WorldWideScience

Sample records for copenhagen child cohort

  1. The prevalence of mental health problems in children 1(1/2) years of age - the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard

    2007-01-01

    The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population.......The Copenhagen Child Cohort, CCC 2000, was established to investigate developmental psychopathology prospectively from birth in a general population....

  2. Choroidal thickness in relation to birth parameters in 11- to 12-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Q; Munkholm, Anja; Larsen, Michael; Munch, Inger C

    2014-10-30

    To examine choroidal thickness in a population-based child cohort in relation to birth parameters. The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study examined 1406 children aged 11 to 12 years using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), ocular biometry and measurement of height, weight, refraction, and self-reported pubertal development status. Birth parameters were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The subfoveal choroid in low birth weight children (choroid in high birth weight children (>4500 g, n = 48, mean 351 ± 63 μm) was comparable with normal birth weight children, P = 0.44. The subfoveal choroid was thinner in preterm children, however the difference was not significant (-18 [-37 to 2] μm, P = 0.08). Small for gestation children had thinner subfoveal choroid (-19 [-37 to -1] μm, P = 0.04) compared with appropriate for gestation children. Longer birth length was associated with a thicker subfoveal choroid (2 [1-4] μm/cm, P = 0.005). Macular choroidal thickness at 16 extrafoveal locations was measured in a subset of children and found to have the same associations with birth weight as the subfoveal choroidal thickness. In 11- to 12-year-old children, thinner choroids were associated with lower birth weight, lower birth length, and being small for the gestational age. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  4. Risk factors for failure to thrive in infancy depend on the anthropometric definitions used: the Copenhagen County Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    for FTT in a general infant population using different definitions of FTT. Three different criteria of FTT mirroring those used in previous population studies were applied to a birth cohort of 6090 infants. Sociodemographic data and prospectively collected information concerning physical and mental...... at present. However, only longitudinal studies including different anthropometric measures and different outcomes can unravel the discriminating power of the different FTT definitions concerning long-term prognosis....

  5. Functional somatic symptoms and associated impairment in 5-7-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Olsen, Else Marie; Elberling, Hanne;

    2009-01-01

    Research on somatisation or functional disorders, characterised by the subjective report of physical symptoms in the absence of clear physical pathology, in young children is limited. This study investigates the distribution, types and co-occurrence of parent-reported functional somatic symptoms......,327 children. The newly introduced parent interview, the soma assessment interview, was used to assess the child's FSS. Impairing symptoms were defined as FSS that caused substantial discomfort, impairment of everyday life, absence from day-care or school and/or help-seeking in the health care system. The 1...... with two or more of these functional pain complaints, while 15 (4.9%) had all three types. The findings indicate that FSS are common health complaints in 5-7-year-old children. A subgroup with impairing FSS with a likely need of clinical intervention was identified. This suggests that a somatisation...

  6. The health and social situation of the mother during pregnancy and global quality of life of the child as an adult. Results from the prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort 1959-1961

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective cohort study (Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 of 7,222 persons was used in order to explore the association between the social and health situation during pregnancy and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. Two sets of questionnaires were used with one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and one filled out by the adult children 31-33 years later. The questionnaires included mother's situation during pregnancy and global QOL of the child at follow-up: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life’s temporal and spatial domains, expression of life’s potentials and objective measures. The only indicators to have clear connections with a reduced quality of life were the cases of mother's with syphilis (8.5%, mother's congenital malformations (8.8%, low social group (6.9% and failing contraception (3.8%. The results obtained repudiate the common notion and hypothesis that the mother's situation during pregnancy is highly important for the quality of life that the child experience as an adult. This suggest that the aspects important for quality of life later on are not found solely in early conditions, but instead more dependent on later attitude towards life of that specific person.

  7. Factors During Pregnancy, Delivery and Birth Affecting Global Quality of Life of the Adult Child at Long-term Follow-up. Results from the Prospective Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prospective cohort study, where we explore associations between pregnancy, delivery and the global quality of life (QOL of the adult child 31-33 years later. The data is from the Copenhagen Perinatal Birth Cohort 1959-61 using two sets of questionnaires send to 7,222 persons: one filled out by physicians during pregnancy and delivery, while the follow-up questionnaire was completed by the adult children 31-33 years later. The main outcome measures were objective factors describing pregnancy and delivery along with global quality of life, including: Well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, fulfilment of needs, experience of life's temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials and objective measures. Results showed two main factors in pregnancy that seemed to be associated with a reduced quality of life for the child 31-33 years later: the mother's smoking habits and the mother's medication–especially painkillers and different psychopharmacological drugs with the association being most prevalent early in pregnancy. Considering what can and do go wrong during the various stages of labour and delivery and considering how few connections we found between the factors examined and the later global QOL, it seems that the child is remarkably resilient to external influences during pregnancy and delivery concerned with global QOL, as an adult.

  8. The growth pattern of 0-1-year-old Danish children, when screened by public health nurses--the Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Petersen, Janne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2005-01-01

    Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference.......Using inadequate growth references when screening child health could lead to false conclusions concerning individual growth. We were concerned that this might apply to the official Danish growth reference....

  9. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 1 1/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E.

    2008-01-01

    2000 was investigated by data from National Danish registers and data collected prospectively from birth in a general child health surveillance programme. Mental health outcome at 11/2 years was assessed by clinical and standardised measures including the Child Behavior Check List 11/2-5 (CBCL 11....../2-5), Infant Toddler Symptom Check List (ITSCL), Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II), Mannheim Eltern Interview (MEI), Parent Child Early Relational Assessment (PC ERA) and Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIR-GAS), and disordered children...

  10. Early developmental milestones and risk of schizophrenia: a 45-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Schiffman, Jason

    2010-01-01

    disorders and in the 4982 cohort controls who were never admitted to a psychiatric department. Group comparisons were adjusted for gender, mother's age, father's age, parental social status, breadwinner's education, single mother status and parity. Individuals who developed schizophrenia reached all......The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between age of neuromotor milestone attainment and risk of adult schizophrenia. 5765 mothers of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort recorded 12 developmental milestones during the child's first year of life. Cohort members were followed...

  11. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment on the development of the fetus and infant throughout early life is increasingly recognised. To study such effects, biological samples and accurate data records are required. Based on multiple data collection from a healthy pregnant population......, the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  12. The incidence of disability pensions and mortality among semi-skilled construction workers in Copenhagen. A retrospective cohort study with two control groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, M; Gøth, S; Hasle, P

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to discover whether the incidence of disability pensions and mortality was higher amongst semi-skilled construction workers (SCW) in Copenhagen than in two control groups from the same geographic area. The population investigated consisted of a fixed cohort of 3537...... SCW from Copenhagen as per 1/5/1975. The two control groups comprised 3818 Copenhagen members of the Warehouse Workers' union and a group of Copenhagen members of the Semi-skilled Worker's Union age-matched to the SCW cohort, both as per 1/5/75. Up to 31/12/79, a total of 102 SCW were granted...

  13. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer: a case-cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer; Baker, Jennifer L; Cederkvist, Luise; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-02-01

    One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification number linkage of the entire CSHRR with the Danish Cancer Registry and a random subsample of 4819 males from the CSHRR. The study design was case-cohort and the period of follow-up between 2 April 1968 and 31 December 2003. Cryptorchidism was significantly associated with testicular cancer in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth weight and birth order and stratified on birth cohort (HR = 3.46, 95% CI 2.67-4.48). This study confirmed the robustness of the association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer even after adjustment for birth weight and birth order. Furthermore, the study showed an inverse association between birth weight and testicular cancer.

  14. Copenhagen Diary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO CHENG; TIAN FAN; WEI DONGZE

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 19, 2009, the Copenhagen climate change conference finally produced major and positive outcomes after complicated and tortuous negotiations. The Copenhagen Accord issued at the conference f'trmly upheld the basic framework and principles established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, further clarified the due obligations and actions of developed and developing countries respectively according to the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities," and reflected international consensus regarding the long-term goals for address-ing climate change, financing, technology, transparency of actions and other issues.

  15. Long-Term Survival after Stroke: 30 Years of Follow-Up in a Cohort, the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G.; Marott, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    died before the end of 2007. The National Register of Causes of Death provided cause of death. Survival in stroke patients was compared with survival in participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who did not suffer a stroke, and with survival in the general Danish population. Cox regression...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who experienced a first-ever stroke from 1978 to the end of 2001 were followed to the end of 2007. Stroke events were validated using the World Health Organization's definition of stroke. Linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System enabled identification of participants who......-stroke controls. Long-term survival improved steadily over time. Life expectancy after stroke increased up to 4 years from 1978 to the end of 2001, exceeding the increase of life expectancy in the general population. Slightly longer survival was found in women than in men when adjusted for age at stroke onset...

  16. Growing up together: cohort composition and child investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelly M

    2014-02-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, 60 % of child deaths are preventable by investments in child health as simple as immunizations, bed nets, or water purification. This article investigates how a household's decisions regarding such investments are affected by the size and gender composition of a child's cohort. I focus on a previously overlooked type of investment: nonrival, child-specific goods (club goods). I empirically estimate the response of immunization status to cohort characteristics. I carefully address the problem of endogenous fertility, which is common in cohort studies. Because most rural Senegalese households are composed of multiple nuclear families, a child's cohort is composed of both siblings and nonsibling children. Estimating within households, I instrument cohort characteristics with those of the nonsibling (exogenous) portion. I find that children with larger (or more predominantly male) cohorts of vaccine-eligible age are significantly more likely to receive immunization. These findings suggest that children with larger cohorts may be better off in terms of club investments; this is a significant finding for child health given that many illness prevention methods are of a club good nature.

  17. National Child Development Study (or 1958 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Child Development Study (NCDS is one of Britain’s world-renowned national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. The study is an ongoing multi-disciplinary longitudinal study which follows the lives of around 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1958. Over the course of cohort members lives, the NCDS has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. The broad aim of the study is to examine the impact that circumstances and experiences at one stage of life have on outcomes and achievements in later life. Since the birth survey in 1958, there have been ten ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 7, 11, 16, 23, 33, 42, 44/5 (a biomedical collection 46, 50 and most recently at 55. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, teachers, doctors and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability and educational assessments. The information collected forms a high quality data resource for scientific investigations across a full range of domains of individuals’ lives and across different points in time in them. The study has been designed so as to ensure comparability with other major cohort studies so as permit the examination of links between social change and the changing experiences of different cohorts. The majority of NCDS survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  18. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  19. Persistent maternal depressive symptoms trajectories influence children's IQ: The EDEN mother-child cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Waerden, Judith; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; De Agostini, Maria; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Peyre, Hugo; Heude, Barbara; Melchior, Maria

    2016-01-01

    for The EDEN Mother–Child Cohort Study Group; International audience; Background: This study assessed the association between timing and course of maternal depression from pregnancy onwards and children's cognitive development at ages 5 to 6. Potential interaction effects with child sex and family socioeconomic status were explored.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine mother–child pairs from the French EDEN mother–child birth cohort were followed from 24 to 28 weeks of pregnancy onwards. Based o...

  20. Everyday Ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  1. Everyday ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  2. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision ...

  3. Everyday Ageing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stald-Bolow, Nina Rose; Malmborg, Lone; Brandt, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Senior life in Copenhagen is lived in numerous ways. Through three seniors' stories from their everyday life, we give an insight into this diversity. We lookig into how they imagine a good senior life can unfold in Copenhagen today. The three senior lives portrayed here were part of the everyday ...

  4. Soft drink intake at age six and nine and the association with BMI three and seven years later - A follow-up study based on the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Wang; Nielsen, Birgit Marie; Husby, Ida

    School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), a 7- year longitudinal study initiated in 2001 among preschool children aged 6 years. Weight and height were measured at enrolment and 3 and 7 years later. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed at age 6 and 9 years using 4-days accelerometer and a 7......Introduction: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one of the few dietary components that have been associated with the development of obesity. However, most previous studies have been based on children or adolescents aged 8 years or more. Method: The study was based on the Copenhagen...

  5. Somalis in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    and participation—as well as broader themes of belonging and identity and the role of the media.Immigration from Somalia to Denmark is a new phenomenon very much linked to the political situation in Somalia. The Danish Somali population in Copenhagen is small and faces social and economic disadvantages......Somalis in Copenhagen explores the views and experiences of Somalis living in Copenhagen and the challenges and successes of integration policies. The report focuses on six areas of local policy—education, employment, housing, health and social protection, policing and security, and citizenship......, particularly a very high level of discrimination and stereotyping. The study reveals institutional gaps across different areas that need to be addressed urgently but also good practices at the local level.Somalis in Copenhagen is part of a comparative seven-city research series entitled Somalis in European...

  6. Risk factors for failure to thrive in infancy depend on the anthropometric definitions used: The Copenhagen County Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Else Marie; Skovgaard, Anne M; Weile, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    used criterion of downward crossing of centiles on an ordinary weight-for-age chart was associated with factors normally linked with low risk of adverse physical and mental development. Slow conditional weight gain, irrespective of additional thinness, seemed to identify infants with prenatal growth......Failure to thrive (FTT) is the term widely used to describe poor weight gain in infancy, a condition associated with cognitive deficiency in later childhood. FTT has been investigated in earlier population studies, but little is known about risk factors for FTT or the sequence of events...... as this requires data to be collected prospectively within the first year of life. Furthermore, several different anthropometric criteria have been used to define FTT, and it is not known whether children identified by the different criteria are comparable. In the present population study we compared risk factors...

  7. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B;

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  8. Phthalate exposure and child development: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Ligocka, Danuta; Sobala, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-09-01

    Widespread phthalate exposure has prompted investigations concerning their potential adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre and early postnatal phthalate exposure on child psychomotor development based on the data from the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO PL). Phthalate exposure was determined by measuring 11 phthalate metabolites (MEP, MiBP, MnBP, 3OH-MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, 5oxo-MEHP, OH-MiNP, oxo-MiNP, and MnOP) in the urine collected from mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy (prenatal exposure) and from their children at the 24th month of age (postnatal exposure). The analysis was performed by the HPLC-MS/MS method. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 2years by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Child motor development was inversely associated with natural log concentrations (μg/g creatinine) of 3OH-MnBP (β= -2.3; 95% CI -4.0 to -0.6), 5OH-MEHP (β= -1.2; 95% CI -2.2 to -0.3), 5oxo-MEHP (β= -1.8; 95% CI -3.3 to -0.2) and sum of DEHP metabolites (β= -2.2; 95% CI -3.6 to -0.8), DnBP metabolites (β= -1.9; 95% CI -3.4 to -0.4), and high molecular weight phthalates (β= -2.5; 95% CI -4.1 to -0.9) in the urine collected from mothers during pregnancy after adjustment for a variety of potential confounders. Additional adjustment for postnatal phthalate exposure did not change the results. Postnatal child exposure to phthalates was not associated with any of the measured scores of child psychomotor development. The study findings add further support to the possibility that prenatal phthalate exposure may be detrimental to child neurodevelopment and underscore the importance of policies and public health interventions aiming at reduction of such exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trying to explain Copenhagen

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The documentary "The Copenhagen Fallout" recounts the friendship and "falling out" of Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, two of the greatest contemporary physicists - friends whom war turned into enemies. It will be shown at CERN on 1st December. During a lecture in Germany towards the end of 1922, a 20-year-old physicist dared to interrupt Physics Nobel-Prize winner Niels Bohr with the words "There is a mathematical error in what you have said." The young scientist in question was none other than Werner Heisenberg. From this audacious beginning a fruitful collaboration and great friendship grew. But World War II threw up a wall of incomprehension between the two scientists, as one worked for the Nazi regime and the other opened his Copenhagen institute to German Jewish scientists. Then came their famous meeting in September 1941, dramatised by the no less famous play "Copenhagen", currently being performed in association with CERN at th...

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  11. The Copenhagen Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan

    2014-01-01

    I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....

  12. REDD: The Copenhagen Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feja Lesniewska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An agreement on reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and degradation at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties 15 (COP 15 in Copenhagen December 2010 was not forthcoming. For a number of reasons this is a welcome outcome as several important outstanding legal and technical issues remain unresolved. This article examines the results from COP 15 including the Copenhagen Accord. It focuses on the key issues of principles, finance models, and environmental and social safeguards. It concludes with an assessment of the potential effect that the COP 15 will have on REDD negotiations this coming year prior to the UNFCCC COP 16 in Mexico December 2010.

  13. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  14. The Copenhagen Triage Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Rasmus Bo; Plesner, Louis Lind; Pries-Heje, Mia

    2016-01-01

    is non-inferior to an existing triage model in a prospective randomized trial. METHODS: The Copenhagen Triage Algorithm (CTA) study is a prospective two-center, cluster-randomized, cross-over, non-inferiority trial comparing CTA to the Danish Emergency Process Triage (DEPT). We include patients ≥16 years...

  15. Informal child care and adolescent psychological well-being: Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Y Leung

    Full Text Available Informal child care (child care by untrained family members, relatives or employees in the home in Western populations is often associated with poorer psychological well-being, which may be confounded by socioeconomic position. We examined the association of informal child care, common in non-Western settings, with adolescent psychological well-being, using Hong Kong's Chinese "Children of 1997" birth cohort.Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the adjusted associations of informal child care (at 0.5, 3, 5 and 11 years with parent-reported Rutter score for child behavior at 11 years, self-reported Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories score at 11 years and self-reported Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depressive symptom score at 13 years. Model comparisons were used to identify the best representation of child care, in terms of a critical period of exposure to informal child care (independent variable at a specific age, combination of exposures to informal child care at several ages or an accumulation of exposures to informal child care.Child care was not associated with behavioral problems. A model considering child care at 3 years best represented the association of child care with self-esteem while a model considering child care at 5 years best represented the association of child care with depressive symptoms. Informal child care at 3 years was associated with lower self-esteem (-0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI -1.26 to -0.14. Informal child care at 5 years was associated with more depressive symptoms (0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.73.In a developed non-Western setting, informal child care was associated with lower self-esteem and more depressive symptoms.

  16. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    preschool classes in two suburban communities in Copenhagen, during a progressive treadmill exercise. Habitual physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Results: Boys had higher VO2MAX both in absolute values (1.19 (0.18) v 1.06 (0.16) litres/min (+11%), p... +9.4%, pactive. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when......Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from...

  17. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... heterozygous seems to be mediated by events in the early stages of the HIV infection.......The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... lower HIV RNA levels (p = 0.005) and higher CD4 cell counts (p

  18. Disclosure patterns of mode of conception among mothers and fathers-5-year follow-up of the Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Rikke; Lund, Rikke; Molbo, Drude

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on disclosure of mode of conception after fertility treatment have focused on donor insemination. We present a large, longitudinal cohort study of fertility patients who conceived through a variety of fertility treatments, including both non-donor and donor techniques. ME...

  19. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...... of 100% RE can be achieved in a socio-economic and resource efficient way in Denmark, but local involvement is required to ensure the implementation of a Smart Energy System approach. A Smart Energy System perspective, which considers electricity, heating and transport, is applied in this study using...... the EnergyPLAN model. The model simulates the electricity, heating, cooling, industrial, and transport sectors on an hourly basis and enables the identification of new synergies between the sectors to 1) improve the efficiency of the energy system and 2) accommodate the short-term fluctuations in renewable...

  20. Dentoalveolar trauma and minor trauma as precipitating factors for medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ): a retrospective study of 149 consecutive patients from the Copenhagen ONJ Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Pouya Masroori; Schiodt, Morten

    2015-04-01

    Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is often preceded by dentoalveolar trauma. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of dentoalveolar trauma precipitated ONJ and compare trauma-precipitated ONJ with spontaneously developing ONJ. This was a retrospective study. All patients were examined according to a standard ONJ chart. Among 149 consecutive ONJ patients from the Copenhagen Cohort, 95 (64%) had a dentoalveolar trauma before referral (trauma group): dental extractions (n = 80); denture-related sore mouth (n = 12); and others (n = 3). The remaining 54 patients had spontaneous ONJ (spontaneous group). The mean time from oral trauma to referral for ONJ was 8 months. This study documented that dentoalveolar trauma precipitated ONJ in the majority of cases. However, even minor trauma, such as intubation and impression tray lesions, precipitated ONJ in a few cases (1%). Besides the occurrence of fistula to the skin and a difference in the male-to-female ratio, we found no significant difference between the spontaneous and trauma groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Copenhagen quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2016-07-01

    In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen interpretation is a later 1950s development and some of the earlier pioneers like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device. Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrödinger cat states are the norm rather than curiosities generated in physicists' laboratories. We then describe how the conditioned state of a quantum system depends crucially on how the system is monitored illustrating this with the example of a decaying atom monitored with a time of arrival photon detector, leading to Bohr's quantum jumps. On the other hand, other kinds of detection lead to much smoother behaviour, providing yet another example of complementarity. Finally we explain how classical behaviour emerges, including classical mechanics but also thermodynamics.

  2. Copenhagen Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    In our quantum mechanics courses, measurement is usually taught in passing, as an ad-hoc procedure involving the ugly collapse of the wave function. No wonder we search for more satisfying alternatives to the Copenhagen interpretation. But this overlooks the fact that the approach fits very well with modern measurement theory with its notions of the conditioned state and quantum trajectory. In addition, what we know of as the Copenhagen interpretation is a later 1950's development and some of the earlier pioneers like Bohr did not talk of wave function collapse. In fact, if one takes these earlier ideas and mixes them with later insights of decoherence, a much more satisfying version of Copenhagen quantum mechanics emerges, one for which the collapse of the wave function is seen to be a harmless book keeping device. Along the way, we explain why chaotic systems lead to wave functions that spread out quickly on macroscopic scales implying that Schrodinger cat states are the norm rather than curiosities generat...

  3. Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Haissman, Judith Melchior; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues....../DESIGN: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV-infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. The study was initiated in 2015 and recruitment is ongoing with the aim of including 1500 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen area. Follow-up examinations after 2 and 10 years are planned. Uninfected controls...... (PBMC), urine, and stool samples are collected in a biobank for future studies. Data will be updated through periodical linking to national databases. DISCUSSION: As life expectancy for PLWHIV improves, it is essential to study long-term impact of HIV and cART. We anticipate that findings from...

  4. Fin de Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    FIN DE COPENHAGUE this book by the Danish Cobra artist Asger Jorn and the French philosopher Guy Debord, is the first in a series of two and was published in 1957, shortly before the authors founded the Situationist International. According to Jorn, upon arrival to Copenhagen, they stole some new......´s and Jorn´s theories but in its representation of the environment as a range of geographic, social, political and economic dynamics but also proposes a vision of the future city as a multi-layered network in a state of constant transformation....

  5. Copenhagen, an unexplained encounter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Why did Werner Heisenberg, a participant in the nuclear research programme of the Third Reich, visit his friend and mentor Niels Bohr in occupied Denmark in September 1941? Was it a deliberate attempt to mislead the allies through talking to Bohr? Or was he really pursuing the utopian goal of halting the race to build the atomic bomb? What the historians have never been able to fully explain is explored in the play "Copenhagen", in which the ghosts of the two great scientists try to fathom why they failed to understand each other all those years ago. "Copenhagen", which has filled theatres in London, New York and Paris, is one of the most successful plays of British author Michael Frayn, also famous for his crime thrillers and comedies. A production of the play in French will be staged at the Théâtre de Carouge from 18th November. Werner Heisenberg and Niels Bohr before World War II.Both CERN and the Association pour l'Histoire des Sciences have associated themselves with the production...

  6. Early Predictors of Eating Problems in Preadolescence-A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The epidemiology of childhood eating problems is far from being fully described. The present study aims to explore early predictors of eating behavior problems in preadolescence. Methods: The study sample comprised 1,939 children from the birth cohort study, the Copenhagen Child Cohort...... (CCC2000). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations among infancy health, developmental and relational factors, maternal mental health problems, socioeconomic factors, parental reported eating behavior patterns in preschool age and eating behavior problems in preadolescence...

  7. Speed and duration of walking and other leisure time physical activity and the risk of heart failure: a prospective cohort study from the Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Askelund Saevereid

    Full Text Available AIM: Physical activity (PA confers some protection against development of heart failure (HF but little is known of the role of intensity and duration of exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a prospective cohort study of men and women free of previous MI, stroke or HF with one or more examinations in 1976-2003, we studied the association between updated self-assessed leisure-time PA, speed and duration of walking and subsequent hospitalization or death from HF. Light and moderate/high level of leisure-time PA and brisk walking were associated with reduced risk of HF in both genders whereas no consistent association with duration of walking was seen. In 18,209 subjects age 20-80 with 1580 cases of HF, using the lowest activity level as reference, the confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (HR for light and moderate/high leisure-time physical activity were 0.75 (0.66-0.86 and 0.80 (0.69-0.93, respectively. In 9,937 subjects with information on walking available and 542 cases of HF, moderate and high walking speed were associated with adjusted HRs of 0.53 (0.43-0.66 and 0.30 (0.21-0.44, respectively, and daily walking of ½-1 hrs, 1-2 and >2 hrs with HR of 0.80 (0.61-1.06, 0.82 (0.62-1.06, and 0.96 (0.73-1.27, respectively. Results were similar for both genders and remained robust after exclusion of HF related to coronary heart disease and after a series of sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Speed rather than duration of walking was associated with reduced risk of HF. Walking is the most wide-spread PA and public health measures to curb the increase in HF may benefit from this information.

  8. Rodovre apartments, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morck, O. [Cenergia ApS, Ballerup (Denmark)

    1999-07-01

    A combined air/liquid solar collector system was retrofitted to a three-storey apartment building in Copenhagen, originally built in the 1950s. The building has been insulated outside with 100 mm mineral wool. Between the insulation and the original walls there is an air gap. In this air gap the hot air from the solar air collector is circulated to heat the building. Site-built combined air/liquid collectors cover the whole south- facing roof. The collectors were built on top of the existing roof, which serves as the back of the collectors. The solar air system is a dual system, including both a closed collector loop to an air to water heat exchanger and a double envelope. (author)

  9. Climate Summit in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

      Together with the United States, China has moved to centre stage in the running up to the Climate Summit in Copenhagen 7-18 December 2009. To make the Summit a success, the two countries have started signalling positive commitment to formulation of quantitative targets and engage constructively...... in elaborating a reasonably ambitious, yet realistic framework for the implementation of a new global post-Kyoto regime that will have to take effect from 2012. China's leadership has already acknowledged that climate change may exacerbate an exceedingly unsustainable development path over the next decades...... if action is not taken to change its course dramatically. The challenges are formidable, yet the window of opportunity to take action is quite narrow. For these reasons and due to international pressure, China's position on climate change has been made gradually clearer as the climate negotiations have...

  10. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005.......The Copenhagen School Health Records Register is an electronic register of health examination information on 372,636 children who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark from 1936 to 2005....

  11. Taking the Copenhagen Process apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    The aim of this thesis is to analyse the EU vocational education and training policy process (The Copenhagen Process) from a critical perspective based on the policy analysis methodology, “What’s the Problem Represented to Be?” (WPR) developed by Professor Carol Bacchi. The main research question...... “How can the European vocational education and training policy process - the Copenhagen Process - be understood from a WPR perspective? “ is addressed in six articles which take apart the Copenhagen Process and deal with specific WPR questions and specific aspects of the Copenhagen Process......: the construction of vocational education and training; changes in governmentality; the genealogy of EC vocational education and training policy; the technologies of Europeanization; and finally the discursive and institutional effects of the policy process in the Danish context. The thesis argues...

  12. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals.

  13. Prevalence of COPD in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Peder; Løkke, Anders; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2011-01-01

    COPD is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, prevalence estimates have varied considerably in previous studies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate the relati...... the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities....

  14. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and anogenital distance at 3 months of age in a Danish mother-child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Priskorn, Lærke; Lassen, Tina Harmer

    2017-01-01

    In the Odense child cohort, serum concentrations of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were measured in 638 pregnant women. Birth weight, head and abdominal...

  15. Air pollution effects on fetal and child development: a cohort comparison in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Deliang; Li, Ting Yu; Chow, Judith C; Kulkarni, Sanasi U; Watson, John G; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Quan, Zhang Y; Qu, L R; Perera, Frederica

    2014-02-01

    In Tongliang, China, a coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source until its shutdown in 2004. We enrolled two cohorts of nonsmoking women and their newborns before and after the shutdown to examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fetal and child growth and development. PAHs were used to measure exposure to air pollution generated by the power plant. Using PAH-DNA adduct levels as biomarkers for the biologically effective dose of PAH exposure, we examined whether PAH-DNA adduct levels were associated with birth outcome, growth rate, and neurodevelopment. Head circumference was greater in children of the second cohort, compared with the first (p = 0.001), consistent with significantly reduced levels of cord blood PAH-DNA adducts in cohort II (p < 0.001) and reduced levels of ambient PAHs (p = 0.01).

  16. Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Ching Shu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD, children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary.

  17. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker

    2016-01-01

    of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar...

  18. Incidence and characteristics of sexually transmitted acute hepatitis C virus infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Copenhagen, Denmark during four years (2006-2009): a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Toke S; Omland, Lars Haukali; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2011-01-01

    We determined the incidence of hepatitis C virus among Danish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) and described their characteristics. We included 871 HIV-positive MSM seen from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen; drug users ...

  19. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemokine receptor CCR2b 64I polymorphism and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts and disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected individuals. Copenhagen AIDS cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Iversen, Anton; Benfield, Thomas;

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the recently described mutation in CCR2b named 64I in relation to HIV resistance, CD4 T-cell counts, and disease progression in Danish individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods as well as sequenced full-length CXCR4 and CCR5 genes from HIV......-term nonprogression could not be explained by CXCR4 polymorphism or other polymorphisms in the CCR5 gene than the CCR5delta32 allele. Furthermore, we were not able to detect any significant independent effect of the 64I allele on development to AIDS, overall survival, and annual CD4 T-cell decline in this cohort....

  1. Parental Rheumatoid Arthritis, Child Mortality and Case Fatality A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We have reported increased long term morbidity in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we assess child mortality and case fatality in the same cohort. METHODS: All singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 were identified through linkage of Danish National...... did the risk of death below the ages of 5 years, 3 years, or 1 year. Below the age of 5 years, 6,106 children of parents with RA were diagnosed with respiratory diseases and 3,320 with infectious diseases. Case fatalities in children with these diseases were not significantly higher than those...

  2. Developmental Effects of Exposures to Environmental Factors: The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polanska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure—cord blood lead level, for mercury—maternal hair mercury level, for ETS—cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH—1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects and 24 months (198 subjects children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development (β = −2.6; P=0.02 and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive (β = −0.2; P=0.05 and motor functions (β = −0.5; P=0.01 were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance (β = −6.2; P=0.06. The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  3. Developmental effects of exposures to environmental factors: the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Trzcinka-Ochocka, Malgorzata; Ligocka, Danuta; Brzeznicki, Slawomir; Strugala-Stawik, Halina; Magnus, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of exposure to environmental factors, including lead, mercury, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), on child psychomotor development. The study population consists of mother-child pairs in the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to environmental factors was determined from biomarker measurements as follows: for lead exposure--cord blood lead level, for mercury--maternal hair mercury level, for ETS--cotinine level in saliva and urine, and for PAH--1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) in urine. At the age of 12 (406 subjects) and 24 months (198 subjects) children were assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. There were no statistically significant effects of prenatal exposure to mercury or 1-HP on child psychomotor development. After adjusting for potential confounders, adverse effects of prenatal exposure to ETS on motor development ( β = -2.6; P = 0.02) and postnatal exposure to ETS on cognitive ( β = -0.2; P = 0.05) and motor functions ( β = -0.5; P = 0.01) were found. The adverse effect of prenatal lead exposure on cognitive score was of borderline significance ( β = -6.2; P = 0.06). The study underscores the importance of policies and public health interventions that aim to reduce prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead and ETS.

  4. Rachel the Jewess in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2012-01-01

    , the contextualisation of Rung’s performances here involves investigating the implications of “Jewishness” in Copenhagen at this time and of the ways in which the sound of Rung’s vocal performances may have served to define Rachel as an example of the literary stereotype of the “beautiful Jewess”. Finally......, as it gradually recovered, seems to have been characterised by a rather lower compass. The performance material used by the Royal Theatre in the nineteenth century, preserved in the archives of the Royal Library in Copenhagen, suggest that several passages in La juive, particularly those containing passionate...

  5. Miscasting, TV adaptation inhibit 'Copenhagen' drama

    CERN Multimedia

    Winn, S

    2002-01-01

    Review of a television adaptation of the play 'Copenhagen', produced by Howard Davies for PBS, USA . The play speculates on the real reason that Werner Heisenberg came to see Niels Bohr in Copenhagen in 1941 (1 page).

  6. Patterns of maternal feeding and child eating associated with eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Reba-Harreleson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of eating disorders on maternal feeding practices and children's eating behaviors is not well understood. In the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa),we compared self-reported feeding behavior in mothers with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and no eating disorders (No ED) as well as child eating behaviors and psychological symptoms. The sample was comprised of 13 006 women and their children from a prospective populati...

  7. Polish mother and child cohort study (REPRO_PL)--methodology of follow-up of the children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Jurewicz, Joanna; Sobala, Wojciech; Madsen, Christian; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per

    2011-12-01

    A prospective cohort study design gives the opportunity for identification, update of different exposures and their verification by biomarker measurements. The aim of The Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is to evaluate the impact of exposure to different environmental factors during pregnancy and, after birth, on the pregnancy outcome, children's health and neurodevelopment. REPRO_PL cohort was established in 2007. From the cohort of 1300 mother-child pairs, 300 children are followed-up until they are two years old to asses the exposure, health status and neurodevelopment. Children are examined twice: at one and two years of age by a pediatrician and a psychologist/child development specialist. During each visit, detailed questionnaire is conducted with the mothers and supplemented with the information from the medical charts to have appropriate recognition of the child's health and development. Additionally, the current health status of the child is checked and his/her biometry is performed. A urine sample is collected from each child for the verification of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure. Some children have a blood sample collected for the assessment of the lead and cadmium levels. Child's neurodevelopment is assessed based on Bayley Scales for Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III). The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine the impact of the environmental exposures on children's health and neurodevelopment. REPRO_PL cohort is a middle-sized cohort, very much focused on specific research questions with the potential for future extension and cooperation.

  8. Looking for effects of environmental contaminants in a large birth cohort: Summarizing results of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per

    2017-01-06

    The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) includes about 113 000 pregnancies, recruited during the years 1999-2008. Using information from questionnaires and biological samples, a major purpose has been to estimate the association between exposures to environmental contaminants and disease occurrence in parents and children. The intention of this article is to describe the available data in MoBa together with a short synopsis of some recent MoBa-publications that relate to exposure assessment and associations between toxicants and health outcomes. The majority of these papers display negative results, in the sense that no strong associations between contaminants and health outcomes have been found, whereas others suggest adverse effects. The positive associations between fetal exposure to contaminants and child growth and development will need replication in other cohorts and further risk assessment. Large prospective pregnancy cohorts remain an important resource for surveillance and detection of effects of environmental hazards on human health.

  9. Social Pharmacy Research in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach

    2016-01-01

    Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...

  10. Cern collisions light up Copenhagen

    CERN Multimedia

    Banks, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Anyone passing by the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark, might be startled by some strange moving lights on the facade of the institute's main building. In fact, the dancing beams show, almost in real time, collisions form the Atlas experiment at Cern's Large Hadron Collider (LHC)" (1 paragraph)

  11. Metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    From 1650 to 1850, Copenhagen was not extended although its population rose steadily. A cholera epidemic finally led to the removal of the city fortification in 1856 and opened up for a construction boom in the closest suburbs. The extension of tramlines and their electrifi cation in 1900 pushed ...... in Sweden, forming a cross-border region with around 3.5 mio. inhabitants....

  12. Predictors (0-10 months) of psychopathology at age 11/2 years - a general population study in The Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Olsen, Else Marie; Christiansen, E;

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life.......Epidemiological studies of mental health problems in the first years of life are few. This study aims to investigate infancy predictors of psychopathology in the second year of life....

  13. Kan kontakt- og opmaerksomhedsforstyrrelser hos småbørn opdages ved sundhedsplejerskernes BOEL-prøve? Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Alexandra N; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Lichtenberg, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The prevention of disorders in social communication and attention is hampered by the lack of effective tools to screen in the first year of living. In Denmark public health nurses perform screening of physical and mental health in all infants, and at the age of 8-10 months a standardised test, BOEL...

  14. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  15. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  16. Impact of the Jamaican birth cohort study on maternal, child and adolescent health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw-Binns, A; Ashley, D; Samms-Vaughan, M

    2010-01-01

    The Jamaica Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality Survey (JPMMS) was a national study designed to identify modifiable risk factors associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcome. Needing to better understand factors that promote or retard child development, behaviour and academic achievement, we conducted follow-up studies of the birth cohort. The paper describes the policy developments from the JPMMS and two follow-up rounds. The initial study (1986-87) documented 94% of all births and their outcomes on the island over 2 months (n = 10 508), and perinatal (n = 2175) and maternal deaths (n = 62) for a further 10 months. A subset of the birth cohort, identified by their date of birth through school records, was seen at ages 11-12 (n = 1715) and 15-16 years (n = 1563). Findings from the initial survey led to, inter alia, clinic-based screening for syphilis, referral high-risk clinics run by visiting obstetricians, and the redesign and construction of new labour wards at referral hospitals. The follow-up studies documented inadequate academic achievement among boys and children attending public schools, and associations between under- and over-nutrition, excessive television viewing (>20 h/week), inadequate parental supervision and behavioural problems. These contributed to the development of a television programming code for children, a National Parenting Policy, policies aimed at improving inter-sectoral services to children from birth to 5 years (Early Childhood Commission) and behavioural interventions of the Violence Prevention Alliance (an inter-sectoral NGO) and the Healthy Lifestyles project (Ministry of Health). Indigenous maternal and child health research provided a local evidence base that informed public policy. Collaboration, good communication, being vigilant to opportunities to influence policy, and patience has contributed to our success.

  17. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  18. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  19. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence.

  20. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A;

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...... daily intake of dietary fiber was higher in Them than in Copenhagen. These observations document changes due to industrialization of food production, modern distribution, and marketing methods....

  1. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5.5 Years: The EDEN Mother-Child Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galéra, Cédric; Bernard, Jonathan Y; van der Waerden, Judith; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Lioret, Sandrine; Forhan, Anne; De Agostini, Maria; Melchior, Maria; Heude, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Evidence from animal studies suggests maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy has detrimental effects on subsequent brain development in offspring. However, human data in this area are limited. The aim of this study was to assess whether caffeine intake by women during pregnancy is associated with impaired cognitive development in offspring at age 5.5 years. Multivariate modeling was conducted using data of 1083 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in France followed from pregnancy to age 5.5 years of the children. Measures included an estimate of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, children's IQ at age 5.5, and individual and family characteristics. Prenatal caffeine exposure was common in the sample (91%) with 12% displaying an intake ≥200 mg/day (high). Multivariable modeling showed a significant negative relationship between caffeine intake and children's IQ at 5.5 years (-.94 [95% confidence interval = -1.70, -.17] full IQ unit per 100 mg daily caffeine intake). In particular, children of mothers consuming ≥200 mg/day were more likely to have borderline or lower IQ compared with children of mothers consuming caffeine intake during pregnancy and impaired cognitive development in offspring, a result in line with animal data. More epidemiologic and biologically grounded research is needed to determine whether this association is causal. This finding suggests that conservative guidelines regarding the maximum caffeine intake recommended in pregnancy (i.e., 200 mg/day) should be maintained. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Start in Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG GUOGUANG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The UN Climate Change Conference concluded on the afternoon of December 19 in Copenhagen,Denmark. The scale of the meeting and the attention it has attracted speak to its great importance. After strenuous negotiations, the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)and the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol passed documents, decided to continue negotiations along the Bali Roadmap and commissioned the two working groups of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol to produce an outcome by the end of 2010.

  3. Rachel the Jewess in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , the contextualisation of Rung’s performances here involves investigating the implications of “Jewishness” in Copenhagen at this time and of the ways in which the sound of Rung’s vocal performances may have served to define Rachel as an example of the literary stereotype of the “beautiful Jewess”. Finally...... with a more bizarre brand of exoticism (a song in which she sings the character of a witch). The author concludes that the vocal rendition of Pauline Lichtenstein as the “beautiful Jewess” in 1842 was probably the sound of a relatively low voice, as compared to the type of soprano for which the part...

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  5. Placental concentrations of heavy metals in a mother-child cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaya, E., E-mail: eamayag@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Gil, F. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Freire, C. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), 21041-210 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Olmedo, P. [Department of Legal Medicine, Toxicology and Physic Anthropology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez-Rodriguez, M. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Fernandez, M.F.; Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2013-01-15

    Heavy metals are environmental contaminants with properties known to be toxic for wildlife and humans. Despite strong concerns about their harmful effects, little information is available on intrauterine exposure in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb and its association with maternal factors in a population-based mother-child cohort in Southern Spain. Between 2000 and 2002, 700 pregnant women were recruited and 137 placentas from the cohort were randomly selected and analyzed for the selected metals by atomic absorption. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained by questionnaire after delivery. Bivariate analysis and multivariate linear regression were performed. Cd and Mn concentrations were detected in all placentas, while Cr, Pb, and Hg were found in 98.5%, 35.0%, and 30.7% of samples, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for Pb (mean: 94.80 ng/g wet weight of placenta), followed by Mn (63.80 ng/g), Cr (63.70 ng/g), Cd (3.45 ng/g), and Hg (0.024 ng/g). Arsenic was not detected in any sample. Gestational age and smoking during pregnancy were associated with placental Cd concentrations, while no factor appeared to influence concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, or Pb. In comparison to results of European studies, these concentrations are in a low-intermediate position. Studies are required to investigate the factors contributing to early exposure to heavy metals and to determine how placental transfer of these toxic compounds may affect children's health.

  6. PAH-DNA adducts in cord blood and fetal and child development in a Chinese cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, D.L.; Li, T.Y.; Liu, J.J.; Chen, Y.H.; Qu, L.R.; Perera, F. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Dept. for Environmental Health Science

    2006-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of toxic pollutants released by fossil fuel combustion. Other pollutants include metals and particulate matter. PAH-DNA adducts, or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) adducts as their proxy, provide a chemical-specific measure of individual biologically effective doses that have been associated with increased risk of cancer and adverse birth outcomes. In the present study we examined the relationship between prenatal PAH exposure and fetal and child growth and development in Tongliang, China, where a seasonally operated coal-fired power plant was the major pollution source. In a cohort of 150 nonsmoking women and their newborns enrolled between 4 March 2002 and 19 June 2002, BaP-DNA adducts were measured in maternal and umbilical cord blood obtained at delivery. High PAH-DNA adduct levels (above the median of detectable adduct level) were associated with decreased birth head circumference (p = 0.057) and reduced children's weight at 18 months, 24 months, and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.05), after controlling for potential confounders. In addition, in separate models, longer duration of prenatal exposure was associated with reduced birth length (p = 0.033) and reduced children's height at 18 (p = 0.001), 24 (p {lt} 0.001), and 30 months of age (p {lt} 0.001). The findings suggest that exposure to elevated levels of PAHS, with the Tongliang power plant being a significant source, is associated with reduced fetal and child growth in this population.

  7. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers' employment was investigated separately. Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers' employment, household income and mothers' psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Family and mothers' employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers' transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Pre-eclampsia research in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Magnus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy disorder of unknown origin. In Norway, pre-eclampsia is reported in 3 to 4 per cent of registered births. At present, November 2014, a series of investigations into the etiology of preeclampsia have been published internationally from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, and several studies are ongoing. The intention of this paper is to give a short summary of what has been accomplished, and to discuss future avenues of research concerning causes, mechanisms and consequences of pre-eclampsia. The papers that have been published up to now include seven that concern life-styles (physical activity, tobacco and diet, six that include prior pregnancies, infection, gestational weight gain, toxicants and tryptophan metabolism, and two studies concerning issues of selection and validity. Major findings are that tobacco smoking is only associated with reduced risk of pre-eclampsia when it occurs in the last trimester; that processed food and sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with increased risk while vegetables, vitamin D and probiotics are associated with reduced risk; and that prior induced abortions have the same risk-reducing effect as a prior pregnancy. For future studies, we suggest that better use should be made of the family structure built into MoBa. This includes better use of the discordant pregnancy design. A series of ongoing genetic studies, partly in international consortia, will hopefully open new etiological insights. The indications that pre-eclampsia is related to cardiovascular disease and other complex disorders should be further investigated through systematic follow-up of pre-eclamptic women and controls. Finally, MoBa is eminently suited to study the influences that pre-eclampsia can have on the growing child.

  9. Water sensitive urban design retrofits in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fryd, Ole; Backhaus, A.; Birch, H.

    2013-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is emerging in Denmark. This interdisciplinary desk study investigated the options for WSUD retrofitting in a 15 km2 combined sewer catchment area in Copenhagen. The study was developed in collaboration with the City of Copenhagen and its water utility...

  10. Dietary patterns in Them and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, P; Jørgensen, I M; Paerregaard, A

    1982-01-01

    Four-day weighing and 24-hour recall were used to record food consumption in groups of 30 men, aged 50-59 years, in 2 areas of Denmark: Them, a rural Danish community, and Copenhagen. Fat consumption was found to be higher in Them, whereas alcohol consumption was higher in Copenhagen. The absolut...

  11. Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008. POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth...... Cohort. METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted...... for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children...

  12. Influences on child fruit and vegetable intake: sociodemographic, parental and child factors in a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise R; Steer, Colin D; Rogers, Imogen S; Emmett, Pauline M

    2010-07-01

    To examine the sociodemographic, parental and child factors that predict fruit and vegetable consumption in 7-year-old children. Diet was assessed using three 1d unweighed food diaries. The child's daily fruit and vegetable consumption was calculated by summing the weight of each type of fruit, fruit juice and vegetable consumed. The various others factors measured were assessed by a questionnaire at different time points. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 7285 children aged 7 years residing in the south-west of England during 1999-2000. Median daily fruit and vegetable consumption (201 g) was below the recommendations for this age group (320 g). Girls ate more fruit and vegetables per unit energy (30.3 g/MJ) than boys (26.7 g/MJ; P =parental rules about serving fruit/vegetables every day, food expenditure per person and whether the child was choosy about food. Vegetable consumption was also associated with the other characteristics of the child, such as whether the child enjoyed food and whether the child tried a variety of foods. Children are not eating recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, particularly boys. Consumption of fruit and vegetables appears to be influenced by parental rules about daily consumption and parental consumption and by the child's choosiness. Parent's actions could influence this. These findings may prove useful for those planning healthy eating campaigns for children.

  13. Transitions and turning points revisited: A replication to explore child maltreatment and youth offending links within and across Australian cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurren, Emily; Stewart, Anna; Dennison, Susan

    2017-03-01

    In this study we examined the consistency of life-course child maltreatment trajectories and youth offending links across birth cohorts. In so doing we demonstrated the value of replication studies for maltreatment research. We applied the methodology of Stewart et al. (2008) and linked population-based (1990 birth cohort) child protection and youth justice administrative data from Queensland, Australia. We performed a group based trajectory analysis to identify distinct maltreatment trajectory groups distinguishable by maltreatment timing and frequency across the life-course. We explored group-based youth offending outcomes with consideration of variations in maltreatment chronicity, timing, and frequency, multi-type maltreatment, gender and race (Indigenous Australian versus non-Indigenous Australian youths). To determine the consistency of maltreatment trajectories and offending links across cohorts (1983/84 versus 1990) we compared our results with those of Stewart et al. (2008). Consistent with Stewart et al. (2008): (1) We identified six distinct maltreatment trajectory groups; (2) Trajectory groups characterised by chronic maltreatment and/or adolescent maltreatment had the largest proportion of young offenders; and (3) Maltreatment frequency commonly peaked at transition points. Extending beyond Stewart et al. (2008) we noted considerable overlap between maltreatment dimensions and a potential impact of race and multi-type maltreatment on maltreatment and offending links. We endorse replication studies as a valuable tool to advance child maltreatment policy and practice and recommend further research on interactions between maltreatment dimensions, gender, race, and youth offending.

  14. A prospective study of weight development and behavior problems in toddlers: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagtvet Knut A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that overweight children have a higher risk of behavior problems, but the causal direction of this relationship remains unclear. In a large prospective population study, we investigated whether child behavior problems and body mass index are associated in toddlers and whether overweight is a risk for behavior problems or vice versa. Methods The study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. The sample consisted of 10 860 toddlers, followed up to age 36 months. We used data from maternal questionnaires from gestation week 17 and at child ages 18 and 36 months, and data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Child height and weight were assessed at child health stations and recorded by mothers. Behavior problems were assessed using shortened subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist. Statistical analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling. Results Behavior problems in toddlers were not associated with higher body mass index cross-sectionally at either age 18 or 36 months, and there was no indication that behavior problems caused increasing body mass index over time or vice versa. Conclusions The association between behavior problems and body mass index found in older children did not appear in toddlers up to age 36 months. Future studies should focus on the age span from 3 to 6 years, which includes the period of adiposity rebound.

  15. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  16. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  17. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  18. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-05-01

    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.

  19. Pregnancy outcome after use of cranberry in pregnancy--the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Kristine; Nordeng, Hedvig; Holst, Lone

    2013-12-07

    Cranberry is one of the most commonly used herbs during pregnancy. The herb has been used traditionally against urinary tract infections. No studies are found that specifically address the risk of malformations after use of cranberry during pregnancy. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety of cranberry use during pregnancy, including any effects on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes. The study is based on data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study including more than 100,000 pregnancies from 1999 to 2008. Information on use of cranberry and socio-demographic factors was retrieved from three self-administered questionnaires completed by the women in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30, and 6 months after birth. Information on pregnancy outcomes was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Among the 68,522 women in the study, 919 (1.3%) women had used cranberry while pregnant. We did not detect any increased risk of congenital malformations after use of cranberry. Furthermore, the use of cranberry was also not associated with increased risk for stillbirth/neonatal death, low birth weight, small for gestational age, preterm birth, low Apgar score (preterm delivery, low birth weight, small for gestational age, low Apgar score and neonatal infections are reassuring. However, maternal vaginal bleeding should be investigated further before any firm conclusion can be drawn. Treatment guidelines on asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy recommend antimicrobial therapy as the first line treatment. According to our data and the outcomes studied, cranberry does not appear to be a harmful adjunctive self-treatment.

  20. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may be an esp...... accepted article preview online, 19 September 2014. doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.173....

  1. Polish mother and child cohort study--defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Ligocka, Danuta; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Sobala, Wojciech; Wásowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Parent and Child Personality Traits and Children's Externalizing Problem Behavior from Age 4 to 9 Years: A Cohort-Sequential Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P.; Onghena, P.; Hellinckx, W.

    2005-01-01

    Cohort-sequential latent growth modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data for children's externalizing behavior from four overlapping age cohorts (4, 5, 6, and 7 years at first assessment) measured at three annual time points. The data included mother and father ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory…

  3. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  4. Determinants of Child Outcomes in a Cohort of Children in the Free Pre-School Year in Ireland, 2012/2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Kieran; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The study analyses determinants of child outcomes in a cohort of children who participated in the Free Pre-School Year. Child outcomes are measured through a before-and-after assessment of children using the Early Development Instrument. The sample comprises 448 children in 70 early years centres. There are three main findings. First, children…

  5. Stress and epilepsy: a population-based cohort study of epilepsy in parents who lost a child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Li, Jiong; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2007-01-01

    was compared with the risk among parents who had not lost a child. RESULTS: The adjusted relative risk (RR) of epilepsy in parents who had lost a child was 1.50 (95% CI: 1.21-1.86). The RR was modified by time since bereavement and was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.49-4.07) in mothers and 1.92 (95% CI: 1.09-3.36) in fathers......OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study described here was to study the risk for epilepsy in parents exposed to severe stress caused by loss of a child. METHODS: The risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy (Danish National Hospital Register) in a cohort of parents who had lost a child under the age of 18...... within the first 3 years of loss of a child, and 2.10 (95% CI: 1.53-2.88) in mothers and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.41-1.06) in fathers 4 to 18 years after loss. CONCLUSIONS: Stress was associated with a moderately increased risk of being diagnosed with epilepsy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  6. A comparison of mortality rates in three prospective studies from Copenhagen with mortality rates in the central part of the city, and the entire country. Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Vestbo, Jørgen; Juel, Knud

    1998-01-01

    of Copenhagen. In two of the studies, subjects were randomly selected, using the Danish Central Population Registry, within certain age groups and area-restricted sectors of the Greater Copenhagen. In the third study, men employed in 14 companies participated. Participation rates were between 78% and 87...... rates in the cohorts and in Copenhagen City decreased with increasing age. The SMR converged towards 1.00 with increasing observation time. In conclusion, high participation rates were found in all three studies, resulting in SMR values for participants only slightly lower than in the source population......Valid generalizations of results from population-based epidemiological surveys requires knowledge about how representative the sample is. The Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies have assessed mortality on the basis of pooled data from three research programmes in the region...

  7. Effect of dietary factors in pregnancy on risk of pregnancy complications: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Haugen, Margareta

    2011-12-01

    There has been a thrilling development , as well as profound changes, in our understanding of the effect of fetal nutrition on the development and health of the child. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is an ongoing nationwide population-based pregnancy cohort study that between 1999 and 2008 recruited 90,723 women with 106,981 pregnancies and 108,487 children. The objective of MoBa is to test specific etiologic hypotheses by estimating the association between exposures and diseases with a special focus on disorders that may originate in early life. An important aspect in this regard is maternal diet and nutritional status during pregnancy. Nutritional factors have long been considered to be important determinants of maternal and fetal health, and dietary information is currently being collected in a number of pregnancy cohorts in Europe and the United States. Thus far, pregnancy complications studied in MoBa are preterm birth, preeclampsia, and fetal growth; and the aim of this article is to report results of recently published studies of dietary factors in relation to these outcomes. Numerous studies are planned using MoBa data, and the aim is to add to the knowledge of the interplay between dietary factors, nonnutrients, and toxic dietary substances and epigenetic modulation on fetal development and health later in life.

  8. Occupational activity during pregnancy based on the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Poland conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium are one of the most common causes of sickness absence. The aim of the study was to analyze the occupational activity pattern during pregnancy and to evaluate the determinants of pregnancy-related temporary work disability confirmed by medical certificate. Materials and Methods: The presented analysis is based on data collected under the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study. The study population consisted of 954 women who reported occupational activity during pregnancy. All women participating in the study were interviewed 3 times during pregnancy. Detail information on occupational activity during pregnancy and occupational stress, based on the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, was collected from all women. Results: The pregnant women had been issued medical certificate of temporary work disability because of conditions related to or aggravated by the pregnancy, childbirth or by the puerperium at 16 week of gestation on average and did not continue their activities until the end of pregnancy. The statistically significant determinants of receiving such medical certificate in the first trimester of pregnancy (≤ 12 weeks of pregnancy comprised poor health condition and complications during pregnancy (OR = 1.4; p = 0.01, lower education (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001, socio-economic status (OR = 9.6; p = 0.03, use of public transport to commute to work (OR = 2.7; p < 0.001, a longer work commute (OR = 1.4; p = 0.008 and a higher level of occupational stress (OR = 3.0; p < 0.01. Waitresses, nurses and saleswomen received medical certificate of temporary work disability in the first trimester of pregnancy more frequently than office workers (OR = 4.2; p = 0.005; OR = 3.3; p = 0.02; OR = 2.3; p < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: It is crucial to develop the model of cooperation between occupational medicine physicians and gynecologists and a

  9. Estimating the inbreeding depression on cognitive behavior: a population based study of child cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ scores and later mental health problems. Very few epidemiologic studies have been done to demonstrate the relationship between familial inbreeding and modest cognitive impairments in children. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the effect of inbreeding on children's cognitive behavior in comparison with non-inbred children. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of 408 children (6 to 15 years of age was selected from inbred and non-inbred families of five Muslim populations of Jammu region. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC was used to measure the verbal IQ (VIQ, performance IQ (PIQ and full scale IQ (FSIQ. Family pedigrees were drawn to access the family history and children's inbred status in terms of coefficient of inbreeding (F. RESULTS: We found significant decline in child cognitive abilities due to inbreeding and high frequency of mental retardation among offspring from inbred families. The mean differences (95% C.I. were reported for the VIQ, being -22.00 (-24.82, -19.17, PIQ -26.92 (-29.96, -23.87 and FSIQ -24.47 (-27.35,-21.59 for inbred as compared to non-inbred children (p<0.001 [corrected].The higher risk of being mentally retarded was found to be more obvious among inbred categories corresponding to the degree of inbreeding and the same accounts least for non-inbred children (p<0.0001. We observed an increase in the difference in mean values for VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ with the increase of inbreeding coefficient and these were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The regression analysis showed a fitness decline (depression for VIQ (R2 = 0.436, PIQ (R2 = 0.468 and FSIQ (R2 = 0.464 with increasing inbreeding coefficients (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive assessment provides the evidence for inbreeding depression on cognitive abilities among children.

  10. [The effects of the parents' social class on infant and child death among 1995-2004 birth cohort in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Yong-Jun; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Choi, Jisook; Jin, Eunjeong; Jung, Sung-Tae; Park, Se-Jin

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effect of parents' social class on infant and child mortality rates among the birth cohort, for the period of transition to and from the Koran economic crisis 1995-2004. All births reported to between 1995 and 2004 (n=5,711,337) were analyzed using a Cox regression model, to study the role of the social determinants of parents in infant and child mortality. The results were adjusted for the parents' age, education and occupation, together with mother's obstetrical history. The crude death rate among those under 10 was 3.71 per 1000 births (21,217 deaths among 5,711,337 births) between 1995 and 2004. The birth cohorts from lower educated parents less than elementary school showed higher mortality rates compared with those from higher educated parents over university level (HR:3.0 (95% CI:2.8-3.7) for father and HR:3.4 (95% CI:3.3-4.5) for mother). The mother's education level showed a stronger relationship with mortality among the birth cohort than that of the fathers'. The gaps in infant mortality rates by parents' social class, and educational level became wider from 1995 to 2004. In particular, the breadth of the existing gap between higher and lower parents' social class groups has dramatically widened since the economic crisis of 1998. This study shows that social differences exist in infant and child mortality rates. Also, the gap for the infant mortality due to social class has become wider since the economic crisis of 1998.

  11. Maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and toddler behavior problems: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Ystrom, Eivind; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S; Torgersen, Leila

    2014-10-01

    Maternal risk drinking may be a risk factor for child behavior problems even if the mother has discontinued this behavior. Whether pre-pregnancy risk drinking is an independent predictor of child behavior problems, or whether a potential effect may be explained by maternal alcohol use during and after pregnancy or other adverse maternal characteristics, is not known. Employing data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), longitudinal associations between maternal pre-pregnancy risk drinking and behavior problems in toddlers aged 18 and 36 months were examined. Included in the study was mothers answering MoBa questionnaires when the child was 18 (N = 56,682) and 36 months (N = 46,756), and who had responded to questions regarding pre-pregnancy risk drinking at gestation week 17/18, using the screening instrument T-ACE. Toddler behavior problems were measured with items from Child Behavior Checklist. Associations were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression, controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use, as well as other relevant covariates. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking was associated with child behavior problems at 18 and 36 months, even after controlling for pre and postnatal alcohol use. Maternal ADHD and anxiety and depression were the only covariates that had any substantial impact on the associations. When all covariates were included in the model, the associations were weak for internalizing behavior problems and non-significant for externalizing behavior problems. Pre-pregnancy risk drinking may predict early development of behavior problems in the offspring. This increased risk may be due to other adverse maternal characteristics associated with risk drinking, in particular co-occurring maternal psychopathology.

  12. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  13. Post‐traumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birthweight and gestational age: a prospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seng, JS; Low, LK; Sperlich, M; Ronis, DL; Liberzon, I

    2011-01-01

    ...‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birthweight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design  Prospective three‐cohort study. Setting...

  14. Analyzing early child development, influential conditions, and future impacts: prospects of a German newborn cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinert, Sabine; Linberg, Anja; Attig, Manja; Freund, Jan-David; Linberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    .... The aims, challenges, and solutions concerning the large-scale assessment of early child capacities and skills as well as the measurements of learning environments that impact early developmental...

  15. Obesity research based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from the capi......INTRODUCTION: To summarise key findings from research performed using data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register over the last 30 years with a main focus on obesity-related research. The register contains computerised anthropometric information on 372,636 schoolchildren from...... the capital city of Denmark. Additional information on the cohort members has been obtained via linkages with population studies and national registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: Studies using data from the register have made important contributions in the areas of the aetiology of obesity, the development...... of the obesity epidemic, and the long-term health consequences of birth weight as well as body size and growth in childhood. CONCLUSION: Research using this unique register is ongoing, and its contributions to the study of obesity as well as other topics will continue for years to come....

  16. Relation between Cord Blood Mercury Levels and Early Child Development in a World Trade Center Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Rauh, Virginia; Sheets, Stephen E.; Tang, Deliang; Viswanathan, Sheila; Becker, Mark; Stein, Janet L.; Wang, Richard Y; Perera, Frederica P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. Methods We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11 September 2001, and measured birth outcomes and child development. Results Levels of total mercury in cord and maternal blood were not significantly...

  17. Eating disorders, pregnancy, and the postpartum period:Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunna J. Watson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and largesample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 eating disorder studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  18. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy, blood mercury levels, and child cognition at age 3 years in a US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Emily; Radesky, Jenny S; Wright, Robert O; Bellinger, David C; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Kleinman, Ken P; Hu, Howard; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-05-15

    The balance of contaminant risk and nutritional benefit from maternal prenatal fish consumption for child cognitive development is not known. Using data from a prospective cohort study of 341 mother-child pairs in Massachusetts enrolled in 1999-2002, the authors studied associations of maternal second-trimester fish intake and erythrocyte mercury levels with children's scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) at age 3 years. Mean maternal total fish intake was 1.5 (standard deviation, 1.4) servings/week, and 40 (12%) mothers consumed >2 servings/week. Mean maternal mercury level was 3.8 (standard deviation, 3.8) ng/g. After adjustment using multivariable linear regression, higher fish intake was associated with better child cognitive test performance, and higher mercury levels with poorer test scores. Associations strengthened with inclusion of both fish and mercury: effect estimates for fish intake of >2 servings/week versus never were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.6, 7.0) for the PPVT and 6.4 (95% CI: 2.0, 10.8) for the WRAVMA; for mercury in the top decile, they were -4.5 (95% CI: -8.5, -0.4) for the PPVT and -4.6 (95% CI: -8.3, -0.9) for the WRAVMA. Fish consumption of fish intake.

  19. Copenhagen is hot, Denmark is not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csaba, Fabian; Stöber, Birgit

    This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence on ident......This paper discusses the practice of ranking linked to the issue of place branding focusing on two cases from Denmark, one the national level, the other on the local level, namely the city of Copenhagen. Rankings of places have increased, and – as we shall argue – so have their influence...... audiences represent and use place image survey results....

  20. Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Hagve, Tor-Arne;

    2007-01-01

    Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement and nonsuppl......Background/ Aims: A food frequency questionnaire ( FFQ) and a database for dietary supplements were developed for use in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ( MoBa). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between reported use and biomarkers in supplement...

  1. Age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease risk factors at age 53 years in men and women: British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, R; Lawlor, D A; Black, S; Mishra, G D; Kuh, D

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the associations between parental age at birth of first child and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in men and women. To investigate whether the associations are explained by childhood predictors of age at parenthood or adult lifestyle factors related to child rearing. Methods: Data from 2540 men and women, with CHD risk factors measured at age 53 years, from a birth cohort study of individuals born in Britain in 1946 (Medical Research Council National Survey of H...

  2. Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, A

    1999-01-01

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  3. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...

  4. From COP15 to Copenhagen Fashion Week

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    of this paper is to present and discuss the challenges of developing event applications with a strong involvement of users. The concepts and characteristics of the Living Lab approach has been used to develop an event application for the Copenhagen Fashion Festival 2010. As part of the development process...

  5. Purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Maja de; Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    of purpose-built mosques in Copenhagen. The public visibility is a manifestation of religious differences that cannot be thought independent of the materiality of culture; namely aesthetic forms, dress codes and architectural genres. Cultural encounters are mediated through the materiality, the aesthetic...

  6. The Copenhagen City and Port Development Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise

    Thirty years ago, the city of Copenhagen was experiencing 17.5 percent unemployment, an outmigration of population, the loss of manufacturing, the decline of taxing capacity, and an annual budget deficit of $750 million. Today, the city has been transformed into one of the wealthiest (and happies...

  7. Land use scenarios for greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...

  8. Raising of /a/ in Copenhagen Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharao, Nicolai; Appel, Kirsten Lundholm; Wolter, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    and listener age on the placement of the phoneme boundary between /ɛ/ and /a/ in Copenhagen Danish using a forced choice word identification task. The results show that younger listeners accept a greater range of vowels as tokens of /a/ in accordance with the changes in production of this phoneme....

  9. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small...

  10. Child- and parent-reported quality of life trajectories in children with epilepsy: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Avery, Lisa; Fayed, Nora; Streiner, David L; Cunningham, Charles E; Boyle, Michael H; Lach, Lucyna; Glidden, Gina; Rosenbaum, Peter L; Ronen, Gabriel M

    2017-07-01

    To describe the developmental trajectories of quality of life (QoL) in a large cohort of children with epilepsy, and to assess the relative contribution of clinical, psychosocial, and sociodemographic variables on QoL trajectories. Five assessments during a 28-month prospective cohort study were used to model trajectories of QoL. Participants were recruited with their parents from six Canadian tertiary centers. A convenience sample of 506 children aged 8-14 years with epilepsy and without intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder were enrolled. A total of 894 children were eligible and 330 refused participation. Participating children were, on average, 11.4 years of age, and 49% were female. Nearly one third (32%) had partial seizures. At baseline, 479 and 503 child- and parent-reported questionnaires were completed. In total, 354 children (74%) and 366 parents (73%) completed the 28-month follow-up. QoL was measured using the child- and parent-reported version of the Childhood Epilepsy QoL scale (CHEQOL-25). Child-reported QoL was fitted best by a six-class model and parent-reported QoL by a five-class model. In both models, trajectories remained either stable or improved over 28 months. Of these children, 62% rated their QoL as high or moderately high, defined as at least one standard deviation above the average CHEQOL-25 score. Greater family, classmate, and peer social support, fewer symptoms of child and parent depression, and higher receptive vocabulary were identified as the most robust predictors of better QoL (all p < 0.001). Most children with epilepsy and their parents reported relatively good QoL in this first joint self- and proxy-reported trajectory study. Findings confirm the heterogeneous QoL outcomes for children with epilepsy and the primary importance of psychosocial factors rather than seizure and AED-specific factors in influencing QoL. These predictors that are potentially amenable to change should now be the focus of specific

  11. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pobesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pobesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  13. Comparison of the impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death in women versus men (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a population-based cohort study. Using baseline data from 3 cohort examinations (1976 to 1978, 1981 to 1983, and 1991 to 1994), we analyzed the gender-specific effect of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death during 5 years...

  14. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body mass...... index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. DESIGN: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal interviews...... during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  15. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ask Elklit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after...

  16. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    OpenAIRE

    B S Suprabha; Arathi Rao; Shwetha Choudhary; Ramya Shenoy

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1) age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2) dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionna...

  17. Child dental fear and behavior: The role of environmental factors in a hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Suprabha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Information on the origin of dental fear and uncooperative behavior in a child patient is important for behavior management strategy. The effects of environmental factors have been comparatively less studied, especially in an Indian scenario. Objectives: To find the association of (1 age, gender, family characteristics, previous medical, and dental experiences with dental fear and behavior (2 dental fear with dental behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study involving 125 children aged between 7 and 14 years undergoing dental treatment under local anesthesia. The parent completed a questionnaire on family situation, medical history, and past dental experiences of the child. Child′s dental fear was recorded using Children′s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale and behavior was rated using Frankl Behaviour Rating Scale. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using chi square test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Unpleasant experience in dental clinic and age of the child significantly influenced dental behavior. Visited pediatrician in the past one year, prior history of hospital admission, previous visit to dentist, experience at the first dental visit, and age of the child were contributing factors for dental fear. There was also significant association between dental fear levels and behavior. Conclusions: In 7 to 14 year olds, dental fear influences dental behavior, but the factors affecting them are not the same. Although dental fear decreases and dental behavior improves with age, experiences at the previous dental visits seem to influence both dental fear and behavior. Past medical experiences are likely to influence dental fear but not dental behavior.

  18. Predictors of well child care adherence over time in a cohort of urban Medicaid-eligible infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Nandita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in well child care (WCC adherence over time have not previously been examined. Our objective is to describe adherence rates to WCC over time in a low-income urban population of infants 0-24 months of age, and to identify predictors of WCC adherence in this population. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a cohort of Medicaid-eligible children followed from birth to 2 years between 2005 and 2008 with structured telephone surveys to assess maternal well-being, social support, and household and demographic information. For the 260 children attending 4 urban pediatric practices, WCC adherence was assessed based on visit data abstracted from electronic medical records. A random-intercept mixed effects logit model clustered on subject was used. Results 92% of the mothers were African-American, 27% had not finished high school, 87% were single, and 43% earned Conclusions Maternal education efforts should emphasize the importance of establishing WCC, especially for mothers of more than one child. Further studies using larger, more broadly defined populations are needed to confirm our findings that efforts to increase WCC adherence should be intensified after 6 months of age, particularly for children at higher risk.

  19. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. METHODS: We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. RESULTS: In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  20. Perinatal risk factors for development of celiac disease in children, based on the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilsson, Louise; Magnus, Maria Christine; Størdal, Ketil

    2015-05-01

    There have been inconsistent reports of prenatal and perinatal factors that affect risk for development of celiac disease. We assessed the association of fetal growth, birth weight, and mode of delivery with development of celiac disease within the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study. The MoBa cohort contains pregnancy information on 95,200 women and data on their 114,500 children, which were collected in Norway from 1999 through 2008; it is linked to the Medical Birth Registry. Women and children with celiac disease were identified from the National Patient Registry and from women's responses to MoBa questionnaires. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for celiac disease by using a multivariable logistic regression model, adjusting for maternal celiac disease, sex of children, and children's age (model 1); in a second model, we adjusted for age of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding (model 2). We identified 650 children with celiac disease and 107,828 controls in the MoBa database. We found no association between birth weight or height with celiac disease (born small for gestational age was not associated). Celiac disease was not associated with mode of delivery (cesarean section, model 1: OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65-1.09, and model 2: OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.63-1.09). Maternal celiac disease, adjusted for age and sex of the children (OR, 12.45; 95% CI, 8.29-18.71) and type 1 diabetes (model 1: OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.19-5.53, and model 2: OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.14-5.98) were associated with development of celiac disease in children, whereas maternal type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes were not. On the basis of analysis of the Norwegian MoBa cohort, development of celiac disease in children is significantly associated with sex of the child, maternal celiac disease, and type 1 diabetes but not with intrauterine growth. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  2. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M;

    2005-01-01

    ) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or against the risk of later schizophrenia is supported by our data....... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  3. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    ) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases...... of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted...

  4. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study.

  5. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone......" and face logs show a sub-horizontally layered structure, with alternate extremely weak to extremely strong beds of variable thickness. The rhythmicity is thought to be climatically controlled. Stronger beds represent reduced sedimentation rate related to climatic deterioration while weaker beds result from...

  6. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... Metro became operational in autumn 2002. We observed that forecasts from the demand sub-models agree well with the data from the 2000 national travel survey, with the mode choice forecasts in particular being a good match with the observed modal split. The results of the 2000 car assignment model...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  7. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... of the pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important...

  8. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...... children de-ivered a urine sample. Urine samples were analysed for iodine and creatinine, and the results were expressed as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and as estimated 24-h iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in children was also compared with that of adults living in the same area, investigated...

  9. Gade: Symphonies. Copenhagen Collegium Musicum / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Gade: Symphonies. Copenhagen Collegium Musicum. Michael Schonwandt.Marco Polo Dacapo CD DCCD 9201/2; Comparative versions: Symphony No. 1. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (11/87) BIS CD 339; Symphony No. 2.Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 355; Symphony No. 4. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi" (7/87) BIS CD 338; Symphony No. 6. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 356

  10. Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2003-01-01

    A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.

  11. Copenhagens's West End a 'Paradise Lost'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz Larsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    . The emergence of advanced marginality and the diffusion of spatial defamation in Copenhagen are products of the historical struggles over space occurring in the field of housing and the bureaucratic field. To grasp social transformations at ground level in neglected urban areas, we need to exit those areas...... and a dualizing urban policy which have converged to privilege private ownership at the cost of nonprofit housing for the past fifty years....

  12. Gade: Symphonies. Copenhagen Collegium Musicum / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Gade: Symphonies. Copenhagen Collegium Musicum. Michael Schonwandt.Marco Polo Dacapo CD DCCD 9201/2; Comparative versions: Symphony No. 1. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (11/87) BIS CD 339; Symphony No. 2.Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 355; Symphony No. 4. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi" (7/87) BIS CD 338; Symphony No. 6. Stockholm Sinf. / Järvi (12/87) BIS CD 356

  13. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs.

  14. Climate change: from Copenhagen to Cancun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysinghe, Achala Chandani; Carlson, John

    2011-03-15

    A year after the grim UN climate change negotiations in Denmark that resulted in parties merely 'taking note' of a three-page 'Copenhagen Accord', 194 countries met in Cancun, Mexico. Unlike the furore surrounding the Copenhagen negotiations, expectations were comparatively low-key for Cancun. The Copenhagen conference had damaged faith in the UN climate convention as an effective and legitimate negotiating forum. Restoring confidence in this process was a priority for Cancun. Parties were seeking a modest but balanced outcome across all main elements of the 2007 Bali Action Plan (BAP) which includes adaptation, mitigation, finance, technology, and capacity building. By the end of the two week negotiations, countries had finalized the 'Cancun Agreements', which managed to encompass decisions on each part of the BAP. In addition, the conference was widely recognized as having rebuilt fractured negotiating relationships between parties. The conference proceedings focused on the ongoing efforts of the two ad-hoc working groups that were established to find ways to enhance implementation of the convention and to discuss future commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

  15. EU NO "Plan B" Beyond Copenhagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ "The EU wams to speed up the negotiations and will take firm actions to reduce its emissions by 20 percent regardless of what other countries do.Because the EU had no‘plan B'beyond Copenhagen",Sweden's Environment Minister Andreas Carlgren stressed the goal during his visit to Beijing in July.He led the European Union delegation and accompanied by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas and environment minister from Spain that will hold the EU presidency during the next term,to visit China.This is the first visit made by the EU Troika for bilateral climate negotiations during the Swedish Presidency.The purpose of the visit is to reach an agreement on climate change for the preparation of Copenhagen Conference to be held this December,in which,it is supposed to agree on a successor to the Kyoto Protocol,and to reinforce the message that emerging economies were also expected to reduce emissions by 15-30%from current levels by 2020.Carlgren called his visit was"laying the right foundation for a successful Copenhagen conference".

  16. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after one year. There were no differences in outcome measures across the different centers or between the individual and group treatments. Half of the PTSD variation at 12 months was explained by four factors: education, avoidance attachment, emotional coping, and social support. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicated a substantial reduction in mental health problems in survivors following 12 months of treatment and identified personality and social factors important for recovery.

  17. From Copenhagen to the consulting room: Pauli and Jung in Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the city of Copenhagen is used as a starting point to highlight some critical historical events, both concerning the exchange of ideas between the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung and the history of psychotherapy in Scandinavia. Pauli's years in Copenhagen under the influence of Niels Bohr and his philosophy prepared him mentally to receiveC.G. Jung's ideas. The paper also recounts the one occasion that Jung was in Scandinavia, attending the 9th conference of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy in Copenhagen, just before going to New York in 1937 to give his final seminars on Pauli's dreams. The reason for focusing on these particular events is that they also constitute part of the history of the reception of psychodynamic psychology in Sweden and Scandinavia. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Maternal social capital and birth outcomes in the mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsotakis, George; Vassilaki, Maria; Chatzi, Leda; Georgiou, Vaggelis; Philalithis, Anastassios E; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koutis, Antonis

    2011-12-01

    This cohort study aimed to estimate the effect of individual maternal social capital during pregnancy on birth outcomes in the context of the Mother-child cohort (Rhea study), in Crete-Greece. Women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Heraklion-Crete for one year beginning in February 2007. 610 women completed the self-administered Social Capital Questionnaire at about the 24th week of gestation. The scale assessed total maternal social capital and four social capital subscales: Participation in the Community, Feelings of Safety, Value of Life and Social Agency, and Tolerance of Diversity. Potential confounders included characteristics that have an established or potential association with the maternal social capital, and the birth outcomes (preterm birth, small weight for the gestational age, fetal weight growth restriction, weight, length and head circumference). The results of logistic and linear regression models indicated that there was an increase in the risk of preterm birth for every unit increase in maternal participation (range 12-48), and especially in the risk of medically indicated preterm birth. Although the findings suggest that participation is associated with an increased probability for preterm birth, we cannot know whether this is a protective or damaging social capital effect. Women who participate more in their communities may have enhanced access to information and/or resources, easier access to health care and support when they face maternal and fetal conditions that trigger the need for medical intervention. On the other hand, women may be more exposed to social and/or environmental stressors. Future research needs to distinguish between different types of participation and different components of social capital to better understand their associations with birth outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperament in infancy and behavioral and emotional problems at age 5.5: The EDEN mother-child cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulizi, Xian; Pryor, Laura; Michel, Grégory; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early temperamental characteristics may influence children’s developmental pathways and predict future psychopathology. However, the environmental context may also shape or interact with infant temperament and indirectly contribute to increased vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes. The aim of the present study is to explore the long-term contribution of temperamental traits at twelve months of age to the presence of emotional and behavioral problems later in childhood, and whether this association varies with the child’s sex, parental separation, family socioeconomic status and maternal depression. Method 1184 mother-child pairs from the EDEN mother-child birth cohort study based in France (2003–2011), were followed from 24–28 weeks of pregnancy to the child’s fifth birthday. Infant temperament at 12 months was assessed with the Emotionality Activity and Sociability (EAS) questionnaire and behavior at 5.5 years was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results Emotional temperament in infancy predicts children’s overall behavioral scores (β = 1.16, p<0.001), emotional difficulties (β = 0.30, p<0.001), conduct problems (β = 0.51, p<0.001) and symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention (β = 0.31, p = 0.01) at 5.5 years. Infants’ active temperament predicts later conduct problems (β = 0.30, p = 0.02), while shyness predicts later emotional problems (β = 0.22, p = 0.04). The association between the child’s temperament in infancy and later behavior did not vary with children’s own or family characteristics. Conclusion An emotional temperament in infancy is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties at the age of 5.5 years. Children who show high emotionality early on may require early prevention and intervention efforts to divert possible adverse developmental pathways. PMID:28199415

  20. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  1. Copenhagen Food Community – Values in contrast to market dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Campion, Nathan; Christiansen, Asta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this bachelor project is to give concrete suggestions for the future of the Copenhagen Food Community, having in mind, the growing attention on organic food in the supermarkets. We have collected both quantitative and qualitative data, in order to give a proper response to our problem. This has been done through a survey between the members of the Copenhagen Food Community and through interviews with the person in charge of purchasing for Copenhagen Food Community, ...

  2. The socioeconomic and ethnic segregation of living conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation......, it considers other living conditions (for example social networks). Thirdly, it explores immigrants’ experiences of, among other things, education, employment and citizenship. It concludes that social cohesion in Copenhagen may be threatened if this segregation continues....

  3. Natural sequence of recovery from child post-traumatic amnesia: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Rachel; Birse, Jason; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi; Epps, Adrienne; Lah, Suncica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sequence of skills recovery during post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Fifty children aged 8 to 15 years consecutively admitted to a children's hospital with TBI and PTA>24 were tested in a retrospective cohort study where the main measure was the Westmead PTA Scale (WPTAS). The group analyses show that orientation to time took longer to recover than orientation to person and place, but not memory, while the individual analyses revealed that when orientation to time was grouped with memory, 94% of children recovered orientation to person and place before orientation to time and memory (examiner and pictures). Correlation coefficients between age and the number of days taken to recover skills were not found to be significant. It was established that, in terms of the natural sequence of skills recovery in children aged 8 to 15 years following moderate to severe TBI, recovery of orientation to time is more closely aligned to memory than to orientation to person and place. It was also established that WPTAS items are developmentally appropriate for children aged 8 to 15 years who have sustained TBI. These findings are clinically important because monitoring recovery from PTA both impacts the rehabilitation offered to individuals during acute care and aids discharge planning.

  4. Child discipline and nurturing practices among a cohort of Pacific mothers living in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley-Malcolm, Esther Tumama; Fairbairn-Dunlop, Tagaloa Peggy; Paterson, Janis; Gao, Wanzhen; Williams, Maynard

    2009-02-01

    The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study is a longitudinal investigation of a cohort (N=1376) of Pacific infants born in New Zealand (NZ), and their mothers and fathers. The PIF study aimed to determine: (1) the prevalence of disciplinary and nurturing parenting practices used with children at 12 months of age, and (2) the demographic, maternal and lifestyle factors associated with parenting practices. At the 12-month measurement point, mothers (N=1207) were interviewed about their parenting practices using a modified version of the Parent Behaviour Checklist. High nurturance was significantly associated with Samoan ethnicity and post school qualifications, and low nurturance was significantly associated with post-natal depression, alcohol consumption and gambling. At the univariate level, high discipline scores were significantly associated with gambling, postnatal depression and lack of alignment to either Pacific or to European traditions. However the strongest association with discipline was the ethnicity variable with Tongan mothers reporting significantly higher disciplinary behaviours that all other ethnicities. It is clear that there are a number of common underlying lifestyle issues that need to be considered when dealing with parenting problems in families with young children. However specific to Pacific families, is Tongan ethnicity accounting for a strong cultural effect on parenting style, in particular high discipline scores relative to other Pacific groups. This important finding may be used to guide social policy and prevention programmes that are focused on the wellbeing of Pacific mothers and their children.

  5. Increased household financial strain, the Great Recession and child health—findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence associating financial strain (FS) with poor health but most of this research has been cross-sectional and adult-focused. During the ‘Great Recession’ many UK households experienced increased FS. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of increased FS on child health. Methods We analysed the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Surveys at 7 years (T1, 2008) and 11 years (T2, 2012) spanned the ‘Great Recession’. Three measures of increased FS were defined; ‘became income poor’ (self-reported household income dropped below the ‘poverty line’ between T1 and T2); ‘developed difficulty managing’ (parental report of being ‘financially comfortable’ at T1 and finding it ‘difficult to manage’ at T2); ‘felt worse off’ (parental report of feeling financially ‘worse off’ at T2 compared with T1). Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RR), adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% CIs for six child health outcomes: measured overweight/obesity, problematic behaviour as scored by parents and teachers, and parental reports of fair/poor general health, long-standing illness and bedwetting at T2 (N=13 112). In subanalyses we limited our sample to those who were above the poverty line at T2. Results Compared with those who were not financially strained at both time points, children in households which experienced increased FS were at an increased risk of all unhealthy outcomes examined. In most cases, these increased risks persisted after adjustment for confounding and when limiting the sample to those above the poverty line. Conclusions FS is associated with a range of new or continued poor child health outcomes. During times of widespread economic hardship, such as the ‘Great Recession’, measures should be taken to buffer children and their families from the impact of FS, and these should not be limited to

  6. Exposure to parental smoking and child growth and development: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungmi; Decker, Adriana; Kramer, Michael S

    2013-07-10

    Studies on adverse childhood health and development outcomes associated with parental smoking have shown inconsistent results. Using a cohort of Belarusian children, we examined differences in cognition, behaviors, growth, adiposity, and blood pressure at 6.5 years according to prenatal and postnatal exposure to parental smoking. Using cluster-adjusted multivariable regression, effects of exposure to prenatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose mothers smoked during and after pregnancy with those whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only; effects of postnatal smoking were examined by comparing (1) children whose mothers smoked after pregnancy only with those of mothers who smoked neither during nor after pregnancy and (2) children whose fathers smoked with those whose fathers did not smoke among children of non-smoking mothers after adjusting for a wide range of socioeconomic and family characteristics. After adjusting for confounders, children exposed vs unexposed to prenatal maternal smoking had no differences in mean IQ, teacher-rated behavioral problems, adiposity, or blood pressure. Children exposed to maternal postnatal smoking had slightly increased behavioral problems [0.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.2 for total difficulties], higher body mass index [0.2, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.3], greater total skinfold thickness [0.4, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], and higher odds of overweight or obesity [1.4, 95% CI; 1.1, 1.7]. Similar magnitudes of association were observed with postnatal paternal smoking. No adverse cognitive, behavioral and developmental outcomes were associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking. Observed associations with postnatal smoking of both parents may reflect residual confounding by genetic and family environmental factors.

  7. Returning to work one year after childbirth: data from the mother-child cohort EDEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2013-10-01

    The amount of time women spend out of work postpartum has implications for both health and economic trajectories which may result in long-term social inequities or exacerbate those already existing. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the characteristics of women who return to work within the first year postpartum and to identify specific occupational and health factors associated with returning to work among women who worked during pregnancy. The EDEN cohort is comprised of pregnant women recruited in two French university hospitals before 24 weeks gestation with a singleton pregnancy. Questionnaires were administered at 4, 8, and 12 months after birth. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of returning to work within 1 year of childbirth with inclusion of sociodemographic, health, and occupational variables that were significantly related to returning to work at the level of p worked during pregnancy in our sample had resumed work before their infant's first birthday. After adjustment, occupational level, full-time work, standing position, job reward, desire to change job, education, and father's occupational level remained significantly associated with returning to work. Women's perception of their work as rewarding was the strongest predictor of resuming employment (OR comparing high reward to low reward: 2.48, 95 % CI: 1.60-3.83 for women with parity 0 or 1). Experiencing an adverse birth outcome had no relation to returning to work within 1 year postpartum. Across all indicator variables, women of higher socioeconomic status or with greater resources had greater odds of returning to work compared to those of lower status. This suggests that the crucial period of employment transition around the time of childbirth may intensify preexisting social inequalities.

  8. Exposure to cows is not associated with diarrhoea or impaired child growth in rural Odisha, India: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W-P; Boisson, S; Routray, P; Bell, M; Cameron, M; Torondel, B; Clasen, T

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth and endemic diarrhoea in children aged <5 years in a rural, low-income setting in the Indian state of Odisha. The study enrolled 1992 households with 2739 children. Height measurements were available for 824 children. Exposure to cows was measured as (1) the presence of a cowshed within or outside the compound, (2) the number of cows owned by a household, and (3) the number of cowsheds located within 50 m of a household. In a sub-study of 518 households, fly traps were used to count the number of synanthropic flies that may act as vectors for gastrointestinal pathogens. We found no evidence that environmental exposure to cows contributes to growth deficiency in children in rural India, neither directly by affecting growth, nor indirectly by increasing the risk of diarrhoea. We found no strong evidence that the presence of a cowshed increased the number synanthropic flies in households.

  9. A Life Course Perspective on Child Health, Academic Experiences and Occupational Skill Qualifications in Adulthood: Evidence from a British Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot I

    2010-01-01

    Existing research rarely examines the social consequences of poor childhood health from a longitudinal perspective. Using data from the British National Child Development Study, I follow a cohort from before birth through middle age to examine whether children's health limitations before and during the educational process predict occupational skill qualifications in mid-adulthood, and whether any negative consequences are strongest for children in persistently poor health. I also examine whether differences in achievement explain the observed associations, and at what point during the schooling process performance begins to play a large explanatory role. Poor health is strongly negatively related to qualifications in adulthood, particularly for children in persistently poor health. These associations are largely explained by differences in performance early in children's academic careers, before the first important transition point. The relationship between prenatal maternal smoking and mid-adulthood qualifications is more persistent. This paper demonstrates that a static conceptualization of childhood health is inadequate to fully understand the dynamic process through which social status and health over the course of childhood have long-run consequences for the adult life course.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Stephanie M; Richardson, David B; Baird, Donna D; Haug, Line S; Stuebe, Alison M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A; Travlos, Gregory S; Wilson, Ralph E; Trogstad, Lill I; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.

  11. Osram Culture Centre – Copenhagen, Denmark Valhalsgade 4, 2200 Copenhagen N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    Built in 1953 as an industrial building. It was the first prefabricated house in Copenhagen. Built as an office and warehouse for Nordisk Glødelampe Industri A/S. The objectives of the renovation is to renovate a former industrial building, now in use as Culture Centre, by utilizing daylight...

  12. Associations of adherence to the New Nordic Diet with risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    OpenAIRE

    Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M.; Harmon, Quaker E.; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999–2008. A previously...

  13. Impact of singlehood during pregnancy on dietary intake and birth outcomes - a study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Farbu, Jorunn; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2014-01-01

    Background Little attention has been given to the impact of singlehood during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of marital status on diet during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Methods The study population comprised 62,773 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Marital status was categorised into singles living alone, singles living with parents and married/cohabiting (reference group). Participants answered a general health questionnaire...

  14. Maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in pregnancy and child allergic disease: a longitudinal study from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-03-28

    Fat-soluble vitamins A, E and K have been shown to play roles in immunity and inflammation, but studies on child allergic disease have been few and inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between maternal intake of vitamins A, E and K in mid-pregnancy and child asthma and allergic rhinitis. We used data on 44 594 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal intake of fat-soluble vitamins was calculated based on the information from a validated FFQ completed in mid-pregnancy. At 18 months, interviews with the mothers were conducted to evaluate doctor-diagnosed child asthma. At age 7 years, we assessed child asthma and allergic rhinitis using questions from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and by national registries on hospital contacts and medication use. Current asthma was defined as asthma diagnosis and wheeze in the past 12 months by maternal report. We calculated multivariable risk ratios and 95 % CI by comparing the highest v. lowest quintile (Q) of maternal vitamin A, E and K intake in relation to child allergic disease outcomes. Maternal total vitamin K intake was directly associated with ever admitted asthma (Q5 v. Q1: 1·23, 95 % CI 1·01, 1·50) and current asthma at 7 years (Q5 v. Q1: 1·30, 95 % CI 0·99, 1·70). Weak inverse associations were present for maternal vitamin A and E intake during pregnancy with child allergic rhinitis. Maternal vitamin K intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of child asthma, and should be explored further on a mechanistic level. Conversely, maternal vitamin A and E intake may protect against child allergic rhinitis.

  15. Land use scenarios for greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    Urban planning and development in Denmark can be characterised by a relatively strong planning framework. Land use scenarios based on empirically derived dynamics of urban growth are practically never applied. However, modelling approaches do offer a methodology to explore the pressures in an urban...... region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...

  16. Karl Popper and the Copenhagen interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, and it violates Bohr's complementarity principle. Therefore, the absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  17. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  18. Adverse life events as risk factors for behavioural and emotional problems in a 7-year follow-up of a population-based child cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Cathrine Skovmand; Nielsen, Louise Gramstrup; Petersen, Dorthe Janne

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors for significant changes in emotional and behavioural problem load in a community-based cohort of Danish children aged 9-16 years, the risk factors being seven parental and two child-related adverse life events. Methods: Data...... on emotional and behavioural problems was obtained from parents filling in the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) when the child was 8-9 and again when 15 years old. Data on risk factors was drawn from Danish registers. Analysis used was logistic regression for crude and adjusted change. Results: Parental divorce...... significantly raised the odds ratio of an increase in emotional and behavioural problems; furthermore, the risk of deterioration in problem behaviour rose significantly with increasing number of adverse life events. By dividing the children into four groups based on the pathway in problem load (increasers...

  19. Impact of perinatal different intrauterine environments on child growth and development in the first six months of life - IVAPSA birth cohort: rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi Juliana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. Method/Design This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  20. Impact of Perinatal Different Intrauterine Environments on Child Growth and Development in the First Six Months of Life--IVAPSA Birth Cohort: rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Juliana Rombaldi; Ferreira, Charles Francisco; Nunes, Marina; da Silva, Clécio Homrich; Bosa, Vera Lúcia; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran

    2012-04-02

    In the last twenty years, retrospective studies have shown that perinatal events may impact the individual health in the medium and long term. However, only a few prospective studies were designed to address this phenomenon. This study aims to describe the design and methods of the Impact of Perinatal Environmental Variations in the First Six Months of Life - the IVAPSA Birth Cohort. This is a clinical study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mothers from different clinical backgrounds (hypertensive, diabetics, smokers, having an intrauterine growth restricted child for idiopathic reasons, and controls) will be invited to join the study twenty-four hours after the birth of their child. Data on economic, social, and maternal health care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and neuropsychological evaluation will be obtained in interviews at postpartum, 7 and 15 days, 1, 3 and 6 months of life. To our knowledge, this is the first thematic cohort focused on the effects of intrauterine growth restriction to prospectively enroll mothers from different clinical backgrounds. The IVAPSA Birth Cohort is a promising research platform that can contribute to the knowledge on the relationship between perinatal events and their consequences on the children's early life.

  1. Availability of GNSS for Road Pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna B. O.; Zabic, Martina; Overø, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    /Galileo receivers will change the situation. With a 3D city model of Copenhagen, a Galileo simulator, and a raytracing algorithm, an analysis of the GNSS availability in the streets of Copenhagen was carried out. The analysis is focusing on the number of visible satellites and the HDOP. The results show...

  2. The socioeconomic and ethnic segregation of living conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation...

  3. Health-related quality of life among Swedish children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: parent-child discrepancies, gender differences and comparison with a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Veronica; Eriksson, Catharina

    2017-04-12

    This study investigates gender differences in self-reports and between parent and child reports in Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL), measured with disease-specific and generic instruments for chronic disease. Comparison of HRQOL results in this Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) sample to a European cohort of children with JIA and one of children with other health conditions are also made. Fifty-three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), aged 8-18 years, and their parents completed the condition-specific DISABKIDS for JIA, and the DISABKIDS generic instrument for chronic conditions (DCGM-37) in a cross-sectional study. European reference data were used for comparison of child and parental reports. Child self-reports in DCGM-37 and DISABKIDS for JIA showed no gender differences. Parental and child reports of the child's HRQOL differed only in DCGM-37; this was among girls who scored their independence (p = 0.03), physical limitation (p = 0.01), social exclusion (p = 0.03), emotions (p children with JIA reported more physical limitation compared to samples of European children with JIA (p = 0.01), European children with chronic conditions (p children reported more problem with understanding compared to the European JIA sample (p = 0.03). Swedish parents perceived their children's independence significantly lower than did the European parents of JIA children (p children with chronic conditions (p = 0.03). The Swedish parents also perceived their children to have significantly lower social inclusion (p children with chronic conditions. Parent-child differences in assessment of quality of life depend on the HRQOL instrument used, especially among girls. In comparison to European cohorts, our sample of children with JIA experienced more physical limitations and less understanding.

  4. Prenatal methylmercury exposure and language delay at three years of age in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Schjølberg, Synnve; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal methylmercury (MeHg) exposure and its possible neurodevelopmental effects in susceptible children are of concern. Studies of MeHg exposure and negative health outcomes have shown conflicting results and it has been suggested that co-exposure to other contaminants and/or nutrients in fish may confound the effect of MeHg. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to MeHg and language and communication development at three years, adjusting for intake of fish, n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) and co-exposure to dioxins and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). We used data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) collected between 2002 and 2008. The study sample consisted of 46,750 mother-child pairs. MeHg exposure was calculated from reported fish intake during pregnancy by a FFQ in mid-pregnancy. Children's language and communication skills were measured by maternal report on the Dale and Bishop grammar rating and the Ages and Stages communication scale (ASQ). We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using logistic regressions. Median MeHg exposure was 1.3μg/day, corresponding to 0.14μg/kgbw/week. An exposure level above the 90th percentile (>2.6μg/day, >0.29μg/kgbw/week) was defined as the high MeHg exposure. Results indicated an association between high MeHg exposure and unintelligible speech with an adjusted OR 2.22 (1.31, 3.72). High MeHg exposure was also associated with weaker communication skills adjusted OR 1.33 (1.03, 1.70). Additional adjustment for fish intake strengthened the associations, while adjusting for PCBs and n-3 LCPUFA from diet or from supplements had minor impact. In conclusion, significant associations were found between prenatal MeHg exposure above the 90th percentile and delayed language and communication skills in a generally low exposed population.

  5. Variations in the relationship between maternal depression, maternal sensitivity, and child attachment by race/ethnicity and nativity: findings from a nationally representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihuan Jennifer; Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Zhang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    This study uses data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort to examine the relationship between maternal depression, maternal sensitivity, and child attachment, specifically among Hispanic and Asian American mothers and their young children, and to explore the role of cultural variation and nativity in the associations between these variables. Data used in this study were collected from biological mothers on two occasions, when their children were approximately 9 and 24 months of age. Trained observers completed a direct assessment of child attachment security and an observational measure of maternal sensitivity, data on maternal depression was obtained via maternal report. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to predict odds of child insecure attachment. The risk of child insecure attachment associated with chronic maternal depression was found to be much higher for Hispanic mothers than for Asians. In contrast, mothers' foreign-born status was a stronger risk factor than depression for insecure child attachment among Asian Americans. Maternal sensitivity significantly reduced the odds of Asian American children being insecurely attached by more than half. Among the full sample of mothers, which included U.S.-born non-Hispanic White mothers and U.S.-born non-Hispanic Black mothers, decreased maternal sensitivity mediated the association between chronic depression and child insecure attachment. However, this mediation was not found in stratified analyses of Hispanic and Asian mothers. Finally, mothers' nativity did not influence the extent to which maternal depression or sensitivity was associated with child attachment. These findings suggest that the associations between maternal depression, sensitivity, and child attachment are culturally specific, and that mothers' immigrant status may be a risk factor in some racial/ethnic groups but protective in others.

  6. Markører for psykiske helbredsproblemer ved sundhedsplejerskernes undersøgelser af 0-1-årige børn. Copenhagen County Child Cohort 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Olsen, Else Marie; Houmann, Tine

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of psychopathology in the first years of life are few, and the associations between mental health problems in infancy and toddler age and mental health disturbances later in life have not been systematically investigated. This study aimed to investigate whether markers...... of mental health problems can be identified in the first years of life and thus increase the scientific foundation for prevention early in childhood....

  7. Child-Pugh-Turcott versus Meld score for predicting survival in a retrospective cohort of black African cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KA Attia; KC Ackoundou-N'guessan; AT N'dri-yoman; AK Mahassadi; E Messou; YF Bathaix; YH Kissi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the performance of the Child-Pugh-Turcott (CPT) score to that of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in predicting survival of a retrospective cohort of 172 Black African patients with cirrhosis on a short and mid-term basis.METHODS: Univariate and multivariate (Cox model)analyses were used to identify factors related to mortality. Relationship between the two scores was appreciated by calculating the correlation coefficient.The Kaplan Meier method and the log rank test were used to elaborate and compare survival respectively.The Areas Under the Curves were used to compare the performance between scores at 3, 6 and 12 mo.RESULTS: The study population comprised 172 patients, of which 68.9% were male. The mean age of the patient was 47.5 ± 13 years. Hepatitis B virus infection was the cause of cirrhosis in 70% of the cases.The overall mortality was 31.4% over 11 years of follow up. Independent factors significantly associated with mortality were: CPT score (HR = 3.3, 95% CI [1.7-6.2])(P 1.5 mg/dL versus serum creatine 21 vs MELD < 21). The area under the curves (AUC)that predict survival was 0.72 and 0.75 at 3 mo (P = 0.68),0.64 and 0.62 at 6 mo (P = 0.67), 0.69 and 0.64 at 12 mo (P = 0.38) respectively for the CPT score and the MELD score.CONCLUSION: The CPT score displays the same prognostic significance as does the MELD score in black African patients with cirrhosis. Moreover, its handling appears less cumbersome in clinical practice as compared to the latter.

  8. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  9. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal a

  10. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, M.P.C.M.; Linting, M.; Henrichs, J.; Herba, C.M.; Verhage, M.L.; Schenk, J.J.; Arends, L.R.; Raat, H.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Tiemeier, H.W.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Methods Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal

  11. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL – Methodology of the follow-up of the children at the age of 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells, health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales. The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children’s health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:883-893

  12. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) - Methodology of the follow-up of the children at the age of 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Król, Anna; Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata; Jacukowicz, Aleksandra; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Jerzyńska, Joanna; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Stelmach, Iwona

    2016-11-18

    Effects of environmental exposures in utero and in the first years of life on early life health and development is a growing research area with major public health implications. The main aim of this work has been to provide an overview of the next step of the Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) covering exposure, health and neurodevelopment assessments of children at 7 years of age. Details regarding methodology of the follow-up of the children are crucial for cross-cohort collaboration and a full understanding of the future research questions. Phase III of the REPRO_PL cohort covers a follow-up of 900 children at the age of 7 years old. The questionnaire filled in by the mothers is composed of: socio-demographic, child exposure and home environment information, nutritional status and health data. In the case of 400 children, environmental (including collection of urine, saliva and buccal cells), health status and psychomotor assessments are performed. Health and development check consists of physical measurements, child health status assessment (including lung function tests, skin prick testing, an interview/examination by an allergist) and psychomotor development tests (the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Intelligence and Development Scales). The results of the study will become available within the next few years. Extension of the REPRO_PL cohort with examinations of children at the age of 7 years old may provide a better understanding of the relationship between environmental and lifestyle-related factors and children's health and neurodevelopment; and may further strengthen scientific base for policies and interventions promoting healthy lifestyle. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):883-893.

  13. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to inv...

  14. The Emergent Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint p...

  15. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf

    practice in screening for and preventing adverse infant mental health risks. Aims: The overall aim of CIMHP is to test the feasibility of an infant mental health screening and indicated prevention system and its capacity to (1) detect children at risk of longer term mental health adversities and (2) alter...... these risks in a cost effective way in a general population. Methods: In a period of 20 months 8.800 mothers and infants in Copenhagen are screened (at 2, 4 and 8 months) using two standardized screening instruments: 1) Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB) in detecting infant social withdrawal and 2) Edinburg...... Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in detecting maternal postpartum depression. A sample of 326 eligible parent(s) enters into a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an attachment based intervention program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P), compared to Care as usual (CAU) in preventing...

  16. Experiences from an ACT programme in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars

    , and social workers with administrative authority from the social office and the job center. In the international research literature ACT has been shown in randomized controlled trials to be a very effective method in bringing individuals out of homelessness and into a stable housing situation. This study...... units are well described in the research literature. All in all the study shows that ACT is a very effective method of supporting homeless individuals with complex needs to move into own housing and to remain housed. Especially, the study shows that with the support from an ACT-team it is possible......This working paper presents intermediary results of a study of an ACT-program (Assertive Community Treatment) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The ACT-program is aimed at rehousing homeless individuals and providing floating support in the citizens own home from a multidisciplinary support team. The target...

  17. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... will not have negative consequences for this group. FUNDING: The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  18. Experiences from an ACT programme in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars

    This working paper presents intermediary results of a study of an ACT-program (Assertive Community Treatment) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The ACT-program is aimed at rehousing homeless individuals and providing floating support in the citizens own home from a multidisciplinary support team. The target...... groups of ACT are individuals who have complex support needs due to for instance mental illness and/or substance abuse and for whom it is difficult to use mainstream support systems. The team consists not only of social support workers but also of a psychiatrist, a nurse and an addiction councilor......, and social workers with administrative authority from the social office and the job center. In the international research literature ACT has been shown in randomized controlled trials to be a very effective method in bringing individuals out of homelessness and into a stable housing situation. This study...

  19. Convergent and discriminant validity of psychiatric symptoms reported in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at age 3 years with independent clinical assessment in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Biele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies often use parent questionnaires to assess children's development and mental health. To date, few studies have investigated the validity of parent questionnaires with standardized clinical assessments as criterion. The current study examines discriminant and convergent validity of parent questionnaires for symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, Oppositional Defiance Disorder (ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD as well as symptoms of Separation Anxiety employed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study by using structured clinical interviews performed 5 months later in the Longitudinal ADHD Cohort Study as a criterion. The comparison of confirmatory factor analysis models and examination of factor correlations indicate convergent and discriminant validity of MoBa parent questionnaires for preschool children, especially for the assessment of ADHD and ODD/CD. Future research should attempt to further improve parent questionnaires, examine their validity in representative samples, and explicitly test their utility for screening.

  20. Secret letters cast light on Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, Matin

    2001-11-01

    Letters by Niels Bohr that have been kept secret since his death could explain the mystery of why Werner Heisenberg visited him in Copenhagen in 1941. When the author Michael Frayn spent two years writing Copenhagen, he had no idea how successful the play would become. He doubted that audiences would sit through a historical drama about a war-time meeting between Werner Heisenberg - head of Germany's nuclear programme - and his old mentor Niels Bohr in the Nazi-occupied Danish capital in 1941. But Frayn's efforts paid off. Audiences and critics alike have thrilled at the way the award-winning play probes the historical uncertainty that surrounds the encounter. Was Heisenberg fishing for information about the Allies' atomic plans - or was he trying to recruit Bohr for Germany's bomb programme? Did Heisenberg want to suggest that the Germans were close to finishing a bomb so that the Allies would make peace with Hitler? Maybe he was simply seeking approval from Bohr for his own atomic work. There is also a moral debate: did Heisenberg know how to build a bomb, but decided not to - or did he want to build one, but got his calculations wrong? Unfortunately, no-one was there to record or observe the encounter and we cannot know for sure what was said or implied between the two men. All we do know is that the pair dined together and took a short walk - and that the incident damaged Bohr and Heisenberg's friendship forever. To piece together what happened, historians of science have had to rely on Heisenberg's post-war recollections - which have been ambiguous and contradictory - along with scraps of evidence from secondary sources. (U.K.)

  1. THE EU AND THE CURIOUS CASE OF THE COPENHAGEN ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Nicoleta Furtună

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the 2009 UN Climate Change Conference, commonly known as the Copenhagen Summit, has been to reach a legally binding agreement between participant states. As a successor to the Kyoto Protocol, this sort of agreement would have engaged signatory parties with reducing their greenhouse gas emissions in order to prevent the rise with 2 degrees Celsius in global temperature. This paper is an analysis of the above-mentioned event, which focuses on itsmain result, namely the Copenhagen Accord. It also presents the role of the European Union at the Copenhagen Summit and in promoting sustainable development globally.

  2. Towards a Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    De Muynck, W M

    2003-01-01

    The Copenhagen interpretation is critically considered. A number of ambiguities, inconsistencies and confusions are discussed. It is argued that it is possible to purge the interpretation so as to obtain a consistent and reasonable way to interpret the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics, which is in agreement with the way this theory is dealt with in experimental practice. In particular, the essential role attributed by the Copenhagen interpretation to measurement is acknowledged. For this reason it is proposed to refer to it as a neo-Copenhagen interpretation.

  3. The association between cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy and birth weight: A prospective mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Hu, Weiyue; Guan, Quanquan; Du, Guizhen; Chen, Ting; Wu, Wei; Wang, Yun; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2017-09-04

    Effects of indoor air pollution on neonatal birth weight has been studied for many years. In China, cooking oil fumes are important parts of indoor air pollution. However, whether cooking oil fume exposure during pregnancy affects birth weight in China remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine the association between pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes and birth weight in a newly established prospective mother-child cohort in China. We finally included 1420 pregnant women from 2013 to 2015 and follow up for one year until the offspring was born. According to self-reported exposure status, we categorized mothers into non-exposure group and exposed group or three exposure time subgroups, including 0h/day, 0-1h/day and >1h/day respectively. By using multinomial logistics regression models, we found that pregnancy exposure to cooking oil fumes significantly increased the risk of large for gestational age (LGA, OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.15-2.18, P=4.88×10(-3)). Additionally, compared to pregnant women who were in non-exposure group, 0-1h/day exposure elevated the risk of LGA (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.22-2.33, P=1.63×10(-3)), while >1h/day exposure elevated the risk of small for gestational age, but were not significant (SGA, OR=2.15, 95% CI=0.61-7.66, P=0.24). In the stratification analysis, women aged 25-29years and ≥30years were predisposed to the influence of cooking oil fumes and have LGA newborns (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.09-2.75, P=0.02; OR=1.72, 95% CI=1.07-2.77, P=0.02, respectively). In conclusion, the present study suggests inverse U-shape dose response association between maternal exposure to cooking oil fumes during pregnancy and birth weight, and further studies are needed to verify the effect of cooking oil fumes on the birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. METHODS: Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed...... study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external...

  5. Association between prenatal exposure to perfluorinated compounds and symptoms of infections at age 1-4years among 359 children in the Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsager, Louise; Christensen, Nikolas; Husby, Steffen;

    2016-01-01

    , educational level, parity and child age. RESULTS: On average, the children experienced symptoms of infection 23% of the time during one year. PFOS exposure in the high tertile compared to the low tertile was associated with a statistically significant increased proportion of days with fever (IRR: 1.65 (95% CI...... on childhood infectious disease is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between prenatal exposure to PFAS and symptoms of infections at age 1-4years. METHODS: The Odense Child Cohort is an on-going prospective study on children's health, where serum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic......: 1.24, 2.18), P-trendfever above the median (OR: 2.35 (95% CI: 1.31, 4.11). The latter tendency was also apparent for PFOA (OR: 1.97 (95% CI: 1.07, 3.62). Further, higher concentrations of PFOS and PFOA tended to increase the number of episodes...

  6. The socioeconomic and ethnic segregation of living conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    . Differences in income have increased spatial segregation in Copenhagen in terms of housing and education. This segregation is most visible in relation to highly educated Danes and immigrants from non-Western countries. The article first examines poverty at household level and its spatial dimensions. Secondly......The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation......, it considers other living conditions (for example social networks). Thirdly, it explores immigrants’ experiences of, among other things, education, employment and citizenship. It concludes that social cohesion in Copenhagen may be threatened if this segregation continues....

  7. The Socioeconomic and Ethnic Segregation of Living Conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    . Differences in income have increased spatial segregation in Copenhagen in terms of housing and education. This segregation is most visible in relation to highly educated Danes and immigrants from non-Western countries. The article first examines poverty at household level and its spatial dimensions. Secondly......The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation......, it considers other living conditions (for example social networks). Thirdly, it explores immigrants’ experiences of, among other things, education, employment and citizenship. It concludes that social cohesion in Copenhagen may be threatened if this segregation continues....

  8. The Copenhagen primary care differential count (CopDiff) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.; Karlslund, W.

    2014-01-01

    of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death. CONCLUSION: This paper reviews methodological issues behind...... associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen General Practitioners' Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General...... Practitioners' Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022) from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis...

  9. Teaching Experimental Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngstrøm, Henriette Syrach

    2011-01-01

    For more than ten years the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen has offered the course Experimental Archaeology, Ethno-archaeology and Simple Technology to all students at BA level....

  10. Seismic investigations in downtown Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, K.; Mendoza, J. A.; Olsen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Near surface geophysics are gaining widespread use in major infrastructure projects with respect to geotechnical and engineering applications. The development of data acquisition, processing tools and interpretation methods have optimized survey production, reduced logistics costs and increase results reliability of seismic surveys during the last decades. However, the use of geophysical methods under urban environments continues to face challenges due to multiple noise sources and obstacles inherent to cities. A seismic investigation was conducted in Copenhagen aiming to produce information needed for hydrological, geotechnical and groundwater modeling assessments related to the planned Cityringen underground metro project. The particular objectives were a) map variations in subsurface Quaternary and limestone properties b) to map for near surface structural features. The geological setting in the Copenhagen region is characterized by several interlaced layers of glacial till and meltwater sand deposits. These layers, which are found unevenly distributed throughout the city and present in varying thicknesses, overlie limestone of different generations. There are common occurrences of incised valley structures containing localized instances of weathered or fractured limestone. The surveys consisted of combined seismic reflection and refraction profiles accounting for approximately 13 km along sections of the projected metro line. The data acquisition was carried out using standard 192 channels arrays, receiver groups with 5 m spacing and a Vibroseis as a source at 5 m spacing. In order to improve the resolution of the data, 29 Walkaway-Vertical Seismic Profiles were performed at selected wells along the surface seismic lines. The refraction data was processed with travel-time tomography and the reflection data underwent standard interpretation. The refraction data inversion was performed twofold; a surface refraction alone and combined with the VSP data. Three

  11. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen CL

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Christen Lykkegaard Andersen,1,2 Volkert Dirk Siersma,1 Willy Karlslund,1 Hans Carl Hasselbalch,2 Peter Felding,3 Ole Weis Bjerrum,4 Niels de Fine Olivarius11The Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, 2Department of Hematology, Roskilde University Hospital, 3The Elective Laboratory of the Capital Region, 4Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, DenmarkBackground: The differential blood cell count provides valuable information about a person's state of health. Together with a variety of biochemical variables, these analyses describe important physiological and pathophysiological relations. There is a need for research databases to explore associations between these parameters, concurrent comorbidities, and future disease outcomes.Methods and results: The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory is the only laboratory serving general practitioners in the Copenhagen area, covering approximately 1.2 million inhabitants. The Copenhagen General Practitioners’ Laboratory has registered all analytical results since July 1, 2000. The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database contains all differential blood cell count results (n=1,308,022 from July 1, 2000 to January 25, 2010 requested by general practitioners, along with results from analysis of various other blood components. This data set is merged with detailed data at a person level from The Danish Cancer Registry, The Danish National Patient Register, The Danish Civil Registration System, and The Danish Register of Causes of Death.Conclusion: This paper reviews methodological issues behind the construction of the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count database as well as the distribution of characteristics of the population it covers and the variables that are recorded. Finally, it gives examples of its use as an inspiration to peers for collaboration

  12. Relationship between Receipt of a Social Protection Grant for a Child and Second Pregnancy Rates among South African Women: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Social protection programs issuing cash grants to caregivers of young children may influence fertility. Grant-related income could foster economic independence and/or increase access to job prospects, education, and health services, resulting in lower pregnancy rates. In the other direction, these programs may motivate family expansion in order to receive larger grants. Here, we estimate the net effect of these countervailing mechanisms among rural South African women.We constructed a retrospective cohort of 4845 women who first became eligible for the Child Support Grant with the birth of their first child between 1998 and 2008, with data originally collected by the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. We fit Cox regression models to estimate the hazard of second pregnancy in women who reported grant receipt after birth of first child, relative to non-recipients. As a secondary analysis to explore the potential for grant loss to incentivize second pregnancy, we exploited a natural experiment created by a 2003 expansion of the program's age eligibility criterion from age seven to nine. We compared second pregnancy rates between (i women with children age seven or eight in 2002 (recently aged out of grant eligibility to (ii women with children age seven or eight in 2003 (remained grant-eligible.The adjusted hazard ratio for the association between grant exposure and second pregnancy was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.75. Women with first children who aged out of grant eligibility in 2002 had similar second pregnancy rates to women with first children who remained grant-eligible in 2003 [IRR (95% CI: 0.9 (0.5, 1.4].Across both primary and secondary analyses, we found no evidence that the Child Support Grant incentivizes pregnancy. In harmony with South African population policy, receipt of the Child Support Grant may result in longer spacing between pregnancies.

  13. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ronfani

    Full Text Available The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES, home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months.The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale, with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables.Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found.Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  14. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronfani, Luca; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Mariuz, Marika; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Ferluga, Valentina; Knowles, Alessandra; Montico, Marcella; Barbone, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III). Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale), with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables. Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found. Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development.

  15. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Guedeney

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones.One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife.After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents.Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  16. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; Larroque, Beatrice; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child's development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants' motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child's psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children.

  17. The prevalence of SDQ-measured mental health problems at age 5-7 years and identification of predictors from birth to preschool age in a Danish birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Olsen, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was answered by parents and pre-school teachers. Data from Danish national registers included perinatal data, socioeconomic data and data on child mental illness diagnosed at hospital in preschool age. Register data from the first year of life......The objective of the study is to investigate the prevalence, distribution and predictors of mental health problems in 5-7-year-old Danish children in the general population. This study is a 5-7-year follow-up study of a birth cohort of 6,090 children, the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. The extended...... risk load and environmental stress given the social and cultural context....

  18. Hours in non-parental child care are related to language development in a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijk, M P C M; Linting, M; Henrichs, J; Herba, C M; Verhage, M L; Schenk, J J; Arends, L R; Raat, H; Jaddoe, V W V; Hofman, A; Verhulst, F C; Tiemeier, H; van IJzendoorn, M H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of child care services on several domains of child development have been extensively investigated, but evidence regarding the effects of child care on language development remains inconclusive. Within a large-scale population-based study, we examined the longitudinal associations between non-parental child care and language development from 1 to 6 years (n = 5375). Results showed that more hours in non-parental child care were associated with better language abilities. However, more hours in care in the first year of life were associated with less language proficiency at ages 1 to 1.5. At later ages, this effect disappeared and language proficiency increased. Furthermore, children who spent more hours in centre-based care had better language scores than children in home-based care. Ethnicity, socio-economic status, gender or parity did not change these results. This large, multi-ethnic study demonstrates beneficial effects of non-parental child care, particularly centre-based care, on language proficiency later in childhood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother–Child PELAGIE Cohort (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. Objectives: We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. Methods: In 2002–2006, the PELAGIE mother–child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks’ gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. Results: WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (–3.6; 95% CI: –7.8, –0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Citation: Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner-Idrissi G, Lacroix A, Rouget F, Monfort C, Limon G, Durand G, Saint-Amour D, Cordier S, Chevrier C. 2016. Organophosphate insecticide metabolites in prenatal and childhood urine samples and intelligence scores at 6 years of age: results from the mother–child PELAGIE cohort (France). Environ Health Perspect 124:674–680; http

  20. Organophosphate Insecticide Metabolites in Prenatal and Childhood Urine Samples and Intelligence Scores at 6 Years of Age: Results from the Mother-Child PELAGIE Cohort (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Chloé; Warembourg, Charline; Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaïd; Lacroix, Agnès; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Limon, Gwendolina; Durand, Gaël; Saint-Amour, Dave; Cordier, Sylvaine; Chevrier, Cécile

    2016-05-01

    Several studies suggest that exposure to organophosphate insecticides (OP) during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in children. We evaluated associations between biomarkers of prenatal and postnatal OP exposure and cognitive function of 6-year-olds in a French longitudinal birth cohort. In 2002-2006, the PELAGIE mother-child cohort enrolled pregnant women from Brittany. For a random subcohort, we measured nonspecific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAP) of OP in one maternal urine sample, collected before 19 weeks' gestation, and in one urine sample collected from their 6-year-old children. Six subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV) were administered when the children were 6 years of age to evaluate cognitive function (n = 231). Linear regression models controlling for factors including maternal intelligence and the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score were used. WISC-IV scores were not significantly associated with prenatal or childhood total DAP metabolites. WISC verbal comprehension score was significantly higher in association with the highest maternal urinary concentrations of diethylphosphate (DE) metabolites (5.5; 95% CI: 0.8, 10.3 for > 13.2 nmol/L vs. WISC working memory score was significantly lower in association with the highest urinary concentrations of DE metabolites at age 6 years (-3.6; 95% CI: -7.8, -0.6 for > 11.1 nmol/L vs. WISC score and concurrent DE urinary concentrations requires replication by longitudinal studies investigating childhood OP exposure. Cartier C, Warembourg C, Le Maner-Idrissi G, Lacroix A, Rouget F, Monfort C, Limon G, Durand G, Saint-Amour D, Cordier S, Chevrier C. 2016. Organophosphate insecticide metabolites in prenatal and childhood urine samples and intelligence scores at 6 years of age: results from the mother-child PELAGIE cohort (France). Environ Health Perspect 124:674-680; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409472.

  1. LInking EDCs in maternal Nutrition to Child health (LINC study) – protocol for prospective cohort to study early life exposure to environmental chemicals and child health

    OpenAIRE

    de Cock, Marijke; Quaak, Ilona; Sugeng, Eva J.; Legler, Juliette; van de Bor, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Background The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to s...

  2. Balanced scorecard at the Royal Library, Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Krarup

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Library is the national library of Denmark and University Library for Copenhagen University. In 2000 the Royal Library started using Balanced Scorecard as an instrument for creating a better connection between its day to day activities and its strategic goals. The Royal Library has a number of goals in choosing the Balanced Scorecard. Important goals are: to develop a strategic instrument which can be used to represent the strategic goals of the library in such a way that we can measure how close our actual performance comes in reaching these goals to create an instrument which can be used in negotiating the goals and performance of the departments in such a way that the department leaders keep a fair level of autonomy in running the departments and give the institution leader a good overview of the actual performance to make the individual department's contribution to the institutional performance explicit to personnel and leaders to formulate and monitor important strategic areas of the library's development to support steering the development to make the library and its performance more transparent to all interested actors in the library The article presents the main issues in developing the library's use of the Balanced Scorecard. It includes a number of concrete cases from the implementation of the method and its use as a strategic instrument in monitoring and developing the Royal Library as a library growing more digital and hybrid. To increase the digital part of its content, its services and its internal processes is among the library's major strategic goals.

  3. Copenhagen Infant Mental Health Project (CIMHP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; von Wowern, Rie Krondorf

    mental health adversities and enhancing parental sensitivity and attachment security. Outcomes are measured at follow-up and include parental sensitivity and reflective functioning, child attachment, child social emotional and cognitive development. Results: Preliminary results from the study...... Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in detecting maternal postpartum depression. A sample of 326 eligible parent(s) enters into a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an attachment based intervention program, Circle of Security-Parenting (COS-P), compared to Care as usual (CAU) in preventing...... will be presented focusing mainly on the results from screening part of the study. Conclusion: On the basis of our results we will discuss the importance of screening programs for early infant mental risks and indicated prevention programs aiming at enhancing parental sensitivity and child attachment. If proved...

  4. Fish intake during pregnancy and the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis - longitudinal evidence from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Strøm, Marin; Oken, Emily; Campos, Hannia; Lange, Christoph; Gold, Diane; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2013-10-01

    Maternal fish intake during pregnancy may influence the risk of child asthma and allergic rhinitis, yet evidence is conflicting on its association with these outcomes. We examined the associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis. Mothers in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n 28 936) reported their fish intake at 12 and 30 weeks of gestation. Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the associations of fish intake with child wheeze, asthma and rhinitis assessed at several time points: ever wheeze, recurrent wheeze (>3 episodes), ever asthma and allergic rhinitis, and current asthma, assessed at 18 months (n approximately 22,000) and 7 years (n approximately 17,000) using self-report and registry data on hospitalisations and prescribed medications. Compared with consistently high fish intake during pregnancy (fish as a sandwich or hot meal > or equal to 2-3 times/week), never eating fish was associated with a higher risk of child asthma diagnosis at 18 months (OR 1·30, 95% CI 1·05, 1·63, P=0·02), and ever asthma by hospitalisation (OR 1·46, 95% CI 0·99, 2·13, P=0·05) and medication prescription (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·10, 1·71, P=0·01). A dose-response was present for asthma at 18 months only (P for trend=0·001). We found no associations with wheeze or recurrent wheeze at 18 months or with allergic rhinitis. The results suggest that high (v. no) maternal fish intake during pregnancy is protective against both early and ever asthma in 7-year-old children.

  5. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  6. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better

  8. Summoned by Science. Reporting Climate Change at Copenhagen and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, J.

    2010-11-15

    The December 2009 summit on climate change in Copenhagen was remarkable not because it ended in an ambitious deal to curb greenhouse gas emissions but because of the unprecedented number of journalists, delegates, NGOs and scientists present. In this wide-ranging study, the author has produced a detailed analysis of the coverage of the summit across the globe through studying more than 400 articles published in two print media in 12 countries.The analysis reveals that articles written principally about the science of climate change represented less than 10 per cent of all those surveyed. The study makes extensive use of official UN figures to produce the first detailed assessment of who actually attended Copenhagen. It also includes a survey of over 50 environmental journalists and scientists across the 12 target countries post-Copenhagen to ascertain how they think climate change science might be best communicated.

  9. Crisis in the Resurgent City? The Rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central-city...

  10. Subjective burden among spousal and adult-child informal caregivers of older adults: results from a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Marloes; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Slaets, Joris; Stolk, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Smidt, Nynke

    2016-12-07

    Pressures on informal caregivers are likely to increase due to increasing life expectancy and health care costs, which stresses the importance of prevention of subjective burden. The present study examined the correlates of overall subjective burden and multiple burden dimensions among spousal and adult-child caregivers of Dutch older adults, both cross-sectional and longitudinal (12-months follow-up). In 2010 and 2011 baseline and follow-up data was collected in a sample of informal caregivers and care recipients in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Subjective burden included 7 burden dimensions and a summary score for overall subjective burden, based on the Care-Related Quality of Life Instrument (CarerQoL-7D). Objective stressors were the time investment in caregiving (hours of household care, personal care, practical care) and the health situation of the care recipient, including multimorbidity, functional limitations (Katz Index of Independence Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and cognitive functioning problems (EQ-5D + C). Correlates of subjective burden were evaluated with linear and logistic regression analyses. The sample consisted of 356 caregivers at baseline (43% spousal, 57% adult-child caregivers), and 158 caregivers at follow-up (45% spousal, 55% adult-child caregivers). At baseline and follow-up, spousal caregivers experienced a higher overall subjective burden, and reported more often mental health problems, physical health problems, and problems with combining daily activities, compared to adult-child caregivers. For spousal caregivers, a poorer health situation of the care recipient was associated with higher subjective burden, while adult-child caregivers reported higher levels of subjective burden when their time investment in caregiving was high. Subjective burden at follow-up was mainly explained by baseline subjective burden. These results indicate that for effective

  11. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  12. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard;

    2014-01-01

    , but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......-initiation rates, whereas an intervention targeting only initiation among youth had marginal effects on morbidity and mortality within the modelled time frame. Conclusions: By modifying the DYNAMO-HIA model, we were able to estimate the potential health effects of four interventions to reduce smoking prevalence...

  13. Translating measures of sustainable development to urban districts of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    overviews on the current baselines as well as stages in a transition process. The Dutch tool DPL (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for locations’) is a tool for mapping sustainability profiles of urban districts through a set of environmental, social...... and economical indicators. Because of its capability of benchmarking between districts and comparative analysis of the indicators, it was decided to adapt the tool for the Copenhagen local authority. This paper presents the tool and the Copenhagen context. The purpose of the paper is to contribute...

  14. Availability of GNSS for Road Pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna B. O.; Zabic, Martina; Overø, H. M.

    2005-01-01

    of evaluating whether stand alone GPS is feasible for operational road pricing in Copenhagen. The analyses show that the GPS satellite availability in the downtown streets is not sufficient to form the basis for an operational road pricing setup in Copenhagen. The narrow street canyons prevent a sufficient...... amount of satellite signals from reaching street level, and there are too many gabs in the position logs to implement a fair and reliable taxation scheme. The need for augmentation is evident, and with the advent of Galileo within a few years, it is relevant to investigate how integrated GPS...

  15. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    In the paper I examine how a cultural event (tilting at the ring) traditionally associated with the periphery of Denmark is transferred to the capital of Copenhagen. This transfer was initiated by a group of mobile youngsters originally from Southern Jutland now living in Copenhagen. After...... the first event, a Facebook-community was set up to organize and promote succeeding events. By analyzing empirical data from Facebook I point to how the participants draw on a range of ‘languagecultural practices’ (Cornips & de Rooij in press) to re-contextualize the rural tradition to an urban setting. I...

  16. The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory: A new tool for the assessment of burnout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tage S.; Borritz, Marianne; Villadsen, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity......Burnout; CBI; Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; exhaustion;fatigue; human service work; psychosocial work environment; PUMA study; questionnaire validity...

  17. Loss to follow-up of HIV-infected women after delivery: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study and the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Aebi-Popp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-infected pregnant women are very likely to engage in HIV medical care to prevent transmission of HIV to their newborn. After delivery, however, childcare and competing commitments might lead to disengagement from HIV care. The aim of this study was to quantify loss to follow-up (LTFU from HIV care after delivery and to identify risk factors for LTFU. Methods: We used data on 719 pregnancies within the Swiss HIV Cohort Study from 1996 to 2012 and with information on follow-up visits available. Two LTFU events were defined: no clinical visit for >180 days and no visit for >360 days in the year after delivery. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for a LTFU event after delivery. Results: Median maternal age at delivery was 32 years (IQR 28–36, 357 (49% women were black, 280 (39% white, 56 (8% Asian and 4% other ethnicities. One hundred and seven (15% women reported any history of IDU. The majority (524, 73% of women received their HIV diagnosis before pregnancy, most of those (413, 79% had lived with diagnosed HIV longer than three years and two-thirds (342, 65% were already on antiretroviral therapy (ART at time of conception. Of the 181 women diagnosed during pregnancy by a screening test, 80 (44% were diagnosed in the first trimester, 67 (37% in the second and 34 (19% in the third trimester. Of 357 (69% women who had been seen in HIV medical care during three months before conception, 93% achieved an undetectable HIV viral load (VL at delivery. Of 62 (12% women with the last medical visit more than six months before conception, only 72% achieved an undetectable VL (p=0.001. Overall, 247 (34% women were LTFU over 180 days in the year after delivery and 86 (12% women were LTFU over 360 days with 43 (50% of those women returning. Being LTFU for 180 days was significantly associated with history of intravenous drug use (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.09–2.77, p=0.021 and not achieving an undetectable VL at

  18. Relationship between early language skills and the development of inattention/hyperactivity symptoms during the preschool period: Results of the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Galera, Cedric; van der Waerden, Judith; Hoertel, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Melchior, Maria; Ramus, Franck

    2016-11-08

    This study aims to examine bidirectional relationships between children's language skills and Inattention/Hyperactivity (IH) symptoms during preschool. Children (N = 1459) from the EDEN mother-child cohort were assessed at ages 3 and 5.5 years. Language skills were evaluated using the WPPSI-III, NEPSY and ELOLA batteries. Children's behavior, including IH symptoms, was assessed using the parent-rated Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach, we examined the relationship between language skills and IH symptoms, as well as potential mediating processes. SEM analyses indicated a small negative effect of language skills at 3 years on ADHD symptoms at 5.5 years after adjusting for IH symptoms at 3 years (β =-0.12, SE = 0.04, p-value = 0.002). Interpersonal difficulties did not mediate the relationship between early language skills and later IH symptoms, nor was this association reduced after adjusting for a broad range of pre- and postnatal environmental factors and performance IQ. Among different language skills, receptive syntax at 3 years was most strongly related to IH symptoms at 5.5 years. Poor language skills at age 3 may predict IH symptoms when a child enters primary school. Implications for the understanding and the prevention of the co-occurrence of language disorders and ADHD are discussed.

  19. Amniocentesis and mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission in the Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales French Perinatal Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbrot, Laurent; Jasseron, Carine; Ekoukou, Dieudonné; Batallan, Agnès; Bongain, André; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Blanche, Stéphane; Tubiana, Roland; Rouzioux, Christine; Warszawski, Josiane

    2009-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether performing an amniocentesis increased mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 (MTCT). We studied HIV -1 infected mothers and their children enrolled in the multicenter French Perinatal HIV Cohort from 1985 to 2006. One hundred sixty-six amniocenteses were performed among 9302 singleton pregnancies, the proportion increasing from 1.0% before 2001 to 4.7% in 2005-2006. Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was more frequent in the amniocentesis group (58.4% vs 33.2%). MTCT tended to be higher in the amniocentesis group, among mothers who received no antiretroviral agents (25.0%; 3/12 vs 16.2%; 343/2113; P = .41) as well as among mothers receiving zidovudine monotherapy or a double-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor combination (6.1%; 3/49 vs 3.3%; 117/3556; P = .22), but the difference was not significant. Among 81 mothers receiving HAART, there was no case of MTCT. Our results suggest that amniocentesis is not a major risk factor for mother-to-child transmission in mothers treated with effective antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  1. Alcohol intake in pregnancy increases the child's risk of atopic dermatitis. the COPSAC prospective birth cohort study of a high risk population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Giwercman Carson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis has increased four-fold over the recent decades in developed countries, indicating that changes in environmental factors associated with lifestyle may play an important role in this epidemic. It has been proposed that alcohol consumption may be one contributing risk factor in this development. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of alcohol intake during pregnancy on the development of atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life. METHOD: The COPSAC cohort is a prospective, longitudinal, birth cohort study of 411 children born to mothers with a history of asthma, followed up for 7 years with scheduled visits every 6 months as well as visits for acute exacerbations of atopic dermatitis. Risk of atopic dermatitis from any alcohol consumption during pregnancy was analyzed as time-to-diagnosis and adjusted for known risk factors. RESULTS: 177 of 411 children developed atopic dermatitis before age 7 years. We found a significant effect of alcohol intake during pregnancy on atopic dermatitis development (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99 p=0.024. This conclusion was unaffected after adjustment for smoking, mother's education and mother's atopic dermatitis. LIMITATIONS: The selection of a high-risk cohort, with all mothers suffering from asthma, and all children having a gestational age above 35 weeks with no congenital abnormality, systemic illness, or history of mechanical ventilation or lower airway infection. CONCLUSION: Alcohol intake by pregnant women with a history of asthma, is significantly associated with an increased risk for the child for developing atopic dermatitis during the first 7 years of life.

  2. Maternal fatty acid intake and fetal growth: evidence for an association in overweight women. The 'EDEN mother-child' cohort (study of pre- and early postnatal determinants of the child's development and health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Peggy; Forhan, Anne; De Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Thiébaugeorges, Olivier; Goua, Valérie; Magnin, Guillaume; Schweitzer, Michel; Kaminski, Monique; Ducimetière, Pierre; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies suggest a benefit of seafood and n-3 fatty acid intake on fetal growth and infant development. The objective was to study the association between fatty acid intake and fetal growth in pregnant French women. Pregnant women included in the EDEN mother-child cohort study completed FFQ on their usual diet: (1) in the year before pregnancy and (2) during the last 3 months of pregnancy (n 1439). Conversion into nutrient intakes was performed using data on portion size and a French food composition table. Associations between maternal fatty acid intakes and several neonatal anthropometric measurements were studied using linear regressions adjusted for centre, mother's age, smoking habits, height, parity, gestational age and newborn's sex. Due to significant interaction, analyses were stratified according to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status. Neither total lipid nor SFA, MUFA or PUFA intake was significantly associated with newborn size. In overweight women only (n 366), a high pre-pregnancy n-3 fatty acid intake (% PUFA) was positively associated with the newborn's birth weight (P=0.01), head, arm and wrist circumferences and sum of skinfolds (Pwomen. Follow-up of the children may help determine whether this has beneficial consequences for the child's health and development.

  3. Father involvement in early child-rearing and behavioural outcomes in their pre-adolescent children: evidence from the ALSPAC UK birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redshaw, Maggie; Savage-McGlynn, Emily; Quigley, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the nature of paternal involvement in early child-rearing adopting a social developmental perspective, and estimate its effect on behavioural outcomes of children aged 9 and 11 years. Setting The data come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort recruited in the former county of Avon in the southwest of England. Participants Out of the 14 701 children in this cohort who were alive at 1 year, 10 440 children were living with both parents at 8 months and were therefore eligible. Outcome data were available for 6898 children at 9 years and 6328 children at 11 years. Main exposure Paternal involvement was measured using factor scores obtained through factor analysis of fathers’ responses on their participation in, understanding of, and feelings about their child's early upbringing. Outcome Behavioural problems were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties score. Results 3 factors were identified in the factor analysis: Factor 1 described fathers’ emotional response to the child; factor 2 measured the frequency of fathers’ involvement in domestic and childcare activities; factor 3 characterised fathers’ feelings of security in their role as parent and partner. Children of fathers with high scores on factors 1 and 3 had 14% (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.94, p=0.001) and 13% (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.96, p=0.006), respectively, lower adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 9 years. Factors 1 and 3 were associated with comparable reduction in adjusted odds of behavioural problems at 11 years (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.98, p=0.017 and OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.99, p=0.034, respectively). Factor 2 was not associated with the outcome. Conclusions Psychological and emotional aspects of paternal involvement in children's early upbringing, particularly how new fathers see themselves as parents and adjust to the role, rather than the quantity of direct

  4. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Khine Wut Yee; Oo, Myo Minn; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Phyo, Khaing Hnin; Aung, Thet Ko; Mya, Theingi; Aung, Nilar; Oo, Htun Nyunt; Isaakidis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) throughout the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) cascade remains one of the major threats to the success of PMTCT programs. In this study, we aimed to determine the mother-to-child transmission rate in a programmatic setting and to determine factors associated with LTFU among enrolled mothers and unfavorable outcomes among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016.LTFU means mother/infant missing appointed visit for more than three months. Of 678 pregnant women enrolled in PMTCT program between March 2011 and June 2014, one stillbirth and 607 live births were recorded in this cohort. Of 457 HIV-exposed babies with HIV-test recorded at the end of the intervention, nine (2%) were HIV-positive. Pregnant women's and exposed-babies' LTFU rate was 7 per 1000 person-years, and 10 per 1000 person-years respectively. PMTCT option B protocol was found to be significantly associate with maternal LTFU [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 95% CI: 3.52 (1.38-8.96)] when compare to mothers receiving option B+/lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Weight <2.5 Kg at enrolment, receiving mixed-feeding, vaginal delivery and option B PMTCT protocol were significantly associated with unfavorable outcomes among exposed babies [aHR(95% CI): 5.40 (1.66-17.53), 5.91(1.68-20.84), 2.27 (1.22-4.22) and 2.33 (1.16-4.69) respectively]. Mother-to-child HIV transmission rate in this public hospital-based program was lower than the 5% national target, which indicates a successful PMTCT intervention. However, a high proportion of HIV-infected mothers and exposed babies LTFU was recorded. Lifelong ART provision to HIV-positive pregnant women was shown to reduce exposed babies' LTFU, death and transmission rate (unfavorable outcomes) in this setting. Lessons learned from this program could be used to inform

  5. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on a yearlong post occupancy evaluation of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design of ventilation...

  6. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  7. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent eart...

  8. Visions for Horizon 2020 from Copenhagen Research Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneche, Nicolaj Tofte; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the Copenhagen Research Forum (CRF) gathered 80 European scientists to discuss the societal chal-lenges to be addressed by Horizon 2020, the next framework programme for European research and innovation, and consider how research could contribute the best solutions. This EFP brief...

  9. DIKU-LASMEA Workshop on Computer Vision, Copenhagen, March, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    This report will cover the participation in the DIKU-LASMEA Workshop on Computer Vision held at the department of computer science, University of Copenhagen, in March 2009. The report will give a concise description of the topics presented at the workshop, and briefly discuss how the work relates...

  10. Publicly Accessible Art Collections in Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the increasing accessibility of private galleries in Copenhagen during the early years of the nineteenth century, which formed an important prelude to the formation of a formal public art gallery in 1824-25. After a period of gradually increasing openness of a few private c...

  11. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  12. Urban Transportation Systems in Bogotá and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogotá and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems...

  13. The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snizek, Bernhard; Skov-Petersen, Hans; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    The Good and the Bad – Bicyclists’ Experiences In Copenhagen In order to design livable cities, a strategy of substituting motorized travel modes with non-motorized ones can be a solution to the problems of crowding/queuing and CO2 emissions. Prior to investing into bike infrastructure, knowledge...

  14. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design o...

  15. Routing of Electric Vehicles: City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted;

    . The objective is to find the least cost plan for EV routing and compare this to conventional routing. A heuristic method is developed and tested on data based on real-life collected data on distribution vehicles in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The EVRPTW has so far received little attention in the literature...

  16. DIKU-LASMEA Workshop on Computer Vision, Copenhagen, March, 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    This report will cover the participation in the DIKU-LASMEA Workshop on Computer Vision held at the department of computer science, University of Copenhagen, in March 2009. The report will give a concise description of the topics presented at the workshop, and briefly discuss how the work relates...

  17. Bicyclists’ preferences for route characteristics and crowding in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Skov-Petersen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    the Danish public and this is widespread across people with different socio-demographic characteristics. Copenhagen has an extensive network of cycling facilities and is often used as a role model for other large cities when developing cycling facilities. This setting provides a unique basis...

  18. Visions for Horizon 2020 from Copenhagen Research Forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneche, Nicolaj Tofte; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    In January 2012, the Copenhagen Research Forum (CRF) gathered 80 European scientists to discuss the societal chal-lenges to be addressed by Horizon 2020, the next framework programme for European research and innovation, and consider how research could contribute the best solutions. This EFP brief...

  19. Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Maternal Postnatal Depression on a Child's Intelligence Quotient: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Based on 974 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Guoyuan; Pan, Bochen; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Guangying; Wang, Lie

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologists have explored the relationship between maternal postnatal depression (PND) and the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the resulting offspring, but the results remain inconclusive. This study aims to analyze the literature regarding the association between maternal PND and a child's IQ. A search of articles in PubMed, Web of Science, and MEDLINE databases from inception to September 2015 was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of relevant reference lists. The following search terms were used: (postpartum OR postnatal OR puerperal) AND (depression OR depressive symptoms OR blues OR dysthymia OR disorders OR psychosis) AND (intelligence quotient OR IQ OR intelligence tests OR intelligence OR cognitive OR cognition) AND (children OR child OR adolescent OR offspring) AND (cohort OR prospective OR follow-up OR follow OR longitudinal). Articles exploring the association between maternal PND and IQ of offspring aged 2 years and older were included. A total of 510 records were retrieved. Two authors independently selected eligible studies and extracted data. Three authors assessed the quality of the studies. To explore the associations between maternal PND and full IQ and verbal IQ, random-effects meta-analyses were performed, followed by subgroup analysis of impact on full IQ. Nine articles were eligible for review. On the basis of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, 7 studies were considered to be of high quality. When one study of participants aged 3.8 years was excluded from the meta-analysis, the pooled weighted mean difference of full IQ between the children of PND mothers and non-PND mothers was -4.086 (95% CI, -6.578 to -1.594), and the pooled standard mean difference of verbal IQ between the children of PND mothers and non-PND mothers was -0.361 (95% CI, -0.564 to -0.158). Subgroup analysis showed that the child's age at evaluation, diagnostic method of PND, study quality, and socioeconomic status did not affect the mean difference in full IQ between

  1. Cohort profile: The cohorts at the Research Center for Prevention and Health, formerly " The Glostrup Population studies"

    OpenAIRE

    Osler, Merete; Linneberg, Allan; Glummer, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 1964 the first population based cohort was examined at the Glostrup Hospital and ever sinvce follow-ups and baseline studies of new cohorts have been going on. The main focus of the first and most following studies was coronary heart disease risk factor epidemiology.The participants in each cohort have been drawn as random samples from the background population in up to 11 municipalities in the Copenhagen region. An overall design has been built which covers both cros...

  2. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  3. [Laryngomalacia in a follow-up of a child development cohort for antecedents of perinatal encephalopathy. Implications for nosologic conceptualization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandujano-Valdés, Mario Antonio; Sánchez-Pérez, María del Carmen

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of 10 cases of congenital laryngeal stridor. Reports of laryngeal endoscopy and diagnosis define laryngomalacia as laryngeal flaccidity and stridor. Some authors postulate that in addition to immaturity of cartilage, there exist the possibility of laryngeal uncoordination and dyskinesia. They support this idea in cases of late presentation, neurological damage, and atypical cases related with functional state or anesthesia. Laryngeal endoscopies were carried out in 10 cases included in a cohort of subjects from a longitudinal follow-up diagnosed with neurologica damage of perinatal origin. One case was diagnosed with postoperative unilateral paralysis of vocal chord and another identified vascular ring. The eight remaining cases fulfilled laryngomalacia criteria of diagnosis, but because of their characteristics origin is not an anatomic alteration but a functional hypotonia. The need to carry out an integral study to describe co-morbidity is emphasized.

  4. Intake of Caffeinated Soft Drinks before and during Pregnancy, but Not Total Caffeine Intake, Is Associated with Increased Cerebral Palsy Risk in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C.; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Eichelberger, Kacey Y.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Postnatal administration of caffeine may reduce the risk of cerebral palsy (CP) in vulnerable low-birth-weight neonates. The effect of antenatal caffeine exposure remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association of intake of caffeine by pregnant women and risk of CP...... in their children. METHODS: The study was based on The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising >100,000 live-born children, of whom 222 were subsequently diagnosed with CP. Mothers reported their caffeine consumption in questionnaires completed around pregnancy week 17 (102,986 mother-child pairs), week...... 22 (87,987 mother-child pairs), and week 30 (94,372 mother-child pairs). At week 17, participants were asked about present and prepregnancy consumption. We used Cox regression models to estimate associations between exposure [daily servings (1 serving = 125 mL) of caffeinated coffee, tea, and soft...

  5. A Study on Mediation by Offspring BMI in the Association between Maternal Obesity and Child Respiratory Outcomes in the Amsterdam Born and Their Development Study Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet W Harskamp-van Ginkel

    Full Text Available A causal relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma is hypothesized to begin during early development, but no underlying mechanism for the found association is identified. We quantitatively examined mediation by offspring body mass index (BMI in the association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI on risk of asthma and wheezing during the first 7-8 years of life in a large Amsterdam born birth cohort.For 3185 mother-child pairs, mothers reported maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring outcomes "ever being diagnosed with asthma" and "wheezing in the past 12 months" on questionnaires. We measured offspring height and weight at age 5-6 years. We performed a multivariate log linear regression comparing outcomes in offspring of mothers with different BMI categories. For each category we quantified and tested mediation by offspring BMI and also investigated interaction by parental asthma.At the age of 7-8 years, 8% of the offspring ever had asthma and 7% had current wheezing. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of asthma (adjusted RR 2.32 (95% CI: 1.49-3.61 and wheezing (adjusted RR 2.16 (95% CI: 1.28-3.64. Offspring BMI was a mediator in the association between maternal BMI and offspring wheezing, but not for asthma. There was no interaction by parental asthma.Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with higher risks of offspring asthma and wheezing. The association between maternal obesity and offspring wheezing was both direct and indirect (mediated through the child's own BMI.

  6. Acute respiratory symptoms and general illness during the first year of life: a population-based birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Holst, Klaus Kähler; Larsen, Karina

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms are common in infancy. Most illnesses occurring among children are dealt with by parents and do not require medical attention. Nevertheless, few studies have prospectively and on a community-basis assessed the amount of respiratory symptoms and general illness in normal infants....... In this population-based birth cohort study, 228 healthy infants from Copenhagen, Denmark were followed from birth to 1 year of age during 2004-2006. Symptoms were registered using daily diaries and monthly home visits. Interviews were performed at inclusion and every second month. Risk factor analysis was carried...... out by multiple logistic regression analysis. On average, children had general symptoms for 3.5 months during their first year of life, nasal discharge being most frequent followed by cough. Frequency of all symptoms increased steeply after 6 months of age. Each child had on average 6.3 episodes...

  7. Fibrinogen and albumin levels and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women (the Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth Jay; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Friberg, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional and limited prospective evidence has suggested that inflammatory markers may predict for the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). In a prospective cohort study, we studied the risk of incident AF among 8,870 women and men free of cardiovascular disease enrolled in the Copenhagen City...... levels of albumin were prospectively associated with a higher risk of AF, even accounting for their relation with the risk of cardiovascular disease. These findings support the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to the etiology of AF.......Cross-sectional and limited prospective evidence has suggested that inflammatory markers may predict for the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). In a prospective cohort study, we studied the risk of incident AF among 8,870 women and men free of cardiovascular disease enrolled in the Copenhagen City...... with a higher risk of AF, with a multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quartiles of 1.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 4.17) among men and 2.14 (95% CI 1.15 to 3.96) among women. The albumin levels were inversely associated with the risk of AF among women (hazard ratio 0...

  8. Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: an epidemiological perspective: the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, Hans;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of 4151 participants of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study. OBJECTIVE: To identify prevalences and individual risk factors for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study has...... registered health parameters since 1976. In 1993, standardized, lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine were recorded. There were 1533 men and 2618 women. METHODS: Statistical correlations were made between degenerative spondylolisthesis, and physical, occupational, and general epidemiological data. RESULTS......: A total of 254 cases of lumbar slip were found (males 2.7%, females 8.4%). In females, no significant relationship between age at menopause or childbirths and the presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis were found. In women, relationships between body mass index (BMI) in 1976 and L4 olisthesis (P = 0...

  9. Climate Change, Copenhagen and Psycho-social Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Paul Marshall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After the failure of the 2009 Copenhagen Conference on Climate Change we need to approach analysis of the processes of negotiations and social action in a different way. In particular ideas of justice do not provide an adequate framework for dealing with the problem. This paper explores climate change and the sense of disorder it encapsulates, particularly focusing on the Copenhagen Conference but, at the daily life level, also looking at the disorder present in attempts to edit a book on climate change. Contemporary life is driven by, and conducted within, fragile and messy networks. In terms of politics it may be useful to listen to this disorder with care, rather than prematurely rush to a preconceived mode of ordering.

  10. Copenhagen's climate finance promise: six key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Stadelmann, Martin [University of Zurich (Switzerland); Huq, Saleemul

    2010-02-15

    One clear promise emerged from the confusion of the 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen. This was to provide short- and long-term 'climate finance' to help developing countries – especially the most vulnerable – adapt to climate impacts. The promise seemed simple enough: wealthier nations would pledge US$10 billion a year from 2010-2012, ramping up to US$100 billion a year starting in 2020. This was also touted as a way to help developing countries avoid high-carbon pathways of development by adopting lower-emitting power sources such as solar or natural gas. But a closer look at the Copenhagen promise unearths at least six big questions – any one of which could seriously challenge the trust these funds were designed to build.

  11. The redevelopment of the Copenhagen harbourfront and recent planning strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khani, Roudaina Al

    2001-01-01

    development principles has been attached to the planning of the redevelopment of the harborfront areas. Nevertheless, this paper shortly presents an evaluation of the urban conversion of the Copenhagen harborfront sites and of their redevelopment strategies with regards to their contribution to sustainable......-use planning policy or a compact city strategy. Promoting a coherent strategy that allocates a greater importance to the urban and regional contexts, to the democracy of the process and to the urban-architectural dimension is a main determinant of the outcome. This paper highlights the recent planning...... be reflected on waterfront redevelopment and its evaluation. It throws light on the redevelopment of the Copenhagen Harborfront and its planning policy and places an emphasis on the city's recent planning strategies. Furthermore, this paper presents an essay on the evaluation of waterfront development...

  12. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan; Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Johnsen, Ib

    1978-01-01

    Atmospheric dry and wet deposition (bulk precipitation) of the heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, V and Fe over the Copenhagen area was measured by sampling in plastic funnels from 17 stations during a twelve-month period. Epigeic bryophytes from 100 stations in the area were analysed for the heavy...... and heavy metal concentration in lichens and bryophytes. An exponential correlation was found between bulk precipitation and heavy metal concentration in soil. Regional variation of the heavy metal levels in the Copenhagen area was described and three sub-areas with high metal burdens were distinguished....... The heavy metal gradients from a secondary smelter in one of these sub-areas were steepest in soil compared with lichens and bryophytes....

  13. Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Glumer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets...... and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v......, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe....

  14. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  15. Association of diabetes in pregnancy with child weight at birth, age 12 months and 5 years--a population-based electronic cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Morgan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. METHODS: A population-based electronic cohort study using routinely collected linked healthcare data. Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n = 147,773 mother child pairs. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. FINDINGS: We identified 1,250 (0.9% pregnancies with existing diabetes (27.8% with type 1 diabetes, 1,358 with gestational diabetes (0.9% and 635 (0.4% who developed diabetes post-pregnancy. Children whose mothers had existing diabetes were less likely to be large at 12 months (OR: 0.7 (95%CI: 0.6, 0.8 than those without diabetes. Maternal diabetes was associated with high weight at age 5 years in children whose mothers had a high pre-pregnancy weight tertile (gestational diabetes, (OR:2.1 (95%CI:1.25-3.6, existing diabetes (OR:1.3 (95%CI:1.0 to 1.6. CONCLUSION: The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. We found little evidence that diabetes in pregnancy leads to long term obesity 'programming'.

  16. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  17. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  18. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  19. Rock mass characterization for tunnels in the Copenhagen limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Jakobsen, Lisa; Jackson, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Tunnels in Copenhagen are drilled through highly anisotropic limestone comprising alternating strongly lithified and less lithified parts. The mass quality of the limestone is usually defined from fracture spacing registered in core samples. The deposit is, however, affected destructively by dril...... by drilling activity yielding a low Rock Quality Designation RQD. In-situ observations of the limestone in excavations or televiewer logs reveal only few natural discontinuities compared to core logging, indicating a very good suitability for tunneling....

  20. Aerosol dynamics in the Copenhagen urban plume during regional transport

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, F.; P. Roldin; Massling, A.; A. Kristensson; E. Swietlicki; Fang, D.; M. Ketzel

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol particles in the submicrometer size range (PM1) have serious impacts on human health and climate. This work aims at studying the processes relevant for physical particle properties in and downwind Copenhagen and evaluating the capability of a detailed aerosol dynamics and chemistry model (ADCHEM) to describe the submicrometer aerosol dynamics in a complex urbanized region, subjected to a variety of important anthropogenic sources. The study area is the Oresund R...

  1. Rock mass characterization for tunnels in the Copenhagen limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Jakobsen, Lisa; Jackson, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Tunnels in Copenhagen are drilled through highly anisotropic limestone comprising alternating strongly lithified and less lithified parts. The mass quality of the limestone is usually defined from fracture spacing registered in core samples. The deposit is, however, affected destructively by dril...... by drilling activity yielding a low Rock Quality Designation RQD. In-situ observations of the limestone in excavations or televiewer logs reveal only few natural discontinuities compared to core logging, indicating a very good suitability for tunneling....

  2. The Ursula Faince Dinnerware Series by Royal Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    This working paper is a case study about the development of a faience product line in Royal Copenhagen and illustrates several aspects of how, at what stages of development, and by whom, cultural products in general are evaluated. Three theoretical issues emerge. One concerns the constraints impo...... of a particular cultural product had to be negotiated within a particular organizational world embracing both management and workers, with differentiated skills. These issues lead to a more general discussion of craftsmanship and storytelling....

  3. Copenhagen vs Everett, teleportation, and ER=EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susskind, Leonard [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Quantum gravity may have as much to tell us about the foundations and interpretation of quantum mechanics as it does about gravity. The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Everett's Relative State Formulation are complementary descriptions which in a sense are dual to one another. My purpose here is to discuss this duality in the light of the of ER=EPR conjecture. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Child Mortality after Discharge from a Health Facility following Suspected Pneumonia, Meningitis or Septicaemia in Rural Gambia: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakash Varun Chhibber

    Full Text Available To measure mortality and its risk factors among children discharged from a health centre in rural Gambia.We conducted a cohort study between 12 May 2008 and 11 May 2012. Children aged 2-59 months, admitted with suspected pneumonia, sepsis, or meningitis after presenting to primary and secondary care facilities, were followed for 180 days after discharge. We developed models associating post-discharge mortality with clinical syndrome on admission and clinical risk factors.One hundred and five of 3755 (2.8% children died, 80% within 3 months of discharge. Among children aged 2-11 and 12-59 months, there were 30 and 29 deaths per 1000 children per 180 days respectively, compared to 11 and 5 respectively in the resident population. Children with suspected pneumonia unaccompanied by clinically severe malnutrition (CSM had the lowest risk of post-discharge mortality. Mortality increased in children with suspected meningitis or septicaemia without CSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6 and 2.2 respectively. The risk of mortality greatly increased with CSM on admission: CSM with suspected pneumonia (HR 8.1; 95% confidence interval (CI 4.4 to 15, suspected sepsis (HR 18.4; 95% CI 11.3 to 30, or suspected meningitis (HR 13.7; 95% CI 4.2 to 45. Independent associations with mortality were: mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC of 11.5-13.0 cm compared to >13.0 cm (HR 7.2; 95% CI 3.0 to 17.0, MUAC 10.5-11.4 cm (HR 24; 95% CI 9.4 to 62, and MUAC <10.5 cm (HR 44; 95% CI 18 to 108, neck stiffness (HR 10.4; 95% CI 3.1 to 34.8, non-medical discharge (HR 4.7; 95% CI 2.0 to 10.9, dry season discharge (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3, while greater haemoglobin (HR 0.82; 0.73 to 0.91, axillary temperature (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.87, and oxygen saturation (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99 were associated with reduced mortality.Gambian children experience increased mortality after discharge from primary and secondary care. Interventions should target both moderately and severely

  5. Measurement of total and free urinary phenol and paraben concentrations over the course of pregnancy: assessing reliability and contamination of specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guidry, Virginia T.; Longnecker, Matthew P.; Aase, Heidi; Eggesbø, Merete Åse; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen,Gun Peggy; Bertelsen, Randi Jacobsen; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposures to environmental phenols and parabens may be harmful, especially in utero. Prior studies have demonstrated high within-person variability of urinary concentrations across pregnancy. Objectives We sought to measure phenol and paraben biomarker concentrations for the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, assess within-person variability, and investigate any possible external phenol or paraben contamination of specimens. Methods We collected three spot urine sample...

  6. Breast density and outcome of mammography screening: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A H; Bihrmann, K; Jensen, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of breast density on breast cancer (BC) mortality in a mammography screening programme. The cohort included 48 052 women participating in mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, where biennial screening is offered to women aged 50-69 y...

  7. Associations between Sugar Intake from Different Food Sources and Adiposity or Cardio-Metabolic Risk in Childhood and Adolescence: The Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yang-Im; Park, Hyesook; Kang, Jae-Heon; Lee, Hye-Ah; Song, Hong Ji; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Kim, Ok-Hyun

    2015-12-31

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious public health problem associated with co-morbidities in adulthood, as well as childhood. This study was conducted to identify associations between total sugar intake and sugar intake from different foods (fruit, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs)), and adiposity and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cMetS) among Korean children and adolescents using cohort data. The study subjects were children (n = 770) who participated in the 4th year (2008) of the Korean Child-Adolescent Cohort Study (KoCAS). Dietary intake data were collected via three-day 24-h food records, and sugar intake was calculated for the total sugar content of foods using our database compiled from various sources. Anthropometric measurements, assessments of body composition, and blood sample analysis were performed at baseline and at follow-up four years later. The cMetS was calculated based on waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and mean arterial blood pressure. According to multiple linear regression analysis, there were no significant associations between total sugar intake and adiposity and cMetS. However, higher intake of fruit sugar at baseline was significantly associated with lower body mass index (BMI) z-scores and body fat percentages at baseline (β = -0.10, p = 0.02 and β = -0.78, p sugar intake from fruit at baseline was still negatively associated with the above outcomes, but only the relationship with BMI z-scores retained statistical significance (β = -0.08, p sugar from SSBs and cMetS at baseline (β = 0.04, p = 0.02), but that relationship was not observed at follow-up (p = 0.83). Differences in consumption sugars from fruit and SSBs might play an important role in the risk of adiposity and metabolic disease in children and adolescents. Our results suggest that strategies for reducing sugar intake need to target particular food groups. Consequently, this

  8. Risk of vaginal bleeding and postpartum hemorrhage after use of antidepressants in pregnancy: a study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, Angela; Spigset, Olav; Koren, Gideon; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to examine obstetric bleeding outcomes after exposure during pregnancy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic (TCAs), and other antidepressants (OADs).The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway constituted the data source for the present study. We included 57,279 pregnant women, of which 1.02% reported use of antidepressants during pregnancy, mostly SSRIs/SNRIs (0.92%). We categorized exposure according to antidepressant use in pregnancy (SSRIs/SNRIs, n = 527; TCAs/OADs, n = 59; nonexposed, nondepressed, n = 55,411) with inclusion of a disease comparison group (nonexposed, depressed, n = 1282). We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for vaginal bleeding outcomes in pregnancy and postpartum hemorrhage.Compared with nonexposed subjects, first trimester exposure to SSRIs/SNRIs or TCAs/OADs did not confer any increased risk of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (aOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.72-1.16 and aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.36-1.92, respectively). No increased risk for vaginal bleeding in midpregnancy was observed among users of SSRIs/SNRIs (aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.50-1.31) or TCAs/OADs (aOR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.26-3.53) in second trimester. Exposure to SSRIs/SNRIs during gestational week 30 to childbirth did not confer any increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal (aOR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.47-1.74) or cesarean (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.51-4.22) delivery. Women in the disease comparison group presented a significant moderate increased risk of vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06-1.39) and midpregnancy (aOR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.55) but not postpartum.Among this Norwegian cohort of pregnant women, use of antidepressants in pregnancy was not associated with any obstetrical bleeding outcome.

  9. Current status of medication adherence and infant follow up in the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programme in Addis Ababa: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkuzie Alemnesh H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT programmes have great potential to achieve virtual elimination of perinatal HIV transmission provided that PMTCT recommendations are properly followed. This study assessed mothers and infants adherence to medication regimen for PMTCT and the proportions of exposed infants who were followed up in the PMTCT programme. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 282 HIV-positive mothers attending 15 health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and mulitivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results Of 282 mothers enrolled in the cohort, 232 (82%, 95% CI 77-86% initiated medication during pregnancy, 154 (64% initiated combined zidovudine (ZDV prophylaxis regimen while 78 (33% were initiated lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART. In total, 171 (60%, 95% CI 55-66% mothers ingested medication during labour. Of the 221 live born infants (including two sets of twins, 191 (87%, 95% CI 81-90% ingested ZDV and single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP at birth. Of the 219 live births (twin births were counted once, 148 (68%, 95% CI 61-73% mother-infant pairs ingested their medication at birth. Medication ingested by mother-infant pairs at birth was significantly and independently associated with place of delivery. Mother-infant pairs attended in health facilities at birth were more likely (OR 6.7 95% CI 2.90-21.65 to ingest their medication than those who were attended at home. Overall, 189 (86%, 95% CI 80-90% infants were brought for first pentavalent vaccine and 115 (52%, 95% CI 45-58% for early infant diagnosis at six-weeks postpartum. Among the infants brought for early diagnosis, 71 (32%, 95% CI 26-39% had documented HIV test results and six (8.4% were HIV positive. Conclusions We found a progressive decline in medication adherence across the perinatal period. There is a big gap between mediation initiated during pregnancy and actually

  10. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars), and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated) water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation). This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter social and environmental

  11. Neurocognitive outcome of children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus infection: the CHIMERE cohort study on Reunion Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gérardin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neurocognitive outcome in children exposed to perinatal mother-to-child Chikungunya virus (p-CHIKV infection.The CHIMERE ambispective cohort study compared the neurocognitive function of 33 p-CHIKV-infected children (all but one enrolled retrospectively at around two years of age with 135 uninfected peers (all enrolled prospectively. Psychomotor development was assessed using the revised Brunet-Lezine scale, examiners blinded to infectious status. Development quotients (DQ with subscores covering movement/posture, coordination, language, sociability skills were calculated. Predictors of global neurodevelopmental delay (GND, DQ ≤ 85, were investigated using multivariate Poisson regression modeling. Neuroradiologic follow-up using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans was proposed for most of the children with severe forms.The mean DQ score was 86.3 (95%CI: 81.0-91.5 in infected children compared to 100.2 (95%CI: 98.0-102.5 in uninfected peers (P<0.001. Fifty-one percent (n = 17 of infected children had a GND compared to 15% (n = 21 of uninfected children (P<0.001. Specific neurocognitive delays in p-CHIKV-infected children were as follows: coordination and language (57%, sociability (36%, movement/posture (27%. After adjustment for maternal social situation, small for gestational age, and head circumference, p-CHIKV infection was found associated with GND (incidence rate ratio: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.45-5.34. Further adjustments on gestational age or breastfeeding did not change the independent effect of CHIKV infection on neurocognitive outcome. The mean DQ of p-CHIKV-infected children was lower in severe encephalopathic children than in non-severe children (77.6 versus 91.2, P<0.001. Of the 12 cases of CHIKV neonatal encephalopathy, five developed a microcephaly (head circumference <-2 standard deviations and four matched the definition of cerebral palsy. MRI scans showed severe restrictions of white matter areas

  12. Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Anthony

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and frequent consumption of refined carbohydrates (predominately sugars, and soft drinks and other sweetened beverages, and low intake of (fluoridated water. The prevalence of childhood obesity is also at a concerning level in most countries and there is an opportunity to determine interventions for addressing both of these largely preventable conditions through sustainable and equitable solutions. This study aims to prospectively examine the impact of drink choices on child obesity risk and oral health status. Methods/Design This is a two-stage study using a mixed methods research approach. The first stage involves qualitative interviews of a sub-sample of recruited parents to develop an understanding of the processes involved in drink choice, and inform the development of the Discrete Choice Experiment analysis and the measurement instruments to be used in the second stage. The second stage involves the establishment of a prospective birth cohort of 500 children from disadvantaged communities in rural and regional Victoria, Australia (with and without water fluoridation. This longitudinal design allows measurement of changes in the child's diet over time, exposure to fluoride sources including water, dental caries progression, and the risk of childhood obesity. Discussion This research will provide a unique contribution to integrated health, education and social policy and program directions, by providing clearer policy relevant evidence on strategies to counter

  13. Associations of adherence to the New Nordic Diet with risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillesund, Elisabet Rudjord; Øverby, Nina C; Engel, Stephanie M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker E; Haugen, Margaretha; Bere, Elling

    2014-10-01

    Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are serious complications of pregnancy and leading causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Dietary factors might be associated with these adverse outcomes. We investigated whether adherence to the New Nordic Diet (NND) was associated with preeclampsia and preterm delivery risks in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Participants were recruited from all over Norway during the period 1999-2008. A previously constructed diet score assessing meal frequency, and the consumption of Nordic fruits, root vegetables, cabbages, potatoes, oatmeal porridge, whole grains, wild fish, game, berries, milk and water, was used to assess NND adherence. Associations between NND adherence and the outcomes were estimated in adjusted multivariate logistic regression models. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A total of 72,072 women was included in the study. High versus low NND adherence was associated with lower risk of total preeclampsia (OR 0.86; 95 % CI 0.78-0.95) and early preeclampsia (OR 0.71; 95 % CI 0.52-0.96). High compared with low NND adherence was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women (OR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), whereas multiparous women with high NND adherence had a marginally significant higher risk of preterm delivery (OR 1.24; 95 % CI 1.00-1.53). High NND adherence was associated with a lower relative risk of preeclampsia and of spontaneous preterm delivery among nulliparous women; however, among multiparous women there was a higher relative risk of preterm delivery.

  14. Body image mediates the depressive effects of weight gain in new mothers, particularly for women already obese: evidence from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung-Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; Wutich, Amber

    2016-07-29

    Multiple studies show that obesity and depression tend to cluster in women. An "appearance concern" pathway has been proposed as one basic explanation of why higher weights might lead to depression. The transition to motherhood is a life phase in which women's body image, weight, and depressive risk are in flux, with average weight increasing overall during this period. Examination of how these factors interact from pre- to post-pregnancy provides a means to test how body image plays a key role, as proposed, in causally shaping women's depressive risk. Tracking 39,915 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBA) Cohort Study forward 36 months after their deliveries, we test the moderating and mediating effects of body image concerns on the emergence of new mothers' depressive symptoms by using a binary logistic regression model with a discrete-time event history approach and mediation analysis with bootstrapping. For women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain heightens their depressive symptoms over time. Body image concerns mediate the association between weight gain and the development of depressive symptoms regardless of weight status. However, the mediation effect is more evident for women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Conversely, better body image is highly protective against the transition to mild or more severe depressive symptoms among new mothers, but only for women who were not classified as obese prior to their pregnancies. These findings support a role for body image concerns in the etiology of depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. The findings suggest body image interventions before or during pregnancy could help reduce risks of depression in the early postpartum period and well beyond.

  15. Dietary Acrylamide Intake during Pregnancy and Fetal Growth—Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; von Stedingk, Hans; Granum, Berit; Gützkow, Kristine B.; Rydberg, Per; Törnqvist, Margareta; Mendez, Michelle A.; Brunborg, Gunnar; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acrylamide has shown developmental and reproductive toxicity in animals, as well as neurotoxic effects in humans with occupational exposures. Because it is widespread in food and can pass through the human placenta, concerns have been raised about potential developmental effects of dietary exposures in humans. Objectives: We assessed associations of prenatal exposure to dietary acrylamide with small for gestational age (SGA) and birth weight. Methods: This study included 50,651 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Acrylamide exposure assessment was based on intake estimates obtained from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which were compared with hemoglobin (Hb) adduct measurements reflecting acrylamide exposure in a subset of samples (n = 79). Data on infant birth weight and gestational age were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Multivariable regression was used to estimate associations between prenatal acrylamide and birth outcomes. Results: Acrylamide intake during pregnancy was negatively associated with fetal growth. When women in the highest quartile of acrylamide intake were compared with women in the lowest quartile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for SGA was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.21) and the coefficient for birth weight was –25.7 g (95% CI: –35.9, –15.4). Results were similar after excluding mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Maternal acrylamide– and glycidamide–Hb adduct levels were correlated with estimated dietary acrylamide intakes (Spearman correlations = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.44; and 0.48; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.63, respectively). Conclusions: Lowering dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy may improve fetal growth. PMID:23204292

  16. Organic Food Consumption during Pregnancy and Hypospadias and Cryptorchidism at Birth: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Torjusen, Hanne; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Hoppin, Jane A; Alexander, Jan; Lieblein, Geir; Roos, Gun; Holten, Jon Magne; Swartz, Jackie; Haugen, Margaretha

    2016-03-01

    The etiologies of the male urogenital anomalies hypospadias and cryptorchidism remain unclear. It has been suggested that maternal diet and environmental contaminants may affect the risk of these anomalies via placental or hormonal disturbances. We examined associations between organic food consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism at birth. Our study includes 35,107 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who delivered a singleton male infant. Information about use of six groups of organically produced food (vegetables, fruit, bread/cereal, milk/dairy products, eggs, and meat) during pregnancy was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Women who indicated that they sometimes, often, or mostly consumed organic foods in at least one of the six food groups were classified as organic food consumers in analyses. Hypospadias and cryptorchidism diagnoses were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression. Seventy-four male newborns were diagnosed with hypospadias (0.2%), and 151 with cryptorchidism (0.4%). Women who consumed any organic food during pregnancy were less likely to give birth to a boy with hypospadias (OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.70, based on 21 exposed cases) than women who reported they never or seldom consumed organic food. Associations with specific organic foods were strongest for vegetable (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.85; 10 exposed cases) and milk/dairy (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.07; 7 exposed cases) consumption. No substantial association was observed for consumption of organic food and cryptorchidism. Consumption of organically produced foods during pregnancy was associated with a lower prevalence of hypospadias in our study population. These findings were based on small numbers of cases and require replication in other study populations.

  17. Association between male partner involvement and the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT interventions in Mwanza district, Malawi: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatch W Kalembo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to examine the association between male partner involvement and the uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT interventions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was used to collect data on women, their male partners and their children who were enrolled in a PMTCT program from January 2004 to December 2006 at Mwanza District Hospital. HIV infected women and their children were followed-up over the 18 months postnatal period. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 476 HIV positive women were enrolled in a PMTCT program and were followed-up in the study. Of those followed-up in the study, 65 (13.7% had a male partner involvement while 411 (86.3% had no male partner involvement. Male partner involvement was significantly associated with condom use (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-13.5, P<0.001, hospital delivery (AOR = 25.9, 95%CI: 10.6-63.6, P<0.001, and completion of follow-up in the program (AOR = 16.8, 95% CI: 8.5-33.4, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Male partner involvement increases the uptake of some PMTCT interventions by HIV positive women. Multi-strategic, culturally tailored public health care models are needed to increase the rate of male partner involvement in the program.

  18. Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Alexander, Jan; Thomsen, Cathrine; Frøshaug, May; Bremnes, Nanna Margrethe Bruun; Broadwell, Sharon Lynn; Granum, Berit; Kogevinas, Manolis; Knutsen, Helle Katrine

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children. The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children. Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women. Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important

  19. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design...... of ventilation systems. The analysis in present article is based on occupants’ perception of the temperature, indoor air quality and energy consumptions of their apartments. The study shows the perception of occupants of first six months of post occupancy. The study was carried out by conducting interviews...

  20. Establishing a Media Standard for The University of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollin, Uwe; Larsen, Steen Linke; Christensen, Rene Lindekrone

    Since early 2005 the former Academic Support Center - Media (now ITMEDIA) have produced podcasts for the Faculty of Humanities, University of Copenhagen. With almost 30 years of collective experience of producing media (sound and video/TV) at the Faculty of Humanities the jump into these new media...... administrative, technical, organisational and educational efforts within higher education. Various projects like common media standard, podcast portal and establishing the media backbone for this effort will be discussed. Key words: Podcast, Enhanced Podcast, Webcast, Streaming Video, Web 2.0, DVTS/N over IP......, Feeds Structuring, Podcast Portal, New Media, CMS integration, Production Line and Issues, Copy-right....

  1. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær;

    2006-01-01

    in 2004. All isolates have been spa-typed and epidemiologic information collected. RESULTS: The number of MRSA cases has a doubling time of about six months. The epidemic has been caused by many different MRSA types and 31 staphylococcus protein A genotypes (spa types). MRSA has caused several hospital......INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...

  2. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Constanze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  3. Indoor air problems among employees at a hotel in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Harboe, Henrik; Sigsgaard, Torben

    The aim of the study was to investigate indoor air related complaints and symptoms among the employees at a hotel in Copenhagen. A technical inspection of the office environment was performed and showed only minor problems with mould spore counts within normal range. Moreover a questionnaire...... reporting these unexpected findings a hotel employee drew our attention to the hotel’s smoking room, a shelter in the basement of the hotel building without ventilation. However, a lot of the hotel staff smoked down there so an ozone generator was installed in order to clean the air. After this meeting...

  4. Social construction of stormwater control measures in Melbourne and Copenhagen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... Construction of Technology (SCOT) and Transition Science, and conducted 16 in-depth actor interviews as a basis for mapping the historical development of in the two cities. The SCMs applied in Melbourne and Copenhagen are similar, but using a new framework for technological stabilization we identify...

  5. Indoor air problems among employees at a hotel in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Gitte Juel; Harboe, Henrik; Sigsgaard, Torben

    The aim of the study was to investigate indoor air related complaints and symptoms among the employees at a hotel in Copenhagen. A technical inspection of the office environment was performed and showed only minor problems with mould spore counts within normal range. Moreover a questionnaire...... reporting these unexpected findings a hotel employee drew our attention to the hotel’s smoking room, a shelter in the basement of the hotel building without ventilation. However, a lot of the hotel staff smoked down there so an ozone generator was installed in order to clean the air. After this meeting...

  6. Epidemic Increase in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Bartels, Mette Damkjær

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have found an epidemic increase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Copenhagen. The increase has a complex background and involves hospitals, nursing homes and persons nursed in their own home. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We found 33 MRSA patients in 2003 and 121...... to isolation regimes, increase in bed-days and treatment with special antibiotics. After treatment of the infection and in cases of MRSA carriage, MRSA is found on the skin and in the nose. Carriage of MRSA can be eradicated by washing with chlorhexidine and nasal administration of mupirocin. The necessary...

  7. Praxis development in relation to gang conflicts in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Hussain, Khaled; Møller-Andersen, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    The primary question addressed in this article is how to understand and produce praxis development in the complex and contentious field of street communities of young marginalized men, an area highlighted almost on a daily basis in the Danish media under headlines with terms such as ‘foreigner...... problems’, ‘ghetto problems’, ‘gang conflicts’ and ‘gang war’. Since 2009, activists and professionals related to this field have gathered at Grundtvigs Højskole where they initiated and inspired community building activities in relation to the recent gang conflicts in the Copenhagen area of Denmark...... in social work practice, community building activities and praxis research....

  8. Social construction of stormwater control measures in Melbourne and Copenhagen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Urban stormwater systems in cities around the world are challenged by urbanization and climate change, and a range of Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) are being implemented as solutions to these challenges. We developed a conceptual framework of technological stabilization based on Social...... differences in their application due to different physical, organizational and cultural contexts in the two cities, drought being the main driver during the past decade in Melbourne (1997–2010) and pluvial flooding in Copenhagen (2007-). In Melbourne there is currently a strong integrated understanding...

  9. Disturbance and Celebration of Josephine Baker in Copenhagen 1928

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Spanger analyses reactions to the internationally recognised dancer and singer Josephine Baker (1906–1975), whose performances in Copenhagen gave rise to a heated emotional debate in Danish newspapers; these reactions mirror contemporary dominant religious, biological and colonial...... avant garde community and perceived as a threat to the ideal feminine form by the church. This contribution analyses how affective reactions are produced through complex formations of race, gender and sexuality, and enables us to acquire a nuanced understanding of whiteness in a Danish context....

  10. The Copenhagen Soccer Test: Physiological response and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Bischoff, Rasmus; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aims of the study were 1) to evaluate whether a multi-facetted simulated soccer game protocol, entitled the Copenhagen Soccer Test (CST), elicited a similar physiological loading as a competitive game, and 2) to determine muscle metabolites, blood variables and sprint performance...... in various phases of CST. METHODS: Twelve Danish Second and Third Division soccer players participated in the study. On separate days, heart rate (HR) measurements, frequent blood sampling and physical/technical tests were performed during 60- and 90-min versions of CST during which repeated m. vastus...

  11. The particulate project 2005-2007; Emissions from traffic in Copenhagen, Denmark; Partikelprojektet 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.

    2008-11-15

    Measurements during 2004 to 2007 of emissions of particles, soot, carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the local traffic in Copenhagen and in the countryside west of Copenhagen are analysed. The analysis shows that the use of sulphur-free petrol and diesel fuels from 2005 has resulted in reduced amount of fine particles released from the traffic. (ln)

  12. Overweight and obesity trends in Copenhagen schoolchildren from 2002 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Seija; Hansen, Bente; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to monitor the prevalence trend in overweight and obesity among Copenhagen schoolchildren from the school years 2002 to 2007.......The purpose of this study is to monitor the prevalence trend in overweight and obesity among Copenhagen schoolchildren from the school years 2002 to 2007....

  13. The Copenhagen Traffic Model and its Application in the Metro City Ring Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuk, Goran; Overgård, Christian Hansen; Fox, J.

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Danish Parliament passed an act to finance the construction of the Metro City Ring in Copenhagen. The assessment project is based on the passenger patronage forecasts for 2015 from the Copenhagen traffic model. In this paper we show how the model forecasts for this particular...... infrastructure project can be explained through detailed knowledge of model structure and model validation....

  14. Curriculum (Study Programme) for the M.Sc., Medialogy, at Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf; Lavatino, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen.......Defining and describing the education, M.Sc., Medialogy. The curriculum (Study Programme) describes semesters, themes, projectunits, courses and contents of the eduation. offered at Aalborg University in Copenhagen....

  15. Overdiagnosis, sojourn time, and sensitivity in the Copenhagen mammography screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Agbaje, Olorunsola F; Myles, Jonathan P

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research was to estimate the overdiagnosis at the first and second screens of the mammography screening program in Copenhagen, Denmark. This study involves a mammography service screening program in Copenhagen, Denmark, with 35,123 women screened at least once. We fit multistate...

  16. Overweight and obesity trends in Copenhagen schoolchildren from 2002 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Seija; Hansen, Bente; Sørensen, Thorkild I A;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to monitor the prevalence trend in overweight and obesity among Copenhagen schoolchildren from the school years 2002 to 2007.......The purpose of this study is to monitor the prevalence trend in overweight and obesity among Copenhagen schoolchildren from the school years 2002 to 2007....

  17. Governing Civil Service Pay in China, by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014. xvi+236 pp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014.......Book review of: Governing Civil Service Pay in China by Alfred M. Wu. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2014....

  18. Impact of singlehood during pregnancy on dietary intake and birth outcomes- a study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbu, Jorunn; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2014-12-05

    Little attention has been given to the impact of singlehood during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of marital status on diet during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. The study population comprised 62,773 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Marital status was categorised into singles living alone, singles living with parents and married/cohabiting (reference group). Participants answered a general health questionnaire in gestational week 15-17 and a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 22. We used nonparametric tests to compare dietary intakes by marital status, and multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for infants being small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), and preterm delivery (defined as delivery before gestational week 37). Single women living with parents had lower intakes of fruits and vegetables, higher intake of total energy, higher proportion of energy from added sugar, and lower intake of fibre than the reference group. Singles living alone also had a higher intake of added sugar. In both of the single groups, daily smoking was more prevalent than in women living with a partner. In analyses adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, energy intake, energy contributed by protein, education, income, parity and nausea, single women living alone had increased risk of SGA with OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.55). When smoking was included among the confounding variables, the association was no longer significant. Likewise, singles living alone had increased risk of preterm delivery, with OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.72) in a partly adjusted model, but the association did not remain significant in a model fully adjusted for confounding variables. Single mothers had lower dietary quality and included more smokers than women who lived with a partner. Single mothers living alone had higher prevalence of SGA and preterm

  19. Medication Use before, during, and after Pregnancy among Women with Eating Disorders: A Study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lupattelli

    Full Text Available Little is known about medication use among women with eating disorders in relation to pregnancy.To explore patterns of and associations between use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal and analgesic medications and eating disorders in the period before, during and after pregnancy.This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A total of 62,019 women, enrolled at approximately 17 weeks' gestation, had valid data from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry and completed three MoBa questionnaires. The questionnaires provided diagnostic information on broadly defined anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, binge eating disorder (BED and recurrent self-induced purging in the absence of binge eating (EDNOS-P, along with self-reported use of medication six months before, during, and 0-6 months after pregnancy.The prevalence of eating disorder subtypes before and/or during pregnancy was: 0.09% AN (n = 54, 0.94% BN (n = 585, 0.10% EDNOS-P (n = 61 and 5.00% BED (n = 3104. The highest over-time prevalence of psychotropic use was within the AN (3.7-22.2% and EDNOS-P (3.3-9.8% groups. Compared to controls, BN was directly associated with incident use of psychotropics in pregnancy (adjusted RR: 2.25, 99% CI: 1.17-4.32. Having AN (adjusted RR: 5.11, 99% CI: 1.53-17.01 or EDNOS-P (adjusted RR: 6.77, 99% CI: 1.41-32.53 was directly associated with use of anxiolytics/sedatives postpartum. The estimates of use of analgesics (BED and laxatives (all eating disorders subtypes were high at all time periods investigated.Use of psychotropic, gastrointestinal, and analgesic medications is extensive among women with eating disorders in the period around pregnancy. Female patients with eating disorders should receive evidence-based counseling about the risk of medication exposure versus the risk of untreated psychiatric illness during pregnancy and postpartum.

  20. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    degrees). At each 3 degrees increment an anteroposterior radiograph was recorded. Measurements of JSW were performed. (2) Self reported recurrent pain in or around the hip joint during 12 months prior to baseline examinations, and minimum JSW in pelvic radiographs of the cohort were registered......OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2......) to investigate the relationship between minimal JSW and self reported hip pain of the cohort. METHODS: (1) Cadaver pelves and proximal femora of one male and one female donor were mounted in holding devices permitting independent rotation (total arc of 42 degrees), and inclination/reclination (total arc of 24...

  1. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissing Nadja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood.

  2. Does Child Abuse and Neglect Explain the Overrepresentation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People in Youth Detention? Findings from a Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Ivan; Najman, Jake M.; Mills, Ryan; Cherney, Adrian; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Determine whether a history of family social disadvantage and/or child abuse and neglect explain the overrepresentation of Indigenous Australian young people in youth detention. Methods: Maternal survey data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy was linked with child abuse and neglect and youth justice data from the Queensland…

  3. Unravelling Copenhagen's stride into the Anthropocene using lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Norman; Andersen, Thorbjørn J.; Frei, Robert; Ilsøe, Peter; Louchouarn, Patrick; Andersen, Kenneth; Funder, Svend; Rasmussen, Peter; Andresen, Camilla S.; Odgaard, Bent; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2014-05-01

    Industrialization including the effects of expanding energy consumption and metallurgy production as well as population growth and demographic pressure increased heavy-metal pollution loads progressively since the Industrial Revolution. Especially the burning of fossil fuels mobilizes heavy metals like lead and zinc on a large scale. By wet and dry deposition, these loads end up in the aquatic environment where sediments serve as sinks for these contaminations. In this study, we examine the pollution history of Copenhagen, Denmark. A sediment core was retrieved for the lake in the Botanical Gardens in central Copenhagen using a rod-operated piston corer. The water body used to be part of the old town's defence-wall system and was turned into a lake by terrain levelling in the mid 17th century. After initial X-ray fluorescence core scanning, element concentrations were determined using emission spectroscopy. The onset of gyttja accumulation in the lake is assumed to start immediately after the construction of the fortification in approximately AD 1645. An age model representing the last approximately 135 years for the uppermost 60cm was established by lead-210 and cesium-137 dating. The older part was dated via recognition of markedly increased levels of levoglucosan which are interpreted to be linked with recorded fires in Copenhagen. Similarly, two distinct layers interstratify the sediment column and mark pronounced increases of minerogenic material inflow which can be linked to known historical events. Significant pollution load increases are evident from the 1700s along with urban growth and extended combustion of carbon carriers fuels such as wood and coals. However, a more pronounced increase in lead and zinc deposition only begins by the mid-19th century. Maxima for the latter two pollutants are reached in the late 1970s followed by a reduction of emissions in accordance with stricter environmental regulations. Here, especially the phasing-out of tetraethyl

  4. Allocation of Ground Handling Resources at Copenhagen Airport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tor Fog

    capacity as a potential bottleneck that may slow this growth. Many European airports are already operating at the limit of their capacity; moreover, they are under competitive pressure from both nearby airports and fast-growing mega-hubs in the Middle East. Providing efficient and reliable airport...... that these processes give rise to. The primary focus is on ground handling resource allocation problems, it looks in detail at the following problems: the check-in counter allocation problem, the baggage make-up position problem, the tactical stand and gate allocation problem, the operational stand and gate allocation...... to generate appropriate initial variables, enabling the heuristic to efficiently find near-optimal and operationally valid solutions. The work described in this thesis was carried out in the context of an Industrial PhD project at Copenhagen Airport in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark...

  5. Social media and everyday language use among Copenhagen youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, Andreas

    across online and offline contexts make sense to the adolescents I study. As a part of a collaborative project I have carried out ethnographic fieldwork among a group of adolescents at a Copenhagen grade school and during their leisure time activities over a period of three years. At the same time I...... carried out online ethnography by following the adolescents’ activities on Facebook. In the dissertation I pursue the topics of social media and sociolinguistic normativity and social media, semiotic resources and popular culture. Regarding the first thematic direction I find that social network sites...... the second theme I conclude that popular cultural flows are a part of globalization and that adolescents’ appropriation of such flows though social media are not limited to social media practices. This points towards the understanding that young peoples’ engagement with popular culture on social media cannot...

  6. Fast-start adaptation funding: keeping promises from Copenhagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciplet, David; Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Chandani, Achala; Huq, Saleemul

    2010-11-15

    The most concrete commitment to come out of the international climate negotiations in Copenhagen was US$30 billion dollars in 'fast-start climate finance' to developing countries, with balanced support for both mitigation and adaptation. Fast-start adaptation finance, in particular, is crusial for poor countries facing rapid climate change. But so far, pledges for adaptation from developed countries have been inadequate and unclear. This briefing outlines ways for the Cancun negotiations to address five crucial issues for adaptation finance: (1) the amount and type of funding being offered, (2) the definition of adaptation, (3) global oversight and accounting, (4) a clear baseline and transparent spending and (5) the channel for delivering funds.

  7. Implementing Geothermal Plants in the Copenhagen District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization...... Danish district heating system is financially sustainable. Added to the other advantages concerning flexibility and the environment, geothermal heating is considered to be a serious proposal for the future power and heating system in Eastern Denmark. Keywords: Geothermal plants, Electricity surplus...... of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating...

  8. Behavioural models for cycling - Case studies of the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín

    parameters across modes, on a dataset including trip information and socioeconomic variables for 7,958 individuals and 10,982 trip chains with five available alternative modes (i.e., walking, cycling, car driver, car passenger, and public transport). The results showed that travellers’ have heterogeneous...... problems, there is a growing interest in promoting more sustainable transport systems, with a particular emphasis on the bicycle as a sustainable transport alternative. Accordingly, the objective of this PhD study is to expand the knowledge about travellers’ choices of the bicycle as a mean of transport...... and then the probability of individuals, with that specific lifestyle, choosing a specific transport mode for short distances. Short trip chains in the Copenhagen Region were investigated, on a data sample with 10,982 observations with five available alternative modes (i.e., walking, cycling, car driver, car passenger...

  9. Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahura

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The large eddy simulations employing the SUBMESO model with the urban soil layer model SM2-U were performed for the model domain covering the Danish Island of Sealand and including the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Monthly and diurnal cycle variability were studied for the net radiation, sensible and storage heat fluxes, surface's temperatures, and others. These were evaluated for selected urban vs. non urban related types of covers/surfaces and urban districts such as city center, high buildings, industrial, and residential. Results showed strong effects of urban features on temporal and spatial variability. They are useful and applicable for verification of numerical weather prediction models and development of urban canopy parameterizations.

  10. Implementing Geothermal Plants in the Copenhagen District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Overvad; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Larsen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Danish district heating system is financially sustainable. Added to the other advantages concerning flexibility and the environment, geothermal heating is considered to be a serious proposal for the future power and heating system in Eastern Denmark. Keywords: Geothermal plants, Electricity surplus......The possibility of implementing geothermal heating in the Copenhagen district-heating system is assessed. This is done by building up general knowledge on the geological factors that influence the development of useable geothermal resources, factors concerning the exploration and utilization...... of geothermal energy in Denmark as well as the Danish potential, which, in former investigations, has been found to be around 100.000 PJ annually, and the economical potential is less, about 15 PJ/year. Since a considerable amount of the Danish power supply is tied to weather and the demand for heating...

  11. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    , and urban sprawl remains a problem. The recent economic crisis has slowed down urbanisation in the most distant areas of the Copenhagen metropolitan region, which is consolidating. This project was funded by the Centre for Strategic Urban Research (Realdania Research) and the EU-FP6 integrated research......87 % of the Danish population lives in urban areas and thus urbanisation in Denmark may have come to an end, but urban growth has not. We are continuously using more and more urban land per capita, and the pace is increasing. Every year, around 15 km2, the size of the city of Ringsted, become...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...

  12. Harbour bathing and the urban transition of water in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Farné Fratini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    n 2002 the first public harbour swimming bath in the inner harbour of Copenhagen opened. By translating the old industrial harbour into a site of urban living and recreation, the practice of swimming in the harbour has been instrumental in aligning and catalysing a series of broader urban...... transformations pertaining to the wastewater infrastructure, industrial activities, urban development, and international marketing of the city. Through a study of the processes by which swimming in the harbour came into being as a transformative urban practice, we develop a navigational conceptualisation of urban...... transition processes. Our study suggests that the creation of the first harbour bath was not the end result of an overall master plan. Rather, we demonstrate that the harbour baths were the outcome of a contingent interplay among embedded actors’ myopic and navigational actions over a period of twenty years...

  13. Content validity and reliability of the Copenhagen social relations questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Nielsen, Lene Snabe; Henriksen, Pia Wichmann

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present article is to describe the face and content validity as well as reliability of the Copenhagen Social Relations Questionnaire (CSRQ). METHOD: The face and content validity test was based on focus group discussions and individual interviews with 31 informants....... Another 94 men and women participated in an 8-day test-retest analysis. RESULTS: Informants generally expressed that the questions and response categories were relevant and easy to understand. Themes on structure of social relations, social support, and negative aspects of social relations emerged clearly...... from the interviews. Two additional themes not covered by CSRQ on dynamics and reciprocity of social relations were identified. DISCUSSION: CSRQ holds satisfactory face and content validity as well as reliability, and is suitable for measuring structure and function of social relations including...

  14. A comment on the Copenhagen Accord- feasibility and cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Alfsen, Knut H.

    2011-07-01

    The Copenhagen Accord has been followed up by national pledges of greenhouse gas emissions reductions in the year 2020 without specifying measures to enforce actions. As a consequence, the capacity of parties to fulfil their obligations is of basic interest. This article outlines the effects of full compliance with pledges on greenhouse gas emissions, economic growth, and trade. The study is based on the global computable general equilibrium model GRACE distinguishing between fossil and non-fossil energy use. Global emissions from fossil fuels in 2020 turn out to be 15% lower than in a business as usual (BAU) scenario and 3% below the global emissions from fossil fuels in 2005. China and India increase their emissions in 2020 to 1 and 5 per cent above BAU levels in 2020, respectively. We find some carbon leakage towards India, China and Russia within the energy intensive industries steel and cement.(auth)

  15. Copenhagen hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS) in male soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Branci, Sonia; Stensbirk, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Reference values are needed in order to interpret the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) in male soccer players with hip and groin pain. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for HAGOS in hip and groin injury-free male soccer players. METHODS: We...... included 444 groin injury-free soccer players from 40 clubs (divisions 1-4) in Eastern Denmark, mean age (SD) 23.6 (4.4), training soccer 3.4 (1) times per week. All players were hip and groin injury-free at the time of inclusion (beginning of season, 2011). RESULTS: Of the 444 hip and groin injury...... HAGOS subscales (psoccer players, with no pain in the previous or present season (n=301), are: pain: 80.1-100, symptoms: 64.3-100, activities of daily living: 80...

  16. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  17. Quantum mechanical reality according to Copenhagen 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Allan M.

    2016-05-01

    The long-standing conceptual controversies concerning the interpretation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are argued, on one hand, to be due to its incompleteness, as affirmed by Einstein. But on the other hand, it appears to be possible to complete it at least partially, as Bohr might have appreciated it, in the framework of its standard mathematical formalism with observables as appropriately defined self-adjoint operators. This completion of quantum mechanics is based on the requirement on laboratory physics to be effectively confined to a bounded space region and on the application of the von Neumann deficiency theorem to properly define a set of self-adjoint extensions of standard observables, e.g. the momenta and the Hamiltonian, in terms of certain isometries on the region boundary. This is formalized mathematically in the setting of a boundary ontology for the so-called Qbox in which the wave function acquires a supplementary dependence on a set of Additional Boundary Variables (ABV). It is argued that a certain geometric subset of the ABV parametrizing Quasi-Periodic Translational Isometries (QPTI) has a particular physical importance by allowing for the definition of an ontic wave function, which has the property of epitomizing the spatial wave function “collapse.” Concomitantly the standard wave function in an unbounded geometry is interpreted as an epistemic wave function, which together with the ontic QPTI wave function gives rise to the notion of two-wave duality, replacing the standard concept of wave-particle duality. More generally, this approach to quantum physics in a bounded geometry provides a novel analytical basis for a better understanding of several conceptual notions of quantum mechanics, including reality, nonlocality, entanglement and Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation. The scope of this analysis may be seen as a foundational update of the multiple versions 1.x of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is

  18. The Copenhagen Climate Change Agreement: Failure or Success? Next Steps and Key Considerations for Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ As we are approaching to the end of this torrential year of 2009,heads of state and government and negotiators from 193 countries concluded the Copenhagen Conference with a last-minute,three page framework document for a new global climate change deal (the "Copenhagen Accord").Hailed by some as a foundation for further progress,and derided or rejected by others as 'greenwash' (sounds good but really is not) and an outright negotiating failure,the Copenhagen Accord sets out a first basic agreement on key elements of the global climate change framework for the years to come.

  19. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  20. Low mother-to-child HIV transmission rate but high loss-to-follow-up among mothers and babies in Mandalay, Myanmar; a cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khine Wut Yee Kyaw; Myo Minn Oo; Nang Thu Thu Kyaw; Khaing Hnin Phyo; Thet Ko Aung; Theingi Mya; Nilar Aung; Htun Nyunt Oo; Petros Isaakidis

    2017-01-01

    ... among HIV-exposed babies which includes being HIV positive, death and LTFU. Methods A retrospective cohort study reviewing routinely collected data in an Integrated HIV care program, Mandalay, Myanmar in June 2016...

  1. The benefits and harms of providing parents with weight feedback as part of the national child measurement programme: a prospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falconer, Catherine L; Park, Min Hae; Croker, Helen; Skow, Áine; Black, James; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S; Karlsen, Saffron; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale evaluations suggest that the provision of feedback to parents about their child's weight status may improve recognition of overweight, but the effects on lifestyle behaviour are unclear...

  2. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zembe-Mkabile Wanga; Doherty Tanya; Sanders David; Jackson Debra; Chopra Mickey; Swanevelder Sonja; Lombard Carl; Surender Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in Kw...

  3. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage: a cohort study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Vejborg, Ilse;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participat...

  4. The Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Cohort: design, population and dental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen M; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2011-01-01

    the design, measurement procedures, and baseline values for COHS including spatial distribution of restorations and dental caries as well as reasons for non-participation. Materials and methods: Seven hundred and eighty-three individuals aged 65 years or older, from a total of 1918 invited elderly people...... caries than women. Coronal caries was most frequent on mesial and distal surfaces and on the maxillary incisors and canines; root caries was most frequent on labial surfaces and evenly distributed within the dentition. Only 41% of all invited elderly people accepted the invitation, with old age and poor...

  5. Sex differences in stroke survival: 10-year follow-up of the Copenhagen stroke study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (0-58); computed tomography determined stroke type. A risk factor profile was obtained for all including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Date of death was obtained within a 10-year follow-up...

  6. Sex Differences in Stroke Survival: 10-Year Follow-up of the Copenhagen Stroke Study Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (0-58); computed tomography determined stroke type. A risk factor profile was obtained for all including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, previous stroke, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Date of death was obtained within a 10-year follow-up...

  7. New Insights? Heisenberg's visit to Copenhagen in 1941 and the Bohr letters

    OpenAIRE

    Gottstein, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to many interpretations in the press, the drafts of Bohr's unsent letters to Heisenberg are not contradicting Heisenberg's description of his famous trip in 1941 to Copenhagen, but are complementary to it.

  8. Promises and risks of Chinese investments in Greenland seen from Nuuk, Copenhagen and Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2017-01-01

    of Chinese investments in Greenland. The analyses draw on interviews and meetings in China and in Copenhagen with Greenlandic, Danish and Chinese researchers, public officials, diplomats and businesses and on statements from Greenlandic, Danish and Chinese governments and politicians....

  9. A Symposium Associated with the Opening of the Play Copenhagen in Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2002-12-31

    On March 2, 2002 a special all day symposium was held in conjunction with the opening of the play Copenhagen in Washington. The play Copenhagen reenacts the 1941 visit of Werner Heisenberg, who was then in charge of the Nazi nuclear power program, to Niels Bohr, his mentor, and collaborator in creating quantum mechanics, complementarity, and the uncertainty principle, in German-occupied Denmark. The symposium entitled: THE COPENHAGEN INTERPRETATION: SCIENCE AND HISTORY ON STAGE was presented at the Baird Auditorium, in the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution. The program consisted of three two-hour sessions: (1) The Science of Copenhagen and its Influence of the 20th Century. (2) Bohr and Heisenberg: A strong Interaction. (3) Theater as Science ??? Science as Theater. The speakers included: Robert C. Card, Under Secretary of Energy; Ulrik Federspiel, Danish Ambassador to the US; John Marburger, III, Science Advisor President Bush; Jerome I. Friedman, MIT; Lene Vestergaard Hau, Harvard University; Richard Rhodes, Author; Rita Colwell, Director, NSF; Jeremy Bernstein, Author; Jochen H. Heisenberg, University of New Hampshire; Finn Aaserud, Director of the Niels Bohr Archive; Vilhelm A. Bohr, NIH; Thomas Powers, Author; Paul Lawrence Rose, Penn State University; Steven Barfield, University of Westminster, Jennifer Uphoff Gray, Associate Director, Copenhagen; Elizabeth Ireland McCann, Producer, Copenhagen; Lloyd Rose, Washington Post. Details of he program and useful information on the play Copenhagen are available on the web site http://web.gc.cuny.edu/ashp/nml/artsci/copenhagen.shtml . The complete symposium was video recorded and the set of 3 two-hour tapes can be obtained through the web site. The symposium was organized by Brian Schwartz, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Harry Lustig, Provost Emeritus at the City College of New York and Arthur Molella, Director, Lemelson Center, Smithsonian Institution. For further information contact Brian

  10. Changes in clinical characteristics, course, and prognosis of inflammatory bowel disease during the last 5 decades: a population-based study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Riis, Lene; Vind, Ida;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain whether the increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the last decades has been accompanied by an alteration in the presentation, course, and prognosis of the disease. To answer this question, 3 consecutive population-based IBD cohorts from...... Copenhagen, Denmark (1962-2005), were assessed and evaluated. METHODS: Phenotype, initial disease course, use of medications, cumulative surgery rate, standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer (CRC), and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were compared in the 3 cohorts, which had a total of 641...... patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and 1575 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). RESULTS: From 1962 to 2005, the proportion of IBD patients suffering from CD increased (P

  11. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in India: Lessons Learned from a Cohort of HIV-Infected Mothers and Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Panditrao, Mayuri Vijaykumar

    2012-01-01

    Women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit their infection to their baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding --a process known as mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 3.4 million children under the age of 15 were living with HIV at the end of 2011. In 2011 alone, 330,000 children had newly acquired HIV from their mothers. `Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV' (PMTCT) refers to a ...

  12. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies. The Copenhagen osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K.; Sonne-Holm, Stig [Copenhagen University Hospital of Hvidovre (Denmark). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2010-09-15

    The aims of the present study were threefold: to examine the distribution of knee joint osteoarthritis in a large, standardized radiological study; to examine the relationships between self reported knee pain and radiological OA; and to examine the natural history of radio-morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected for subsequent standardized radiography of the pelvis, the knees, the hands, the wrists, and the lumbar spine. Images were analyzed and knee joint osteoarthritis (OA) was classified according to the radiographic atlas of Kellgren and Lawrence. Joint space width (JSW) was measured at three sites within both the medial and the lateral compartment. For the entire cohort the prevalence of radiological knee joint OA of all grades was 38.7% for men and 44.2% for women. Age stratification documented increasing knee joint OA both in regard to prevalence and morphological severity. Knee pain was universally correlated to the Kellgren and Lawrence severity of OA. In a subgroup with no features of radiological OA, a significant and linear decline in JSW with increasing age was found. We found a clear relationship between self-reported knee pain and radiological osteoarthritis. Pain was proportionally related to the severity of change. We also demonstrated a significant diminishing of joint space width with increasing age in individuals without apparent radiological degeneration. (orig.)

  13. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk.

  14. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort. : Dietary PUFA in pregnancy and infant development

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Jonathan ,; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mo...

  15. [Relationship between Copenhagen and Göttingen regarding earth magnetism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Hans Christian Oersted is mostly known as the discoverer of electromagnetism and for being one of the physicists who were deeply influenced and fascinated by the romantic natural philosophy. In this article another side of Oersted is presented. What is underestimated until now is Oersted's contribution to the research of geomagnetism. Oersted stood in close contact with Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber, whom he visited in 1834 in Göttingen. Oersted's aim was to learn the new developments in geomagnetism. Afterwards he was crucial in the building of a new magnetic observatory in Copenhagen as well as a second one with better equipment. Oersted formed a huge team for magnetic observations and the gathered data were sent to Gauss and Weber who published them. The correspondence between Oersted, Gauss and Weber was mostly dedicated to the transmission of these data, details about instruments and the best way of building a magnetic observatory. Unfortunately, Gauss and Weber had to stop their very successful collaboration in 1843, because Weber belonged to the Göttingen Seven and later on Oersted stopped his observations, because he had lost his partners in this research project.

  16. Organizations of Language among Adolescents in Superdiverse Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Spindler MØLLER

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze how adolescents in a Copenhagen school classify and systematically organize the different types of language they come across in their linguistic everyday. Furthermore, we analyse descriptions of how this metapragmatic system affect the adolescents’ language use in their daily life. Our primary data consist of 74 essays on language and norms for its use made by a group of pupils at the age of 14-15. Our analyses show that the participants outline systematic metapragmatic organizations that generally can be described by using three parameters that roughly can be labelled as categorizations, style continua and personal attachment or detachment. Traditional accounts of “languages” as countable and coherent entities play a role in the system but cannot account for all the aspects. Therefore we suggest viewing the data through the lens of the languaging theory. We conclude that the adolescents’ ways of organizing language reflect (and comment the societal condition of superdiversity. At the same time the specific competences developed among the adolescents are not accepted or respected by mainstream society and the educational system and we discuss possible consequences of this discrepancy.

  17. The Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans

    2004-01-01

    . Exposure assessments comprise respiratory, intestinal, and skin microbiology; the child's diet; indoor and outdoor air quality; allergens; and indicators of lifestyle. Genetic characteristics of probands and parents are evaluated. Quality assurance follows Good Clinical Practice guidelines. RESULTS: Four...

  18. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteins cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-score), skinfolds, and inverse VO2peak. RESULTS: The HOMA-score of intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to post...

  19. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus;

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed short and long term effects of a 3-year controlled school-based physical activity (PA) intervention on fatness, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children. METHODS: The study involved 18 schools (10 intervention...

  20. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haugen, Margaretha; Schjølberg, Synnve; Magnus, Per; Brunborg, Gunnar; Vrijheid, Martine; Alexander, Jan

    2017-09-05

    Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  1. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2014-01-01

    participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations...... and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk....

  2. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  3. Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G): a prospective prebirth cohort of mother–child pairs in Sherbrooke, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemette, Laetitia; Allard, Catherine; Lacroix, Marilyn; Patenaude, Julie; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Moreau, Julie; Ménard, Julie; Bouchard, Luigi; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Perron, Patrice; Hivert, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We initiated the Genetics of Glucose regulation in Gestation and Growth (Gen3G) prospective cohort to increase our understanding of biological, environmental and genetic determinants of glucose regulation during pregnancy and their impact on fetal development. Participants Between January 2010 and June 2013, we invited pregnant women aged ≥18 years old who visited the blood sampling in pregnancy clinic in Sherbrooke for their first trimester clinical blood samples: 1034 women accepted to participate in our cohort study. Findings to date At first and second trimester, we collected demographics and lifestyle questionnaires, anthropometry measures (including fat and lean mass estimated using bioimpedance), blood pressure, and blood samples. At second trimester, women completed a full 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and we collected additional blood samples. At delivery, we collected cord blood and placenta samples; obstetrical and neonatal clinical data were abstracted from electronic medical records. We also collected buffy coats and extracted DNA from maternal and/or offspring samples (placenta and blood cells) to pursue genetic and epigenetic hypotheses. So far, we have found that low adiponectin and low vitamin D maternal levels in first trimester predict higher risk of developing gestational diabetes. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up of mothers and offspring 3 and 5 years postdelivery to investigate the consequences of maternal dysglycaemia during pregnancy on offspring adiposity and metabolic profile. Trial registration number NCT01623934. PMID:26842272

  4. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    in the GCR is inspiring from an international comparative planning perspective given that the spatial concepts and logics provided by the influential 1947 Finger Plan for Greater Copenhagen as well as its succeeding descendants have endured as the foundation for modern city and regional planning to date....... In this light, Greater Copenhagen is nowadays largely conceived as a spatially functional region in terms of encompassing a sound and cohesive housing and labour market with common environmental preservation and recreational areas across municipality limits. However, the paper also attempts to highlight...... that planning and governance at the metropolitan levels have been historically complex given the inherent discrepancies that commonly emerge between the evolving functional city-region and the political-administrative structures wherein Greater Copenhagen is located....

  5. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...... soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable...

  6. Urban form and heat consumption, a comparative study in Copenhagen districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi Dehcheshme, Mostafa; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    Since urban form and land use patterns significantly influence the cities energy needs, the study linkage of energy consumption and urban form is an interdisciplinary issue and one the current central topics of urban planners in recent years. Our concern in this paper, therefore, is to address...... the implications of urban development and form in terms of its impact on energy consumption in ten districts of Copenhagen city. As comparative study, this paper is trying to respond the question: How does urban form impact the heat consumption in households in Copenhagen districts? To respond this question, two...... models, housing level model and city level model, are presented and each model includes the part of urban form indicators. Finally in the comparative frame, the impacts of urban form indicators on heat consumption are analyzed for the Copenhagen districts....

  7. Green infrastructure for flood risk management in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mguni, Patience; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    2015-01-01

    The risk of flooding in urban areas could be better approached by complementing conventional sewer systems with sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) for storm-water management. This may be the case for developing world cities like Dar es Salaam with incomplete sewer services, as well as cities......, a comparison of the opportunities and barriers to the implementation of SUDS in Dar es Salaam and Copenhagen is presented. The results indicate that a bottom-up approach in Dar es Salaam is important, with the community level taking the lead, while in Copenhagen the top-down approach currently employed...

  8. Non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in Greater Copenhagen 1984 to 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective survey of non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in the period 1984 to 1988 was carried out by the five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen. A total of 168 patients were identified. A gradual increase was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988....... The corresponding incidence per 100,000 inhabitants in Copenhagen rose from 0.9 in 1984 to 5.0 in 1988. During the same period the total registered incidence of human Salmonella infections in Denmark increased from 17.6 to 67.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. The serotype most often isolated from bacteraemic patients...

  9. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20...... survey to 4.8% in the second survey (pSmoking decreased...... significantly from 62% in 1976-8 to 45% in 1991-4 (pyoung adults in Copenhagen over a 15 year period. The severity of asthma, as judged by the level of FEV(1), has also increased. These findings cannot be explained...

  10. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G; Holm, Peter E; Magid, Jakob; Hansen, Thomas H; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentrations (mg/kg dw) of As were 0.002-0.21, Cd 0.03-0.25, Cr gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable consumption but by unintentional soil ingestion.

  11. Non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in Greater Copenhagen 1984 to 1988

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lester, Anne; Eriksen, N H; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective survey of non-typhoid Salmonella bacteraemia in the period 1984 to 1988 was carried out by the five departments of clinical microbiology in Greater Copenhagen. A total of 168 patients were identified. A gradual increase was observed from 11 cases in 1984 to 58 cases in 1988....... The corresponding incidence per 100,000 inhabitants in Copenhagen rose from 0.9 in 1984 to 5.0 in 1988. During the same period the total registered incidence of human Salmonella infections in Denmark increased from 17.6 to 67.4 per 100,000 inhabitants. The serotype most often isolated from bacteraemic patients...

  12. The use of meta-governance mechanisms to fight social segregation in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Lars A.

    In 2011 Copenhagen City Council adopted a citywide Policy for Disadvantaged Areas in Copenhagen to combat geographically specific vicious circles of social deprivation and physical deterioration in the city. The policy was a result of an inter-departmental learning process, designed to come up...... study five years after adaptation of PDAC. The paper investigates how practices of joint leadership and meta-governance across city departments and between city officials and local stakeholders have been institutionalized as coordination mechanisms as a result of the new policy....

  13. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20...... significantly from 62% in 1976-8 to 45% in 1991-4 (pyoung adults in Copenhagen over a 15 year period. The severity of asthma, as judged by the level of FEV(1), has also increased. These findings cannot be explained...

  14. Urban form and heat consumption, a comparative study in Copenhagen districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi Dehcheshme, Mostafa; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    the implications of urban development and form in terms of its impact on energy consumption in ten districts of Copenhagen city. As comparative study, this paper is trying to respond the question: How does urban form impact the heat consumption in households in Copenhagen districts? To respond this question, two......Since urban form and land use patterns significantly influence the cities energy needs, the study linkage of energy consumption and urban form is an interdisciplinary issue and one the current central topics of urban planners in recent years. Our concern in this paper, therefore, is to address...

  15. From Identity to Facility--The New Buildings for the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Magnus; Saugstad, Tone

    2007-01-01

    This analysis seeks to unite both an architectural and an educational perspective on the transformation of the university into a postmodern institution. Our point of departure is an analysis of the new buildings for the Faculty of Humanities University of Copenhagen which are located on the island area of Amager, to the south of Copenhagen's…

  16. Case definitions of knee osteoarthritis in 4,151 unselected subjects: relevance for epidemiological studies : The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxafoss, Erling; Jacobsen, Steffen; Gosvig, Kasper K

    2010-01-01

    -morphological change over age in individuals without radiological features of OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study - COS is a substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a longitudinal regional health survey. From the third inclusion of the CCHS (1992-1994) 4,151 subjects were selected...

  17. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zembe-Mkabile Wanga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods This study used longitudinal data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer-counsellors in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150. 1148 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study and data on the CSG were collected at infant age 6, 12, 24 weeks and 18–24 months. A stratified cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to the data to investigate factors associated with CSG receipt. Results Uptake of the CSG amongst eligible children at a median age of 22 months was 62% in Paarl, 64% in Rietvlei and 60% in Umlazi. Possessing a birth certificate was found to be the strongest predictor of CSG receipt (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4 -4.1. Other factors also found to be independently associated with CSG receipt were an HIV-positive mother (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4 and a household income below R1100 (HR1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.6. Conclusion Receipt of the CSG was sub optimal amongst eligible children showing administrative requirements such as possessing a birth certificate to be a serious barrier to access. In the spirit of promoting and protecting children’s rights, more efforts are needed to improve and ease access to this cash transfer program.

  18. Measurement of Total and Free Urinary Phenol and Paraben Concentrations over the Course of Pregnancy: Assessing Reliability and Contamination of Specimens in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, Matthew P.; Aase, Heidi; Eggesbø, Merete; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun P.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Engel, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposures to environmental phenols and parabens may be harmful, especially in utero. Prior studies have demonstrated high within-person variability of urinary concentrations across pregnancy. Objectives We sought to measure phenol and paraben biomarker concentrations for the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa) study, assess within-person variability, and investigate any possible external phenol or paraben contamination of specimens. Methods We collected three spot urine samples at approximately 17, 23, and 29 weeks gestation in a hospital setting and added a preservative containing ethyl paraben. We measured urinary concentrations and within-person variability for phenols and parabens in a MoBa sample (n = 45), including a subgroup of 15 participants previously randomly selected for a bisphenol A (BPA) exposure study who had unusually high total BPA concentrations. Additionally, we compared reliability results for total, conjugated, and free concentrations of phenolic compounds. Results We detected total and free BPA, butyl paraben, propyl paraben, and methyl paraben in 100% of samples, total benzophenone-3 in 95% of samples, and infrequently detected free benzophenone-3 and total and free 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for total, conjugated, and free concentrations ranged from relatively low for BPA to moderate for propyl paraben. ICCs were generally similar overall and by subgroup. Conclusions Using conjugated concentrations improved reliability estimates only for BPA. Measuring total and free concentrations, an approach that may be useful for future studies, allowed us to identify likely BPA and butyl paraben contamination of archived MoBa urine specimens. Citation Guidry VT, Longnecker MP, Aase H, Eggesbø M, Zeiner P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Knudsen GP, Bertelsen RJ, Ye X, Calafat AM, Engel SM. 2015. Measurement of total and free urinary phenol and paraben concentrations over the course of

  19. Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Prescott, Eva; Almdal, Thomas Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: Low body mass index (BMI) is a marker of poor prognosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the general population the harmful effect of low BMI is due to the deleterious effects of a low fat free mass index (FFMI, fat free mass/weight(2)). Objectives: We explored...... distribution of low FFMI and its association with prognosis in a population based cohort of COPD patients. Methods: We used data on 1,898 COPD patients identified in a population-based epidemiological study in Copenhagen. Fat free mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients were followed...... the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population. BMI and FFMI were significant predictors of mortality, independent of relevant covariates. Being in the lowest FFMI 10(th) percentile of the general population was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.5 (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.8) for overall...

  20. Migrant women living with HIV in Europe: are they facing inequalities in the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission of HIV?: The European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration (EPPICC) study group in EuroCoord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarato, G; Bailey, H; Burns, F; Prieto, L; Soriano-Arandes, A; Thorne, C

    2017-04-25

    In pregnancy early interventions are recommended for prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We examined whether pregnant women who live with HIV in Europe and are migrants encounter barriers in accessing HIV testing and care. Four cohorts within the European Pregnancy and Paediatric HIV Cohort Collaboration provided data for pooled analysis of 11 795 pregnant women who delivered in 2002-12 across ten European countries. We defined a migrant as a woman delivering in a country different from her country of birth and grouped the countries into seven world regions. We compared three suboptimal PMTCT interventions (HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy in women undiagnosed at conception, late anti-retroviral therapy (ART) start in women diagnosed but untreated at conception and detectable viral load (VL) at delivery in women on antenatal ART) in native and migrant women using multivariable logistic regression models. Data included 9421 (79.9%) migrant women, mainly from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); 4134 migrant women were diagnosed in the current pregnancy, often (48.6%) presenting with CD4 count <350 cells/µl. Being a migrant was associated with HIV diagnosis in late pregnancy [OR for SSA vs. native women, 2.12 (95% CI 1.67, 2.69)] but not with late ART start if diagnosed but not on ART at conception, or with detectable VL at delivery once on ART. Migrant women were more likely to be diagnosed in late pregnancy but once on ART virological response was good. Good access to antenatal care enables the implementation of PMTCT protocols and optimises both maternal and children health outcomes generally.

  1. THAO-CHILD HEALTH PROGRAMME: COMMUNITY BASED INTERVENTION FOR HEALTHY LIFESTYLES PROMOTION TO CHILDREN AND FAMILIES: RESULTS OF A COHORT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Santos, Santiago Felipe; Estévez Santiago, Rocío; Palacios Gil-Antuñano, Nieves; Leis Trabazo, Maria Rosaura; Tojo Sierra, Rafael; Cuadrado Vives, Carmen; Beltrán de Miguel, Beatriz; Ávila Torres, José Manuel; Varela Moreiras, Gregorio; Casas Esteve, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: la obesidad infantil es una de las principales preocupaciones de salud pública. La etiología multifactorial y multinivel requiere de intervenciones complejas como las intervenciones de base comunitaria (CBI). El Programa Thao-Salud Infantil es una CBI implementada en España desde 2007. Objetivo: mostrar la metodología Thao y los últimos resultados transversales y longitudinales. Métodos: estudio de cohortes longitudinal (4 años de seguimiento) y estudio transversal. Resultados: el estudio longitudinal encontró un incremento del 1% en la prevalencia de exceso de peso tras 4 años de implementación del Programa Thao en 10 municipios con 6.697 niños y niñas involucrados. El estudio transversal llevado a cabo con 20.636 niños y niñas de 22 municipios encontró una prevalencia de exceso de peso infantil del 26,6%. Discusión: actualmente un freno en el incremento de la prevalencia de exceso de peso infantil es considerado como un éxito debido a la alta prevalencia a nivel mundial. Son necesarios más estudios metodológicamente bien realizados para conocer la eficacia de las CBI en este campo.

  2. How do masculinity, paternity leave, and mortality associate? -A study of fathers in the Swedish parental & child cohort of 1988/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lundin, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    One of the proposed causes for the gender gap in longevity is the attitudes and practices culturally prescribed for men, often conceptualised as 'masculinity'. It has also been suggested that paternity leave, indicating a change from breadwinning to caring, could benefit men's lifetime health. In this study, the objective was to examine associations between 'masculinity' (assessed at the age of 18-19 years), paternity leave (1988-1990), and mortality patterns (1991-2008) based on a population of Swedish men who had a child in 1988/89 (N=72,569). 'Masculinity' was measured during the compulsory military conscription process by a psychologist based on leisure and occupational interests, and paternity leave was measured in fulltime days by registry data. The main finding was that low 'masculinity' ranking increased the risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality from alcohol and violent causes, while taking paternity leave between 30 and 135 days decreased the risk of all-cause mortality. However, the weak association found between 'masculinity' and paternity leave indicates that entering a caring role as a father is not predicted by 'masculinity' assessed in late adolescence, and that the studied phenomena influence male mortality independently of each other. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Macrosomic Neonates Carry Increased Risk of Dental Caries in Early Childhood: Findings from a Cohort Study, the Okinawa Child Health Study, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    Full Text Available Although many studies have discussed health risks in neonates with a low birth weight, few studies have focused on the risks in neonates with a high birth weight. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the incidence of dental caries in early childhood are associated with birth weight status.A total of 117,175 children born in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan from 1997 to 2007 were included in this study. Medical professionals collected information about birth records, growth and development, parental child-rearing practices and dental health at 3 months, 18 months and 3 years of age. The risk of dental caries among neonates with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g was compared with that among neonates with normal weight (2500-3999 g. Sensitivity analyses included 'large for gestational age' (LGA, birth weight above the 90th percentile for gestational age, which was relative to 'appropriate for gestational age' (birth weight between 10th and 90th percentiles. Relative risks and relative risk increases were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression.At 3 years of age, the relative risk increases for dental caries after adjusting for confounding factors were 19% [95% confidence interval (CI, 11%-28%, P < 0.001] for macrosomic neonates and 12% (95% CI, 9%-16%, P < 0.001 for LGA neonates.Macrosomia and LGA were associated with an increased risk of dental caries in early childhood. Particular attention should be paid to abnormally large neonates.

  4. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  5. Analysis of the Copenhagen Accord pledges and its global climatic impacts‚ a snapshot of dissonant ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, J.; Chen, C.; Nabel, J.; Macey, K.; Hare, W.; Schaeffer, M.; Markmann, K.; Höhne, N.; Krogh Anderson, K.; Meinshausen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of the Copenhagen Accord evaluates emission reduction pledges by individual countries against the Accord's climate-related objectives. Probabilistic estimates of the climatic consequences for a set of resulting multi-gas scenarios over the 21st century are calculated with a reduced

  6. A Stochastic Route Choice Model for Car Travellers in the Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr; Daly, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a large-scale stochastic road traffic assignment model for the Copenhagen Region. The model considers several classes of passenger cars (different trip purposes), vans and trucks, each with its own utility function on which route choices are based. The utility functions include...

  7. Individualised therapy for children and young people with diabetes at Copenhagen University Hospital:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, J; Svensson, J; Mortensen, H B;

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at a diabetes clinic for children and young people at the Copenhagen University Hospital in Herlev, Denmark and how things have changed at the clinic over the past 10 years as it has doubled its number of patients and switched insulin treatment regimens. The authors document...

  8. Integration of large-scale heat pumps in the district heating systems of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bjarne; Werling, Jesper; Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis was based on using the energy model Balmorel to determine the optimum dispatch of HPs in the system. The potential heat sources in Copenhagen for use in HPs were determined based on data related to temperatures, flows, and hydrography at different locations, while respecting technical constraints...

  9. Increase in prevalence and severity of asthma in young adults in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ejvind Frausing; Rappeport, Y; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is the general impression that the prevalence of asthma has increased during recent decades. A study was undertaken to investigate asthma prevalence, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in young adults in the City of Copenhagen 15 years apart. METHODS: Men and women aged 20-35 ...

  10. Heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection in women in Copenhagen: sexual behavior and other risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Kroon, S; Gerstoft, J;

    1990-01-01

    In order to describe the risk pattern including sexual behaviour among HIV-infected women in Copenhagen we studied the charts of all women tested seropositive between January 1985 and August 1988 in the three main hospitals handling HIV/AIDS. One hundred and fifteen women were positive for HIV an...

  11. Incidence and prevalence of Crohn's disease in the county of Copenhagen, 1962-87

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P; Langholz, E; Nielsen, O H

    1992-01-01

    The incidence of Crohn's disease increased sixfold from 1962 to 1987 in the county of Copenhagen. The mean annual incidence for 1979-87 was 4.1 per 10(5) inhabitants. The increase was found equally in both sexes, with an approximately 40% higher incidence in women. The maximal incidence was found...

  12. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had......In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for

  13. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod;

    2007-01-01

    by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. Seventy-one percent of cases were community-onset MRSA (CO-MRSA); of these, 36% had......In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for

  14. Burnout and Wellbeing: Testing the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory in New Zealand Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milfont, Taciano L.; Denny, Simon; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Robinson, Elizabeth; Merry, Sally

    2008-01-01

    The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) is a public domain questionnaire measuring the degree of physical and psychological fatigue experienced in three sub-dimensions of burnout: personal, work-related, and client-related burnout. This study first examines the reliability and validity of the CBI in measuring burnout in New Zealand secondary school…

  15. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pons Rotger, Gabriel Angel; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system resulting from the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to Copenhagen city centre. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  16. Effects of Job Accessibility Improved by Public Transport System: Natural Experimental Evidence from the Copenhagen Metro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Sick Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and Metro system due to the construction of a new terminal Metro station connecting southern townships to the city centre of Copenhagen. The results show that public transport based job accessibility has a positive and permanent effect on individual earnings. The increase in earnings is associated...

  17. Periodic, escape and chaotic orbits in the Copenhagen and the (n + 1)-body ring problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Roberto; Blesa, Fernando; Serrano, Sergio

    2009-05-01

    This paper studies the use of recent computational techniques in the numerical study of qualitative properties of two degrees of freedom Hamiltonian systems. Two particular problems, the Copenhagen and the (n + 1)-body ring problems, are studied by using Chaos Indicators, the Crash Test and by computing the skeleton of symmetric periodic orbits.

  18. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazick, A; Howitz, M; Rex, S

    2005-01-01

    During an outbreak of hepatitis A predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2004, we did a case-control study to determine risk factors for infection. A case was an MSM >17 years, living in Copenhagen, with IgM positive hepatitis A infection diagnosed between...... June and August 2004, and without a household contact with a hepatitis A case before onset of illness. Controls were selected at the Copenhagen Pride Festival. The study included 18 cases and 64 controls. Sixteen of 18 cases and 36/63 controls had sex with casual partners (ORMH 5.6, 95% CI 1.......2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results...

  19. Analysis of the Copenhagen Accord pledges and its global climatic impacts‚ a snapshot of dissonant ambitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, J.; Chen, C.; Nabel, J.; Macey, K.; Hare, W.; Schaeffer, M.; Markmann, K.; Höhne, N.; Krogh Anderson, K.; Meinshausen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis of the Copenhagen Accord evaluates emission reduction pledges by individual countries against the Accord's climate-related objectives. Probabilistic estimates of the climatic consequences for a set of resulting multi-gas scenarios over the 21st century are calculated with a reduced com

  20. Palaeontological collections at the Geological Museum, University of Copenhagen: from Cabinet of Curiosities to databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, D.A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Geological collections were established in the University of Copenhagen during the early 1700s with the presentation of fossil, mineral and rock collections by Count A.G. Moltke, mainly assembled by Ole Worm (1588-1654) in his Museum Wormianum. Currently the palaeontological collections in the

  1. Conclusions from the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and ways forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D.; Delpech, V.; de Wit, J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to set the scene for this supplement by presenting and discussing the overall outcomes of the HIV in Europe Copenhagen 2012 Conference and how the HIV in Europe initiative intends to further address challenges and themes raised during the conference....

  2. Reading Clubs, Language Societies and Female Education in Fin-de-Siècle Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Copenhagen became increasingly cosmopolitan at the end of the nineteenth century, as foreign artists and academics settled in the city, and Georg Brandes’s lectures on ‘The Modern Breakthrough’ introduced the literatures of France and England to Danish readers. This essay examines the role played...

  3. Apparent Temperature and Cause-Specific Mortality in Copenhagen, Denmark: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Janine; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Ketzel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    (max)), and respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality in Copenhagen (1999-2006) using a case-crossover design. Susceptibility was investigated for age, sex, socio-economic status and place of death. For an inter-quartile range (7 °C) increase in Tapp(max), an inverse association was found...

  4. Balancing sensitivity and specificity: sixteen year's of experience from the mammography screening programme in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2011-01-01

    To report on sensitivity and specificity from 7 invitation rounds of the organised, population-based mammography screening programme started in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1991, and offered biennially to women aged 50-69. Changes over time were related to organisation and technology....

  5. Diversity policy in employment and service provision: case study: Copenhagen, Denmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Penninx

    2009-01-01

    Denmark is a welfare state in a rather pronounced form. It has inclusive policies, not only for its citizens but also for all legal residents. Equality and equal treatment are keywords in the political discourse. The city of Copenhagen follows the national model to a great extent, but also deviates

  6. What's "Copenhagen" Got to Do with Chemistry Class? Using a Play to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    Through the reading, study, and performance of "Copenhagen", a play by Michael Frayn, chemistry students see the application of nuclear chemistry content, acquire a better understanding of the continuum from scientific research to technology design, and also become aware of the many and varied interrelationships of science with history…

  7. Self-reported stress and risk of stroke: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Naja; Boysen, Gudrun;

    2003-01-01

    the association between self-reported stress frequency and intensity and risk of stroke. METHODS: Data from the second examination, 1981 to 1983, of participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were analyzed with Cox regression after a mean of 13 years of follow-up. A total of 5604 men and 6970 women were...

  8. Land Use Scenarios for Greater Copenhagen: Modelling the Impact of the Fingerplan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    region, as well as an approach to understand urban development patterns outside the ‘spatial masterplan’. In this context we will present the results of a modelling exercise addressing future land use change in the metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and the impact of the current regional planning...

  9. What's "Copenhagen" Got to Do with Chemistry Class? Using a Play to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    Through the reading, study, and performance of "Copenhagen", a play by Michael Frayn, chemistry students see the application of nuclear chemistry content, acquire a better understanding of the continuum from scientific research to technology design, and also become aware of the many and varied interrelationships of science with history…

  10. Copenhagen as a centre of excellence for mobile and Wireless communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the potential of the Copenhagen capital region to maintain a leading position in development and provision of mobile technologies. The paper presents empirical data on the mobile sector in the capital region in order to identify strengths and weaknesses...

  11. Palaeontological collections at the Geological Museum, University of Copenhagen: from Cabinet of Curiosities to databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, D.A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Geological collections were established in the University of Copenhagen during the early 1700s with the presentation of fossil, mineral and rock collections by Count A.G. Moltke, mainly assembled by Ole Worm (1588-1654) in his Museum Wormianum. Currently the palaeontological collections in the Geolo

  12. The Global Interaction Research Initiative at the IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bjørn, Pernille; Glenstrup, Arne John

    2011-01-01

    This showcase paper describes the Global Interaction Research Initiative – GIRI – recently inaugurated at the IT University of Copenhagen. It presents the motivation for this initiative, namely that the use of information technology is the core enabling factor for global collaboration and business...

  13. “Combating malnutrition: the best global investment”, Copenhagen Consensus 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    A panel of distinguished economists that met to ponder global challenges at the 2008 Copenhagen Consensus was asked, hypothetically:  if you had 75 billion dollars to improve the world, how would you best spend it?1 The panel ranked biofortification, the improvment of micronutrient content of crops...

  14. Modeling the historical water cycle of the Copenhagen Area 1850-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen; Ladekarl, Ulla Lyngs

    2011-01-01

    , and the interactions between these subsystems. The utilities are used to simulate the water cycle in the Copenhagen area (976 km2) during the period 1850–2003. Long-term time series of hydraulic head, streamflow, and inflow to sewage works have been used to manually calibrate the model parameters. We used a step...

  15. Children and adolescents in the Psychiatric Emergency Department: a 10-year survey in Copenhagen County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taastrøm, Annette; Klahn, Julie; Staal, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge on psychiatric emergencies in children and adolescents is limited. The Psychiatric Emergency Departments (PED) in Copenhagen enable the acute examination of children and adolescents 24 h a day, 7 days a week. However, very little is known about who presents to the PED...

  16. Façade system for existing office buildings in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    This study investigates solutions for facade renovation of general office buildings built between 1960 and 1980 in the Copenhagen Municipality. 44 buildings are used for the study. They share common structural and construction principles like the use of beams and columns and prefabricated elements...

  17. Large eccentric strength increase using the Copenhagen Adduction exercise in football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøi, L; Sørensen, C N; Kaae, N M

    2016-01-01

    Hip adductor injuries are frequent in football, and players with low adductor strength appear to be at increased risk of injury. High adductor muscle activity has been shown in the Copenhagen Adduction exercise (CA); however, an associated strength gain has not been investigated. This study aims ...

  18. Life cycle assessment of three water systems in Copenhagen-a management tool of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Zambrano, K C; Trautner, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate...

  19. The Economic Geographies of the Outer City: Industrial Dynamics and Imaginary Spaces of Location in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Lars; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on the changing economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen. The outer city is not a well-defined place but can be understood as a set of processes transforming the urban economic landscape outside the built-up area. Several central and interrelated economic processes...

  20. Diet quality in early pregnancy and its effects on fetal growth outcomes: the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment) Mother and Child Cohort Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rebagliato, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesús; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Murcia, Mario; Bolumar, Francisco; Marco, Alfredo; Ballester, Ferran

    2010-06-01

    Maternal diet has been associated with fetal growth outcomes; however, evidence is scarce on the role of dietary quality. The objective was to assess the effect of diet quality during the first trimester of pregnancy, as measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) adapted for pregnancy, on fetal growth. We studied 787 women and their newborns from a Spanish cohort study. Diet quality was assessed by using a modification of the AHEI. Adjusted birth weight, birth length, and head circumference were used as continuous outcomes. We used a customized model to define fetal growth restriction in weight, length, and head circumference. After adjustment of multivariate models, a positive association was observed between diet quality and adjusted birth weight and adjusted birth length. The greatest differences were found between the fourth and first quintiles of the AHEI. Newborns of women in the fourth quintile were on average 126.3 g (95% CI: 38.5, 213.9 g) heavier and 0.47 cm (95% CI: 0.08, 0.86 cm) longer than those in the lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.009 and 0.013, respectively). Women with the highest AHEI scores had a significantly lower risk of delivering a fetal growth-restricted infant for weight (odds ratio: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55; P for trend = 0.001) than did women in the lowest quintile, but this was not the case for fetal growth restriction in length (P for trend = 0.538) or head circumference (P for trend = 0.070). A high-quality diet in the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with birth size and the risk of fetal growth restriction.

  1. Prenatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure is associated with decreased gestational length but not birth weight: archived samples from the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezios Katrina L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, known endocrine disruptors, were banned in 1979 but persist in the environment. Previous studies are inconsistent regarding prenatal exposure to PCBs and pregnancy outcomes. We investigated associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and gestational length and birth weight. Methods In a sample of 600 infants (born between 1960 and 1963 randomly selected from Child Health and Development Studies participants followed through adolescence we measured 11 PCB congeners in maternal post partum sera (within three days of delivery. Length of gestation was computed from the reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP and delivery date. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between PCB exposure and gestational age and birth weight, adjusting for potential confounders. PCBs were grouped according to hypothesized biological action (1b (sum of weak phenobarbital inducers, 2b (sum of limited dioxin activity, and 3 (sum of CYP1A and CYP2b inducers or degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri. Secondary analyses examined associations between total PCB exposure and exposure to individual congeners. Results Each unit increase in mono-ortho substituted PCBs was associated with a 0.30 week decrease (95% confidence interval (CI -0.59, -0.016, corresponding to a 2.1 (95% CI −4.13, -0.11 day decrease in length of gestation. Similar associations were estimated for di-ortho substituted PCBs, (1.4 day decrease; (95% CI −2.9, 0.1 and group 3 PCBs (0.84 day decrease; (95% CI −1.8, 0.11. We found similar associations in congener specific analyses and for the sum of congeners. Conclusions Our study provides new evidence that PCB exposure shortens length of gestation in humans. This may have public health implications for population exposures.

  2. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among antenatal patients and incidence of mother- to- child transmission using single dose nevirapine: a cohort study in Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal A. Bhuyar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective was to study the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in antenatal patients and to find out the incidence of mother to child transmission (MTCT using single dose nevirapine (sdNVP to mother- baby pairs in labour. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. PDMMC, Amravati, Maharashtra from February 2010 to May 2015. All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic were subjected to pretest counseling and HIV testing after informed consent. The HIV +ve pregnant patients who opted for delivery at our hospital were included in the study. sdNVP was administered to mother- baby pairs according to NACO guidelines. Babies of these patients were followed up to 18 months of age for HIV testing. Results: 12077 antenatal patients underwent pretest counseling. 11957 antenatal patients were tested for HIV of which 28 were detected positive. Therefore, the seroprevalence in this study was found to be 0.23%. 23 patients delivered at our hospital during the study period and babies of 2 patients tested positive for HIV. Hence the incidence of MTCT was found to be 9.5% in our study. Conclusions: Universal screening of pregnant patients for HIV and judicious use of PPTCT regimens can significantly reduce MTCT of HIV and prevalence of pediatric HIV infection. Single dose nevirapine use over last few years has successfully reduced MTCT, but our aim should be to reduce it further with more effective ART regimens for the seropositive antenatal patients and their babies. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1436-1441

  3. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Mikkelsen

    Full Text Available Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort. The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84 after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of

  4. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  5. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  6. 684对母婴过敏性疾病队列研究%Cohort study of 684 pairs of mother-and-child allergic diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧; 张峰英; 杭晶卿; 朱捷; 汪睿; 陈培凤; 顾卫联

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解上海市普陀区长征镇2岁以内婴幼儿过敏性疾病的相关影响因素.方法 2008年1月至12月期间在普陀区长征镇社区卫生服务中心儿保门诊建卡孕妇为调查对象,进行问卷调查.并跟踪随访分娩后婴儿至2岁.纳入调查对象母婴746对,对完成全部问卷的684对母婴数据用SAS V9.1统计软件进行数据处理和统计分析.结果 本次调查显示普陀区长征镇地区婴幼儿湿疹、过敏性皮疹、喘息患病率分别是27.9%、18.9%、3.9%.多因素回归分析显示父母任何一方过敏、婴幼儿4个月内添加其他食品是婴儿湿疹的危险因素(P=0.0010、0.0341);父母任何一方过敏也是过敏性皮疹的危险因素(P<0.0001).出生6个月内纯母乳喂养是婴幼儿喘息的保护因素(P=0.0257).而其他因素如父母哮喘史,母亲孕期补充维生素、母亲特殊饮食习惯,婴儿补钙等均未见相关性意义.结论 其危险因素主要有父母任一方过敏性疾病的遗传因素、婴儿本身的饮食因素(过早添加其他食品).而母乳喂养(0~6个月)对婴儿喘息有保护作用.%Objective To understand allergic diseases related factors in Changzheng Town,Putuo District infants and young children.Method Pregnant women registered in Putuo District,Changzheng Town Community Health Service Center Child Health Clinic within the period from January to December,2008 were enrolled into this survey,a questionnaire survey.The infants were followed up from birth to 2 years of age.The mother and child survey was conducted for 746 pairs,and 684 pairs had complete data.SAS V9.1 statistical software was used for data processing and statistical analysis.Result The survey showed that prevalence of eczema,allergic rash,and wheezing was 27.9%,18.9%,and 3.9%,respectively.Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that allergy in either parent and addition of foods other than milk in infants before 4 months of age were

  7. Trends in stroke incidence. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    1997-01-01

    at least one of the two first examinations as well as the total cohort including nonresponders. Subjects between 45 and 84 years of age were followed from March 1, 1976 until March 1, 1993. Changes in age-specific stroke incidence were calculated by means of Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS......: For subjects aged 45 to 64 years, no significant trends were observed, with an annual incidence rate ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.03) and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.08) for men and women, respectively. In subjects aged 65 to 84 years a significant decrease in stroke incidence was found...... there has been a decline in incidence of stroke in men and women aged 65 to 84 years that was significant only in men, whereas no changes were found for persons aged 45 to 64 years....

  8. Monitoring meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its spread in Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013, through routine whole genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M D; Larner-Svensson, H; Meiniche, H;

    2015-01-01

    Typing of meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by whole genome sequencing (WGS) is performed routinely in Copenhagen since January 2013. We describe the relatedness, based on WGS data and epidemiological data, of 341 MRSA isolates. These comprised all MRSA (n = 300) identified...... in Copenhagen in the first five months of 2013. Moreover, because MRSA of staphylococcal protein A (spa)-type 304 (t304), sequence type (ST) 6 had been associated with a continuous neonatal ward outbreak in Copenhagen starting in 2011, 41 t304 isolates collected in the city between 2010 and 2012 were also...

  9. Comparative socio-technical discourse analysis of Water Sensitive Urban Design for Melbourne, Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo Madsen, Herle; Brown, Rebekah; Elle, Morten

    This paper presents a comparative socio-technical discourse analysis of WUSD for Melbourne and Copenhagen. Despite Melbourne appearing to have progressed further, the technology pathways are very similar, suggesting significant potential for transfer of insights and policy mechanisms. However...

  10. Comparative socio-technical discourse analysis of Water Sensitive Urban Design for Melbourne, Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Herle Mo; Brown, R.; Elle, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative socio-technical discourse analysis of WUSD for Melbourne and Copenhagen. Despite Melbourne appearing to have progressed further, the technology pathways are very similar, suggesting significant potential for transfer of insights and policy mechanisms. However...

  11. Routing of Electric Vehicles: Case Study of City Distribution in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Esben; Larsen, Allan; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted

    In Copenhagen, Denmark, the preliminary steps of introducing an Urban Consolidation Centre (UCC) in the perimeter of the city centre has been taken. By implementing a UCC, interests of customers and distributors, as well as improvement of the local urban environment are sought considered [1...... a tour. Furthermore, intelligent location of these recharging points is considered. The objective is to find a least cost plan for routing and recharging the vehicles so that each customer is serviced by exactly one vehicle within its time windows and the vehicle capacity and driving range constraints......]. The UCC service aims to consolidate urban freight, as well as implement additional aspects such as off-peak delivery and utilisation of alternatively fuelled vehicles. In the specific case of Copenhagen, a comprehensive traffic survey was conducted in May 2011. The aim of the survey was to estimate...

  12. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Niels Bohr Institute - Kulturnatten, Copenhagen

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    This ATLAS Virtual Visit will be part of outreach and education programme of the Niels Bohr Institute during a Copenhagen wide night of culture and science, Kulturnatten. Visitors of all ages and background will have the chance to get an introduction to the ATLAS Experiment, the LHC, and basic particle physics. The Virtual Visit will supplement an exhibition and give the opportunity to ask questions about anything related to ATLAS to a Danish physicist at CERN. The Niels Bohr Institute is a long time member of the ATLAS Collaboration and has contributed to Kulturnatten for many years now. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2012/Copenhagen-2012.html

  13. Proceedings of the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - 10th Nordic MPS meeting, Copenhagen 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Jørgensen, Rene Munk; Kohl, Niklas;

    2006-01-01

    On behalf of the Technical University of Denmark, the Danish Operations Research Society and the Nordic Section of the Mathematical Programming Society we welcome you to Copenhagen and the 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium - the 10th meeting of the Nordic MPS. The meetings of the Nordic MPS have...... an enjoyable 1st Nordic Optimization Symposium (10th Nordic MPS meeting) in Copenhagen....... to add a new title, that reflects the much broader field that is our playground at these meetings. Still the odd trustworthy title “Meeting of the Nordic MPS” has been maintained to demonstrate the origin of the symposium. It is our hope that future Nordic MPS meetings will carry on using this “double...

  14. Meeting the political and the legislative Copenhagen Criteria, the case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL.M. Rinor Hoxha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The next enlargement of the European Union is predicted to be in the Balkans. Kosovo, a small country of the Balkan Peninsula, which has been declared as an independent state in 2008, aims the membership in EU. Kosovo is currently at the stage of negotiating the Stabilization and Association Agreement with EU. For the membership in EU, candidate countries are required to achieve certain criteria: political, legislative, economic and administrative. The first three are known as the Copenhagen Criteria, whereas the last one as the Madrid Criteria. This paper looks to briefly asses the difficulties of Kosovo in meeting the two Copenhagen Criteria: the political and the legislative one. Although, Kosovo has achieved certain progress related to this matter, this paper presents only the dimensions where Kosovo is lacking in achieving the aforementioned requirements.

  15. Studying empowerment in a socially and ethnically diverse social work community in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2011-01-01

    communities of young men. The social street work is analyzed at the time of the street riots and fires that took place in Copenhagen, in February 2008. It is analyzed how social street workers, facilitated meetings of the opposing factions, parties who usually do not enter into dialogue. It is discussed how......  Abstract This article analyzes empowerment in Copenhagen's "wild" social work community. Social practice theory of boundary communities is presented and used to analyze empowerment as dialectic between individual and collective movement. This includes analysis of the boundary positions...... of the social street workers, their dilemmas, everyday learning and possibilities for expansive learning. A boundary community, such as the "wild" social work community, is constituted by an overlap of communities of social street workers, established professionals with formal educations, and local street...

  16. "Man müsse keine Statue Equestre machen": Abildgaard and Schadow in Copenhagen 1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragelund, Patrick

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the project of erecting an equestrian statue for King Frederick the Great of Prussia, the Berlin sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow was in the autumn 1791 sent on a research tour to the three Baltic capitals, Stockholm, St. Petersburg and Copenhagen. Here he studied and discussed similar recent projects with fellow artists, and brought reports back to Berlin on the equestrian statues by Pierre Hubert L'Archevêque and Johan Tobias Sergel (Gustavus Adolphus in Stockholm, by Étienne Maurice Falconet (Peter the Great in St. Petersburg and by Jacques François Joseph Saly (Frederick V in Copenhagen. Documents not previously published throw new light on the contacts Schadow during these travels established with the Danish painter Nicolai Abildgaard, a contact, it is here argued, that strengthened Schadow's commitment to use a historically accurate, more realistic and less idealised stylistic idiom when depicting great figures from the national past.

  17. Transport, space and society in Copenhagen and Bogotá, 1940-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    ) and Thomas Hughes and Jane Summerton (on Large Technological Systems). This paper is part of a PhD research project that will examine the transformations in transportation in the cities of Copenhagen, Denmark and Bogotá, Colombia. The project is carried out at the Design and Innovation Research School......This paper explores the way urban space, transportation networks and urban societies co-evolve and shape each other in time and how this process impacts the development of specific infrastructure projects in cities. To illustrate and analyse these processes, I examine the space design and transport...... is the assumption that history can become an actor in the multiorganizational and complex process of developing large technological systems: For instance, in Copenhagen the five finger plan of 1947 still determines global and detail planning decisions and in Bogotá the master plan of Le Corbusier issued in 1950...

  18. Commuter Transport Mode Choice and Typologies in the Bicycle City Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Kjems, Erik; Reinau, Kristian Hegner;

    2016-01-01

    “Bicycle Cities” such as Copenhagen can serve as role models: how far can we push the commuter modal shares in the direction of more sustainable transport? This paper presents a study that aims to give a state-of-the-art picture of a Copenhagen that provides wide cycling highways and the politica...... restricted our analysis to commuters both living and working within the city center. The characterization of these commuter types was strikingly short of personal attitudes about environmental concerns....... transport and car use. Furthermore, we derived a typology of four commuter types: “cyclists because of short distances” (40 percent), ”commuters by car or public transport out of necessity” (35 percent), ”more eco-oriented cyclists and others” (16 percent) and ”passionate motorists” (8 percent) when we...

  19. Does improving Public Transport decrease Car Ownership? Evidence from the Copenhagen Metropolitan Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Pilegaard, Ninette; Rouwendal, Jan

    Car ownership is lower in urban areas, which is probably related to the availability of better publict ransport. Better public transport thus may offer the possibility to relieve the many problems (congestion,health, and parking) associated with the presence of cars in urban areas. To investigate...... this issue, wedevelop and estimate a model for the simultaneous choice of a residential area and car ownership. Themodel is estimated on Danish register data for single-earner and dual-earners households in the greaterCopenhagen metropolitan area. We pay special attention to accessibility of the metro...... network whichoffers particularly high quality public transport. Simulations based on the estimated model show that forthe greater Copenhagen area a planned extension of the metro network decreases car ownership by 2-3%.Our results suggest also a substantial increase in the interest for living in areas...

  20. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact...... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... visits, (iv) COPD emergency room visits, (v) general practitioner visits, (vi) specialist visits, and (vii) COPD specific medication. The rehabilitation group consisted of 118 patients who completed the programme. The control group consisted of 236 COPD patients in Copenhagen who did not undergo...

  1. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio......-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus...

  2. Centre for urban ecotechnology in ''Oeksnehallen''. [Copenhagen, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The Lord Mayor's Department of the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark, has with support from this project made a proposal for the establishment of the Centre for Urban Ecotechnology in ''Oeksnehallen'', located in the Vesterbro area of the city. The centre should contribute to the dissemination of knowledge on ecological techniques (regarding passive solar energy etc.) to the inhabitants of Vesterbro and other citizens of Copenhagen, and also serve as a centre in an European context. The ecological demonstration centre will cover an area of two thousand square meters and will also include a cafe, a room for showing coloured slides, facilities for exhibitions created by the center and interested firms etc. The centre should play an important role as part of the ecological concept of urban renewal in Vesterbro. (author).

  3. Forensic odontological examinations of alleged torture victims at the University of Copenhagen 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical forensic examinations of alleged torture victims have been performed by forensic pathologists at the University of Copenhagen since 1995. In 13.2%/33 of these cases the examinations were supplemented by a forensic odontological clinical examination. In this study the forensic...... odontological cases from the years 1997-2011 are presented and discussed. METHODS: This study includes 33 reports from alleged torture victims (4 females, 29 males) who have been examined by a forensic odontologist at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry in the years 1997-2011.The material available consisted...... of copies of medical forensic reports and the forensic odontological reports including x-rays. BACKGROUND data, anamnestic data and results of the forensic odontological clinical examinations were registered as well as the conclusion of the clinical examinations. FINDINGS: The forensic odontological...

  4. Forensic odontological examinations of alleged torture victims at the University of Copenhagen 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical forensic examinations of alleged torture victims have been performed by forensic pathologists at the University of Copenhagen since 1995. In 13.2%/33 of these cases the examinations were supplemented by a forensic odontological clinical examination. In this study the forensic...... odontological cases from the years 1997-2011 are presented and discussed. METHODS: This study includes 33 reports from alleged torture victims (4 females, 29 males) who have been examined by a forensic odontologist at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry in the years 1997-2011.The material available consisted...... of copies of medical forensic reports and the forensic odontological reports including x-rays. BACKGROUND data, anamnestic data and results of the forensic odontological clinical examinations were registered as well as the conclusion of the clinical examinations. FINDINGS: The forensic odontological...

  5. The historical evolution of planning and metropolitan governance in the Greater Copenhagen Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galland, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the transformation of metropolitan planning policies and institutions in the Greater Copenhagen Region (GCR) over the past century. The paper’s focus is twofold. First, it develops an understanding regarding the fluctuating planning context in the GCR through a historical...... that planning and governance at the metropolitan levels have been historically complex given the inherent discrepancies that commonly emerge between the evolving functional city-region and the political-administrative structures wherein Greater Copenhagen is located....... analysis concerned with the evolution of ad hoc regional plans. Furthering this analysis, the paper then delves into the diverse forms of metropolitan governance in the GCR and classifies them into different periods defined by particular policy milestones. The case of metropolitan planning and governance...

  6. Supermarket and fast food accessibility in Copenhagen: associations with socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svastisalee, Chalida; Nordahl Jensen, Helene; Glümer, Charlotte

    -economic indicators in 2006. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators for all neighborhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n = 400). We applied area-level socio-economic and demographic information from Statistics Denmark. Counts of fast food outlets and supermarkets were......Purpose: To investigate whether fast food outlets and supermarkets are socially patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Methods: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast food outlets, supermarkets, and neighborhood level socio...... regressed on SES indicators (percentage of: recent immigrants, lack of high school diploma, population under 35 yr, and average household income in Euros) using negative binomial analysis. Findings: In the fully adjusted models, income was significantly associated with fast food exposure...

  7. The spatio-temporal Development of Copenhagen's bicycle infrastructure 1912-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Bech, Nynne Marie

    2015-01-01

    , including periods when the city suffered from spatial, economic and demographic decline, and dominance of car traffic. By discussing reasons and demands for constructing bicycle infrastructure, the study identifies four distinct periods in which bicycle infrastructure was constructed to enhance comfort......Cycling plays an important role in low-carbon transitions. Around the globe, cities are constructing bicycle infrastructure. The city of Copenhagen has a bicycle-friendly infrastructure celebrated for its fine-meshed network. This study documents the spatio-temporal development of Copenhagen....... In search for identifying drivers, the study analyses the city’s spatial growth pattern, migration pattern, development of road network and changes in the transport culture. Analyses reveal that the bicycle infrastructure expanded at a relatively constant pace during distinct periods of urban transformation...

  8. Hip dysplasia and osteoarthrosis: a survey of 4151 subjects from the Osteoarthrosis Substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K

    2005-01-01

    Acta Orthop. 2005 Apr;76(2):149-58. Related Articles, Links Hip dysplasia and osteoarthrosis: a survey of 4151 subjects from the Osteoarthrosis Substudy of the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Jacobsen S, Sonne-Holm S, Soballe K, Gebuhr P, Lund B. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Copenhagen...... in the general population. The assumption that HD is an etiological factor in the development of hip OA was confirmed. PMID: 16097538 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]...

  9. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xibiao; Pierik, Frank H; Angerer, Jürgen; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Hoppin, Jane A; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2009-09-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate metabolites were measured in 10 pooled urine samples representing 110 pregnant women who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) study in 2004. Daily intakes were estimated from urinary data and compared with reference doses (RfDs) and daily tolerable intakes (TDIs). The MoBa women had a higher mean BPA concentration (4.50 microg/L) than the pregnant women in the Generation R Study (Generation R) in the Netherlands and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States. The mean concentration of total DAP metabolites (24.20 microg/L) in MoBa women was higher than that in NHANES women but lower than that in Generation R women. The diethyl phthalate metabolite mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) was the dominant phthalate metabolite in all three studies, with the mean concentrations of greater than 300 microg/L. The MoBa and Generation R women had higher mean concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) than the NHANES women. The estimated average daily intakes of BPA, chlorpyrifos/chlorpyrifos-methyl and phthalates in MoBa (and the other two studies) were below the RfDs and TDIs. The higher levels of metabolites in the MoBa participants may have been from intake via pesticide residues in food (organophosphates), consumption of canned food, especially fish/seafood (BPA), and use of personal care products (selected phthalates).

  10. Behind the Copenhagen façade. The meaning and structure of the Copenhagen political criterion of democracy and the rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an attempt to map the Copenhagen criterion of democracy and the rule of law, one of the main instruments governing the biggest enlargement in the Union history. The meaning of it, however, is still as vague today as it was more than ten years ago, at the time of introduction of the criterion. How should democracy and rule of law be interpreted in the context of enlargement? What exactly is required of the candidate countries in order to meet this criterion? Based on the analysis of the documents released by the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Council in the course of the application of the criteria and taking the experience of the previous enlargements into account, the paper outlines the core structure of the criterion and assesses the degree of change brought to the enlargement regulation by the conditionality policy applied by the Union. The paper concludes that the assessment of democracy and the rule of law criterion was not really full, consistent and impartial and that the threshold to meet this criterion was very low. As a result, the Commission failed to establish a link between the actual stage of reform in the candidate countries and the acknowledgement that the Copenhagen political criteria are met.

  11. Behind the Copenhagen façade. The meaning and structure of the Copenhagen political criterion of democracy and the rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Kochenov

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an attempt ‘to map’ the Copenhagen criterion of democracy and the rule of law, one of the main instruments governing the biggest enlargement in the Union history. The meaning of it, however, is still as vague today as it was more than ten years ago, at the time of introduction of the criterion. How should democracy and rule of law be interpreted in the context of enlargement? What exactly is required of the candidate countries in order to meet this criterion? Based on the analysis of the documents released by the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Council in the course of the application of the criteria and taking the experience of the previous enlargements into account, the paper outlines the core structure of the criterion and assesses the degree of change brought to the enlargement regulation by the conditionality policy applied by the Union. The paper concludes that the assessment of democracy and the rule of law criterion was not really full, consistent and impartial and that the threshold to meet this criterion was very low. As a result, the Commission failed to establish a link between the actual stage of reform in the candidate countries and the acknowledgement that the Copenhagen political criteria are met.

  12. Rapid Increase of Genetically Diverse Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Boye, Kit; Larsen, Anders Rhod

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates ...... and soft tissue infections dominated. CO-MRSA with diverse genetic backgrounds is rapidly emerging in a low MRSA prevalence area. Udgivelsesdato: October...

  13. Rapid increase of genetically diverse methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjaer; Boye, Kit; Rhod Larsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Copenhagen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an epidemic increase has been observed, with 33 MRSA cases in 2003 and 110 in 2004. We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates ...... and soft tissue infections dominated. CO-MRSA with diverse genetic backgrounds is rapidly emerging in a low MRSA prevalence area....

  14. Hepatitis A outbreak among MSM linked to casual sex and gay saunas in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazick, A; Howitz, Michael Frantz; Rex, S

    2005-01-01

    .2-26.9). Eleven of 18 cases and 14/62 controls had sex in gay saunas (ORMH 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.5). Sex at private homes appeared to be protective (ORMH 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Casual sex including sex in gay saunas was an important risk factor for the spread of HAV among MSM in Copenhagen. The results...

  15. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  16. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  17. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Economic aspects of global warming in a post-Copenhagen environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaus, William D.

    2010-01-01

    The science of global warming has reached a consensus on the high likelihood of substantial warming over the coming century. Nations have taken only limited steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the first agreement in Kyoto in 1997, and little progress was made at the Copenhagen meeting in December 2009. The present study examines alternative outcomes for emissions, climate change, and damages under different policy scenarios. It uses an updated version of the regional integrated model of climate and the economy (RICE model). Recent projections suggest that substantial future warming will occur if no abatement policies are implemented. The model also calculates the path of carbon prices necessary to keep the increase in global mean temperature to 2 °C or less in an efficient manner. The carbon price for 2010 associated with that goal is estimated to be $59 per ton (at 2005 prices), compared with an effective global average price today of around $5 per ton. However, it is unlikely that the Copenhagen temperature goal will be attained even if countries meet their ambitious stated objectives under the Copenhagen Accord. PMID:20547856

  19. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H.; Hansen, A.B.; Andersen, H.V.; Loefstroem, P.; Christensen, C.S. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark). Dept. of Atmospheric Environment; Lorenzen, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-05-01

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90{mu}gm{sup -3} for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene. (Author)

  20. Benzene exposure and the effect of traffic pollution in Copenhagen, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Henrik; Hansen, Asger B.; Lorenzen, Gitte; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Løfstrøm, Per; Christensen, Carsten S.

    Benzene is a carcinogenic compound, which is emitted from petrol-fuelled cars and thus is found ubiquitous in all cities. As part of the project Monitoring of Atmospheric Concentrations of Benzene in European Towns and Homes (MACBETH) six campaigns were carried out in the Municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark. The campaigns were distributed over 1 year. In each campaign, the personal exposure to benzene of 50 volunteers (non-smokers living in non-smoking families) living and working in Copenhagen was measured. Simultaneously, benzene was measured in their homes and in an urban network distributed over the municipality. The Radiello diffusive sampler was applied to sample 5 days averages of benzene and other hydrocarbons. Comparison of the results with those from a BTX-monitor showed excellent agreement. The exposure and the concentrations in homes and in the urban area were found to be close to log-normal distribution. The annual averages of the geometrical mean values were 5.22, 4.30 and 2.90 μg m -3 for personal exposure, home concentrations and urban concentrations, respectively. Two main parameters are controlling the general level of benzene in Copenhagen: firstly, the emission from traffic and secondly, dispersion due to wind speed. The general level of exposure to benzene and home concentrations of benzene were strongly correlated with the outdoor level of benzene, which indicated that traffic is an important source for indoor concentrations of benzene and for the exposure to benzene.

  1. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts...... investigating various hypotheses regarding CP aetiology are currently on-going. FUTURE PLANS: Additional data can be harmonised as necessary to meet requirements of new projects. Biological specimens collected during pregnancy and at delivery are potentially available for assay, as are results from assays...

  2. Comparison of the impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death in women versus men (The Copenhagen City Heart Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Scharling, Henrik; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a population-based cohort study. Using baseline data from 3 cohort examinations (1976 to 1978, 1981 to 1983, and 1991 to 1994), we analyzed the gender-specific effect of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the risk of stroke and cardiovascular death during 5 years......-morbidity, the effect of AF on the risk of stroke was 4.6-fold greater in women (hazard ratio 7.8, 95% confidence interval 5.8 to 14.3) than in men (hazard ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 3.0). Cardiovascular death occurred in 1,122 subjects, 63 of whom had AF (28 in women and 35 in men). The independent...... effect of AF on cardiovascular mortality rate was 2.5-fold greater in women (hazard ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 6.5) than in men (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 3.1). Our results indicate that AF is a much more pronounced risk factor for stroke and cardiovascular death...

  3. Disadvantaged children at greater relative risk of thinness (as well as obesity): a secondary data analysis of the England National Child Measurement Programme and the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Anna; Rougeaux, Emeline; Law, Catherine

    2015-08-05

    Young children living in more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances (SECs) are at an increased risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is scant research examining the prevalence and social distribution of thinness in early childhood, despite potential negative consequences for health and development across the life-course. We examined the social gradient in thinness (and overweight and obesity for comparison) for 2,620,422 four-to-five year olds attending state maintained primary schools from 2007/8 to 2011/12, in the England National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), and 16,715 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), born in 2000-2002, and measured at ages of three, five and seven. Children were classified as being thin, healthy weight (and, for completeness, overweight or obese) using international age and sex adjusted cut-offs for body mass index (BMI). Prevalences (and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) were estimated, overall, and according to SECs: area deprivation (NCMP, MCS); household income, and maternal social class and education (MCS only). Relative Risk Ratios (RRRs) and CIs for thinness, overweight and obesity were estimated in multinomial models by SECs (baseline healthy weight). In the MCS, standard errors were estimated using clustered sandwich estimators to account for repeated measures, and, for thinness, RRRs by SECs were also estimated adjusting for a range of early life characteristics. In 2007/8 to 2011/12, 5.20% of four-to-five year old girls (n = 66,584) and 5.88% of boys (78,934) in the NCMP were thin. In the MCS, the prevalence of thinness was 4.59% (693) at three, 4.21% (702) at five, and 5.84% (804) at seven years. In both studies, and for all measures of SECs, children from the most disadvantaged groups were more likely to be thin than those from the most advantaged groups. For example, MCS children whose mothers had no educational qualifications were fifty percent more likely to be thin (RRR 1.5 (CI: 1.24, 1

  4. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in early pregnancy. A cross-sectional study with data from the Copenhagen Pregnancy Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Langeland; Sørensen, Nina Olsén; Broberg, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    pregnancy. The overall proportion of women reporting binge drinking during early pregnancy was 35 % (n = 1,134). The following independent risk factors for binge drinking in early pregnancy were identified: lower degree of planned pregnancy, smoking and alcohol habits before pregnancy ((1 unit/weekly aOR 4......BACKGROUND: Since 2007 the Danish Health and Medicines Authority has advised total alcohol abstinence from the time of trying to conceive and throughout pregnancy. The prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant Danish women has nevertheless been reported to be up to 48 % during early pregnancy...... drinking in early pregnancy among women living in the capital of Denmark. Secondly to identify pre-pregnancy lifestyle and reproductive risk factors associated with binge drinking during early pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 at the Department of Obstetrics...

  5. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés;

    2014-01-01

    new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...

  6. Measuring the Potential of Local Green Growth – An Analysis of Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharpe, Samantha; Andersen, Maj Munch; Genoff, Rodin;

    . Early results show that Copenhagen is well advanced on the path to a green economy; however, building on recent achievements, more can be done to accelerate the transition and secure Copenhagen’s leadership position in green industries and foster a green way of life for its citizens.......This briefing note summarises preliminary findings from the first case study in an OECD project to develop indicators for the green transition which can be used at the local level1. This new framework is being tested in regions in five countries: Denmark, Belgium, Chile, Germany and Luxembourg...

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, KJ; Tolstrup, JS; Friberg, J;

    2005-01-01

    and incident atrial fibrillation among 16,415 women and men enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We ascertained use of beer, wine, and spirits individually at up to 3 study visits with a structured questionnaire. We identified cases of atrial fibrillation by routine study ECGs and a validated...... not attenuate the association (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, at least among men. This relationship does not appear to be related to the adverse effects of heavy drinking on coronary heart disease or blood...

  8. Life cycle assessment of three water systems in Copenhagen - A management tool of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Zambrano, K.C.; Trautner, A.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to evaluate three different water systems of the water sector in Copenhagen, Denmark, including technologies within water supply, facilities recycling water and treatment of sewer overflow. In these three water systems LCA was used to evaluate...... the environmental impacts of each of the processes involved. The overall conclusion was that LCA is suitable as a decision support tool in the water sector as it provides a holistic evaluation platform of the considered alternatives categorized in environmental impact categories. The use of LCA in the water sector...

  9. Modules in historic building construction according to the Copenhagen Building Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Anders; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of building works from Copenhagen, Denmark in the period 1850 to 1950. In the study we investigate, based on the theory of product architecture and product modularization, if examples of the use of well-defined interfaces can be found. Furthermore, the aim...... is to study how the use of such interfaces has influenced former building processes and how they were implemented and kept stable over decades. The result of the study is that at that time a number of standardized interfaces between the individual parts of the building work existed, and that these interfaces......, and arrangements / agreements between the individual professional groups....

  10. Assessing public leadership styles for innovation: A comparison of Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans; Lewis, Jenny M.

    2016-01-01

    of these proved to be more robust than others. Analysis of the three cities reveals a nuanced set of leadership styles, which include a transformational style, and one that is more dedicated to motivating employees, risk-taking and including others in decision-making. This suggests the need for more research......This article explores which leadership qualities public managers regard as important for public innovation. It is based on a survey of 365 senior public managers in Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona. Five perspectives on leadership were identified and tested using a number of items. Some...... on leadership and public-sector innovation....

  11. Assessing public leadership styles for innovation: A comparison of Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot; Lewis, Jenny M; Klijn, Erik Hans

    2017-01-01

    of these proved to be more robust than others. Analysis of the three cities reveals a nuanced set of leadership styles, which include a transformational style, and one that is more dedicated to motivating employees, risk-taking and including others in decision-making. This suggests the need for more research......This article explores which leadership qualities public managers regard as important for public innovation. It is based on a survey of 365 senior public managers in Copenhagen, Rotterdam and Barcelona. Five perspectives on leadership were identified and tested using a number of items. Some...... on leadership and public-sector innovation...

  12. Ambient particle source apportionment and daily hospital admissions among children and elderly in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wahlin, P.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    period (01 January 1999 to 31 December 2004), we examined associations between urban background PM(10) in the presence of gaseous pollutants (CO, NO(2)) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory disease in the elderly (age>/=65), and asthma in children (age 5-18) in Copenhagen......, influenza epidemics, grass pollen, school holidays, and meteorology, with up to 5 days lagged air pollution exposure. We found positive associations between PM(10) and the three health outcomes, with strongest associations for asthma. The PM(10) effect remained robust in the presence of CO and NO(2). We...

  13. Comparative environmental and economic assessment of production, use and recycling of aluminium cans: Bologna vs Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princigallo, Raffaele; Visini, Davide; Bonoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    in the integrated LCA -LCC analysis. The comparative analysis of aluminium cans production, use, collection and recycling in the two systems showed that the best option from an environmental point of view is also leading to higher costs and trade - offs need to be considered in the decision making process....... and Copenhagen. We performed a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) analysis of the purchasing, production and wa ste management of beer aluminium cans, with the aim to compare the environmental and economic performances of the two systems and to identify potential misalignment...

  14. Evaluation of two stormwater infiltration trenches in central Copenhagen after 15 years of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Maria Kerstin; Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Petersen, Mette Fjendbo;

    2011-01-01

    Two stormwater infiltration trenches were installed in 1993 in an area in central Copenhagen. The system was monitored continuously for almost three years after establishment, and a small reduction in performance over that time, possibly due to clogging, was noted. A new study was conducted in 2009...... to see whether the reduction in performance has continued and to determine how the system performs today. Water levels in the trenches were monitored for almost 4 months, and from this period seven events were selected to analyse the infiltration rate. A comparison with similar analyses on storm...... factors to consider when implementing stormwater infiltration trenches. © IWA Publishing 2011....

  15. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  16. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    ,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... of their inherent complexity and challenges. In particular, choice set generation and modeling route choice behavior while accounting for similarity across alternatives and heterogeneity across travelers are non-trivial challenges. This paper tackles these challenges by focusing on the revealed preferences of 5...

  17. The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted: the benefits from EU railway benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara; Landex, Alex; Schneider-Tilli, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    . “The New Line Copenhagen-Ringsted” project being developed by Rail Net Denmark will be the first high-speed railway line in Denmark with a total budget of EUR 1.10 billion. The focus is on avoiding a budget overrun and on therefore looking for ways of reducing project costs. We have conducted...... a benchmark study of other similar high-speed railway lines in Europe. France, Italy, and Spain have long and productive experience in constructing and operating high-speed railway lines. Investigating their best practices brings valuable knowledge to the project. This paper presents the data we gathered...

  18. Designed technological systems: the cases of urban transportation in Copenhagen and Bogotá

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    accomplished in two different parts of the planet: in the city of Bogotá, in Colombia, the first mass bus rapid transit system was designed, built and put into operation becoming the most visible icon of a great urban transformation of the 7 million inhabitants metropolis; in the city of Copenhagen, in Denmark...... is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences in the life of cities and citizens. Thus a problem that is often outlined in technical terms...

  19. Façade system for existing office buildings in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates solutions for facade renovation of general office buildings built between 1960 and 1980 in the Copenhagen Municipality. 44 buildings are used for the study. They share common structural and construction principles like the use of beams and columns and prefabricated elements....... The problems that face these buildings are a high number of overheating hours and high heating consumption. Four strategies are tested for the renovation: external re-insulation, double-skin facade (existing inner facade), double-skin facade (new inner facade) and curtain wall. External re...

  20. Gentrification-Gentle or Traumatic? Urban Renewal Policies and Socioeconomic Transformations in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon; Lund Hansen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This article contrasts the intentions and outcomes of the publicly instigated and supported urban renewal of Copenhagen's Inner Vesterbro district. Apart from physically upgrading the decaying buildings, the municipality's aim was to include the inhabitants in the urban renewal process and, seemi...... that characterised Vesterbro before the urban renewal. This process may appear ‘gentle', but it is nonetheless an example of how state and market interact to produce gentrification with ‘traumatic' consequences for individuals and the city as a socially just space.  ...

  1. A Mosque event: Opening of a purpose-built mosque in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten; Neergaard, Maja de

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the opening of a purpose-built mosque in Copenhagen, Denmark, treating it as a case of cross-cultural encounters in urban public space. The encounters explored in this paper take a specific form. They are mediated through the architecture and materiality of the mosque and the s...... the visibility of Islam in public space push to the extremes stereotypical imaginations and islamophobic feelings. At the same time, however, they bring together different groups in unprecedented ways and create new constellations over political, religious and cultural boundaries....

  2. Darwinism and cultural struggles in rural Askov and metropolitan Copenhagen in nineteenth-century Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermitslev, Hans Henrik

    of students and artists assembled around Brandes in the capital of Copenhagen - the only Danish city hosting a university in the late nineteenth century - and used Darwinism in their cultural struggle against what they regarded as reactionary Christian and conservative values which dominated in the country......, around 1900 as Darwinism was widely criticized in scientific circles, a young generation of Grundtvigians transformed evolutionary theory into ‘safe science' and made it a legitimate subject at several folk high schools in the country. This paper argues that the cultural differences between metropolitan...

  3. Road Charging in Copenhagen: A Comparative Study of the GPS Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabic, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents results from a comparative study on the GPS performance based on experiments carried out in Copenhagen, Denmark in both 2003 and 2008. GPS data from 40 vehicles were collected to re-evaluate the GPS performance in a Danish environment and thereby assess the level of performance...... improvement obtainable after 5 years. The performance assessment addresses the subjects of satellite visibility and positioning quality and results from the two experiments are compared respectively. The results of this assessment show that the satellite visibility and positioning quality have improved...

  4. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  5. Ethnic Inequalities in Overweight and Obesity Prevalence among Copenhagen Schoolchildren from 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Corfitzen Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stabilization in levels of childhood overweight has masked increasing gaps among different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in several countries. Objective: To examine if levels and trends in childhood overweight and obesity differed by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas in Copenhagen schoolchildren. Methods: From measured heights and weights of 32,951 children 5-8 and 14-16 years of age, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity and obesity were estimated using International Obesity Task Force criteria. Differences in prevalence levels and trends across six school years by ethnicity and socioeconomic areas were examined using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of overweight significantly decreased from 2002 to 2007 among the youngest Western girls and boys, showed no significant changes among the oldest non-Western girls and increased among the oldest non-Western boys. In all years, the youngest non-Western children had significantly higher levels of overweight than Western children. Although the prevalence of overweight tended to be higher in low socioeconomic areas as compared with high socioeconomic areas, few differences were statistically significant. Consistent trends in overweight across the years by socioeconomic area were not observed. Conclusion: Ethnic and social inequalities exist in childhood overweight among Copenhagen schoolchildren; thus appropriate interventions targeting high-risk groups are needed

  6. Thinking Copenhagen: The Cognitive Dimension of Climate Change Policy Making In Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Langevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making in Brazil and the United States as both countries prepare for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP15 in Copenhagen. The comparative policy analysis is framed by Putnam (1988 and informed by Bazerman (2009, but adapted to explore the cognitive expressions of policymaking through investigation of public opinion, newspaper coverage, and policymaker statements. The analysis reveals key differences in the ways that Brazilian and U.S. citizens, journalists, and policymakers understand global warming and climate change and think through the policy alternatives for addressing this global challenge through national policy and international negotiations. Brazil’s cognitive dimension provides its negotiators with a wide range of strategic positions, allowing this country to play the role of dealmaker. The U.S. administration arrives at Copenhagen with a narrow win-set, limited by the discordant and divisive cognitive expressions that surround policymaking. These differences limit bilateral cooperation and complicate the COP15 negotiations.

  7. PCN-index derivation at World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Copenhagen, DTU Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, C.; Matzka, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap North (PCN) index is based on a correlation between geomagnetic disturbances at the Qaanaaq geomagnetic observatory (IAGA code THL) and the merging electric field derived from solar wind parameters. The index is therefore meant to provide a fast ground based single station indicator for variations in the merging electric field without being dependent on satellite observations. The PC index will be subject to an IAGA endorsement process during IAGA Scientific Assembly 2013. Actually the WDC provides near real time PC-indices and post-processed final PC-indices based on former developed algorithms. However, the coefficients used for calculating the PCN distributed by the WDC Copenhagen are presently not reproducible. In the frame of the IAGA endorsement, DTU Space tests new coefficients mainly based on published algorithms. This presentation will report on activities at the WDC Copenhagen and on the current status at DTU Space with respect to the preparation for the IAGA endorsement process of the PCN-index.

  8. Results and experiences from combined LCA and economical assessment of New Collection Scheme in the City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick; Appelqvist, Björn; Carlsen, Iben

    2006-01-01

    in the City of Copenhagen. It was chosen to conduct the collection of the two fractions together with recyclable glass in the existing publicly placed bottle banks. Originally, the bottle banks were used only for collection of household glass. The aim of the evaluation was to conduct a state of the art......  During 2005 an evaluation of a large scale experiment on a new collection scheme in the City of Copenhagen was conducted. The experiment conducted was aiming towards investigating the efficiency and environmental sustainability for collecting single use beverage containers of plastic and metal...

  9. When zoo became nature. Copenhagen zoo and perceptions of animals and nature around 1900. I: Tidsskrift for Kulturforskning (NORSK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerløff, Anne Katrine

    2010-01-01

    This article points out central historical themes in the debates and arguments given by the directors of Copenhagen Zoo for the zoo as an alternative to nature. When Copenhagen Zoo was founded in 1859, itsn purpose was divided equally between entertainment, enlightenment and symbolizing the glory...... of the Danish capital. During this period though, it also became possible for the Zoo to stage itself as a kinder place for animals, than "real" nature. In the early 20th century, the Zoo attracted attention from animal rights movements, wherefore the debates came to be structured around two radically different...

  10. Results and experiences from combined LCA and economical assessment of New Collection Scheme in the City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick; Appelqvist, Björn; Carlsen, Iben

    2006-01-01

    in the City of Copenhagen. It was chosen to conduct the collection of the two fractions together with recyclable glass in the existing publicly placed bottle banks. Originally, the bottle banks were used only for collection of household glass. The aim of the evaluation was to conduct a state of the art......  During 2005 an evaluation of a large scale experiment on a new collection scheme in the City of Copenhagen was conducted. The experiment conducted was aiming towards investigating the efficiency and environmental sustainability for collecting single use beverage containers of plastic and metal...

  11. Association of chronic mucus hypersecretion with FEV1 decline and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morbidity. Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Prescott, E; Lange, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age with ass......The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic mucus hypersecretion, and FEV1 decline, and subsequent hospitalization from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from The Copenhagen City Heart Study on 5,354 women and 4,081 men 30 to 79 yr of age...

  12. Challenges and perspectives in Service Design curricula. The case of the Service Systems Design Master of Aalborg University in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Morelli, Nicola; Grani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters will be d......In this paper the new Master program on Service Systems Design at Aalborg University in Copenhagen will be presented, focusing on the challenges of building such a curriculum and on its peculiar approach to Service Design through the Problem Based Learning methodology. All the semesters...

  13. Monitoring meticillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and its spread in Copenhagen, Denmark, 2013, through routine whole genome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, M D; Larner-Svensson, H; Meiniche, H

    2015-01-01

    in Copenhagen in the first five months of 2013. Moreover, because MRSA of staphylococcal protein A (spa)-type 304 (t304), sequence type (ST) 6 had been associated with a continuous neonatal ward outbreak in Copenhagen starting in 2011, 41 t304 isolates collected in the city between 2010 and 2012 were also...

  14. Diabetes, diabetes treatment, and mammographic density in Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschard, Karsten; Thomassen, Katrin; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2017-01-01

    /dense breasts (2.08; 0.68-6.35). There was no effect modification of these associations by menopausal status or BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Having diabetes controlled by diet or oral antidiabetic agents is associated with a decrease in MD, whereas taking insulin is associated with an increase in MD.......PURPOSE: We examined whether diabetes and diabetes treatment are associated with MD in a cohort study of Danish women above age of 50 years. METHODS: Study cohort consisted of 5,644 women (4,500 postmenopausal) who participated in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort (1993......-1997) and subsequently attended mammographic screening in Copenhagen (1993-2001). We used MD assessed at the first screening after the cohort entry, defined as mixed/dense or fatty. Diabetes diagnoses and diabetes treatments (diet, insulin, or oral antidiabetic agents) were self-reported at the time of recruitment (1993...

  15. Cohort description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains...... a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors, delimitate the pathogenic pathways, and explore the consequences of FSS. The study population comprises a random sample of 9,656 men and women aged 18...

  16. Short and long term effects of the Copenhagen school child intervention study (CoSCIS) on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten

    13.35 yr in 7th grade). BMI, sum of 4 skinfolds (S4SF) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. PA was measured using CSA accelerometers for four consecutive days. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) was directly measured during a maximal progressive running test on a treadmill. Fasting intravenous blood...

  17. Short and long term effects of the Copenhagen school child intervention study (CoSCIS) on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca El-Naaman; Froberg, Karsten

    13.35 yr in 7th grade). BMI, sum of 4 skinfolds (S4SF) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were measured. PA was measured using CSA accelerometers for four consecutive days. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) was directly measured during a maximal progressive running test on a treadmill. Fasting intravenous blood...... to CG-boys. There were no differences between groups in VO2max or PA at any time point. Our results suggest that school-based intervention might have an effect on CVD risk factors even without measurable changes in fitness and fatness. Funded by The Danish Heart Foundation and The Denmark...

  18. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region with reference studies from Europe and the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  19. Application of the Copenhagen Soccer Test in high-level women players - locomotor activities, physiological response and sprint performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Pettersen, Svein Arne; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological response, sprint performance and technical ability in various phases of the Copenhagen Soccer Test for Women (CSTw) and investigated whether the locomotor activities of the CSTw were comparable to competitive match-play (CM). Physiological measurements and physical/...

  20. Applying the “WSUD potential”-tool in the framework of the Copenhagen Climate Adaptation and Cloudburst Management Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerer, Sara Maria; Madsen, Herle Mo; Smit Andersen, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) is still in the “Opportunity”-phase of its stabilization process in Copenhagen, Denmark, indicating that there are controversies surrounding its proper use and the regulatory framework is not completely adapted to the new technology. In 2015 private land owners...