content of copper in the vicinity of mine, but long distance distribution of this element is not established yet.

  18. Copper Complexes with Non-innocent Ligands: Probing Cu-II/catecholato-Cu-I/o-Semiquinonato Redox Isomer Equilibria with EPR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaim, W.; Wanner, M.; Knödler, A.; Záliš, Stanislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 337, - (2002), s. 163-172 ISSN 0020-1693 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D14.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : copper compounds * EPR spectroscopy * quinone ligand s Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.566, year: 2002

  19. A zinc, copper and citric acid biocomplex shows promise for control of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca in olive trees in Apulia region (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca is associated with the “olive quick decline syndrome” in the Apulia region of southern Italy. To investigate control of this phytopathogen, a compound containing zinc and copper complexed with citric-acid hydracids (Dentamet®) was evaluated for in vitro ...

  20. Juvenile life stages of the brown alga Fucus serratus L. are more sensitive to combined stress from high copper concentration and temperature than adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Laurentius; Nielsen, Hanne Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    of high copper concentration was amplified by high temperature. We conclude that juveniles of F. serratus are more susceptible to environmental stressors than adult specimens and recommend therefore including early life stages when assessing the risk of exposure to toxic compounds. Considering...... the response of adult specimens only may lead to false conclusions regarding the ecological impact of environmental stress...