Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Dimokopoulos, Demetra
In 2015, the Copenhagen School of Entrepreneurship (CSE), the largest business incubator in Denmark, was admitting 100–125 new start-ups each year and attracting external funding of US$33 million from both public and private sources—all with an annual budget of US$435,000, funded exclusively by t...... to question how they measured the benefits of the program. How should the 53 per cent success rate be compared to the Copenhagen Business School's investment? What changes could the CSE leadership make to create more value for Danish society?......In 2015, the Copenhagen School of Entrepreneurship (CSE), the largest business incubator in Denmark, was admitting 100–125 new start-ups each year and attracting external funding of US$33 million from both public and private sources—all with an annual budget of US$435,000, funded exclusively...... by the Copenhagen Business School. Like most business incubators, CSE worked to provide entrepreneurs with training, mentorship, and investors, and to enhance their visibility in the market. It required all admitted start-ups to participate in a screening/selection tool and a set of incubation activities over three...
Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....
Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus
INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...
Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...
Pedersen, Rasmus U.; Furtak, Simon J.; Häuser, Ivan
Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish an unders......Project Smart Grid: The Intelligent Electrical System Is the Way Forward In 2012 Peter Møllgaard from Department of Economics and Rasmus Pedersen from Department of IT Management initiated a new project supported by CBS Sustainability Platform. The purpose of the project is to establish...... an understanding of micro-economic and IT challenges related to Smart Grid technology. The mini-smart-grid project at Copenhagen Business School (MSC@CBS) project seeks to investigate the business opportunities and issues that arise from this new technology. The project revolves around the concepts of Smart Grids......, Smart Meters and prosumers. Smart Grids are a new method of managing electricity and power supply. It has not reached its full potential yet, but it offers a more interactive platform for both the consumer and the main supplier e.g. Dong Energy. The Smart Grid will collect and control the behavior...
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard
The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population.......The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population....
Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Olsen, Else Marie; Elberling, Hanne
(FSS) and their impairment in a population-based sample of Danish 5-7-year-old children. Data were obtained from a 5-7-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The entire study population included 3,000 randomly sampled children from the cohort. Among these FSS measures were obtained for 1......,327 children. The newly introduced parent interview, the soma assessment interview, was used to assess the child's FSS. Impairing symptoms were defined as FSS that caused substantial discomfort, impairment of everyday life, absence from day-care or school and/or help-seeking in the health care system. The 1...
Jensen, Britt W; von Kappelgaard, Lene M; Nielsen, Birgit M; Husby, Ida; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B; Trolle, Ellen; Heitmann, Berit L
Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect depended on maternal education level. A total of 307 children (intervention group: n 184; comparison group: n 123) were included in the present study. All had information on dietary intake pre- and post-intervention (mean age 6·8 and 9·5 years for intervention and comparison groups, respectively) assessed by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed in the intervention group, mainly among children of mothers with a short education ( education (β = -0·8, 95 % CI -1·5, -0·03, P= 0·04). This multi-component school-based intervention resulted in changes in the dietary intake, particularly among children of mothers with a short education. As the dietary intake of this subgroup generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.
Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from the capi......INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from...... the capital city of Denmark. Additional information on the cohort members has been obtained via linkages with population studies and national registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: Studies using data from the register have made important contributions in the areas of the aetiology of obesity, the development...... of the obesity epidemic, and the long-term health consequences of birth weight as well as body size and growth in childhood. CONCLUSION: Research using this unique register is ongoing, and its contributions to the study of obesity as well as other topics will continue for years to come....
Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence
. First, it examines the following aspects in relation to gender: 1) Management practices in recruitment and promotion (with a special focus on scouting and nudging); 2) Management practices in establishing and maintaining good work cultures and attractive research environments; 3) Best practices......This report examines the relationship between gender and the Heads of Department group’s leadership practices at Copenhagen Business School. This research project is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Diversity and Inclusion Council at this university. Its aim is two fold...... and guidelines for the promotion of diversity and equality, including suggestions for avoiding unconscious bias. Second, this initiative aims to stimulate self-reflexivity and open dialogue on the topic of gender and talent development among CBS’s management groups and between these groups and the Diversity...
Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida
Introduction: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one of the few dietary components that have been associated with the development of obesity. However, most previous studies have been based on children or adolescents aged 8 years or more. Method: The study was based on the Copenhagen......-days pre-printed food record. Analyses were conducted using the mixed model approach for repeated measurements and were adjusted for gender, puberty, parental BMI, municipality, school, baseline BMI, SES and physical activity. Results: 154 children, 68 boys and 86 girls were included in the analyses....... Mean intake of soft drinks was 0.14 l/d at age 6 and 0.12 l/d at age 9 (difference p=0.08). No associations were found between intake of soft drink at age 6 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.8; p=0.91), or intake at age 9 and BMI at age 13 (b:-0.3; p= 0.80). Neither was the change in intake of soft drinks from...
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...
Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra
for institutional transitions and exemplified with cases from an empirical material. The general tendency in the Danish - and international context - to regard the school transition as a problem for the child and the practice following from this, i.e. minimizing differences between day care and primary school...
A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective copenhagen school child interventions study (CoSCIS).
Hasselstrøm, H A; Karlsson, M K; Hansen, S E; Grønfeldt, V; Froberg, K; Andersen, L B
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in physical education classes on bone mineral accrual and gain in bone size in prepubertal Danish children. A total of 135 boys and 108 girls, aged 6-8 years, were included in a school-based curriculum intervention program where the usual time spent in physical education classes was doubled to four classes (180 min) per week. The control group comprised age-matched children (62 boys and 76 girls) recruited from a separate community who completed the usual Danish school curriculum of physical activity (90 min/week). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (g/cm(2)), and bone width at the calcaneus and distal forearm before and after 3 years of intervention. Anthropometrics and Tanner stages were evaluated on the same occasions. General physical activity was measured with an accelerometer worn for 4 days. In girls, the intervention group had a 12.5% increase (P = 0.04) in distal forearm BMC and a 13.2% increase (P = 0.005) in distal forearm scanned area compared with girls in the control group. No differences were found between the intervention and control groups in boys. Increasing the frequency of physical education classes for prepubertal children is associated with a higher accrual of bone mineral and higher gain in bone size after 3 years in girls but not in boys.
Ry Nielsen, Jens Carl
Reflection plays a significant role in the pedagogical thinking and practice at the Copenhagen Business School Master of Public Administration Programme. It is thus embedded in one of the pedagogical models we have developed based on ideas from Argyris, Schön, Vygotsky, Senge, Lave and Wenger...
Ry Nielsen, J. C.
Reflection plays a significant role in the pedagogical thinking and practice at the Copenhagen Business School Master of Public Administration Programme. It is thus embedded in one of the pedagogical models we have developed based on ideas from Argyris, Schön, Vygotsky, Senge, Lave and Wenger, and Schein. The model has four interrelated…
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
. By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...
Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Birk, Nina Marie; Ried-Larsen, Mathias
intervention on body mass index (BMI) in a group of overweight children. Our hypothesis was an observed reduction in BMI and secondarily in body fat content, insulin insensitivity, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group. METHODS: School children from Copenhagen were randomly...... allocated to an intervention group (n = 19) or a control group (n = 19). Anthropometric assessment, whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, two hours oral glucose tolerance test, steps measured by pedometer, and fitness tests were measured at baseline and at 20 weeks. RESULTS: Thirty......-seven children (30 girls) participated at baseline, aged 8.7 ± 0.9 years with a BMI of 21.8 ± 3.7 kg/m2 (mean ± SD), and 36 children completed the study. The intervention group decreased their BMI (the intervention effect is the difference in change between the groups adjusted for the respective baseline values...
Lieven J. R. Pauwels
Full Text Available Contextual research on delinquency is primarily based on the idea that residential areas provide a major ecological setting that (indirectly shapes observed differences in delinquency. Just like neighborhoods, schools differ in terms of their level of structural characteristics such as the concentration of immigrant children and children from disrupted families. Such characteristics may also shape delinquency. The present study aims to test the relationship between structural characteristics of schools and child antisocial behavior, using a sample of elementary school children (N = 779, aged 10-12 years in the urban context of Ghent, Belgium. This study found that the concentration of children from disrupted families has an independent effect on child delinquency, independent of social bonds, moral cognitions, and moral emotions. The contextual effect is fully mediated by exposure to peer delinquency.
Ali Arshad Riahi
Full Text Available Abstract : The theory of the effects of all human souls on external objects, from the viewpoint of Copenhagen School (in Quantum Physics, has made physicists deny the existence of two separate realms of the observer and the observed; they claim that causality is meaningless and profess that it is impossible to recognize the object. While, on the other hand, Mulla Ṣadra believes that the effect of soul on external objects is limited to the souls of prophets as well as saints and, barring evil eye or supplications, there is no such effect in others. In this article we argue that, based on Mulla Ṣadra’s teachings and philosophical doctrine, it is actually possible to generalize this effect to other human souls. Consequently, it is impossible to have an accurate recognition of the causes of events if causality is considered meaningless. In addition, it is feasible to have cognition about these causes of events through gnostic intuition.Keywords : human soul, external objects, Copenhagen School, Mulla Ṣadra, unity, causality Abstrak : Teori tentang efek jiwa seluruh manusia terhadap objek-objek eksternal, dari sudut pandang Madzhab Copenhagen (dalam Fisika Kuantum, telah membuat para fisikawan mengingkari keterpisahan dua alam, yaitu subjek dan objek; berdasarkan keyakinan ini, mereka mengklaim bahwa [hukum] kausalitas menjadi gugur dan tidak berguna, dan mereka juga percaya bahwa mengetahui sepenuhnya objek adalah tidak mungkin. Sementara, di tempat lain, Mulla Ṣadra meyakini bahwa jiwa yang berefek terhadap objek-objek eksternal terbatas pada jiwa para nabi dan orang-orang suci. Ia juga meyakini bahwa tidak berefeknya jiwa-jiwa manusia biasa kecuali pada perbuatan-perbuatan seperti yang ia sebut sebagai ‘evil eye’ dan doa. Dalam artikel ini, kami berupaya membuktikan bahwa, berdasarkan ajaran dan doktrin filsafat Mulla Ṣadra, pengaruh (efek jiwa manusia dapat digeneralisir. Dengan demikian tidak mungkin untuk mengetahui secara
Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…
Fink, Helmut [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)
The spirit of Copenhagen seems to have lost its convincing power over the past decades, mainly due to its dubious concepts of ''measurement'' and ''observer''. Quantum universalists, on the other side, claim to describe the transition from quantum to classical behaviour in purely quantum-theoretical terms. The quantum logic approach is often considered as corroborating this view, because classical structures can be embedded into quantum structures. Nevertheless, the universalistic turn is misguided: There is a semantic discontinuity between quantum states and classical facts. Decoherence does not solve the measurement problem. Unsharp properties don't either. The concept of classical limit is of course useful, but not for this purpose. Our conclusion is inconvenient: There is a clash of ontologies. The best way out is offered by accepting the legitimacy of both quantum and classical ontology. Classical ontology sets the stage for the quantum play. With this idea in mind, we promote a fresh look at the quantum interpretation debate, from a Neo-Copenhagen perspective, and without ''observers''.
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.
Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…
Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie
version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... was obtained from 99.7% of the children in the cohort. Of 5,898 eligible children, 3,501 participated in the SDQ assessment (59%). The overall estimated 6-month prevalence of mental health problems was 4.8% (95% CI 4.1-5.6). Conduct problems were found in 3.0% (95% CI 2.4-3.6), problems of hyperactivity...
Child Maltreatment Among Elementary School Children. Indryas L. 1. ORIGINAL ... of child maltreatment. KEY WORDS: School children, child maltreatment, child abuse. ..... and teachers in teaching, counseling and prevention of sexual ...
Maleš, Dubravka; Kuševic, Barbara; Širanovic, Ana
This paper discusses the cooperation between families and schools from the perspective of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989). Given that the principal purpose of the cooperation between families and schools is children's well-being, it is reasonable to expect the child's participation in situations of direct parent-teacher…
Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise
One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.
The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…
Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan; Hillman, Charles; Andersen, Lars Bo; Weiss, Maureen; Williams, Craig A; Lintunen, Taru; Green, Ken; Hansen, Peter Riis; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Ericsson, Ingegerd; Nielsen, Glen; Froberg, Karsten; Bugge, Anna; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Schipperijn, Jasper; Dagkas, Symeon; Agergaard, Sine; von Seelen, Jesper; Østergaard, Charlotte; Skovgaard, Thomas; Busch, Henrik; Elbe, Anne-Marie
From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord on the effects of physical activity on children's and youth's fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with presentation of the state-of-the art in each domain followed by plenary and group discussions. Ultimately, Consensus Conference participants reached agreement on the 21-item consensus statement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
François-Charles Wolff; Christine Barnet-Verzat
In this paper, we study the relationship between the provision of parental pocket and the level of effort undertaken by the child at school. Under altruism, an increased amount of parental transfer should reduce the child's effort. Our empirical analysis is based on a French data set including about 1,400 parent-child pairs. We find that children do not undertake less effort when their parents are more generous.
Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo
Child wellbeing at school and enjoyment of the learning environment are important economic outcomes, in particular because a growing body of research shows they are strongly linked to later educational attainments and labour market success. However, the standard working assumption in the economics of education is that parents choose schools on the…
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido
This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…
de Muynck, Willem M.
Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.
Ogletree, Earl J.
This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…
Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva
Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...
Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David
The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...
Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva
Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…
Bundy, Donald A P; Drake, Lesley J; Burbano, Carmen
An analysis undertaken jointly in 2009 by the UN World Food Programme, The Partnership for Child Development and the World Bank was published as Rethinking School Feeding to provide guidance on how to develop and implement effective school feeding programmes as a productive safety net and as part of the efforts to achieve Education for All. The present paper reflects on how understanding of school feeding has changed since that analysis. Data on school feeding programme outcomes were collected through a literature review. Regression models were used to analyse relationships between school feeding costs (from data that were collected), the per capita costs of primary education and Gross Domestic Product per capita. Data on the transition to national ownership, supply chains and country examples were collected through country case studies. School feeding programmes increase school attendance, cognition and educational achievement, as well as provide a transfer of resources to households with possible benefits to local agricultural production and local market development. Low-income countries exhibit large variations in school feeding costs, with concomitant opportunities for cost containment. Countries are increasingly looking to transition from externally supported projects to national programmes. School feeding is now clearly evident as a major social programme in most countries with a global turnover in excess of $US 100 billion. This argues for a continuing focus on the evidence base with a view to helping countries ensure that their programmes are as cost-effective as possible. Clear policy advice has never been more important.
Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd
TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...
Bryant, Jill K.
A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…
Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd
PURPOSE: Copenhagen Airport Cohort 1990-2012 presents a unique data source for studies of health effects of occupational exposure to air pollution (ultrafine particles) and manual baggage handling among airport employees. We describe the extent of information in the cohort and in the follow...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...... TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...
Dicke, Theresa; Marsh, Herbert W; Riley, Philip; Parker, Philip D; Guo, Jiesi; Horwood, Marcus
School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering multiple psychosocial factors identified by leading occupational stress theories. We evaluated the COPSOQ-II regarding factor structure and longitudinal, discriminant, and convergent validity using latent structural equation modeling in a large sample of Australian school principals ( N = 2,049). Results reveal that confirmatory factor analysis produced marginally acceptable model fit. A novel approach we call set exploratory structural equation modeling (set-ESEM), where cross-loadings were only allowed within a priori defined sets of factors, fit well, and was more parsimonious than a full ESEM. Further multitrait-multimethod models based on the set-ESEM confirm the importance of a principal's psychosocial risk factors; Stressors and depression were related to demands and ill-being, while confidence and autonomy were related to wellbeing. We also show that working in the private sector was beneficial for showing a low psychosocial risk, while other demographics have little effects. Finally, we identify five latent risk profiles (high risk to no risk) of school principals based on all psychosocial factors. Overall the research presented here closes the theory application gap of a strong multi-dimensional measure of psychosocial risk-factors.
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
The documentary "The Copenhagen Fallout" recounts the friendship and "falling out" of Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, two of the greatest contemporary physicists - friends whom war turned into enemies. It will be shown at CERN on 1st December. During a lecture in Germany towards the end of 1922, a 20-year-old physicist dared to interrupt Physics Nobel-Prize winner Niels Bohr with the words "There is a mathematical error in what you have said." The young scientist in question was none other than Werner Heisenberg. From this audacious beginning a fruitful collaboration and great friendship grew. But World War II threw up a wall of incomprehension between the two scientists, as one worked for the Nazi regime and the other opened his Copenhagen institute to German Jewish scientists. Then came their famous meeting in September 1941, dramatised by the no less famous play "Copenhagen", currently being performed in association with CERN at th...
... and do better in school. You can help boost your child's attention span, concentration, and memory by ... interested in his or her education. Keep in mind, though, that while some middle school students like ...
Gebremedhin, Tesfaye Alemayehu; Mohanty, Itismita
This paper examines the effects of maternal autonomy on child schooling outcomes in Ethiopia using a nationally representative Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey for 2011. The empirical strategy uses a Hurdle Negative Binomial Regression model to estimate years of schooling. An ordered probit model is also estimated to examine age grade distortion using a trichotomous dependent variable that captures three states of child schooling. The large sample size and the range of questions available in this dataset allow us to explore the influence of individual and household level social, economic and cultural factors on child schooling. The analysis finds statistically significant effects of maternal autonomy variables on child schooling in Ethiopia. The roles of maternal autonomy and other household-level factors on child schooling are important issues in Ethiopia, where health and education outcomes are poor for large segments of the population.
Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid
Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
, particularly a very high level of discrimination and stereotyping. The study reveals institutional gaps across different areas that need to be addressed urgently but also good practices at the local level.Somalis in Copenhagen is part of a comparative seven-city research series entitled Somalis in European...
Jørgensen, Claus Møller
Claus Møller Jørgensen analyzes the dynamics behind the specialization that took place in the nineteenth-century humanities at the University of Copenhagen. The humanities liberated themselves from an inferior position to the higher faculties by upgrading the status of classical studies and the e...
Hasselbalch, Rasmus Bo; Plesner, Louis Lind; Pries-Heje, Mia
is non-inferior to an existing triage model in a prospective randomized trial. METHODS: The Copenhagen Triage Algorithm (CTA) study is a prospective two-center, cluster-randomized, cross-over, non-inferiority trial comparing CTA to the Danish Emergency Process Triage (DEPT). We include patients ≥16 years...
On the basis of the Danish company law reform of 2009/2010, this article examines the question of whether the processes of liberalisation and internationalisation of the Danish rules on public and private companies which the reform represents are significant enough to warrant the term...... the ‘Copenhagen effect' in competition with the already established ‘London effect'....
Artiklen efterprøver på grundlag af den danske selskabsreform 2009/10, om den liberalisering og internationalisering, der herved har fundet sted af den danske lovgivning om aktie- og anpartsselskaber, er så betydningsfuld, at det fremtidigt giver mening at tale om en "Copenhagen effect" i...... konkurrence med den allerede kendte "London effect". Udgivelsesdato: Juni 2009...
child labour and schooling in an upper middle-income country, Botswana. ... and schooling is positively and significantly influenced by child education level, the ..... teacher missing .... is exclusively formed by the precarious work of minors. ... not responsible for the entry of children into the Brazilian labour market, Barros and.
Full Text Available This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and delivery, while the follow-up questionnaire was completed by the adult children 31-33 years later. The main outcome measures were objective factors describing pregnancy and delivery along with global quality of life, including: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life's temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective measures. Results showed two main factors in pregnancy that seemed to be associated with a reduced quality of life for the child 31-33 years later: the mother's smoking habits and the mother's medication–especially painkillers and different psychopharmacological drugs with the association being most prevalent early in pregnancy. Considering what can and do go wrong during the various stages of labour and delivery and considering how few connections we found between the factors examined and the later global QOL, it seems that the child is remarkably resilient to external influences during pregnancy and delivery concerned with global QOL, as an adult.
Full Text Available A prospective cohort study (Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 of 7,222 persons was used in order to explore the association between the social and health situation during pregnancy and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. Two sets of questionnaires were used with one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and one filled out by the adult children 31-33 years later. The questionnaires included mother's situation during pregnancy and global QOL of the child at follow-up: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of lifes temporal and spatial domains, expression of lifes potentials and objective measures. The only indicators to have clear connections with a reduced quality of life were the cases of mother's with syphilis (8.5%, mother's congenital malformations (8.8%, low social group (6.9% and failing contraception (3.8%. The results obtained repudiate the common notion and hypothesis that the mother's situation during pregnancy is highly important for the quality of life that the child experience as an adult. This suggest that the aspects important for quality of life later on are not found solely in early conditions, but instead more dependent on later attitude towards life of that specific person.
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
. By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers' schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers' does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers' schooling has...
Alfred Raymund C. Panopio
Full Text Available This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top performing public schools in Batangas City , Philippines . The parents and teachers of the said child were the respondents to assess the ability of the child. A total of 215 students from grades 4 to 6 were selected as the target sample. Descriptive correlational design was utilized to determine the relationship between the child care practices and school performance. A self - made questionnaire was formulated and used face validity and content reliability to come up with the most appropriate instrument. Frequency distribution, weighted mean and chi square were th e statistical tests utilized to aid the analysis of data. Based on the result of the study, breastfeeding, proper hygiene, allowing the child to participate in family conversation and providing monetary allowance were among the practices that lead to child ren’s good school performance. Having knowledge on these practices will guide parents in giving their child a better and assured future, and eventually benefit their children as they become parents themselves.
Spencer, C H; Zanga, J; Passo, M; Walker, D
The school experience is a crucial one for the child with arthritis. In school, these children face obstacles common to all chronically ill children and certain problems unique to a child with arthritis. The school environment for these children has changed drastically in the last two decades with the new civil rights legislation on the state and federal levels. Today there is a better chance of a child with arthritis having a relatively problem-free school experience than ever before. The pediatrician can be a source of information, advice, support, and help with any school problems that the child and parent cannot solve. Most minor problems, such as medication at school, physical education problems, an extra set of books, and extra time between classes, may be solved by an informal telephone call or a letter. More severe problems, such as prolonged and frequent absences, multiple modifications of the school environment, and contesting of school placement, may require the use of more formal channels, including the IEP process and parent advocacy groups. When chronic problems exist in the school system, the pediatrician may choose to work for needed changes that improve the school situation of these and other chronically ill children. The pediatrician also may serve as a valued adviser and educator to the school system in the difficult task of educating these special children.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
Olsen, Else Marie; Petersen, Janne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette
Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference....
Alfred Raymund C. Panopio
This scholarly work aimed to determine the child care practices that have the potential in honing a child with good school performance. The result of the study led to the formulation of a model that typifies the good child care practices. Since children are on the accepting side, it is the way parents raise a nd rear them that will influence what they will be in the near future. The participants were selected as they are included in the top p...
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
Greenleaf, Warren T.
Chronicles the growing frequency of child abductions by divorced parents who are warring over child custody. Outlines the school's role in prevention of such kidnappings and how to recognize new students who are kidnap victims and help to return them to their rightful parents.
Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar
This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…
Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup
Understanding the causal relationship between parental schooling and child development is important to create polices raising schooling level. We use unique Danish administrative data with information on identical twins to estimate the effect of parental schooling on short-run and long-run outcomes....... By applying within twin fixed effect techniques we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. We find OLS to be consistently upward biased due to endowments. Further, paternal schooling has no causal effect on infant and early childhood health but increases children...
Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…
Noirhomme-Renard, F; Blavier, A; Lachaussée, S; Monville, C; Nihoul, C; Gosset, C
Child maltreatment, including all forms of mal¬treatment, remains a major public health problem in high-income countries. Healthcare professionals only contribute to a small proportion of reports. In French-speaking Belgium, almost 100 % of school-aged children are regularly submitted to periodical school health visits. The school health doctor is well placed to recognize neglected or abused children. Based on international good practice recommendations, this paper proposes means for the detection and management of child abuse in the context of school medicine.
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.
/2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...... were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and Diagnostic Classification Zero to Three (DC: 0-3). Results: Deviant language development in the first 10 months of life predicted the child having any disorder at 11/2 years, OR 3.3 (1.4-8.0). Neuro-developmental...... disorders were predicted by deviant neuro-cognitive functioning, OR 6.8 (2.2-21.4), deviant language development, OR 5.9 (1.9-18.7) and impaired social interaction and communication, OR 3.8 (1.3-11.4). Unwanted pregnancy and parents' negative expectations of the child recorded in the first months...
Why did Werner Heisenberg, a participant in the nuclear research programme of the Third Reich, visit his friend and mentor Niels Bohr in occupied Denmark in September 1941? Was it a deliberate attempt to mislead the allies through talking to Bohr? Or was he really pursuing the utopian goal of halting the race to build the atomic bomb? What the historians have never been able to fully explain is explored in the play "Copenhagen", in which the ghosts of the two great scientists try to fathom why they failed to understand each other all those years ago. "Copenhagen", which has filled theatres in London, New York and Paris, is one of the most successful plays of British author Michael Frayn, also famous for his crime thrillers and comedies. A production of the play in French will be staged at the Théâtre de Carouge from 18th November. Werner Heisenberg and Niels Bohr before World War II.Both CERN and the Association pour l'Histoire des Sciences have associated themselves with the production...
that the Copenhagen Process has legitimately extended vocational education and training policy formation to include the EU and its new institutional settings established through the Open Method of Coordination. Furthermore, vocational education and training is being reconfigured within a neoliberal Lifelong Learning......The aim of this thesis is to analyse the EU vocational education and training policy process (The Copenhagen Process) from a critical perspective based on the policy analysis methodology, “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) developed by Professor Carol Bacchi. The main research question...... “How can the European vocational education and training policy process - the Copenhagen Process - be understood from a WPR perspective? “ is addressed in six articles which take apart the Copenhagen Process and deal with specific WPR questions and specific aspects of the Copenhagen Process...
Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco
Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.
Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…
Neumann, Linda; Combe, Laurie; Lambert, Patrice; Bartholomew, Kim; Morgan, Susan; Bobo, Nichole
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) be knowledgeable about and participate in the implementation of Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) approach in the educational setting (ASCD & Centers for Disease Control…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…
Together with the United States, China has moved to centre stage in the running up to the Climate Summit in Copenhagen 7-18 December 2009. To make the Summit a success, the two countries have started signalling positive commitment to formulation of quantitative targets and engage constructively...... in elaborating a reasonably ambitious, yet realistic framework for the implementation of a new global post-Kyoto regime that will have to take effect from 2012. China's leadership has already acknowledged that climate change may exacerbate an exceedingly unsustainable development path over the next decades...... if action is not taken to change its course dramatically. The challenges are formidable, yet the window of opportunity to take action is quite narrow. For these reasons and due to international pressure, China's position on climate change has been made gradually clearer as the climate negotiations have...
The Copenhagen summit has been often hailed as a complete failure but we can find 5 reasons for hope. First, climatologists are now taken seriously. Secondly, some financing has been announced: 30*10 9 dollars will be donated to developing countries to adapt themselves to climate change in the 2010-2012 period. Thirdly, the American power act is in preparation, this law aims to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the US by 20% by 2020. Fourthly, Europe has appeared as a leader in the fight against climate change in terms of emission reductions, carbon taxes or carbon allowance market. Fifthly, China has acknowledged for the first time a co-responsibility in the climate warming and has launched a green revolution whose main aim is 15% of renewable energies in the Chinese energy mix by 2020. (A.C.)
Daly, Brian P; Burke, Robert; Hare, Isadora; Mills, Carrie; Owens, Celeste; Moore, Elizabeth; Weist, Mark D
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law by President George W. Bush in January 2002 and is regarded as the most significant federal education policy initiative in a generation. The primary focus of the No Child Left Behind Act is on promoting educational success for all children; however, the legislation also contains opportunities to advance school-based mental health. Unfortunately, the complexities of the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act have made it difficult for educators, stakeholders, and mental health professionals to understand the legal and practical interface between No Child Left Behind and the school mental health movement. Therefore, the goals of this article are to (1) raise awareness about the challenges educators and school mental health professionals face as a result of the implementation of No Child Left Behind and (2) provide ideas and recommendations to advance the interface between No Child Left Behind and school mental health, which will support key provisions of the act and the growth of the field.
Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten
samples were obtained and subsequently analyzed for CVD risk factors. The intervention group (IG) had a higher increase in S4SF, but a more favorable change in WHR, systolic blood pressure and blood glucose compared to controls (CG). Furthermore IG-boys had a more favorable development in HOMA-IR compared...
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily
There is little research on the role of school composition in young children's behaviour. School composition effects may be particularly important for children in disadvantaged circumstances, such as those growing up in poverty. We explored the role of school academic and socio-economic composition in internalising problems, externalising problems and prosocial behaviour at age 7 years, and tested if it moderates the effect of family poverty on these outcomes. We used data from 7225 7-year-olds of the Millennium Cohort Study who attended state primary schools in England and for whom we had information on these outcomes. In multiple membership models, we allowed for clustering of children in schools and moves between schools since the beginning of school, at age 5. Our school academic and socio-economic composition variables were school-level achievement and % of pupils eligible for free school-meals, respectively. Poverty (family income below the poverty line) was measured in all sweeps until age 7. We explored the roles of both timing and duration of poverty. The effects of poverty were strong and robust to adjustment. School socio-economic composition was associated with individual children's internalising and externalising problems, even in adjusted models. School composition did not interact with poverty to predict any of the outcomes. Neither the academic nor the socio-economic composition of the school moderated the effect of family poverty on children's behaviour in primary school. However, children attending schools with more disadvantaged socio-economic intakes had more internalising and externalising problems than their counterparts.
Miragoli, Sarah; Camisasca, Elena; Di Blasio, Paola
The main purpose of the study was to explore the child sexual behaviors that Italian teachers have observed in the school context. A representative sample of 227 children, from 5 to 10 years old, was rated by their teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Frequencies of sexual behaviors among children aged 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 are presented. Younger children showed a broader range of sexual behaviors that decrease with the growing age, such as males in comparison to females. Moreover, findings showed that child sexual behavior is not only related to age and gender but also to family characteristics. These results suggested that child sexual behaviors reported by teachers through the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory may provide useful information about the development of children's sexuality. The knowledge of age appropriate sexual behaviors can help teachers discern normal sexual behaviors from problematic sexual behaviors.
Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...... effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away...
Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an additional child significantly increased school enrollment of first-born children by approximately 16 percentage-points. The effect is larger for househo...
Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis
COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....
Fagan, Thomas K.
Discusses the history of school psychology, emphasizing the work of L. Witmer (1897, 1907, 1910, 1922) and G. S. Hall (1911, 1923). Providing psychological services in the schools is among the earliest instances of applied psychology. School psychology was one of many child-saving services originating from 1890 to 1920. (SLD)
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
The history of ADHD is in part a history of children who have not fitted in at school. Yet until recently, surges in diagnostic levels had not prompted a questioning of the school's complicity in the trend. Through an analysis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), the principal diagnostic guideline relating to ADHD,…
Flyger, H.; Palmgren Jensen, F.; Kemp, K.
Aerosols were monitored in Greater Copenhagen in the period June 1973 to July 1974. Size-fractionated cascade impactor samples and unfractionated filter samples were regularly collected and analyzed be neutron activation analysis, spark emission spectroscopy or proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Concentrations were determined of the following elements: Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, and Pb. All elements showed orders-of-magnitude fluctuationsthe mean concentrations were roughly the same as in other large cities. In relation to proposed air quality standards, Pb was the most critical component. Statistical analysis of variation patterns, size distributions and interelement correlations indicate that automotive exhaust is the source of Br and Pbfuel-oil combustion is the main source of V and Ni (and partly of S)soil dust raised by wind or by human activity (e.g. traffic) is the main source of Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe. (author)
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela
This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…
SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN CENTRAL ... performance of children who participate in it as a routine scholars and people have defined child labour in several ways. ... children particularly those from low-income parents. ... dependent on the socio-economic status ... sensitize the family/guardians and relevant.
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.
Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…
Weegar, Kelly; Guérin-Marion, Camille; Fréchette, Sabrina; Romano, Elisa
This study explored how physical punishment (PP) and other parenting approaches may predict school readiness outcomes. By using the Canada-wide representative data, 5,513 children were followed over a 2-year period. Caregivers reported on their use of PP and other parenting approaches (i.e., literacy and learning activities and other disciplinary…
One of the most beautiful reading-pice for education with ethical and esthetical value for the children in the early child education at the family and in the kindergarten is the story. The story has big importance for education process in early childhood and for the school period of child development. As a meter of fact on that age with specifically language and statement the story offers possibility to see the beauty of art expression, to wake up the esthetical sense and with that procedure ...
Kurtz, P. David; And Others
This study evaluated the school performance of 139 school-age and adolescent children, 22 of whom had been physically abused and 47 neglected. The abused children displayed pervasive and severe academic and socioemotional problems, while neglected children displayed academic delays. Both groups of maltreated children showed unexpected strengths on…
Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.
City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…
Egan, Maureen; Sicherer, Scott
Studies suggest that food allergies have increased in prevalence, resulting in most school classrooms having more than one child affected. Children with food allergies are vulnerable for experiencing potentially life-threatening allergic reactions, as well as social consequences such as bullying. Management recommendations for food allergies in schools should incorporate knowledge of both issues. Current recommendations for food allergy management in schools focus on appropriate avoidance measures and prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions. Guidelines focus upon a school-wide approach, with comprehensive involvement of many stakeholders, but individual students require specific emergency action plans. Special risk groups include young children who need additional supervision and adolescents who may take risks. Based on the observation that anaphylaxis can occur in persons without a prior diagnosis, having epinephrine available for prompt first-aid management of any student in need is now recommended. To promote socialization, avoidance measures should minimize separation of children with food allergies from their peers. Parents and schools need to be aware of bullying and implement intervention and prevention measures. Management recommendations for food allergies in schools should ensure the safety of the child, address bullying, and avoid unnecessary isolation.
Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker
The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented and the ......The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... light rail projects...
Review of a television adaptation of the play 'Copenhagen', produced by Howard Davies for PBS, USA . The play speculates on the real reason that Werner Heisenberg came to see Niels Bohr in Copenhagen in 1941 (1 page).
Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769
The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.
Patrick M. Emerson; Andre Portela Souza
This paper examines the effects of birth order on the child labor incidence and school attendance of Brazilian children. Evidence from the psychology and sociology literature suggests that earlier-born children tend to have higher innate abilities. The economic implications of these findings are that earlier-born children may have more intra-household resources directed to them when they are young, and better outcomes as adults in areas such as education and earnings. However, in the context ...
"Anyone passing by the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, might be startled by some strange moving lights on the facade of the institute's main building. In fact, the dancing beams show, almost in real time, collisions form the Atlas experiment at Cern's Large Hadron Collider (LHC)" (1 paragraph)
are considered in relation to the local critical discourse on operatic performances at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen in general – a context which, in 1842, involved the phenomenon of a competing and quite successful Italian opera company at the nearby Court Theatre. This situation generated a general trend...
Full Text Available Unschoolers, and those who practice democratic, free, and progressive education philosophies, are often uncomfortable with a particular choice their children make: as Summerhills A. S. Neill observed: Every child under freedom plays most of the time for years (1964, p. 116. Those who see children as active, motivated learners can be disappointed when, given an environment rich with fascinating choices, their children spend most of their time in fantasy. The families discomfort can result in a reversion to more conventional schooling. Beginning with an early encounter with educational democracy during the 1970s at Torontos ALPHA Alternative School, supported with commentary from educators from schools that took a parallel path, and from psychologists and education critics both historic and contemporary, this article gathers arguments that support play as not only a pleasure but a necessity for growth, learning and mental health.
Jordan, Kathleen S; MacKay, Peggy; Woods, Stephanie J
School nurses perform a crucial role in the prevention, identification, intervention, and reporting of child maltreatment. The purpose of this article is to share the highlights of a research project conducted to (a) examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention program in increasing the knowledge, confidence, and self-efficacy in school nurses regarding children at risk of maltreatment; and (b) discover issues surrounding the comfort level engaging with children, communicating with teachers and other personnel, and ethical issues. The study consisted of two phases. Phase 1 was a face-to-face evidenced-based educational intervention. Focus groups implemented in Phase 2 discovered specific concerns of school nurses. Results indicate a significant increase in school nurse knowledge, confidence, and self-efficacy related to children at risk. Five themes were identified from the focus groups: the importance of interprofessional collaboration, identifiers of children at risk of maltreatment, the role of the school nurse as a mentor and leader, the importance of advancing one's knowledge and skill set, and constraints faced by school nurses.
In this paper, using the "2005-2006 National Family Health Survey" dataset from India, we study the likelihood of a school-age child working, combining work with schooling or being idle, rather than attending school full time. Our analysis finds that with the inclusion of household chores in the child labour definition, boys are…
Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig
-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...
Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis
INTRODUCTION: COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study......, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. METHODS: 6236 people participated. All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung...... function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). COPD staging was done according to the GOLD criteria. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of COPD was 17.4%. The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. 6.2% had mild COPD, 9.2% had moderate COPD, and 2.0% had severe...
Full Text Available : Starting school is an important developmental step / task not only for the child but also for their parents and family in which to grow up. The accomplishment of this task expands the boundaries of family / parent and the child's functioning in social, emotional and cognitive sense. The aim of this paper is to highlight the need to educate the parents of the child going to school, which would contribute to parents with awareness and sensitivity to the nature of long-term process of entering the child's entry into school, to a child's socialization process related to school and proceeded in a favorable direction. The author emphasizes the importance of having a separate program prepares parents for the child starting school, as part of the annual program of preschools / schools that educators / teachers should realize and thus improve their educational work with one hand, while on the other hand its value will be reported in a balanced relation between child-school-family, but also to avert the potential emotional difficulties, or, the child's dysfunctional behavior. Participation of professional services and school teachers / teachers in the implementation of such programs can enhance compliance of educational values that are placed in front of the child in the family and in the school environment.
Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A
Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...... teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented....
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments......, of total work experiences, ages and hourly wages of staff members. Those indicators show the expected correlations with children’s development outcomes, better day-care quality being linked to better child outcomes ten years later. We use rich administrative information about the children’s background...
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…
Developmental Psychology, 2008
Data were analyzed from 641 children and their families in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test the hypotheses that in the early school years, mothers' and fathers' sensitive support for autonomy in observed parent-child interactions would each make unique predictions…
Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
Background: The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. Methods: The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and…
Buckley, Helen; McGarry, Kathryn
This paper deals with the topic of child protection in Irish primary schools, and reports on a recently completed survey of newly qualified teachers' knowledge of and familiarity with their school's child protection policies and procedures. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey, and conducted with 103 teachers from different…
It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…
Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Thompson, Ronald W.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Gross, Thomas J.
This study examined how child and parent reports of parenting were related to early adolescent substance use and school suspensions. Data were from two time points 6 months apart on 321 families with an eighth-grade student attending one of five schools in the Pacific Northwest. Child- and parent-report measures of family management practices were…
Gwinn, Diane G.
Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…
Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…
Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz
Earlier research suggests that children’s development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children’s cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...
Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Ahamed, Syed Shaheed; Muhammad, Shameer; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam
The dental health of preschool children has extensive implications on the oral heath of the individual as he grows into an adult. Parents/guardians of preschool children play a central role in enforcing proper oral hygiene and preventive regime in these children. This study was conducted with the aim of describing the views of parents/guardians about the dental health of pre-school children. Response was obtained on a 21 point questionnaire from randomly visiting parents of the outpatient section of Rajah Muthiah dental college and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. The findings of the present study point towards poor awareness among the parents/guardians of preschool children, pertaining to their childs' oral health and this could directly translate to poor oral health among the children in this area.
Full Text Available Background: Family structure and union dissolution has been one of the most thoroughly studied determinants of children's wellbeing worldwide. To date, however, few of these studies have examined sub-Saharan Africa, especially countries in West Africa where marital breakdowns are not uncommon. Objective: We attempt to examine the effects of a mother's divorce and widowhood on children's risk of mortality under age 5 and on their probability of entering primary school. Methods: Survival data analysis methods, specifically Kaplan-Meier and piecewise exponential models, are used for analysis, based on data come from the 2000 Migration and Urban Integration Survey of Burkina Faso. Results: Compared to those of intact families, children of divorced parents experience higher estimated mortality risks under age 5 and a lower probability of entering school, even after controlling for various other factors. This effect is large and significant during the first two years after the divorce. The death of the father is also found to greatly reduce a child's likelihood of entering school, but its effect on mortality is not significant. Conclusions: The results indicate that the family context plays an important role in determining two important aspects of children's welfare: their probabilities of dying before age 5 and of entering school. Comments: Children of divorced parents or a deceased father are living in precarious situations and their specific needs should be taken into account in policies in order to improve the wellbeing of all children. Attention must be directed to the first two years following the union dissolution.
Full text: Dhaka, Bangladesh - Malnutrition remains the world's most serious health problem and the single biggest contributor to child deaths in the developing world, according to the World Bank. Now, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is using its Nobel Peace Prize earnings to promote the use of nuclear techniques to combat malnutrition during the earliest years of life. 'One out of every ten children born in developing countries will die before his or her fifth birthday,' explains IAEA nutrition expert Lena Davidsson. 'That's more than 10 million dead children each year. And the vast majority of these child deaths in developing countries are preventable with a combination of good care, adequate nutrition and appropriate medical treatment,' explains Dr. Davidsson. 'This brings us hope that unacceptably high childhood mortality can be substantially reduced with effective and well-targeted nutritional interventions.' Undernutrition is an important factor in more than half of all child deaths worldwide. The high prevalence of infants born with low birth weight and undernutrition among Asian children, especially in South Asia, emphasizes the urgent need to develop effective nutrition interventions within 'the window of opportunity', i.e., to target young women before pregnancy as well as infants and young children during the first 2 years of life. The IAEA Nobel Peace Prize Fund School for Nutrition for Asia will be held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 22-26, 2007. It will focus on Interventions to combat undernutrition during early life and seeks to disseminate information about the usefulness of stable isotope techniques in intervention programs that reduce malnutrition, in particular in infants and children. The event is hosted by the Government of Bangladesh through the International Centre for Health and Population Research (ICDDR, B) and the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC). The IAEA is assisting some of the world's poorest countries in their
Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis
such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...
Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186
Cho, Hyunsan; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J.; Hartman, Shane
This study examines prevention practices and perceptions in U.S. schools since passage of federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation, using survey data from state education agencies (SEA) and a population-based sample of school districts. Only one third of U.S. public school districts rely on evidence-based prevention curriculum in middle…
Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Feeser, Cindy Jo; King, Rebecca
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that prevention, early recognition, intervention and treatment of child maltreatment are critical to the physical well-being and academic success of students. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the recognition…
... process must be designed to ensure— (1) The equitable participation of parentally-placed private school... which the private schools that they attend are located. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child find for parentally-placed private school...
Karnow, Gerald F.
This paper draws on the nearly 20 years' experiences of a school doctor working with teachers at the Rudolf Steiner School in New York City to describe general principles of assessing child development in relation to educational progress. The paper contrasts the customary role of school doctors (related to conducting physical examinations for…
Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem
In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…
Neuenschwander, Regula; Friedman-Krauss, Allison; Raver, Cybele; Blair, Clancy
Research Findings: Recent research has explored relations between classroom quality and child executive function (EF), but little is known about how teachers' well-being, including stress, relates to child EF--a crucial component of self-regulation. We hypothesized that teacher stress is negatively or curvilinearly related to child EF and…
From the analysis, it is clear that child abuse has very strong psychological effects on the abused child and thus reduces his or her chances of active ... Among other factors, it was also observed that divorce, separation among spouses, infidelity, economic hardship and poverty leading to child labour, and illiteracy are ...
Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth
Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…
AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.
The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…
Langlais, Amanda G.
Recent changes made by the Council for Professional Recognition to the Child Development Associate (CDA) credentialing program create an opportunity to redesign high school child development programs. On April 1, 2011, the Council for Professional Recognition lifted the age restriction in the CDA credentialing requirements, now allowing students…
Barbour, Nancy, Ed.; McBride, Brent A., Ed.
Child development laboratory schools are found on college and university campuses throughout the U.S. Over the last century, they have acquired a long, rich history. Originally seen as settings for the new field of child study in the early 1900s, their functions have evolved over time. These programs often play a central role in supporting…
Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.
The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…
Jones, Kristen J.; Block, Martin E.
Autism is a brain disorder that affects a person's social, communication, and behavioral skills. Social deficits are noted by the child's lack of interest or inability to interact with peers and family members. This article highlights some of the successful methods and techniques used to include an autistic middle school child in a general…
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…
AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.
Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…
Foster, Lisa K.
School districts are central players in the child care delivery system: they operate a mix of child care centers and programs, serve a range of children of different ages, and fund their programs from a variety of federal, state, and local sources. This report provides a range of programmatic and fiscal information about the federal and state…
Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori
This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…
Many believe that increasing the quantity of children will lead to a decrease in their quality. This paper exploits plausibly exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China's One Child Policy to estimate the causal effect of family size on school enrollment of the first child. The results show that for one-child families, an…
Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Despite recent growth in research highlighting the potential of teacher-child relationships to promote children's development during the early years of school, questions remain about the importance of these relationships across elementary school. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 1,364), this study examines between- and…
Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter
INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Objective To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method Thirty-six classrooms within five urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Results Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Conclusions Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. PMID:22428941
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B; Frazier, Stacy L; Atkins, Marc S; Schoenwald, Sonja K
To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Thirty-six classrooms within 5 urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. © 2012 American Psychological Association
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Crespi, Tony D.; Gustafson, Amy L.; Borges, Silvia M.
School psychologists are increasingly being confronted with a wide spectrum of psychological, psychosocial, familial, and home-school issues impacting child development. With one in six children raised in alcoholic families, with divorce impacting approximately 60% of families, and with such issues as teenage pregnancy, parental neglect, as well…
Das, Saswati; Mukherjee, Diganta
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th round (1999-2000), to show that for urban male children there exists significant wage incentive for schooling, though school dropout rate and child labour incidence are not so small. The parents' level of education plays an important role in…
Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati
This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…
The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in chil...
Traces recent trends in child labor, conditions of employment, and schooling in Thailand. Finds, for example, that children withdraw from school and enter labor force because families cannot afford the cost of education. Describes the effect of education subsidies on poor families. Discusses policies and practices to eliminate exploitative forms…
This paper draws on literature that has theorised child participation within the sociology of childhood framework to examine how children participate in governance within school spaces. Four children aged between 13 and 17 (in grades six and seven) who serve as prefects at a primary school in Lesotho were participants in ...
Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.
Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…
Wandner, Laura D.; Hair, Elizabeth
This brief discusses aspects of healthy diets for children in elementary and middle school. It summarizes the current guidelines and recommendations for child nutrition and provides information for schools and out-of-school time programs about how to measure child nutrition. (Contains 27 endnotes.)
The need to provide research information about the prevalence of street hawking, its effects and educational factors was the focus of this research. The focus of this study is on street hawking as an aspect of child labour, abuse and neglect. The goal of the research on child abuse and academic performance of children who ...
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter
The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…
Chiang, Rachelle Johnsson; Meagher, Whitney; Slade, Sean
Background: The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model calls for greater collaboration across the community, school, and health sectors to meet the needs and support the full potential of each child. This article reports on how 3 states and 2 local school districts have implemented aspects of the WSCC model through collaboration,…
Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E
-stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P girls. In contrast, the girls had 3.8% higher calcaneal BMC (P boys. Both calcaneal and forearm BMD were significantly related to total time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...
Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian
Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from.......5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); pgirls. The difference in VO2MAX between boys and girls decreased to +2% when expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM). Absolute VO2MAX was related to LBM, body mass, and stature (all pBoys were more physically active than girls (mean counts...... +9.4%, pboys and girls with the same VO2MAX were compared, boys were more active. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when...
Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.
by a 7-d food record. Analyses were conducted based on the daily intake of macronutrients (energy percentage (E%)), fatty acids (E%), added sugar (E%) and dietary fibre (g/d and g/MJ). Analyses were stratified by maternal education level into three categories. Changes in nutrient intake were observed...
Gandhi, Mihir; Teivaanmaki, Tiina; Maleta, Kenneth; Duan, Xiaolian; Ashorn, Per; Cheung, Yin Bun
This study aimed to examine the association between child development at 5 years of age and mathematics ability and schooling outcomes at 12 years of age in Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at 609 rural Malawian children. Outcome measures were percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions, highest school grade completed and number of times repeating school grades at 12 years of age. A child development summary score obtained at 5 years of age was the main exposure variable. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed by handling losses to follow-up with multiple imputation (MI) method. The summary score was positively associated with percentage of correctly answered mathematics questions (p = 0.057; p = 0.031 MI) and with highest school grade completed (p = 0.096; p = 0.070 MI), and negatively associated with number of times repeating school grades (p = 0.834; p = 0.339 MI). Fine motor score at 5 years was independently associated with the mathematic score (p = 0.032; p = 0.011 MI). The association between child development and mathematics ability did not depend on school attendance. Child development at 5 years of age showed signs of positive association with mathematics ability and possibly with highest school grade completed at 12 years of age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Csaba, Fabian; Stöber, Birgit
This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence on ident......This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence...... audiences represent and use place image survey results....
Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran
The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...
... music, or using the computer. Stick to a Routine Most kids thrive on structure and will respond ... you know how your child feels about her classroom, her teacher, and her classmates? If not, ask ...
Missbach, Benjamin; Pachschwöll, Caterina; Kuchling, Daniel; König, Jürgen
Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM) on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as "healthy" foods and 84.2% as "less healthy"; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as "healthy" and 34.3% as "less healthy". In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.
Full Text Available Food marketing for children is a major concern for public health nutrition and many schools make efforts to increase healthy eating. Food environments surrounding schools in urban areas may undermine these efforts for healthy nutrition within school programs. Our study aim is to describe the nutrition environment within walking distance of schools in terms of food quality and food marketing and to explore the degree to which elements of the nutrition environment varies by proximity to schools. In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed the surrounding food environments of a convenience sample of 46 target schools within 950m walking distance in 7 different urban districts across Vienna, Austria. In total, we analyzed data from 67 fast food outlets and 54 supermarkets analyzing a total of 43.129 packaged snack food and beverage products, from which 85% were for adults and 15% of the products were child-oriented. Proximity to the schools did not affect the availability of child-oriented products and dedicated food advertisements for children. After applying nutrient profiling using the Nutrient Profiling Model (NPM on child-oriented products, results showed that 15.8% of the packaged snack food were categorized as “healthy” foods and 84.2% as “less healthy”; for beverages 65.7% were categorized as “healthy” and 34.3% as “less healthy”. In conclusion, our results show that child-oriented snacks are not more frequently advertised around schools but substantially lack in nutritional quality with the potential to undermine efforts for promoting healthy eating practices within schools.
Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry
Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…
Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.
Achieving universal primary education is one of the Millennium Development Goals. In low- and middle-income developing countries (LMIC), child labor may be a barrier. Few multi-country, controlled studies of the relations between different kinds of child labor and schooling are available. This study employs 186,795 families with 7- to 14-year-old children in 30 LMIC to explore relations of children’s work outside the home, family work, and household chores with school enrollment. Significant negative relations emerged between each form of child labor and school enrollment, but relations were more consistent for family work and household chores than work outside the home. All relations were moderated by country and sometimes by gender. These differentiated findings have nuanced policy implications. PMID:26034342
This study set out to explore the contribution of parents' own school memories to the way they remembered their child's school years and took part in his/her schooling. The respondents were a group of academically and vocationally educated fathers and mothers (N = 326), who participated in a full 9-year follow-up study of their child's schooling.…
Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise
Thirty years ago, the city of Copenhagen was experiencing 17.5 percent unemployment, an outmigration of population, the loss of manufacturing, the decline of taxing capacity, and an annual budget deficit of $750 million. Today, the city has been transformed into one of the wealthiest (and happies......) in the world....
Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup
of this paper is to present and discuss the challenges of developing event applications with a strong involvement of users. The concepts and characteristics of the Living Lab approach has been used to develop an event application for the Copenhagen Fashion Festival 2010. As part of the development process...
Sæbye, Ditte; Høegh, Erica Bernt; Knop, Joachim
Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check...
Mulaudzi, Fhumulani M; Peu, Mmapheko D
Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school. This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu - solidarity and sense of community - as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services. An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model. The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children. Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi
Full Text Available Background: Child-rearing remains a concern within our communities, especially because families of today lack primary parents due to multifaceted challenges such as working mothers, diseases and violence. Health-promoting school initiatives are necessary because they allow a multifaceted approach to child-rearing. They further provide a conducive environment for continued schoolchild-rearing moving from home to school.Objectives: This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu – solidarity and sense of community – as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services.Method: An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model.Findings: The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children.Conclusion: Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Miller, David N.
Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…
Pavlović Branka S.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance and role of a child's question in school and developing of children and adolescents' active attitude towards social environment. Emphasis is placed on the importance of a child's question for developing civic participation in social community. Considerations start from 'humanocentric' strategy of social development, oriented primarily to local community and man as a focal point of development, his potentials being in the focus of all development interests. Potentially, school as a part of local and broader social community has very large but in reality a modest role in developing civic conscious and participation. The paper points to some causes for such state-of-the-arts but also to some possibilities of improving school's role, without in-depth reforms, by introducing changes in methods of work and attitudes towards child's spontaneous questions and curiosity as a development phenomenon. Let us remind you of the improperly used classes of a class head teacher or students' class community. As a part of a school system development strategy, it is also necessary to stimulate more active attitude of school towards social reality. One of the ways of integrating school into social community is to nurture culture of asking questions in school as an educational institution and then through all institutions of social life.
Sonu, Debbie; Benson, Jeremy
This paper argues that normative conceptions of the child, as a natural quasi-human being in need of guidance, enable current school reforms in the United States to directly link the child to neoliberal aims and objectives. In using Foucault's concept of governmentality and disciplinary power, we first present how the child is constructed as a…
Silver, R.B.; Measelle, J.R.; Armstrong, J.M.; Essex, M.J.
The unique and interactive contributions of past externalizing behavior, negative parenting, and teacher-child relationship quality to externalizing behavior trajectories after the transition to school were examined. In a sample of 283 children, random regression analyses indicated that conflict in the teacher-child relationship during the school…
Using data from the Young Lives younger cohort, we examine the effect of economic shocks on nutritional achievement, schooling and child work of index children (at age 5), controlling for various individual and household characteristics. Shocks that occurred both before and after the child was born
Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.
Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…
In addition to its goal of limiting China's population growth, a key purpose of China's one-child policy is to improve children's well-being. The government has made a strenuous effort to limit parents' childbearing in exchange for the greater opportunities it provides for their only children, including educational opportunities. In this article,…
Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant
We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children's allocation of time to school and work.…
Astronomy was a required subject in the first American secondary level schools, the academies of the 18th century. When these were supplanted a century later by public high schools, astronomy still was often required, subsumed into courses of Natural Philosophy. Reasons given at that time to support astronomy as a part of general education include…
... them develop a sense of responsibility and a work ethic that will benefit them beyond the classroom. In ... board meetings joining the school's parent-teacher group working as ... your schedule. Even giving a few hours during the school year can make an impression ...
This paper focuses upon the micro level of the pre-school classroom, taking the example of the Indian Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), and the discourse of "child-centred" pedagogy that is often associated with quality pre-schooling. Through an analysis of visual data, semi-structured and film elicitation interviews drawn…
Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan
that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord......From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term...... on the effects of physical activity on children’s and youth’s fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process...
Ahmed, Ameena T; Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai'i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai'i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health.
Oshiro, Caryn E; Loharuka, Sheila; Novotny, Rachel
Background Childhood obesity prevention is a national priority. School-based gardening has been proposed as an innovative obesity prevention intervention. Little is known about the perceptions of educators about school-based gardening for child health. As the success of a school-based intervention depends on the support of educators, we investigated perceptions of educators about the benefits of gardening programs to child health. Methods Semi-structured interviews of 9 middle school educators at a school with a garden program in rural Hawai‘i were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Perceived benefits of school-based gardening included improving children's diet, engaging children in physical activity, creating a link to local tradition, mitigating hunger, and improving social skills. Poverty was cited as a barrier to adoption of healthy eating habits. Opinions about obesity were contradictory; obesity was considered both a health risk, as well as a cultural standard of beauty and strength. Few respondents framed benefits of gardening in terms of health. Conclusions In order to be effective at obesity prevention, school-based gardening programs in Hawai‘i should be framed as improving diet, addressing hunger, and teaching local tradition. Explicit messages about obesity prevention are likely to alienate the population, as these are in conflict with local standards of beauty. Health researchers and advocates need to further inform educators regarding the potential connections between gardening and health. PMID:21886287
Randall Reback; Jonah Rockoff; Heather L. Schwartz
We conduct the first nationwide study of incentives under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, which requires states to punish schools failing to meet target passing rates on students' standardized exams. States' idiosyncratic policies created variation in the risk of failure among very similar schools in different states, which we use to identify effects of accountability pressure. We find NCLB lowers teachers' perceptions of job security, shifts time towards specialist teachers in high-stak...
K. E. Oyetade; S. D. Eyono Obono
One of the fundamental characteristics of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has been the ever-changing nature of continuous release and models of ICTs with its impact on the academic, social, and psychological benefits of its introduction in schools. However, there seems to be a growing concern about its negative impact on students when introduced early in schools for teaching and learning. This study aims to design a model of child development factors affect...
Kostas A. Fanti; Stelios N. Georgiou
The current investigation examines longitudinal differences between bullies, victims, and bully victims in terms of the quality of their relationship with their parents and school performance. We also investigate the transactional association between the quality of the parent-child relationship and bullying behavior, after taking into account the longitudinal association among bullying, victimization, and school performance. The sample consisted of 895 mothers and their children who participa...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents’ experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March–June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia. The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents’ perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents’ view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs.
Schulz, Will; Larson, Heidi J.
The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents’ experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP). A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March–June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents’ perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents’ view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs. PMID:29597341
Paterson, Pauline; Schulz, Will; Utley, Martin; Larson, Heidi J
The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of parents' experience and views of vaccinating their four to six-year-old child against influenza at school and at the general practice (GP). A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between March-June 2016 with parents of children in Reception and Year 1 in four randomly selected schools in Bury, Leicestershire, and Surrey, England. Twenty-five outreach forms were completed and returned, and seven interviews were conducted. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo (version 11, QSR International Pty Ltd., Melbourne, Australia). The primary reason parents gave for vaccinating their child was to prevent their child from contracting influenza. Parents' perceived benefits of vaccinating in schools were to avoid the inconvenience of having to take their child to the GP, and that their child would behave better at school. Parents viewed that accompanying their child for the vaccination at school would undermine the convenience and peer-pressure advantages of the school as a venue. No parents expressed concern about their child being too young to be vaccinated in school. This research suggests that the school is a desirable venue for childhood influenza vaccination, both from the parents' view and given that influenza vaccination coverage is higher when delivered through schools than GPs.
Farida Agus Setiawati
Full Text Available Indonesian government has regulated that the basic age of readiness of a child to attend elementary schools is 7 years old. In fact, some children are not exactly 7 years old when they first go to school because they develop more rapidly. This study is aimed at investigating some aspects of child development which affect their readiness to attend elementary school. The subjects were 101 grade 1, 2, and 3 teachers of elementary schools in Yogyakarta, a special Region in Indonesia. The data were collected through interviews. The results of the data collection were analyzed using both descriptive quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results of the study show some aspects of child development affecting their readiness to attend elementary schools, including cognitive and language ability, social emotional skills, fine motor skills, gross motor skills, arts, religion and moral values, and some others. Beside these aspects, some problems in grades 1, 2, and 3 are also found. This study is expected to give significant indicators to create the construct of school readiness.
... the Rehabilitation Act Title V of the Social Security Act The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Who is it for? • All school-age children Children with an identiﬁed disability who are: • Infants ...
Conclusions and importance: School bullying is a potential cause of nonorganic vision loss in children. Correct diagnosis, and support by the parents and teachers might rapidly alleviate the symptoms.
... the best way to protect your community and schools from outbreaks that cause unnecessary illnesses and deaths. Getting every recommended dose of every vaccine provides children the best protection possible. Vaccines for Your Young Children (Newborns through ...
Full Text Available Background: Child abuse is a global problem and occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Child abuse is a behaviour which causes physical, psychological, emotional or sexual abuses, consequentlylead to damage of children,s health, peace of mind and education. Based on these considerations, the present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of child abuse among junior high school students of Khoramabad in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 907 junior high school students randomly selected .Data collection tool was a multiple questionnaire incloding child and parents’ demographic information, and a physical emotional abuse and neglect questionnaire. It,s validity and reliability was done by content validity and Test re test. Data were analysed using SPSS v. 19. Results: The findings of this study showed that average age of the cases was 13.36±1.04 and 5.4% of them were always under physical abuse and the most physical abuse was slap on the face , 7.3% emotional abuse and 5.5% neglect. Statistical test showed a significant relation between abuses and parents, educational level, job, addiction and divorce. Conclusion: Results showed that child abuse is common among families, therefore, monitoring of children, ratification of rules supporting children, planing and administration of preventive educational programs can be effective to reduce child abuse.
Full Text Available In this work are analyzed needs, ability and the ways of supporting psychophysical activity of a pre-school child. Primary child’s need for movement, which should be invented by play, boosts impulses for growth and development of the organism and is considered as a main condition of it’s psycho-physical development. In the way of physical development child should be encouraged on many different ways of movement: walking, running, jumping, but also crawling, climbing, throwing, catching… For the development of skill of detection optimal senses stimulation is good way, in point of making communication with nature and social surroundings. Thru play and practical activity it is possible to contribute to acceptable way of showing emotional condition of the child. Thinking and imagination at start are very dependable of emotions, and they develop also thru playing and practical activity. It is also possible to contribute a start of development of the main character line which are made from imitation and identification of child with parents and teachers. Functional contribution of psycho-physical activity of pre-school child is possible to achieve if, with skill and a lot of pedagogy talent, awards and compliment are given to child, and giving to them honor and promises
Ray, Dee C.; Armstrong, Stephen A.; Balkin, Richard S.; Jayne, Kimberly M.
The authors conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review that examined 23 studies evaluating the effectiveness of child centered play therapy (CCPT) conducted in elementary schools. Meta-analysis results were explored using a random effects model for mean difference and mean gain effect size estimates. Results revealed statistically significant…
Neely, Stephen R.
This study considers the impact of federal funding on the administrative expenditures of local school districts since the passage of the No-Child-Left-Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. Under NCLB, federal education funds were made contingent upon a variety of accountability and reporting standards, creating new administrative costs and challenges for…
Mathematics is a critical part of academic preparation of the middle school child, or, as Dr. Maria Montessori would refer to them, children in the third plane of development. Montessori educators are sincere in their endeavors not only to prepare young students for further studies of math and the application of math in their world and careers,…
The paper considers whether letting children combine work and school is a valid and effective approach in Cambodia. Policy makers' suggestions that child labour should be allowed to some extent due to household poverty appear ungrounded as no significant relation between children's work and household poverty is found while arranging school…
Branson, Jan; And Others
The article recounts the difficulties presented by the deep seated prejudices manifested in the Australian and English school systems to a cerebral palsied and hearing impaired child. Her eventual success is seen as a personal victory for herself and her persistent mother. (Author/DB)
Dubroc, Alicia M.
The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…
Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee; Bell, Neryvia Pillay
We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California's Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during…
Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.
Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. © The Author(s) 2014.
Fernandes, Meenakshi Maria
This dissertation evaluates the impact of elementary school policies on child health behaviors and obesity in the United States. Two chapters address nutrition policies, two chapters address physical activity policies, and a final chapter estimates the health care cost savings associated with a decline in childhood obesity prevalence. The use of…
Fiorvanti, Christina M.; Brassard, Marla R.
The moral imperative of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, backed by robust empirical findings, leads to the conclusion that the protection of children from violence and neglect and the promotion of their well-being should be major priorities in every society. This article argues that "School Psychology: A Blueprint for…
Chen, Hui-Hua; Liang, Yi-Ching; Gapp, Susan C.; Newland, Lisa A.; Giger, Jarod T.; Lin, Chunn-Ying
This study measured aspects of the couple relationship to examine direct and indirect relations with parental involvement in education and children's school outcomes. The sample (n = 100) consisted of families that have at least one child between the ages of 8 and 11 in urban central Taiwan. Findings indicated that couple relationship quality is…
From 1948 the World Health Organization expected child hygiene to include mental health. This article discusses the way school doctors adapted their activities and concerns accordingly in the mid-twentieth century in an agrarian-industrial area of the Netherlands. In spite of an improvement in pupils' physical health they shifted their attention…
Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel
The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…
O'Brien, Thomas V.; Roberson, Thelma J.
This article examines the connections between No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and the Effective Schools Research Movement. Using historical methodology, the authors argue that although both were premised on building capacity, over time the reform that became NCLB evolved to focus on accountability. This shift disconnected the reform from its research…
Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.
The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…
Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.
Hagborg, Johan Melander; Berglund, Kristina; Fahlke, Claudia
School absenteeism is a potent predictor of academic failure. Maltreated adolescents have been found to be more absent from school compared to their peers. However, it is scarcely studied in what degree a general population of students with high levels of school absenteeism has been exposed to child maltreatment. Furthermore, it is not known if maltreated school-absentees have specific characteristics compared to not-maltreated absentees. In this article, the first objective was to present and compare the prevalence of six types of child maltreatment in a general population of high school students reporting no, moderate or excessive absenteeism. The second objective was to compare maltreated and not-maltreated students who report absenteeism in respect to mental health, perceived school environment and peer victimization in school. Data from 667 girls and 649 boys (mean age 14.3) was used from the longitudinal multidisciplinary research program LoRDIA (Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings. All six types of child maltreatment were overrepresented among absentees. Roughly 25% of absentees reported one subtype of maltreatment (16% in the total population) and a mean of 22% of absentees reported two or more types of maltreatment (11% in the total population). Maltreated absentees reported more mental health problems, personal harassment and worse relationship with their teachers than not-maltreated absentees. There might be specific correlates of school absenteeism among maltreated adolescents and professionals involved in preventing school-absenteeism should be made aware of the relationship between maltreatment and absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten
form and the location of the mosques. In the paper we explore both similarities and differences in the way the material culture of the mosques are planned and received by the public. Today, three purpose-built mosques exist in the Copenhagen area, and they differ in terms of architectural form, age...... of purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen. The public visibility is a manifestation of religious differences that cannot be thought independent of the materiality of culture; namely aesthetic forms, dress codes and architectural genres. Cultural encounters are mediated through the materiality, the aesthetic...... are received in public, how this reception varies, and what lessons that can be learned from these meetings as regards possibilities/limitations for, and co-existence in, the city....
Ronit, Andreas; Haissman, Judith Melchior; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie
BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues....../DESIGN: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV-infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. The study was initiated in 2015 and recruitment is ongoing with the aim of including 1500 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen area. Follow-up examinations after 2 and 10 years are planned. Uninfected controls...... (PBMC), urine, and stool samples are collected in a biobank for future studies. Data will be updated through periodical linking to national databases. DISCUSSION: As life expectancy for PLWHIV improves, it is essential to study long-term impact of HIV and cART. We anticipate that findings from...
Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen
though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...
Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars
tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating....... The induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within...
Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya
This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols.
A CARA team analyzed the impacts and challenges generated by the new climatic, energetic and food situation of our security: conflict of interests between the North and South countries, USA-China equation, the european Union, France specificities. This analyse points out the main challenges for the France and the European Union during the world conference on the climate in december 2009 at Copenhagen. (A.L.B.)
Uuest heliplaadist "Gade: Symphonies. Copenhagen Collegium Musicum. Michael Schonwandt.Marco Polo Dacapo CD DCCD 9201/2; Comparative versions: Symphony No. 1. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (11/87) BIS CD 339; Symphony No. 2.Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 355; Symphony No. 4. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi" (7/87) BIS CD 338; Symphony No. 6. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 356
Ry Nielsen, Jens Carl; Raine, John
Purpose: This chapter tells the story of the initiation, development (over two decades) and collective contribution of the Copenhagen Forum since its foundation in 1996. This Forum comprises a grouping of teachers and directors of masters-level public administrative programmes (notably the MPA) f...... the inspiration for this volume, and the individual contributions, derive. It is a context that has been all about a shared fascination with, and collective commitment to, the advancement of learning and development among practicing public managers....
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
Eczema and asthma are common conditions in childhood that can influence children's mental health. Despite this, little is known about how these conditions affect the well-being of children in school. This study examines whether symptoms of eczema or asthma are associated with poorer social and mental well-being in school as reported by children and their teachers at age 8 years. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures of child well-being in school were child-reported (n = 6626) and teacher reported (n = 4366): children reported on their enjoyment of school and relationships with peers via a self-complete questionnaire; teachers reported child mental well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [binary outcomes were high 'internalizing' (anxious/depressive) and 'externalizing' (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile)]. Child rash and wheeze status were maternally reported and symptoms categorised as: 'none'; 'early onset transient' (infancy/preschool only); 'persistent' (infancy/preschool and at school age); and 'late onset' (school age only). Children with persistent (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.63) and late onset (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.14) rash were more likely to report being bullied, and children with persistent wheeze to feel left out (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84). Late onset rash was associated with high teacher-reported internalising behaviours (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.54), and persistent rash with high externalising behaviours (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.84). Child sleep and maternal mental health explained some of the associations with teacher-reported mental well-being. Symptoms of eczema or asthma can adversely affect a child's social and mental well-being at primary school. This suggests interventions, such as additional support or education of peers, should begin at early stages in schooling.
Full Text Available Eczema and asthma are common conditions in childhood that can influence children's mental health. Despite this, little is known about how these conditions affect the well-being of children in school. This study examines whether symptoms of eczema or asthma are associated with poorer social and mental well-being in school as reported by children and their teachers at age 8 years.Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures of child well-being in school were child-reported (n = 6626 and teacher reported (n = 4366: children reported on their enjoyment of school and relationships with peers via a self-complete questionnaire; teachers reported child mental well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [binary outcomes were high 'internalizing' (anxious/depressive and 'externalizing' (oppositional/hyperactive problems (high was >90th percentile]. Child rash and wheeze status were maternally reported and symptoms categorised as: 'none'; 'early onset transient' (infancy/preschool only; 'persistent' (infancy/preschool and at school age; and 'late onset' (school age only.Children with persistent (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.63 and late onset (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.14 rash were more likely to report being bullied, and children with persistent wheeze to feel left out (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84. Late onset rash was associated with high teacher-reported internalising behaviours (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.54, and persistent rash with high externalising behaviours (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.84. Child sleep and maternal mental health explained some of the associations with teacher-reported mental well-being.Symptoms of eczema or asthma can adversely affect a child's social and mental well-being at primary school. This suggests interventions, such as additional support or education of peers, should begin at early stages in schooling.
Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette; Rosenstjerne Andersen, Angelo
Children’s well-being around the age when they start school is crucial for their future success in the educational system. Factors in the first 3 years of a child’s life matter for the child’s well-being when he or she starts school. This article analyzes the relationship between early childhood...... factors–such as maternal employment, family structure, and family life–and future child well-being. The analysis uses the psychosocial SDQ-scale and the number of problems experienced around starting school as measures of well-being. Results show that family factors in particular are important, while...
Todd, Charlotte; Christian, Danielle; Davies, Helen; Rance, Jaynie; Stratton, Gareth; Rapport, Frances; Brophy, Sinead
Schools play an important role in promoting the health of children. However, little consideration is often given to the influence that headteachers' and school staff's prior beliefs have on the implementation of public health interventions. This study examined primary school headteachers' and school health co-ordinators' views regarding child health in order to provide greater insights on the school's perspective for those designing future school-based health interventions. A qualitative study was conducted using 19 semi-structured interviews with headteachers, deputy headteachers and school health co-ordinators in the primary school setting. All transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Whilst many participants in this study believed good health was vital for learning, wide variance was evident regarding the perceived health of school pupils and the magnitude of responsibility schools should take in addressing child health behaviours. Although staff in this study acknowledged the importance of their role, many believed the responsibility placed upon schools for health promotion was becoming too much; suggesting health interventions need to better integrate school, parental and societal components. With mental health highlighted as an increasing priority in many schools, incorporating wellbeing outcomes into future school based health interventions is advocated to ensure a more holistic understanding of child health is gained. Understanding the health beliefs of school staff when designing interventions is crucial as there appears to be a greater likelihood of interventions being successfully adopted if staff perceive a health issue as important among their pupils. An increased dependability on schools for addressing health was expressed by headteachers in this study, highlighting a need for better understanding of parental, child and key stakeholder perspectives on responsibility for child health. Without this understanding, there is potential for certain
Abeysinghe, Achala Chandani; Carlson, John
A year after the grim UN climate change negotiations in Denmark that resulted in parties merely 'taking note' of a three-page 'Copenhagen Accord', 194 countries met in Cancun, Mexico. Unlike the furore surrounding the Copenhagen negotiations, expectations were comparatively low-key for Cancun. The Copenhagen conference had damaged faith in the UN climate convention as an effective and legitimate negotiating forum. Restoring confidence in this process was a priority for Cancun. Parties were seeking a modest but balanced outcome across all main elements of the 2007 Bali Action Plan (BAP) which includes adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology, and capacity building. By the end of the two week negotiations, countries had finalized the 'Cancun Agreements', which managed to encompass decisions on each part of the BAP. In addition, the conference was widely recognized as having rebuilt fractured negotiating relationships between parties. The conference proceedings focused on the ongoing efforts of the two ad-hoc working groups that were established to find ways to enhance implementation of the convention and to discuss future commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.
MOLITOR, M. GRAHAM; AND OTHERS
THIS PRESCHOOL PROGRAM OF THE SOUTHERN WISCONSIN COLONY AND TRAINING SCHOOL IS PLANNED TO PROVIDE STIMULATION AND EXPERIENCES SIMILAR TO THOSE WHICH A MOTHER MIGHT PROVIDE AT HOME. EXPERIENCES PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDULGENCE OF CURIOSITY AND IMAGINATION, COMFORTABLE COMPETITION WITH SELF AND OTHERS, RECOGNITION AND ATTENTION AS AN INDIVIDUAL,…
Chiu, Angela W.; Langer, David A.; McLeod, Bryce D.; Har, Kim; Drahota, Amy; Galla, Brian M.; Jacobs, Jeffrey; Ifekwunigwe, Muriel; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Most randomized controlled trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children with anxiety disorders have evaluated treatment efficacy using recruited samples treated in research settings. Clinical trials in school settings are needed to determine if CBT can be effective when delivered in real world settings. This study evaluated a modular…
Discusses benefits of keyboarding instruction for elementary school students, emphasizing the integration of keyboarding with language arts instruction. Traditional typing and computer-assisted instruction are discussed, six software packages for adapting keyboarding instruction to the classroom are reviewed, and suggestions for software selection…
Edwards, Laura L; Hunt, Abby; Cope-Barnes, Doug; Hensel, Devon J; Ott, Mary A
Middle school youth (N = 1472) in Central Indiana completed a survey about parent-adolescent sexual communication. Being older, female, mixed race, ever had sex, ever arrested, and higher HIV knowledge were associated with more frequent sexual communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palakshappa, Deepak; Fiks, Alexander G; Faerber, Jennifer A; Feudtner, Chris
Many states have enacted laws to improve school nutrition. We tested whether stronger state nutrition laws are associated with subsequently decreased obesity. We conducted a retrospective national multi-year panel data study (analyzed 2014-2016 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia). The predictors were 2010 laws regarding 9 nutrition categories from the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students, which grades the strength of state laws (none, weak, or strong). The outcome was weight status (healthy weight, overweight, or obese) in elementary, middle, and high school from the 2011/2012 National Survey of Children's Health. We tested the association between the strength of laws and weight using multinomial logistic regression. To further evaluate our main results, we conducted state-level longitudinal analyses testing the association between competitive food and beverage laws on the change in obesity from 2003-2011. In main analyses of 40,177 children ages 10-17years, we found strong state laws restricting the sale of competitive food and beverages in elementary school (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.96) and strong advertising laws across all grades (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86) were associated with reduced odds of obesity. In longitudinal analyses, states with strong competitive food and beverage laws from 2003-2010 had small but significant decreases in obesity, compared to states with no laws. Although further research is needed to determine the causal effect of these laws, this study suggests that strong state laws limiting the sale and advertising of unhealthy foods and beverages in schools are associated with decreased obesity rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Izadpanah, Nilufar; Chung, Paul J; Slusser, Wendelin
Up to 20 % of school-age children have a vision problem identifiable by screening, over 80 % of which can be corrected with glasses. While vision problems are associated with poor school performance, few studies describe whether and how corrective lenses affect academic achievement and health. Further, there are virtually no studies exploring how children with correctable visual deficits, their parents, and teachers perceive the connection between vision care and school function. We conducted a qualitative evaluation of Vision to Learn (VTL), a school-based program providing free corrective lenses to low-income students in Los Angeles. Nine focus groups with students, parents, and teachers from three schools served by VTL explored the relationships between poor vision, receipt of corrective lenses, and school performance and health. Twenty parents, 25 teachers, and 21 students from three elementary schools participated. Participants described how uncorrected visual deficits reduced students' focus, perseverance, and class participation, affecting academic functioning and psychosocial stress; how receiving corrective lenses improved classroom attention, task persistence, and willingness to practice academic skills; and how serving students in school rather than in clinics increased both access to and use of corrective lenses. for Practice Corrective lenses may positively impact families, teachers, and students coping with visual deficits by improving school function and psychosocial wellbeing. Practices that increase ownership and use of glasses, such as serving students in school, may significantly improve both child health and academic performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.
Leung, Phil W S; Wong, William C W; Chen, W Q; Tang, Catherine S K
Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children.
Hamilton, Charles H
Since the inception of the most recent iteration of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has drawn widespread study and discussion. The majority of the research concerning NCLB has reported the perspective of teachers and administrative staff in public schools. The purpose of this research study was to add to the literature the voices of students. Participants in this qualitative research study were six students at Galaxy Junior High. These six stude...
supportive significant others have developed resilience with a strengthened self. The study confirms that social support for a great many of the young adults reduces the risk of low self-esteem and suicidal ideations even when they have experienced poor parenting with the destructiveness of psychological...... maltreatment and sexual abuse. While being offer for bullying increases the risk of suicidal thoughts and low self-esteem, when accounted for other risk factors....... children haven’t? The study is based on standardized personal interview with a national sample of 3,000 young people, supplemented with prospective longitudinal register data. The hypotheses are that the adolescents who have experienced child maltreatment during childhood but also had experienced...
Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Khanna, Rahul; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara
Survey data was collected from 301 primary caregivers of children with autism registered at West Virginia Autism Training Center (WV ATC), to examine the impact of child's autism severity on caregiver satisfaction with school services. Satisfaction with six school services was measured via a 3-point Likert scale: speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, social skills training, physical therapy, behavioral interventions, and assistance in improving study skills. Ordinal logistic regressions showed that caregivers of children with high autism severity were less likely to be satisfied with school services, as compared to caregivers of children with low autism severity (OR's from 0.45 to 0.39). No significant differences existed in caregiver satisfaction with services between high and low autism severity groups, after addition of caregiver burden to the model. Findings suggest that child's autism severity is a significant predictor of caregiver satisfaction with school services, and should be considered during development of child's Individualized Education Program(IEP) and evaluation of caregiver satisfaction with the IEP.
Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B
Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Child labor is recognized as a global health problem and child laborers are exposed to unique living, working conditions and face such events in life, which are not usually faced by other children. Research on its health impact and oral health impact has been very limited and inconsistent. Aim: The aim was to assess and compare dental caries and oral hygiene status of child laborers and school children of Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 child laborers by snowball sampling technique and 400 school children by random sampling technique were included in the study. A specially designed pretested proforma was used to collect data related to the sociodemographic profile, adverse habits and frequency of dental visits. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (DMFT and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S were used. Results: The mean age of child laborers and school children was 13.07 ± 1.3 and 13.03 ± 1.5. The majority of child laborers (82.8% had no mouth rinsing habit. Tobacco-related habits were found among 37.8% of child laborers. Most of the child laborers (91% never visited dentists. The mean DMFT was 3.8 ± 1.7 and 2.9 ± 1.6 for child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. The mean OHI-S score was 2.3 ± 0.70 and 2.1 ± 0.9 in child laborers and school children, respectively, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the child laborers have poorer oral health status with respect to dental caries and oral hygiene compared to school children.
Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.
This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does
Full Text Available Child abuse is a global social “illness” which has led to numerous research studies being done in this area (Mersch, 2011. However, defining, understanding and intervening in child abuse are widely based on the perspective of adults, social service and health care practitioners, and academics (Chan, Lam & Shae, 2011. It has also been noted that published studies done on this topic in South Africa have largely focused on urban experiences, although a large part of the South African population continues to live in villages, rural dwellings, homesteads and informal settlements (Jackson & Karlson, 1991; Madu, 2001; Pierce & Bozalek, 2004. Hence, this research study was conducted in the rural town of Alice by student social workers from the University of Fort Hare in an effort to listen to what primary school children understood about child abuse
Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across
Ross, Amélie; Dion, Jacinthe; Cantinotti, Michael; Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Paquette, Linda
Residential schools were the institutions, in operation from the 19th century to the late 20th century, which Indigenous children in Canada were forced to attend. The literature shows that many young people who attended these institutions were victims of neglect and abuse. Negative psychological effects resulting from child abuse have been amply documented. However, very few studies on this subject have been carried out among Canada's Indigenous Peoples. The objective of this study is to evaluate, for an Indigenous population in Quebec (Canada), the impact of residential schooling as well as self-reported experiences of sexual and physical abuse during childhood on the development of alcohol and drug use problems in adulthood. A total of 358 Indigenous participants were interviewed (164 men [45.8%] and 194 women [54.2%]). Alcoholism was evaluated using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Drug abuse was assessed with the Drug Abuse Screening Test-20 (DAST). Child abuse and residential schooling were assessed with dichotomous questions (yes/no). Among the participants, 28.5% (n=102) had attended residential schools, 35.2% (n=121) reported having experienced sexual abuse, and 34.1% (n=117) reported having experienced physical abuse before adulthood. Results of the exact logistic regression analyses indicated that residential school attendance was linked to alcohol problems, while child abuse was related to drug use problems. The results of this study highlight the importance of considering the consequences of historical traumas related to residential schools to better understand the current situation of Indigenous Peoples in Canada. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Njokama Fidelis O
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence, types and demographic features of child labour among school children in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional interview study of 1675 randomly selected public primary and secondary school pupils aged 5 to less than 18 years was conducted in the Sagamu Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria from October 1998 to September 1999. Results The overall prevalence of child labour was 64.5%: 68.6% among primary and 50.3% among secondary school pupils. Major economic activities included street trading (43.6%, selling in kiosks and shops (25.4% and farming (23.6%. No child was involved in bonded labour or prostitution. Girls were more often involved in labour activities than boys (66.8% versus 62.1%, p = 0.048: this difference was most obvious with street trading (p = 0.0004. Most of the children (82.2% involved in labour activities did so on the instruction of one or both parents in order to contribute to family income. Children of parents with low socio-economic status or of poorly educated parents were significantly involved in labour activities (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001 respectively. Child labour was also significantly associated with increasing number of children in the family size (p = 0.002. A higher prevalence rate of child labour was observed among children living with parents and relations than among those living with unrelated guardians. Conclusion It is concluded that smaller family size, parental education and family economic enhancement would reduce the pressure on parents to engage their children in labour activities.
Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran
The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well...
Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, and it violates Bohr's complementarity principle. Therefore, the absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.
Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.
Yearwood, Edilma L; McClowry, Sandee
TOPIC: Parent-Child Communication Behaviors PURPOSE: The goal of this naturalistic study was to learn more about the communication behaviors that exist between school-aged inner-city minority children who completed a temperament-based intervention study and the significant adults in their life. A paucity of information exists about the communication processes in this population therefore, this paper addresses this gap. METHOD: A grounded theory approach was used for data collection and analysis. Data were obtained from multiple sources including individual and group interviews of 36 first and second graders from three inner-city elementary schools, their parents and teachers. Data triangulation, member check and independent audit supported trustworthiness and credibility of findings. FINDINGS: Child communication behaviors involved being able to read the environment, respect others, do the right thing, and know how best to talk with others. Child findings were congruent with parent and teacher data and indicated that communication was driven by concerns for safety, community violence potential and embedded within strong cultural beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses are in a unique position to educate both parents and children about the importance of developing and maintaining positive communication behaviors with each other. Positive communication behaviors may serve as a protective factor in promoting child safety in inner-city minority children.
Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.
Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214
Annette Quinto Romani
Full Text Available AbstractChildhood obesity and inactivity is a significant public health problem that also has economic consequences. Therefore, economists have a role to play in determining the causal impacts. The influences of childhood background on outcomes can, usefully, be broken down into the effect of family, school and peer. To combat the raising childhood obesity, schools have been advocated as a potential area. This paper analyses whether increasing physical activity in a school context can contribute to health improvement using multiple outcomes. We address the issue by using a unique longitudinal data set of, respectively, 1087 (BMI and 1047 (fitness schoolchildren attending 37 state schools in the Municipality of Aalborg, Denmark. The effect is identified by using a randomized experiment that creates an exogenous increase in physical activity. Surprisingly, we find that the intervention did not have the expected impact on schoolchildren’s health, and the scant evidence we have points towards a negative effect. A plausible explanation is that the results mask important heterogeneity. Another plausible explanation is that the results also capture any compensating behaviour that schoolchildren engage in by being less active out of school. From a public-policy perspective, increasing physical activity in a school context seems to increase the ‘gap’ in child health and ‘crowd-out’ outside-school physical activity. Consequently, a supportive cost-benefit case might exist if parental behaviour is assumed to be affected by school resources and endogenous.
Romina Paola Capomasi
Bullying is an hostile conduct or persecution, physical or psychological, carried out by one or several children to the detriment of another. The reasons why a child is chosen as permanent attacks are multiple and depend on each school context. The consequences of this are many: can have problems of integration, can suffer injuries or more serious consequences. Therefore, against the growing aggressiveness among students to question the effectiveness of the guidelines for living together ari...
Robert L. Linn
An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regardi...
Andiema, Nelly C.
Despite many research studies showing the effectiveness of teacher application of child-centered learning in different educational settings, few studies have focused on teaching and learning activities in Pre-Schools. This research investigates the effect of child centered methods on teaching and learning of science activities in preschools in…
Õun, Tiia; Tuul, Maire; Tera, Signe; Sagen, Kelli; Mägi, Helena
Various factors of the quality of preschool child care institutions influence the development of children and their future success in school. The activities of preschool child care institutions in Estonia are based on the national curriculum. Several indicators of structural quality have been determined on the national level. The aim of the…
Kim, Sangwon; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Baker, Jean A.
A constructive debate over the classification of child psychopathology can be stimulated by investigating the validity of different classification approaches. We examined and compared the short-term predictive validity of cluster analytic and dimensional classifications of child behavioral adjustment in school using the Behavior Assessment System…
An examination of reported cases of child abuse in Nigerian schools was carried out against the backdrop of the legal framework for the protection of pupils. The objective was to highlight the deficiency in Nigerian law on child protection in the light of UN Conventions which Nigeria has ratified.
Liu, Chenying; Munakata, Tsunetsugu; Onuoha, Francis N.
The mental health of the only-child continues to generate interest in research literature. The present study examines the issue in China, where the one-child phenomenon is highest due to deliberate government policy. Subjects are 299 and 333 students in two high-rank high schools in urban Harebin and rural Qing an Xian, respectively (mean age =…
Full Text Available Phenomenon of child abuse is considered to be voluntary or involuntary action of an adult which has a detrimental effect on child’s health and/or his psychophysical development. The concept of child abuse syndrome includes physical, mental and emotional maltreatment and negligence of physical, medical and emotional needs and also rape and sexual abuse. The authors conducted a questionnaire survey in order to assess children mistreatment by parents, caretakers and school environment. Studies included 228 high school students aged 14– 16 out of which 44,3% were girls and 55,7% were boys. 84% of the children were brought up by full families, 13% by mothers only, and 3% by fathers only. The most common form of mistreatment of children was physical violence (20,3%, psychological violence (12,1% and negligence (6,5%. Violence in the form of bad touch was experienced by 7,9% of girls and 0,8% of boys. High school students often suffered emotional violence from peers (22,9%, siblings (5,2% and teachers (4,8%. Results of the surveys were discussed paying attention to sociological context and legal conditions. The need for cooperation between many organizations and sectors of public life was highlighted to prevent the phenomenon of child abuse.
Friend, Mary; Morrison, Amber
Improvement of medication adherence in the school-age child can lead to improvement in quality of life, decreased morbidity, and a potential decreased risk of deferred academic, social, and emotional development. The objective of this article is to review barriers to asthma medication adherence and identify evidence-based techniques that improve medication management of the asthmatic child 5 to 12 years of age. A literature review was performed and articles were obtained through database searches within Medline, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and PubMed. Research indicates that barriers to the adherence of medication regimens required for asthmatic children include poor understanding of the medication regimen, substandard education on symptom recognition and environmental triggers, rejection of the diagnosis, and a lack of support or understanding within the community. Researched techniques aimed to improve medication management in 5- to 12-year-olds include: computer-based education; workshops for parents, teachers, and children; incorporation of asthma education into classroom lessons; use of case managers; the introduction of a nurse practitioner in the school to provide care, including medication prescriptions for the asthmatic child; and assessment and evaluation of environmental and emotional triggers in the home and school. Collaboration of current data may help lead to a successful interventional model that can improve asthma management in this population. © The Author(s) 2014.
Data were analyzed from 641 children and their families in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test the hypotheses that in the early school years, mothers' and fathers' sensitive support for autonomy in observed parent-child interactions would each make unique predictions to children's reading and math achievement at Grade 3 (controlling for demographic variables), children's reading and math abilities at 54 months, and children's level of effortful control at 54 months and that these associations would be mediated by the level of and changes over time in children's observed self-reliance in the classroom from Grades 1 through 3. The authors found that mothers' and fathers' support for autonomy were significantly and uniquely associated with children's Grade 3 reading and math achievement with the above controls, but only for boys. For boys, the effect of mothers' support for child autonomy was mediated by higher self-reliance at Grade 1 and of fathers' support for child autonomy by greater increases in self-reliance from Grades 1 through 3.
Allen, Jessica; Marshall, Chloë R
for non-verbal responses. Despite the small group sizes, this study provides preliminary evidence that PCIT can achieve its treatment goals with 8-10-year-olds who have expressive language impairments. This has potentially important implications for how mainstream speech and language services provide intervention to school-aged children. In contrast to direct one-to-one therapy, PCIT offers a single block of therapy where the parents' communication and interaction skills are developed to provide the child with an appropriate language-rich environment, which in turn could be more cost-effective for the service provider. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.
Hollowood, Timothy J.
We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.
In this analysis, the authors are trying to understand the consequences of the Copenhagen agreement, to examine its short term and middle term implications, and to define the role the European Union may have during the next months. Beyond the disagreements which have occurred in Copenhagen, notably in terms of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the authors consider the agreement as a half success, as the main greenhouse gas emitters (China and the USA) as well as some important emerging countries (Brazil, India, South Africa) joined the struggle against climate change. They also identify the still pending questions: status of the agreement, future of the CO 2 market, compensatory mechanisms. Even though the conference showed the importance of the relationship between China and the United States, the authors highlight the limits of these bilateral discussions. They also note that, even though the conference reflected the weakening of the European influence in the struggle against climate change, the European Union still have opportunities to regain this leadership position during the international negotiations on climate change in 2010. From this point of view, the actual outcome of the conference may appear within the next months
Hollowood, Timothy J
We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR–Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems. (paper)
Freeman, R; Oliver, M
The aim of the two-year controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 'Boosting Better Breaks' (BBB) break-time policy to reduce obvious decay experience and sugar snacking in a cohort of nine-year-old children attending intervention and control primary schools. A matched controlled prospective trial design. Children in Year 5 were invited with their parents/guardians to take part. The children were assessed at baseline and at 24-month follow-up. One hundred and eighty-nine children attended intervention schools and 175 attended control schools which were matched for socio-economic status (SES), school location and co-education status. The outcome variables were obvious decay experience and evidence of sugar snacks found in the children's rubbish bags. All children were asked to complete a questionnaire and keep evidence of the snacks they consumed starting from school-time break to when they retired for bed in a numbered and coded 'rubbish bag' on a specific collection day at baseline and 24-month follow-up. All children had a dental examination at baseline and 24-month follow-up. Sixty percent of children at baseline and all of the children at follow-up had at least one sugar snack in their rubbish bag. The most popular snacks at follow-up were sweets, chocolate, crisps and carbonated drinks. In the school environment children attending BBB policy schools had significantly lower mean scores for sugar snacks scores at baseline but equivalent mean sugar snacks scores at follow-up compared with children attending control schools. In the outside school environment there was no effect of school intervention on sugar snack scores. Decay into dentine at follow-up was predicted by school intervention status and evidence of sugar snacks consumption outside school and at home. The BBB break-time policy did not achieve its health promotion goals of promoting child dental health or encouraging children to adopt healthier dietary habits in school or in the wider
Skak, Morten; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær; Nannerup, Niels Erik Holm
We analyse house prices from 1992 to 2011 in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen. In line with most other metropolitan areas in Europe, Copenhagen house prices showed solid increases during this period until 2007 when a downturn in prices began. The price gradient from the centre of the metropolis...
Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm
The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation...
Kumar, Manoj Therayil; Kumar, Sebind; Singh, Surendra P; Kar, Nilamadhab
Very few studies focus on childhood abuse in developing countries and only a small fraction of such studies explicitly deal with abuse in a school environment. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse in a school environment in a developing country. Abuse history was collected using the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool - Children's Institutional Version (ICAST-CI). Demographic variables were also collected. Student supportive measures were provided both during and after the survey. 6682 school attending adolescents in Thrissur, Kerala participated in this cross sectional self report study. One year and lifetime prevalence of physical (75.5%, 78.5%), emotional (84.5%, 85.7%) and sexual (21.0%, 23.8%) abuse was high. Abuse was considered to be present even if an individual item from these three categories was reported. Most abuse was reported as occurring 'sometimes' rather than 'many times'. More males than females reported being victims of abuse; figures for one-year prevalence were: physical abuse (83.4% vs. 61.7%), emotional abuse (89.5% vs. 75.7%), and sexual abuse (29.5% vs. 6.2%). Various factors significantly increase the likelihood of abuse-male gender, low socioeconomic status, regular use of alcohol and drugs by family member at home, and having other difficulties at school. Children tended to report abuse less frequently if they liked attending school and if they always felt safe at school. The results highlight the urgent need to address the issue of abuse in the school environment and minimize its impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C; Rosário, Pedro
. Finally, neither children's autonomous behaviors reported by parents, nor parental style, seem to be related with the children's level of school engagement. Rehabilitation centers and schools could consider training parents/caregivers focusing on their educational needs, promotion of reflections on the usefulness of applying autonomy promotion strategies with their child, and foster their involvement.
Pereira, Armanda; Moreira, Tânia; Lopes, Sílvia; Nunes, Ana R.; Magalhães, Paula; Fuentes, Sonia; Reoyo, Natalia; Núñez, José C.; Rosário, Pedro
. Finally, neither children’s autonomous behaviors reported by parents, nor parental style, seem to be related with the children’s level of school engagement. Rehabilitation centers and schools could consider training parents/caregivers focusing on their educational needs, promotion of reflections on the usefulness of applying autonomy promotion strategies with their child, and foster their involvement. PMID:27891110
of school engagement. Finally, neither children’s autonomous behaviors reported by parents, nor parental style, seem to be related with the children’s level of school engagement. Findings indicate parental style impacts on children’s SE. Therefore, rehabilitation centers and schools could consider training parents/caregivers focusing on their educational needs, promotion of reflections on the usefulness of applying autonomy promotion strategies with their child, and foster their involvement.
Elise C. Brown
Full Text Available Background. A systematised review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to reduce childhood obesity. Methods. Multiple databases were searched for randomised and nonrandomised interventions from 2007 to 2016 in full-time elementary schools, which were delivered to the whole class, included dietary and physical activity components, involved both sexes, were written in English, and used body mass index (BMI as an outcome. Results. The database search produced 8,866 titles from which 78 were deemed relevant and assessed for inclusion resulting in 15 studies meeting all inclusion criteria. From these 15 studies, 9 yielded a reduction or stabilisation in BMI or BMI z-score in the entire intervention group and/or subgroups. Programmes lasting between 6 and 12 months that involve multiple environmental, educational, and physical strategies appear to be most likely to result in BMI or BMI z-score improvement. Moderators most likely influencing an improvement in BMI included increased physical activity, decreased sugar sweetened beverages intake, and increased fruit intake. Conclusions. School-based interventions may be an effective means for child obesity prevention. The identification of consistent elements used in school-based interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness may aid in preventing child obesity.
Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.
Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels
BACKGROUND: Clinical forensic examinations of alleged torture victims have been performed by forensic pathologists at the University of Copenhagen since 1995. In 13.2%/33 of these cases the examinations were supplemented by a forensic odontological clinical examination. In this study the forensic...... odontological cases from the years 1997-2011 are presented and discussed. METHODS: This study includes 33 reports from alleged torture victims (4 females, 29 males) who have been examined by a forensic odontologist at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry in the years 1997-2011.The material available consisted...... of copies of medical forensic reports and the forensic odontological reports including x-rays. BACKGROUND data, anamnestic data and results of the forensic odontological clinical examinations were registered as well as the conclusion of the clinical examinations. FINDINGS: The forensic odontological...
Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin
The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments.
Mahwish Ali Baber
Full Text Available The early years are the most important in the emotional, social, physical and cognitive development of a child.. A child’s early experiences have an immense impact on the development of his/ her physical, emotional and cognitive skills. Therefore, it is very important to understand the kind of environment children need in the early years for their healthy development and also to understand when it is appropriate to begin their schooling in order to optimize their social, cognitive and emotional well-being. It is observed that the number of formal pre-schools have increased drastically in the past few years. Children between the ages of one to five are attending these pre-schools. This paper attempts to look into the various researches conducted to find out how early childhood experiences affect children; how their emotional and cognitive development occurs; and most importantly, whether or not starting school at an age earlier than seven years, benefits their academic achievement in the long run. The findings of the various researches indicate that children in the early years need to spend time in free play rather than in structured and scheduled school environments. This will also help them in their future academic success. Thus, starting school earlier than seven years of age is not beneficial socially or academically in the long run.
Altamimi, Dana; Almuneef, Maha; Albuhairan, Fadia; Saleheen, Hassan
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment (CM) and school performance among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014. The enrolment criteria included both male and female Saudi students ( n=674; 52.7% male) aged 12-19 years ( M age =15.6±1.6 years), attending intermediate and secondary schools belonging to the Ministry of National Guard. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on different forms of abuse that had occurred in the past or were currently occurring. Poor school performance was more likely in students who lived among substance-use family members or guardians compared with those who did not (33.3% vs. 11.4%; p<0.01), those with an imprisoned family member compared with those without (26.5% vs. 11.2%; p<0.01), those who were psychologically abused compared with those who were not abused (21.0% vs. 10.1%; p<0.01), those who were physically abused compared with those who were not abused (18.9% vs. 9.3%; p<0.01), and those suffering multiple forms of abuse compared with those not abused (23.4% vs. 9.7%; p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that household dysfunction was the most predisposing factor to poor performance in school, and included living among substance-use family members or guardians (odds ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval=1.7-9.5) and living with imprisoned family member (odds ratio=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.5-6.3). CM, along with family structure and dynamics, has an adverse relationship with students' school performance. These findings highlight the importance of increasing awareness of the impact of CM on school performance among families, schools and the community.
Freeman, Ruth; Gibson, Barry; Humphris, Gerry; Leonard, Helen; Yuan, Siyang; Whelton, Helen
Objective: To use a model of health learning to examine the role of health-learning capacity and the effect of a school-based oral health education intervention (Winning Smiles) on the health outcome, child oral health-related quality of life (COHRQoL). Setting: Primary schools, high social deprivation, Ireland/Northern Ireland. Design: Cluster…
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This article addresses a particular area of research in the field of education and child protection: the protective role of schools in the contexts of HIV/AIDS and poverty. Such adverse situations may lead children not to enroll in school or to drop out of school and subsequently to be subjected to abusive child labor and, in some cases, the worst…
Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...... short period of time. The set-up and the results were discussed with a few experts from the Danish Ministry of the Environment and its value as discussion input recognized. The approach offers a lot of possibilities to discuss urban growth and spatial planning policies, even in a country with a strong...
The author first gives an overview of the Chinese worrying energy situation because of its high economic growth and its high energy demand and consumption. She highlights the preponderant share of coal and the associated environmental issues. She comments the economic and strategic implications of the oil share increase in energy consumption in China with respect to its energy supply security. She discusses the present debate on costs which would result from not taking environmental issues into account, and the weight of lobbies and local policies on these issues. Then, she notices that, however, significant evolutions can be observed in the Chinese environmental strategy: implemented policies and actions, research and development policy and investments. She discusses the consequences of these aspects and evolutions for the international negotiations in Copenhagen, and also the influence of the present economic and financial crisis on the Chinese environmental strategy
Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte
BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... the 27-year follow-up period. In 1985, 20.7% of the visits ended up without any referrals, compared with 4.8% in 2012. The rate of acute admissions into a psychiatric ward was 60.8% in 2012 compared with 35.65% in 1985. CONCLUSION: The extension of the psychiatric outpatients' facilities since 1985 has...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...
Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)
Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.
Mohammad Hossein Kaveh
Full Text Available Children need adequate and healthy nutrition for sufficient mental development and physical growth. Children also need nutrition education to gain the required skills for correct food selection. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the child-to-child approach based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB on the eating behaviors of elementary school students in Iran. In this quasi-experimental, interventional study with pretest/posttest design and a control group, 173 fourth grade female students of public elementary schools were selected using multistage random cluster sampling. Educational intervention was performed for the intervention group through the child-tochild approach. The research data were collected in the two groups using a 5-scale researcher-made questionnaire based on the constructs of TPB with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 before and one and six weeks after the intervention. Then, the data were analyzed using chi-square test, repeated measures ANOVA, and independent t-test. The results showed a significant difference between the two groups regarding the mean scores of attitude, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention before and one and six weeks after the intervention. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean score of subjective norms. Moreover, the educational intervention resulted in improvement of the intervention group’s eating behaviors. The findings of this research suggested the child-to-child approach and the TPB as effective methods in improvement of correct eating behaviors in children.
Sabina Nicoleta Furtună
Full Text Available The goal of the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, has been to reach a legally binding agreement between participant states. As a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, this sort of agreement would have engaged signatory parties with reducing their greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent the rise with 2 degrees Celsius in global temperature. This paper is an analysis of the above-mentioned event, which focuses on itsmain result, namely the Copenhagen Accord. It also presents the role of the European Union at the Copenhagen Summit and in promoting sustainable development globally.
Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison
Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Romina Paola Capomasi
Full Text Available Bullying is an hostile conduct or persecution, physical or psychological, carried out by one or several children to the detriment of another. The reasons why a child is chosen as permanent attacks are multiple and depend on each school context. The consequences of this are many: can have problems of integration, can suffer injuries or more serious consequences. Therefore, against the growing aggressiveness among students to question the effectiveness of the guidelines for living together arises the question and need to implement alternative mechanisms for resolution of conflicts which promote habits of peaceful coexistence and contribute to prevent violence in schools, creating spaces pacific of listening dialogue and mutual respect to students who are victims of Bullying are encouraged to ask for help and avoid further damage. This tool also helps stakeholders in the educational community to detect situations of harassment or abuse.
Threlfall, Jennifer M; Auslander, Wendy; Gerke, Donald; McGinnis, Hollee; Myers Tlapek, Sarah
This study investigated the association between mental health problems and academic and behavioral school functioning for adolescent girls in the child welfare system and determined whether school engagement and future orientation meditated the relationship. Participants were 231 girls aged between 12 and 19 who had been involved with the child welfare system. Results indicated that 39% of girls reported depressive symptoms in the clinical range and 54% reported posttraumatic symptoms in the clinical range. The most common school functioning problems reported were failing a class (41%) and physical fights with other students (35%). Participants reported a mean number of 1.7 school functioning problems. Higher levels of depression and PTSD were significantly associated with more school functioning problems. School engagement fully mediated the relationship between depression and school functioning and between PTSD and school functioning, both models controlling for age, race, and placement stability. Future orientation was not significantly associated with school functioning problems at the bivariate level. Findings suggest that school engagement is a potentially modifiable target for interventions aiming to ameliorate the negative influence of mental health problems on school functioning for adolescent girls with histories of abuse or neglect.
Bardack, Sarah; Herbers, Janette E; Obradović, Jelena
This study investigates the unique contribution of microsocial and global measures of parent-child positive coregulation (PCR) in predicting children's behavioral and social adjustment in school. Using a community sample of 102 children, ages 4-6, and their parents, we conducted nested path analytic models to identify the unique effects of 2 measures of PCR on school outcomes. Microsocial PCR independently predicted fewer externalizing and inattention/impulsive behaviors in school. Global PCR did not uniquely relate to children's behavioral and social adjustment outcomes. Household socioeconomic status was related to both microsocial and global measures of PCR, but not directly associated with school outcomes. Findings illustrate the importance of using dynamic measures of PCR based on microsocial coding to further understand how the quality of parent-child interaction is related to children's self-regulatory and social development during school transition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Anderson, Riana Elyse
The Family Stress Model acknowledges forms of resilience in the face of hardship; however, few studies have emerged on the potentially positive role of familial relationships in the academic, psychological, and prosocial success of impoverished Black children. The current study evaluates how parent-child relationship conflict and financial stress are associated with children's school readiness (i.e., academic, psychosocial, and socioemotional indicators). Latent profile analyses, incorporating financial stress, general stress, and parent-child relationship variables were used to test whether varying family stress profiles differentially predicted children's school readiness in Black families with children entering kindergarten (N = 292). Findings revealed 4 latent classifications with profiles of low, moderate, moderate/high, and high/moderate stress and conflict variables, respectively. Whereas the low-profile was associated with the most desirable school readiness indicators overall, children in the high/moderate-profile were rated as significantly more psychosocially and socioemotionally prepared for school than their moderate/high-profile counterparts. Families with less conflictual parent-child relationships had more optimal school readiness relative to families with higher conflict and less financial strain. The findings of the current study have the potential to contribute to theories of poverty and parent-child relationships, as well as guide therapeutic services focused on family relationships through school- and community-related programs for impoverished urban Black youth and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Harder, Maria; Enskär, Karin; Golsäter, Marie
Nurses in Swedish child and school healthcare need to balance their assignment of promoting children's health and development based on the national health-monitoring programme with their responsibility to consider each child's needs. In this balancing act, they encounter children through directed and pliable strategies to fulfil their professional obligations. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which nurses use different strategies when encountering children during their recurrent health visits throughout childhood. A quantitative descriptive content analysis was used to code 30 video recordings displaying nurses' encounters with children (3-16 years of age). A constructed observation protocol was used to identify the codes. The results show that nurses use pliable strategies (58%) and directed strategies (42%) in encounters with children. The action they use the most within the pliable strategy is encouraging (51%), while in the directed strategy, the action they use most is instructing (56%). That they primarily use these opposing actions can be understood as trying to synthesize their twofold assignment. However, they seem to act pliably to be able to fulfil their public function as dictated by the national health-monitoring programme, rather than to meet each child's needs.
Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Satinsky, Emily N; Burkey, Matthew D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D
This study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a combined school- and family-based intervention, delivered by psychosocial counselors, for children with behavior problems in rural Nepal. Forty-one children participated at baseline. Two students moved to another district, meaning 39 children, ages 6-15, participated at both baseline and follow-up. Pre-post evaluation was used to assess behavioral changes over a 4-month follow-up period (n = 39). The primary outcome measure was the Disruptive Behavior International Scale-Nepal version (DBIS-N). The secondary outcome scales included the Child Functional Impairment Scale and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI). Twelve key informant interviews were conducted with community stakeholders, including teachers, parents, and community members, to assess stakeholders' perceptions of the intervention. The study found that children's behavior problems as assessed on the DBIS-N were significantly lower at follow-up (M = 13.0, SD = 6.4) than at baseline (M = 20.5, SD = 3.8), p behaviors among children and the implementation of new behavior management techniques both at home and in the classroom. Significant change in child outcome measures in this uncontrolled evaluation, alongside qualitative findings suggesting feasibility and acceptability, support moving toward a controlled trial to determine effectiveness.
Marlene Spanger analyses reactions to the internationally recognised dancer and singer Josephine Baker (1906–1975), whose performances in Copenhagen gave rise to a heated emotional debate in Danish newspapers; these reactions mirror contemporary dominant religious, biological and colonial discour...
Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach
For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level....
Steinsbekk, Silje; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Fildes, Alison; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wichstrøm, Lars
Picky eating is prevalent in childhood. Because pickiness concerns parents and is associated with nutrient deficiency and psychological problems, the antecedents of pickiness need to be identified. We propose an etiological model of picky eating involving child temperament, sensory sensitivity and parent-child interaction. Two cohorts of 4-year olds (born 2003 or 2004) in Trondheim, Norway were invited to participate (97.2% attendance; 82.0% consent rate, n = 2475) and a screen-stratified subsample of 1250 children was recruited. We interviewed 997 parents about their child's pickiness and sensory sensitivity using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Two years later, 795 of the parents completed the interview. The Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) was used to assess children's temperament. Parent- child interactions were videotaped and parental sensitivity (i.e., parental awareness and appropriate responsiveness to children's verbal and nonverbal cues) and structuring were rated using the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). At both measurement times, 26% of the children were categorized as picky eaters. Pickiness was moderately stable from preschool to school age (OR = 5.92, CI = 3.95, 8.86), and about half of those who displayed pickiness at age 4 were also picky eaters two years later. While accounting for pickiness at age 4, sensory sensitivity at age 4 predicted pickiness at age 6 (OR = 1.25, CI = 1.08, 2.23), whereas temperamental surgency (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.64, 1.22) and negative affectivity (OR = 1.17, CI = 0.75, 1.84) did not. Parental structuring was found to reduce the risk of children's picky eating two years later (OR = 0.90, CI = 0.82, 0.99), whereas parental sensitivity increased the odds for pickiness (OR = 1.10, CI = 1.00, 1.21). Although pickiness is stable from preschool to school age, children who are more sensory sensitive are at higher risk for pickiness two years later, as are children whose
Early (<39 weeks gestation planned birth is associated with an increased risk of poor development in children starting school. Given the timing of planned birth is modifiable, delaying birth for an additional week or more may improve child development. Strategies and interventions to inform more judicious decision making, weighing all the risks and benefits for early planned birth are required to ensure optimal child health and development.
Granger, David A.
This article discusses what David Berliner (2005) has called the perverse "spectacle of fear" (208) surrounding issues of teacher quality and accountability in contemporary school reform. Drawing principally on the critical semiotics of Roland Barthes' essay, "The World of Wrestling" (1957), it examines the way that this…
Loughlin-Presnal, John; Bierman, Karen L
Using a longitudinal mediation framework and a low-income sample, this study had 2 aims: (a) to model bidirectional associations between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes from first through fifth grade, and (b) to explore 3 mediators of parental influence: parent involvement in child schooling, child learning behaviors, and child perceived academic competence. Participants included 356 children and their caregivers (89% mothers) recruited from Head Start centers (58% European American, 25% African American, 17% Latino). At each time point (grades 1, 2, 3, 5), parents rated their academic expectations, teachers rated parent involvement and child learning behaviors, and children rated their self-perceptions of their academic competence. Bidirectional longitudinal associations emerged between parent academic expectations and child academic outcomes. Child learning behaviors mediated this association from first to third grade, whereas child perceived academic competence mediated from second to fifth grade. Parallel cross-lagged models replicated these findings with child academic outcomes assessed using a test of reading achievement and teacher ratings of academic performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Bougma, Moussa; LeGrand, Thomas K; Kobiané, Jean-François
Using original data collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, this study investigates evidence for the competing theories that fertility reductions increase children's education through either the quantity-quality tradeoff (intentionally choosing smaller families to make greater investments in education and other indicators of child quality) or resource dilution (having more children reduces resources available per child, regardless of intentionality of family size). The results provide evidence for both hypotheses: children having four or fewer siblings were significantly more likely to be enrolled in school if their mothers had intentionally stopped childbearing relative to those whose mothers wanted more children but whose childbearing was limited by subfecundity. The difference between intentional and unintentional family limitation was not significant for parities greater than five. In addition, the relationship between number of siblings and their schooling is negative, regardless of the intentionality of family-size limitation, but the strength of this negative relationship is approximately twice as high among children whose mothers intentionally limited fertility (reflecting both selection and dilution effects) than among children whose mothers were subfecund (reflecting the pure dilution effect). © 2015 The Population Council, Inc.
Robert L. Linn
Full Text Available An ever-increasing reliance on student performance on tests holds schools and educators accountable both to state accountability systems and also to the accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB Act of 2001. While each state has constructed its own definition of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP requirements within the confines of NCLB, substantial differences between the accountability requirements of many state systems and NCLB still have resulted in mixed messages regarding the performance of schools. Several features of NCLB accountability and state accountability systems contribute to the identification of a school as meeting goals according to NCLB but failing to do so according to the state accountability system, or vise versa. These include the multiple hurdles of NCLB, the comparison of performance against a fixed target rather than changes in achievement, and the definition of performance goals. The result of these features is a set of AYP measures that is inconsistent both with existing state accountability systems and also with state NAEP performance. Using existing achievement to set the cut-score measured by AYP and using the highest-performing schools to set the year-to-year improvement standards would improve the NCLB accountability system.
Ekaterina S. Ralston
Full Text Available The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456. We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg. Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=-.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=-.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=-.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=-.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects.
Published three months before the Copenhagen Conference, this analysis aims at identifying the postures of the different negotiators, at deciphering what is at stake as far as the future regime of struggle against climate change is concerned, and at giving the keys of a possible positive outcome for these negotiations. First, the authors comment the challenges of the definition of mitigation objectives for greenhouse gas emissions which requires an agreement between developed countries, emerging countries, developing countries, and less advanced developing countries which, until now, are not submitted to the same regime. Developed countries already have some obligations and will have to define these objectives, and the challenge is to obtain a commitment of emerging countries (notably China), and maybe of some developing countries, to adopt some constraints. On another hand, these negotiations could be the occasion of a revision of North-South and South-South relationships because of diverging interests between emerging countries and developing countries on technological issues. Other issues are at stake: intellectual property rights, the CDM (Clean development mechanism) reform, the deforestation. Finally, the authors highlight the difficult issues of financial transfers
Schuster, Lisa; Kubacki, Krzysztof; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn
Increases in childhood obesity have coincided with declines in active transportation to school. This research builds on largely atheoretical extant literature examining factors that influence walk-to-school behavior through application of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Understanding caregivers' decision for their child to walk to/from school is key to developing interventions to promote this cost-effective and accessible health behavior. The results from an online survey of 512 caregivers provide support for the TPB, highlighting the important role of subjective norms. This suggests marketers should nurture caregivers' perception that important others approve of walking to school.
Li, M; Xue, H; Wen, M; Wang, W; Wang, Y
Obesity is a serious threat to global health. School is a key setting for obesity intervention. Research on school risk factors for child obesity is limited in developing countries. To examine regional variations in obesity and school environments/policies and their associations among students in China. Analyses were based on the first nationally representative sample of 8573 9 th graders in 110 middle schools from 28 regions across China. Multilevel models tested associations between school factors and child self-reported weight outcomes and by school urbanicity setting (urban, rural). Overweight/obesity rate is higher among boys and in urban areas. Schools in rural areas, or less developed regions, promote longer on-campus life, as is indicated by the presence of school cafeterias, night study sessions and longer class hours. Multilevel models show that (i) school cafeterias (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.35-4.75) and internet bars close to school (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.15-2.30) are associated with increased overweight/obesity risk in rural areas, especially for boys; (ii) school night study sessions are associated with lower overweight/obesity risk (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50-0.96) in rural areas. China has large regional disparities in school environment/policies related to nutrition and physical activity. Some school factors are associated with students' weight status, which vary across gender and areas. Future school-based interventions should attend to diverse regional contexts. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Perry, C L; Sellers, D E; Johnson, C; Pedersen, S; Bachman, K J; Parcel, G S; Stone, E J; Luepker, R V; Wu, M; Nader, P R; Cook, K
The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) was the largest school-based field trial ever sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. The trial demonstrated positive changes in the school food service and physical education program, as well as in students' cardiovascular health behaviors. Because the CATCH intervention programs were implemented in 56 schools (in four states) that were typical of schools throughout the United States, their reception by schools and degree of implementation provide evidence about their feasibility for schools nationally. Extensive process evaluation data were collected from students, teachers, school food service personnel, and physical education specialists throughout the three school years of the CATCH intervention. Four of the CATCH programs--school food service, physical education, classroom curricula, and home programs--were assessed over the three school years. The process data provide information on participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility of the CATCH programs in the intervention schools for these programs. High levels of participation, dose, fidelity, and compatibility were observed for the four programs during the 3 school years. CATCH emerges as a model of a feasible multilevel health promotion program to improve eating and exercise behaviors for elementary schools in the United States.
Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee; Bell, Niryvia Pillay
We evaluate changes in elementary school children health outcomes following the introduction of California’s Paid Family Leave (PFL) program, which provided parents with paid time off following the birth of a child. Our health outcomes--overweight, ADHD, and hearing-related problems--are characterized by diagnosis rates that only pick up during early elementary school. Moreover, our health outcomes have been found to be negatively linked with many potential implications of extended maternity leave--increased breastfeeding, prompt medical checkups at infancy, reduced prenatal stress, and reduced non-parental care during infancy. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies (ECLS) within a difference-in-differences framework, our results suggest improvements in health outcomes among California elementary school children following PFL’s introduction. Furthermore, the improvements are driven by children from less advantaged backgrounds, which is consistent with the notion that California’s PFL had the greatest effect on leave-taking duration after childbirth mostly for less advantaged mothers who previously could not afford to take unpaid leave.
Briggs, F; Hawkins, R M
In 1987, in response to concerns relating to the high incidence of (reported) child sexual abuse, the Ministry of Education and New Zealand Policy jointly introduced a national school-based personal safety program, Keeping Ourselves Safe. In December 1990, 252 children were interviewed in eight primary schools, selected as representative of the ethnic, economic, and social diversity of New Zealand society (Briggs 1991). The interview schedule was designed on problem-solving lines to establish whether children could identify and respond safely to a wide range of potentially unsafe situations. One year later, 117 of the children were available for interview using the same questionnaire. Children exposed to Keeping Ourselves Safe had retained and increased their safety strategies during that time. The variables of gender, age, race, and academic level did not affect improvement but the number of initial gains by children with highly committed teachers was almost double the number achieved by teachers classified as having low levels of commitment. Prior to using the program, children from low socioeconomic groups had significantly lower knowledge and skill levels than their middle-class contemporaries. Middle-class children also gained more from the program. The difference in gains achieved is explained in terms of parental participation in the school program.
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
Background Eczema and asthma are common conditions in childhood that can influence children’s mental health. Despite this, little is known about how these conditions affect the well-being of children in school. This study examines whether symptoms of eczema or asthma are associated with poorer social and mental well-being in school as reported by children and their teachers at age 8 years. Methods Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures of child we...
A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.
Lowenstein, Amy E.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Pess, Rachel A.
In this study we used data on a sample of children in the Chicago Public Schools in areas of concentrated poverty-related disadvantage to examine associations between school climate and low-income children’s language/literacy and math skills during the transition to kindergarten. We also explored whether teacher-child closeness moderated these associations. Multilevel modeling analyses conducted using a sample of 242 children nested in 102 elementary schools revealed that low adult support in the school was significantly associated with children’s poorer language/literacy and math skills in kindergarten. Teacher-child closeness predicted children’s higher language/literacy and math scores and moderated the association between low adult support and children’s academic skills. Among children who were high on closeness with their teacher, those in schools with high levels of adult support showed stronger language/literacy and math skills. There were no significant associations between adult support and the academic skills of children with medium or low levels of teacher-child closeness. Results shed light on the importance of adult support at both school and classroom levels in promoting low-income children’s academic skills during the transition to kindergarten. PMID:26925186
Wan, Abdul Manan W M; Norazawati, A K; Lee, Y Y
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has become a major public health problem in Malaysia. Parents play an important role in child feeding especially among younger children. A study was conducted to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and practices in child feeding among parents of normal weight, as well as overweight and obese primary school children in Kelantan using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 175 Malay children from three schools in Kota Bharu district in Kelantan. This study showed that 13.1% of the children were overweight and obese. Scores for perceived parent weight (p parents of overweight and obese children compared to parents of children with normal body weight. However, the score for pressure to eat among parents of overweight and obese children was significantly lower (p parents of normal weight children. The perceived child weight (r = 0.468, p parental weight (r = 0.190, p children's body mass index (BMI), whereas pressure to eat factor (r = -0.355, p children's body mass index (BMI). The findings showed that parental feeding practices were linked to children's weight status and childhood obesity. Therefore parents should be given education and guidance on appropriate child feeding practices to maintain their child's nutritional status on a healthy weight range.
Quach, Jon; Barnett, Tony
To understand the prevalence and timing of child chronic illness at school entry; associations with child learning, behavior and health-related quality of life and parent mental health at ages 6 to 7, 8 to 9, and 10 to 11 years; and cumulative health care costs. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Children were aged 4 to 5 years at wave 1, with data collection every 2 years. Parent-reported timing of child chronic illness at school entry was categorized into 4 chronic illness groups based on changes between waves 1 and 2: none, resolving, incident and persistent. Child outcomes included: parent-reported quality of life, parent- and teacher-reported behavior, teacher-reported child learning, teacher-reported child-teacher relationship, directly assessed nonverbal and verbal cognition and parent self-reported mental health. Linear regression, adjusted for gender and socioeconomic position, was used to quantify longitudinal associations between chronic illness timing at school entry with outcomes at age 6 to 7 years, 8 to 9 years and 10 to 11 years. Of the 4983 children enrolled in the study, chronic illness data was available for 4464 children (89.6%) at both waves 1 and 2. From wave 1, 6.1% had a condition that persisted until wave 2, while 14.1% had a condition that resolved. Furthermore, 4.7% had a newly emerging condition at wave 2. Compared with the no chronic illness group, children with persistent or emerging chronic illness during school entry had the poorest outcomes (except father's mental health) at all time points, while children with resolving conditions had smaller differences. Child chronic illness at school entry is associated with poorer longitudinal child and maternal outcomes. Therefore, future research should aim to determine the risk and protective factors that contribute to the poorer child and parent outcomes experienced in this growing population. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric
Wirakartakusumah, M D
This paper examines the effects of public health, family planning, education, electrification, and water supply programs on fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment decisions of rural households in East Java, Indonesia. The theoretical model assumes that parents maximize a utility function, subject to 1) a budget constraint that equates income with expenditures on children (including schooling and health inputs), and 2) a production function that relates health inputs to child survival possibilities. Public programs affect prices of contraceptives, schooling and health inputs, and environmental conditions that in turn affect child survival. Data are taken from the 1980 East Java Population Survey, the Socio-economic Survey, and the Detailed Village Census. The final sample consists of 3170 rural households with married women of childbearing age. Ordinary least squares and logit regressions of recent fertility, child mortality, and school enrollment on program and household variables yielded the following findings. 1) The presence of maternal and child health clinics reduced fertility but not mortality. 2) The presence of public health centers strongly reduced mortality but not fertility. 3) The presence of contraceptive distribution centers had no effect on fertility. 4) School attendance rates were influenced positively by the availability of primary and secondary schools. 5) Health and family planning programs had no effects on schooling. 6) The availability of public latrines reduced fertility and mortality. 7) The water supply variable did not affect the dependent variables when ordinary least squares techniques were applied but had statistically significant impact when logit methods were used. 8) Electricity supply had little effect on the dependent variables. 9) The mother's schooling had a strong positive correlation with children's schooling but no effect on fertility or mortality. 10) Household expenditures were related positively to school
Hampton, Karla E.
Children and adolescents are not consuming enough water, instead opting for sugar-sweetened beverages (sodas, sports and energy drinks, milks, coffees, and fruit-flavored drinks with added sugars), 100% fruit juice, and other beverages. Drinking sufficient amounts of water can lead to improved weight status, reduced dental caries, and improved cognition among children and adolescents. Because children spend most of their day at school and in child care, ensuring that safe, potable drinking water is available in these settings is a fundamental public health measure. We sought to identify challenges that limit access to drinking water; opportunities, including promising practices, to increase drinking water availability and consumption; and future research, policy efforts, and funding needed in this area. PMID:21680941
Waxman, Hersh C.; Padron, Yolanda N.; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2002 calls for several changes in the K-12 education system in the United States. It focuses on evidence-based educational practices for schools in the United States. This study was part of a large-scale, 8-year research project that examined the quality of classroom instruction from three elementary schools…
Papadopoulou, Elena; Gregoriadis, Athanasios
The purpose of this study was to examine young children's perceptions about the quality of their interactions with their teachers and the possible association of teacher-child relationships with children's school engagement. Additionally, gender and ethnicity differences were investigated regarding both teachers' and children's perceptions. Young…
Mander, David J.
This study explored the experience of having a child educated away from home at boarding school for Aboriginal parents living in regional and remote communities in Western Australia (WA). In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants and thematic analysis found the following major themes emerged from the data: (1) Access, Standards and…
Behun, Richard Joseph
The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Objective: To assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programs for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). The programs deliver information about CSA and strategies to help children avoid it and encourage help seeking. Methods: Systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster…
Krupp-Schleußner, Valerie; Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas
Does extended music education during primary school foster long-term musical participation? What other factors contribute to long-term musical participation? In our study on "Impacts and Long-Term Effects of Musical Participation," we investigate how the German programme "An Instrument for Every Child (JeKi)," which fosters the…
Laborda Castillo, Leopoldo; Sotelsek Salem, Daniel; Sarr, Leopold Remi
In this article, the authors analyze the effect of poverty, social exclusion, and child labor on out-of-school rates for female children. This empirical study is based on a dynamic panel model for a sample of 216 countries over the period 1970 to 2010. Results based on the generalized method of moments (GMM) of Arellano and Bond (1991) and the…
Analysis of household survey data in Kenya revealed that children's enrollment in school was affected by parents' expectations for future financial help from children and (for girls) by parents' perceptions of labor market discrimination against women, but not by patriarchal norms or child labor. The results challenge traditional explanations of…
Wallenius, Marjut; Rimpela, Arja; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Lintonen, Tomi
The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents' different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761…
Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung
A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…
Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae
The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Lowman, Jennifer L.; Martin, Sally S.
In this paper, we examine the influences of two settings--home and child care--on the development of children's speaking and listening skills before they begin formal schooling. We propose that a developmental assets approach, one that focuses on strengths of these settings, can help our understanding of the development of young children's…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.
Baxter, Paul; Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Full Text Available The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time.
Ashurst, Emily; Read, Robin; Kennedy, James; Belpaeme, Tony
The benefit of social robots to support child learning in an educational context over an extended period of time is evaluated. Specifically, the effect of personalisation and adaptation of robot social behaviour is assessed. Two autonomous robots were embedded within two matched classrooms of a primary school for a continuous two week period without experimenter supervision to act as learning companions for the children for familiar and novel subjects. Results suggest that while children in both personalised and non-personalised conditions learned, there was increased child learning of a novel subject exhibited when interacting with a robot that personalised its behaviours, with indications that this benefit extended to other class-based performance. Additional evidence was obtained suggesting that there is increased acceptance of the personalised robot peer over a non-personalised version. These results provide the first evidence in support of peer-robot behavioural personalisation having a positive influence on learning when embedded in a learning environment for an extended period of time. PMID:28542648
Liu, Xiaoying; Behrman, Jere R; Stein, Aryeh D; Adair, Linda S; Bhargava, Santosh K; Borja, Judith B; da Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Horta, Bernardo L; Martorell, Reynaldo; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M; Sachdev, Harshpal S
The effectiveness of prenatal care for improving birth and subsequent child outcomes in low-income countries remains controversial, with much of the evidence to date coming from high-income countries and focused on early-life outcomes. We examined associations between prenatal care visits and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months and attained schooling in four low- and middle-income countries. We pooled data from prospective birth-cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, Philippines and South Africa. We created a prenatal care utilization index based on the number and timing of prenatal visits. Associations were examined between this index and birth weight, height-for-age at 24 months, and highest attained schooling grade until adulthood. Among 7203 individuals in the analysis, 68.9% (Philippines) to 96.7% (South Africa) had at least one prenatal care visit, with most having at least four visits. Over 40% of Brazilians and Guatemalans had their first prenatal visit in the first trimester, but fewer Filipinos (13.9%) and South Africans (19.8%) did so. Prenatal care utilization was not significantly associated with birth weight (p>0.05 in pooled data). Each unit increase in the prenatal care utilization index was associated with 0.09 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.15) higher height-for-age z-score at 24 months and with 0.26 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.35) higher schooling grades attained. Although there was some heterogeneity and greater imprecision across sites, the results were qualitatively similar among the four different populations. While not related to birth weight, prenatal care utilization was associated with important outcomes later in life, specifically higher height-for-age at 24 months and higher attained school grades. These results suggest the relevance of prenatal care visits for human capital outcomes important over the lifecycle.
Walsh, Kerryann; Zwi, Karen; Woolfenden, Susan; Shlonsky, Aron
Child sexual abuse is a significant global problem in both magnitude and sequelae. The most widely used primary prevention strategy has been the provision of school-based education programmes. Although programmes have been taught in schools since the 1980s, their effectiveness requires ongoing scrutiny. To systematically assess evidence of the effectiveness of school-based education programmes for the prevention of child sexual abuse. Specifically, to assess whether: programmes are effective in improving students' protective behaviours and knowledge about sexual abuse prevention; behaviours and skills are retained over time; and participation results in disclosures of sexual abuse, produces harms, or both. In September 2014, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and 11 other databases. We also searched two trials registers and screened the reference lists of previous reviews for additional trials. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs of school-based education interventions for the prevention of child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We summarised data for six outcomes: protective behaviours; knowledge of sexual abuse or sexual abuse prevention concepts; retention of protective behaviours over time; retention of knowledge over time; harm; and disclosures of sexual abuse. This is an update of a Cochrane Review that included 15 trials (up to August 2006). We identified 10 additional trials for the period to September 2014. We excluded one trial from the original review. Therefore, this update includes a total of 24 trials (5802 participants). We conducted several meta-analyses. More than half of the trials in each meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors.1. Meta-analysis of two trials (n = 102) evaluating protective behaviours favoured intervention (odds
Full Text Available The research so far indicates that the context in which the father’s role takes place significantly influences the form and level of father involvement in taking care of the child. The primary goal of this research was to describe the forms and effects of maternal gate-keeping behavior as a characteristic form of interaction between parents which is, as part of the context, considered a significant factor in father involvement in care of the child. Research participants were 247 parental couples from complete families whose oldest child attended a pre-school institution. Fathers provided assessments of their own involvement via the Father Involvement Inventory, as well as assessments of prominence of gate-keeping behavior in their wives via the checklist of maternal gate-keeping behavior. Mothers reported on their beliefs about the importance and possibilities of father involvement in care of the child, as well as on their personal satisfaction with the current involvement of their husband in the joint care of the child. The results point out to the particular forms of mothers’ ambivalence when it comes to the joint care of the child, which is a form of gate-keeping behavior. The frequency of gate-keeping behavior, assessed by the checklist, significantly changes the possibilities of father involvement in taking care of the child in the developmental phase of the family, having in mind that the task of this phase is precisely the definition of parental roles and formation of parent cooperative principle.
Nakkash, Rima T; Al Mulla, Ahmad; Torossian, Lena; Karhily, Roubina; Shuayb, Lama; Mahfoud, Ziyad R; Janahi, Ibrahim; Al Ansari, Al Anoud; Afifi, Rema A
Involving children in research studies requires obtaining parental permission. A school-based intervention to delay/prevent waterpipe use for 7th and 8th graders in Qatar was developed, and parental permission requested. Fifty three percent (2308/4314) of the parents returned permission forms; of those 19.5% of the total (840/4314) granted permission. This paper describes the challenges to obtaining parental permission. No research to date has described such challenges in the Arab world. A random sample of 40 schools in Doha, Qatar was selected for inclusion in the original intervention. Permission forms were distributed to parents for approval of their child's participation. The permission forms requested that parents indicate their reasons for non-permission if they declined. These were categorized into themes. In order to understand reasons for non-permission, interviews with parents were conducted. Phone numbers of parents were requested from the school administration; 12 of the 40 schools (30%) agreed to provide the contact information. A random sample of 28 parents from 12 schools was interviewed to reach data saturation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze their responses. Reasons for non-permission documented in both the forms and interviews included: poor timing; lack of interest; the child not wanting to participate; and the child living in a smoke-free environment. Interviews provided information on important topics to include in the consent forms, parents' decision-making processes regarding their child's participation, and considerations for communicating with parents. Many parents also indicated that this was the first time they had been asked to give an informed consent for their child's participation in a study. Results indicate that more attention needs to be given to the informed parental consent process. Researchers should consider enhancing both the methods of communicating information as well the specific information provided. Before
Zwi, K J; Woolfenden, S R; Wheeler, D M; O'brien, T A; Tait, P; Williams, K W
Child sexual abuse is a significant problem that requires an effective means of prevention. To assess: if school-based programmes are effective in improving knowledge about sexual abuse and self-protective behaviours; whether participation results in an increase in disclosure of sexual abuse and/or produces any harm; knowledge retention and the effect of programme type or setting. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts and other databases using MESH headings and text words specific for child sexual assault and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in August 2006. RCTs or quasi-RCTs of school-based interventions to prevent child sexual abuse compared with another intervention or no intervention. Meta-analyses and sensitivity analysis, using two imputed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (0.1, 0.2), were used for four outcomes: protective behaviours, questionnaire-based knowledge, vignette-based knowledge and disclosure of abuse. Meta-analysis was not possible for retention of knowledge, likelihood of harm, or effect of programme type and setting. Fifteen trials measuring knowledge and behaviour change as a result of school-based child sexual abuse intervention programmes were included. Over half the studies in each initial meta-analysis contained unit of analysis errors. For behaviour change, two studies had data suitable for meta-analysis; results favoured intervention (OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.44, 31.84) with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=56.0%) and did not change significantly when adjustments using intraclass coefficients were made. Nine studies were included in a meta-analysis evaluating questionnaire-based knowledge. An increase in knowledge was found (SMD 0.59; 0.44, 0.74, heterogeneity (I2=66.4%). When adjusted for an ICC of 0.1 and 0.2 the results were SMD 0.6 (0.45, 0.75) and 0.57 (0.44, 0.71) respectively. Heterogeneity decreased
McCormick, Meghan P.; O'Connor, Erin E.
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) and 2-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects, we examined between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship closeness and conflict and standardized measures of children's…
Sobo, Elisa J
Waldorf education, an independent alternative to public schooling, aims to produce holistically healthy graduates in a formulation that rejects the conventional distinction between education and health. Also striving to bridge that divide, this article characterizes the pedagogically salutogenic techniques Waldorf teachers use in pre-kindergarten (pre-K) and lower grade classes and explicates the ethnomedical understandings underlying them. Waldorf teachers position children as budding participants in a unified field of spiritual and other forces, prioritizing whole-child activities that keep these forces healthfully motile. Their work entails a critique not only of mainstream public schooling's ostensibly pathogenic "head-to-head" focus, but also of the biomedical approach to pediatric health. My analysis of this conjoined critique takes into account the cultural, structural, and existential realities within which Waldorf education's salutary pedagogy is daily framed and fabricated. Further, it explores the implications for anthropology of attending to movement as a key feature of healthful human experience. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.
Stephanie Simmons Zuilkowski
Full Text Available While early childhood education has received increasing attention in the developing world in recent years, relatively little evidence is available from sub-Saharan Africa on its effects on child development and subsequent school enrolment. We use a prospective case-control design to evaluate the developmental impact of a community-based early childhood center in an urban area in Zambia. Comparing 40 children attending the center to 40 children not attending the center from the same community, we find that center attendance was associated with significantly better performance in an assessment of task orientation, and was also weakly associated with increased letter familiarity. We also observed higher performance among center students on tests of receptive language and pencil-related fine motor skills. These associations were, however, smaller and not statistically significant. We conducted a follow-up one year after the initial assessment, when children were seven years old and should have been in first grade. At follow-up, 27% of non-attendees were not yet enrolled in primary school, compared to just 11% of center students, suggesting that participation in early education encourages a timely transition into first grade.
The December 2009 summit on climate change in Copenhagen was remarkable not because it ended in an ambitious deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions but because of the unprecedented number of journalists, delegates, NGOs and scientists present. In this wide-ranging study, the author has produced a detailed analysis of the coverage of the summit across the globe through studying more than 400 articles published in two print media in 12 countries.The analysis reveals that articles written principally about the science of climate change represented less than 10 per cent of all those surveyed. The study makes extensive use of official UN figures to produce the first detailed assessment of who actually attended Copenhagen. It also includes a survey of over 50 environmental journalists and scientists across the 12 target countries post-Copenhagen to ascertain how they think climate change science might be best communicated.
The December 2009 summit on climate change in Copenhagen was remarkable not because it ended in an ambitious deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions but because of the unprecedented number of journalists, delegates, NGOs and scientists present. In this wide-ranging study, the author has produced a detailed analysis of the coverage of the summit across the globe through studying more than 400 articles published in two print media in 12 countries.The analysis reveals that articles written principally about the science of climate change represented less than 10 per cent of all those surveyed. The study makes extensive use of official UN figures to produce the first detailed assessment of who actually attended Copenhagen. It also includes a survey of over 50 environmental journalists and scientists across the 12 target countries post-Copenhagen to ascertain how they think climate change science might be best communicated.
Bentley, Jason P; Schneuer, Francisco J; Lain, Samantha J; Martin, Andrew J; Gordon, Adrienne; Nassar, Natasha
Investigate the association between severe neonatal morbidity (SNM) and child development and school performance among term infants. The study population included term infants without major congenital conditions born between 2000 and 2007 in New South Wales, Australia, with a linked record of developmental assessment at ages 4 to 6 years in 2009 or 2012 ( n = 144 535) or school performance at ages 7 to 9 years from 2009 to 2014 ( n = 253 447). Developmental outcomes included special needs or being vulnerable and/or at risk in 1 of 5 developmental domains. School performance outcomes were test exemption, or performing <-1 SD on reading or numeracy tests. Binary generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations between SNM and outcomes, adjusting for sociodemographic, perinatal, and assessment and/or test characteristics. Overall, 2.1% of infants experienced SNM. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for SNM and physical health was 1.18 (1.08-1.29), 1.14 (1.02-1.26) for language and cognitive skills, and 1.14 (1.06-1.24) and 1.13 (1.05-1.21) for scoring <-1 SD in reading and numeracy, respectively. SNM was most strongly associated with special needs 1.34 (1.15-1.55) and test exemption 1.50 (1.25-1.81). SNM infants born at 37 to 38 weeks' gestation and who were small for gestational age had the greatest likelihood of poorer outcomes. Term infants with SNM have greater odds of poor neurodevelopment in childhood. These findings provide population-based information for families and can inform clinical counseling and guidelines for follow-up and early intervention. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Lund, R; Modvig, J; Hilden, J
The purpose of this survey was to investigate the small-area variations in low birthweight within social services districts in Copenhagen and the relation of such variations to the socioeconomic characteristics of the district. The study was based on register data and included all live-born single...... on births to women living in the city of Copenhagen from 1987-90. We found a statistically significant association between district and risk of newborns being small-for-gestational age (SGA). This association was independent of adjustment for maternal age and parity. Only part of the association...
Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper
LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....
Kristensen, Tage S.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe
Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity......Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity...
Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.
This glossy folder is intended for parents to keep important papers related to their children's school. On the inside flaps of the folder are written in Spanish: (1) a list of suggested school-related papers that parents could keep in the folder; (2) a space for parents to write information about the schools their child has most recently attended;…
Naong, Matsidiso Nehemia
Learner pregnancy has recently become a thorn in the flesh for most schools in South Africa, and documentary evidence shows that its prevalence is greater amongst Black public schools than White schools. Within its discourse, more often than not, the Child Support Grant (CSG) has featured prominently in the perceived increase in the pregnancy rate…
Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Diez, Midory Higa; Kado, Yoko; Sanada, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki
Recent studies suggest positive associations between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and neurodevelopment of children, but evidence on the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution on child neurobehavioral development remains limited. We thus examined associations between prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution and child behavioral problems at school age, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan, where participants were recruited in 2001 and are continuously followed. Suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at municipality level and assigned to those participants born in the corresponding municipality. We analyzed data from singleton births with linked pollution data available (e.g., n=33,911 for SPM). We used responses to survey questions about behavioral problems at age 8years. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Air pollution exposure during gestation was positively associated with risk for behavioral problems related to attention and delinquent or aggressive behavior. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following a one-interquartile-range increase in SPM were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11) for interrupting others, 1.09 (1.03, 1.15) for failure to pay attention when crossing a street, 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) for lying, and 1.07 (1.02, 1.13) for causing public disturbance. Prenatal exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with behavioral problems related to attention and delinquent or aggressive behavior at age 8years in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McElearney, Aisling; Brennan-Wilson, Aoibheann; Murphy, Christina; Stephenson, Phyllis; Bunting, Brendan
Child maltreatment has a pervasive, detrimental impact on children's wellbeing. Despite a growing focus on prevention through school based education, few programmes adopt a whole- school approach, are multi-component, seek to address all forms of maltreatment, or indeed have been robustly evaluated. This paper describes a cluster randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate a school based child maltreatment prevention programme: 'Keeping Safe' in primary schools in Northern Ireland. The intervention has been designed by a non-profit agency. Programme resources include 63 lessons taught incrementally to children between four and 11 years old, and is premised on three core themes: healthy relationships, my body, and being safe. There are programme resources to engage parents and to build the capacity and skills of school staff. A cluster Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) will be conducted with children in 80 schools over a two-year period. The unit of randomisation is the school. Schools will be allocated to intervention or wait-list control groups using a computer-generated list. Data will be collected at three time points: baseline, end of year one, and end of year two of programme implementation. Primary outcomes will include: children's understanding of key programme concepts, self-efficacy to keep safe in situations of maltreatment, anxiety arising from programme participation, and disclosure of maltreatment. Secondary outcomes include teachers' comfort and confidence in teaching the programme and parents' confidence in talking to their children about programme concepts. This RCT will address gaps in current practice and evidence regarding school based child maltreatment prevention programmes. This includes the use of a whole- school approach and multi-component programme that addresses all maltreatment concepts, a two-year period of programme implementation, and the tracking of outcomes for children, parents, and teachers. Methodologically, it will extend
Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik
In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...
Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza
The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design o...
Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte
and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v...
Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib
Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...
Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla
AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...
Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars
Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge-based eco......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today...
This report will cover the participation in the DIKU-LASMEA Workshop on Computer Vision held at the department of computer science, University of Copenhagen, in March 2009. The report will give a concise description of the topics presented at the workshop, and briefly discuss how the work relates...... to the HERMES project and human motion and action recognition....
Brenneche, Nicolaj Tofte; Højgaard, Liselotte
In January 2012, the Copenhagen Research Forum (CRF) gathered 80 European scientists to discuss the societal chal-lenges to be addressed by Horizon 2020, the next framework programme for European research and innovation, and consider how research could contribute the best solutions. This EFP brie...
... suicide attempt, avoid details that would put your child in the middle, between parents or other family members. How should you talk to your child? • Pick a place that is private and comfortable, ...
Kazi, S; Sathar, Z A
The preliminary analysis of data from the 1990-91 Pakistan Household Survey (PIHS) for urban areas yields a profile of working urban women by educational level, sector of the economy, and child's educational activities. Between 1971 and 1988 labor force participation rates (LFPR) for women ranged between 3% and 5%. The hiring of women in temporary positions allows for lower costs, less benefits, and freedom from restrictive legislation. The PIHS data on 4711 households and 2513 urban, ever married women aged 15-49 years indicates a LFPR for women of 17%. Under 20% work in the formal sector. Most work in their homes as unpaid family workers or home-based income earning producers. Many official statistics exclude these women. Informal sector workers in the PIHS data, such as low status domestic workers, receive average wages of 609 rupees monthly compared to home-based workers wages of 240 rupees. Formal sector female workers have completed an average of 11.4 years of schooling, while informal workers have received only 6.5 years. 77% of informal workers have had no formal education compared to 62% of at home mothers and 28% of formal sector workers. Many employed women are single household heads or with an unemployed spouse. Formal sector working women marry 3.4 years later than informal sector women and 2.6 years later than nonworking women. Nonworking women have the lowest contraceptive use followed by informal sector women. Most women regardless of work status desire four children, but achieved fertility was lower among professional and white collar workers. Informal sector women had higher fertility than nonworking women. Preliminary multivariate analyses supported this pattern of work status related fertility. The chances of children attending school was higher among formal sector workers. Girls with nonworking mothers had better chances of gaining an education.
Bisi-Onyemaechi, A I; Akani, N A; Ikefuna, A N; Tagbo, B N; Chinawa, J M
Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population. The participating schools were inspected and their head teachers were interviewed using a questionnaire. Scores were awarded using the School Health Program Evaluation scale. Results: Thirty-three schools were studied. The most common source of water for most schools was well. Eleven schools dump refuse openly. Three public schools only had functional toilets. All public schools were adequately ventilated and lit. One private school had a foodservice area. Ten schools did not have a play field, while three public schools had soaps for handwashing. The mean scores for public and private schools were 33.00 and 37.86, respectively. Three schools only attained the minimum score of 57 of a maximum of 66. The environment of primary schools in Enugu east, Nigeria, is unhealthy and unfriendly and currently cannot promote and protect the health of the schoolchildren.
van Roosmalen, Marc; Gardner-Elahi, Catherine; Day, Crispin
Over the last 15 years, policy initiatives have aimed at the provision of more comprehensive Child and Adolescent Mental Health care. These presented a series of new challenges in organising and delivering Tier 2 child mental health services, particularly in schools. This exploratory study aimed to examine and clarify the service model underpinning a Tier 2 child mental health service offering school-based mental health work. Using semi-structured interviews, clinician descriptions of operational experiences were gathered. These were analysed using grounded theory methods. Analysis was validated by respondents at two stages. A pathway for casework emerged that included a systemic consultative function, as part of an overall three-function service model, which required: (1) activity as a member of the multi-agency system; (2) activity to improve the system working around a particular child; and (3) activity to universally develop a Tier 1 workforce confident in supporting children at risk of or experiencing mental health problems. The study challenged the perception of such a service serving solely a Tier 2 function, the requisite workforce to deliver the service model, and could give service providers a rationale for negotiating service models that include an explicit focus on improving the children's environments.
Admon Livny, Karen; Katz, Carmit
Child maltreatment is a worldwide social problem that receives considerable attention. However, prevention efforts remain rare, allowing the phenomenon to continue and spread. The aim of the current article is to systematically review evidence-based prevention efforts that address schools and families as key stakeholders for preventing child maltreatment. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, a thorough literature review revealed that only five programs matched the inclusion criteria for the current article. These programs were analyzed for several domains, including level of prevention, target population, participants, and the programs' outcomes. The current review highlights the urgent needs to develop, modify, and further evaluate prevention programs for child maltreatment in the context of the ecological model. More specifically, it illuminates the need to create and champion programs that enhance the collaboration between families and schools, both of which are key stakeholders within the phenomenon of child maltreatment. Collaboration between policymakers, researchers, and practitioners should guide future efforts by promoting cultural adaptation to such programs and by integrating children's perceptions to improve these efforts and to benefit everyone involved.
Chen, Jing-qi; Han, Ping; Dunne, Michael P
This study was designed to ascertain the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) among female students of a medical school and to explore the impact of CSA on the mental health and health related risk behaviors of the victims being sexually abused and to provide useful reference for CSA prevention. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 892 female students from a medical school by anonymous self-administered questionnaire during Oct. 2002. The questionnaire used for this study mainly included (1) general demographic information; (2) sexual experiences; (3) 12 forms of CSA. In this study, cases of CSA were defined as those who answered positively to one or more of the 12 questions relating to childhood sexual experiences (including non-physical contact CSA and physical contact CSA) occurring before age 16 with a person when a child did not want to. (4) Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES)-Depression Scale; (5) Self Esteem Scale; (6) Risk Behaviors; (7) Health status' self-evaluation. Survey procedures were designed to protect students' privacy by allowing anonymous and voluntary participation. Students were seated separately, completed the self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms during a regular class period. Respondents were encouraged to participate in this survey, but given the sensitive nature of the subject, they could skip portion of the questionnaire if they were not comfortable with the questions. The completed questionnaires were sealed in envelopes by students themselves (the envelope was distributed with questionnaire at the same time), and then collected together. Data were analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Frequency, percentage, Chi-square test and t-test of statistics were used to analyze the CSA prevalence and explore the influence of CSA on mental health of students. Among 892 female students, 25.6% reported having experienced CSA (any one of 12 forms non-physical contact and physical
Marco Aurélio Teixeira Piovezanni
Full Text Available Individuals with cerebral palsy present an atypical motor function, characteristic altered postures in movement coordination and muscle tone. This causes limitations in their ability to perform functional activities. In this context, the introduction of assistive technology is vital to the objective of augmenting their ability to function productively and be included in society. It is common for individuals with cerebral palsy to have difficulty maintaining body dynamics, especially with seated posture. The objective of this study is to produce an adapted school desk and adapted school chair with low cost materials and to study their efficacy in adjusting the writing motor skills of a child with cerebral palsy. This stydi’s case is a boy who has been diagnosed with diplegic cerebral palsy. The collection and registration of data was done in three stages, with the child positioned in adapted furniture, regular school furniture and again in the furniture adapted to establish a comparison. Data analysis was through nonparametrical statistical tests. There was no statistical significance and was verified inconsistency in the data presented, because cannot be said for sure wich furniture was more effective in carrying while performing a proposed task and even if there was learning motor with its repetition. This fact does not invalidate the adequacy of school furniture to the student with cerebral palsy, because is an important factor facilitate control and postural stability to the individual, which interferes with fine motor skills of these individuals, influencing their performance in school activities.
Gundersen, Steffie V; Goodman, Robert; Clemmensen, Lars
the online PE-section of DAWBA and the following face-to-face interview and assessment of PE. The DAWBA-PE-section asks the child 10 questions covering auditory and visual hallucinations, delusional ideas and subjective thought disturbances ever in life; and attributions to sleep, fever, illness or drug....... The current study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of DAWBA-based self-reported PE (PE-S) with regard to interview-based measures of PE (PE-I). METHODS: Participants were 1571 (47.8% male) children of age 11 to 12 years from the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 (CCC2000) with complete data from both...... intake. The interview-based assessment of PE was performed by trained professionals using 22 items from The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL). The two assessments were completed independently. RESULTS: The prevalence of PE...
Pedersen, Dorthe Corfitzen; Aarestrup, Julie; Pearson, Seija; Baker, Jennifer Lyn
The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen schoolchildren. From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Differences in prevalence levels and trends across six school years by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas were examined using logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight significantly decreased from 2002 to 2007 among the youngest Western girls and boys, showed no significant changes among the oldest non-Western girls and increased among the oldest non-Western boys. In all years, the youngest non-Western children had significantly higher levels of overweight than Western children. Although the prevalence of overweight tended to be higher in low socioeconomic areas as compared with high socioeconomic areas, few differences were statistically significant. Consistent trends in overweight across the years by socioeconomic area were not observed. Ethnic and social inequalities exist in childhood overweight among Copenhagen schoolchildren; thus appropriate interventions targeting high-risk groups are needed. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Andrepont, Emmy; Cullen, Karen W.; Taylor, Wendell C.
Background: Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child's school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (e.g., chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study examines the use of parental…
The purpose of this study was to examine relations between mother-child attachment and social initiative and withdrawal in Chinese urban children. Participants were 487 school-aged children (247 boys, 240 girls) in Shanghai, the People's Republic of China. Data on mother-child attachment styles were collected from children's self-reports.…
Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.; Sexton, Holly R.
An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys)…
Gyansah, Samuel Tieku; Soku, Rejoice; Esilfie, Gabriel
This research was conducted purposely to examine child delinquency on pupils' academic performance. Fumesua Municipal Assembly (M/A) primary school was used as the case study for the research. The specific objectives of the study are to find out the factors that contribute to child delinquent behavior, identify, if delinquent behavior influence…
Dawo, Jane-Irene A.; Simatwa, Enose M. W.
Despite Kenya Government's commitment to enhancement of girl-child education, their participation rate at secondary school level is still notably low. Many studies on the girl-child education have concentrated in the rural populations with the assumption that the situation in the urban setting is nearly ideal. This was not the case as was…
Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Houmann, Tine
Epidemiological studies of psychopathology in the first years of life are few, and the association between mental health problems in infancy and psychiatric disturbances later in life has not been systematically investigated. The aim of the present project was to study mental health problems...
Svastisalee, Chalida M; Nordahl, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Powell, Lisa M; Due, Pernille
To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Copenhagen, Denmark. The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictor for supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio = 0·66-0·80) in the final model. In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.
The Lord Mayor's Department of the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark, has with support from this project made a proposal for the establishment of the Centre for Urban Ecotechnology in ''Oeksnehallen'', located in the Vesterbro area of the city. The centre should contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on ecological techniques (regarding passive solar energy etc.) to the inhabitants of Vesterbro and other citizens of Copenhagen, and also serve as a centre in an European context. The ecological demonstration centre will cover an area of two thousand square meters and will also include a cafe, a room for showing coloured slides, facilities for exhibitions created by the center and interested firms etc. The centre should play an important role as part of the ecological concept of urban renewal in Vesterbro. (author).
Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard
Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...
Jensen, Anna B. O.; Zabic, Martina; Overø, H. M.
every day, stuck in slow moving traffic flows or traffic jam. Several means for regulating vehicle traffic flow exists, and various analyses and experiments have been carried out in a number of European Cities during the last five years as part of the PRoGRESS programme, sponsored by the EU. In Denmark......Like most older cities, downtown Copenhagen is a net of narrow streets surrounded by tall old buildings and with no, or very limited, possibilities for changing the traffic corridors. During business hours the traffic congestion is intense, and the workforce in Copenhagen spend hours on the roads...... amount of satellite signals from reaching street level, and there are too many gabs in the position logs to implement a fair and reliable taxation scheme. The need for augmentation is evident, and with the advent of Galileo within a few years, it is relevant to investigate how integrated GPS...
Andersen, A; Hovmand, M F; Johnsen, I
Transport of heavy metals from the atmosphere to the soil and vegetation takes place by dust fall, bulk precipitation, and gas/aerosol adsorption processes. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of the heavy metals lead, zinc, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations throughout the area for 12 months. Epigeic bryophytes, epiphytic lichen, and topsoil samples were analyzed. A linear correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes was found. An exponential correlation between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil was noted. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described, and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished. (10 diagrams, 8 graphs, 13 references, 2 tables)
The author proposes a rather detailed overview of the United States posture with respect to climate change challenges on the eve of the Copenhagen conference. First, he shows how the public opinion in the United States is ambivalent and changing. Then, he outlines that the arrival of President Obama resulted in an important change for the United States environmental policy: a new team was set up and the environment protection became a priority. The author then reports the Congressional process for this policy, first through the House of Representatives, and then the Senate. He highlights the differences between agendas of firms and of environment protection organisations, and between that of the Copenhagen conference and that of the US government
Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben
of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating......The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization......, an increasing demand for flexibility has been raised. Implementing geothermal heating would improve the flexibility in the Eastern Danish power system. Based on this information, as well as, on the hourly values of the expected production and consumption in 2010 and 2020, a model of the Copenhagen power...
Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Stadelmann, Martin [University of Zurich (Switzerland); Huq, Saleemul
One clear promise emerged from the confusion of the 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen. This was to provide short- and long-term 'climate finance' to help developing countries – especially the most vulnerable – adapt to climate impacts. The promise seemed simple enough: wealthier nations would pledge US$10 billion a year from 2010-2012, ramping up to US$100 billion a year starting in 2020. This was also touted as a way to help developing countries avoid high-carbon pathways of development by adopting lower-emitting power sources such as solar or natural gas. But a closer look at the Copenhagen promise unearths at least six big questions – any one of which could seriously challenge the trust these funds were designed to build.
pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...
Xavier, Gláucia do Carmo
Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a escolarização da criança artista de circo. O foco é a sua trajetória escolar sob o olhar de ações inclusivas ou excludentes por parte da escola. O objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar o cotidiano escolar dessas crianças e identificar os obstáculos existentes em relação à escolarização delas. A metodologia utilizada foi a entrevista com pais e estudantes de quatro circos visitantes em Belo Horizonte - MG. A pesquisa se desenvolveu em 2 anos e teve como resultado final a necessidade de uma mudança de paradigma por parte da escola frente à criança circense e um novo enfoque quanto à formação de educadores. Foi constatado preconceito, exclusão e falta de uma metodologia voltada para crianças que mudam com frenquência de escola, como é o caso do artista de circo.This article presents approach the circus artist child schooling. The concerning focus is to observe his inclusion and no inclusion trajectory at school. The main objective is to observe the child`s day by day life and identify obstacles that may interfere in school education. Interviews with parents and children were used as methodology. Four circuses were observed during two years in Belo Horizonte - Minas Gerais presentations season. After two years the research results ends up into the necessity to change the school behavior pedagogical methodology and inclusion comprehension focus to deal with those children. Prejudice and a non adequate educators training were also noticed.
Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Foged, Niels Nielsen; Jakobsen, Lisa; Jackson, Peter
Tunnels in Copenhagen are drilled through highly anisotropic limestone comprising alternating strongly lithified and less lithified parts. The mass quality of the limestone is usually defined from fracture spacing registered in core samples. The deposit is, however, affected destructively by dril...... by drilling activity yielding a low Rock Quality Designation RQD. In-situ observations of the limestone in excavations or televiewer logs reveal only few natural discontinuities compared to core logging, indicating a very good suitability for tunneling....
This working paper is a case study about the development of a faience product line in Royal Copenhagen and illustrates several aspects of how, at what stages of development, and by whom, cultural products in general are evaluated. Three theoretical issues emerge. One concerns the constraints impo...... of a particular cultural product had to be negotiated within a particular organizational world embracing both management and workers, with differentiated skills. These issues lead to a more general discussion of craftsmanship and storytelling....
The Copenhagen climate change conference has failed to meet expectations but has also led to a shift in the structure of multilateral negotiations on climate change. States have reclaimed negotiations, while the UN-centred structure has been weakened. Relations between developed and emerging countries have shifted, with the latter influence growing. There has also been an increased participation of civil-society actors (NGOs) in the debate. A new negotiation structure is emerging but it faces the difficult challenge of avoiding fragmentation
P.W. Jansen (Pauline); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. Dommisse-Van Berkel (Anke); V.J.A. Verlinden (Vincent); J. van der Ende (Jan); G. Stevens (Gonneke); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); W. Jansen (Wilma); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)
textabstractSchool-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school
Jansen, Pauline W.; Mieloo, Cathelijne L.; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Verlinden, Marina; van der Ende, Jan; Stevens, Gonneke; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning
School-aged children with an ethnic minority background are relatively often involved in bullying and victimization, but the role of ethnic composition of schools in this context remains unclear. This study examined the relation between ethnic minority background, ethnic school composition, and
Miyake, Y.; Yura, A.; Misaki, H.; Ikeda, Y.; Usui, T.; Iki, M.; Shimizu, T.
In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children
Pedersen, D. C.; Aarestrup, Julie; Pearson, Seija
Background: The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. Objective: To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen...... schoolchildren. Methods: From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Differences in prevalence levels and trends across six school years by ethnicity...... and socioeconomic areas were examined using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of overweight significantly decreased from 2002 to 2007 among the youngest Western girls and boys, showed no significant changes among the oldest non-Western girls and increased among the oldest non-Western boys. In all years...
Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik
In the 1870s, when Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species and Descent of Man were translated into Danish by the botanist-turned-poet J. P. Jacobsen, evolutionary thought played a seminal role in the modern breakthrough advocated by the freethinker and literary critic Georg Brandes. A group...... of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country....... At the same time in the village of Askov in rural Jutland, a liberal fraction of the Evangelical-Lutheran State Church, the Grundtvigians, had a stronghold at their high-profile folk high school. Here materialism and Darwinism associated with the Brandes circle were tabooed and later condemned. However...
Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte
regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure......, but not with supermarket exposure. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income, in the presence of populations under 35 yrs of age, remained a significant predictor for fast food outlet exposure (IRR = 0.66-0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, low-income neighborhoods...... have better exposure to supermarkets than their high income counterparts. However, we detected the opposite trend in the patterning of fast food outlets, such that neighborhoods in the lowest income quartile had less exposure to food outlets than higher income ones. These findings support studies...
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wahlin, P.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
period (01 January 1999 to 31 December 2004), we examined associations between urban background PM(10) in the presence of gaseous pollutants (CO, NO(2)) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease in the elderly (age>/=65), and asthma in children (age 5-18) in Copenhagen......An association between particulate air pollution and morbidity and mortality is well established. However, little is known about which sources of particulate matter contribute most to the adverse health effects. Identification of responsible sources would merit more efficient control. For a 6-year......, influenza epidemics, grass pollen, school holidays, and meteorology, with up to 5 days lagged air pollution exposure. We found positive associations between PM(10) and the three health outcomes, with strongest associations for asthma. The PM(10) effect remained robust in the presence of CO and NO(2). We...
One hundred and ninety-one parents attending an urban, community college were surveyed about what topics schools should teach their children about sexuality education, and how they communicate with their child about sexuality topics. The quantitative data was collected using a "School Sexuality Education Questionnaire" (SSEQ), and the "Parenting…
Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam
This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.
Beyazkurk, Derya; Kesner, John E.
Recent educational research utilising Bowlby's attachment theory has focused on children's interpersonal relationships with their teachers. Research in this area has indicated that the security of the teacher-child relationship influences children's development in many of the same ways as secure parent-child attachments. The purpose of this study…
McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan
Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…
out in the south eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria and used available statistics to show that there is high incidence of male child drop out in the south eastern states of Nigeria. Furthermore, it examined the causes of male-child drop out to ...
Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…
Principal Leadership, 2011
This article features Smokey Road Middle School, a Title I school serving 850 middle level students in grades 6-8. The school is located on the outskirts of Newnan, Georgia, a historic city of approximately 27,000 residents. The growth and development of the Coweta County School District is largely attributed to its close proximity to Atlanta. In…
Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2010
Each day over 53 million school children and 6 million adults--20 percent of the entire U.S. population--enter the nation's 120,000 school buildings to teach and learn. Unfortunately, in too many cases, they enter "unhealthy" school buildings," that undermine learning and health. In a recent five-state survey, more than 1,100 public schools were…
The recognition of child abuse and the perceived need for intervention by school personnel of primary schools: Results of a vignette study on the influence of case, school personnel, and school characteristics.
Vanderfaeillie, Johan; De Ruyck, Karolien; Galle, Johan; Van Dooren, Erik; Schotte, Chris
In 2015, 523 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect (CAN) were brought to the attention of the Confidential Center of Child Abuse and Neglect (CCCAN) of Brussels. Around 38% of these reports came from school personnel. This study investigated which factors affect the recognition of CAN by school personnel of Dutch-speaking primary education in Brussels and their intervention need. Two hundred seventy-nine staff members of 16 schools professionally working with children, filled in a Questionnaire Assessment of Situations of CAN. The instrument consists of 24 vignettes describing CAN. Respondents were asked questions regarding recognition and intervention need about each vignette. Detection, severity assessment, the need for professional help, the need for referral to a CCCAN and the need to involve judicial authorities were mainly associated with case characteristics. Although most situations of CAN were detected, situations of emotional abuse were less often recognized. Situations involving non-Western victims were considered to be more severe and the perceived need for involvement of professional help, CCCAN and judicial authorities was larger. Ethnic stereotypes affect the actions undertaken in case of CAN. Awareness of these reactions may result in equal treatment for all victims. Staff characteristics were little associated with detection and intervention need. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holly A. McKenzie
Full Text Available In Canada, it is estimated that 3 times as many Indigenous children are currently in the care of the state compared to when the residential schools’ populations were at their peak. It is imperative that action be taken. This article explores the continuities among residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, and child welfare in Canada today. In particular, we examine how colonial and neocolonial discourses operate through and justify these policies and practices. We propose nine policy recommendations, which aim to transform child welfare and support Indigenous families to care for their children. Although transformative policy change is unlikely within this neocolonial and neoliberal climate, the recent change in federal leadership has made it more possible to move these policy recommendations forward.
Campanelle, Thomas; Hawkey, Helen
This discussion outlines the techniques used in play therapy. Play therapy helps children to express verbally their innermost concerns, thus offering the counselor a way of understanding and helping the child who may have emotional or learning problems. (JC)
... to-treat form and give copies to the school nurse and any day care providers to keep in ... for children with special needs. Coordinate with the school nurse and your child’s physician to develop action plans ...
Finning, Katie; Moore, Darren; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Danielsson-Waters, Emilia; Ford, Tamsin
Anxiety and depression are common in young people and are associated with a range of adverse outcomes. Research has suggested a relationship between emotional disorder and poor school attendance, and thus poor attendance may serve as a red flag for children at risk of emotional disorder. This systematic review aims to investigate the association between child and adolescent emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. We will search electronic databases from a variety of disciplines including medicine, psychology, education and social sciences, as well as sources of grey literature, to identify any quantitative studies that investigate the relationship between emotional disorder and school attendance. Emotional disorder may refer to diagnoses of mood or anxiety disorders using standardised diagnostic measures, or measures of depression, anxiety or "internalising symptoms" using a continuous scale. Definitions for school non-attendance vary, and we aim to include any relevant terminology, including attendance, non-attendance, school refusal, school phobia, absenteeism and truancy. Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers and extract data from included studies. We will assess the risk of bias of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Random effects meta-analysis will be used to pool quantitative findings when studies use the same measure of association, otherwise a narrative synthesis approach will be used. This systematic review will provide a detailed synthesis of evidence regarding the relationship between childhood emotional disorder and poor attendance at school. Understanding this relationship has the potential to assist in the development of strategies to improve the identification of and intervention for this vulnerable group. PROSPERO CRD42016052961.
Leiter, Jeffrey; Johnsen, Matthew C.
Presents a longitudinal analysis of school performance declines among neglected and abused children, using the maltreatment and school histories of 1,369 children in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Significant relationships between maltreatment and declines in performance were found in diverse school outcomes. (SLD)
Although educators widely use school gardens for experiential education, researchers have not systematically examined the evaluative literature on school-gardening outcomes. The author reviewed the U.S. literature on children's gardening, taking into account potential effects, school-gardening outcomes, teacher evaluations of gardens as learning…
Full Text Available The presented text is a review of the scientific work A school to match any child, a manual to work with children of regular schools with physical disabilities. The author and the editor of this work is Sulejman Hrnjica, in cooperation with Vera Rajovikj, Tatjana Cholin, Ksenija Krtikj and Dijana Dopunovikj. The manual is a part of the project Inclusion of students with physical disabilities in regular primary education, which was approved and financed by the Ministry of education and sport of the Republic of Serbia, and published by the Institute of Psychology at the Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade, with the assistance of the foundation "Save the Children" from Great Britain, the office in Belgrade, 2004. This work can hardly be found in bookshops through the country, but it can be found in the library of the Faculty of Philosophy, and certainly at the Book Fair, held every year in Skopje.
Full Text Available An evaluation of the effectiveness of a school-based social competence curriculum PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies on teacher-rated aggressive behavior, ADHD, and prosocial behavior in children. The one-year prevention program was administered to children in 28 of 56 Swiss elementary schools (N = 1,675. Outcomes were assessed at pretest and posttest with a follow-up 2 years later. Moderator interactions involving baseline child characteristics and economic factors were tested. There were significant treatment effects for ADHD/impulsivity and aggression at the follow-up. Baseline development variables predicted higher prosocial behavior as well as lower aggressive behavior and ADHD at the follow-up. Economic risk factors predicted poor behavior outcomes at the follow-up. Development variables moderated the impact of PATHS on ADHD and aggression at the follow-up. However, for most outcomes, no main effects or moderation of treatment effects were found.
Wang, Pei-Ju; Feng, Jui-Ying
Hospitalization in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) can be a very stressful and sometimes traumatic experience for school-aged children due to illness, painful procedures, unfamiliar environment, and separation from family. We incorporated picture books into PICU nursing care to explore the stress response in a school-aged child with compartment syndrome who was hospitalized in the PICU. Observation, interview and communication with the patient were used to assess her psychological reactions and emotional and behavioral responses to stress related to hospitalization and medical treatment. Autonomy and control were provided and strengthened by giving the patient choices and purposive life plans. Picture books were used to establish rapport and help the patient express her feelings, needs, and desires for parental love and company. This case report highlights the importance of nurses' awareness of children's stresses and needs during hospitalization in the PICU as well as the value of picture books or other age-appropriate tools for this patient population.
Nadeem, Erum; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Chang, Vickie Y; Stein, Bradley D
Schools across the nation are increasingly implementing suicide prevention programs that involve training school staff and connecting students and their families to appropriate services. However, little is known about how parents are engaged in such efforts. This qualitative study examined school staff perspectives on parent involvement in the implementation of a district-wide suicide prevention program by analyzing focus group and interview data gathered on the program implementation processes. Participants included middle school teachers, administrators, and other school personnel. Study results revealed that in the immediate wake of a crisis or concern about suicide, school staff routinely contacted parents. However, substantial barriers prevent some students from receiving needed follow-up care (eg, lack of consistent follow-up, financial strain, parental stress, availability of appropriate services). Despite these challenges, school staff identified strategies that could better support parents before, during, and after the crisis. In particular, school-based services increased the success of mental health referrals. Our study suggests that systematic postcrisis follow-up procedures are needed to improve the likelihood that students and families receive ongoing support. In particular, school-based services and home visits, training and outreach for parents, and formal training for school mental health staff on parent engagement may be beneficial in this context. © 2015, American School Health Association.
As the Copenhagen Conference of Parties (COP) failed to negotiate a binding Post-Kyoto agreement, an alternative is proposed based on the Copenhagen Accord (CA). The CA, as endorsed by COP16 in Cancun, aims to combat global warming with differentiated reduction targets of greenhouse gas emissions and by mobilizing resources supporting adaptation and carbon-free technology in developing countries (DCs). Using a special version of MERGE, we study the global implications of the CA postulating extensions of the Accord in the direction of Technology Transfer Protocols (TTPs). We assess scenarios needed to reach sustainable climate targets under such Protocols. It is shown that without binding commitments for DCs, the warming target of 2 °C will be exceeded with a probability above 50%, even if Annex B countries eliminate their emissions. However, moderate commitments of DCs (when they reach sufficient economic development), make the 2 °C scenario feasible. TTPs combined with binding emission reduction targets thus provide a mechanism to reduce climate change damages, and may generate significant secondary benefits. For example, the reduced tax-subsidy scenario (RTS20) has 77% to 40% chances to remain below 2 °C of warming and an undiscounted cumulative gross domestic product (GDP) cost of 0.75% relative to baseline (not accounting for the benefits of avoided damages). - Highlights: ► Based on the Copenhagen Accord we propose an extension of the Kyoto Protocol. ► The carbon tax-revenue of industrialized countries subsidizes Technology Transfer to DCs and R and D. ► Emissions of Kyoto gases are reduced such that the probability of exceeding 2 °C is well below 50%. ► These scenarios assume moderate binding commitments for DCs after 2030. ► The undiscounted cumulative GDP costs are 0.75% above baseline.
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Wolfenden, Luke; Hodder, Rebecca K; McElwaine, Kathleen; Tremain, Danika; Bartlem, Kate; Bailey, Jacqueline; Small, Tameka; Palazzi, Kerrin; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wiggers, John
To examine the effect of universal, school-based, resilience-focused interventions on mental health problems in children and adolescents. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of universal, school-based interventions that included strategies to strengthen a minimum of 3 internal resilience protective factors, and included an outcome measure of mental health problems in children and adolescents aged 5 to 18 years. Six databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Results were pooled in meta-analyses by mental health outcome (anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, hyperactivity, conduct problems, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and general psychological distress), for all trials (5-18 years). Subgroup analyses were conducted by age (child: 5-10 years; adolescent: 11-18 years), length of follow-up (short: post-≤12 months; long: >12 months), and gender (narrative). A total of 57 included trials were identified from 5,984 records, with 49 contributing to meta-analyses. For all trials, resilience-focused interventions were effective relative to a control in reducing 4 of 7 outcomes: depressive symptoms, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and general psychological distress. For child trials (meta-analyses for 6 outcomes), interventions were effective for anxiety symptoms and general psychological distress. For adolescent trials (meta-analyses for 5 outcomes), interventions were effective for internalizing problems. For short-term follow-up, interventions were effective for 2 of 7 outcomes: depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. For long-term follow-up (meta-analyses for 5 outcomes), interventions were effective for internalizing problems. The findings may suggest most promise for using universal resilience-focused interventions at least for short-term reductions in depressive and anxiety symptoms for children and adolescents, particularly if a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based approach is used. The limited number of
Gewa, Constance A
To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.
Yadav, Anita; Yadav, T P
To assess school adjustment, self-concept, self-esteem, general wellbeing and parent-child relationship in children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)and to study the correlation of these parameters with chronicity of disease, number of active joints, laboratory parameters of disease activity and JIA subtypes. A total of 64 children (32 cases and 32 controls) were recruited for analysis. Self report questionnaires which included PGI General Wellbeing Measure, Adjustment Inventory for School Students, Parent Child Relationship Scale, Self Esteem Inventory and Self Concept Questionnaires were used to assess all the enrolled subjects. Cases had significantly lower general physical well being (p self-esteem, self-concept, adjustment in school, general wellbeing and evokes disturbed parent-child relationship.
Lund, Rikke; Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Henriksen, Pia Wichmann
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present article is to describe the face and content validity as well as reliability of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire (CSRQ). METHOD: The face and content validity test was based on focus group discussions and individual interviews with 31 informants...... from the interviews. Two additional themes not covered by CSRQ on dynamics and reciprocity of social relations were identified. DISCUSSION: CSRQ holds satisfactory face and content validity as well as reliability, and is suitable for measuring structure and function of social relations including...
Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten
Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... differences in their application due to different physical, organizational and cultural contexts in the two cities, drought being the main driver during the past decade in Melbourne (1997–2010) and pluvial flooding in Copenhagen (2007-). In Melbourne there is currently a strong integrated understanding...
Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær
INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital...
Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, Rasmus; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard
in various phases of CST. METHODS: Twelve Danish Second and Third Division soccer players participated in the study. On separate days, heart rate (HR) measurements, frequent blood sampling and physical/technical tests were performed during 60- and 90-min versions of CST during which repeated m. vastus......INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate whether a multi-facetted simulated soccer game protocol, entitled the Copenhagen Soccer Test (CST), elicited a similar physiological loading as a competitive game, and 2) to determine muscle metabolites, blood variables and sprint performance...
Holst, Gitte Juel; Harboe, Henrik; Sigsgaard, Torben
The aim of the study was to investigate indoor air related complaints and symptoms among the employees at a hotel in Copenhagen. A technical inspection of the office environment was performed and showed only minor problems with mould spore counts within normal range. Moreover a questionnaire...... reporting these unexpected findings a hotel employee drew our attention to the hotel’s smoking room, a shelter in the basement of the hotel building without ventilation. However, a lot of the hotel staff smoked down there so an ozone generator was installed in order to clean the air. After this meeting...
Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning...... odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or breastfeeding was associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia. The hypothesis of some protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of later schizophrenia is supported by our data....
Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.
Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick
The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...... as well as sketch the route itself within an interactive, online questionnaire built on Google Maps. Grouped into sub-classes the bikers’ responses were related to urban indicators such as scenic beauty, terrain, relation to other bicyclists, motorists and pedestrians etc. By relating characteristics...
Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted
In this work, a Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows considering EV constraints of limited driving range and freight capacity is addressed (EVRPTW). The EVs are allowed to recharge at certain locations, and aspects of intelligent location of these recharging points are considered....... The objective is to find the least cost plan for EV routing and compare this to conventional routing. A heuristic method is developed and tested on data based on real-life collected data on distribution vehicles in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The EVRPTW has so far received little attention in the literature...
... Act to refine the Schools Act with regard to serious matters of school discipline and to ensure its proper alignment with the constitutional imperatives regarding the best-interests-of-the-child right. Keywords: School discipline; child justice; the best interests of the child; children's rights; education law; restorative justice ...
Rao, A R
Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.
Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.; Karlslund, W.
BACKGROUND: The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person's state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore assoc...... the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration.......BACKGROUND: The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person's state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore...... Practitioners' Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis...
The object of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 was to reach an agreement on a new international legal architecture for addressing anthropogenic climate change post-2012. It failed in this endeavour, producing a political agreement in the form of the Copenhagen Accord. The Accord sets an ambitious goal of holding the increase in the global average surface temperature to below 2 deg. C. This paper describes 45 CO 2 -only mitigation scenarios that provide an indication of what would need to be done to stay within the 2 deg. C limit if the international climate negotiations stay on their current path. The results suggest that if developed countries adopt a combined target for 2020 of ≤20% below 1990 levels, global CO 2 emissions would probably have to be reduced by ≥5%/yr, and possibly ≥10%/yr, post-2030 (after a decade transitional period) in order to keep warming to 2 deg. C. If aggressive abatement commitments for 2020 are not forthcoming from all the major emitting countries, the likelihood of warming being kept within the 2 deg. C limit is diminutive.
Denes, Christian Andrew
The Bolsa Escola program in Brazil presents a clear break from the economic growth models and supply-side based strategies of the past. Founded on the assumption that the supplemental income generated by child labour outweighs the potential benefits of primary education, Bolsa Escola attempts to address the demand-side component of high dropout…
Keshavarz Haddad, GholamReza
In the framework of a household's collective decision processes, this study presents a structural empirical model to test the hypothesis that child labour is compelled by household's poverty and parent's bargaining power against one another. To this end, a measure for mother's intra-household bargaining power is developed. I use Iranian…
Harasym, Jessica; Langevin, Marilyn
Background: Little is known about optimal treatment approaches and stuttering treatment outcomes for children with Down syndrome. Aims and method: The purpose of this study was to investigate outcomes for a child with Down syndrome who received a combination of fluency shaping therapy and parent delivered contingencies for normally fluent speech,…
Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung
This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…
Egberts, Marthe R|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412493616; van de Schoot, A.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Geenen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087017571; Van Loey, Nancy E E
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study examined the course and potential predictors of parents' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after burn injury in their child (Age 8 to 18 years). METHOD: One hundred eleven mothers and 91 fathers, representing 118 children, participated in the study. Within the
Al-Hendawi, Maha; Keller, Clayton; Cloninger, Lea
The Child Behavior Checklist for children 6 to 18 (CBCL/6-18) is a widely used, standardized parent rating scale. However, few studies have tested the psychometric properties of this instrument in the Arab world despite the great need for such instruments to support the identification and education of children with emotional, behavioral, and…
Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben
In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…
Soares, Rodrigo R.; Kruger, Diana; Berthelon, Matias
This paper argues that conflicting results from previous literature--related to the effect of economic conditions on child labor--derive from different income and substitution effects implicit in different types of income variation. We use agricultural shocks to local economic activity in Brazil (coffee production) to distinguish between increases…
Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.
Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…
Al Amoodi Sara Ahmed Abdulla Saeed
Conclusion: This study is in line with other studies showing that aspects in the family food environment have an influence on eating behaviour of children. Educating parents on food environment and its impact on child behaviour is crucial in order to make them able to develop feeding strategies most likely to benefit children's' health.
McKey, Anne; Huntington, Annette
Childhood obesity is becoming a topical issue in both the health literature and the popular media and increasingly child health nurses are observing preschool children who appear to be disproportionately heavy for their height when plotted on standardized growth charts. In this paper literature related to childhood obesity in New Zealand and internationally is explored to identify current issues, and the implications of these issues for nurses in community based child health practice are discussed. Themes that emerged from the literature relate to the measurement of obesity, links between childhood and adult obesity and issues for families. A theme in the literature around maternal perception was of particular interest. Studies that investigated maternal perceptions of childhood obesity found that mothers identified their child as being overweight or obese only when it imposed limitations on physical activity or when the children were teased rather than by referring to individual growth graphs. The implications for nursing in the area of child health practice is discussed as nurses working in this area need an understanding of the complex and often emotive issues surrounding childhood obesity and an awareness of the reality of people's lives when devising health promotion strategies.
Human Resources Division
HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.
Anwana, U. I.
Discusses parental expectations of Nigerian preprimary schools and government regulations to ensure a standardized curriculum of religion, moral instruction, social norms, and English. Emphasizes necessity of parent-school cooperation to develop physical skills, character, intellectual skills, and respect for elders/authorities. Questions the…
Landreth, Garry L.
Reviews five major developments in play therapy: psychoanalysis, release therapy, relationship therapy, nondirective therapy, and play therapy in school settings. Suggests ways school counselors can use play therapy. Describes play therapy facilities, location selection, and play materials. Lists objectives of play therapy and how teachers can aid…
Fhumulani M. Mulaudzi
Objectives: This study promotes an integrated approach to school care using the African concept of Ubuntu – solidarity and sense of community – as a point of departure. The socio-ecological model was used, which includes the work of the school healthcare nurse in contributing to holistic health services. Method: An integrative review was conducted in January 2013, which included methodology studies, a theory review and a variety of studies related to school health. The studies were categorised according to school health, Ubuntu and the socio-ecological model. Findings: The role of school healthcare nurses entails acting as a liaison officer between a variety of stakeholders who work together to shape the future of children. Conclusion: Ubuntu, together with the socio-ecological model, can assist us to involve an entire community to raise children. This knowledge serves as a background to the planning of a school health programme. The role of the nurse in school health can also assist in collaborative efforts to formulate the programme and develop the competencies that will inform school health nurse training curricula.
Lore, Millicent D.; Wang, Aubrey H.; Buckley, M. Toni
Catholic social teaching affirms the primary role of parents in their children's education, as well as the importance of forging a positive home-school partnership. The purpose of this article is to provide empirical evidence for further cultivating a collaborative, home-school relationship aimed at improving the mathematics performance of…
After reviewing the history of corporal punishment in schools, author discusses "Ingraham v. Wright," wherein the U.S. Supreme Court found that the use of corporal punishment in schools was not unconstitutional. Calls for the federal courts to ensure that a student's 14th Amendment liberty interest is protected when subjected to…
Vuk, Goran; Overgård, Christian Hansen; Fox, J.
In June 2007, the Danish Parliament passed an act to finance the construction of the Metro City Ring in Copenhagen. The assessment project is based on the passenger patronage forecasts for 2015 from the Copenhagen traffic model. In this paper we show how the model forecasts for this particular...... infrastructure project can be explained through detailed knowledge of model structure and model validation....
Manners, Ian James
a Copenhagen reflection on the EU as a global actor within the context of the Normative Power Approach (NPA). The chapter engages in a critical Copenhagen reflection, which means that it takes seriously the insights of critical social theory and the role of cultural hegemony. The chapter argues that the NPA...
Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow
Gerodontology 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2010.00383.x The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health Background: In order to study the way old age influence oral health, the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort (COHS) has been established. Objectives: To describe...
Full Text Available The contribution gives a review of the research findings mapping (survey the pupils’ creativity level. It provides information about education in alternative schools: Montessori, Waldorf and the Integrated Thematic Instruction (ITI, where the research was realised. The Torrance test (TTCT and Urban test (TSD-Z were used for the identification of pupils’ creativity. The procreative tendency of the teachers was examined by the Self-Rating Scale of the Creatively Oriented Personality (SRSCP. The comparison of pupils’ and teachers’ results from standard and alternative schools brought diverse results. Our findings regarding the creativity level of pupils attending the second grade of Montessori and Waldorf schools (N=50 in comparison with the children in standard schools suggest no significant differences. The pupils of the alternative classes of ITI (N= 206 achieved significantly higher scores of originality than those of standard schools (N=194. A link between the teachers’ creative orientation and their pupils’ creativity has not been found.
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.......Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014....
Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wiggers, John
base for the effectiveness of universal school-based resilience-focussed interventions and in doing so provide an opportunity to better inform the development of interventions to potentially prevent mental health problems in child and adolescent populations. PROSPERO CRD42015025908.
... Fluoride in diet Infant formulas Obesity in children Growth and development schedules: Infant -- newborn development Toddler development Preschooler development School-age child development Adolescent ...
Sprunt, Beth; Hoq, Monsurul; Sharma, Umesh; Marella, Manjula
This study investigated the seeing, hearing and walking questions of the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module and the inter-rater reliability between teachers and parents as proxy respondents. Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study, two-gate design with representative sampling, comparing Module responses to reference standard assessments for 472 primary aged students in Fiji. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the area under the curve and optimal cut-off points. Areas under the curves ranged from 0.823 to 0.889 indicating "good" diagnostic accuracy. Inter-rater reliability between parent and teacher responses was "good" to "excellent". The optimal cut-off determined by the Youden Index was "some difficulty" however a wide spread of impairment levels were found in this category with most children either having none or substantial impairments. The diagnostic accuracy of the Module seeing, hearing and walking questions appears acceptable with either parents or teachers as proxy respondents. For education systems, use of the cut-off "some difficulty" with accompanying clinical assessment may be important to capture children who require services and learning supports and avoid potentially misleading categorization. Given the high proportion of the sample from special schools research is required to further test the Module in mainstream schools. Implications for rehabilitation Identification of children who are at risk of disability in Fiji is important to enable planning, monitoring and evaluating access to quality inclusive education. The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module appears to be a practical and effective tool that can be used by teachers to identify children at risk of disability. Children identified on the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module as having "some difficulty" or higher levels of difficulty in relation to vision, hearing or walking should be referred for further assessment
Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Kiuru, Noona; Pakarinen, Eija; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Rasku-Puttonen, Helena; Siekkinen, Martti; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
This study examined the extent to which child-centered versus teacher-directed teaching practices predicted the development of children’s reading and math skills in the first year of elementary school. In addition, we investigated whether associations between teaching practices and children’s academic skills development in Grade 1 differed among children who had low, average, or high initial academic skills at the beginning of school. The reading and math skills of 1,132 Finnish c...
Løndal, Knut; Greve, Anne
This article explores the nature of teachers’ involvement in child-managed play. We approached this didactic issue through analysis of interactional situations in a kindergarten and an after-school program and by drawing on relational theory and the concept of "pedagogical tact". Qualitative material was gathered from observations and video recordings of children and their teachers in the kindergarten and the after-school program and interactional situations were analysed. The findings show t...
Sankar, Jhuma; Devangare, Shashikant; Dubey, N K
Methemoglobin levels more than 70% have almost always been reported to have been fatal. The case of a 4-year-old boy who survived with methemoglobin levels of 98% is presented here. He was brought to the emergency department with complaints of vomiting, pain abdomen, and altered sensorium following accidental ingestion of paint thinner mixed with "Holi" colors. On examination, the child was in altered sensorium, cyanosed with saturations of 55%, who did not respond despite positive pressure ventilation with 100% oxygen. A possibility of toxic methemoglobinemia was considered and confirmed by finding of elevated methemoglobin levels of 98%. The child survived with definitive therapy with methylene blue and aggressive goal-directed approach.
Full Text Available Allergy is a multisystem disease in children that often occurs with the coexistence of diverse clinical manifestations that cause great impact on quality of life and academic performance due to sleep disorders arising from the disease or treatment, and absenteeism that children may experience. Because of the time spent in school, there is a possibility that allergic reactions may occur first in these facilities, where a lack of staff knowledge has been found regarding how to proceed in allergy crisis situations. Cooperative action among health teams, community, parents, and school authorities is essential to ensure that the school can prevent, recognize, and ensure quick access to emergency services (if needed and treatment protocols for allergic reactions, thus allowing allergic children to be better protected in the school environment, which should be considered an extension of the home environment and an important arm in proper management to control the disease.
Vitito, L M
Encopresis, an elimination disorder in children, presents as a challenging problem for gastroenterology nurses working with patients and families confronted with this disorder. This article offers a summary of the literature on encopresis, including pathogenesis, causative factors, early treatment, and clinical interventions focused on self-care. The antecedent factors that facilitate the child's participation in self-care are summarized, along with the intended outcomes of the self-care intervention plan.
Rappaport, Nancy; Pollack, William S; Flaherty, Lois T; Schwartz, Sarah E O; McMickens, Courtney
This article presents an overview of a comprehensive school safety assessment approach for students whose behavior raises concern about their potential for targeted violence. Case vignettes highlight the features of 2 youngsters who exemplify those seen, the comprehensive nature of the assessment, and the kind of recommendations that enhance a student's safety, connection, well-being; engage families; and share responsibility of assessing safety with the school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa
The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles w...
Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.
Industrialization including the effects of expanding energy consumption and metallurgy production as well as population growth and demographic pressure increased heavy-metal pollution loads progressively since the Industrial Revolution. Especially the burning of fossil fuels mobilizes heavy metals like lead and zinc on a large scale. By wet and dry deposition, these loads end up in the aquatic environment where sediments serve as sinks for these contaminations. In this study, we examine the pollution history of Copenhagen, Denmark. A sediment core was retrieved for the lake in the Botanical Gardens in central Copenhagen using a rod-operated piston corer. The water body used to be part of the old town's defence-wall system and was turned into a lake by terrain levelling in the mid 17th century. After initial X-ray fluorescence core scanning, element concentrations were determined using emission spectroscopy. The onset of gyttja accumulation in the lake is assumed to start immediately after the construction of the fortification in approximately AD 1645. An age model representing the last approximately 135 years for the uppermost 60cm was established by lead-210 and cesium-137 dating. The older part was dated via recognition of markedly increased levels of levoglucosan which are interpreted to be linked with recorded fires in Copenhagen. Similarly, two distinct layers interstratify the sediment column and mark pronounced increases of minerogenic material inflow which can be linked to known historical events. Significant pollution load increases are evident from the 1700s along with urban growth and extended combustion of carbon carriers fuels such as wood and coals. However, a more pronounced increase in lead and zinc deposition only begins by the mid-19th century. Maxima for the latter two pollutants are reached in the late 1970s followed by a reduction of emissions in accordance with stricter environmental regulations. Here, especially the phasing-out of tetraethyl
Maclean, Miriam J; Taylor, Catherine L; O'Donnell, Melissa
Maltreatment largely occurs in a multiple-risk context. The few large studies adjusting for confounding factors have raised doubts about whether low educational achievement results from maltreatment or co-occurring risk factors. This study examined prevalence, risk and protective factors for low educational achievement among children involved with the child protection system compared to other children. We conducted a population-based record-linkage study of children born in Western Australia who sat national Year 3 reading achievement tests between 2008 and 2010 (N=46,838). The longitudinal study linked data from the Western Australian Department of Education, Department of Child Protection and Family Support, Department of Health, and the Disability Services Commission. Children with histories of child protection involvement (unsubstantiated maltreatment reports, substantiations or out-of-home care placement) were at three-fold increased risk of low reading scores. Adjusting for socio-demographic adversity partially attenuated the increased risk, however risk remained elevated overall and for substantiated (OR=1.68) and unsubstantiated maltreatment (OR=1.55). Risk of low reading scores in the out-of-home care group was fully attenuated after adjusting for socio-demographic adversity (OR=1.16). Attendance was significantly higher in the out-of-home care group and served a protective role. Neglect, sexual abuse, and physical abuse were associated with low reading scores. Pre-existing adversity was also significantly associated with achievement. Results support policies and practices to engage children and families in regular school attendance, and highlight a need for further strategies to prevent maltreatment and disadvantage from restricting children's opportunities for success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana
The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style.
Pereira, Jennifer K.
The results of this experimental study have demonstrated that following participation in a 12-hour training in Child-Centered Play Therapy (CCPT), school counselor trainees significantly increased their CCPT knowledge and skills in employing CCPT, as compared to a control group. Participants reported that they had learned enough of the philosophy…
Løndal, Knut; Greve, Anne
This article explores the nature of teachers' involvement in child-managed play. We approached this didactic issue through analysis of interactional situations in a kindergarten and an after-school programme and by drawing on relational theory and the concept of "pedagogical tact". Qualitative material was gathered from observations and…
Computerized point-of-sale (POS) machine software that allows parents to place restrictions on their child’s school meal accounts is available. Parents could restrict specific foods (eg, chips), identify specific days the child can purchase extra foods, or set monetary limits. This descriptive study...
Piškur, B; Beurskens, A J H M; Jongmans, M J; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, R J E M
BACKGROUND: The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to
Flynn, Joseph E.; Hunt, Rebecca D.; Johnson, Laura Ruth; Wickman, Scott A.
This article examines urban school-university partnership research after No Child Left Behind. Central to the review is an analysis in the trend of research methods utilized across studies. It was found that many studies are single-case studies or anecdotal. There are few quantitative, sustained qualitative, or mixed-methods studies represented in…
Modipane, Mpho; Themane, Mahlapahlapana
This paper reports on lessons learnt in the use of teachers' social capital as a resource for curriculum development, in the implementation of the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) programme in South Africa. The researchers in this study were amongst the trainers. The study followed a qualitative research approach, where a descriptive research design…
Piskur, B; Beurskens, AJHM; Jongmans, MJ; Ketelaar, M; Smeets, RJEM
Background The aim was to provide an overview of the number, domains and priority of needs as expressed by parents in supporting participation of their school-aged child with a physical disability. Additionally, this study investigated whether the number of needs within each domain is related to the
Ronoh, T. K.; Sang, A. K.; Sisungo, Z. W.; Mumiukha, C. K.; Ayub, M. J.
This paper sought to establish the effects of selected cultural, financial, and school-based factors on the girl-child's access to educational and socioeconomic development in Kenya. It is arguably observed that various local and international conventions, treaties, commissions, and state actors have strived to promote the development of…
Full Text Available The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB requires that schools make “adequate yearly progress” (AYP towards the goal of having 100 percent of their students become proficient by year 2013-14. Through simulation analyses of Maine and Kentucky school performance data collected during the 1990s, this study investigates how feasible schools would have met the AYP targets if the mandate had been applied in the past with “uniform averaging (rolling averages” and “safe harbor” options that have potential to help reduce the number of schools needing improvement or corrective action. Contrary to some expectations, the applications of both options would do little to reduce the risk of massive school failure due to unreasonably high AYP targets for all student groups. Implications of the results for the NCLB school accountability system and possible ways to make the current AYP more feasible and fair are discussed.
O'Leary, James D; Janus, Magdalena; Duku, Eric; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; To, Teresa; Li, Ping; Maynes, Jason T; Crawford, Mark W
It is unclear whether exposure to surgery in early life has long-term adverse effects on child development. The authors aimed to investigate whether surgery in early childhood is associated with adverse effects on child development measured at primary school entry. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, by linking provincial health administrative databases to children's developmental outcomes measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). From a cohort of 188,557 children, 28,366 children who underwent surgery before EDI completion (age 5 to 6 yr) were matched to 55,910 unexposed children. The primary outcome was early developmental vulnerability, defined as any domain of the EDI in the lowest tenth percentile of the population. Subgroup analyses were performed based on age at first surgery (less than 2 and greater than or equal to 2 yr) and frequency of surgery. Early developmental vulnerability was increased in the exposed group (7,259/28,366; 25.6%) compared with the unexposed group (13,957/55,910; 25.0%), adjusted odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.08. Children aged greater than or equal to 2 yr at the time of first surgery had increased odds of early developmental vulnerability compared with unexposed children (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10), but children aged less than 2 yr at the time of first exposure were not at increased risk (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.10). There was no increase in odds of early developmental vulnerability with increasing frequency of exposure. Children who undergo surgery before primary school age are at increased risk of early developmental vulnerability, but the magnitude of the difference between exposed and unexposed children is small.
Pitrou, Isabelle; Shojaei, Taraneh; Wazana, Ashley; Gilbert, Fabien; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of child overweight in a regional sample of primary school-aged children, and to examine the relationships among child overweight, psychopathology, and social functioning. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 in 100 primary schools of a large French region, with 2,341 children aged 6-11 randomly selected. Child weight and height, lifestyle variables (leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), watching television (TV), playing video games), and socioeconomic characteristics were collected in parent-administered questionnaires. Child psychopathology outcomes were assessed using child- and parent-reported instruments (Dominic Interactive (DI) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). Overweight and obesity were estimated according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition. Response rates to the parent questionnaire and DI were 57.4 and 95.1%, respectively. Final sample size was 1,030 children. According to the IOTF, 17.3% of the children were overweight, of whom 3.3% were obese. In univariate analysis, correlates of overweight were low parental education, low monthly income, Disadvantaged School Areas (DSAs), self-reported generalized anxiety, parent-reported conduct disorders, emotional problems, and peer difficulties. High monthly income was less frequently associated with overweight. In multivariate analysis, parent-reported peer difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-3.35) and DSAs (1.88; 1.03-3.44) were independent factors significantly associated with child overweight. There was a trend of being overweight with elevated TV times (P for trend = 0.02). The psychosocial burden of excess weight appears to be significant even in young children. Findings should be considered for preventing strategies and public health interventions. School-based overweight prevention programs should be implemented first in disadvantaged areas together with information
Khani, Roudaina Al
development principles has been attached to the planning of the redevelopment of the harborfront areas. Nevertheless, this paper shortly presents an evaluation of the urban conversion of the Copenhagen harborfront sites and of their redevelopment strategies with regards to their contribution to sustainable...... strategies of the late 1990s and highlights their potentials for drawing up new paths towards sustainability. The aspects of the recent strategies demonstrate that a better reconciliation of the conflicting interests between the actors involved (the State, the Municipality and the Port Authority) is more...... the implementation of a coordinated redevelopment strategy. Finally, this paper culminates by extracting some conclusions that should be taken into account when making both planning and political choices....
Dahlström, Hanna Sofia Strandmark
Copenhagen’s origin and early development have long been subject to study, and has since the nineteenth century resulted in numerous and sometimes conflicting theories. The dearth of large excavations in the old parts of the city in modern times has resulted in fragmentary archaeological evidence...... and a concomitant lack of synthesis of a more modern nature. In connection with the current, large-scale, excavations connected to the Metro Cityring project (2009–), the Museum of Copenhagen has had the opportunity to conduct major excavations pertinent to the development of the medieval town. The site...... at Rådhuspladsen (the Town Hall Square) lies on the borders of the high and late medieval town, but in an area traditionally seen as located outside the earliest settlement. The preliminary results from this excavation, together with indications from excavations and watching briefs in recent years, enable us...
Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Kristensen, Tage Søndergård; Borg, Vilhelm
AIMS: The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). METHODS: The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular...... feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items...... was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity...
Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans
longer to avoid routes with many stops. The most attractive road environment is a segregated path only for cyclists closely followed by shopping street. Looking into heterogeneity, we find that people who own a car have less disutility of cycling additional distance. The results may support future......Cycling as a mode of transportation is increasingly being advocated due to the many positive effects it has on people's health, the environment and to counteract increasing congestion on the transportation infrastructure. There is a long tradition of using cycling as a mode of transportation among...... the Danish public and this is widespread across people with different socio-demographic characteristics. Copenhagen has an extensive network of cycling facilities and is often used as a role model for other large cities when developing cycling facilities. This setting provides a unique basis...
Alberola, Emilie; Fages, Emmanuel
The article examines the development of carbon markets in the world. Such markets are the main economic instrument of the international climate policy established by the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 and are being implemented by most industrialized countries. They are experimented by Europe since 2005 for industrial facilities and since 2008 by industrialized countries under Kyoto. The development of carbon markets will likely continue beyond 2012, when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Their expansion will be largely determined by the future international climate policy to be negotiated in Copenhagen in December 2009 and by the commitment of the largest economies like the United States. The authors describe the emergence of carbon markets, their basic principles and the experience of Kyoto and European markets. Then, they deal with the expected developments beyond 2012
Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Alfsen, Knut H.
The Copenhagen Accord has been followed up by national pledges of greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the year 2020 without specifying measures to enforce actions. As a consequence, the capacity of parties to fulfil their obligations is of basic interest. This article outlines the effects of full compliance with pledges on greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth, and trade. The study is based on the global computable general equilibrium model GRACE distinguishing between fossil and non-fossil energy use. Global emissions from fossil fuels in 2020 turn out to be 15% lower than in a business as usual (BAU) scenario and 3% below the global emissions from fossil fuels in 2005. China and India increase their emissions in 2020 to 1 and 5 per cent above BAU levels in 2020, respectively. We find some carbon leakage towards India, China and Russia within the energy intensive industries steel and cement.(auth)