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Sample records for cope lbp trial

  1. The effectiveness of a stratified group intervention using the STarTBack screening tool in patients with LBP--a non randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Susan E; Blake, Catherine; Power, Camillus K; Fullen, Brona M

    2013-12-05

    Low back pain (LBP) is costly to society and improving patient outcomes is a priority. Stratifying LBP patients into more homogenous groups is advocated to improve patient outcome. The STarT Back tool, a prognostic screening tool has demonstrated efficacy and greater cost effectiveness in physiotherapy settings. The management of LBP patients in groups is common but to date the utility of the STarT Back tool in group settings has not been explored. The aim of this study is to determine if the implementation of 'stratified care' when delivered in a group setting will lead to significantly better physical and psychological outcomes and greater cost effectiveness in LBP patients compared to a bestcare historical control group. This study is a non randomised controlled trial. Low back pain patients recruited from the Waterford Primary Care area (population = 47,000) will be stratified into low, medium or high risk of persisting symptoms using the STarT Back Tool. Low risk patients will be offered a single one off education/exercise class offering positive messages on LBP management in line with recommended guidelines. Medium risk patients will be offered a 12 week group exercise/education intervention addressing their dominant physical obstacles to recovery. A 12 week group cognitive behavioural approach will be delivered to the high risk patients, characterised by the presence of high levels of psychosocial prognostic factors. These patients will be compared with a historical control group where therapists were blinded as to the risk stratification of patients and a generic group intervention was delivered to all patients, irrespective of their initial risk stratification. The primary outcome measure will be disability (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). Secondary outcomes will include back pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), distress (Distress and Risk Assessment Method), back beliefs (Back Beliefs Questionnaire), health status (Euroqol), global benefit (7

  2. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP. A pragmatic, randomised trial with a one-year follow-up

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    Korsholm Lars

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP, activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs, physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients. Methods The study was a pragmatic, single-blind, randomised, parallel-group trial. Patients with chronic/recurrent LBP were randomised to one of the following treatments: 1. Educational programme : the emphasis was on creating confidence that the back is strong, that loads normally do not cause any damage despite occasional temporary pain, that reducing the focus on the pain might facilitate more natural and less painful movements, and that it is beneficial to stay physically active. 2. Individual symptom-based physical training programme : directional-preference exercises for those centralising their pain with repetitive movements; 'stabilising exercises' for those deemed 'unstable' based on specific tests; or intensive dynamic exercises for the remaining patients. Follow-up questionnaires (examiner-blinded were completed at 2, 6 and 12 months. The main statistical test was an ANCOVA adjusted for baseline values. Results A total of 207 patients participated with the median age of 39 years (IQR 33-47; 52% were female, 105 were randomised to the educational programme and 102 to the physical training programme. The two groups were comparable at baseline. For the primary outcome measures, there was a non-significant trend towards activity limitation being reduced mostly in the educational programme group, although of doubtful clinical relevance. Regarding secondary outcomes, improvement in

  3. Evidence of physiotherapeutic interventions for acute LBP patients

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    Q. Louw

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the current evidence for acute low back pain (LBP treatment techniques and to amalgamate this information into a clinically applicable algorithm for South African physiotherapists.Study design: Systematic review.Methods: Computerized bibliographical databases were systematically searched during September 2006 and October 2006 for primary and secondary research reporting on the efficacy of various physiotherapeutic treatment techniques for acute LBP. A search for clinical guidelines regarding acute LBP was also undertaken. Evidence levels were allocated to the primary and secondary research retrieved. Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews, four randomized controlled trials and eleven clinical guidelines were included in this review. There is Level 1 evidence that advice to stay active, McKenzie preferential exercises and spinal manipulative therapy (up to six weeks is beneficial in the initial treatment of acute LBP. There is level 2 evidence that stability exercises, dry needling, heat wrap with exercises, cognitive behavioural therapy, printed patient education, massage (with education and exercises, and lifestyle modification might be potentially beneficial in the treatment of acute LBP. There is level 1 evidence that bed rest should not be recommended for simple acute LBP.  Should a patient not resolve in six weeks, red and yellow flags should be re-assessed, or patient should be referred to a specialist. Outcome: Based on the current evidence, a composite algorithm was developed to assist South African physiotherapists when making treatment decisions for acute LBP. Conclusion: There seems to be a lack of evidence for the efficacy of common treatment techniques used by physiotherapists in the management of acute LBP, indicating an urgent need for physiotherapy-specific, high-quality clinical trials. It is suggested that the evidence-based algorithm that has been developed, be used in the management of acute LBP to

  4. Recruitment and Reasons for Non-Participation in a Family-Coping-Orientated Palliative Home Care Trial (FamCope)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammari, Anne Birgitte Hjuler; Hendriksen, Carsten; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    professionals. However, an unexpectedly high number of families declined participation in the trial. We describe and discuss the recruitment strategy and patient reported reasons for non-participation to add to the knowledge about what impedes recruitment and to identify the factors that influence willingness...... to participate in research aimed at family coping early in the palliative care trajectory. Patients with advanced cancer and their closest relative were recruited from medical, surgical, and oncological departments. Reasons for non-participation were registered and characteristics of participants and non...... to affect willingness to receive a family-coping-orientated care approach and impeded recruitment to this trial. Our findings can be used in further research and in clinical practice in order to construct interventions and target relevant populations for early family-coping-orientated palliative care....

  5. Study protocol: Improving patient choice in treating low back pain (IMPACT - LBP: A randomised controlled trial of a decision support package for use in physical therapy

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    Tysall Colin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain is a common and costly condition. There are several treatment options for people suffering from back pain, but there are few data on how to improve patients' treatment choices. This study will test the effects of a decision support package (DSP, designed to help patients seeking care for back pain to make better, more informed choices about their treatment within a physiotherapy department. The package will be designed to assist both therapist and patient. Methods/Design Firstly, in collaboration with physiotherapists, patients and experts in the field of decision support and decision aids, we will develop the DSP. The work will include: a literature and evidence review; secondary analysis of existing qualitative data; exploration of patients' perspectives through focus groups and exploration of experts' perspectives using a nominal group technique and a Delphi study. Secondly, we will carry out a pilot single centre randomised controlled trial within NHS Coventry Community Physiotherapy. We will randomise physiotherapists to receive either training for the DSP or not. We will randomly allocate patients seeking treatment for non specific low back pain to either a physiotherapist trained in decision support or to receive usual care. Our primary outcome measure will be patient satisfaction with treatment at three month follow-up. We will also estimate the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, and assess the value of conducting further research. Discussion Informed shared decision-making should be an important part of any clinical consultation, particularly when there are several treatments, which potentially have moderate effects. The results of this pilot will help us determine the benefits of improving the decision-making process in clinical practice on patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46035546

  6. Association between sitting and occupational LBP.

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    Lis, Angela Maria; Black, Katia M; Korn, Hayley; Nordin, Margareta

    2007-02-01

    Low back pain (LBP) has been identified as one of the most costly disorders among the worldwide working population. Sitting has been associated with risk of developing LBP. The purpose of this literature review is to assemble and describe evidence of research on the association between sitting and the presence of LBP. The systematic literature review was restricted to those occupations that require sitting for more than half of working time and where workers have physical co-exposure factors such as whole body vibration (WBV) and/or awkward postures. Twenty-five studies were carefully selected and critically reviewed, and a model was developed to describe the relationships between these factors. Sitting alone was not associated with the risk of developing LBP. However, when the co-exposure factors of WBV and awkward postures were added to the analysis, the risk of LBP increased fourfold. The occupational group that showed the strongest association with LBP was Helicopter Pilots (OR=9.0, 90% CI 4.9-16.4). For all studied occupations, the odds ratio (OR) increased when WBV and/or awkward postures were analyzed as co-exposure factors. WBV while sitting was also independently associated with non-specific LBP and sciatica. Vibration dose, as well as vibration magnitude and duration of exposure, were associated with LBP in all occupations. Exposure duration was associated with LBP to a greater extent than vibration magnitude. However, for the presence of sciatica, this difference was not found. Awkward posture was also independently associated with the presence of LBP and/or sciatica. The risk effect of prolonged sitting increased significantly when the factors of WBV and awkward postures were combined. Sitting by itself does not increase the risk of LBP. However, sitting for more than half a workday, in combination with WBV and/or awkward postures, does increase the likelihood of having LBP and/or sciatica, and it is the combination of those risk factors, which leads to

  7. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based training in chronic LBP. A pragmatic, randomised trial with a one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia Havn; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    -injury model with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients. Methods: The study was a pragmatic, single...... the focus on the pain might facilitate more natural and less painful movements, and that it is beneficial to stay physically active. 2. Individual symptom-based physical training programme : directionalpreference exercises for those centralising their pain with repetitive movements; ‘stabilising exercises......’ for those deemed ‘unstable’ based on specific tests; or intensive dynamic exercises for the remaining patients. Follow-up questionnaires (examiner-blinded) were completed at 2, 6 and 12 months. The main statistical test was an ANCOVA adjusted for baseline values. Results: A total of 207 patients...

  8. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with Undergraduate University Students

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    Houston, J. Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L.; Sorenson, Mary E.; Mills-Sandoval, Toby; Lockett, McKenzie; First, Nathan L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Allen, Sandra F.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with college students. Participants: College students (aged 18-23) from a large Midwest US university who volunteered for a randomized controlled trial during the 2015 spring semester. Methods: College students were randomly assigned to an…

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with Undergraduate University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L.; Sorenson, Mary E.; Mills-Sandoval, Toby; Lockett, McKenzie; First, Nathan L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Allen, Sandra F.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with college students. Participants: College students (aged 18-23) from a large Midwest US university who volunteered for a randomized controlled trial during the 2015 spring semester. Methods: College students were randomly assigned to an…

  10. Altruism--a coping mechanism for patients on clinical trials: a nursing perspective.

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    Sanders, Judith Brown; Seda, Julie S; Kardinal, Carl G

    2013-10-01

    Altruism often is expressed by patients with advanced cancer as a coping mechanism and a motivational factor for participation in clinical trials. Those who participate develop a sense of hope that their life is a contribution, which may continue to live beyond their deaths.

  11. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1373512 Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complex....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complex...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma

  12. Real-time robust face recognition using weight-incorporated LBP

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    Jeng, Ren-He; Chen, Wen-Shiung; Hsieh, Lili

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new texture descriptor based on the extraction of image representation which is the selection of weights assigned to input and output of local binary patterns in determining the efficiency of each feature, called weight-incorporated local binary pattern (WiLBP), is developed for image representation. By using averaged gradients information, the principal components of a covariance matrix are derived to obtain an adjusted principal components of a maximum variance matrix, namely quantized eigen-analysis (QEA). The QEA matrix is a weight matrix used to adjust the contribution of comparisons of pixel intensities. To evaluate the performance of the WiLBP, a series of experiments was tested on some popular face databases. The misclassification error obtained by the QEA across most trials is lower than that of the PCA. The experimental results also show that the WiLBP is a fast and robust method in individual recognition and gender classification applications.

  13. VIDEO SEGMENTATION USING A NOVEL LBP DESCRIPTOR

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    Zhongkun He

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Video segmentation is the basis for content-based video retrieval, object recognition, object tracking, and video compression. This paper proposes a kind of novel and easy spatial-temporal LBP coding method, using the spatial-temporal 2 × 2 × 2 neighborhood clique to encode the changes in a video. Based on the coding method, a scheme of video segmentation is developed. Compared to the traditional segmentation method, its distinguished advantage is that it does not need to construct the background model and is simple in computation. Experimental results indicate that this new algorithm can give satisfying segmentation results.

  14. Coping with Trial-to-Trial Variability of Event Related Signals: A Bayesian Inference Approach

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    Ding, Mingzhou; Chen, Youghong; Knuth, Kevin H.; Bressler, Steven L.; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    In electro-neurophysiology, single-trial brain responses to a sensory stimulus or a motor act are commonly assumed to result from the linear superposition of a stereotypic event-related signal (e.g. the event-related potential or ERP) that is invariant across trials and some ongoing brain activity often referred to as noise. To extract the signal, one performs an ensemble average of the brain responses over many identical trials to attenuate the noise. To date, h s simple signal-plus-noise (SPN) model has been the dominant approach in cognitive neuroscience. Mounting empirical evidence has shown that the assumptions underlying this model may be overly simplistic. More realistic models have been proposed that account for the trial-to-trial variability of the event-related signal as well as the possibility of multiple differentially varying components within a given ERP waveform. The variable-signal-plus-noise (VSPN) model, which has been demonstrated to provide the foundation for separation and characterization of multiple differentially varying components, has the potential to provide a rich source of information for questions related to neural functions that complement the SPN model. Thus, being able to estimate the amplitude and latency of each ERP component on a trial-by-trial basis provides a critical link between the perceived benefits of the VSPN model and its many concrete applications. In this paper we describe a Bayesian approach to deal with this issue and the resulting strategy is referred to as the differentially Variable Component Analysis (dVCA). We compare the performance of dVCA on simulated data with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and analyze neurobiological recordings from monkeys performing cognitive tasks.

  15. Coping strategies as a mediator of internet-delivered psychosocial treatment: Secondary analysis from a NIDA CTN multisite effectiveness trial.

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    Lévesque, Annie; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Walker, Robrina; McClure, Erin A; Ghitza, Udi E; Bailey, Genie; Stitzer, Maxine; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-02-01

    Coping strategies are a predictor of abstinence among patients with substance use disorders. However, little is known regarding the role of coping strategies in the effectiveness of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Using data from a 12week randomized control trial assessing the effectiveness of the Therapeutic Education System (TES), an internet-delivered version of the CRA combined with contingency management, we tested the role of coping strategies as a mediator of treatment effectiveness. 507 participants entering 10 outpatient addiction treatment programs received either treatment-as-usual (TAU), a counselor-delivered treatment (Arm 1), or reduced TAU plus TES wherein 2h of TAU per week were replaced by TES (Arm 2). Abstinence from drugs and alcohol was evaluated using urine toxicology and self-report. Coping strategies were measured using the Coping Strategies Scale-Brief Version. Mediation analyses were done following Baron and Kenny's and path analysis approaches. The average baseline coping strategies scores were not significantly different between the two treatment arms. Overall, TES intervention was significantly associated with higher coping strategies scores when accounting for baseline scores (F1,1342=8.3, p=0.004). Additionally, higher coping strategies scores at week 12 were associated with an increased likelihood of abstinence during the last 4weeks of the treatment, while accounting for treatment assignment and baseline abstinence. The effect of TES intervention on abstinence was no longer significant after controlling for coping strategies scores at week 12. Our results support the importance of coping skills as a partial mediator of the effectiveness of an internet-version of the CRA combined with contingency management. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Rationale, design, and protocol for the prevention of low back pain in the military (POLM trial (NCT00373009

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    Dugan Jessica L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few effective strategies reported for the primary prevention of low back pain (LBP. Core stabilization exercises targeting the deep abdominal and trunk musculature and psychosocial education programs addressing patient beliefs and coping styles represent the current best evidence for secondary prevention of low back pain. However, these programs have not been widely tested to determine if they are effective at preventing the primary onset and/or severity of LBP. The purpose of this cluster randomized clinical trial is to determine if a combined core stabilization exercise and education program is effective in preventing the onset and/or severity of LBP. The effect of the combined program will be compared to three other standard programs. Methods/Design Consecutive Soldiers participating in advanced individual training (AIT will be screened for eligibility requirements and consented to study participation, as appropriate. Companies of Soldiers will be randomly assigned to receive the following standard prevention programs; a core stabilization exercise program (CSEP alone, a CSEP with a psychosocial education (PSEP, a traditional exercise (TEP, or a TEP with a PSEP. Proximal outcome measures will be assessed at the conclusion of AIT (a 12 week training period and include imaging of deep lumbar musculature using real-time ultrasound imaging and beliefs about LBP by self-report questionnaire. We are hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the CSEP will have improved thickness of selected deep lumbar musculature (transversus abdominus, multifidi, and erector spinae muscles. We are also hypothesizing that Soldiers receiving the PSEP will have improved beliefs about the management of LBP. After AIT, Soldiers will be followed monthly to measure the distal outcomes of LBP occurrence and severity. This information will be collected during the subsequent 2 years following completion of AIT using a web-based data entry system

  17. Problem-Solving Therapy During Outpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Improves Coping and Health-Related Quality of Life: Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Visser, Marieke M; Heijenbrok-Kal, Majanka H; Van't Spijker, Adriaan; Lannoo, Engelien; Busschbach, Jan J V; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-solving therapy (PST) is an effective group intervention for improving coping strategy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with stroke. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, the intervention group received PST as add-on to standard outpatient rehabilitation, the control group received outpatient rehabilitation only. Measurements were performed at baseline, directly after the intervention, and 6 and 12 months later. Data were analyzed using linear-mixed models. Primary outcomes were task-oriented coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and psychosocial HRQoL as measured by the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale. Secondary outcomes were the EuroQol EQ-5D-5L utility score, emotion-oriented and avoidant coping as measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, problem-solving skills as measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Included were 166 patients with stroke, mean age 53.06 years (SD, 10.19), 53% men, median time poststroke 7.29 months (interquartile range, 4.90-10.61 months). Six months post intervention, the PST group showed significant improvement when compared with the control group in task-oriented coping (P=0.008), but not stroke-specific psychosocial HRQoL. Furthermore, avoidant coping (P=0.039) and the utility value for general HRQoL (P=0.034) improved more in the PST group than in the control after 6 months. PST seems to improve task-oriented coping but not disease-specific psychosocial HRQoL after stroke >6-month follow-up. Furthermore, we found indications that PST may improve generic HRQoL recovery and avoidant coping. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2509. Unique identifier: CNTR2509. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Understanding how coping strategies and quality of life maintain hope in patients deliberating phase I trial participation.

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    van der Biessen, Diane A; van der Helm, Peer G; Klein, Dennis; van der Burg, Simone; Mathijssen, Ron H; Lolkema, Martijn P; de Jonge, Maja J

    2017-06-30

    This study aimed to understand how hope and motivation of patients considering phase I trial participation are affected by psychological factors such as coping strategies and locus of control (LoC) and general well-being as measured by the quality of life (QoL). An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed in patients with incurable cancer (N = 135) referred to our phase I unit for the first time. Patients were potentially eligible for phase I trial participation and participated in our study while deliberating phase I trial participation. We used questionnaires on hope, motivation to participate, coping, LoC, and QoL. To investigate the nature and magnitude of the relationships between the scales, a structural equation modeling (SEM) was fitted to the data. Hope significantly predicted the motivation to participate in phase I trials. Predictors of hope were a combination of flexible and tenacious goal pursuit (both P phase I trial participation seem to use a pact of tenacious and flexible coping and control to stay hopeful. Furthermore, hope and QoL positively affected each other. The psychological pact may promote an adaptation enabling them to adjust to difficult circumstances by unconsciously ignoring information, called dissonance reduction. This mechanism may impair their ability to provide a valid informed consent. We suggest including a systematic exploration of patients' social context and values before proposing a phase I trial. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A Virtual Hope Box: Randomized Controlled Trial of a Smartphone App for Emotional Regulation and Coping With Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nigel E; Smolenski, Derek J; Denneson, Lauren M; Williams, Holly B; Thomas, Elissa K; Dobscha, Steven K

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the Virtual Hope Box (VHB), a smartphone app to improve stress coping skills, suicidal ideation, and perceived reasons for living among patients at elevated risk of suicide and self-harm. The authors conducted a parallel-group randomized controlled trial with two groups of U.S. service veterans in active mental health treatment who had recently expressed suicidal ideation. Between March 2014 and April 2015, 118 patients were enrolled in the study. Participants were assigned to use the VHB (N=58) or to a control group that received printed materials about coping with suicidality (N=60) to supplement treatment as usual over a 12-week period. Three measures-the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, and Brief Reasons for Living Inventory-were collected at baseline (before randomization) and three, six, and 12 weeks. Secondary measures-the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale-were collected at baseline and 12 weeks. VHB users reported significantly greater ability to cope with unpleasant emotions and thoughts (Coping Self-Efficacy Scale) at three (b=2.41, 95% confidence interval [CI]=.29-4.55) and 12 weeks (b=2.99, 95% CI=.08-5.90) compared with the control group. No significant advantage was found on other outcome measures for treatment augmented by the VHB. The VHB is a demonstrably useful accessory to treatment-an easily accessible tool that can increase stress coping skills. Because the app is easily disseminated across a large population, it is likely to have broad, positive utility in behavioral health care.

  20. A Small Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial Comparing Mobile and Traditional Pain Coping Skills Training Protocols for Cancer Patients with Pain

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    Tamara J. Somers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial pain management interventions are efficacious for cancer pain but are underutilized. Recent advances in mobile health (mHealth technologies provide new opportunities to decrease barriers to access psychosocial pain management interventions. The objective of this study was to gain information about the accessibility and efficacy of mobile pain coping skills training (mPCST intervention delivered to cancer patients with pain compared to traditional in-person pain coping skills training intervention. This study randomly assigned participants (N=30 to receive either mobile health pain coping skills training intervention delivered via Skype or traditional pain coping skills training delivered face-to-face (PCST-trad. This pilot trial suggests that mPCST is feasible, presents low burden to patients, may lead to high patient engagement, and appears to be acceptable to patients. Cancer patients with pain in the mPCST group reported decreases in pain severity and physical symptoms as well as increases in self-efficacy for pain management that were comparable to changes in the PCST-trad group (p’s < 0.05. These findings suggest that mPCST, which is a highly accessible intervention, may provide benefits similar to an in-person intervention and shows promise for being feasible, acceptable, and engaging to cancer patients with pain.

  1. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  2. Effects of Coping-Oriented Couples Therapy on Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Bodenmann, Guy; Plancherel, Bernard; Beach, Steven R. H.; Widmer, Kathrin; Gabriel, Barbara; Meuwly, Nathalie; Charvoz, Linda; Hautzinger, Martin; Schramm, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treating depression with coping-oriented couples therapy (COCT) as compared with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; A. T. Beck, C. Ward, & M. Mendelson, 1961) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT; M. M. Weissman, J. C. Markowitz, & G. L. Klerman, 2000). Sixty couples, including 1…

  3. The effectiveness of motorised lumbar traction in the management of LBP with lumbo sacral nerve root involvement: a feasibility study

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    Gracey Jacqueline H

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traction is commonly used for the treatment of low back pain (LBP, predominately with nerve root involvement; however its benefits remain to be established. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to compare the difference between two treatment protocols (manual therapy, exercise and advice, with or without traction in the management of acute/sub acute LBP with 'nerve root' involvement. Methods 30 LBP patients with nerve root pain were recruited and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Primary outcome measures were the: McGill pain questionnaire, Roland Morris disability questionnaire, and the SF36 Questionnaire; recorded at baseline, discharge, 3 and 6 months post-discharge. Results 27 patients completed treatment with a loss of another four patients at follow up. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated an improvement in all outcomes at follow up points but there appeared to be little difference between the groups. Conclusion This study has shown that a trial recruiting patients with 'nerve root' problems is feasible. Further research based upon a fully powered trial is required to ascertain if the addition of traction has any benefit in the management of these patients. Trial Registration Registration number: ISRCTN78417198

  4. Religious belief as a coping strategy. An explorative trial in patients irradiated for head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Momm, F. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Xander, C. [Research Group on Palliative Medicine, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Bartelt, S.; Henke, M.; Frommhold, H. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Freiburg (Germany); Zander-Heinz, A.; Budischewski, K.; Domin, C. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Adamietz, I.A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Marienhospital Herne Univ. Clinic, Herne (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: to explore the role of religious beliefs coping with disease symptoms and treatment-related side effects in patients with head-and-neck cancer under radiotherapy. Patients and methods: prospectively collected data were used with a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated by radiotherapy and epoetin beta or placebo within a double-blind multicenter trial. All patients were divided into believers and nonbelievers. Answers to a quality of life questionnaire at four points in time during radiotherapy were analyzed according to both groups. Clinical parameters and therapy side effects were controlled regularly. Results: 62.1% of the patients (66/105) sent back a baseline questionnaire discriminating between believers and nonbelievers. For 34.2% (40/105) data of all four measures could be obtained. On average, believers felt better in all categories of side effects at all points of time before, during and directly after therapy. Conclusion: religious faith seems to play an important role in coping strategies of radiotherapy patients. More research in this area would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  5. Coping With Strain (CWS) course - its effects on depressive symptoms: A four-year longitudinal randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelid, Gry Anette; Czajkowski, Nikolai Olavi; Holte, Arne; Tambs, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2016-08-01

    The Coping With Strain (CWS) course is a modification of the Coping With Depression (CWD) course. CWD is by far the most studied psycho-educational intervention to reduce and prevent depression, but CWD has never been tested in a randomized controlled trial in the workplace. This study seeks to examine the extent to which CWS, on a short-term and a long-term basis, reduces depressive symptoms in employees. After advertising at workplaces, 119 employees were randomized into Intervention Group I (IG1), which immediately participated in CWS, or Intervention Group II (IG2), which functioned as a control group for six months until its participation in CWS. The follow up period lasted for four years in both IG1 and IG2. Linear mixed models were fitted to the data. Depressive symptoms were significantly reduced during the course. The reduction of depressive symptoms was maintained over a period of four years in both IG1 and IG2, although there is a slight increase towards the end of the follow-up period. CWS is effective in reducing depressive symptoms among employees. The effects are long lasting and may be maintained over a period of four years.

  6. Examining the effect of peer helping in a coping skills intervention: a randomized controlled trial for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Secinti, Ekin; Johns, Shelley A; O'Neil, Bert H; Helft, Paul R; Shahda, Safi; Jalal, Shadia I; Champion, Victoria L

    2017-06-10

    At the end of life, spiritual well-being is a central aspect of quality of life for many patients and their family caregivers. A prevalent spiritual value in advanced cancer patients is the need to actively give. To address this need, the current randomized trial examined whether adding a peer helping component to a coping skills intervention leads to improved meaning in life and peace for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and their caregivers. Feasibility and acceptability outcomes were also assessed. Advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients and caregivers (n = 50 dyads) were randomly assigned to a 5-session, telephone-based coping skills intervention or a peer helping + coping skills intervention. One or both dyad members had moderate-severe distress. Peer helping involved contributing to handouts on coping skills for other families coping with cancer. Patients and caregivers completed measures of meaning in life/peace, fatigue, psychological symptoms, coping self-efficacy, and emotional support. Patient pain and caregiver burden were also assessed. Small effects in favor of the coping skills group were found regarding meaning in life/peace at 1 and 5 weeks post-intervention. Other outcomes did not vary as a function of group assignment, with both groups showing small decreases in patient and caregiver fatigue and caregiver distress and burden. High recruitment and retention rates supported feasibility, and high participant satisfaction ratings supported acceptability. Although a telephone-based intervention is feasible and acceptable for this population, peer helping in the context of a coping skills intervention does not enhance spiritual well-being relative to coping skills alone.

  7. The Coping with Depression course : Short-term outcomes and mediating effects of a randomized controlled trial in the treatment of subclinical depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allart-van Dam, E; Hosman, CMH; Hoogduin, CAL; Schaap, CPDR

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial investigating the short-term effectiveness of the Coping With Depression course in a sample of adults seriously at risk of developing major depression. In addition, possible mediating properties of several proximal outcome variables were assessed

  8. Preparation and characterization of Neisseria meningitidis mutants deficient in production of the human lactoferrin-binding proteins LbpA and LbpB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnah, R A; Schryvers, A B

    1998-06-01

    Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors facilitating iron acquisition from transferrin (Tf) and lactoferrin (Lf) of their mammalian host. Tf receptors are composed of two outer membrane proteins, Tf-binding proteins A and B (TbpA and TbpB; formerly designated Tbp1 and Tbp2, respectively). Although only a single Lf-binding protein, LbpA (formerly designated Lbp1), had previously been recognized, we recently identified additional bacterial Lf-binding proteins in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis and the bovine pathogen Moraxella bovis by a modified affinity isolation technique (R. A. Bonnah, R.-H. Yu, and A. B. Schryvers, Microb. Pathog. 19:285-297, 1995). In this report, we characterize an open reading frame (ORF) located immediately upstream of the N. meningitidis B16B6 lbpA gene. Amino acid sequence comparisons of various TbpBs with the product of the translated DNA sequence from the upstream ORF suggests that the region encodes the Lf-binding protein B homolog (LbpB). The LbpB from strain B16B6 has two large stretches of negatively charged amino acids that are not present in the various transferrin receptor homologs (TbpBs). Expression of the recombinant LbpB protein as a fusion with maltose binding protein demonstrated functional Lf-binding activity. Studies with N. meningitidis isogenic mutants in which the lbpA gene and the ORF immediately upstream of lbpA (putative lbpB gene) were insertionally inactivated demonstrated that LbpA, but not LbpB, is essential for iron acquisition from Lf in vitro.

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of a self-directed coping skills intervention for couples facing prostate cancer: Rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Sylvie D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is known both patients’ and partners’ reactions to a prostate cancer diagnosis include fear, uncertainty, anxiety and depression with patients’ partners’ reactions mutually determining how they cope with and adjust to the illness, few psychosocial interventions target couples. Those that are available tend to be led by highly trained professionals, limiting their accessibility and long-term sustainability. In addition, it is recognised that patients who might benefit from conventional face-to-face psychosocial interventions do not access these, either by preference or because of geographical or mobility barriers. Self-directed interventions can overcome some of these limitations and have been shown to contribute to patient well-being. This study will examine the feasibility of a self-directed, coping skills intervention for couples affected by cancer, called Coping-Together, and begin to explore its potential impact on couples’ illness adjustment. The pilot version of Coping-Together includes a series of four booklets, a DVD, and a relaxation audio CD. Methods/design In this double-blind, two-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 70 couples will be recruited within 4 months of a prostate cancer diagnosis through urology private practices and randomized to: 1 Coping-Together or 2 a minimal ethical care condition. Minimal ethical care condition couples will be mailed information booklets available at the Cancer Council New South Wales and a brochure for the Cancer Council Helpline. The primary outcome (anxiety and additional secondary outcomes (distress, depression, dyadic adjustment, quality of life, illness or caregiving appraisal, self-efficacy, and dyadic and individual coping will be assessed at baseline (before receiving study material and 2 months post-baseline. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analysis will be conducted. Discussion As partners’ distress rates exceed not only population

  10. Automatic Detection of Ringworm using Local Binary Pattern (LBP)

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Srimanta; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel approach for automatic recognition of ring worm skin disease based on LBP (Local Binary Pattern) feature extracted from the affected skin images. The proposed method is evaluated by extensive experiments on the skin images collected from internet. The dataset is tested using three different classifiers i.e. Bayesian, MLP and SVM. Experimental results show that the proposed methodology efficiently discriminates between a ring worm skin and a normal skin. It is a low cost technique and does not require any special imaging devices.

  11. A phase III randomized three-arm trial of physical therapist delivered pain coping skills training for patients with total knee arthroplasty: the KASTPain protocol

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    Riddle Daniel L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of patients report persistent and disabling pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA despite an apparently normally functioning prosthesis. One potential risk factor for unexplained persistent pain is high levels of pain catastrophizing. We designed a three-arm trial to determine if a pain coping skills training program, delivered prior to TKA, effectively reduces function-limiting pain following the procedure in patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing. Methods/design The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Discussion The trial will be conducted at four University-based sites in the US. A sample of 402 patients with high levels of pain catastrophizing will be randomly assigned to either a pain coping skills training arm, an arthritis education control arm or usual care. Pain coping skills will be delivered by physical therapists trained and supervised by clinical psychologist experts. Arthritis education will be delivered by nurses trained in the delivery of arthritis-related content. The primary outcome will be change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC Pain scale score 12 months following surgery. A variety of secondary clinical and economic outcomes also will be evaluated. Trial Registration NCT

  12. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  13. A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of an interactive web-based intervention: CancerCope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Ritterband, Lee; Thorndike, Frances; Nielsen, Lisa; Aitken, Joanne F; Clutton, Samantha; Scuffham, Paul; Youl, Philippa; Morris, Bronwyn; Baade, Peter; Dunn, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 35% of patients with cancer experience clinically significant distress, and unmet psychological supportive care needs are prevalent. This study describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based psychological intervention for distressed patients with cancer. Methods and analysis In phase I, the intervention was developed on an interactive web platform and pilot tested for acceptability using a qualitative methodology with 21 patients with cancer. Phase II is an RCT underway with patients with or at risk of elevated psychological distress comparing: (1) static patient education website with (2) individualised web-delivered cognitive behavioural intervention (CancerCope). Participants were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and Cancer Council Helpline and met the following inclusion criteria: (1) recently diagnosed with cancer; (2) able to read and speak English; (3) no previous history of head injury, dementia or psychiatric illness; (4) no other concurrent cancer; (5) phone and internet access; (5) scored ≥4 on the Distress Thermometer. Participants are assessed at four time points: baseline/recruitment and 2, 6 and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Of the 163 participants recruited, 50% met caseness for distress. The area of highest unmet supportive care needs were psychological followed by physical and daily living needs. Primary outcomes are psychological and cancer-specific distress and unmet psychological supportive care needs. Secondary outcomes are positive adjustment, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval: PSY/70/13/HREC) and the Metro South Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/13/QPAH/601). All participants provide informed consent prior to taking part in the study. Once completed

  14. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. LBP based detection of intestinal motility in WCE images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Giovanni; Granata, Eliana

    2011-03-01

    In this research study, a system to support medical analysis of intestinal contractions by processing WCE images is presented. Small intestine contractions are among the motility patterns which reveal many gastrointestinal disorders, such as functional dyspepsia, paralytic ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial overgrowth. The images have been obtained using the Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) technique, a patented, video colorimaging disposable capsule. Manual annotation of contractions is an elaborating task, since the recording device of the capsule stores about 50,000 images and contractions might represent only the 1% of the whole video. In this paper we propose the use of Local Binary Pattern (LBP) combined with the powerful textons statistics to find the frames of the video related to contractions. We achieve a sensitivity of about 80% and a specificity of about 99%. The achieved high detection accuracy of the proposed system has provided thus an indication that such intelligent schemes could be used as a supplementary diagnostic tool in endoscopy.

  16. Iris Recognition Based on LBP and Combined LVQ Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Shams, M Y; Nomir, O; El-Awady, R M; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3506

    2011-01-01

    Iris recognition is considered as one of the best biometric methods used for human identification and verification, this is because of its unique features that differ from one person to another, and its importance in the security field. This paper proposes an algorithm for iris recognition and classification using a system based on Local Binary Pattern and histogram properties as a statistical approaches for feature extraction, and Combined Learning Vector Quantization Classifier as Neural Network approach for classification, in order to build a hybrid model depends on both features. The localization and segmentation techniques are presented using both Canny edge detection and Hough Circular Transform in order to isolate an iris from the whole eye image and for noise detection .Feature vectors results from LBP is applied to a Combined LVQ classifier with different classes to determine the minimum acceptable performance, and the result is based on majority voting among several LVQ classifier. Different iris da...

  17. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Farsi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05. This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05, except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation.

  18. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  19. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  20. Effectiveness of Coping Skills Education Program to Reduce Craving Beliefs among Addicts Referred To Addiction Centers in Hamadan: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmadpanah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors affecting relapse of addiction is craving beliefs of substance use. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of coping skills education program to reduce craving beliefs among opium addicts.In a randomized controlled trial, during September 2011 to August 2012, 70 opium addicted men referred to the Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center in Hamadan, western Iran were assigned to intervention group (receiving coping skills education program and control groups. The study information was analyzed using SPSS software.Regarding craving beliefs for continuing drug use, the two groups had similar scales at the beginning of interventional program, while the level of these beliefs was significantly reduced in the intervention group (P= 0.002, but not in the control group (P= 0.105. Also, a significant correlation was also revealed between taking advantage of the educational program and increase awareness of the signs of relapse in the intervention group (P=0.003 that was not revealed in the control (P= 0.174. On the other hand, executing coping skills education program led to reducecraving beliefs and improve knowledge towards signs of relapse.Our findings demonstrate positive impact of coping skills education program after detoxification process on decrease of craving beliefs among opium addicts.

  1. The patient education - Learning and Coping Strategies - improves adherence in cardiac rehabilitation (LC-REHAB): A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynggaard, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S; May, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Despite proven benefits of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), adherence to CR remains suboptimal. This trial aimed to assess the impact of the patient education 'Learning and Coping Strategies' (LC) on patient adherence to an eight-week CR program. 825 patients with ischaemic heart disease or heart failure were open label randomised to either the LC arm (LC plus CR) or the control arm (CR alone) across three hospital units in Denmark. Both arms received same amount of training and education hours. LC consisted of individual clarifying interviews, participation of experienced patients as co-educators, situational, reflective and inductive teaching. The control arm received structured deductive teaching. The primary outcomes were patient adherence to at least 75% of the exercise training or education sessions. We tested for subgroup effects on the primary outcomes using interaction terms. The primary outcomes were compared across arms using logistic regression. More patients in the LC arm adhered to at least 75% of the exercise training sessions than control (80% versus 73%, adjusted odds ratio (OR):1.48; 95% CI:1.07 to 2.05, P=0.018) and 75% of education sessions (79% versus 70%, adjusted OR:1.61, 1.17 to 2.22, P=0.003). Some evidence of larger effects of LC on adherence was seen for patients with heart failure, low education and household income. Addition of LC strategies improved adherence in rehabilitation both in terms of exercise training and education. Patients with heart failure, low levels of education and household income appear to benefit most from this adherence promoting intervention. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01668394. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, Christian, E-mail: clin180@ec.auckland.ac.nz [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Caradoc-Davies, Tom T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Proft, Thomas [School of Medical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Baker, Edward N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-02-01

    The S. pyogenes laminin-binding protein Lbp, which is essential for adhesion to human laminin, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The laminin-binding protein Lbp (Spy2007) from Streptococcus pyogenes (a group A streptococcus) mediates adhesion to the human basal lamina glycoprotein laminin. Accordingly, Lbp is essential in in vitro models of cell adhesion and invasion. However, the molecular and structural basis of laminin binding by bacteria remains unknown. Therefore, the lbp gene has been cloned for recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Lbp has been purified and crystallized from 30%(w/v) PEG 1500 by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.62, b = 92.16, c = 70.61 Å, β = 106.27°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution.

  3. Serum LBP Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Women with PCOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibo Zhu

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP is closely associated with many metabolic disorders. However, no study has been done to explore the relationship between LBP and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the serum LBP level is elevated and associated with insulin resistance (IR in PCOS.In this cross-sectional study, 117 PCOS patients and 121 age-matched controls were recruited. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed with an expression of M value for insulin sensitivity. Fasting serum samples were collected to detect LBP, lipids, insulin, sex hormones and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the associations between M value and LBP level.The study was performed in a clinical research center.Compared with controls, PCOS subjects had a significantly higher LBP concentration (33.03±14.59 vs. 24.35±10.31 μg/ml, p<0.001, and lower M value (8.21±3.06 vs. 12.31±1.72 mg/min/kg, p<0.001. Both in lean and overweight/obese individuals, serum LBP level was higher in PCOS subjects than that in controls. M value was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI, fasting serum insulin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, free testosterone, high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP and LBP, whereas positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Serum LBP level was associated with M value after adjusting for BMI, fasting serum insulin, SHBG, as well as hs-CRP.Serum LBP level significantly is elevated in PCOS, and is independently associated with IR in PCOS.

  4. Serum LBP Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Women with PCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qibo; Zhou, Huang; Zhang, Aipin; Gao, Rufei; Yang, Shumin; Zhao, Changhong; Wang, Yue; Hu, Jinbo; Goswami, Richa; Gong, Lilin; Li, Qifu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is closely associated with many metabolic disorders. However, no study has been done to explore the relationship between LBP and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The objective of this study was to investigate whether the serum LBP level is elevated and associated with insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS. Participants and Design In this cross-sectional study, 117 PCOS patients and 121 age-matched controls were recruited. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed with an expression of M value for insulin sensitivity. Fasting serum samples were collected to detect LBP, lipids, insulin, sex hormones and high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the associations between M value and LBP level. Settings The study was performed in a clinical research center. Results Compared with controls, PCOS subjects had a significantly higher LBP concentration (33.03±14.59 vs. 24.35±10.31 μg/ml, p<0.001), and lower M value (8.21±3.06 vs. 12.31±1.72 mg/min/kg, p<0.001). Both in lean and overweight/obese individuals, serum LBP level was higher in PCOS subjects than that in controls. M value was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), fasting serum insulin, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), free testosterone, high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and LBP, whereas positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Serum LBP level was associated with M value after adjusting for BMI, fasting serum insulin, SHBG, as well as hs-CRP. Conclusion Serum LBP level significantly is elevated in PCOS, and is independently associated with IR in PCOS. PMID:26799617

  5. Illumination Invariant Face Recognition using SQI and Weighted LBP Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Biglari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition under uneven illumination is still an open problem. One of the main challenges in real-world face recognition systems is illumination variation. In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach base on Self Quotient Image (SQI and weighted Local Binary Pattern (WLBP histogram has been proposed. In this system, the performance of the system is increased by using different sigma values of SQI for training and testing. Furthermore, using two multi-region uniform LBP operators for feature extraction simultaneously, made the system more robust to illumination variation. This approach gathers information of the image in different local and global levels. The weighted Chi square statistic is used for histogram comparison and NN (1-NN is used as classifier. The weighted approach emphasizes on the more important regions in the faces. The proposed approach is compared with some new and traditional methods like QI, SQI, QIR, MQI, DMQI, DSFQI, PCA and LDA on Yale face database B and CMU-PIE database. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other tested methods.

  6. A multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural programme for coping with chronic neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury: the protocol of the CONECSI trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Catja A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people with a spinal cord injury rate neuropathic pain as one of the most difficult problems to manage and there are no medical treatments that provide satisfactory pain relief in most people. Furthermore, psychosocial factors have been considered in the maintenance and aggravation of neuropathic spinal cord injury pain. Psychological interventions to support people with spinal cord injury to deal with neuropathic pain, however, are sparse. The primary aim of the CONECSI (COping with NEuropathiC Spinal cord Injury pain trial is to evaluate the effects of a multidisciplinary cognitive behavioural treatment programme on pain intensity and pain-related disability, and secondary on mood, participation in activities, and life satisfaction. Methods/Design CONECSI is a multicentre randomised controlled trial. A sample of 60 persons with chronic neuropathic spinal cord injury pain will be recruited from four rehabilitation centres and randomised to an intervention group or a waiting list control group. The control group will be invited for the programme six months after the intervention group. Main inclusion criteria are: having chronic (> 6 months neuropathic spinal cord injury pain as the worst pain complaint and rating the pain intensity in the last week as 40 or more on a 0-100 scale. The intervention consists of educational, cognitive, and behavioural elements and encompasses 11 sessions over a 3-month period. Each meeting will be supervised by a local psychologist and physical therapist. Measurements will be perfomed before starting the programme/entering the control group, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Primary outcomes are pain intensity and pain-related disability (Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, participation in activities (Utrecht Activities List, and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire. Pain coping and pain cognitions will be

  7. Is undergraduate physiotherapy study a risk factor for low back pain? A prevalence study of LBP in physiotherapy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer Karen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following reports of high prevalence of low back pain (LBP in young physiotherapists 171819202122, we investigated whether LBP was a problem for undergraduate physiotherapy students. Method Physiotherapy students enrolled in one Australian tertiary institution completed a validated self-administered questionnaire in April 2001, seeking information on LBP prevalence (lifetime, 12 month, one-month, one-week, and its risk factors. The survey incorporated the Nordic back questionnaire, questions on common risks for LBP, and purpose-built questions regarding educational exposures. Univariate logistic regression models were applied to test associations. Results and Discussion 72% students responded. LBP prevalence was 69% (lifetime, 63% (12-month, 44% (one-month, 28% (one-week. The risk of LBP increased significantly for students once they completed first year. Being aged 20 or 21 years (final year students was significantly associated with all measures of LBP, compared with the youngest students. Exposure to tertiary study of greater than two years was associated with lifetime, 12 month and one-month LBP prevalence. Spending more than 20 hours in the past month 'sitting looking down' was significantly associated with one-month LBP prevalence. Similar exposure to 'treating patients' was significantly associated with one-month and one-week LBP prevalence. Conclusions Physiotherapy students should be alerted to the likelihood of LBP and is potential causes during their training, so that they enter the workforce with reduced risk of LBP. The potential for other undergraduate students to suffer LBP should also be considered.

  8. A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of an interactive web-based intervention: CancerCope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Ritterband, Lee; Thorndike, Frances; Nielsen, Lisa; Aitken, Joanne F; Clutton, Samantha; Scuffham, Paul; Youl, Philippa; Morris, Bronwyn; Baade, Peter; Dunn, Jeffrey

    2017-06-23

    Approximately 35% of patients with cancer experience clinically significant distress, and unmet psychological supportive care needs are prevalent. This study describes the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based psychological intervention for distressed patients with cancer. In phase I, the intervention was developed on an interactive web platform and pilot tested for acceptability using a qualitative methodology with 21 patients with cancer. Phase II is an RCT underway with patients with or at risk of elevated psychological distress comparing: (1) static patient education website with (2) individualised web-delivered cognitive behavioural intervention (CancerCope). Participants were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry and Cancer Council Helpline and met the following inclusion criteria: (1) recently diagnosed with cancer; (2) able to read and speak English; (3) no previous history of head injury, dementia or psychiatric illness; (4) no other concurrent cancer; (5) phone and internet access; (5) scored ≥4 on the Distress Thermometer. Participants are assessed at four time points: baseline/recruitment and 2, 6 and 12 months after recruitment and intervention commencement. Of the 163 participants recruited, 50% met caseness for distress. The area of highest unmet supportive care needs were psychological followed by physical and daily living needs. Primary outcomes are psychological and cancer-specific distress and unmet psychological supportive care needs. Secondary outcomes are positive adjustment, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Ethical approval was obtained from the Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval: PSY/70/13/HREC) and the Metro South Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/13/QPAH/601). All participants provide informed consent prior to taking part in the study. Once completed, this study will provide recommendations about the efficacy of

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Hye Nam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of peptides derived from olive flounder lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (LBP/BPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-10-17

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase.

  11. A study of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) extraction technology and its anti-aging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Min; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to optimise the LBP extraction technology and to study the anti-aging effect of LBP by establishing D-gal aging mouse model. Orthogonal design was used to study the extraction technology. The experimental aging mouse model was formed by continuous injection of D-gal, and the anti-aging capacity of LBP was tested using measuring MDA, CAT and GSH-px contents and SOD activity in blood and SOD, MDA and Hyp levels in skin. The results showed that the optimum LBP extraction option determined by the orthogonal design is as follows: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30, extraction for 2 times, 90 min each time, and power is 100 kHz. Thus, LBP can increase SOD, CAT and GSH-px levels in blood and reduce MDA level. It can also improve skin SOD activity, reduce skin MDA content, and increase Hyp content. We concluded that the extraction method established in this experiment is easy and feasible, and the yield of LBP is high, apparently showing that LBP has the potential of delaying senility in D-gal induced mice.

  12. Effect of music therapy with emotional-approach coping on preprocedural anxiety in cardiac catheterization: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    Individuals undergoing cardiac catheterization are likely to experience elevated anxiety periprocedurally, with highest anxiety levels occurring immediately prior to the procedure. Elevated anxiety has the potential to negatively impact these individuals psychologically and physiologically in ways that may influence the subsequent procedure. This study evaluated the use of music therapy, with a specific emphasis on emotional-approach coping, immediately prior to cardiac catheterization to impact periprocedural outcomes. The randomized, pretest/posttest control group design consisted of two experimental groups--the Music Therapy with Emotional-Approach Coping group [MT/EAC] (n = 13), and a talk-based Emotional-Approach Coping group (n = 14), compared with a standard care Control group (n = 10). MT/EAC led to improved positive affective states in adults awaiting elective cardiac catheterization, whereas a talk-based emphasis on emotional-approach coping or standard care did not. All groups demonstrated a significant overall decrease in negative affect. The MT/EAC group demonstrated a statistically significant, but not clinically significant, increase in systolic blood pressure most likely due to active engagement in music making. The MT/EAC group trended toward shortest procedure length and least amount of anxiolytic required during the procedure, while the EAC group trended toward least amount of analgesic required during the procedure, but these differences were not statistically significant. Actively engaging in a session of music therapy with an emphasis on emotional-approach coping can improve the well-being of adults awaiting cardiac catheterization procedures.

  13. Meeting the information needs of lower income cancer survivors: results of a randomized control trial evaluating the american cancer society's "I can cope".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Evans, Mary B; Kratt, Polly; Pollack, Lori A; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; Houston, Peter; Andrews, Shiquina; Liwo, Amandiy; Tseng, Tung Sung; Hullett, Sandral; Oliver, Joann; Pisu, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Participants included 140 low-income survivors (79% Black; 38% breast cancer) from community hospitals who were randomized to 4 sessions of I Can Cope (learning about cancer; understanding cancer treatments; relieving cancer pain; and keeping well in mind and body) or 4 sessions of a wellness intervention (humor, meditation, relaxation, and music therapy). The authors' primary outcome was "met information needs." After controlling for covariates, their analysis indicated that I Can Cope was no more effective than the wellness intervention in addressing survivor information needs relative to the learning objectives. Participants provided high overall ratings for both interventions. Self-efficacy for obtaining advice about cancer, age, education, and income were associated with information needs. Educational programs tailored to levels of self-efficacy and patient demographics may be needed.

  14. Implementing Coping Power Adapted as a Universal Prevention Program in Italian Primary Schools: a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Nocentini, Annalaura; Lochman, John E

    2016-09-24

    Behavioral problems in schools can cause serious harm to the emotional and social well-being of students and limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. A prior pilot study on the universal application of Coping Power showed a significant decrease in the hyperactivity behaviors of five classes. The next step was to test whether Coping Power Universal could be successfully implemented by teachers in a variety of Italian schools. The sample involved 40 third- and fourth-grade classes (901 students) from public schools located in three Italian cities. Twenty classes were randomly assigned to Coping Power Universal, and 20 classes were randomly assigned to the control group, which received the strictly standard academic curriculum of Italian elementary schools. At each assessment period, the teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The findings showed a significant reduction in hyperactive and inattention behaviors and conduct problems and emotional symptoms in the intervention classes compared with the control classes. This study suggests that Coping Power model can be delivered in school settings at both universal and targeted prevention levels and that in this multi-tiered prevention model, teachers can learn a set of intervention skills which can be delivered with flexibility, thus reducing some of the complexity and costs of schools using multiple interventions.

  15. The Coping Cat Program for Children with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally Keehn, Rebecca H.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Brown, Milton Z.; Chavira, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether a modified version of the Coping Cat program could be effective in reducing anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-two children (ages 8-14; IQ greater than or equal to 70) with ASD and clinically significant anxiety were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of the Coping…

  16. Learning elements in rehabilitation among the working population with low back pain (LBP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oest, Lone; Sørensen, Ellen Sandahl; Jakobsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    life in a new context, and learning processes seem to be a keypoint. Research shows disease-, realization process and relational context are important for the outcome of rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to identify learning elements in different positions to the working population with LBP......Learning elements in rehabilitation among the working population with low back pain (LBP)Title: Identification of learning elements in different positions during rehabilitation among the working population with low back pain (LBP).Abstract Background: Persons with LBP are challenged in reorganizing...... undergoing rehabilitation. Methods: Mixed methods were used to answer the research question. Based on Wenger´s theory of learning an interview guide was developed. 7 participants were interviewed. The qualitative findings were quantified in a survey (N = 40). To the analysis of learning elements Wenger...

  17. Combined Methodology of PHOG and LBP to Identify Facial Expression from Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish D. Lonare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An interesting and one of the challenging problem for this decade is of the identification and detection of human facial expression from cluttered image sequence. In this paper we proposed a methodology of PHOG and LBP to identify facial expression from GEMEP-FERA dataset 2011 competition, a standard dataset. we compare the results of PHOG and LBP results. during results analysis it was found that by combining the features of PHOG and LBP we found improved results. For classification, we used the K-NN classifier. before this, a key frame were extracted by using the novel method. PHOG gives gradient features and LBP gives binary features by combining both features, we obtain improved results

  18. Research on the effectiveness of physical therapy in the treatment of LBP

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    Silişteanu Sînziana Călina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available LBP management is complex and costly, with socio-economic and medical implications. Disabilities caused by painful back disorders represent a major problem of absenteeism from work (1. The prevalence of LBP in the active population (25-64 years old is increasing. There are studies (2 showing that between 60 and 80% of people may suffer from back pain during their lifetime and 5% may present radiculopathy, the rest of them being diagnosed with nonspecific LBP. Of those, approximately 30% will be diagnosed with chronic LBP. More recent studies (3 show that the prevalence of LBP appearance for one year is of 65%, for the entire life, it is of 84% and for present day, of 33%. In the developed countries, 1 in 5 adults may experience symptoms of LBP, the number of these reaching 40% in England, Denmark, while in the US, the value is of 7-25%. Approximately 80-90% of patients with LBP are diagnosed with “non-specific” low back pain and 3% will require surgery. LBP is a common condition, representing 1/3 of rheumatic complaints. This condition interests both the young people and the adult one. Therefore, 25% of people aged between 30 and 50 years old consider LBP as the most frequent cause of work incapacity in the people below 45 years old. Risk factors for the occurrence of LBP are: occupational (heavy physical work, lifting weights, torsional movement of the trunk, prolonged standing, sedentary lifestyle, psychological (depression, anxiety, fear of movement, socio-demographic characteristics (weight, age, incorrect posture, lifestyle, educational level, smoking, family problems, low incomes. Medical rehabilitation in LBP involves combating pain and inflammation, improving statics and lumbosacral spine dynamics, improving paravertebral and abdominal muscle strength, gait rehabilitation. These objectives are achieved by pharmacological methods and physical-kinetic therapy. The aim of the study was to emphasize the importance of physical therapy in

  19. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period.

  20. Animal-assisted therapy with farm animals for persons with psychiatric disorders: effects on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braastad Bjarne O

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT for humans with mental disorders have been well-documented using cats and dogs, but there is a complete lack of controlled studies using farm animals as therapeutic agents for psychiatric patients. The study was developed in the context of Green care, a concept that involves the use of farm animals, plants, gardens, or the landscape in recreational or work-related interventions for different target groups of clients in cooperation with health authorities. The present study aimed at examining effects of a 12-week intervention with farm animals on self-efficacy, coping ability and quality of life among adult psychiatric patients with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods The study was a randomized controlled trial and follow-up. Ninety patients (59 women and 31 men with schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders completed questionnaires to assess self-efficacy (Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale; GSE, coping ability (Coping Strategies Scale, and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale; QOLS-N before, at the end of intervention, and at six months follow-up. Two-thirds of the patients (N = 60 were given interventions; the remaining served as controls. Results There was significant increase in self-efficacy in the treatment group but not in the control group from before intervention (SB to six months follow-up (SSMA, (SSMA-SB; F1,55 = 4.20, p= 0.05 and from end of intervention (SA to follow-up (SSMA-SA; F1,55 = 5.6, p= 0.02. There was significant increase in coping ability within the treatment group between before intervention and follow-up (SSMA-SB = 2.7, t = 2.31, p = 0.03, whereas no changes in quality of life was found. There were no significant changes in any of the variables during the intervention. Conclusion AAT with farm animals may have positive influences on self-efficacy and coping ability among psychiatric patients with long lasting psychiatric

  1. Directed evolution of an LBP/CD14 inhibitory peptide and its anti-endotoxin activity.

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    Li Fang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LPS-binding protein (LBP and its ligand CD14 are located upstream of the signaling pathway for LPS-induced inflammation. Blocking LBP and CD14 binding might prevent LPS-induced inflammation. In previous studies, we obtained a peptide analog (MP12 for the LBP/CD14 binding site and showed that this peptide analog had anti-endotoxin activity. In this study, we used in vitro directed evolution for this peptide analog to improve its in vivo and in vitro anti-endotoxin activity. METHODS: We used error-prone PCR (ep-PCR and induced mutations in the C-terminus of LBP and attached the PCR products to T7 phages to establish a mutant phage display library. The positive clones that competed with LBP for CD14 binding was obtained by screening. We used both in vivo and in vitro experiments to compare the anti-endotoxin activities of a polypeptide designated P1 contained in a positive clone and MP12. RESULTS: 11 positive clones were obtained from among target phages. Sequencing showed that 9 positive clones had a threonine (T to methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. Compared to polypeptide MP12, polypeptide P1 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α expression and NF-κB activity in U937 cells (P<0.05. Compared to MP12, P1 significantly improved arterial oxygen pressure, an oxygenation index, and lung pathology scores in LPS-induced ARDS rats (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: By in vitro directed evolution of peptide analogs for the LBP/CD14 binding site, we established a new polypeptide (P1 with a threonine (T-to-methionine (M mutation in amino acid 287 of LBP. This polypeptide had high anti-endotoxin activity in vitro and in vivo, which suggested that amino acid 287 in the C-terminus of LBP may play an important role in LBP binding with CD14.

  2. PREVALENSI KELUHAN LOW BACK PAIN (LBP PADA PETANI DI WILAYAH KERJA UPT KESMAS PAYANGAN GIANYAR APRIL 2015

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    Kiranjit Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: LBP merupakan gangguan muskuloskeletal yang banyak dikeluhkan oleh petani. Kegiatan yang dilakukan petani umumnya memerlukan posisi tubuh yang statis dan repetitif yang meningkatkan prevalensi keluhan LBP. Selain posisi kerja yang salah, umur, jenis kelamin, lama kerja, masa kerja, posisi kerja, riwayat merokok dan trauma juga merupakan faktor untuk terjadi LBP. Petani di wilayah cakupan kerja UPT payangan berjumlah sebanyak 4.883. Dilihat dari tingginya jumlah petani di wilayah tersebut angka kejadian LBP diperkirakan tinggi. Namun kenyataannya, dari 43.597 total kunjungan pasien ke balai pengobatan tahun 2014, angka kejadian LBP hanya 111. Tujuan Penelitian: Mengetahui prevalensi keluhan LBP pada petani di wilayah kerja UPT Kesmas Payangan tahun 2015. Metode Penelitian: Penelitianmenggunakan desain studi deskriptif cross-sectional untuk mengetahui prevalensi keluhan LBPpada petani yang tinggal dan bekerja di wilayah kerja UPT Kesmas Payangan.Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah semua petani yang berada di wilayah kerja UPT Kesmas Payangan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara terstruktur menggunakan kuesioner lalu dilakukan analisis secara univariat dan bivariat. Hasil:Sebanyak 68,6% (48 orang responden mengeluh LBP. Perempuan (71%lebih banyak mengalami LBP dibandingkan dengan laki-laki (66,7%. Kelompok usia dengan keluhan >45 tahun paling banyak mengalami LBP (73,3%. Sebanyak 63,6% petani yang memiliki waktu kerja kurang dari 5 jam dan sebanyak 70,6% petani yang bekerja lebih dari 5 jam mengalami LBP. Sebanyak 60% petani yang bekerja kurang dari 10 tahun mengalami LBP dan sebanyak 69,2% petani yang bekerja lebih dari 10 tahun mengalami LBP. Sebanyak 72,7% petani yang merokok mengalami LBP dan sebanyak 64,9% petani yang tidak merokok mengalami LBP. Keluhan LBP terbanyak dikeluhkan oleh petani yang sering melakukan posisi kerja membungkuk (68,6%. Sebanyak 93,75% petani yang tidak memiliki riwayat jatuh mengalami LBP

  3. Determinants of serum concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP in the adult population: the role of obesity.

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    Arturo Gonzalez-Quintela

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Assessment of serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-binding protein (LBP has been suggested as a useful biomarker to indicate activation of innate immune responses to microbial products. We investigated LBP concentrations and associations with demographics, lifestyle factors, and common metabolic abnormalities in adults. We also examined if LBP concentrations were associated with common polymorphisms in genes coding for LBP (rs2232618, CD14 (rs2569190, and TLR4 (rs4986790, the molecules responsible for the innate immune response to LPS, or serum levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14 and proinflammatory cytokines. METHODS: Serum LBP was measured with a commercial immunoassay in a random sample of the adult population (n = 420, 45% males, age 18-92 years from a single municipality. RESULTS: Serum LBP concentrations increased with age (P<0.001 and were higher in individuals who were overweight or obese than in normal-weight individuals (P<0.001. Similarly, LBP concentrations were higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome than in individuals without it (P<0.001. Among metabolic syndrome components, LBP concentrations were independently associated with abdominal obesity (P = 0.002 and low concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (P<0.001. Serum LBP concentrations tended to be independently associated with smoking (P = 0.05, but not with alcohol consumption. Likewise, there was not significant association between LBP concentrations and gene polymorphisms. Concentrations of LBP significantly correlated with serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8, sCD14, and with liver enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum LBP concentrations increased with age. Overweight, obesity, and having metabolic syndrome (particularly, low HDL cholesterol levels were associated with higher LBP concentrations. These findings are consistent with microbial exposure playing a role in these inflammatory, metabolic abnormalities.

  4. Enhancement of couples' communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies.

  5. Separability oriented fusion of LBP and CS-LDP for infrared face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhihua; Liu, Guodong

    2015-10-01

    Due to low resolutions of infrared face image, the local texture features are more appreciated for infrared face feature extraction. To extract rich facial texture features, infrared face recognition based on local binary pattern (LBP) and center-symmetric local derivative pattern (CS-LDP) is proposed. Firstly, LBP is utilized to extract the first order texture from the original infrared face image; Secondly, the second order features are extracted CS-LDP. Finally, an adaptive weighted fusion algorithm based separability discriminant criterion is proposed to get final recognition features. Experimental results on our infrared faces databases demonstrate that separability oriented fusion of LBP and CS-LDP contributes complementary discriminant ability, which can improve the performance for infrared face recognition

  6. Clothing Image Retrieval Based on LBP-GLCM Texture Feature Extraction%基于LBP-GLCM纹理特征提取的服装图像检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玥灵; 吴国平; 耿秀秀; 杜晓骏

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种针对服装图像检索的LBP-GLCM纹理特征提取方法,首先利用Uniform-旋转不变局部二值模式算法处理服装图像,得到不会因为旋转而改变的编码图像,然后获取此图像的灰度共生矩阵,采用能量、对比度、相关性和均匀性描述图像的纹理特征.实验数据表明,LBP-GLCM纹理特征提取方法具有良好的抗旋转性,且在采用欧氏距离作为相似性度量时,LBP-GLCM相较于GLCM纹理特征提取方法可以获得更高的检索效率和准确率.

  7. COPE-ICD: A randomised clinical trial studying the effects and meaning of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme for ICD recipients -design, intervention and population

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    Pedersen Birthe D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence exists that living with an ICD can lead to fear and avoidance behaviour including the avoidance of physical activity. It has been suggested that psychological stress can increase the risk of shock and predict death. Small studies have indicated a beneficial effect arising from exercise training and psychological intervention, therefore a large-scale rehabilitation programme was set up. Methods/Design A mixed methods embedded experimental design was chosen to include both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomised clinical trial is its primary component. 196 patients (power-calculated were block randomised to either a control group or intervention group at a single centre. The intervention consists of a 1-year psycho-educational component provided by two nurses and a 12-week exercise training component provided by two physiotherapists. Our hypothesis is that the COPE-ICD programme will reduce avoidance behaviour, sexual dysfunction and increase quality of life, increase physical capability, reduce the number of treatment-demanding arrhythmias, reduce mortality and acute re-hospitalisation, reduce sickness leading to absence from work and be cost-effective. A blinded investigator will perform all physical tests and data collection. Discussion Most participants are men (79% with a mean age of 58 (range 20-85. Most ICD implantations are on primary prophylactic indication (66%. 44% is NYHA II. Mean walk capacity (6MWT is 417 m. Mean perception of General Health (SF-36 is PCS 42.6 and MCS 47.1. A large-scale ICD rehabilitation trial including psycho-educational intervention and exercise training has been initiated and will report findings starting in 2011. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00569478

  8. Changes in stress and coping from a randomized controlled trial of a three-month stress management intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, M.V.; Thulstrup, A.M.; Hertz, J.

    2009-01-01

    % Cl -0.89-0.07) favouring the intervention. The gains achieved during treatment were maintained when followed up three months later. Conclusions Treatment is Superior to the control condition in positively affecting perceived stress and positive reframing. When followed up, the gains achieved......Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate whether it group-based stress management intervention, based on principles from cognitive behavior therapy, call reduce stress and alter coping strategies in an occupationally diverse population with extensive symptoms of work-related stress....... Methods Using a randomized wait list control design, 102 participants were divided into two groups: intervention and wait list control. The intervention was a three-month group-based stress management program. Outcomes measures were the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, range 0-40 points) and five...

  9. Multidisciplinary outpatient care program for patients with chronic low back pain: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study [ISRCTN28478651

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Johannes R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (LBP is a major public and occupational health problem, which is associated with very high costs. Although medical costs for chronic LBP are high, most costs are related to productivity losses due to sick leave. In general, the prognosis for return to work (RTW is good but a minority of patients will be absent long-term from work. Research shows that work related problems are associated with an increase in seeking medical care and sick leave. Usual medical care of patients is however, not specifically aimed at RTW. The objective is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial, i.e. the BRIDGE-study, evaluating the effectiveness in improving RTW and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary outpatient care program situated in both primary and outpatient care setting compared with usual clinical medical care for patients with chronic LBP. Methods/Design The design is a randomized controlled trial with an economic evaluation alongside. The study population consists of patients with chronic LBP who are completely or partially sick listed and visit an outpatient clinic of one of the participating hospitals in Amsterdam (the Netherlands. Two interventions will be compared. 1. a multidisciplinary outpatient care program consisting of a workplace intervention based on participatory ergonomics, and a graded activity program using cognitive behavioural principles. 2. usual care provided by the medical specialist, the occupational physician, the patient's general practitioner and allied health professionals. The primary outcome measure is sick leave duration until full RTW. Sick leave duration is measured monthly by self-report during one year. Data on sick leave during one-year follow-up are also requested form the employers. Secondary outcome measures are pain intensity, functional status, pain coping, patient satisfaction and quality of life. Outcome measures are assessed before randomization and 3, 6

  10. Parental transfer of the antimicrobial protein LBP/BPI protects Biomphalaria glabrata eggs against oomycete infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucia Baron

    Full Text Available Vertebrate females transfer antibodies via the placenta, colostrum and milk or via the egg yolk to protect their immunologically immature offspring against pathogens. This evolutionarily important transfer of immunity is poorly documented in invertebrates and basic questions remain regarding the nature and extent of parental protection of offspring. In this study, we show that a lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bactericidal permeability increasing protein family member from the invertebrate Biomphalaria glabrata (BgLBP/BPI1 is massively loaded into the eggs of this freshwater snail. Native and recombinant proteins displayed conserved LPS-binding, antibacterial and membrane permeabilizing activities. A broad screening of various pathogens revealed a previously unknown biocidal activity of the protein against pathogenic water molds (oomycetes, which is conserved in human BPI. RNAi-dependent silencing of LBP/BPI in the parent snails resulted in a significant reduction of reproductive success and extensive death of eggs through oomycete infections. This work provides the first functional evidence that a LBP/BPI is involved in the parental immune protection of invertebrate offspring and reveals a novel and conserved biocidal activity for LBP/BPI family members.

  11. Multiple unfolding pathways of leucine binding protein (LBP) probed by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamarthi, Hema Chandra; Sharma, Riddhi; Narayan, Satya; Ray, Sayoni; Ainavarapu, Sri Rama Koti

    2013-10-02

    Experimental studies on the folding and unfolding of large multi-domain proteins are challenging, given the proteins' complex energy landscapes with multiple intermediates. Here, we report a mechanical unfolding study of a 346-residue, two-domain leucine binding protein (LBP) from the bacterial periplasm. Forced unfolding of LBP is a prerequisite for its translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane into the bacterial periplasm. During the mechanical stretching of LBP, we observe that 38% of the unfolding flux followed a two-state pathway, giving rise to a single unfolding force peak at ~70 pN with an unfolding contour length of 120 nm in constant-velocity single-molecule pulling experiments. The remaining 62% of the unfolding flux followed multiple three-state pathways, with intermediates having unfolding contour lengths in the range ~20-85 nm. These results suggest that the energy landscape of LBP is complex, with multiple intermediate states, and a large fraction of molecules go through intermediate states during the unfolding process. Furthermore, the presence of the ligand leucine increased the unfolding flux through the two-state pathway from 38% to 65%, indicating the influence of ligand binding on the energy landscape. This study suggests that unfolding through parallel pathways might be a general mechanism for the large two-domain proteins that are translocated to the bacterial periplasmic space.

  12. A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennell Kim L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. Methods/design This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by

  13. LBP and CD14 polymorphisms correlate with increased colorectal carcinoma risk in Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Chen; Fu-Kang Luo; Ya-Li Wang; Jin-Liang Tang; You-Sheng Liu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the associations of polymorphisms of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) with the colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk in Han Chinese. METHODS: Polymorphisms of LBP (rs1739654, rs2232596, rs2232618), CD14 (rs77083413, rs4914), TLR-4 (rs5030719), IL-6 (rs13306435) and TNF-α (rs35131721) were genotyped in 479 cases of sporadic colorectal carcinoma and 486 healthy controls of Han Chinese in a case-control study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between cases and controls were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: GA and GG genotypes of LBP rs2232596 were associated with a significantly increased risk of CRC [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.99, P = 0.003; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.16-5.38, P = 0.016, respectively]. A similar association was also observed for the CG genotype of CD14 rs4914 (OR= 1.69, 95% CI 1.20-2.36, P = 0.002). In addition, a combination of polymorphisms in LBP rs2232596 and CD14 rs4914 led to a 3.4-fold increased risk of CRC (OR = 3.44,95% CI 1.94-6.10, P = 0.000).CONCLUSION: This study highlights the LBP rs2232596 and CD14 rs4914 polymorphisms as biomarkers for elevated CRC susceptibility in the Chinese Han population.

  14. The effects of written emotional disclosure and coping skills training in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Mark A; Keefe, Francis J; Mosley-Williams, Angelia; Rice, John R; McKee, Daphne; Waters, Sandra J; Partridge, R Ty; Carty, Jennifer N; Coltri, Ainoa M; Kalaj, Anita; Cohen, Jay L; Neely, Lynn C; Pahssen, Jennifer K; Connelly, Mark A; Bouaziz, Yelena B; Riordan, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    Two psychological interventions for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cognitive-behavioral coping skills training (CST) and written emotional disclosure (WED). These approaches have developed independently, and their combination may be more effective than either one alone. Furthermore, most studies of each intervention have methodological limitations, and each needs further testing. We randomized 264 adults with RA in a 2 × 2 factorial design to 1 of 2 writing conditions (WED vs. control writing) followed by 1 of 2 training conditions (CST vs. arthritis education control training). Patient-reported pain and functioning, blinded evaluations of disease activity and walking speed, and an inflammatory marker (C-reactive protein) were assessed at baseline and 1-, 4-, and 12-month follow-ups. Completion of each intervention was high (>90% of patients), and attrition was low (10.2% at 12-month follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling of treatment effects over the follow-up period, and analyses of covariance at each assessment point, revealed no interactions between writing and training; however, both interventions had main effects on outcomes, with small effect sizes. Compared with control training, CST decreased pain and psychological symptoms through 12 months. The effects of WED were mixed: Compared with control writing, WED reduced disease activity and physical disability at 1 month only, but WED had more pain than control writing on 1 of 2 measures at 4 and 12 months. The combination of WED and CST does not improve outcomes, perhaps because each intervention has unique effects at different time points. CST improves health status in RA and is recommended for patients, whereas WED has limited benefits and needs strengthening or better targeting to appropriate patients. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizhen Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1.

  16. A physiotherapist-delivered integrated exercise and pain coping skills training intervention for individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Ahamed, Yasmin; Bryant, Christina; Jull, Gwendolen; Hunt, Michael A; Kenardy, Justin; Forbes, Andrew; Harris, Anthony; Nicholas, Michael; Metcalf, Ben; Egerton, Thorlene; Keefe, Francis J

    2012-07-24

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent chronic musculoskeletal condition with no cure. Pain is the primary symptom and results from a complex interaction between structural changes, physical impairments and psychological factors. Much evidence supports the use of strengthening exercises to improve pain and physical function in this patient population. There is also a growing body of research examining the effects of psychologist-delivered pain coping skills training (PCST) particularly in other chronic pain conditions. Though typically provided separately, there are symptom, resource and personnel advantages of exercise and PCST being delivered together by a single healthcare professional. Physiotherapists are a logical choice to be trained to deliver a PCST intervention as they already have expertise in administering exercise for knee OA and are cognisant of the need for a biopsychosocial approach to management. No studies to date have examined the effects of an integrated exercise and PCST program delivered solely by physiotherapists in this population. The primary aim of this multisite randomised controlled trial is to investigate whether an integrated 12-week PCST and exercise treatment program delivered by physiotherapists is more efficacious than either program alone in treating pain and physical function in individuals with knee OA. This will be an assessor-blinded, 3-arm randomised controlled trial of a 12-week intervention involving 10 physiotherapy visits together with home practice. Participants with symptomatic and radiographic knee OA will be recruited from the community in two cities in Australia and randomized into one of three groups: exercise alone, PCST alone, or integrated PCST and exercise. Randomisation will be stratified by city (Melbourne or Brisbane) and gender. Primary outcomes are overall average pain in the past week measured by a Visual Analogue Scale and physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities

  17. The Exercising Together project: design and recruitment for a randomized, controlled trial to determine the benefits of partnered strength training for couples coping with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Lyons, Karen S; Nail, Lillian M; Beer, Tomasz M

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer can threaten quality of life for the patient and his spouse and the quality of his marital relationship. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effects of "Exercising Together" - a partnered strength training program for married couples coping with prostate cancer - on the physical and emotional health of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) and their spouses and on marital quality. We are conducting a 6-month randomized controlled trial with two groups: 1) Exercising Together - a progressive, supervised strength training program and 2) a usual care control condition. The primary aims of this exploratory study are to: 1) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health (muscle strength, physical function, body composition and self-report physical and mental health) in PCS, 2) Determine the effect of partnered strength training on physical and emotional health in spouses and 3) Explore the effect of partnered strength training on marital quality (incongruence, communication, relationship quality, intimacy) of the PCS and spouse. Target accrual has been met in this study with 64 couples enrolled and randomized to exercise (n=32) or usual care (n=32) groups. This study is the first to examine the feasibility of this exercise format in both the chronically ill patient and spouse and explore benefits at the individual and couple level.

  18. Determinants for receiving acupuncture for LBP and associated treatments: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum Erika

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is a frequently used but controversial adjunct to the treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP. Acupuncture is now considered to be effective for chronic LBP and health care systems are pressured to make a decision whether or not acupuncture should be covered. It has been suggested that providing such services might reduce the use of other health care services. Therefore, we explored factors associated with acupuncture treatment for LBP and the relation of acupuncture with other health care services. Methods This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study. General practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive adult patients with LBP. Data on physical function, subjective mood and utilization of health care services was collected at the first consultation and at follow-up telephone interviews for a period of twelve months. Results A total of 179 (13 % out of 1,345 patients received acupuncture treatment. The majority of those (59 % had chronic LBP. Women and elderly patients were more likely to be given acupuncture. Additional determinants of acupuncture therapy were low functional capacity and chronicity of pain. Chronic (vs. acute back pain OR 1.6 (CL 1.4–2.9 was the only significant disease-related factor associated with the treatment. The strongest predictors for receiving acupuncture were consultation with a GP who offers acupuncture OR 3.5 (CL 2.9–4.1 and consultation with a specialist OR 2.1 (CL 1.9–2.3. After adjustment for patient characteristics, acupuncture remained associated with higher consultation rates and an increased use of other health care services like physiotherapy. Conclusion Receiving acupuncture for LBP depends mostly on the availability of the treatment. It is associated with increased use of other health services even after adjustment for patient characteristics. In our study, we found that receiving acupuncture does not offset the use of other health care resources

  19. The Performance of LBP and NSVC Combination Applied to Face Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ngadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand in the field of security led to the development of interesting approaches in face classification. These works are interested since their beginning in extracting the invariant features of the face to build a single model easily identifiable by classification algorithms. Our goal in this article is to develop more efficient practical methods for face detection. We present a new fast and accurate approach based on local binary patterns (LBP for the extraction of the features that is combined with the new classifier Neighboring Support Vector Classifier (NSVC for classification. The experimental results on different natural images show that the proposed method can get very good results at a very short detection time. The best precision obtained by LBP-NSVC exceeds 99%.

  20. Coping Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

  1. Particular application of methods of AdaBoost and LBP to the problems of computer vision

    OpenAIRE

    Волошин, Микола Володимирович

    2012-01-01

    The application of AdaBoost method and local binary pattern (LBP) method for different spheres of computer vision implementation, such as personality identification and computer iridology, is considered in the article. The goal of the research is to develop error-correcting methods and systems for implements of computer vision and computer iridology, in particular. This article considers the problem of colour spaces, which are used as a filter and as a pre-processing of images. Method of AdaB...

  2. The LBP Gene and Its Association with Resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Hong Fu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p < 0.05 of two of the three SNPs with the resistance to A. hydrophila, but not with the resistance to S. agalactiae or growth performance. These results suggest that the LBP gene is involved in the acute-phase immunologic response to the bacterial infections, and the responses to the two bacterial pathogens are different. The two SNPs associated with the resistance to A. hydrophila may be useful in the selection of tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  3. Cortisol, Health, and Coping in Patients with Nonspecific Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, Vigdis; Eriksen, Hege R; Ursin, Holger;

    2016-01-01

    Subjective health complaints (SHC), including nonspecific low back pain (LBP) as the most common single complaint, are the main reasons for long-term sick leave in many western countries. These complaints are often attributed to "stress". Cortisol has frequently been considered a biomarker...... reflecting sustained physiological HPA-axis activity, and is characterized by a high cortisol awakening response (CAR) and low evening values. The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBP patients had a normal characteristic cortisol profile, and whether possible deviations were related to coping...... and health. 305 patients on long-term sick leave for LBP participated in the study, and saliva cortisol profiles were compared to a reference population consisting of Danish workers. Cortisol was measured upon awakening, after 30 min, and in the evening. Additionally, patients answered questionnaires about...

  4. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Summary of Background Data. LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide......, stress management, or reference arm. A total of 163 individuals (79% of the source population) participated in both baseline and follow-up after 2 years. Outcome was intra-individual change in rating of LBP during the past 3 and 12 months. Results. We found no difference in LBP in any of the intervention...... arms over the study period. Conclusion. The study showed no effect of a transfer technique or stress management program targeting LBP. Thus, there is a need for discussing other priorities in the prevention of LBP among health care workers....

  5. Effects of Nursing Care Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring on Anxiety, Distress, And Coping, When Infertility Treatment Fails: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeter Durgun Ozan; Hülya Okumuş

    2017-01-01

    ...: Watson's theory of human caring is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with infertility treatment to decrease levels of anxiety and distress, and to increase the positive coping style among infertile women...

  6. LBP and lower limb discrepancy: 3D evaluation of postural rebalancing via underfoot wedge correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Moreno; Roncoletta, Piero; Di Felice, Francesca; Porto, Daniele; Bellomo, Rosagrazia; Saggini, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is very often associated to Low Back Pain (LBP), but still controversial is the use of underfoot wedge correction (heel rise) to re-balance pelvis and trunk posture. In a review of our last 5 years clinical activity we observed that more than 70% out of 300 LBP patients presented a LLD. In more than 80 % we ascertained, via Baropodography, the presence of underfoot asymmetric load, during standing. More durable therapy recovery effect has been observed when LLD correction had been adopted. These reasons led us to start a study to assess if a Full 3D multifactorial Posture evaluation approach, by means of Opto-electronic device associated to foot pressure maps recording, was able to quantitatively discriminate the clinically observed phenomena. On a 94 LBP (av. age 46.3±16 Y range 15-82 Y) patients sample, 83 (88%) have been found to improve posture when LLD was corrected. The 94 patients showed a mean lower limb discrepancy of μ=8±3.2mm associated to a mean scoliotic lumbar curve μ=10.5°±5.1° Cobb (frontal plane), mean Spinal offset μ=6.6±4.9mm and mean Global offset 10.7±8.8mm. The applied paired t-test comparison (indifferent vs. corrected orthostasis) showed significant (p < 0.05) postural improvements could be obtained in the whole or in a part of the considered parameters, both in rebalancing and in spine deformities reduction after the application of suitable under-foot wedge. The joint 3D opto-electronic and foot pressure map approach proved to be effective to control several clinical parameters with statistical significance.

  7. Multi-Metric Based Face Identification with Multi Configuration LBP Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeddou Mustapha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance improvement of a mono modal face identification. A statistical study of various structures of the LBPs (Local Binary Patterns features associated to two metrics is performed to find out those committing errors on different subjects. Then, during the identification stage, these optimal variants are used, and a simple score level fusion is adopted. The score fusion is done after min-max normalization. The main contribution of this paper consists in the association of multiple LBP schemes with different metrics using simple fusion operation. The overall identification rating up to 99% using AT&T database is achieved.

  8. The LBP gene and its association with resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui Hong; Liu, Feng; Xia, Jun Hong; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-12-01

    Resistance to pathogens is important for the sustainability and profitability of food fish production. In immune-related genes, the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) gene is an important mediator of the inflammatory reaction. We analyzed the cDNA and genomic structure of the LBP gene in tilapia. The full-length cDNA (1901 bp) of the gene contained a 1416 bp open reading frame, encoding 471 amino acid residues. Its genomic sequence was 5577 bp, comprising 15 exons and 14 introns. Under normal conditions, the gene was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues. The highest expression was detected in intestine and kidney. We examined the responses of the gene to challenges with two bacterial pathogens Streptcoccus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. The gene was significantly upregulated in kidney and spleen post-infection with S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, respectively. However, the expression profiles of the gene after the challenge with the two pathogens were different. Furthermore, we identified three SNPs in the gene. There were significant associations (p tilapia resistant to A. hydrophila.

  9. Pengaruh Terapi Panas, Dingin, dan Panas-Dingin Terhadap Intensitas Nyeri pada Pasien Low Back Pain (LBP) di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Dr. Pirngadi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) adalah nyeri, ketegangan otot atau kekakuan yang terletak di bawah batas kosta dan di atas lipatan glutealis inferior, dengan atau tanpa sakit kaki (sciatica). LBP dapat diatasi secara farmakologi dan non farmakologi. Penggunaan terapi panas dan terapi dingin adalah salah satu terapi modalitas manajemen nyeri non farmakologis yang dapat digunakan oleh perawat untuk mengatasi nyeri khususnya nyeri pada pasien LBP. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh terapi pa...

  10. Making Better Lives: Patient-Focused Care for Low Back Pain (LBP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Chronic Low Back Pain; Hip Ostearthritis; Myofascial Pain Syndrome; Fibromyalgia; Depression; Maladaptive Coping; Lumbar Spinal Stenosis; Insomnia; Sacroiliac Joint Pain; Lateral Hip and Thigh Pain; Anxiety; Dementia; Recent Leg Length Discrepancy

  11. STRES DITINJAU DARI ACTIVE COPING, AVOIDANCE COPING DAN NEGATIVE COPING.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantoro Safaria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStres  merupakan bagian dari kehidupan dan  kehidupan tidak lepas dari stres. Stresbisa dialami siapa saja, dari kanak-kanak hingga  lanjut usia.  Stres bisa bersifat akut danbisa pula bersifat  kronis.  Banyak penelitian empiris yang membuktikan bahwa stres berdampaksecara negatif bagi kesehatan tubuh  dan  kesejahteraan psikologis. Namun banyak faktoryang berpengaruh terhadap stres. Diantara faktor  faktor tersebut adalah strategi  coping yangdigunakan individu.Penelitian ini menguji hubungan antara  tiga strategi coping yaitu active coping,avoidance coping  dan  negative coping  dengan  stres  pada mahasiswa. Subyekpenelitian berjumlah  41 orang yang merupakan mahasiswa psikologi Universitas AhmadDahlan Yogyakarta.Berdasarkan hasil  analisis regresi menunjukkan tidak ada hubungan  yang signifikanantara   active coping, negative coping dan  avoidance coping  secara bersama-sama dengan  stres R = 0.045 F = 1.631 p = 0.199. Hasil uji korelasi  product momentpearson antara  active coping  dengan stres menunjukkan adanya hubungan negatif yangtidak signifikan r = - 0.034 p =  0.417. Korelasi antara avoidance coping  dengan stresmenunjukkan adanya hubungan positif yang tidak signifikan r = 0.113 p = 0.241.  Korelasiantara  negative coping  dengan stres menunjukkan hubungan positif yang signifikan  r =0.340 p = 0.015. Negative  coping  menyumbang  9.3 %  terhadap  stres. Ini menunjukkanmasih terdapat  90.7 % pengaruh variabel lain yang terhadap stres.

  12. The Effect of the Psychiatric Nursing Approach Based on the Tidal Model on Coping and Self-esteem in People with Alcohol Dependency: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaşan, Ayşegül; Çam, Olcay

    2017-06-01

    People with alcohol dependency have lower self-esteem than controls and when their alcohol use increases, their self-esteem decreases. Coping skills in alcohol related issues are predicted to reduce vulnerability to relapse. It is important to adapt care to individual needs so as to prevent a return to the cycle of alcohol use. The Tidal Model focuses on providing support and services to people who need to live a constructive life. The aim of the randomized study was to determine the effect of the psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model on coping and self-esteem in people with alcohol dependency. The study was semi-experimental in design with a control group, and was conducted on 36 individuals (18 experimental, 18 control). An experimental and a control group were formed by assigning persons to each group using the stratified randomization technique in the order in which they were admitted to hospital. The Coping Inventory (COPE) and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) were used as measurement instruments. The measurement instruments were applied before the application and three months after the application. In addition to routine treatment and follow-up, the psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model was applied to the experimental group in the One-to-One Sessions. The psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model is an approach which is effective in increasing the scores of people with alcohol dependency in positive reinterpretation and growth, active coping, restraint, emotional social support and planning and reducing their scores in behavioral disengagement. It was seen that self-esteem rose, but the difference from the control group did not reach significance. The psychiatric nursing approach based on the Tidal Model has an effect on people with alcohol dependency in maintaining their abstinence. The results of the study may provide practices on a theoretical basis for improving coping behaviors and self-esteem and

  13. Personality and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  14. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  15. The efficacy of a short education program and a short physiotherapy program for treating low back pain in primary care: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Celia; Kovacs, Francisco M; Royuela, Ana; del Pino, Rafael; Zamora, Javier

    2010-03-01

    Cluster randomized clinical trial. To assess the efficacy of a short education program and short physiotherapy program for treating low back pain (LBP) in primary care. There is sparse evidence on the effectiveness of education and physiotherapy programs that are short enough to be feasible in primary care. Sixty-nine primary care physicians were randomly assigned to 3 groups and recruited 348 patients consulting for LBP; 265 (79.8%) were chronic. All patients received usual care, were given a booklet and received a consistent 15 minutes group talk on health education, which focused on healthy nutrition habits in the control group, and on active management for LBP in the "education" and "education + physiotherapy" groups. Additionally, in the "education + physiotherapy" group, patients were given a second booklet and a 15-minute group talk on postural hygiene, and 4 one-hour physiotherapy sessions of exercise and stretching which they were encouraged to keep practicing at home. The main outcome measure was improvement of LBP-related disability at 6 months. Patients' assessment and data analyses were blinded. During the 6-month follow-up period, improvement in the "control" group was negligible. Additional improvement in the "education" and "education + physiotherapy" groups was found for disability (2.0 and 2.2 Roland Morris Questionnaire points, respectively), LBP (1.8 and 2.10 Visual Analogue Scale points), referred pain (1.3 and 1.6 Visual Analogue Scale points), catastrophizing (1.6 and 1.8 Coping Strategies Questionnaire points), physical quality of life (2.9 and 2.9 SF-12 points), and mental quality of life (3.7 and 5.1 SF-12 points). The addition of a short education program on active management to usual care in primary care leads to small but consistent improvements in disability, pain, and quality of life. The addition of a short physiotherapy program composed of education on postural hygiene and exercise intended to be continued at home, increases those

  16. Informed Consent (Clinical Trials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Cancer Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs ... Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer ...

  17. Facial Age Estimation based on Decision Level Fusion of AAM, LBP and Gabor Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman Günay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new hierarchical age estimation method based on decision level fusion of global and local features is proposed. The shape and appearance information of human faces which are extracted with active appearance models (AAM are used as global facial features. The local facial features are the wrinkle features extracted with Gabor filters and skin features extracted with local binary patterns (LBP. Then feature classification is performed using a hierarchical classifier which is the combination of an age group classification and detailed age estimation. In the age group classification phase, three distinct support vector machines (SVM classifiers are trained using each feature vector. Then decision level fusion is performed to combine the results of these classifiers. The detailed age of the classified image is then estimated in that age group, using the aging functions modeled with global and local features, separately. Aging functions are modeled with multiple linear regression. To make a final decision, the results of these aging functions are also fused in decision level. Experimental results on the FG-NET and PAL aging databases have shown that the age estimation accuracy of the proposed method is better than the previous methods.

  18. Performance Evaluation on the Effect of Combining DCT and LBP on Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari Haritha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a face recognition algorithm based on doubly truncated multivariate Gaussian mixture model with Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Local binary pattern (LBP. Here, the input face image is transformed to the local binary pattern domain. The obtained local binary pattern image is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Then from each block the DCT coefficients are computed and feature vector is extracted. Assigning that the feature vector follows a doubly truncated multivariate Gaussian mixture distribution, the face image is modelled. By using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm the model parameters are estimated. The initialization of the model parameters is done by using either K-means algorithm or hierarchical clustering algorithm and moment method of estimation. The face recognition system is developed with the likelihood function under Bayesian frame. The efficiency of the developed face recognition system is evaluated by conducting experimentation with JNTUK and Yale face image databases. The performance measures like half total error rate, recognition rates are computed along with plotting the ROC curves. A comparative study of the developed algorithm with some of the earlier existing algorithm revealed that this system perform better since, it utilizes local and global information of the face.

  19. Comparison of FFPE histological versus LBP cytological samples for HPV detection and typing in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geehyuk; Cho, Hyemi; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Sunyoung; Lee, Jiyoung; Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-02-27

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is closely associated with cervical cancer. This study analyzed HPV genotype prevalence in 75 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Genotype prevalence was assessed using Reverse Blot Assay (REBA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which target the HPV L1 and HPV E6/E7 genes, respectively. HPV DNA chip tests were also performed using liquid based preparation (LBP) cytological samples from the same patients who provided the FFPE histological samples. We observed a slight difference in HPV genotype distribution as assessed by DNA chip versus REBA. One possible explanation for this difference is that normal regions could be mixed with lesion regions when cytological samples are extracted from each patient with cancer. For the detection of moderate dysplasia, the main target of diagnosis, this difference is anticipated to be greater. We also made several unexpected observations. For example, HPV multi-infection was not detected. Moreover, the rate of HPV positivity varied radically depending on the cancer origin, e.g. squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma. Our results imply that it is important to determine whether cytological specimens are suitable for HPV genotyping analysis and cervical cancer diagnosis. Future research on the mechanisms underlying cervical cancer pathogenesis is also necessary.

  20. Automatic Meal Inspection System Using LBP-HF Feature for Central Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Min Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an intelligent and automatic meal inspection system which can be applied to the meal inspection for the application of central kitchen automation. The diet specifically designed for the patients are required with providing personalized diet such as low sodium intake or some necessary food. Hence, the proposed system can benefit the inspection process that is often performed manually. In the proposed system, firstly, the meal box can be detected and located automatically with the vision-based method and then all the food ingredients can be identified by using the color and LBP-HF texture features. Secondly, the quantity for each of food ingredient is estimated by using the image depth information. The experimental results show that the meal inspection accuracy can approach 80%, meal inspection efficiency can reach1200ms, and the food quantity accuracy is about 90%. The proposed system is expected to increase the capacity of meal supply over 50% and be helpful to the dietician in the hospital for saving the time in the diet inspection process.

  1. Facial Expression Recognition Based on Features Derived From the Distinct LBP and GLCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorti Satyanarayana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions can be an important component of natural human-machine interfaces; it may also be used in behavioural science and in clinical practice. Although humans recognise facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine is still a challenge. This paper, presents recognition of facial expression by integrating the features derived from Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM with a new structural approach derived from distinct LBP’s (DLBP ona 3 x 3 First order Compressed Image (FCI. The proposed method precisely recognizes the 7 categories of expressions i.e.: neutral, happiness, sadness, surprise, anger, disgust and fear. The proposed method contains three phases. In the first phase each 5 x 5 sub image is compressed into a 3 x 3 sub image. The second phase derives two distinct LBP’s (DLBP using the Triangular patterns between the upper and lower parts of the 3 x 3 sub image. In the third phase GLCM is constructed based on the DLBP’s and feature parameters are evaluated for precise facial expression recognition. The derived DLBP is effective because it integrated with GLCM and provides better classification performance. The proposed method overcomes the disadvantages of statistical and formal LBP methods in estimating the facial expressions. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on facial expression recognition.

  2. Review on Matching Infrared Face Images to Optical Face Images using LBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakhaya Argulewar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In biometric research and many security areas, it is very difficult task to match the images which is captured by different devices. Large gap exist between them because they relates with different classes. Matching optical face images to infrared face images is one of the difficult task in face biometric. Large difference exists between infrared and optical face images because they belong to multiple classes. Converting the samples of multimodality into common feature space is the main objective of this project. Different class of images is relating by coordinating separate feature for classes .It is mainly used in heterogeneous face recognition. The new method has been developing for identification of heterogeneous face identification. Training set contains the images from different modalities. Initially the infrared image is preprocessed by applying Gaussian filter, difference of Gaussian and CSDN filters are apply on infrared face image. After preprocessing next step to extracting the feature by using LBP(local binary pattern feature extraction then relevance machine classifier is used to identify the best matching optical image from the corresponding infrared images from the optical images dataset. By processing this technique our system efficiently match the infrared and optical face images.

  3. Design of a Web-based individual coping and alcohol-intervention program (web-ICAIP for children of parents with alcohol problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgán Tobias H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT to measure the efficacy of this intervention. Methods/Design The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6. The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC, a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C. Additional outcomes include

  4. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  5. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  6. Identification and expression analysis on bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI)/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) of ark shell, Scapharca broughtonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuze; Zhou, Chunya; Zhu, Ling; Huang, Yao; Yan, Tingru; Fang, Jianguang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) are the numbers of the lipid transfer protein/lipopolysaccharide-binding protein family and play crucial roles in the innate immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. A novel Sb-BPI/LBP1 from ark shell Scapharca broughtonii was isolated by expressed sequence tag (EST) and RACE techniques. The Sb-BPI/LBP1 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 484 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues and a mature protein of 463 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Sb-BPI/LBP1 contained an N-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI1 with three functional regions that display LPS-binding activity, and a C-terminal BPI/LBP/CETP domain BPI2. In structure and sequence, Sb-BPI/LBP1 showed highly similar to those of the BPI/LBPs from invertebrate and non-mammalian vertebrate, the LBPs and BPIs from mammal. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Sb-BPI/LBP1 transcripts could be detected in all normal tested tissues, including hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, mantle margin, heart, gonad, gill and hemocytes, and was universally up-regulatable at 24 h post LPS challenge. The mRNA expression of Sb-BPI/LBP1 in hemocytes was the most sensitive to LPS challenge, significantly up-regulated at 12 h post LPS challenge and peaked at 24 h (16.76-fold, P ark shell S. broughtonii.

  7. An educational approach based on a non-injury model compared with individual symptom-based physical training in chronic LBP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Pia H; Bendix, Tom; Manniche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    In the treatment of chronic back pain, cognitive methods are attracting increased attention due to evidence of effectiveness similar to that of traditional therapies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of performing a cognitive intervention based on a non-injury model...... with that of a symptom-based physical training method on the outcomes of low back pain (LBP), activity limitation, LBP attitudes (fear-avoidance beliefs and back beliefs), physical activity levels, sick leave, and quality of life, in chronic LBP patients....

  8. Design of a Web-based individual coping and alcohol-intervention program (web-ICAIP) for children of parents with alcohol problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgán, Tobias H; Hansson, Helena; Zetterlind, Ulla; Kartengren, Nicklas; Leifman, Håkan

    2012-01-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program) for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to measure the efficacy of this intervention. The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old) who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Additional outcomes include the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life

  9. Effectiveness of McKenzie Method-Based Self-Management Approach for the Secondary Prevention of a Recurrence of Low Back Pain (SAFE Trial): Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Tarcisio F; Maher, Chris G; Clare, Helen A; da Silva, Tatiane M; Hancock, Mark J

    2017-08-01

    Although many people recover quickly from an episode of low back pain (LBP), recurrence is very common. There is limited evidence on effective prevention strategies for recurrences of LBP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a McKenzie method-based self-management approach in the secondary prevention of LBP. This will be a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Participants will be recruited from the community and primary care, with the intervention delivered in a number of physical therapist practices in Sydney, Australia. The study will have 396 participants, all of whom are at least 18 years old. Participants will be randomly assigned to either the McKenzie method-based self-management approach group or a minimal intervention control group. The primary outcome will be days to first self-reported recurrence of an episode of activity-limiting LBP. The secondary outcomes will include: days to first self-reported recurrence of an episode of LBP, days to first self-reported recurrence of an episode of LBP leading to care seeking, and the impact of LBP over a 12-month period. All participants will be followed up monthly for a minimum of 12 months or until they have a recurrence of activity-limiting LBP. All participants will also be followed-up at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months to assess the impact of back pain, physical activity levels, study program adherence, credibility, and adverse events. Participants and therapists will not be masked to the interventions. To our knowledge, this will be the first large, high-quality randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a McKenzie method-based self-management approach for preventing recurrences of LBP. If this approach is found to be effective, it will offer a low-cost, simple method for reducing the personal and societal burdens of LBP.

  10. Association of polymorphism in the transcription factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF gene with Alzheimer's disease and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schahab, Schamim; Heun, Reinhard; Schmitz, Sandra; Maier, Wolfgang; Kölsch, Heike

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF (LBP-1c) is a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) because it is located in a putative hotspot for an AD risk gene on chromosome 12. We investigated the effect of LBP-1c polymorphism on the risk of AD in 162 AD patients, 180 patients with major depression as hospitalized controls and 225 healthy subjects. We observed no significant association of the LBP-1c A allele with AD. Nor did we detect an interaction of the LBP-1c A allele with the apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele or the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein T allele which could have been related to the risk of AD. However, exploratory data analysis revealed that the LBP-1c A allele might act as a protective factor in major depression. A recent study also described an association of another gene located on chromosome 12, the mannose 6-phosphatase receptor gene, with major depression. These data suggest the presence of a putative risk gene for major depression at chromosome 12.

  11. Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit - REACT. Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a supported self management package for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Graham

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems commonly begin in adolescence when the majority of people are living with family. This can be a frightening time for relatives who often have little knowledge of what is happening or how to manage it. The UK National Health Service has a commitment to support relatives in order to reduce their distress, but research studies have shown that this can lead to a better outcome for service users as well. Unfortunately, many relatives do not get the kind of support they need. We aim to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of providing and supporting a Relatives' Education and Coping Toolkit (REACT for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis. Methods The study is a randomised control trial. Trial Registration for Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69299093. Relatives of people receiving treatment from the Early Intervention Service for psychosis are randomly allocated to receive either Treatment As Usual (TAU or TAU plus the REACT intervention. The main aims of the study are to: (i determine the acceptability of a supported self-management intervention; (ii determine preference for type of support; (iii assess the feasibility of the design; (iv identify the barriers and solutions to offering support for self-management approaches within the NHS; (v estimate the likely effect size of the impact of the intervention on outcome for relatives; (vi gain detailed feedback about the barriers and solutions to using a self-management approach; (vii describe the way in which the intervention is used. Outcomes will be assessed from baseline and at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The intervention is compared to current treatment in a sample of participants highly representative of relatives in routine early intervention services across the UK. The intervention is protocolised, offered within routine practice by existing staff and extensive process data is being collected. Randomisation is

  12. Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit - REACT. Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a supported self management package for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental health problems commonly begin in adolescence when the majority of people are living with family. This can be a frightening time for relatives who often have little knowledge of what is happening or how to manage it. The UK National Health Service has a commitment to support relatives in order to reduce their distress, but research studies have shown that this can lead to a better outcome for service users as well. Unfortunately, many relatives do not get the kind of support they need. We aim to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of providing and supporting a Relatives' Education and Coping Toolkit (REACT) for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis. Methods The study is a randomised control trial. Trial Registration for Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69299093. Relatives of people receiving treatment from the Early Intervention Service for psychosis are randomly allocated to receive either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus the REACT intervention. The main aims of the study are to: (i) determine the acceptability of a supported self-management intervention; (ii) determine preference for type of support; (iii) assess the feasibility of the design; (iv) identify the barriers and solutions to offering support for self-management approaches within the NHS; (v) estimate the likely effect size of the impact of the intervention on outcome for relatives; (vi) gain detailed feedback about the barriers and solutions to using a self-management approach; (vii) describe the way in which the intervention is used. Outcomes will be assessed from baseline and at 6 month follow-up. Discussion The intervention is compared to current treatment in a sample of participants highly representative of relatives in routine early intervention services across the UK. The intervention is protocolised, offered within routine practice by existing staff and extensive process data is being collected. Randomisation is independent; all assessments

  13. Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit--REACT. Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a supported self management package for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Fiona; Glentworth, David; Wainwright, Laura; Pinfold, Vanessa; Chapman, Lesley; Larkin, Warren; Dunn, Graham; Postlethwaite, Adam; Haddock, Gillian

    2011-06-16

    Mental health problems commonly begin in adolescence when the majority of people are living with family. This can be a frightening time for relatives who often have little knowledge of what is happening or how to manage it. The UK National Health Service has a commitment to support relatives in order to reduce their distress, but research studies have shown that this can lead to a better outcome for service users as well. Unfortunately, many relatives do not get the kind of support they need. We aim to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of providing and supporting a Relatives' Education and Coping Toolkit (REACT) for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis. The study is a randomised control trial. Trial Registration for Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69299093. Relatives of people receiving treatment from the Early Intervention Service for psychosis are randomly allocated to receive either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus the REACT intervention. The main aims of the study are to: (i) determine the acceptability of a supported self-management intervention; (ii) determine preference for type of support; (iii) assess the feasibility of the design; (iv) identify the barriers and solutions to offering support for self-management approaches within the NHS; (v) estimate the likely effect size of the impact of the intervention on outcome for relatives; (vi) gain detailed feedback about the barriers and solutions to using a self-management approach; (vii) describe the way in which the intervention is used. Outcomes will be assessed from baseline and at 6 month follow-up. The intervention is compared to current treatment in a sample of participants highly representative of relatives in routine early intervention services across the UK. The intervention is protocolised, offered within routine practice by existing staff and extensive process data is being collected. Randomisation is independent; all assessments are made by blind raters. The

  14. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  15. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials Information A to Z List of Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about ... Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to ...

  16. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a BPI/LBP homologue in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianrao HU, Mingfu CAO, Jiong Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI and LPS-binding protein (LBP play an important role in host defence. Current evidence shows that BPI/LBP may be widely existed in different cells and tissue types of animals. A full-length cDNA clone encoding a BPI/LBP homologue (dBPI, 1757bp in size, was characterized in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus. Its deduced amino acid sequence of 417 residues had 13.8%–21.5% identity to BPI like 1(BPIL1 and BPI like 3(BPIL3 of other animals. Conserved cysteine residues which are involved in disulfide bond formation between the final strand of the N-terminal beta sheet and the long alpha helix of BPI are identified as Cys146-Cys183 of dBPI. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the BPI/LBP homologues formed five large clusters and dBPI was in a large cluster including BPIL1 and BPIL3. dBPI mRNA shows a tissue specific expression in venom gland. This is the first study to identify the cDNA encoding BPI/LBP homologues from reptiles [Current Zoology 55 (5: –2009].

  17. 基于LBP和SVM决策树的人脸表情识别%Facial Expression Recognition Based on LBP and SVM Decision Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬; 郭海礁

    2014-01-01

    为了提高人脸表情识别的识别率,提出一种LBP和SVM决策树相结合的人脸表情识别算法。首先利用LBP算法将人脸表情图像转换为LBP特征谱,然后将LBP特征谱转换成LBP直方图特征序列,最后通过SVM决策树算法完成人脸表情的分类和识别,并且在JAFFE人脸表情库的识别中证明该算法的有效性。%In order to improve the recognition rate of facial expression, proposes a facial expression recognition algorithm based on a LBP and SVM decision tree. First facial expression image is converted to LBP characteristic spectrum using LBP algorithm, and then the LBP character-istic spectrum into LBP histogram feature sequence, finally completes the classification and recognition of facial expression by SVM deci-sion tree algorithm, and proves the effectiveness of the proposed method in the recognition of facial expression database in JAFFE.

  18. Characterization of the cDNA encoding a BPI/LBP homologue in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrao HU; Mingfu CAO; Jiong CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) play an important role in host defence. Current evidence shows that BPI/LBP may be widely existed in different cells and tissue types of animals. A full-length cDNA clone encoding a BPI/LBP homologue (dBPI), 1757 bp in size, was characterized in venom gland of the hundred-pace snake Deinagkistrodon acutus. Its deduced amino acid sequence of 417 residues had 13.8% - 21.5% identity to BPI like 1 (BPIL1) and BPI like 3 (BPIL3) of other animals. Conserved cysteine residues which are involved in disulfide bond formation between the final strand of the N-terminal beta sheet and the long alpha helix of BPI are identified as Cys146-Cys183 of dBPI. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the BPI/LBP homologues formed five large clusters and dBPl was in a large cluster including BPIL1 and BPIL3. dBPI mRNA shows a tissue specific expression in venom gland. This is the fast study to identify the cDNA encoding BPI/LBP homologues from reptiles [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 376 - 382, 2009].

  19. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  20. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Personal Stories from Survivors Survivors of heart disease and stroke are not alone. Read their stories ...

  1. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

  2. Coping with College Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  3. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  4. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight ... 3 Target Heart Rates 4 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 What are the Symptoms of High Blood ...

  5. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...

  6. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  7. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...

  8. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Arrhythmia Tools & Resources Cholesterol About Cholesterol HDL, LDL & Triglycerides Causes of High Cholesterol How To Get Your ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings ...

  9. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... Medication Tracker Communicating with Professionals - Introduction - Preparing for Medical Visits - Questions To Ask Your Healthcare Professional Taking Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - ...

  10. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... someone you met while you were in the hospital. Or introduce yourself to people in the doctor's ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  11. Coping with Rosacea: Tripwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form Search You are here Home Coping With Rosacea Tripwires - Weather Sun exposure, hot weather, humidity, cold ... you select rosacea-friendly meals: Monitor how your rosacea reacts to alcoholic beverages . Alcoholic beverages often induce ...

  12. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...

  13. Coping with Feelings

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    Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...

  14. 改进的HOG和Gabor,LBP性能比较%Performance Comparison of Improved HOG,Gabor and LBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向征; 谭恒良; 马争鸣

    2012-01-01

    为了实现复杂环境下的人脸特征有效表达,提出一种改进的梯度方向直方图(HOG)人脸识别方法.首先以人脸图像网格作为采样窗口并在其上提取HOG特征;然后将所有网格HOG特征向量进行组合,实现整个人脸特征表达;最后采用最近邻分类器进行识别.另外,比较了该方法与Gabor小波和局部二值模式(LBP)2种著名的人脸局部特征表示方法的优劣.实验结果表明,在调优的HOG参数下,在具有光照和时间环境等复杂变化的FERET人脸库中,较少维数的HOG特征比LBP特征有更好的表现,而且HOG特征提取时间和特征向量维数比Gabor小波方法更具有优势.%In order to achieve effective expression of the facial features in complex environment, an improved face recognition method of histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) is proposed. Firstly the face image grid is set as a sampling window, in which HOG features are extracted. Then all grid HOG feature vectors are composed to realize the whole facial features expression. Finally, recognition is achieved with a nearest neighbor classifier. We further compare it with two popular face local features expression methods, Gabor wavelet and local binary pattern (LBP). With the optimistic HOG parameters, experimental results show that HOG features with less dimensions have better performance than the LBP features in the FERET face collection under complex changes of light and time environments. Meanwhile HOG features have advantages over Gabor wavelet with less computational time of feature extraction and smaller number of feature vector dimensions.

  15. Effect of Individual Strengthening Exercises for Anterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROMs of a LBP Patient with Flat Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of individual strengthening exercises for the anterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with flat back. [Subject] A 37 year-old male, who complained of LBP pain at L3-5 levels with flat back, participated. [Methods] He performed the individual strengthening exercises for anterior pelvic tilt muscles (erector spinae,iliopsoas, rectus femoris). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles of the right and left sides were recovered to normal ranges. His lumbar ROMs increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that individual resistance exercises are a necessary approach for effective and fast strengthening of pelvic anterior tilt muscles in LBP with flat back.

  16. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  17. The effect of continuous ultrasound on chronic low back pain: protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghdi Soofia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic non-specific low-back pain (LBP is one of the most common and expensive musculoskeletal disorders in industrialized countries. Similar to other countries in the world, LBP is a common health and socioeconomic problem in Iran. One of the most widely used modalities in the field of physiotherapy for treating LBP is therapeutic ultrasound. Despite its common use, there is still inconclusive evidence to support its effectiveness in this group of patients. This randomised trial will evaluate the effectiveness of continuous ultrasound in addition to exercise therapy in patients with chronic LBP. Methods and design A total of 46 patients, between the ages 18 and 65 years old who have had LBP for more than three months will be recruited from university hospitals. Participants will be randomized to receive continuous ultrasound plus exercise therapy or placebo ultrasound plus exercise therapy. These groups will be treated for 10 sessions during a period of 4 weeks. Primary outcome measures will be functional disability and pain intensity. Lumbar flexion and extension range of motion, as well as changes in electromyography muscle fatigue indices, will be measured as secondary outcomes. All outcome measures will be measured at baseline, after completion of the treatment sessions, and after one month. Discussion The results of this trial will help to provide some evidence regarding the use of continuous ultrasound in chronic LBP patients. This should lead to a more evidence-based approach to clinical decision making regarding the use of ultrasound for LBP. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2251

  18. 草鱼BPI/LBP基因的克隆及特征研究%Cloning and characterization of BPI/LBP gene from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 黄腾; 彭丽敏

    2011-01-01

    【目的】克隆草鱼杀菌通透性增加蛋白/脂多糖结合蛋白(Bactericidal permeability-increasing pro-tein/LPS-binding protein,BPI/LBP)基因的cDNA全长,分析其结构特征,研究其表达规律,为进一步探明其功能奠定基础。【方法】首先用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术(RACE),克隆草鱼BPI/LBP基因的cDNA全长,然后用生物信息学方法分析BPI/LBP基因的结构特征,最后用半定量RT-PCR检测BPI/LBP基因在草鱼不同组织(血、脑、眼%【Objective】 The full-length cDNA sequence of bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/LPS-binding protein(CiBPI/LBP) from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella was cloned to study the characterization and expression profile and to lay a foundation for the functional studies.【Methods】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was identified from grass carp gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The structural characterization was analyzed by bioinformatics method.The CiBPI/LBP expression pattern was examined in different tissues(blood,brain,eye,foregut,midgut,hindgut,gas blander,gill,head kidney,trunk kidney,heart,liver,muscle,skin and spleen) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.【Result】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was 1 568 bp,encoding 473 amino acid(aa) residues,including signal peptide,BPI1 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP N-terminal domain) and BPI2 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP C-terminal domain).The molecular weight of the deduced protein was 51 551 u,and the isoelectric point 8.69.The amino acid sequence of CiBPI/LBP possessed 90%,73%,73%,and 72% identities with the BPI/LBPs of Cyprinus carpio,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Ictalurus punctatus and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis respectively.CiBPI/LBP protein firstly clustered with BPI/LBP in Cyprinidae species,Cyprinus carpio in the phylogenetic analysis.CiBPI/LBP mRNA was detected in all the 15 tested tissues by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR,high in gill,head kidney and trunck kidney

  19. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  20. Fear of movement, passive coping, manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of sick leave due to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Schluter, Philip J; Hodges, Paul W; Stewart, Simon; Turner, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Sick leave due to low back pain (LBP-SL) is costly and compromises workforce productivity. The fear-avoidance model asserts that maladaptive pain-related cognitions lead to avoidance and disuse, which can perpetuate ongoing pain. Staying home from work is an avoidant behavior, and hence pain-related psychological features may help explain LBP-SL. We examined the relative contribution of pain catastrophizing, fear of movement, and pain coping (active and passive) in LBP-SL in addition to pain characteristics and other psychosocial, occupational, general health, and demographic factors. Two-way interactions between age and gender and candidate exposures were also considered. Our sample comprised 2164 working nurses and midwives with low back pain in the preceding year. Binary logistic regression was performed on cross-sectional data by manual backward stepwise elimination of nonsignificant terms to generate a parsimonious multivariable model. From an extensive array of exposures assessed, fear of movement (women, odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.08; men, OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), passive coping (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11), pain severity (OR=1.61, 95% CI 1.50-1.72), pain radiation (women, OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.10-1.92; men, OR=4.13, 95% CI 2.15-7.95), and manual handling frequency (OR=1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) increased the likelihood of LBP-SL in the preceding 12 months. Administrators and managers were less likely to report LBP-SL (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.71), and age had a protective effect in individuals in a married or de facto relationship (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.98). In summary, fear of movement, passive coping, frequent manual handling, and severe or radiating pain increase the likelihood of LBP-SL. Gender-specific responses to pain radiation and fear of movement are evident. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Coping changes the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan M. Nechvatal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the earliest and most consistent findings in behavioral neuroscience research is that learning changes the brain. Here we consider how learning as an aspect of coping in the context of stress exposure induces neuroadaptations that enhance emotion regulation and resilience. A systematic review of the literature identified 15 brain imaging studies in which humans with specific phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder were randomized to stress exposure therapies that diminished subsequent indications of anxiety. Most of these studies focused on functional changes in the amygdala and anterior corticolimbic brain circuits that control cognitive, motivational, and emotional aspects of physiology and behavior. Corresponding structural brain changes and the timing, frequency, and duration of stress exposure required to modify brain functions remain to be elucidated in future research. These studies will advance our understanding of coping as a learning process and provide mechanistic insights for the development of new interventions that promote stress coping skills.

  2. Coping with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lisbeth Villemoes; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2008-01-01

    -living with a spouse. The analysis revealed that the basic social psychological problem faced by patients with mild AD was their awareness of decline in personal dignity and value. Coping strategies used to meet these problems were adaptations to the altered situation in order to maintain a feeling of well......Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse how patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cope with the changes they face concerning everyday life and social relations. This study used a grounded theory approach in the analysis of interview data from 11 persons with mild AD, home......-being. The spouse appeared to be the most important social relation. The most significant worries of the patients were about communication in relation to their spouse, and about the reaction of the spouse to the consequences of the disease. Keywords coping; dementia; everyday life; patients’ perspective; social...

  3. What is Skilled Coping?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høffding, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The paper uses a phenomenological analysis of interviews with a professional string quartet to critique the notion of ‘skilled coping’ as used by Hubert Dreyfus. According to Dreyfus, skilled coping is a way of being and acting in which one is immersed in one’s actions such that one is not thinking......-called skilled coping, rather than a distinct phenomenon, is a series of connected mental phenomena that span highly reflective stances as well as trance-like states of absorption. Therefore, I point out that Dreyfus’s problematic usage in fact prevents us from appreciating the phenomenological complexity...

  4. Texture Feature Extraction Method Fused with LBP and GLCM%融合LBP和GLCM的纹理特征提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国德; 张培林; 任国全; 寇玺

    2012-01-01

    为提取有效的特征用于纹理描述和分类,提出一种融合局部二进制模式(LBP)和灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)的纹理特征提取方法.利用旋转不变的LBP算子处理纹理图像,得到I.BP图像及其GLCM,采用对比度、相关性、能量和逆差矩描述图像的纹理特征.实验结果表明,与其他方法相比,该方法提取的纹理特征具有更强的纹理鉴别能力,平均分类正确率达到93%.%In order to extract effective features for texture description and classification, this paper proposes a texture feature extraction method fused with Local Binary Pattern(LBP) and Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix(GLCM). The texture image is processed by rotation invariant LBP operator. The LBP image is obtained and its GLCMs are calculated. Contrast, correlation, energy and inverse difference moment are imposed for texture description. Experimental results show that, compared with other methods, the proposed method is more effective in texture feature extraction and the average classification accuracy reaches to 93%.

  5. The transcriptional factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF gene on chromosome 12 is a genetic determinant of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J C; Goumidi, L; Vrièze, F W; Frigard, B; Harris, J M; Cummings, A; Coates, J; Pasquier, F; Cottel, D; Gaillac, M; St Clair, D; Mann, D M; Hardy, J; Lendon, C L; Amouyel, P; Chartier-Harlin, M C

    2000-09-22

    Although the varepsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene appears as an important biological marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) susceptibility, other genetic determinants are clearly implicated in the AD process. Here, we propose that a genetic variation in the transcriptional factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF gene, located close to the LRP locus, is a genetic susceptibility factor for AD. We report an association between a non-coding polymorphism (G-->A) in the 3'-untranslated region of this gene and sporadic AD in French and British populations and a similar trend in a North American population. The combined analysis of these three independent populations provides evidence of a protective effect of the A allele (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.44-0.75). We describe a potential biologically relevant role for the A allele whereby it reduces binding to nuclear protein(s). The absence of the A allele was associated with a lower LBP-1c/CP2/LSF gene expression in lymphocytes from AD cases compared with controls. Our data suggest that polymorphic variation in the implication of the LBP-1c/CP2/LSF gene may be important for the pathogenesis of AD, particularly since LBP-1c/CP2/LSF interacts with proteins such as GSKbeta, Fe65 and certain factors involved in the inflammatory response.

  6. In Critically Ill Patients, Serum Procalcitonin Is More Useful in Differentiating between Sepsis and SIRS than CRP, Il-6, or LBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynaar, Iwan A; Droog, Wouter; Batstra, Manou; Vreede, Rolf; Herbrink, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We studied the usefulness of serum procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, in differentiating between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in critically ill patients. Methods. In this single centre prospective observational study we included all consecutive patients admitted with SIRS or sepsis to the ICU. Blood samples for measuring CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP were taken every day until ICU discharge. Results. A total of 76 patients were included, 32 with sepsis and 44 with SIRS. Patients with sepsis were sicker on admission and had a higher mortality. CRP, PCT, IL-6 and LBP levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis as compared to SIRS. With PCT levels in the first 24 hours after ICU admission 10 ng/mL, sepsis with bacterial infection was very likely (positive predictive value 88%). PCT was best at discriminating between SIRS and sepsis with the highest area under the ROC curve (0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Discussion. This study showed that PCT is more useful than LBP, CRP and IL-6 in differentiating sepsis from SIRS.

  7. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  8. Low levels of microbial translocation marker LBP are associated with sustained viral response after anti-HCV treatment in HIV-1/HCV co-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nyström

    Full Text Available Microbial translocation (MT contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP and soluble CD14 (sCD14 could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome.Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART treatment were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21 or non-responders (NR; n = 15 based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects--were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24 and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18, based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up. χ2-test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers.Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06-0.31, p = 0.004 and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1-1.86, p = 0.07.In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14.

  9. Coping with Fear of Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Comes Next After Finishing Treatment Coping With Fear of Recurrence Having a Baby After Cancer: Pregnancy ... treatment and preparing for the future. Coping With Fear of Recurrence Learn ways to manage the fear ...

  10. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  11. Coping with Feelings

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Get the Facts About High Blood Pressure Know Your Numbers Understand Symptoms & Risks Learn How HBP Harms Your Health Make Changes That Matter Find HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with ...

  12. Frontal Integration and Coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    and risk minimizing Rationalists dominated by dlPFC • R correlates both with your own level of education and that of your parents 3 Conclusion: Empirical verification of the first derivative of NeM uncovers four different coping patterns within the range of normal behaviors with an obvious analogue...

  13. Coping with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuan; Byg, Anja

    2014-01-01

    found across villages regarding the degree of perceived sensitivity and responses despite similar exposure to climate extremes. These differences are partly related to the nature of events and varied socio-economic characteristics of households, which influence their vulnerability and ability to cope...

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a laminin-binding protein (AhLBP) from Acanthamoeba healyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeon-Chul; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Jeong, Hae-Jin; Chung, Dong-Il

    2004-01-01

    Adherence of Acanthamoeba to host tissue is believed to be crucial in the establishment of amoebic keratitis or GAE. We have isolated a cDNA from a GAE-causing gymnoamoeba, Acanthamoeba healyi, encoding a protein that binds laminin by screening with a peptide G-specific DNA probe. The cDNA clone (AhLBP) was identified on the basis of sequence homology to the nonintegrin mammalian metastasis-associated 67-kDa laminin receptor (67-LR). The predicted amino acid sequence is 256 residues long with a calculated molecular mass of 28.2kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.48. Southern and Northern blot analyses suggested the gene as a single copy in A. healyi genome and expressed as a single transcript of approximately 1.0kb. Virulent strains of Acanthamoeba revealed higher level of the AhLBP mRNA expression than soil isolates. Specific binding of the purified recombinant protein to laminin was confirmed by sandwich Western blot. The polypeptide encoded by AhLBP shared substantial identity with the acidic class ribosomal proteins involved in protein synthesis. Therefore, the AhLBP may be multifunctional in A. healyi, acting as a laminin-binding molecule but also playing a role in cell division and growth. AhLBP-EGFP fusion protein expressed in A. healyi was localized mainly at the cell membrane and nucleus and at cytoplasm with lesser degree. N-terminal 64 amino acids were important for the localization at the cell membrane. This is the first description of a cDNA encoding a laminin-binding protein from protozoan parasites.

  15. The Fe65 adaptor protein interacts through its PID1 domain with the transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, N; Minopoli, G; de Candia, P; Russo, T

    1998-08-07

    The neural protein Fe65 possesses three putative protein-protein interaction domains: one WW domain and two phosphotyrosine interaction/phosphotyrosine binding domains (PID1 and PID2); the most C-terminal of these domains (PID2) interacts in vivo with the Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein, whereas the WW domain binds to Mena, the mammalian homolog of Drosophila-enabled protein. By the interaction trap procedure, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding a possible ligand of the N-terminal PID/PTB domain of Fe65 (PID1). Sequence analysis of this clone revealed that this ligand corresponded to the previously identified transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the interaction between Fe65 and CP2/LSF/LBP1 also takes place in vivo between the native molecules. The localization of both proteins was studied using fractionated cellular extracts. These experiments demonstrated that the various isoforms of CP2/LSF/LBP1 are differently distributed among subcellular fractions. At least one isoform, derived from alternative splicing (LSF-ID), is present outside the nucleus; Fe65 was found in both fractions. Furthermore, transfection experiments with an HA-tagged CP2/LSF/LBP1 cDNA demonstrated that Fe65 interacts also with the nuclear form of CP2/LSF/LBP1. Considering that the analysis of Fe65 distribution in fractionated cell extracts demonstrated that this protein is present both in nuclear and non-nuclear fractions, we examined the expression of Fe65 deletion mutants in the two fractions. This analysis allowed us to observe that a small region N-terminal to the WW domain is phosphorylated and is necessary for the presence of Fe65 in the nuclear fraction.

  16. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  17. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  18. Coping with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    explicitly refers to the actually existing economy or comments upon or relates to the question of theorizing versus reality. By analyzing (or generalizing) this empirical material it is demonstrated that Keynes copes with reality by generalizing from experience, giving priority to the most important parts...... of economic reality and by making empirically based assumptions rather than assumptions consistent to a theoretical model. If economic textbooks were to apply the same stringent principles not much would be left…...

  19. Coping with Career Indecision: Differences between Four Career Choice Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hak

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of Gianakos' [1999. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 244-258] typology of career choice--stable, conventional, multiple-trial and unstable--to emotional coping with career indecision. Three hundred-twenty (Men = 203, Women = 117) Korean undergraduates were classified into Gianakos' four career choice types.…

  20. Application of LBP information of feature-points in facial expression recognition%特征点LBP信息在表情识别中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟锋; 王延江

    2009-01-01

    提出一种基于特征点LBP信息的表情识别方法.在分析了表情识别中的LBP特征之后,选择含有丰富表情信息的上半脸眼部周围和下半脸嘴部周围的特征点,计算每个特征点邻域的LBP信息作为表情特征进行表情识别.实验表明,基于特征点LBP信息的方法不需要对人脸进行预配准,较传统的LBP特征更有利于表情识别的实现.%An facial expression recognition method is proposed based on the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) of feature-points.First, the LBP feature in facial expression recognition is presented.Then the feature-points around the eyes of upper face and the mouth of lower face is fixed which hold rich expression information.And the LBP map of the neighbor field of each feature point is computed as expression feature for facial expression recognilion.Experimental results show that,the face normalization is not necessary by using the proposed method,which can improve the facial expression recognition.

  1. Association of the 3' UTR transcription factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF polymorphism with late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedecking-Zimmer, Erin; DeKosky, Steven T; Nebes, Robert; Kamboh, M Ilyas

    2003-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. To date, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the only established susceptibility gene for late-onset AD. ApoE accounts for less than 50% of the risk of AD, indicating the presence of other unknown susceptibility loci. Linkage studies have indicated chromosome 12 as the most likely location for another late-onset AD locus. We examined seven polymorphisms in five candidate genes located in and around the linkage peaks on chromosome 12 in 564 cases and 523 controls. The genes included complement component 1R (C1R), vitamin D receptor (VDR), scavenger-receptor B1 (SR-B1), low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1), and transcription factor LBP-1c/CP2/LSF. We found no association with C1R, VDR, SR-B1, and LRP1 polymorphisms. However, the frequency of the A allele of the 3' (untranslated region) UTR LBP-1c/CP2/LSF polymorphism was higher in controls than cases (0.071 vs. 0.051; P = 0.042) with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.96; P = 0.0498). Our data suggest that the LBP-1c/CP2/LSF polymorphism may have a moderate protective effect against the risk of AD.

  2. The relationship between pelvis inclination, exercise and low back pain (LBP) during pregnancy [Vztah mezi bolestí zad, sklonem pánve a vhodnou pohybovou aktivitou v těhotenství

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Minaříková; Karel Jelen; Eva Tlapáková

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain in the lower region of the back and pelvis – also called "Low Back Pain" (LBP) - is very frequent during pregnancy. According to many authors it is a major complaint of more than half of all pregnant women; it causes mental and physical discomfort. The etiology of LBP during pregnancy is still not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of our research was to objectify the relationship between the presence of LBP, the training level of the postural muscles and the degree of the ...

  3. Coping with power dispersion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The last decades have witnessed a significant shift in policy competences away from central governments in Europe. The reallocation of competences spans over three dimensions: upwards; sideways; and downwards. This collection takes the dispersion of powers as a starting point and seeks to assess...... how the actors involved cope with the new configurations. In this introduction, we discuss the conceptualization of power dispersion and highlight the ways in which the contributions add to this research agenda. We then outline some general conclusions and end by indicating future avenues of research...

  4. 基于LBP纹理特征的随机游走图像分割%Image segmentation with random walker based on LBP texture features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳蓉; 蒋建国; 郝世杰; 詹曙; 李鸿

    2013-01-01

    本文通过求解融入纹理特征信息的对称、半正定线性方程组,提出一种新的基于随机游走(Random Walker)的纹理图像分割算法.为了构造该方程组,首先通过局部二元模式(Local binary pattern,简称LBP)算子来描述纹理,将图像映射至不同纹理之间有显著区别的LBP图(LBP map)上,进而将其与梯度和几何信息结合并构造倒数型像素相似度,形成方程所需的权值矩阵,在随机游走模型下使已标号区域向未知区域传递,从而实现纹理图像分割.最后以纹理图像、噪声合成图像、MRI、CT图像为实验对象来验证算法的有效性.定性及定量实验结果表明,在多目标分割任务下,本方法有更好的有效性和精确性.%In this paper,we propose a new random walker model for texture image segmentation through solving a symmetric,semi-positive-definite system of linear equations equipped with the texture information.In the construction of the equations,we perform the feature extraction based on Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and map the original image into the space where textures are distinguished from each other (called as LBP map).The similarity between the pixels is then constructed by combining the LBP,gradient and geometric feature in a reciprocal fashion.These similarities are formed as the edge weights of the graph,which helps the labels of the seeds propagate into the unlabeled regions during the random walker process.Experiments on the texture images,synthetic noise images and medical images shows that the proposed segmentation method extends the state-of-art random walker segmentation to texture images successfully and outperforms some other texture segmentation algorithms particularly on multi-label problem based on the qualitative and quantitative results.

  5. Coping with Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  6. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping with stressful events. Individuals generally use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between single individual characteristics and coping. However, there is a lac...

  7. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving......, where microcosms and field sampling were applied. Sieved agriculture soil microcosms were used in MANUSCRIPT 2 to test the effects of unpredictable temperature increase on the structure of soil bacterial communities, by using different doses of microwaving. Bacterial groups with different tolerance...

  8. Coping with Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques

    is to provide insights into the ecological role of soil microbes living in a community and its capabilities to cope with short- and long-term stresses. In the introduction, the problem of using RNA based approaches in soil ecology is presented in parallel with the importance of soil microbes for the ecosystem...... research directions is presented. This PhD-thesis resulted in four draft-manuscripts where RNA sequencing techniques were used to answer different research questions related to the response of soil microorganisms to different types of stress: MANUSCRIPT 1 explores the effect of soil sieving...... towards microwaving-heat were detected and corresponded to traits conserved at high taxonomical level. Moreover, using the detected tolerance ranges, it was possible to point nitrification as “at risk” in systems exposed to rapid heat stress, even though some functional redundancy may have occurred...

  9. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Madsen, Finn Hjorth; Gonge, Bigitte; Christensen, Michael; Frost, Poul

    2012-01-01

    To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. Randomised controlled trial in the secondary healthcare sector with 3 months' follow-up. The participants were LBP patients who, independently of sick-leave status, expressed concerns about the ability to maintain their current job. Patients referred for surgery were excluded. The intervention consisted of two counselling sessions conducted by an OP addressing both workplace barriers and leisure-time physical activity. A workplace visit was performed if required. Pain, function and duration of sick leave due to LBP were primary outcomes. A reduction in bodily pain and improvement in physical function both measured by the 36-item short-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect on important prognostic factors for LBP patients with moderate to severe symptoms diagnosed in outpatient rheumatological clinics. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13071157.

  10. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss.

  11. Clinical Effects of Laser Acupuncture plus Chinese Cupping on the Pain and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Lien Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Chronic nonspecific lower back pain (LBP is a common disease. Insufficient data is currently available to conclusively confirm the analgesic effects of laser acupuncture on LBP. This study evaluated the effectiveness of laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping in LBP treatment. Methods. Patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were enrolled for a randomized controlled trial and assigned to the laser acupuncture group (laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping and control group (sham laser plus Chinese cupping. Laser acupuncture (808 nm; 40 mW; 20 Hz; 15 J/cm2 and Chinese cupping were applied on the Weizhong (BL40 and Ashi acupoints for 5 consecutive days. Plasma cortisol levels were assessed before and after the 5-day treatment session. The visual analog scale (VAS scores were recorded at baseline and throughout the 5-day treatment session. Results. After the treatment session, the plasma cortisol levels and VAS scores decreased significantly in both groups. In the laser acupuncture group, the VAS scores decreased significantly on days 4 and 5, and an enhanced reduction in VAS scores was observed. Conclusion. Laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping at the Weizhong (BL40 and Ashi acupoints effectively reduced pain and inflammation in chronic nonspecific LBP. This therapy could be a suitable option for LBP treatment in clinical settings.

  12. Electronic cloning and bioinformatics analysis of the pig LBP gene%猪LBP基因电子克隆及生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻礼怀; 王靖; 傅聪; 顾雯雯; 王龙

    2012-01-01

    The lipopolysaccharide-binding (LBP) gene participates in inflammatory reaction about LPS, belonging to the important immune related gene. Using electronic cloning technology, the LBP gene was cloned by seed sequence based on the human LBP gene (NM004139). The results showed that LBP gene consisted of 1 446 bp, coding 481 ami-no acids. The amino acid sequence had similarity compared with human being (74. 2%), mice (64. 8%) , rat (63. 2%), cattle (77. 1%), dog (74. 6%). Evolutionary tree analysis showed that the pig LBP gene was the nearest to the cattle and furthest from the rat. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the molecular weight of LBP protein was 53. 036 7 ku and the theory isoelectric point was 6. 43. Sub-cellular localization forecast showed that the LBP belonged to secrete proteins in the mitochondria (44. 4%), golgi apparatus (22. 2%). A signal peptide existed in N-terminal, and there might be a schizolysis site in 25 - 26 amino acids. There was a higher hydrophobicity in N-terminal located in the signal peptide. The maximum hydrophobic value was 2. 478 and maximum hydrophilic value was 1. 956. The membrane protein was made up of extracellular domain (1 - 6 amino acids), transmembrane region (7 - 29 amino acids), intracellular domain (30 - 481 amino acids). There were nine Ser, eight Thr, two Tyr, which might be the protein kinase phosphorylation site. The structure of extracellular region of LBP protein showed a forniciform helix structure, and consisted of a lot of α-helix in inside and β-sheet in outside of the arc and they arranged parallely and alternately. There were BPI1 and BPI2 conservative structure domain in 33 - 256 and 271 - 474 amino acid residues.%利用电子克隆技术,以人脂多糖结合蛋白(LBP)基因(NM 004139)为种子序列,克隆猪LBP基因.结果表明:所克隆的LBP基因开放阅读框长为1 446 bp,编码481个氨基酸.推导其氨基酸序列与人、小鼠、大鼠、牛、狗的相似性分别为74.2%、64

  13. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaglia, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981) and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994), the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not) with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interv...

  14. Protocol for economic evaluation alongside the IMPLEMENT cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Joanne E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development and publication of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (CPGs for acute low back pain (LBP has resulted in evidence-based recommendations that, if implemented, have the potential to improve the quality and safety of care for acute LBP. While a strategy has been specified for dissemination of the CPG for acute LBP in Australia, there is no accompanying plan for active implementation. Evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of active implementation of CPGs for acute LBP is sparse. The IMPLEMENT study will consider the incremental benefits and costs of progressing beyond development and dissemination to implementation. Methods/design Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses alongside the IMPLEMENT cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT from a societal perspective to quantify the additional costs (savings and health gains associated with a targeted implementation strategy as compared with access to the CPG via dissemination only. Discussion The protocol provided here registers our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the IMPLEMENT study, facilitates peer-review of proposed methods and provides a transparent statement of planned analyses. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000098538

  15. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  16. Nursing and Coping With Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Laal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress could be defined simply as the rate of wear and tear on the body systems caused by life. Stress at work is a big problem. Working in the profession of nursing is a demanding and often stressful occupation. Thus, nurses’ health could be affected by stress dangerous consequences. Coping strategies are key elements of nurses' stress reactions. Coping strategy as a stabilizing factor may be as important as the stressful event itself. Purpose: To determine how and how much nursing staff cope with the stressful events and to find out the relationships between job coping and health outcomes in the study population. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included one hundred nursing staff working in two hospitals (Tohid and Besat of Sanandaj City (Kurdistan, Iran. They completed the questionnaires containing coping strategies based on the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (A-COPE, in the year of 2006. We examined the relationships between age, gender, position, tenure state, marriage state, job experience, work shift and place (environment to application of coping methods. Analysis was done using SPSS 18. Statistical significance was set at P ≤0.05.Results: Out of one hundred nurses of all grades included in this study, fifty-seven were female (57%, 60(% were between 30-39 years old and 50(% were single. There was no significant difference between junior and senior staff in applying positive methods (p=0.666 or negative responses to cope with stress (p=0.195.The majority of nurses 55(% had job experience of 5-10 years, 40(% worked in the evening and night shift and 54(% were in Tohid hospital. Generally in our study, the rate of application positive methods of coping was good 19%, medium 51% and weak 30%. Negative responses to stress were high 49%, medium 29% and low 22%. There were significant associations between: age, tenure state, work place and job experience with positive coping as follow; (p

  17. Fibromyalgia Pain: Options for Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... place. Use all your senses to experience the location as fully as possible. Feel the sun's warmth. Hear the birds. The more often you use coping strategies, the easier they become. Different strategies work for ...

  18. For Caregivers: Coping with Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Coping With Burnout Being a caregiver of someone with ALS is ... Solutions in Dealing with Burnout Common Causes of Burnout Perfectionism: A perfectionist continually focuses on what needs ...

  19. Coping with Aging and Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Aging and Amputation Coping With Aging and Amputation Web Development January 1, 2004 Senior Step Senior ... Unfortunately, many of us have to deal with amputation at the same time. Though we don’t ...

  20. Effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behaviour: a protocol for the ELF cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the most common, costly and disabling musculoskeletal disorder worldwide, and is prevalent in healthcare workers. Posture is a modifiable risk factor for LBP shown to reduce the prevalence of LBP. Our feasibility research suggests that postural feedback might help healthcare workers avoid hazardous postures. The Effectiveness of Lumbopelvic Feedback (ELF) trial will investigate the extent to which postural monitor and feedback (PMF) can reduce exposure to hazardous posture associated with LBP. Methods This is a participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial with blocked cluster random allocation. Participants will include volunteer healthcare workers recruited from aged care institutions and hospitals. A postural monitoring and feedback device will monitor and record lumbopelvic forward bending posture, and provide audio feedback whenever the user sustains a lumbopelvic forward bending posture that exceeds predefined thresholds. The primary outcome measure will be postural behaviour (exceeding thresholds). Secondary outcome measures will be incidence of LBP, participant-reported disability and adherence. Following baseline assessment, we will randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 intervention arms: a feedback group and a no-feedback control group. We will compare between-group differences of changes in postural behaviour by using a repeated measures mixed-effect model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 6 weeks. Postural behaviour baseline scores, work-related psychosocial factors and disability scores will be input as covariates into the statistical models. We will use logistic mixed model analysis and Cox's proportional hazards for assessing the effect of a PMF on LBP incidence between groups. Discussion Posture is a modifiable risk factor for low back disorders. Findings from the ELF trial will inform the design of future clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of wearable technology on minimising hazardous posture

  1. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  2. Retirement Transition in Ballet Dancers: "Coping Within and Coping Without"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Retirement transitions in ballet dancers have been under researched. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the experiences of career transition in ballet dancers, from a life course perspective. Drawing upon existing transition models (SCHLOSSBERG, 1981 and sport literature (TAYLOR & OGILVIE, 1994, the paper investigates how ballet dancers cope (or not with the transition and explores the different factors influencing the coping process. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews from fourteen international ballet dancers were used adopting an idiographic approach through interpretative phenomenological analysis and tenets of grounded theory methodology. The results identified a main theme "Coping strategies: Coping within & without" and eight sub-categories: Denial, alienation, indecision, severance, acceptance, letting go, renegotiation and reconstruction. The individual can experience different responses, which trigger different coping processes and subsequently different types of support are sought. Finally the paper briefly discusses some of the implications for future career development and career guidance. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100210

  3. The role of surgery for treatment of low back pain: insights from the randomized controlled Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common medical problem with high morbidity and healthcare costs. The optimal management strategy, including the role of surgical intervention, remains controversial. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trials were randomized controlled studies conducted to assess the effectiveness of surgery for three of the most common conditions implicated in LBP: Intervertebral disc herniation, degenerative spondylolisthesis, and spinal stenosis. Despite challenges in data interpretation related to patient cross over, these studies support the efficacy of surgery as treatment for these three common conditions.

  4. A multifaceted workplace intervention for low back pain in nurses' aides: a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans; Søgaard, Karen; Birk Jørgensen, Marie

    2015-09-01

    This study established the effectiveness of a workplace multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and cognitive-behavioural training (CBT) for low back pain (LBP). Between November 2012 and May 2014, we conducted a pragmatic stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial with 594 workers from eldercare workplaces (nursing homes and home care) randomised to 4 successive time periods, 3 months apart. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of 19 sessions in total (physical training [12 sessions], CBT [2 sessions], and participatory ergonomics [5 sessions]). Low back pain was the outcome and was measured as days, intensity (worst pain on a 0-10 numeric rank scale), and bothersomeness (days) by monthly text messages. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the intervention effect. Analyses were performed according to intention to treat, including all eligible randomised participants, and were adjusted for baseline values of the outcome. The linear mixed models yielded significant effects on LBP days of -0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.19 to -0.38), LBP intensity of -0.4 (95% CI, -0.60 to -0.26), and bothersomeness days of -0.5 (95% CI, -0.85 to -0.13) after the intervention compared with the control group. This study shows that a multifaceted intervention consisting of participatory ergonomics, physical training, and CBT can reduce LBP among workers in eldercare. Thus, multifaceted interventions may be relevant for improving LBP in a working population.

  5. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial in the secondary...... addressing both workplace barriers and leisure-time physical activity. A workplace visit was performed if required. Pain, function and duration of sick leave due to LBP were primary outcomes. RESULTS: A reduction in bodily pain and improvement in physical function both measured by the 36-item short......-form health survey questionnaire in favour of the intervention group was found. The change in pain score was found to be clinically relevant. The risk of sick leave for at least 8 weeks due to LBP was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Two secondary outcomes, Fear Avoidance Beliefs about...

  6. The social epidemiology of coping with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, B E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To analyse the cross-sectional association between coping responses with infertility and occupational social class. Infertility is evenly distributed across social classes in Denmark, and there is free access to high-quality assisted reproduction technology. METHODS: Data were based...... passive-avoidance coping and significantly less active-avoidance coping. CONCLUSION: Due to the significant social differences in coping with infertility, the study suggested that elements of coping may be learned from one's social network and reference group....... was developed in four categories: active-avoidance coping; active-confronting coping; passive-avoidance coping; meaning-based coping. These subscales were later confirmed by factor analysis. Occupational social class was measured in a standardized way. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the logistic regression...

  7. Preliminary study into the components of the fear-avoidance model of LBP: change after an initial chiropractic visit and influence on outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newell Dave

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade the sub grouping of low back pain (LBP patients according to their likely response to treatment has been identified as a research priority. As with other patient groups, researchers have found few if any factors from the case history or physical examination that are helpful in predicting the outcome of chiropractic care. However, in the wider LBP population psychosocial factors have been identified that are significantly prognostic. This study investigated changes in the components of the LBP fear-avoidance beliefs model in patients pre- and post- their initial visit with a chiropractor to determine if there was a relationship with outcomes at 1 month. Methods Seventy one new patients with lower back pain as their primary complaint presenting for chiropractic care to one of five clinics (nine chiropractors completed questionnaires before their initial visit (pre-visit and again just before their second appointment (post-visit. One month after the initial consultation, patient global impression of change (PGIC scores were collected. Pre visit and post visit psychological domain scores were analysed for any association with outcomes at 1 month. Results Group mean scores for Fear Avoidance Beliefs (FAB, catastrophisation and self-efficacy were all improved significantly within a few days of a patient's initial chiropractic consultation. Pre-visit catastrophisation as well as post-visit scores for catastrophisation, back beliefs (inevitability and self-efficacy were weakly correlated with patient's global impression of change (PGIC at 1 month. However when the four assessed psychological variables were dichotomised about pre-visit group medians those individuals with 2 or more high variables post-visit had a substantially increased risk (OR 36.4 (95% CI 6.2-213.0 of poor recovery at 1 month. Seven percent of patients with 1 or fewer adverse psychological variables described poor benefit compared to 73% of those

  8. Associations between coping, affect, and social support among low-income African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Baker, Elizabeth A; McNutt, Marcia D

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has documented disparities in smoking cessation between African Americans and Caucasians. Many low-income African American smokers face a range of circumstances that may inhibit effective coping during quit attempts, yet previous research has not considered factors that influence coping in this population. This study examined (a) affect (positive and negative) and (b) perceived social support in association with coping strategies. The baseline assessment of African American smokers (N = 168) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Brief COPE. A factor analysis of the Brief COPE resulted in two factors, adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Participants were mostly single (64%), women (61%), with ≥12 years of education (68%), and low-income. They were middle aged (M = 46.1, SD = 8.7), smoked 21.8 (SD = 13.3) cigarettes/day for 24.3 (SD = 11) years, and were moderately nicotine dependent. Results demonstrated that adaptive coping was positively correlated with positive affect and social support. Maladaptive coping was positively correlated with negative affect, and inversely related to positive affect and social support. Multivariate analyses revealed that positive affect and social support were independently associated with adaptive coping strategies. In contrast, maladaptive coping was independently associated with negative affect, but not social support. Interventions that harness positive resources, such as social support and positive mood, may facilitate adaptive coping. Also, addressing negative affect among low-income African American smokers may be important to reduce maladaptive coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping strategies in anxious surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Hansjoerg; Rüsch, Dirk; Schuster, Maike; Sturm, Theresa; Brehm, Felix; Nestoriuc, Yvonne

    2016-07-12

    Anaesthesia and surgery provoke preoperative anxiety and stress. Patients try to regain control of their emotions by using coping efforts. Coping may be more effective if supported by specific strategies or external utilities. This study is the first to analyse coping strategies in a large population of patients with high preoperative anxiety. We assessed preoperative anxiety and coping preferences in a consecutive sample of 3087 surgical patients using validated scales (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale/Visual Analogue Scale). In the subsample of patients with high preoperative anxiety, patients' dispositional coping style was determined and patients' coping efforts were studied by having patients rate their agreement with 9 different coping efforts on a four point Likert scale. Statistical analysis included correlational analysis between dispositional coping styles, coping efforts and other variables such as sociodemographic data. Statistical significance was considered for p preoperative anxiety. According to the initial self-assessment, about two thirds of the patients believed that information would help them to cope with their anxiety ("monitors"); the remainder declined further education/information and reported self-distraction to be most helpful to cope with anxiety ("blunters"). There was no significant difference between these two groups in anxiety scores. Educational conversation was the coping effort rated highest in monitors whereas calming conversation was the coping effort rated highest in blunters. Coping follows no demographic rules but is influenced by the level of education. Anxiolytic Medication showed no reliable correlation to monitoring and blunting disposition. Both groups showed an exactly identical agreement with this coping effort. Demand for medical anxiolysis, blunting or the desire for more conversation may indicate increased anxiety. The use of the internet was independent of the anxiety level and the demand of

  10. Back School programme for nurses has reduced low back pain levels: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Járomi, M; Kukla, A; Szilágyi, B; Ugron, Á; Kovácsné Bobály, V; Makai, A; Linek, P; Ács, P; Leidecker, E

    2017-08-03

    Millions of nurses around the world suffer from occupational-related chronic non-specific low back pain (cnsLBP). Generally, LBP in nurses is a result of increased pressure on the spine, and can be associated with improperly conducted patient lifting techniques. The purposes of the study were:1) to examine patient lifting techniques used by nurses; and 2) to evaluate an effectiveness of the Spine Care for Nurses programme in cnsLBP reduction and the execution of proper patient lifting techniques. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 137 nurses with cnsLBP. Participants were randomized into an experimental and control group (experimental group n=67, control group n=70). Nurses in the experimental group attended the Spine Care for Nurses programme for three months. The programme consisted of didactic education, spine-strengthening exercises, and education on safe patient handling techniques. The control group only received a brief written lifestyle guidance. The Zebris WinSpine Triple Lumbar examination was utilised to analyse nurses' patient lifting techniques (horizontal and vertical lifting). The lumbar pain intensity was measured with a 0-100 Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The pre-intervention average cnsLBP intensity score on VAS decreased from 49.3, to the post-intervention score of 7.5. The correct execution of vertical lifting techniques in the experimental group increased from 8.91% to 97.01% (control group: 8.57% pre and post 11.42%). The horizontal patient lifting technique pre-intervention increased from 10.44% to 100% correct execution in the experimental group (control group: pre 10.00% and post 11.42%). The Spine Care for Nurses programme significantly reduced cnsLBP and increased the number of properly executed horizontal and vertical patient lifting techniques in nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Protecting children from the consequences of divorce: a longitudinal study of the effects of parenting on children's coping processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention designed to improve children's postdivorce adjustment. Three-wave prospective mediational analyses revealed that intervention-induced improvements in relationship quality led to increases in coping efficacy at 6 months and to increases in coping efficacy and active coping at 6 years. Tests of the mediated effects were significant for all 3 indirect paths. Results are discussed in terms of pathways to adaptive coping and implications for the implementation of preventive interventions targeting coping.

  12. 基于区域块LBP特征的人脸表情识别%Human Face Recognition Based on the Regional Block LBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐兴; 苏本跃

    2015-01-01

    人脸表情识别是模式识别与人工智能领域的研究热点之一,针对传统LBP方法的不足,提出了一种基于区域块LBP的人脸表情识别方法:先在人脸面部分割出与表情相关的眉毛、眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴等关键区域;再从这些关键表情区域提取表情特征,避免了在整个面部提取特征耗时的缺陷,同时有效地降低了特征维数;最后利用最近邻分类器给出识别结果,通过实验验证了本文算法在识别性能和时间性能上的优势.%Facial expression describes human emotion by obviously and embody in facial features. Facial expression recogni-tion has attracted more and more attention of researchers, and it has become a hot research topic in the fields of pattern recognition and artificial intelligence in recent years. Aiming at the shortage of the traditional LBP method, this paper proposes a new method of facial expression recognition based on block LBP. First, we divide the expression regions on the whole face, such as eyebrows, eye, nose and mouth, then extract the facial expression feature in the key regions, so avoid time-consuming defects in the entire face extraction and reduce the feature dimension effectively. Last, this paper gives the recognition results by the nearest neighbor classifier. The relevant experiments indicate that this algorithm achieves good results in recognition performance and time perform-ance.

  13. Potential interaction between the GARS-AIRS-GART Gene and CP2/LBP-1c/LSF transcription factor in Down syndrome-related Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Disha; Nandagopal, Krishnadas

    2007-12-01

    (1) GARS-AIRS-GART is an important candidate gene in studies of Down syndrome (DS)-related Alzheimer's disease (AD), due to its chromosomal localization (21q22.1) in the Down syndrome critical region, involvement in de novo purine biosynthesis, and over-expression in DS brain. The aim of this study was to identify factor(s) likely to enhance transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD. (2) Based on a bio-informatics approach, the PromoterInspector, Promoter Scan II, and EBI toolbox CpG plot software programs were used to identify GARS-AIRS-GART sequences important for gene transcription. Transcription factor binding motifs within these regions were mapped with the help of the MatInspector and TFSEARCH programs. Factors implicated in neurodevelopment or neurodegeneration were the focus of attention, and mining of human (T1Dbase) and murine (GNF) expression databases revealed information on the regional distribution of these factors and their relative abundance vis-a-vis GARS-AIRS-GART. (3) The Leader-binding protein 1-c (LBP-1c/CP2/LSF) emerged as a promising candidate from these studies, as MatInspector and TFSEARCH analyses revealed a total of four CP2 binding sites with potential for functional interaction(s) within the promoter and CpG islands of GARS-AIRS-GART. Furthermore, two of these sites harbor sequences for methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, which suggest that methylation status may, in part, regulate CP2-mediated transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART. A search of T1Dbase and GNF expression databases reveals co-expression of CP2 and GARS-AIRS-GART in brain regions relevant to DS-related AD. (4) The virtual screen identified CP2/LBP-1c/LSF as a factor that likely mediates enhanced transcription of GARS-AIRS-GART in DS-related AD.

  14. Face recognition with single training sample per person based on adaptive weighted LBP%自适应加权LBP的单样本人脸识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵汝哲; 房斌; 文静

    2012-01-01

    在面对单训练样本的人脸识别问题时,传统人脸识别方法识别率会下降很多,有的方法甚至不能使用.针对单样本人脸识别问题,提出了一种自适应加权LBP方法.方法既提取了纹理信息又包含了分块拓扑信息,更重要的是可以把这些特征用合适的权重融合起来.划分图像并用LBP提取纹理信息;利用方差来完成对特征的自适应加权融合;用最近邻分类器识别结果.在ORL人脸数据库上的实验结果表明,该方法可以有效地提高识别率.%Facing with the problem of face recognition with single training sample per person, the conventional methods will suffer serious performance drop or even fail to work. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an adaptive weighted Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method. It combines both texture feature and topological information with a novel weighted way involving the variance of sub-images. The paper partitions facial images and uses LBP to extract texture feature. It makes use of variance to implement the adaptive weighted fusion for features. The nearest neighbor classifier is adopted for further recognition. Experimental results show a better performance on ORL facial database.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Primary Care Management With or Without Early Physical Therapy for Acute Low Back Pain: Economic Evaluation of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Julie M; Kim, Minchul; Magel, John S; Asche, Carl V

    2017-03-01

    Economic evaluation of a randomized clinical trial. Compare costs and cost-effectiveness of usual primary care management for patients with acute low back pain (LBP) with or without the addition of early physical therapy. Low back pain is among the most common and costly conditions encountered in primary care. Early physical therapy after a new primary care consultation for acute LBP results in small clinical improvement but cost-effectiveness of a strategy of early physical therapy is unknown. Economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized clinical trial of patients with acute, nonspecific LBP consulting a primary care provider. All patients received usual primary care management and education, and were randomly assigned to receive four sessions of physical therapy or usual care of delaying referral consideration to permit spontaneous recovery. Data were collected in a randomized trial involving 220 participants age 18 to 60 with LBP costs related to LBP were collected monthly and valued using standard costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was computed as incremental total costs divided by incremental QALYs. Early physical therapy resulted in higher total 1-year costs (mean difference in adjusted total costs = $580, 95% CI: $175, $984, P = 0.005) and better quality of life (mean difference in QALYs = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.005, 0.35, P = 0.008) after 1-year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $32,058 (95% CI: $10,629, $151,161) per QALY. Our results support early physical therapy as cost-effective relative to usual primary care after 1 year for patients with acute, nonspecific LBP. 2.

  16. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  17. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  18. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  19. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  20. Coping strategies in anxious surgical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aust, Hansjoerg; R?sch, Dirk; Schuster, Maike; Sturm, Theresa; Brehm, Felix; Nestoriuc, Yvonne (Prof. Dr. rer. nat.)

    2016-01-01

    Background Anaesthesia and surgery provoke preoperative anxiety and stress. Patients try to regain control of their emotions by using coping efforts. Coping may be more effective if supported by specific strategies or external utilities. This study is the first to analyse coping strategies in a large population of patients with high preoperative anxiety. Methods We assessed preoperative anxiety and coping preferences in a consecutive sample of 3087 surgical patients using validated scales (Am...

  1. Effectiveness evaluation of an integrated automatic termomechanic massage system (SMATH® system in non-specific sub-acute and chronic low back pain - a randomized double-blinded controlled trial, comparing SMATH therapy versus sham therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzolari Rita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major health problem in modern society, with 70-85% of the population experiencing LBP at some time in their lives. Each year, 5-10% of the workforce misses work due to LBP, most for less than 7 days. Almost 10% of all patients are at risk of developing chronic pain and disability. Little clinical evidence is available for the majority of treatments used in LBP therapy. However, moderate evidence exists for interdisciplinary rehabilitation, exercise, acupuncture, spinal manipulation, and cognitive behavioral therapy for subacute and chronic LBP. The SMATH® system (system for automatic thermomechanic massage in health is a new medical device (MD that combines basic principles of mechanical massage, thermotherapy, acupressure, infrared therapy, and moxibustion. SMATH® is suitable for automatic multidisciplinary treatment on patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP. Methods/design This paper describes the protocol for a double-blinded, sham-controlled, randomized, single-center short term clinical trial in patients with non-specific sub-acute and chronic LBP aged 18 to 70 years. The primary outcome will be the effectiveness of SMATH® versus sham therapy (medical device without active principles determined by evaluating self perceived physical function with Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ scores after 4 weeks of treatment (end of treatment. Major secondary outcome will be effectiveness of SMATH® determined by evaluating self perceived physical function comparing RMDQ scores between end of treatment and baseline. The trial part of the study will take 7 months while observational follow-up will take 11 months. The sample size will be 72 participants (36 for each arm. The project has been approved by the Ethical Committee of Cremona Hospital, Italy on 29 November 2010. Discussion Compared to other medical specialties, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM has not yet received

  2. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being.

  3. Predicting coping style in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    of research investigating the combined effect of several individual characteristics coping. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping in adolescents, because they are likely to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate...

  4. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    , there is a lack of research investigating the interplay between these individual characteristics and their combined effect on different coping styles. It is of special importance to identify maladaptive coping styles in adolescents because they may be prone to use these coping styles for the rest of their lives...

  5. Predicting coping styles in adolescence following trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have established the importance of coping when dealing with a stressful or traumatic event. Individuals tend to use the same overall coping styles across situations, and correlational studies have demonstrated a relationship between individual characteristics and coping. Howev...

  6. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  7. Personality and Coping in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise V. Contreras-Torres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the personality traits and the copingstyles used by 99 college students, and observe if this variable are related.The NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI], and the Coping StrategiesQuestionnaire [CAE] was used. The results confirm that Neuroticism isrelated with passive and emotion focused coping strategies (maladaptivecopings whereas, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness arerelated with rational and active focused coping. Openness to Experienceit was not associate with no one coping strategies. The findings provideevidence for the understanding of individual’s differences about how theyoung people cope the several environment requests.

  8. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja M Dry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between self oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomised controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills intervention. 541 children aged 8 to 12 completed a battery of self reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modelling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression indicated that socially prescribed perfectionism had both a direct and indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed.

  9. Coping as a mediator of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S

    1988-03-01

    There is widespread conviction among health care professionals that coping affects emotion. Yet theory and research have traditionally emphasized the effects of emotion on coping. The present research addresses this imbalance by evaluating the extent to which coping mediated emotions during stressful encounters in two Caucasian, community-residing samples. Subjects' recently experienced stressful encounters, the ways they coped with the demands of those encounters, and the emotions they experienced during two stages of those encounters were assessed repeatedly. The extent to which eight forms of coping mediated each of four sets of emotions was evaluated with a series of hierarchical regression analyses (of residuals). Coping was associated with changes in all four sets of emotions, with some forms of coping associated with increases in positive emotions and other forms associated with increases in negative emotions.

  10. 基于方向边缘幅值的尺度块LBP人脸识别%Face recognition based on scaled-block LBP of oriented edge magnitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海媚; 王玲; 李兰花

    2015-01-01

    针对方向边缘幅值模式(POEM)忽略了块与块之间的像素问题,提出一种基于方向边缘幅值的尺度块LBP人脸识别方法。该方法首先用梯度算子提取出人脸的方向图和幅值图,将具有相同量化方向上的幅值累加,然后利用尺度块LBP算子提取每幅累加幅值图的分块直方图特征,并将所有直方图特征串联起来作为最终的识别特征,最后采用WPCA降维方法提高算法的有效性。实验结果表明,该算法的鲁棒性高于其他对比算法,运用降维处理后能以较低的特征维数达到良好的识别性能。%In order to solve the problem that POEM(Pattern of Oriented Edge Magnitudes)ignores the pixel among blocks, a new face recognition method based on scaled-block LBP of oriented edge magnitude is proposed. Firstly, the ori-entation and magnitude of a face are extracted by gradient operator. The magnitude is accumulated on the basis of orientation with the same quantitative value. Secondly, divided histograms are extracted from each accumulated magnitude encoded by the scaled-block LBP operator. All the histograms are cascaded as the final recognition feature. Finally, the dimension-ality reduction method of WPCA is used to improve the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm is more robust than other comparing algorithms and can achieve good recognition per-formance with short dimension after feature dimensionality reduction method used.

  11. Identification of cyanophage Ma-LBP and infection of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa from an Australian subtropical lake by the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen; Pollard, Peter

    2005-02-01

    Viruses can control the structure of bacterial communities in aquatic environments. The aim of this project was to determine if cyanophages (viruses specific to cyanobacteria) could exert a controlling influence on the abundance of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa (host). M. aeruginosa was isolated, cultured, and characterized from a subtropical monomictic lake-Lake Baroon, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia. The viral communities in the lake were separated from cyanobacterial grazers by filtration and chloroform washing. The natural lake viral cocktail was incubated with the M. aeruginosa host growing under optimal light and nutrient conditions. The specific growth rate of the host was 0.023 h(-1); generation time, 30.2 h. Within 6 days, the host abundance decreased by 95%. The density of the cyanophage was positively correlated with the rate of M. aeruginosa cell lysis (r(2) = 0.95). The cyanophage replication time was 11.2 h, with an average burst size of 28 viral particles per host cell. However, in 3 weeks, the cultured host community recovered, possibly because the host developed resistance (immunity) to the cyanophage. The multiplicity of infection was determined to be 2,890 virus-like particles/cultured host cell, using an undiluted lake viral population. Transmission electron microscopy showed that two types of virus were likely controlling the host cyanobacterial abundance. Both viruses displayed T7-like morphology and belonged to the Podoviridiae group (short tails) of viruses that we called cyanophage Ma-LBP. In Lake Baroon, the number of the cyanophage Ma-LBP was 5.6 x 10(4) cyanophage x ml(-1), representing 0.23% of the natural viral population of 2.46 x 10(7) x ml(-1). Our results showed that this cyanophage could be a major natural control mechanism of M. aeruginosa abundance in aquatic ecosystems like Lake Baroon. Future studies of potentially toxic cyanobacterial blooms need to consider factors that influence

  12. Stay@Work: Participatory Ergonomics to prevent low back and neck pain among workers: design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the (cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proper Karin I

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP and neck pain (NP are a major public health problem with considerable costs for individuals, companies and society. Therefore, prevention is imperative. The Stay@Work study investigates the (cost-effectiveness of Participatory Ergonomics (PE to prevent LBP and NP among workers. Methods In a randomised controlled trial (RCT, a total of 5,759 workers working at 36 departments of four companies is expected to participate in the study at baseline. The departments consisting of about 150 workers are pre-stratified and randomised. The control departments receive usual practice and the intervention departments receive PE. Within each intervention department a working group is formed including eight workers, a representative of the management, and an occupational health and safety coordinator. During a one day meeting, the working group follows the steps of PE in which the most important risk factors for LBP and NP, and the most adequate ergonomic measures are identified on the basis of group consensus. The implementation of ergonomic measures at the department is performed by the working group. To improve the implementation process, so-called 'ergocoaches' are trained. The primary outcome measure is an episode of LBP and NP. Secondary outcome measures are actual use of ergonomic measures, physical workload, psychosocial workload, intensity of pain, general health status, sick leave, and work productivity. The cost-effectiveness analysis is performed from the societal and company perspective. Outcome measures are assessed using questionnaires at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Data on the primary outcome as well as on intensity of pain, sick leave, work productivity, and health care costs are collected every 3 months. Discussion Prevention of LBP and NP is beneficial for workers, employers, and society. If the intervention is proven (cost-effective, the intervention can have a major impact on LBP and NP

  13. Coping in sport: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature on coping in sport, examining evidence for both the trait and process perspectives, the types of coping strategies used by athletes, gender differences, age-related differences, and coping effectiveness. A comprehensive literature search of SPORTdiscus, PsychLIT, and PsychINFO in November 2004 yielded 64 studies spanning 16 years (1988 - 2004). The results indicated that athletes use a variety of coping strategies. Forty-six papers supported or adopted the process perspective (Lazarus, 1999; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). There were also gender and age-related differences. Evidence was found to support three of the different models of coping effectiveness (goodness-of-fit approach, choice of coping strategy, and automacity). Based on this evidence, future research should address some of the methodological and measurement limitations of the sport psychology coping literature. In particular, prospective research designs that minimize the time delay between recall and the stressful experience are required to assess how coping changes over time. More attention to developmental issues to guide the formulation of sport-specific models to enhance our theoretical understanding is also required. Finally, coping effectiveness should be examined both in the short and long term, as a greater understanding of coping effectiveness has the potential to make a significant impact on applied practice.

  14. STRATEGI COPING ORANG TUA MENGHADAPI ANAK AUTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sulistyo Wardani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autis merupakan grey area dibidang kedokteran, yang artinya masih merupakan suatu hal yang penyebab, mekanisme, dan terapinya belum jelas benar. Permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis ini memerlukan pemecahan sebagai upaya untuk beradaptasi terhadap masalah dari tekanan yang menimpa mereka. Konsep untuk memecahkan masalah ini disebut coping. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui orientasi strategi coping yang digunakan oleh orang tua untuk menghadapi anak penderita autis, bagaimana bentuk perilaku coping yang digunakan, dan apa dampak perilaku coping tersebut bagi orang tua. Subjek penelitian ini adalah orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis yang bersekolah di SD PLUS Harmony. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah interview, sedangkan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis induktif deskriptif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa strategi coping pada orang tua yang mempunyai anak autis berorientasi pada penyelesaian masalah yang dihadapi (Problem Focused Coping, sedangkan bentuk perilaku coping yang muncul yaitu Instrumental Action yang termasuk dalam Problem Focused Coping dan Self-Controlling, Denial, dan Seeking Meaning yang termasuk dalam Emotion Focused Coping. Dampak positif dari perilaku coping yang dilakukan oleh orang tua yaitu Exercised Caution dan Seeking Meaning, sedangkan dampak negatif yang muncul diatasi orang tua dengan Intropersitive, Negotiation, dan Accepting Responbility.

  15. a Novel Ship Detection Method for Large-Scale Optical Satellite Images Based on Visual Lbp Feature and Visual Attention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigang, Sui; Zhina, Song

    2016-06-01

    Reliably ship detection in optical satellite images has a wide application in both military and civil fields. However, this problem is very difficult in complex backgrounds, such as waves, clouds, and small islands. Aiming at these issues, this paper explores an automatic and robust model for ship detection in large-scale optical satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of ship targets, in terms of biologically-inspired visual features. This model first selects salient candidate regions across large-scale images by using a mechanism based on biologically-inspired visual features, combined with visual attention model with local binary pattern (CVLBP). Different from traditional studies, the proposed algorithm is high-speed and helpful to focus on the suspected ship areas avoiding the separation step of land and sea. Largearea images are cut into small image chips and analyzed in two complementary ways: Sparse saliency using visual attention model and detail signatures using LBP features, thus accordant with sparseness of ship distribution on images. Then these features are employed to classify each chip as containing ship targets or not, using a support vector machine (SVM). After getting the suspicious areas, there are still some false alarms such as microwaves and small ribbon clouds, thus simple shape and texture analysis are adopted to distinguish between ships and nonships in suspicious areas. Experimental results show the proposed method is insensitive to waves, clouds, illumination and ship size.

  16. A NOVEL SHIP DETECTION METHOD FOR LARGE-SCALE OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES BASED ON VISUAL LBP FEATURE AND VISUAL ATTENTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haigang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliably ship detection in optical satellite images has a wide application in both military and civil fields. However, this problem is very difficult in complex backgrounds, such as waves, clouds, and small islands. Aiming at these issues, this paper explores an automatic and robust model for ship detection in large-scale optical satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of ship targets, in terms of biologically-inspired visual features. This model first selects salient candidate regions across large-scale images by using a mechanism based on biologically-inspired visual features, combined with visual attention model with local binary pattern (CVLBP. Different from traditional studies, the proposed algorithm is high-speed and helpful to focus on the suspected ship areas avoiding the separation step of land and sea. Largearea images are cut into small image chips and analyzed in two complementary ways: Sparse saliency using visual attention model and detail signatures using LBP features, thus accordant with sparseness of ship distribution on images. Then these features are employed to classify each chip as containing ship targets or not, using a support vector machine (SVM. After getting the suspicious areas, there are still some false alarms such as microwaves and small ribbon clouds, thus simple shape and texture analysis are adopted to distinguish between ships and nonships in suspicious areas. Experimental results show the proposed method is insensitive to waves, clouds, illumination and ship size.

  17. Research on Face Recognition Technique Based on Improved LBP Features%基于改进型LBP特征的人脸识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建民; 朱信忠; 江小辉

    2009-01-01

    不可控制条件是人脸识别应用到实际中的最重要瓶颈之一.寻求有效且分类性能高的人脸表征方法至关重要,在局部二值模式(LBP)的纹理提取基础上,引进一种改进的新型的局部三值模式(LTP)纹理特征提取方法,此方法时光照变化和噪声更加鲁棒且更有利于分类,最后采用PCA和Fisher线性判别分析对特征空间进行降维和最优鉴另q分类.结合一系列简单实用的图像预处理方法,在JDL和AR两个标准人脸库上对此方法进行测试评价,实验结果表明此方法的有效性和可行性.

  18. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  19. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting ...

  20. What Are Clinical Trial Phases?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Cancer Treatment Types of Cancer Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Information A to Z ... Alternative Medicine (CAM) Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Coping with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting ...

  1. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  2. An international expert survey on acupuncture in randomized controlled trials for low back pain and a validation of the low back pain acupuncture score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molsberger AF

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture is a promising treatment approach in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP but little is known about the quality of acupuncture in randomized controlled trials (RCT of acupuncture cLBP. Objective To determine how international experts (IES rate the quality of acupuncture in RCTs of cLBP; independent international validation of the Low Back Pain Acupuncture Score (LBPAS. Methodology Fifteen experts from 9 different countries outside China were surveyed (IES. They were asked to read anonymized excerpts of 24 RCTs of cLBP and answer a three-item questionnaire on how the method of acupuncture conformed to 1 Chinese textbook standards, 2 the expert's personally preferred style, and 3 how acupuncture is performed in the expert's country. Likert scale rating, calculation of the mode for each answer, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between all three answers and the LBPAS were calculated. Results On comparison with Chinese textbook standards (question 1, 6 RCTs received a good rating, 8 trials a fair and 10 trials a poor or very poor rating. 5 of the 6 trials rated good, received at least a good rating also in question 2 or 3. We found a high correlation of 0.85 (p Conclusion The international expert survey (IES revealed that only 6 out of 24 (25% RCTs of acupuncture for cLBP were rated "good" in respect to Chinese textbook acupuncture standards. There were only small differences in how the acupuncture quality was rated in comparison to Chinese textbook acupuncture, personally preferred and local styles of acupuncture. The rating showed a high correlation with the Low Back Pain Acupuncture Score LBPAS.

  3. Pain and Coping in Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors, which indicates that a bottom-up and a top-down approach in the study of pain and religion should interact instead of co-exist. This paper presents the initial framework of an interdisciplinary study of pain and coping in the religious mind......, blood pressure, cortisol levels) and objective and subjective measures of pain (pain tolerance, questionnaires and interviews). Furthermore, the social, cultural and historical context of these rituals is expected to play an important role in setting the frame and interpreting the results....

  4. Coping with complexity: past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    In 1981, a technical report was published with the somewhat enigmatic title 'Coping with complexity.' Its purpose was to discuss how computers could be used to assist process plant operators in coping with complex situations during plant disturbances. Today, coping with complexity is a problem...... not only for process plant operators but for everyone. And while computers in 1981 were looked upon as the solution, they are now seen as the source of the problem. This paper discusses why and how the meaning of 'coping with complexity' has changed over the years and speculate on what may lie ahead....

  5. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  6. Coping strategies and diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T A; Sweeney, D

    1989-10-01

    An organizational field study involving 95 civil service employees examined the ways these individuals coped with the stressful events of their daily living. Lazarus' cognitive-phenomenological analysis of psychological stress provided the theoretical framework. Subjects indicated on Lazarus' Ways of Coping Checklist those coping thoughts and actions used in the specific encounter described as stressful. As hypothesized, individuals experiencing higher diastolic blood pressure were more likely to cope using strategies characterized by wishful thinking, avoidance, and minimization of threat than were individuals exhibiting lower blood pressure. Implications from both an individual and organizational perspective are discussed.

  7. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  8. With a little coping from my friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tanja; Waldstrøm, Christian; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    social and cultural environment, the employees form part of. Results from a longitudinal mixed methods study at one department in a large Danish company indicate that specific ways of coping are socially distributed among employees due to organizational, cultural and managerial characteristics......In this study, we explore the distributed nature of coping and thereby expand the understanding of coping as more than a transaction between the individual and a specific stressful situation. We argue that coping is not just an individual process, but is embedded in the organizational and thereby...

  9. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Niels C.L. Jacobs; Trijntje Völlink; Francine Dehue; Lilian Lechner

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs) are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological) categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is...

  10. Work related stress and well-being: the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes-Ferreira, Lina; Peiró, José Maria; González-Morales, M. Glória; Martín, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping in the relationship between work stressors and psychological well-being, as well as their possible interactions, in a sample of 464 bank employees. Hierarchical regression analyses showed main effects of direct action coping on well-being. Palliative coping predicts higher levels of psychological distress. Contrary to what was expected, the interactions between work stressors and direct acti...

  11. Stability and Change in Patterns of Coping with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Leslie D.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Parkinson's disease patients cope with disease-related stressors over time. Of interest was whether patterns of coping would support a dispositional model of coping (i.e., stability) or a contextual model of coping (i.e., change). The influence of stability and change in coping on mental and physical health outcomes was…

  12. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  13. Decision making and coping in healthcare: The Coping in Deliberation (CODE) framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witt, J.; Elwyn, G.; Wood, F.; Brain, K.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a framework of decision making and coping in healthcare that describes the twin processes of appraisal and coping faced by patients making preference-sensitive healthcare decisions. METHODS: We briefly review the literature for decision making theories and coping theories appli

  14. College Students Coping with Interpersonal Stress: Examining a Control-Based Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiro, Mary Jo; Bettis, Alexandra H.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The ways that college students cope with stress, particularly interpersonal stress, may be a critical factor in determining which students are at risk for impairing mental health disorders. Using a control-based model of coping, the present study examined associations between interpersonal stress, coping strategies, and symptoms.…

  15. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  16. A Systematic Review of Studies Using the Brief COPE: Religious Coping in Factor Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian U. Krägeloh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Religion is generally recognized as a major resource for dealing with stressful events, but its relationship with secular coping strategies continues to be debated. The present article provides a systematic review of the way in which analyses of the sub-scale turning to religion of the widely used Brief COPE [1] instrument are presented in peer-reviewed research articles, in order to investigate how the wealth of data published using this instrument can inform how religious coping relates to other coping strategies. Of the 212 identified articles that included turning to religion in their analyses, 80 combined sub-scale scores to form higher-order coping factors, 38 of which based on exploratory factor analyses of their own datasets. When factor analyses had used individual items as indicators, religious coping was more likely to load together with maladaptive coping strategies, and more likely with adaptive coping strategies when analyses were conducted at sub-scale level. To a large extent, the variation in the results from exploratory factor analyses appears to be due to the diverse and often inappropriate factor analytic techniques used to determine the factor structure of the Brief COPE instrument. Reports from factor analyses of the Brief COPE therefore have very little value when trying to make general conclusions about the role of religious coping in relation to secular coping methods.

  17. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  18. The Effects of LBP on Lymphocyte Subsets in Echinococcus Granulosus Mice%枸杞多糖对细粒棘球蚴小鼠T淋巴细胞亚群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华; 王元; 王娅娜; 赵巍; 赵嘉庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore effects of LBP (Lycium barbarum polysaccharide) on lymphocyte subsets in echinococcus granulosus mice and to disscuss the immune role of LBP in echinococcus infected body. Methods LBP solution was injected subcutaneous to BALB/c mice 3 times at 2w interval. Mice were infected with E chinococcus granulosus larva at 8th w. IFN - γ + , IL - 4 + and CD4 +/CD8 + in mice were detected with Flow cytometry before and after the LBP administration and Echinococcus granulosus infection. Results compared with no LBP group,LBP made IFN - "y increase,IL -4 reduce,CD4 +/CD8 + increase significantly in BALB/c mice's lymphocyte's T cell. Compared with Echinococcus granulosus mice, LBP made IFN - "y increase (2,15 w) ,IL-4 reduce(2, lOw) ,CD4 +/CD8 + increase(2, lOw) ,then reduce( 15 ,20w) in Echinococcus granulosus mouse models lymphocyte's T cell. Conclusion it shows that LBP has the positive role of immune regulation by promoting T lymphocytes in Echinococcus granulosus infected mice to Thl differentiation , inhibiting Th2 differentiation in BALB/c mouse.%目的 研究枸杞多糖(Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides,LBPs)对细粒棘球蚴小鼠脾脏T细胞亚群的影响,初步探讨LBP对细粒棘球蚴感染后机体免疫功能变化的影响.方法 枸杞多糖溶液皮下给药3次,每次间隔2周,于第3次给药后2周,用细粒棘球蚴原头蚴攻击感染BALB/c小鼠,使用流式细胞仪动态检测给药前后、感染前后不同时间点小鼠脾脏IFN-γ+CD3+T细胞、IL-4+CD3+T细胞占总T细胞的比例以及CD4+/CD8+T细胞的比值变化.结果 与给药前比较,枸杞多糖给药后7周,小鼠脾脏分泌IFN-γ的T细胞比例增加,分泌IL-4的T细胞比例减少,CD4+/CD8+的比例明显增加;与感染对照组相比,枸杞多糖能使细粒棘球蚴感染小鼠脾脏分泌IFN-γ的T细胞比例增加(感染后2、15周);分泌IL-4的T细胞比例减少(感染后2、10周),CD4+/CD8+的比例先升高(2、10周),后降低(15、20

  19. Face Recognition Based on LBP and Manifold Learning%一种基于LBP特征与流形知识的人脸识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菱歌; 蔡超

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition is a hot research topic in the field of computer vision ,and has wide application .Recently manifolds are thought to be fundamental for visual perception ,and manifold learning algorithms are developed for discovering intrinsical features .How to use the low dimensional intrinsic variables obtained by manifold learning becomes the core issue of related research .But the classification result sometimes is not accurate when faces are classified in low dimensional sub-space directly .Furthermore ,manifold learning methods are sensitive to the variation of illumination conditions .In order to solve these two problems ,a novel face recognition method based on LBP and manifold learning is proposed .Firstly ,LBP op-erator is used to describe the local features of the face images .After obtaining the intrinsic variables of the feature data by manifold learning algorithm ,the manifold is then approximated by higher-order Taylor expansion whose parameters are saved as manifold knowledge .And then face recognition is realized by solving the manifold distance .Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to illumination and can improve face recognition performance effectively .%人脸识别是计算机视觉领域的研究热点,应用背景广泛。近年来,流形被认为是视觉感知的基础,流形学习算法被用来发现图像的内在特征。如何利用流形学习后的低维内蕴变量成为相关研究的核心问题。但是利用传统的流形学习算法降维得到的人脸低维特征在可分性上存在一定的不足。此外,流形学习算法对光照和姿态变化敏感。针对这两个问题,提出了一种基于局部二值模式(LBP)和流形知识的人脸识别方法。该方法首先利用LBP算子对人脸图像进行局部特征描述,然后使用流形学习算法获得高维特征数据的低维内蕴变量,并用泰勒展开式近似该流形,获取流形知识,最后利用流形

  20. Hallucination focused integrative treatment : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; Nienhuis, FJ; Wiersma, D; van de Willige, G

    2004-01-01

    Improvements in psychopathology, subjective burden, and coping with voices after hallucination focused integrative treatment (HIT) were studied in chronic schizophrenic patients with persistent (> 10 years), drug-refractory auditory hallucinations. In a randomized controlled trial, routine care was

  1. LBP和GLCM融合的织物组织结构分类%Fabric structure classification based on LBP and GLCM fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景军锋; 邓淇英; 李鹏飞; 张蕾; 张宏伟

    2015-01-01

    为实现织物组织结构的自动分类,提出一种基于局部二进制模式(LBP)与灰度共生矩阵(GLCM)相结合的织物组织分类算法.首先,采用中值滤波、双峰高斯函数规定化等算法对织物图像进行预处理,滤除图像噪声并提高对比度.进而用局部二进制模式和灰度共生矩阵两种方法获取图像的局部及全局纹理特征信息.最后,利用基于Levenberg-Marquardt(L-M)算法的BP神经网络分类器对特征向量进行训练和测试,实现对3种基本组织(平纹、斜纹和缎纹组织)的自动分类.实验结果表明,基于L-M算法的BP神经网络具有较快的训练速度能够对织物组织结构进行准确有效的分类.此外,与灰度共生矩阵和局部二进制模式方法进行对比,两者融合的特征信息能得到最好的分类结果(99.33%).

  2. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques.

  3. Reduction of chronic non-specific low back pain: A randomised controlled clinical trial on acupuncture and baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastqar Ali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP is a prevalent (80% and multi-dimensional illness. This study aims to test whether acupuncture, baclofen, or combined treatment with acupuncture and baclofen alleviates symptoms of non-specific chronic LBP in men. Methods Eight-four (84 men aged 50-60 years with non-specific chronic LBP were randomly assigned to four groups: the baclofen group received only baclofen (30 mg/day; the acupuncture group received only acupuncture at selected acupoints; the acupuncture + baclofen group received combined treatment with acupuncture and baclofen treatments; and the control group received no pain reduction treatment. After five weeks of treatment, visual analogue scale (VAS and self-reported pain disability with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ were conducted for outcome measures. Results After treatment, the baclofen, acupuncture and acupuncture + baclofen groups all had lower VAS and RDQ scores. Significantly higher reduction and improvement in VAS and RDQ scores were found in the acupuncture and acupuncture + baclofen groups compared to the baclofen group. Conclusion The present study indicates that the combined treatment of acupuncture and baclofen is more effective than baclofen treatment alone to reduce pain in patients with non-specific chronic LBP. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000698279

  4. Neuromuscular exercise and back counselling for female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific low back pain: study protocol of a randomised controlled trial (NURSE-RCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Jaana H; Rinne, Marjo; Kankaanpää, Markku; Taulaniemi, Annika; Lusa, Sirpa; Lindholm, Harri; Parkkari, Jari

    2016-01-01

    Nursing personnel have high risk for incidence of low back pain (LBP) followed by development of chronic pain and disability. Multiple risk factors such as patient handling, night shift work and lack of supporting work culture have been identified. In subacute LBP, high-fear avoidance is prognostic for more pain, disability and not returning to work. Lack of leisure-time physical activity predicts long-term sickness absence. The purpose of this study is to compare effectiveness of 6-month neuromuscular exercise and counselling in treating back pain in female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific LBP pain compared with either (exercise or counselling) alone and a non-treatment control group. The design is of a double-blinded four-arm randomised controlled trial with cost-effectiveness evaluation at 12 and 24 months. The study is conducted in 3 consecutive substudies. The main eligibility criteria are experience of LBP during the past 4 weeks with intensity of at least 2 (Numeric Rating Scale 0-10) and engagement in patient handling. Sample size was estimated for the primary outcome of pain intensity (visual analogue scale). Study measurements are outlined according to the model of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, which incorporates the biopsychosocial processes assessed. This study is carried out conforming to the guidelines of good scientific practice and provisions of the declaration of Helsinki. Increasing physical and mental capacity with interventions taking place immediately after working hours near the worksite may reduce development of chronic LBP and work disability in female nursing personnel with recurrent non-specific LBP. NCT04165698.

  5. Effects of motion style acupuncture treatment in acute low back pain patients with severe disability: a multicenter, randomized, controlled, comparative effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Ha, In-Hyuk; Lee, Jinho; Choi, Youngkwon; Kim, Me-Riong; Park, Byoung-Yoon; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2013-07-01

    Reviews of the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for acute low back pain (aLBP) have shown that there is insufficient evidence for its effect and that more research is needed. Motion style acupuncture treatment (MSAT) is novel in that it requires a part of the patient's body to move passively or actively while acupuncture needles are retained. A multicenter, randomized, comparative effectiveness trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of MSAT in aLBP with severe disability. A total of 58 aLBP patients with severe functional disability (defined per Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] ⩾60%) were recruited and assigned randomly to receive 1 session of either conventional diclofenac injection (n=29) or MSAT (n=29). The primary outcome measured improvement in LBP using the 10-point numerical rating scale of LBP, and the secondary outcome assessed disability using the Oswestry Disability Index at 30minutes and at 2, 4, and 24weeks after treatment. Analyses were by intention to treat. The numerical rating scale of the MSAT group decreased 3.12 (95% confidence interval=2.26, 3.98; P<.0001) more than that of the injection group and the Oswestry Disability Index of the MSAT group decreased 32.95% (95% confidence interval=26.88, 39.03; P<.0001) more than that of the injection group, respectively. The difference between the 2 groups maintained statistical significance at 2 and 4weeks after treatment. These results suggest that MSAT has positive effects on immediate pain relief and the functional recovery of aLBP patients with severe disability.

  6. Coping with shocks in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debebe, Z.Y.; Mebratie, A.; Sparrow, R.; Abebaw, D.; Dekker, M.; Alemu, G.; Bedi, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on household survey data and event history interviews undertaken in a highly shock prone country, this paper investigates which shocks trigger which coping responses and why? We find clear differences in terms of coping strategies across shock types. The two relatively covariate shocks, that

  7. Coping with shocks in rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); R.A. Sparrow (Robert); D. Abebaw Ejigie (Degnet); M. Dekker (Marleen); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBased on household survey data and event history interviews undertaken in a highly shock prone country, this paper investigates which shocks trigger which coping responses and why? We find clear differences in terms of coping strategies across shock types. The two relatively covariate

  8. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  9. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  10. The effect of coping on job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Frontline workers, such as teachers and social workers, often experience stress, for instance because of high workloads. To deal with this, they use coping strategies. However, it is still unclear how coping strategies influence performance at work. The first goal of this article is therefore to

  11. Age differences in stress and coping processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Pimley, S; Novacek, J

    1987-06-01

    The dramatic increase in the numbers of people who are living into old age has been accompanied by a growing interest among psychologists and health care professionals in their sources of stress and how they cope with them. Despite this interest, little is known about normative stress and coping patterns and the ways in which these patterns differ in older and younger people. This study, which draws on stress and coping theory, compares younger and older community-dwelling adults in daily hassles and eight kinds of coping. Two interpretations of age differences are evaluated: a developmental interpretation, which says that there are inherent, stage-related changes in the ways people cope as they age, and a contextual interpretation, which says that age differences in coping result from changes in what people must cope with. The findings indicate that there are clear age differences in hassles and coping. Overall, the findings tend to support the developmental interpretation, although the contextual interpretation also applies.

  12. Coping with Parkinson's disease in everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anita; Brincks, John; Sørensen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on how individuals with Parkinson's disease cope with the disease in daily life.......REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on how individuals with Parkinson's disease cope with the disease in daily life....

  13. Coping Skills: A Goal of Professional Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Janice C.

    A sense of crisis in public schools is helping to make teaching a stressful occupation. Prospective teachers should develop the capacity to cope with the institution as it changes to meet societal demands. They should have the ability to analyze problems and choose appropriate coping mechanisms. A positive outlook on teaching, with the support of…

  14. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  15. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  16. Can the Internet cope with stress?

    CERN Document Server

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin

    2007-01-01

    When will the Internet become aware of itself? In this note the problem is approached by asking an alternative question: Can the Internet cope with stress? By extrapolating the psychological difference between coping and defense mechanisms a distributed software experiment is outlined which could reject the hypothesis that the Internet is not a conscious entity.

  17. Employee adjustment to stress: The role of coping resources, situational factors, and coping responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, D J; Tonge, L; Callan, V J

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The present study was designed to examine further the stress-adjustment relationship in employees. Specifically, the relations among employees' coping resources (self-esteem, generalized control beliefs, neuroticism, and social support), their appraisals of a recent stressful event experienced at work (appraised stress, self-efficacy, and situational control beliefs), the coping strategies (problem- and emotion-focused coping) used to deal with the event, and levels of employee adjustment (psychological well-being and job satisfaction) were examined. Data were collected from 153 male and female employees in a public sector department, employed in a range of middle-management administrative activities. The data provided support for a modified version of a model that proposed that both situational appraisals and coping strategies are mediating processes in the stress-adjustment relationship. There was evidence that employees' coping responses to the recent stressful event experienced at work were related to concurrent levels of adjustment. As predicted, the use of problem-focused coping, in general, had positive relationships with the measures of adjustment, whereas the effects of emotion-focused coping were generally negative (there was, however, some evidence that the effects of coping were dependent on event controllability). There was also evidence that coping resources had both direct and indirect effects (via coping and via situational appraisals) on employee adjustment. The latter effects were most marked for generalized control beliefs and self-esteem. Situational appraisals (in particular, efficacy expectancies) also had indirect effects on employee adjustment, through their effects on coping responses.

  18. Personality and coping strategies during submarine missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro M; Endresen, Inger M; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger

    2003-01-01

    Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaints, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were collected weekly. The results showed no significant relations between PCI profiles and coping strategies. Interpersonal orientation, achievement motivation, and habitual coping strategies were predictors for coping during the submarine missions. Problem-directed strategies and interpersonal sensitivity combined with strong achievement motivation were related to low indicated stress from social factors (lack of privacy, interpersonal tension, and crowding) and homesickness. The findings suggest that interpersonal characteristics need to be considered in the selection of submariners and personnel for other military settings in which units are exposed to prolonged stress and isolation.

  19. [Coping resources of nurses' occupational stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan-mei

    2008-09-01

    To study the effects of coping resources on nurses' strain. Coping resources (recreation, self-care, social support, and rational coping) and strain (vocational strain, psychological strain, interpersonal strain, and physical strain) were measured on 387 nurses with personal resources questionnaire (PRQ) and personal strain questionnaire (PSQ). The higher the nurses' coping resources were, the lower their strain was (Psocial support was closest related with nurses' strain. In the items of social support, those related to feeling support had more remission on strain. In the items of rational coping, those related to keeping good mind had more remission on strain, while doing more than one job at one time could raise nurses' strain (Psupport, keeping good mind, sufficient sleeping and rest, are the important measures for the remission of nurses' strain.

  20. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  1. Pain and Coping in Rituals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt

    . Understanding the online religious activities and experiences of people participating in stressful and painful rituals calls for a methodology integrating objective measures and subjective assessment. This research project involves functional imaging technology (fMRI), measures of physiological processes (EKG......Both pain and religious rituals are complex phenomena. On the one hand pain is often understood as an object for natural science, but on the other hand pain is always defined as a psychological and subjective experience, leaving room for psychology and the humanities. Rituals, like pain, are framed...... by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors, which indicates that a bottom-up and a top-down approach in the study of pain and religion should interact instead of co-exist. This paper presents the initial framework of an interdisciplinary study of pain and coping in the religious mind...

  2. Coping with health problems in very old people

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana B Navarro

    2015-01-01

    .... In addition, together with active coping strategies of both a cognitive and behavioural nature, correlational analyses indicate that very old people resort to passive and avoidance coping methods...

  3. Coping strategies and caregiving outcomes among rural dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Kosberg, Jordan I; Kaufman, Allan V; Leeper, James D

    2010-08-01

    We studied the coping styles by which family caregivers living in rural areas of Alabama deal with the demands of caring for an older relative with dementia. Data were obtained from a sample of 141 caregivers through the random-digit dialing telephone survey. Two coping styles were identified: deliberate coping and avoidance coping. Deliberate coping was related to higher life satisfaction scores and, avoidance coping was related to lower life satisfaction scores and higher caregiver burden scores. Avoidance coping appeared to moderate the effects of caregiver health on caregiver burden. Social workers should pay greater attention to caregivers with dysfunctional coping styles.

  4. Dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconier, Mariana K; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to empirically determine the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction. Dyadic coping is a systemic conceptualization of the processes partners use to cope with stressors, such as stress communication, individual strategies to assist the other partner cope with stress, and partners' strategies to cope together. A total of 72 independent samples from 57 reports with a combined sum of 17,856 participants were included. The aggregated standardized zero-order correlation (r) for total dyadic coping with relationship satisfaction was .45 (p=.000). Total dyadic coping strongly predicted relationship satisfaction regardless of gender, age, relationship length, education level, and nationality. Perceptions of overall dyadic coping by partner and by both partners together were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than perceptions of overall dyadic coping by self. Aggregated positive forms of dyadic coping were a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than aggregated negative forms of dyadic coping. Comparisons among dyadic coping dimensions indicated that collaborative common coping, supportive coping, and hostile/ambivalent coping were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than stress communication, delegated coping, protective buffering coping, and overprotection coping. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.

  5. A experiment research of beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung injury and the protective effects of LBP in rats%氧化铍致大鼠肺氧化损伤与枸杞多糖的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志宏; 张庆锋; 王瑶; 魏丛慧; 严青; 龚爱红; 郭雄

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨氧化铍(BeO)诱发的肺损伤及枸杞多糖(lycium barbarum polysaccharides,LBP)的保护作用.方法 选用SPF健康雄性大鼠128只,随机分为空白对照组(8只)、生理盐水组(24只)、BeO染毒组(32只,染毒剂量10 mg/kg)、BeO+LBP低剂量(10 mg/kg,32只)、BeO+LBP高剂量组(40 mg/kg,32只).动物染毒选用非暴露式气管一次注人法,LBP干预采用灌胃法.试剂盒检测大鼠肺组织中缺氧诱导因子-1(HIF-1)、血管内皮生长因子(VGEF)和血红素氧合酶(HO-1)的含量.制作肺组织病理切片观察病理改变,电子显微镜观察肺脏超微结构改变.结果 BeO染毒组大鼠肺组织出现炎性细胞浸润,间质增厚以及细胞、细胞器超微结构等病理学改变;经LBP干预后上述病理变化减轻.染毒40d,与对照组比较,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP低剂量组HO-1的含量升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);染毒80 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP低剂量组HO-1的浓度与对照组比较降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).染毒40 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP干预组,染毒60、80 d,BeO染毒组HIF-1含量均高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);染毒40、80 d,BeO染毒组、BeO+LBP干预组,染毒60 d,BeO染毒组VEGF含量与对照组比较升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).经LBP干预40d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组HO-1的含量低于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预80 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组HO-1的含量高于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预60 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组、干预80 d后,BeO+LBP干预组HIF-1含量低于BeO染毒组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);干预40 d后,BeO+LBP干预组、干预60 d后,BeO+LBP高剂量组VEGF的含量与BeO染毒组比较降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 BeO可引起大鼠肺组织中氧化损伤相关基因表达异常,LBP具有保护作用.%Objective To explore beryllium oxide induced oxidative lung

  6. Problem-solving treatment and coping styles in primary care for minor depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J

    2008-12-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.

  7. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care Minor Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare Problem-Solving Treatment for Primary Care (PST-PC) to usual care (UC) for minor depression and examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a six-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in two academic, primary care clinics. A total of 141 subjects were eligible and randomized, and 107 completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 UC) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis using linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate, and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC. PMID:19045962

  8. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica María Ospina Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004, in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the “behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands”. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986, a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible.Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation.Methodology: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations.Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services.

  9. Coping styles and personality: a biometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kerry L; Thordarson, Dana S; Stein, Murray B; Cohan, Sharon L; Taylor, Steven

    2007-03-01

    Previous research suggests that coping styles are modestly heritable and that this genetic influence is shared in large part with genetic influences on personality. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the heritable basis of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations in a sample of 91 monozygotic and 80 dizygotic twin pairs. Task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and social diversion coping styles were modestly heritable (h(2)=.17 to .20), whereas the use of distraction appeared to be influenced solely by environmental factors. Multivariate analyses showed that genetic contributions to coping styles were, at best, only modestly related to genetic contributions to personality (r=-.03 to .35). Environmental contributions to personality were unrelated to environmental factors in coping style. These results suggest that coping style is not merely a manifestation of basic personality traits but does support the possibility that the genetic factors in personality influences have a modest influence on an individual's preferred coping style or strength (e.g., rigidity vs flexibility).

  10. The Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire on Coping with Cyberbullying: The Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C.L. Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects and the continuation of cyberbullying seem to depend on the coping strategies the victims use. To assess their coping strategies, self-report questionnaires (SRQs are used. However, these SRQs are often subject to several shortcomings: the (single and topological categorizations used in SRQs do not always adequately differentiate among various coping responses, in addition the strategies of general SRQs fail to accurately measure coping with cyberbullying. This study is therefore aimed to develop a SRQ that specifically measures coping with cyberbullying (i.e., Cyberbullying Coping Questionnaire; CCQ and to discover whether other, not single and topological, categorizations of coping strategies can be found. Based on previous SRQs used in the (cyberbullying (i.e., traditional and cyberbullying literature (i.e., 49 studies were found with three different SRQs measuring coping with traditional bullying, cyberbullying or (cyberbullying items and categorizations were selected, compared and merged into a new questionnaire. In compliance with recommendations from the classical test-theory, a principal component analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were done, and a final model was constructed. Seventeen items loaded onto four different coping categorizations: mental-, passive-, social-, and confrontational-coping. The CCQ appeared to have good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, good discriminant validity and the development of the CCQ fulfilled many of the recommendations from classical test-theory. The CCQ omits working in single and topological categorizations and measures cognitive, behavioral, approach and avoidance strategies.

  11. Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE): A Pilot Study in Alcohol-dependent Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Anna; Back, Sudie E; Killeen, Therese K; Brady, Kathleen T; Schwandt, Melanie L; Heilig, Markus; Magnusson, Åsa

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders are highly comorbid. Effective treatments are largely lacking. This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a novel intervention, Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE), in preparation for a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-two treatment-seeking women with current DSM-IV-TR PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) were recruited. Participants received COPE. Safety and feasibility were evaluated, as were efficacy-related outcomes: PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity. No adverse events occurred. COPE was implemented in routine clinical practice. Among the assessed women, 95.8% were eligible to participate. Treatment attendance and completion were higher than in previous studies. Post treatment, all efficacy-related outcomes, including PTSD and depression symptom severity, alcohol use, craving, and dependence severity, were significantly reduced. COPE was safe and feasible to use. Concerns that trauma-focused, exposure-based therapy might promote relapse in this population appear unwarranted. Our findings provide initial evidence suggestive of COPE efficacy for comorbid PTSD and AD in women. These results provide a strong rationale for investigating the efficacy of COPE for comorbid PTSD and AD in women in a randomized controlled trial.

  12. Ways of coping with premenstrual change: development and validation of a premenstrual coping measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jennifer R; Perz, Janette; Ussher, Jane M

    2014-01-03

    Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and behaviours positioned as symptoms of

  13. Elite firefighter/first responder mindsets and outcome coping efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall-Thomae, Cynthia; Gilkey, John; Larson, Wanda; Arend-Hicks, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined coping strategies used by firefighters, the relationship between appraisals and coping strategies used, and the relationship between transitional coping strategies used and outcome coping efficacy for mental preparedness. Firefighter coping strategies of problem focused coping and seeking social support were found to have positive significant relationships to outcome coping efficacy, after transitioning from one critical incident to a second. The coping strategies of blamed self wishful thinking, and avoidance appear to have a negative significant relationship to outcome coping efficacy. Additionally, the appraisals of challenge and positive reappraisal to meet the challenge appear to have a positive significant relationship to problem focused coping and seeking social support. These findings on outcome coping efficacy may be of help to firefighters for rehabilitative efforts after traumatic incidents when used in the Peer Support Review intervention model.

  14. Similar Effects of Thrust and Non-Thrust Spinal Manipulation Found in Adults With Subacute and Chronic Low Back Pain – A Controlled Trial with Adaptive Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ting; Long, Cynthia R.; Gudavalli, Maruti R.; Wilder, David G.; Vining, Robert D.; Rowell, Robert M.; Reed, William R.; DeVocht, James W.; Goertz, Christine M.; Owens, Edward F.; Meeker, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A three-arm controlled trial with adaptive allocation. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare short-term effects of a side-lying, thrust spinal manipulation (SM) procedure and a non-thrust, flexion-distraction SM procedure in adults with subacute or chronic low back pain (LBP) over 2 weeks. Summary of Background Data SM has been recommended in recently published clinical guidelines for LBP management. Previous studies suggest that thrust and non-thrust SM procedures, though distinctly different in joint loading characteristics, have similar effects on patients with LBP. Methods Participants were eligible if they were 21-54 years old, had LBP for at least 4 weeks, scored 6 or above on the Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, and met the diagnostic classification of 1, 2, or 3 according to the Quebec Task Force Classification for Spinal Disorders. Participants were allocated in a 3:3:2 ratio to 4 sessions of thrust or non-thrust SM procedures directed at the lower lumbar and pelvic regions, or to a 2-week wait list control. The primary outcome was LBP-related disability using Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and the secondary outcomes were LBP intensity using visual analog scale, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. The study was conducted at the Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research with care provided by experienced doctors of chiropractic. Clinicians and patients were not blinded to treatment group. Results Of 192 participants enrolled, the mean age was 40 years and 54% were male. Improvement in disability, LBP intensity, Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire – work subscale, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey – physical health summary measure for the two SM groups were significantly greater than the control group. No difference in any outcomes was observed between the two SM groups. Conclusions Thrust and non-thrust SM procedures with distinctly different joint loading characteristics

  15. With a little coping from my friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tanja; Waldstrøm, Christian; Andersen, Johan Hviid

    2015-01-01

    social and cultural environment, the employees form part of. Results from a longitudinal mixed methods study at one department in a large Danish company indicate that specific ways of coping are socially distributed among employees due to organizational, cultural and managerial characteristics...... and that a lack of a managerial accommodation of the groups concern seem to polarize the coping practice of the groups over time. Thus in this article we aim at illuminating that coping is not just an individual matter, but something that one learns from, and shares with one’s social group....

  16. Prevention of low back pain in the military cluster randomized trial: effects of brief psychosocial education on total and low back pain-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, John D; Wu, Samuel S; Teyhen, Deydre S; Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z

    2014-04-01

    Effective strategies for preventing low back pain (LBP) have remained elusive, despite annual direct health care costs exceeding $85 billion dollars annually. In our recently completed Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) trial, a brief psychosocial education program (PSEP) that reduced fear and threat of LBP reduced the incidence of health care-seeking for LBP. The purpose of this cost analysis was to determine if soldiers who received psychosocial education experienced lower health care costs compared with soldiers who did not receive psychosocial education. The POLM trial was a cluster randomized trial with four intervention arms and a 2-year follow-up. Consecutive subjects (n=4,295) entering a 16-week training program at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to become a combat medic in the U.S. Army were considered for participation. In addition to an assigned exercise program, soldiers were cluster randomized to receive or not receive a brief psychosocial education program delivered in a group setting. The Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool was used to extract total and LBP-related health care costs associated with LBP incidence over a 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for postrandomization differences between the groups, the median total LBP-related health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred LBP-related costs during the 2-year follow-up period were $26 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($60 vs. $86, respectively, p=.034). The adjusted median total health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred at least some health care costs during the 2-year follow-up period were estimated at $2 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($2,439 vs. $2,441, respectively, p=.242). The results from this analysis demonstrate that a brief psychosocial education program was only marginally effective in reducing LBP-related health care costs and was not effective in reducing

  17. Health information on the Internet and people living with HIV/AIDS: information evaluation and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Weinhardt, Lance S; Benotsch, Eric; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira

    2006-03-01

    Individuals who seek information on the Internet to cope with chronic illness may be vulnerable to misinformation and unfounded claims. This study examined the association between health-related coping and the evaluation of health information. Men (n = 347) and women (n = 72) who were living with HIV/AIDS and reported currently using the Internet completed measures assessing their Internet use. Health Web sites downloaded from the Internet were also rated for quality of information. HIV-positive adults commonly used the Internet to find health information (66%) and to learn about clinical trials (25%); they also talked to their physicians about information found online (24%). In a multivariate analysis, assigning higher credibility to unfounded Internet information was predicted by lower incomes, less education, and avoidant coping styles. People who cope by avoiding health information may be vulnerable to misinformation and unfounded claims that are commonly encountered on the Internet.

  18. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  19. Help your teen cope with stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...

  20. Stressors and coping strategies of homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R B

    1996-08-01

    1 Major stressors commonly encountered by homeless men are violence to self, theft of belongings, inability to meet basic needs, inconsistent enforcement of rules by shelter staff, and other people's dehumanization or humiliation caused by behavior toward the men. 2 Cognitive, sociocultural, and spiritual coping strategies were frequently used and found to be effective in coping with stressors by homeless men who were either in crisis or alcohol/drug dependent. 3 Severely and persistently mentally ill men had lower mean scores for both use and effectiveness of coping strategies in physical, cognitive, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual strategies. 4 The longer the duration of homelessness, the lower the mean scores for frequency and effectiveness of use of coping strategies in any of the dimensions.

  1. Prosocial coping and substance use during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechman, E A; Lowell, E S; Garrett, J

    1999-01-01

    In structured interviews of pregnant inner-city residents, 38 substance users reported more current liking of drugs and polysubstance use, disengagement coping, depressive symptoms, negative affect, and antisocial behavior than did 45 nonusers. During videotaped interviews, trained observers coded less warmth and less prosocial information exchange (e.g., self-disclosure, question asking) among users. Factor analysis of measures of coping and its concomitants yielded a three-factor (prosocial, antisocial, asocial) solution, with asocial and antisocial coping predominating among substance users. These results suggest that coping has emotional, social, and cognitive elements. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a substance-using lifestyle and limited prosocial information exchange.

  2. Cancer Diagnosis: 11 Tips for Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have cancer is a difficult experience. After your cancer diagnosis, you may feel anxious, afraid or overwhelmed and ... Here are 11 suggestions for coping with a cancer diagnosis. Try to obtain as much basic, useful information ...

  3. Fibromyalgia, Spirituality, Coping and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life.

  4. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Silva, P.I.M.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Costas, B.; Höglund, E.; Overli, O.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothe

  5. Stress and coping with discrimination and stigmatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBerjot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity.

  6. Adapting the Brief COPE for Chinese Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-fang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present research pioneered the effort in assessing adolescents' coping with visual impairment through adapting the Brief COPE in an eastern context. The first study preliminarily explored the applicability of the Brief COPE to Chinese adolescent students with visual impairments. Based on the results, the Brief COPE was modified…

  7. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest t

  8. Coping with loneliness: What do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.C.; Tilburg, van T.G.; Fokkema, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e. active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest th

  9. Personality and Coping Strategies During Submarine Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandal, Gro M.; Endresen, Inger M.; Vaernes, Ragnar; Ursin, Holger

    2003-01-01

    Relations between personality profiles, measured by the Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI), and habitual coping strategies, measured by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL), were investigated in a sample of submarine personnel and office employees. The predictive validity of these instruments were examined for reported stress, health complaings, and salivary cortisone measures during 3 submarine missions. PCI and UCL were completed before the missions, and questionnaires and saliva were col...

  10. Cope with Stress in Manager Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Botek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with stress mainly in managerial positions. Stress is much extended in all aspects of our life and employment is an important factor which increases the level of stress. Managers have specific place between other occupations. At first the paper describes the most frequent stressors generally and kinds of coping stress methods. Then there are introduced some groups of stressors which are more frequent in managerial positions. The paper is closed by preventive methods of coping stress.

  11. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-25

    have helped subjects focus their coping efforts and minimize the stress caused by the film (Speisman et al, 1964). Alternatively the soundtracks 12... film . various types of coping could be elicited (Speisman et al, 1964; Lazarus & Alfert , 1964). The film depicted a set of primitive manhood rites...harmless, and the third described the rites in an overly intellectualized way. The greatest stress response was seen to the film with the

  12. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

  13. LIFE EVENTS AND NEGATIVE RELIGIOUS COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sema eryücel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.

  14. LIFE EVENTS AND NEGATIVE RELIGIOUS COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sema eryücel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, insufficiency of secular coping methods has drawn the attention of researchers towards religious coping methods. While the parts about theory and model cover an important place in the literature, experimental studies are rapidly going on. Although religious coping was initially interpreted as positive, experimental studies reveal that it also has negative forms. The purpose of this study, in which qualitative research methods were used, is to define the components of religious coping. Semi structured interview was used among 42 participants, 9 war veterans from Association of Turkish Disabled War Veterans, Martyrs, their Widows and Orphans Ankara Branch, and 9 relatives of martyrs from the Association of Martyrs’ Families Ankara Branch, totaling 60 volunteer participants between the ages 25 and 65 with snowball sampling method. It was discovered that 29 of the participants used negative religious coping and the participants who only used negative religious coping were studied in this research. Upon recording the interviews with the aid of a recorder, the researched typed the script of the interviews. The qualitative analysis of the collected data was done in MAXODA 11 computer program.

  15. Coping with the Trauma of Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovzhik L. M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigation considers sports injuries as a psychological phenomenon, reveals the personality traits of athletes in terms of their vulnerability and resource to overcome injuries. Authors suggest the specificity of athletes’ coping strategies composition, as well as differences in their emotional state depending on the psychological well-being level. We consider gender-specific study links. In the survey, 124 participants were interviewed (M age = 22.1, SD age = 4; 80 male, 44 female. Authors has found significant differences in the ways of overcoming ordinary and sports stress among athletes having high or low level of well-being, gender-specific coping with the situation of injury have been shown. In the male group, athletes with high level of well-being use Problem-solving strategies, as well as Sport coping skills significantly more often. In the female group, in addition to coping peculiar to men, there is an appeal to Goal Setting and Mental Preparation, besides that they use Coach ability coping strategy. The study also identified coping strategies that contributed to the experience of well-being. Authors propose the practical aspects and perspectives of research.

  16. Coping with breast cancer: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Huijer, Huda Abu-Saad; Kelley, Jane H; El Saghir, Nagi; Nassar, Nada

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women worldwide. In Lebanon, a country of 4 million people, breast cancer is also the most prevalent type of cancer among Lebanese women. The purpose of this study was to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coping strategies espoused by Lebanese women with breast cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 10 female participants diagnosed as having breast cancer were interviewed. Data were analyzed following a hermeneutical process as described by Diekelmann and Ironside (Encyclopedia of Nursing Research. 1998:50-68). Seven main themes and 1 constitutive pattern emerged from the study describing the Lebanese women's coping strategies with breast cancer. The negative stigma of cancer in the Lebanese culture, the role of women in the Lebanese families, and the embedded role of religion in Lebanese society are bases of the differences in the coping strategies of Lebanese women with breast cancer as compared to women with breast cancer from other cultures. These findings cannot be directly generalized, but they could act as a basis for further research on which to base a development of a framework for an approach to care that promotes coping processes in Lebanese women living with breast cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to have a better understanding of the individual coping strategies of each woman and its impact on the woman's well being; the creation of informal support group is indispensable in helping these women cope with their conditions.

  17. 基于Gabor小波与LBP直方图序列的人脸年龄估计%Age Estimation of Facial Images Based on Gabor Wavelet and Histogram Sequence of LBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄兵; 郭继昌

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于Gabor小波和局域二值模式(Local binary pattern,LBP)直方图序列的人脸年龄估计方法.首先对人脸图像提取多方向与多尺度的Gabor幅值域图谱(Gabor magnitude maps,GMMs);然后采用基于局部特征的LBP算子对GMMs编码,并对之分块,由各子块的直方图序列来描述人脸;为进一步降低人脸特征维数,再对人脸直方图序列特征应用主成分分析(PCA);最后使用支持向量机回归(SVR)的LOPO策略对人脸年龄库进行训练和测试.实验结果表明,该方法可以较为快速有效地对人脸图像进行年龄估计.%A method for age estimation of facial images is proposed based on the combination of the Gabor wavelets and the histogram sequence of the local binary pattern (LBP). The facial images are firstly filtered by the multi-orientation and multi-scale Gabor before Gabor magnitude maps (GMMs) are extracted. Then the local neighbor pattern on GMMs is extracted by LBP based on local characteristics and the characteristics are divided into several sub-blocks to calculate the histogram sequences. To further reduce the dimension of facial features, Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the histogram sequences. Finally, a leave-one-person-out (LOPO) test scheme of the support vector regression (SVR) is used to train and test the face age database. Experimental results show that the method can estimate the age of human faces quickly and effectively.

  18. Research of Image Retrieval Algorithm Based on the Uniform Pattern of LBP and GLCM features%融合统一模式的LBP和GLCM特征的图像检索算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喆; 王玉德; 马晨; 董凌凌

    2014-01-01

    文章提出一种融合统一模式的LBP特征和GLCM特征的图像检索算法。首先,对图像做统一模式的LBP变换处理提取图像直方图特征。计算图像GLCM在0°、45°、90°、135°四个方向下的对比度、相关性、能量、同质系数的均值和标准差。然后,融合LBP直方图特征与GLCM纹理统计特征作为图像的检索特征,选用Canberra距离进行相似度度量,完成图像检索。实验结果表明,本算法在两个图像库上均具有较高的平均查准率,分别达到了82.91%和79.48%。%This paper proposes an image retrieval algorithm based on the uniform pattern of LBP and GLCM features. Firstly, LBP processing is used to extract the image histogram. And then the average values and standard deviation of the contrast, correlation, energy, and homogeneous factor of the GLCM processing under four directions of 0°,45°,90°,135°are calculated. Then the LBP histogram feature and GLCM texture features are mixed as the features for image retrieval. Canberra distance is used as the similarity measure between the query image and every image in the image database, the image retrieval is achieved. The experimental results show that the algorithm has higher average precision on the two image libraries, reached 82.91%and 79.48%, respectively.

  19. Classification of Whole Sky Infrared Cloud Image Based on the LBP Operator%基于LBP算法的全天空红外云图的分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙学金; 刘磊; 高太长; 赵世军

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification method of sky-condition based on whole sky infrared cloud image, where the Local Binary Patterns(LBP) operator and the contrast of local cloud image tex-ture(VAR signal) are used to classify sky conditions. The correspondence relationship between tradi-tional cloud classes and instrument-measured cloud classes is suggested;and the LBP spectra and VAR characteristics for the five classes of stratus, cumulus, undulatus, cirrus clouds and clear sky are ana-lyzed. The classification correct rates for the above five classes in the class-recognition of 274 cloud im-age samples are 100. 0%, 84. 2%, 70. 3%, 64. 7%, and 99.0%, respectively, with an average of 87.2%.%利用局部二值模式(Local Binary Patterns,LBP),结合局部云图的方差信息(VAR),对全天空红外测云系统获得的红外云图进行了分类研究.首先建立了器测云状分类与传统分类的对应关系,其次分析了层状云、积状云、波状云、卷云和晴空5种类型天空的LBP谱和VAR特征,最后对274个样本进行了分类识别,并与人工观测结果比较,结果表明,层状云、积状云、波状云、卷云和晴空的识别正确率分别为100.0%、84.2%、70.3%、64.7%、99.0%,平均正确率达到87.2%.

  20. Design considerations in a clinical trial of a cognitive behavioural intervention for the management of low back pain in primary care: Back Skills Training Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Frances E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is a major public health problem. Risk factors for the development and persistence of LBP include physical and psychological factors. However, most research activity has focused on physical solutions including manipulation, exercise training and activity promotion. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a group programme, based on cognitive behavioural principles, for the management of sub-acute and chronic LBP in primary care. Our primary outcomes are disease specific measures of pain and function. Secondary outcomes include back beliefs, generic health related quality of life and resource use. All outcomes are measured over 12 months. Participants randomised to the intervention arm are invited to attend up to six weekly sessions each of 90 minutes; each group has 6–8 participants. A parallel qualitative study will aid the evaluation of the intervention. Discussion In this paper we describe the rationale and design of a randomised evaluation of a group based cognitive behavioural intervention for low back pain.

  1. Rapid Motion Human Detection Based on Background Subtraction and HOG-LBP%基于背景差与HOG-LBP的快速运动人体检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 郑爱华; 涂铮铮; 罗斌

    2015-01-01

    For the case of close monitoring by monocular static camera,propose a rapid motion human detection algorithm combined with target movement external rectangular length-width ratio,including two steps of moving objects extraction and moving human detection. The moving target extraction is implemented by combining the frame difference and background subtraction,where the frame difference is used to update the background and background subtraction is used to extract the moving target. Moving target discrimination that is human detection can be divided into two parts,the single movement human detection and the crowd detection. Firstly,according to the empirical value of length-width ratio of bounding rectangle of the extracted moving target,the target is divided into single-object and multi-ob-ject. Then,single-object is determined according to the skin color distribution. For multi-object,HOG-LBP features are extracted,fol-lowed by PCA ( Principal Component Analysis) dimensionality reduction. Then the multi-object discrimination is approached by combi-ning with the linear SVM. The experimetal results show the remarkable performance of this method is improved on both detection rate and efficiency.%针对单目静止摄像机近距离监控的情形,结合运动目标外接矩形长宽比,提出一种HOG特征联合LBP特征并通过PCA降维的快速运动人体检测算法。该方法包含两个步骤:运动目标提取和运动人体检测。使用帧差与背景差相结合的方法提取运动目标,帧差用于更新背景,背景差用于提取运动目标。运动目标判别即人体检测分为两个部分:单运动人体检测以及多运动人体检测。首先根据运动目标外接矩形的长宽比,把目标分为单目标以及多目标;然后,根据肤色的分布判断单个行人。对于多目标,提取HOG-LBP特征,用PCA降维,结合线性SVM进行群人目标判定。实验结果表明,该方法不仅提高了人体检

  2. Rest versus exercise as treatment for patients with low back pain and Modic changes. a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Rikke K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience suggests that many patients with Modic changes have relatively severe and persistent low back pain (LBP, which typically appears to be resistant to treatment. Exercise therapy is the recommended treatment for chronic LBP, however, due to their underlying pathology, Modic changes might be a diagnostic subgroup that does not benefit from exercise. The objective of this study was to compare the current state-of-the art treatment approach (exercise and staying active with a new approach (load reduction and daily rest for people with Modic changes using a randomized controlled trial design. Methods Participants were patients from an outpatient clinic with persistent LBP and Modic changes. They were allocated using minimization to either rest therapy for 10 weeks with a recommendation to rest for two hours daily and the option of using a flexible lumbar belt or exercise therapy once a week for 10 weeks. Follow-up was at 10 weeks after recruitment and 52 weeks after intervention and the clinical outcome measures were pain, disability, general health and global assessment, supplemented by weekly information on low back problems and sick leave measured by short text message (SMS tracking. Results In total, 100 patients were included in the study. Data on 87 patients at 10 weeks and 96 patients at one-year follow-up were available and were used in the intention-to-treat analysis. No statistically significant differences were found between the two intervention groups on any outcome. Conclusions No differences were found between the two treatment approaches, 'rest and reduced load' and 'exercise and staying active', in patients with persistent LBP and Modic changes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00454792

  3. Work-Related Low Back Pain Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial from Tehran, Iran, Comparing Multidisciplinary Educational Program versus Physiotherapy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadyani, Leila; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Wagner, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Clinical trial. To compare the multidisciplinary educational program versus physiotherapy education among Iranian nurses. Low back pain (LBP) can accompany significant occupational injuries in the nursing profession. There is no agreement on the most effective educational practice. This study was conducted from August 17, 2014 to September 22, 2014 in Tehran, Iran. Eligible nurses with chronic mechanical LBP (n=136) were classified into an intervention group (n=66) or the control group (n=70). The intervention group received physiotherapy education for 120-minutes followed by a 120-minute health education session based on predictive constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT). The control group received the 120-minute physiotherapy education. Disability rate, pain severity and back pain prevention behavior were measured at initially and 3 months after intervention using visual analogue scale, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire and nursing low back pain preventive behaviors questionnaire. The two groups were the same in terms of all studied variables at the initiation of the study. At the 3-month follow up, predictive constructs of LBP preventive behaviors of participants in the intervention were improved (p<0.001). Significant decreases were evident at 3 months in pain severity (p=0.03) and disability (p=0.003). The designed multidisciplinary educational intervention could decrease chronic mechanical LBP in nurses.

  4. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  5. Coping and return to work: Measurement and theoretical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Odéen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick leave and early departure from the workforce have serious adverse effects on both individuals and society. Motivation and coping are both important when attempting to return to work. In this article, we wanted to test if either of two coping instruments could predict return to work. Response outcome expectancies as defined in the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS (Ursin & Eriksen, 2004 were measured by the CODE scale (Eriksen et al., 1997 and general self-efficacy was measured by the generalized self-efficacy scale (GSE (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995. The instruments were tested in one group of rehabilitation patients (N= 135 and one group of disability pensioners (N=85, who participated in return to work interventions in randomised controlled trials. None of the instruments could predict return to work at any point of measurement. Less than 10% of the theoretical range of the scales was used. The scales appear to measure a concept that is more stable than their underlying theory predicts, and they can not predict an important outcome. Results indicate that caution is advised when making inferences from  these instruments to their underlying theories.

  6. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed.

  7. Coping in Patients With Incurable Lung and Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Validation Study of the Brief COPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa L; Fishbein, Joel N; Nipp, Ryan D; Jacobs, Jamie M; Traeger, Lara; Irwin, Kelly E; Pirl, William F; Greer, Joseph A; Park, Elyse R; Jackson, Vicki A; Temel, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    Patients with incurable cancer engage in several coping styles to manage the impact of cancer and its treatment. The Brief COPE is a widely used measure intended to capture multiple and distinct types of coping. The Brief COPE has not been validated among patients with incurable cancer. We sought to validate seven subscales of the Brief COPE in a large sample of patients newly diagnosed with incurable lung and noncolorectal gastrointestinal cancers (N = 350). Participants completed the Brief COPE and measures assessing quality of life (QOL) (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General) and psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) within eight weeks of diagnosis of incurable cancer. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Brief COPE using a confirmatory factor analysis and tests of correlation with the QOL and distress scales. The Brief COPE factors were consistent with the original subscales, although the Behavioral Disengagement Scale had low internal consistency. Factors showed anticipated relationships with QOL and distress measures, except emotional support coping, which was correlated with increased depression and anxiety. We also conducted an exploratory high-order factor analysis to determine if subscales' score variances grouped together. The high-order factor analysis resulted in two factors, with active, emotional support, positive reframing, and acceptance loading onto one factor and denial and self-blame loading onto the second. The selected subscales of the Brief COPE are appropriate measures of coping among individuals newly diagnosed with incurable lung and gastrointestinal cancers. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adherence to physical and mental activity interventions: Coping plans as a mediator and prior adherence as a moderator.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.W.M.; Klusmann, V.; Schwarzer, R.; Heuser, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Adherence to behavioural intervention programmes is a necessary condition for beneficial outcomes to be achieved. This study tested whether social cognitive variables and coping plans predict adherence. Design and methods. Adherence was examined in a randomized controlled trial with healt

  9. Protecting Children from the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive…

  10. Coping in caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, Kimberly B; Russell, Heather F; Kelly, Erin H; Gorzkowski, Julie A; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2011-12-01

    This study examined coping among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Using a cross-sectional survey study design, 164 caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire and the Brief COPE. Their children, youth with SCI ages 7-18, completed the Kidcope. T-tests were conducted to examine differences in caregiver coping by demographic and injury-related factors. Further, logistic regression models were evaluated to examine predictive relationships between caregiver coping and youth coping. Several demographic and injury-related factors were related to caregiver coping, including caregiver gender, race, and education, as well as youth gender, age at injury, and time since injury. In the logistic regressions, two caregiver coping strategies were related to youth coping: caregiver self-blame coping was related to youth self-criticism, and caregiver behavioral disengagement coping (giving up attempts to cope) was related to youth blaming others coping. The findings suggest that caregiver coping may play a role in the coping of their children, and should be considered when addressing coping among youth with SCI.

  11. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica María Ospina Romero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the re­courses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004, in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Pro­cessing, defines Coping as the “behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands”. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986, a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that en­hance this adaptation. Methodology: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Syner­gy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. 14.00 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Cue-based and algorithmic learning in common carp: A possible link to stress coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flavia Oliveira; Borcato, Fabio Luiz; Huntingford, Felicity Ann

    2015-06-01

    Common carp that had been screened for stress coping style using a standard behavioural test (response to a novel environment) were given a learning task in which food was concealed in one of two compartments, its location randomised between trials and its presence in a given compartment signalled by either a red or a yellow light. All the fish learned to find food quickly, but did so in different ways. Fifty five percent learned to use the light cue to locate food; the remainder achieved the same result by developing a fixed movement routine. To explore this variation, we related learning strategy to stress coping style. Time to find food fell identically with successive trials in carp classified as reactive or proactive, but reactive fish tended to follow the light cue and proactive fish to adopt a fixed routine. Among fish that learned to follow the light, reactive individuals took fewer trials to reach the learning criterion than did proactive fish. These results add to the growing body of information on within-species variation in learning strategies and suggest a possible influence of stress coping style on the use of associative learning as opposed to algorithmic searching during foraging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of mobilizing online coping versus offline coping resources after negative life events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, E.J.; Wright, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study drew upon the social compensation/social enhancement hypotheses and weak tie network theory to predict what kind of people supplement offline coping resources with online coping resources more than others. Using a large, representative survey the authors found that low

  14. School Age Children's Coping with Sexual Abuse: Abuse Stresses and Symptoms Associated with Four Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…

  15. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON SPARSE REPRESENTATION AND IMPROVED LBP OPERATOR%基于稀疏表达和改进的LBP算子的人脸表情识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐杜功; 丁召; 刘桥

    2013-01-01

    基于局部二值模式(LBP)算子在人脸表情识别中直方图维数高、判别能力差、具有冗余信息等缺点,提出一种中心二值模式(CBP)算子并对人脸表情关键部位(眉毛、眼睛及嘴巴部分)提取特征.最后利用稀疏表达分类器对提取的表情特征进行识别.实验结果表明,该算法的识别效果有了极大的提高.%According to the drawbacks of local binary pattern ( LBP) operator that it has high histogram dimension, poor discriminate ability and redundant information in facial expression recognition, the centre binary pattern ( CBP) operator is proposed and employed to extract the feature of key parts of facial expression ( eyebrow, eye and mouth). Finally, the sparse representation classifier is used to recognise these extracted features. Experiments show that the recognition effect of the proposed algorithm is greatly improved.

  16. Appraisal, coping, health status, and psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S; Gruen, R J; DeLongis, A

    1986-03-01

    In this study we examined the relation between personality factors (mastery and interpersonal trust), primary appraisal (the stakes a person has in a stressful encounter), secondary appraisal (options for coping), eight forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and somatic health status and psychological symptoms in a sample of 150 community-residing adults. Appraisal and coping processes should be characterized by a moderate degree of stability across stressful encounters for them to have an effect on somatic health status and psychological symptoms. These processes were assessed in five different stressful situations that subjects experienced in their day-to-day lives. Certain processes (e.g., secondary appraisal) were highly variable, whereas others (e.g., emotion-focused forms of coping) were moderately stable. We entered mastery and interpersonal trust, and primary appraisal and coping variables (aggregated over five occasions), into regression analyses of somatic health status and psychological symptoms. The variables did not explain a significant amount of the variance in somatic health status, but they did explain a significant amount of the variance in psychological symptoms. The pattern of relations indicated that certain variables were positively associated and others negatively associated with symptoms.

  17. Coping behaviour of female teachers: Demographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chaturvedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigates the role of certain demographic variables in determining stress-coping behavior of female teachers. Materials and Methods: The sample consists of 150 female teachers selected by stratified sampling method from various schools of Bhopal. Stress-coping behavior was measured with the help of a subscale of ′The Occupational Stress Indicator′ (Wendy Lord, 1993 consisting of 28 items encompassing six dimensions of coping strategies i.e. Logics, Involvement, Social Support, Task Strategies, Time Management and Home and Work Relations. The scores of the subjects were compared in terms of marital status, age, and level of teaching with the help of ′t′ test and ′F′ test was used for comparing experience. Results: Marital status, age, and experience were found to be significant determinants of stress-coping, whereas the sores did not differ significantly on the basis of level of teaching. Conclusion: Married teachers in the age range of 40-60 years, with higher experience can cope better with the job stress than their counterparts.

  18. Adolescent stress and coping: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groër, M W; Thomas, S P; Shoffner, D

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal panel study was to investigate developmental and gender influences on stress and coping in adolescents attending a suburban high school in Tennessee. Data were collected from the same 167 subjects during the freshman year and again during the senior year. Life events stress was measured through the Adolescent Life Change Event Scale (ALCES) and ways of coping were categorized from data gathered from an open-ended questionnaire. Girls reported more life events stress at both testings than boys. Life events stress was greater at senior testing for both girls and boys, but girls' scores increased more. The "gender intensification" phenomenon may account for the greater disparity in types of stress reported by boys and girls as seniors. Girls generally reported more life events associated with interpersonal and family relationships. Both girls and boys reported coping with stress mostly through active distraction techniques such as exercise. However, girls' use of active distraction decreased over time, while passive distraction increased. Self-destructive and aggressive coping behaviors increased for boys. There were no relationships between amounts or types of life events stress and ways of coping for subjects at either time.

  19. Coping with Workplace Interpersonal Stress among Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between coping with workplace interpersonal stress (WIS) and psychological dysfunction (i.e. depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness). Three hundred twenty-four Japanese full-time workers completed measures assessing coping strategies with WIS and psychological dysfunction. Three strategies of coping with WIS were measured: distancing coping, reassessing coping and constructive coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that distancing coping, which reflects strategies to actively damage, disrupt and dissolve a stressful relationship, was related to high levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Reassessing coping, which incorporates efforts to patiently wait for an appropriate opportunity to act, such as a change or improvement in the situation, was related to low levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Constructive coping was not significantly associated with psychological dysfunction. Implications for workplace stress are discussed.

  20. Spousal similarity in coping and depressive symptoms over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; Moos, Rudolf H; Moerkbak, Marie L; Cronkite, Ruth C; Holahan, Carole K; Kenney, Brent A

    2007-12-01

    Following a baseline sample of 184 married couples over 10 years, the present study develops a broadened conceptualization of linkages in spouses' functioning by examining similarity in coping as well as in depressive symptoms. Consistent with hypotheses, results demonstrated (a) similarity in depressive symptoms within couples across 10 years, (b) similarity in coping within couples over 10 years, and (c) the role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive similarity between spouses. Spousal similarity in coping was evident for a composite measure of percent approach coping as well as for component measures of approach and avoidance coping. The role of coping similarity in strengthening depressive symptom similarity was observed for percent approach coping and for avoidance coping. These findings support social contextual models of psychological adjustment that emphasize the importance of dynamic interdependencies between individuals in close relationships.

  1. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  2. Counselling low-back-pain patients in secondary healthcare: a randomised trial addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if counselling by an occupational physician (OP) addressing experienced workplace barriers and physical activity integrated as a part of low-back pain (LBP) outpatient treatment influences pain, function and sick leave. METHODS: Randomised controlled trial in the secondary...... addressing both workplace barriers and leisure-time physical activity. A workplace visit was performed if required. Pain, function and duration of sick leave due to LBP were primary outcomes. RESULTS: A reduction in bodily pain and improvement in physical function both measured by the 36-item short...... physical activity and maximum oxygen uptake, supported compliance and adherence to the part of the intervention focusing on enhanced physical activity. CONCLUSION: Two short counselling sessions by an OP combining advice on meeting workplace barriers and enhancing physical activity had a substantial effect...

  3. The relationship between pelvis inclination, exercise and low back pain (LBP during pregnancy [Vztah mezi bolestí zad, sklonem pánve a vhodnou pohybovou aktivitou v těhotenství

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Minaříková

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain in the lower region of the back and pelvis – also called "Low Back Pain" (LBP - is very frequent during pregnancy. According to many authors it is a major complaint of more than half of all pregnant women; it causes mental and physical discomfort. The etiology of LBP during pregnancy is still not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of our research was to objectify the relationship between the presence of LBP, the training level of the postural muscles and the degree of the pelvic inclination of women in the third trimester of pregnancy. That is why the relationship between pelvic inclination and LBP occurrence is compared within the context of two groups – reasonable physically active as compared to physically inactive women. METHODS: Twenty-seven pregnant probands aged 20 – 35 years and in the second half of their third trimester were included in the experiment. All of them complained of pain in their lumbar spine and in the pelvicarea. They were divided into two groups: 14 physically inactive women and 13 physically active women, who have been performing physical activity for at least 135 minutes per week for at least 1 year before conception and for at least 90 minutes per week during pregnancy. The exercises were focused on the functioning of the postural system, e.g. yoga, Pilatespilatek and exercises by Mojzisova. We measured the inclination of the pelvis (using non-invasive anthropometric measuring and observed the presence of pain in the selected area: clinically via the Patrick-Faber test and posterior pelvic pain provocation test and subjectively with the aid of a standardized LBP related survey. The statistical methods used were the t-test, the median and Wilcoxon-White test and the Spearman factor of serial correlations. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant difference between the pelvic inclination of physically active and inactive women (using a t-test for non-pair values with a significance level

  4. Psychological Counselors’ Coping Strategies with Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır BOZOĞLAN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to present how often the scholl counselorsexperience the emotions of anger, sadness, fear and hatred and what they do to cope with these emotions. In the study, the qualitative research method was used. From the 49 provinces of Turkey, 140 people comprising of women and 81 men participated and the feedback from 101 of these participants were taken. An open-ended semi- structured question form which was developed by the researchers to collect the data was used. The Nvivo9 package software programme has been used for the process of entering, studying and analysing the data by tabulating it. To cope with manage negative emotions, the participants were in general seen to use some coping strategies with their emotions such as ‘trying to forget and avoid, turning into introvert and share, turning into extrovert and face off and trying to be calm’.

  5. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    of these activities (heart rate variability, blood pressure, cortisol and oxytocin levels). Questionnaires and short interviews will give us a further assessment of the pain experience of the participants, their religious beliefs and practices as well as their previous experience with religious coping strategies. We......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... resonance imaging) experiments and use experimental pain stimuli to assess how a target group of religious participants react to and experience pain during religious activities/stimuli, prayer and religious symbols. In addition, different biomarkers will be measured to register the somatic response...

  6. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  7. Coping with Fear of and Exposure to Terrorism among Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hare, Marianne M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines existing research on the impact of terrorism on expatriate coping strategies. We consider pre-assignment fear of terrorism, in-country coping strategies, and anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with repatriation. The extant research is small but growing. Our model for expatriate coping at the pre-departure, in-country, and repatriation stages includes strategies specific to each stage. Preparation using proactive coping, systematic desensitization, problem and emotion focused coping, social support, and virtual reality explorations are recommended. Selecting expatriate candidates who are well-adjusted, emotionally intelligent, and possessing good coping skills is essential for successful assignments in terror-prone regions. PMID:28753940

  8. Personality, sense of coherence and the coping of working mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettie Herbst

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between personality dimensions, sense of coherence and coping styles among working mothers. The OPQ, OLQ and COPE questionnaires were administered to 120 married, working mothers. In view of contrasting results obtained by other researchers regarding the dimensionality of the COPE, its factorial validity and internal consistency were assessed. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the COPE measured five factors with high degrees of internal consistency. Several personality dimensions and sense of coherence variables correlated significantly with the dependent variables (coping styles. It appeared that these independent variables predicted substantial percentages of the variability in the coping styles.

  9. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  10. Video-game based exercises for older people with chronic low back pain: a protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial (the GAMEBACK trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadro, Joshua Robert; Shirley, Debra; Simic, Milena; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Ceprnja, Dragana; Maka, Katherine; Ferreira, Paulo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the feasibility of implementing a video-game exercise programme for older people with chronic low back pain (LBP). Single-centred single-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT). Physiotherapy outpatient department in a public hospital in Western Sydney, Australia. We will recruit 60 participants over 55 years old with chronic LBP from the waiting list. Participants will be randomised to receive video-game exercise (n=30) or to remain on the waiting list (n=30) for 8 weeks, with follow up at 3 and 6 months. Participants engaging in video-game exercises will be unsupervised and will complete video-game exercise for 60minutes, 3 times per week. Participants allocated to remain on the waiting list will be encouraged to maintain their usual levels of physical activity. The primary outcomes for this feasibility study will be study processes (recruitment and response rates, adherence to and experience with the intervention, and incidence of adverse events) relevant to the future design of a large RCT. Estimates of treatment efficacy (point estimates and 95% confidence intervals) on pain self-efficacy, care seeking, physical activity, fear of movement/re-injury, pain, physical function, disability, falls-efficacy, strength, and walking speed, will be our secondary outcome measures. Recruitment for this trial began in November 2015. This study describes the rationale and processes of a feasibility study investigating a video-game exercise programme for older people with chronic LBP. Results from the feasibility study will inform on the design and sample required for a large multicentre RCT. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615000703505. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet Addiction and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Avoidant Coping and Coping Inflexibility as Psychological Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-09-01

    This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment.

  12. How we cope with digital technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Digital technology has become a defining characteristic of modern life. Almost everyone uses it, we all rely on it, and many of us own a multitude of devices. What is more, we all expect to be able to use these technologies ""straight out the box."" This lecture discusses how we are able to do this without apparent problems. We are able to use digital technology because we have learned to cope with it. ""To cope"" is used in philosophy to mean ""absorbed engagement,"" that is, we use our smart phones and tablet computers with little or no conscious effort. In human-computer interaction this ki

  13. Intacting Integrity in coping with health issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Stine Leegaard; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Fridlund, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formal substantive theory (FST) on the multidimensional behavioral process of coping with health issues. Intacting integrity while coping with health issues emerged as the core category of this FST. People facing health issues strive to safeguard and keep...... intact their integrity not only on an individual level but also as members of a group or a system. This intacting process is executed by attunement, continuously minimizing the discrepancy between personal values, personal health, self-expectations and external conditions as health- and cultural...

  14. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min

    2014-09-01

    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  15. Emotions, Coping Style and Aggression during Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre Escrivá, Vicenta; Universitat de Valencia; Samper García, Paula; Universitat de Valencia; Tur Porcar, Ana María; Universitat de Valencia; Richaud de Minzi, Cristina; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET); Mesurado, Belen; Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigaciones en Psicología Matemática y Experimental (CIIPME), dependiente del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between coping strategies and emotions to know to what extend these are processes related to aggressive behavior. We assume that the aggression influence coping mechanisms in solving problems and handling of emotions: emotional instability (lack of self-control in stressful situations) or empathy (feelings faced to “other” who has a problem or need). A sample of 1.557 boys and girls, with an age range of 12-15 years, enrolled in first-cycle of Compulsory Se...

  16. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets...

  17. Coping with chronic renal failure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lai, Claudia; Zhang, Zhi-Xue

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the coping behaviours of Chinese patients with chronic renal failure. The study, based on Lazarus and Folkman (Stress, Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York, 1984) model of coping, was conducted to identify the process by which 11 chronic renal failure patients cope with their disease. The identified themes are coping with fluctuating feelings and concerns, motivation to cope, interdependent relationships between patients and their family members and modes of coping strategies. The significance of the results indicates that coping is the consequence not only of situational demands but also of life goals. Meaning in life is an important motivator in the coping process. Besides problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping, another important element is relationship-focused coping. The interdependent influences of families on patients and patients on families are also important factors. The role of family and cultural factors is discussed as it affects how patients with chronic renal failure cope with their illness.

  18. Coping Styles and Depression Among Undocumented Hispanic Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Cory L; Xie, Dong; Sanders, Gardiner L

    2016-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined coping strategies and their relationship with depression among undocumented Hispanic immigrants. A community sample of 122 self-identified undocumented Hispanics filled out questionnaires measuring coping and depression. The authors categorized coping strategies as problem-focused, active-emotional, or avoidant-emotional. Findings indicated that coping through "prayer and meditation" (problem-focused), "get comfort from someone" (active-emotional), and "see bad things positively" (active-emotional) were more frequently used by undocumented Hispanics. Contrary to past research and predictions, problem-focused and active-emotional coping were both positively related to depression. What is more, problem-focused coping accounted for additional variance of depression above and beyond active-emotional coping. The insoluble nature of many of the problems faced by undocumented immigrants may explain the counterintuitive finding that as problem-focused and active-emotional coping increased, so too did depression.

  19. Pharmacological treatment of hyperinsulineamia in rats depends on coping style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Gretha; Benthem, Lambertus; van Dijk, Gertjan; Steimer, Thierry J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Passive and proactive coping styles are associated with marked differences in behavioral and neuroendocrine responses. Previous studies revealed that the passive individuals are more prone to hyperinsulineamia. Likewise, we hypothesize that different coping styles may require different drugs to trea

  20. Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality profile and coping resources of family medicine vocational trainees ... to various stress factors in their personal and family lives, as well as in the workplace. ... coping resources optimally and reported poor help-seeking behaviour.

  1. Personality disorders, depression, and coping styles in Argentinean bulimic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.

  2. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, pstyles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include coping resources and specific coping styles. This finding has implications for measurement of coping mechanisms, health maintenance, and stress reduction. PMID:24787952

  3. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  4. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldwell, Michael S; Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M

    2014-01-01

    Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones...

  5. Coping with crisis risk in European agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the major findings of an international workshop on coping with crisis risk in European agriculture. The workshop took place as part of an EU sixth framework project entitled: Income stabilisation: Design and economic impact of risk management tools for European agriculture. T

  6. Coping with extreme climate events: Institutional flocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the governance structures that would be needed to cope with extreme and unpredictable climate change. The impacts on the Netherlands of a Gulf Stream collapse in the Northern Atlantic are taken as a case. This hypothetical situation of serious risks and high uncertainties requir

  7. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    of household reported harvest shocks differs significantly between districts and correspond to the observed variability in local climate patterns. Coping strategies are focused on spreading risks and include reduced consumption, casual employment, new crops, external support and the selling of assets...

  8. Sally's Corner: Coping with Unmarried Motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal survey of first parity, mostly Black mothers in New York City, examines the coping strategies of unmarried mothers. Analyzes the expansion of role responsibilities and support systems utilized and discusses the relationship between support systems and subsequent fertility. Presents three case studies. (Author/GC)

  9. Pain and Coping in The Religious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Geertz, Armin W.; Roepstorff, Andreas

    Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic institut......Does religion provide placebo analgesia? The purpose of our project is to understand religious coping and specifically how it might be understood a coping strategy for religious people who experience pain. The project is an interdisciplinary study joining different faculties and academic...... institutions, i.e. the Religion, Cognition and Culture (RCC) research area at The Faculty of Theology, Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and The Danish Pain Research Centre (DPRC) at the University of Aarhus and Aarhus University Hospital. The team will design fMRI (functional magnetic...... hypothesize that the target group will have a higher pain threshold and pain tolerance during religious practice compared to a non-religious control group, and the fMRI experiments are expected to show reduced neural activity (BOLD) in areas of the brain correlating with pain experience during personal prayer...

  10. Coping with the Experience of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2006-01-01

    The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression, are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily on these strategies. The…

  11. Farmer awareness, coping mechanisms and economic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2CABI Africa Regional Center, P. O. Box 633-00621, Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya. Author for ... Arabica coffee productivity and income by 49.5%. As cope up ... fewer beans, of inferior quality. (Rutherford ..... such as the American leaf spot,.

  12. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety Share this page: Was this page helpful? Introduction | Being Prepared | Relaxation Techniques | ... particularly enjoys having blood drawn or providing a urine or stool sample, but a laboratory test conducted on a sample collected from your body ...

  13. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  14. Early Childhood Teachers Coping with Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgallon, Pam; Maloney, Carmel; Lock, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study of early childhood teachers' (educators of children aged four - eight years in school settings) perceptions of key factors which impact on their ability to cope with the implementation of mandated educational change in the workplace. Using qualitative methodology including surveys, focus groups and in-depth interviews,…

  15. Relationship between religiosity, religious coping and socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tive religious coping was greater among older people with depression than among older people with diabetes(t=2.31 ... and disability measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years ... overall health (physical and mental) and better quality of life.19 ...

  16. Christchurch earthquakes: how did former refugees cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohamud; Hornblow, Andrew; Macleod, Sandy; Coope, Pat

    2012-06-29

    This study investigated how former refugees now living in Christchurch (Canterbury Province, New Zealand) communities coped after the 4 September 2010 and subsequent earthquakes. A systematic sample of one in three former refugees from five ethnic groupings (Afghanistan, Kurdistan, Ethiopia, Somalia and Bhutan) was selected from a list of 317 refugees provided by the Canterbury Refugee Council and invited to participate in the study. Seventy-two out of 105 potential participants completed a 26 item questionnaire regarding the impact of the quakes, their concerns and anxieties, coping strategies and social supports. The methodology was complicated by ongoing aftershocks, particularly that of 22 February 2011. Three-quarters of participants reported that they had coped well, spirituality and religious practice being an important support for many, despite less then 20% receiving support from mainstream agencies. Most participants (72%) had not experienced a traumatic event or natural disaster before. Older participants and married couples with children were more likely to worry about the earthquakes and their impact than single individuals. There was a significant difference in the level of anxiety between males and females. Those who completed the questionnaire after the 22 February 2011 quake were more worried overall than those interviewed before this. Overall, the former refugees reported they had coped well despite most of them not experiencing an earthquake before and few receiving support from statutory relief agencies. More engagement from local services is needed in order to build trust and cooperation between the refugee and local communities.

  17. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  18. Prevalence of burnout syndrome and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cruz Valdés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the burnout syndrome in health workers duringa contingency in Mexico City because of epidemiology AH1N1 influenza, andidentify if the use of coping strategies had protective effects for the burnout. Wehad a sample of 477 health workers and was performed a transversal descriptivestudy with a nonrandom quote sample. The instruments used were MaslachBurnout Inventory Human Services version and scale measuring coping face toextreme risks. It was performed a frequency and normality distribution to analyzethe differences, and also an analysis of variance in burnout, and multiple linealregression for coping strategies. We found that 24% had burnout (in emotionalexhaustion and a moderate degree depersonalization, with the presence of personalaccomplishment. They were also employed active and passive strategies.We found that the use of coping strategies was selective, active strategies had amoderating role to burnout and protective to the scale of emotional exhaustion,which seems to increase when there is personal realization. We propose the developmentof quantitative and qualitative research and the use of mixed models ofintervention: focusing on people.

  19. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  20. How to Cope with an Incompetent Supervisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Herbert S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the problem of incompetent library supervisors in terms of the process that results in the selection of such supervisors, inappropriate supervisory behaviors, and the effects on employees. Several strategies for coping with an incompetent supervisor are suggested. (4 references) (CLB)

  1. Coping with extreme climate events: Institutional flocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The article explores the governance structures that would be needed to cope with extreme and unpredictable climate change. The impacts on the Netherlands of a Gulf Stream collapse in the Northern Atlantic are taken as a case. This hypothetical situation of serious risks and high uncertainties

  2. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...

  3. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...

  4. Vulnerability, poverty and coping in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Bird, Kate

    This paper uses five life histories from three locations in Zimbabwe—one peri-urban, one urban and one rural—to provide a window on current processes of impoverishment and adverse coping. Each case and location highlight key aspects of Zimbabwe’s recent economic and political turmoil. Together...

  5. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  6. Facilitating sunscreen use in women by a theory-based online intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schüz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This study compares a motivational skin cancer prevention approach with a volitional planning and self-efficacy intervention to enhance regular sunscreen use. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with 205 women (mean age 25 years) in three groups: motivational; volitional; and control. Sunscreen use, action planning, coping planning and coping self-efficacy were assessed at three points in time. The volitional intervention improved sunscreen use. Coping planning emerged as the only mediator between the intervention and sunscreen use at Time 3. Findings point to the role played by coping planning as an ingredient of sun protection interventions.

  7. Couples coping with chronic pain: How do intercouple interactions relate to pain coping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenevost, Mathilde Hallingstad; Reme, Silje Endresen

    2017-07-01

    Pain is not merely an isolated experience occurring within the person. It takes place in a wider social context, including the immediate social relationships that the person is a part of. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of how intercouple interactions might influence pain coping in couples coping with chronic pain. Four different approaches to understanding the influence of intercouple interactions have been proposed in the literature. In this review, we present and discuss the empirical support for each of these models. A literature search on all studies published up until May 2017 (PubMed and PsycINFO) was performed. The search string consisted of 3 steps: Chronic pain AND couple interaction*/partner validation/marital interaction/chronic pain couple*/spouse response* AND coping/adjustment/disability/function/work participation/sick leave/sickness absence/work disability. The operant model views partner responses from the perspective of conditioned learning and focuses on how such responses might increase or decrease the occurrence of pain behaviour. The notion that partner responses can reinforce pain behaviour generally finds support in the literature. However, when it comes to negative partner responses results are mixed, and the model paints a limited picture of the range of interactions that takes place in a couple. The communal coping model focuses on one specific type of coping (i.e. catastrophizing), and emphasizes the interpersonal aspect of pain coping. There is some evidence that a tendency to catastrophize is related both to couple interactions and pain coping, but it has proved difficult to test this model empirically. The interpersonal process model of intimacy is concerned with patient disclosures of distress and subsequent validating and invalidating partner responses. There is some preliminary support that such mechanisms of validation and invalidation can be linked to pain coping. A dyadic approach focuses on processes where the

  8. Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Montero-Marin; Javier Prado-Abril; Marcelo Marcos Piva Demarzo; Santiago Gascon; Javier García-Campayo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. METHODS: This ...

  9. Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed DJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Reed Department of Psychology, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Campus, Sheffield, UK Abstract: The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health – measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95 completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed. Keywords: stress management, psychological health, student stress, life satisfaction, organizations

  10. Developing Coping Typologies of Minority Adolescents: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to develop a coping typology of minority adolescents (M = 15.5 years). A multiethnic sample (n = 354) was recruited from a program aimed at serving low-income students. LPA revealed three distinct coping profiles. The first comprised adolescents who used a number of specific coping strategies at a low level…

  11. Coping and recovery in whiplash-associated disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Linda J; Ferrari, Robert; Cassidy, John David

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coping is shown to affect outcomes in chronic pain patients; however, few studies have examined the role of coping in the course of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of coping style for 2 key aspects of WAD ...

  12. Appraisal and Coping Strategy Use in Victims of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S. C.; Boyle, J. M. E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Transactional models of coping (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) can contribute to our understanding of why some children cope effectively with bullying while others suffer negative outcomes. However, previous research has relied on coping measures that are not comparable with adult measures, restricting investigation of developmental trends.…

  13. Coping Styles in Youths with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…

  14. Coping behaviour in pigs : consequences for welfare and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp-van der Kooij, Elaine van

    2004-01-01

    In this study we have investigated individual differences in coping with management-related stressors such as cross-fostering, weaning and mixing. Animals differ in the way they cope with stressors. An active coping strategy is characterized by an autonomous response, with higher heart rate, blood

  15. [Longitudinal study of the situational specificity of coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafune, Kosuke; Kosugi, Shotaro

    2007-02-01

    This longitudinal study examines the situational specificity of coping strategies for 3 943 male employees of the research and development division of an industrial company. The Job Stress Scale-Revised version (JSS-R) was administered twice to the same subjects 40 months apart to assess chronic job stressors (qualitative and quantitative) and coping strategies (problem-solving, support-seeking, and problem-leaving). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine changes in coping strategies corresponding to changes in chronic job stressors. The results suggest a situational specificity of coping strategies. (a) With decreasing qualitative stressors, "problem-solving" coping increases and "problem-leaving" coping decreases. (b) With increasing qualitative stressors, "problem-leaving" coping increases and "problem-solving" coping decreases. (c) With increasing quantitative stressors, "support-seeking" coping increases. (d) With decreasing quantitative stressors, "problem-leaving" coping decreases. (e) There is no variance in "problem-leaving" coping attributable to the change in the quantitative stressors when the qualitative stressors decrease or increase. "Problem-leaving" coping is more strongly related to qualitative than quantitative stressors.

  16. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  17. Causal Model of Stress and Coping: Women in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bonita C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested model of managerial women's (n=249) stress. Model was developed from Lazarus's theoretical framework of stress/coping and incorporated causal antecedent constructs (demographics, sex role attitudes, agentic traits), mediating constructs (environment, appraisals, engagement coping, disengagement coping), and outcomes (work performance,…

  18. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    .001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  19. Coping and coping effectiveness in relation to a competitive sport event: pubertal status, chronological age, and gender among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam; Polman, Remco; Morley, David; Taylor, Natalie J

    2009-06-01

    An aim of this paper was to discover whether athletes of different pubertal status, chronological age, and gender reported distinct coping strategies in response to stress during a competitive event in their sport. A secondary aim was to examine pubertal status group, chronological age, and gender differences in coping effectiveness. Participants were adolescent athletes (n = 527), classified as beginning-pubertal (n = 59), midpubertal (n = 189), advanced-pubertal (n = 237), and postpubertal (n = 22). Findings revealed that there were small, but significant differences in how athletes of different pubertal status and chronological age coped. There were also significant differences between how athletes of different pubertal status perceived the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Interestingly, our results suggested that the relationship between pubertal status and coping and coping effectiveness is different from the relationship between chronological age and coping and coping effectiveness.

  20. Coping with fibromialgia: usefulness of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa

    2007-11-01

    There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Pain coping strategies predict perceived control over pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, J A; Menefee, L A; Heinberg, L J; Clark, M R

    1998-07-01

    Perceptions of control over pain and specific pain coping strategies are associated with a number of positive outcomes in patients with chronic pain conditions. Transactional models of stress have emphasized coping as a process that is both determined by, and influences appraisals of control. While perceptions of control and coping efforts are associated with better adjustment, little is known about the specific coping strategies that contribute to perceptions that pain is controllable. One hundred and ninety-five (65% female) individuals with chronic pain conditions admitted to an inpatient unit completed the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to predict perceived pain control from measures of pain severity and coping. After controlling for pain severity and education, coping self-statements and reinterpreting pain sensations predicted greater perceptions of control over pain, whereas ignoring pain sensations predicted lower perceptions of control over pain. The coping strategies did not interact with pain severity in predicting perceptions of control. Coping flexibility, or the number of pain coping strategies reported at a high frequency, also predicted perceptions of control over pain and did not interact with pain severity. The present findings suggest that, regardless of pain severity, the use of specific cognitive pain coping strategies may increase perceptions of control over pain. Since the existing coping literature largely identifies maladaptive pain coping strategies, it is especially critical to establish which pain coping strategies are adaptive. Specific cognitive strategies, particularly coping self statements, are important components for cognitive-behavioral interventions for chronic pain management. Future research will need to determine whether other adaptive cognitive strategies such as reinterpreting pain sensations can be

  2. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Gambling Behavior: Mediating Role of Coping Motivation and Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Martens, Matthew P; Arterberry, Brooke J

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the variables that contribute to the comorbidity of depression and gambling behaviors is important in developing effective intervention strategies for those who experience gambling-related problems. The purpose of this study was to implement core concepts from Jacob's general theory of addiction and the social cognitive theory in a multiple mediation model. Specifically, we tested two models to examine whether coping motivation and refusal self-efficacy mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms, gambling related problems, and days gambled. Data was collected from 333 undergraduate students at a large public Midwest university, participating in a larger clinical trial. Analyses indicated a direct effect between depressive symptoms and gambling related problems. Depressive symptoms were found to have a significant indirect effect through coping motivation and gambling refusal self-efficacy on gambling related problems and days gambled. These results provide further support regarding the mechanisms through which depressive symptoms may increase risk for problematic gambling behavior.

  4. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  5. Exploring Existential Coping Resources: The Perspective of Koreans with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Park, Jisung; Kim, Kyung Mee; Ahmadi, Nader

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to explore the use of meaning-making coping (existential, spiritual, and religious coping) among cancer patients in Korea and to investigate the impact of culture on their choice of coping methods. Thirty-three participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Four different kinds of coping resources emerged from analyses of the interview transcripts: (1) belief in the healing power of nature; (2) mind-body connection; (3) relying on transcendent power; and (4) finding oneself in relationships with others. The findings of this study suggest the importance of investigating cultural context when exploring the use of the meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

  6. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  7. Therapist stress, coping, career sustaining behavior and the working alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Denise Broholm; Munley, Patrick H

    2008-10-01

    Relations were examined among therapist stress, coping styles, career sustaining behaviors and therapist working alliance. 160 therapists completed a demographic questionnaire, a rating of stress experienced in work as a psychotherapist, a rating of stress experienced in work with an individual client, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Career Sustaining Behavior Questionnaire, the COPE, and the Working Alliance Inventory. After controlling for demographic and therapists' stress variables, and alternating entry of Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores in the regression model, Career Sustaining Behavior contributed significant variance to predicting working alliance, and COPE scores accounted for significant variance in working alliance with active coping a significant predictor. Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores entered together accounted for significant unique variance in Working Alliance with career sustaining behavior and avoidant coping identified as significant predictors.

  8. Religious Coping in Caregivers of Family Members With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathier, Lucille A; Davis, Jennifer Duncan; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    The degree of depression experienced by caregivers of individuals with dementia was examined in relation to religious coping strategies, religious practice, and spirituality in the framework of the stress and coping model. Caregivers of 191 persons with dementia completed the Religious Coping Scale, self-report measures of religious practices and spirituality, burden, and depression. There was no evidence that any religious coping strategy or religious practice moderated the relationship between caregiving stress and depression. Certain types of religious coping strategies had a direct effect on depression. Higher levels of religious coping working with God were associated with decreased depression, whereas higher levels of religious coping working through God were associated with increased depression. Higher burden, lower overall caregiver health rating, and worse reactions to memory and behavior problems were associated with higher levels of depression. Frequency of prayer and the importance of spirituality were weakly associated with lower levels of depression.

  9. Konseling Pancawaskita untuk Membentuk Problem Focused Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sujadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem focused coping with needs to be owned by any individual. When in a stressful situation, individuals are oriented in this strategy will seek to address and eliminate the less pleasant atmosphere directly to sources of stress through concrete actions that are positive. The emergence of the stress on the individual factors within or due to the influence of outside forces. Through pancawaskita counseling of individuals need to be aware that he has the power of all of that can be utilized to achieve a life of happiness. Execution of counseling by counselors in pancawaskita form the problem focused coping must be accompanied by a performance and spirit accompanied with intelligence, strength, precision, “keterarahan”, and “kearifbijaksanaan”.

  10. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  11. Coping with anxiety in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults.

  12. Coping with stress in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Janine D. Oosthuizen; Burger van Lill

    2008-01-01

    The researchers investigated a simplified process model, a so-called salutogenic approach, of coping with stress in the workplace. Two constructs of salutogenic functioning, namely sense of coherence and locus of control (three dimensions: internal, external locus and autonomy), as well as the stress levels of 240 employees from a parastatal organisation were measured. As expected, individuals with a stronger sense of coherence and a stronger internal locus of control experienced lower levels...

  13. Ethnographic assessment of pain coping responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R.

    1990-01-01

    . Professional socialization had a stronger influence on pain remedy description than did ethnicity, while patient descriptions of remedies appeared to be more ethnospecific. These anthropologic methods appear to be valid and reliable in revealing cognitive processes involved in the pain coping preferences....... These results were corroborated by nonparametric and multidimensional scaling analyses of the cross-cultural quantitative data. Professional socialization had a stronger influence on pain remedy description than did ethnicity, while patient descriptions of remedies appeared to be more ethnospecific, especially...

  14. Linking fearfulness and coping styles in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina I M Martins

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in cognitive appraisal and emotional reactivity, including fearfulness, are important personality traits in humans, non-human mammals, and birds. Comparative studies on teleost fishes support the existence of coping styles and behavioral syndromes also in poikilothermic animals. The functionalist approach to emotions hold that emotions have evolved to ensure appropriate behavioral responses to dangerous or rewarding stimuli. Little information is however available on how evolutionary widespread these putative links between personality and the expression of emotional or affective states such as fear are. Here we disclose that individual variation in coping style predicts fear responses in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, using the principle of avoidance learning. Fish previously screened for coping style were given the possibility to escape a signalled aversive stimulus. Fearful individuals showed a range of typically reactive traits such as slow recovery of feed intake in a novel environment, neophobia, and high post-stress cortisol levels. Hence, emotional reactivity and appraisal would appear to be an essential component of animal personality in species distributed throughout the vertebrate subphylum.

  15. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP. A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS] were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34 or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34. The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test. The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma, who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects.

  16. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  17. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions.

  18. Work-related stress and well-being: the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes-Ferreira, Lina; Peiró, José M; González-Morales, M Gloria; Martín, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping in the relationship between work stressors and psychological well-being, as well as their possible interactions, in a sample of 464 bank employees. Hierarchical regression analyses showed main effects of direct action coping on well-being. Palliative coping predicts higher levels of psychological distress. Contrary to what was expected, the interactions between work stressors and direct action coping were not significant. Palliative coping interacted with work stressors when predicting psychosomatic complaints. The interaction between the two types of coping was significant on psychosomatic complaints and psychological distress, but not on job satisfaction. The paper discusses theoretical and practical implications of these results, in order to design intervention strategies to prevent and manage job stress.

  19. 枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及机制的初步研究%Study on the Protective Effect of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide (LBP) on Kidney and Its Mechanism in Obese Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈武; 马卫成; 徐锦龙; 徐爱仁

    2013-01-01

    Object we: To investigate the protective effect of kidney and mechanism of LBP in obese rats. Methods: LBP continuous gavage for 12 weeks in obese rats,then serum levels of TC,TG,HDL,LDL,FBG,FINS,Cr,BUN and kidney LDL, Ox — LDL were all determined, and the ISI was calculated. Results: LBP could lower lipid and blood glucose, and improve insulin resistance, improve kidney function, reduce the role of the kidney tissue LDL and Ox - LDL. Conclusion: LBP had a protective role for kidney in obese rats and its mechanism might be associated with reducing kidney tissues of Ox - LDL.%目的:探讨枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏的保护作用及其机制.方法:制备肥胖大鼠模型,枸杞多糖连续灌胃12周,测定血清TC、TG、HDL、LDL、FBG、FINS、Cr、BUN及肾脏LDL与Ox-LDL,并计算ISI.结果:枸杞多糖具有降脂、降糖、改善胰岛素抵抗、改善肾功能、降低肾脏组织LDL与Ox-LDL的作用.结论:枸杞多糖对肥胖大鼠肾脏具有一定的保护作用,其机制可能与减少肾脏组织Ox-LDL有一定的关系.

  20. Cope's Rule in the Pterosauria, and differing perceptions of Cope's Rule at different taxonomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, D W E; Benton, M J

    2007-05-01

    The remarkable extinct flying reptiles, the pterosaurs, show increasing body size over 100 million years of the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and this seems to be a rare example of a driven trend to large size (Cope's Rule). The size increases continue throughout the long time span, and small forms disappear as larger pterosaurs evolve. Mean wingspan increases through time. Examining for Cope's Rule at a variety of taxonomic levels reveals varying trends within the Pterosauria as a whole, as pterodactyloid pterosaurs increase in size at all levels of examination, but rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs show both size increase and size decrease in different analyses. These results suggest that analyses testing for Cope's Rule at a single taxonomic level may give misleading results.

  1. The Relationship Between Stress and Coping in Table Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurimay Dora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive competitive anxiety intensity and coping strategies in table tennis players. One hundred and two (102 US competitive table tennis players of age range from 10 to 60 filled out a Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox et al., 2003 at least 30 minutes before the start of their tournament match and a Modified Cope questionnaire (MCOPE; Crocker and Graham, 1995 15 minutes after they finished their match. Our study found significant differences between low and high cognitive competitive anxiety groups with regard to the use of coping strategies. The high cognitive competitive anxiety intensity group used significantly more behavioral disengagement (avoidance coping, p ≤ 0.05, denial coping strategies (emotion focused coping, p ≤ 0.01 compared to the low cognitive anxiety intensity group. Our results suggest that there is some connection between anxiety intensity and coping strategies. If the cognitive anxiety intensity (for example, intensity from worrying is very high, an athlete might be more likely to use avoidance coping (such as behavioral disengagement and emotion-focused coping (such as denial and venting of emotions compared to athletes who have low cognitive competitive anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in cognitive anxiety and direction were found. Confidence management techniques such as positive self-talk, breathing techniques and visualization should be taught to athletes to assist them in coping with their competitive anxiety better and to enhance their performance.

  2. How religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies depends on the individual's level of religiosity and spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Chai, Penny Pei Minn; Shepherd, Daniel; Billington, Rex

    2012-12-01

    Results from empirical studies on the role of religiosity and spirituality in dealing with stress are frequently at odds, and the present study investigated whether level of religiosity and spirituality is related to the way in which religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies. A sample of 616 university undergraduate students completed the Brief COPE (Carver in Int J Behav Med 4:92-100, 1997) questionnaire and was classified into groups of participants with lower and higher levels of religiosity and spirituality, as measured by the WHOQOL-SRPB (WHOQOL-SRPB Group in Soc Sci Med 62:1486-1497, 2006) instrument. For participants with lower levels, religious coping tended to be associated with maladaptive or avoidant coping strategies, compared to participants with higher levels, where religious coping was more closely related to problem-focused coping, which was also supported by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the present study thus illustrate that investigating the role of religious coping requires more complex approaches than attempting to assign it to one higher order factor, such as problem- or emotion-focused coping, and that the variability of findings reported by previous studies on the function of religious coping may partly be due to variability in religiosity and spirituality across samples.

  3. Psychological predictors of coping responses among Greek basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H

    2000-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and to consider the theoretical principles both within and beyond sports, the authors replicated an earlier study among Australian basketball referees (A. Kaissidis-Rodafinos, M. H. Anshel, & A. Porter, 1997). The results were equivocal: The Greek referees were not consistent in using avoidance and approach coping responses across situations. Approach coping was more predictable than avoidance coping in accounting for both situational and personal variables.

  4. Coping Strategies of Family Members of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis M. Eaton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research paper investigated the coping strategies of families of hospitalized psychiatric patients and identified their positive and negative coping strategies. In this paper, the coping strategies of 45 family members were examined using a descriptive, correlational, mixed method research approach. Guided by the Neuman Systems Model and using the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales and semistructured interviews, this paper found that these family members used more emotion-focused coping strategies than problem-focused coping strategies. The common coping strategies used by family members were communicating with immediate family, acceptance of their situation, passive appraisal, avoidance, and spirituality. The family members also utilized resources and support systems, such as their immediate families, mental health care professionals, and their churches.

  5. Coping styles in healthy individuals at risk of affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Froekjaer, Vibe Gedsoe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    Coping styles may influence the perceived life stress experienced by an individual and, therefore, also be critical in the development of affective disorders. This study examined whether familial risk of affective disorder is associated with the use of maladaptive coping styles, in healthy...... individuals. One hundred twelve high-risk and 78 low-risk individuals were identified through nation-wide registers and invited to participate in an extensive psychiatric evaluation including the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The high-risk individuals used more Emotion-oriented (p = 0.......001) and Avoidance coping (p = 0.04) than individuals not at risk. Adjusted for gender, age, years of education, and recent stressful life events the high-risk individuals used more emotion-oriented coping (p = 0.03). In conclusion, maladaptive coping style may represent a trait marker for mood disorder improving...

  6. A study on coping patterns of junior college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the coping patterns followed by the junior college students. Further, an extensive effort was done to study the gender differences in coping patterns used by the students. This study was conducted in Christ College, Bangalore and on the first and second-year students of pre-university studying in either of the branches (Bachelor of Arts, Science, or Commerce. A total of 120 samples were collected from study population of junior college students using the random sampling method. The sample comprised, 40 students from each group of Arts, Science, and Commerce, including both of the sexes. The tools such as, socio-demographic data sheet and coping checklist, were used. The study findings revealed that majority of the students adopted emotion- and problem-focused coping strategies. Most of the female students adopted emotion-focused coping strategies, whereas the male students mostly used problem-focused coping strategies.

  7. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  8. Stress among UK academics : identifying who copes best?

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined the levels of stress and coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy, on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health (GHQ) was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored the relationship between coping styles and work-coping variables of sense of coherence and work locus of control and stress. No significant differences...

  9. Gambaran Coping Stress pada Wanita Madya dalam Menghadapi Pramenopause

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The research is the descriptive research aim to see how is the description of women in the middle age of coping stress to face premenopause. Lazarus & Folkman (1986) were definited that coping as all effort to decrease stress that is a manage process (external and internal) demand that evaluate overlooked burden for someone. Lazarus & Folkman (1986) identified all kind of coping strategies, in problem-focused or emotion-focused, such as: (1) Planful problem solving, (2) Conf...

  10. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  11. Coping and work engagement in selected South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The coping strategies of their employees are amongst the activities that organisations should address to improve their employees’ work engagement.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in three occupational groups in South Africa.Motivation for the study: There is little understanding of the relationship between effective forms of coping and positive outcomes (like work engagement.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a survey design. They drew random and stratified samples (N = 3178 from three occupational groups. These were technical employees in an electricity provider, professional and enrolled nurses and police officers. They administered the Coping Orientations to the Problems Experienced (COPE and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES.Main findings: The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between work engagement, problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation and growth. In the nursing sample, high problem-focused coping, low avoidance and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the police sample, four coping strategies (problem-focused coping, seeking social support, turning to religion and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best. In the technician sample, problem-focused coping and low ventilation of emotions predicted work engagement best.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should consider employees’ coping strategies when they introduce interventions to improve work engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the knowledge about the relationship between coping strategies and work engagement in South African organisations.

  12. Coping with instabilities - lessons from Japanese architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    twentieth century, a born-again modernism that, while being modern in the Western sense of the term, attempted to combine modernism with tradition. It offers particular attention to the architect Arata Isozaki (born 1931) who contributed with insight into the puzzle of Tokyo’s robustness and its unique......This paper offers insight into the role of architecture in coping with instabilities. At its centre is a second generation of Japanese architects who came to maturity after World War II. They questioned the International Style, and asked for a return to architecture in the image of the early...

  13. Coping with stress in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Oosthuizen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The researchers investigated a simplified process model, a so-called salutogenic approach, of coping with stress in the workplace. Two constructs of salutogenic functioning, namely sense of coherence and locus of control (three dimensions: internal, external locus and autonomy, as well as the stress levels of 240 employees from a parastatal organisation were measured. As expected, individuals with a stronger sense of coherence and a stronger internal locus of control experienced lower levels of stress and vice versa. Nevertheless, in a regression analysis only the sense of coherence and external locus of control variables contributed significantly to variance in the criterion variable stress.

  14. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Skytthe, Axel;

    2014-01-01

    Women are found to be more religious than men and more likely to use religious coping. Only few studies have explored religious gender differences in more secular societies. This population-based study comprised 3,000 Danish men and women (response rate 45 %) between 20 and 40 years of age...... scored high in the RCOPE exceeded the proportion of women in using positive and especially negative coping strategies. Also, in a secular society, women are found to be more religious than men, but in a subset of the most religious respondents, men were more inclined to use religious coping. Further...... studies on religious coping in secular societies are required....

  15. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  16. [Coping with stress and pain in migraine patients.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, M; Schneeberg-Kirchner, S; Weber, H

    1989-12-01

    During a semi-structured interview 82 migraine patients were asked biographical and illnessrelated questions. They completed psychological instruments on coping behavior (Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen), self-concept (Frankfurter Selbstkonzeptskalen), attributional style (IE-SV-F), illness behavior, and illness-related attributions (Tübinger Attributions-fragebogen). The theoretical background of this research is a cognitive model of coping with stress and illness. The results support the interrelations between coping with stress and coping with illness assumed in the model. They justify considering coping with illness to be scopespecific coping behavior. Furthermore, the results emphasize the importance of cognitive processes for stress-coping in general, as well as for illness-related coping behavior. With regard to personality variables, migraineurs, as compared with healthy persons, show to a larger extent coping strategies that are apt to maintain rather than to reduce stress, such as resignation, withdrawal, and avoidance behavior. They also have a more unfavorable selfconcept of achievement, emotional stability and selfassertiveness, lower self-esteem and a more external pattern of causal attributions. Some of the pain behavior strategies could be identified as being focused on illness (guarding behavior, avoidance and social withdrawal, resignation and complaint); only the attempt to relax is regarded as being focused on health. Migraine patients show a preference neither for medical nor psychological causal attributions of their illness but score significantly higher on medical than psychological control attributions. The results have implications for psychological therapy.

  17. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Coping with breast cancer over time and situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, E; Augustiny, K F; Schaffner, L; Valach, L

    1993-07-01

    This study examines the variability and stability of coping in cancer subjects over time and situation. In a prospective longitudinal design 74 breastcancer patients have been followed for 3-5 yr at 3-6 monthly intervals. A variety of measures related to coping and adjustment were taken. This report limits itself to the findings of an instrument developed for this study, the Bernese Coping Modes in which 26 coping modes were rated by observers. Results confirm arguments in favour of both variability and stability in coping activity over time and situation. Two measures support stability: rank values and a multivariate measure (MDS) with three constant dimensions: (1) support and acceptance; (2) denial; (3) diversion by thought and action. Evidence for variability is: the potential range of coping modes and a large variety of additional modes at most observation times. Subsequently time measures of coping were attributed to eight predefined illness stages as distinct clinical situations. Thus variability or richness of coping further increased. The implications of these findings for measurement in coping research are discussed.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for nonspecific low back pain: design of a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Arnela; Schaafsma, Frederieke G; Elders, Petra J M; van Tulder, Maurits W; Anema, Johannes R

    2015-05-31

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in industrialised countries. LBP leads to high health care utility and productivity losses; leaving the individual, the employer, and society with substantial costs. To improve the care for LBP patients and reduce the high societal and financial burden of LBP, in 2010 the 'Multidisciplinary care guideline for nonspecific low back pain' was developed in the Netherlands. The current paper describes the design of a study aiming to evaluate the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted strategy to implement this guideline. In a cluster-randomised controlled trial, the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy will be compared to passive guideline dissemination. Using a stepped-wedge approach, participating general practitioners, physiotherapists, and occupational physicians are allocated into clusters and will attend a multidisciplinary continuing medical education training session. The timing these clusters receive the training is the unit of randomisation. LBP patients visiting the participating health care providers are invited to participate in the trial and will receive access to a multimedia intervention aimed at improving beliefs, cognitions, and self-management. The primary outcome measure of this study is patient back beliefs. Secondary outcome measures on patient level include pain, functional status, quality of life, health care utility, and productivity losses. Outcome measures on professional level include knowledge and attitude towards the guideline, and guideline adherence. A process evaluation for the implementation strategy will be performed among the health care providers and the patients. Furthermore, a qualitative subgroup analysis among patients with various ethnic backgrounds will be performed. This study will give insight into the (cost-) effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy for the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for non

  20. Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new medical approaches work in people. Each study answers ... prevent, screen for, diagnose, or treat a disease. Clinical trials may also compare a new treatment to a ...

  1. Coping with stress and types of burnout: explanatory power of different coping strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Montero-Marin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of 'overload', 'lack of development' and 'neglect', belonging to the 'frenetic', 'under-challenged' and 'worn-out' subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the 'Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire', with its three dimensions -overload, lack of development and neglect- as dependent variables, and the 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences', with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. RESULTS: The 'Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences' subscales together explained 15% of the 'overload' (p<0.001, 9% of the 'lack of development' (p<0.001, and 21% of the 'neglect' (p<0.001. 'Overload' was mainly explained by 'venting of emotions' (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001; 'lack of development' by 'cognitive avoidance' (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001; and 'neglect' by 'behavioural disengagement' (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001. Other interesting associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace.

  2. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Kin-ya; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Chen, Huayue

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  3. Personality and methods of coping with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cieślik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Good health and well-being are the natural desires of every human being. However, people have to cope with various kinds of stress in everyday life. Most people are under stress due to: the situation in the world, unemployment, traffic jam, their manager’s opinion, illness, divorce, etc. The level of stress increases particularly in situ ations when people sense danger of physical, social or psychological risks. This phenomenon is very common, and many people have come to think that this is something normal in modern life. Stress can cause depression and frustration, and it does not help in achieving goals and being successful. Ordinary people have a negative concept of stress, but stress response also helps one to rise to meet challenges. Some level of stress is recommended because it helps people to solve problems. While under stress one can function better and work faster, it sharpens concentration and increases brain efficiency. At the beginning of the third millennium, stress has become the people’s enemy, so they should learn how to cope with it. It is common knowledge that one cannot avoid stress, so it is important to learn how to control and deal with it.

  4. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin-ya Kubo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans.

  5. Dificuldade funcional e coping em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analise de Souza Vivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar as características das publicações indexadas nos últimos cinco anos que abordam os temas coping, dificuldade funcional e idosos. Os artigos foram revisados e classificados a partir de seis dimensões de análise: base de dados, ano de publicação, país de origem, tipo de delineamento, cruzamento de variáveis e resultados e conclusões dos estudos. O tratamento dos dados foi realizado através de análise das freqüências percentuais. Abstract The present study’s goal was to verify the characteristics of the indexed publications in the last five years talking about the following themes: coping, functional difficulty and elders. The articles were revised and classified starting from six analysis dimensions: data basis, year of publication, country of origin, outlining type, variables crossing and results, and studies conclusions. The data treatment was accomplished through analysis of the percentile frequencies.

  6. The Relationship between Coping Styles and Hardiness among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hardiness is a personality characteristic which facilitates effective coping with stress and prevents from mental and physical problems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hardiness trait on the use of coping styles. Methods: The population of the study included students at Payam-noor University of Golpaygan. Using a cluster sampling procedure, 8 humanities classes and 8 basic sciences classes were selected and 280 students from these classes participated in the study. The participants completed Ahvaz Hardiness Inventory and Young People Coping Style Scale. The data were analyzed through t-test, ANOVA and stepwise regression analysis. Results: The results showed no difference between boys and girls and humanities and basic sciences students in terms of the level of hardiness. Results of F test showed no significant difference between three coping styles in groups of basic sciences and humanities, but in refer- to – others strategy and non-efficient coping style, women had a higher average than men. A significant relationship was observed between hardiness and the problem-solving and refer to others coping strategies (P<0.001. Results of stepwise regression analysis showed that coping styles of problem solving and non-efficient coping predicted respectively 44 and 47 percent of the variance in hardiness. In other words, the relationship between hardiness and coping styles is influenced only by coping style of problem-solving and non-efficient coping strategies. Conclusion: The results of the research suggest that hardiness creates the inner attitude that will affect confronting of people with life problems and makes people to view mental stress realistically and open-mindedly. In this regard, developing educational and remedial programs at universities can be very helpful.

  7. Yoga, Physical Therapy, or Education for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Robert B; Lemaster, Chelsey; Delitto, Anthony; Sherman, Karen J; Herman, Patricia M; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Stevans, Joel; Keosaian, Julia E; Cerrada, Christian J; Femia, Alexandra L; Roseen, Eric J; Gardiner, Paula; Gergen Barnett, Katherine; Faulkner, Carol; Weinberg, Janice

    2017-07-18

    Yoga is effective for mild to moderate chronic low back pain (cLBP), but its comparative effectiveness with physical therapy (PT) is unknown. Moreover, little is known about yoga's effectiveness in underserved patients with more severe functional disability and pain. To determine whether yoga is noninferior to PT for cLBP. 12-week, single-blind, 3-group randomized noninferiority trial and subsequent 40-week maintenance phase. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343927). Academic safety-net hospital and 7 affiliated community health centers. 320 predominantly low-income, racially diverse adults with nonspecific cLBP. Participants received 12 weekly yoga classes, 15 PT visits, or an educational book and newsletters. The maintenance phase compared yoga drop-in classes versus home practice and PT booster sessions versus home practice. Primary outcomes were back-related function, measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and pain, measured by an 11-point scale, at 12 weeks. Prespecified noninferiority margins were 1.5 (RMDQ) and 1.0 (pain). Secondary outcomes included pain medication use, global improvement, satisfaction with intervention, and health-related quality of life. One-sided 95% lower confidence limits were 0.83 (RMDQ) and 0.97 (pain), demonstrating noninferiority of yoga to PT. However, yoga was not superior to education for either outcome. Yoga and PT were similar for most secondary outcomes. Yoga and PT participants were 21 and 22 percentage points less likely, respectively, than education participants to use pain medication at 12 weeks. Improvements in yoga and PT groups were maintained at 1 year with no differences between maintenance strategies. Frequency of adverse events, mostly mild self-limited joint and back pain, did not differ between the yoga and PT groups. Participants were not blinded to treatment assignment. The PT group had disproportionate loss to follow-up. A manualized yoga program for nonspecific cLBP was noninferior to PT for

  8. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  9. Coping strategies: a prospective study of patterns, stability, and relationships with psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten B; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this article are: (1) to explore patterns (clusters) of coping strategies; (2) to examine the stability of individual coping strategies and patterns of coping over time; and (3) to establish long term associations between coping and psychological distress. Coping strategies were assessed with the Brief Cope questionnaire, whereas psychological distress was measured with the ten-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, in a two-year prospective sample comprising 3,738 employees. Based on TwoStep cluster analysis of the Brief Cope, three different coping patterns were identified: low coping, engagement coping, and disengagement coping. Analyses of long-term stability indicated malleable properties for the individual coping strategies as well as the three clusters. Disengagement coping strategies in the form of self-blame and self-distraction were most strongly associated with distress at follow-up, whereas baseline distress was related to increased use of these strategies two years later. Coping patterns at baseline had no main effects on later levels of distress, but levels of distress at baseline predicted subsequent use of engagement and disengagement coping patterns. The finding that specific coping strategies are malleable suggests that it is possible to modify and develop dysfunctional strategies. The associations between disengagement coping strategies and distress indicate that this kind of coping is especially problematic with regard to mental health problems. A main contribution of this study is that it establishes cluster analytic techniques as beneficial in the assessment of coping.

  10. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  11. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  12. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  13. Correlates of Coping Styles in an Adolescent Trauma Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Individuals generally use the same coping styles across situations. It is important to identify maladaptive cop- ing in adolescents as coping patterns may persist into adult- hood, and are associated with mental health. The present study used a cross-sectional design to investigate the c...

  14. School Moves, Coping, and Achievement: Models of Possible Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen Joanna

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 1,050 regional Australian secondary students participated in a study investigating the relationship between mobility and academic achievement. Measures of mobility, academic achievement, suspensions, coping strategies, parental education, and family structure were used to test the hypothesis that academic coping strategies interact…

  15. "El Ojo en La Meta": Latino Male Undergraduates' Coping Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Delgado-Guerrero, Marla; Salazar, Andrea C.; Nieves, Cecilia M.; Mejia, Araceli; Martinez, Vanessa L.

    2017-01-01

    As Latino males are entering and graduating from higher education at significantly lower rates than their counterparts, this study focused on their educational coping processes. Interviews with five upper-division Latino male undergraduates at a large predominantly White 4-year university revealed a range of coping processes which were…

  16. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  17. Matching Alcoholics to Coping Skills or Interactional Therapies: Posttreatment Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadden, Ronald M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Randomly assigned 96 persons from inpatient alcoholism treatment program to aftercare group treatment consisting of either coping skills training or interactional therapy. Found that coping skills training was more effective for subjects higher in sociopathy or psychopathology; interactional therapy was more effective for subjects lower in…

  18. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p≤.05), self-blame (p≤.05), and positive reinterpretation (p≤.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Self and Coping among College Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine; Inose, Mayuko; Kobori, Akiko; Chang, Tai

    2001-01-01

    Examines Japanese aspects of identity and coping attitudes, sources, and practices among a sample of 240 college students in Japan. Participants reported that they tended to use family members and friends when coping with personal difficulties. Study also found that collective identity was a significant predictor of seeking help from family…

  20. Pain coping strategies: Neonatal intensive care unit survivors in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzewinkel, C.J. van; Been, J.V.; Dielemane, J.P.; Katgert, T.; Boelen-van der Loog, T.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dijk, M. van; Kramer, P.W.; Andriessena, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on long-term consequences of preterm birth on pain coping later in life are limited. Aim The aim of this study was to assess whether gestational age, birth weight and neonatal disease severity have an effect on the pain coping strategy in adolescents born preterm or with low birth we

  1. [Defensive pessimists and coping: the goodness of fit hypothesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2006-12-01

    The goodness of fit hypothesis (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) posits that it is adaptive to use emotion-focused coping and not to use problem-focused coping in uncontrollable situations. This study examines the coping skills that defensive pessimists (DPs) tend to use in uncontrollable situations. The participants were 282 Japanese college students, from which 61 DPs and 64 strategic optimists (SOs) were identified. Based on the controllability they reported about recalled stress situations, they were classified into controllable or uncontrollable subgroups. Eight coping skills, which are concerned with emotion-focused or problem-focused coping, were compared. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that DPs in uncontrollable situations tended not to use emotion-focused coping, which is not consistent with the goodness of fit hypothesis, but they also tended not to use problem-focused coping, which is consistent with the hypothesis. These results imply that DPs can control their behavior adaptively so they do not increase stress more in uncontrollable situations, although they have a vulnerability to feel stress easily because they can not use emotion-focused coping effectively.

  2. A Stress and Coping Approach to Intervention with Abused Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bonnie E.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an ecological model of intervention for physical abuse based on the Lazarus and Folkman conceptualization of stress and coping. Claims that the model identifies the stages that abused women may experience in their appraisal of the abuse experience. Focuses on barriers to ending abuse, stress and coping, and effective interventions. (RJM)

  3. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  4. Coping Strategies and IQ in Psychogenic Movement Disorders and Paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Griffioen, Brecht T.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2009-01-01

    Inadequate coping strategies may cause some patients to develop psychogenic symptoms in periods of stress. This may be more prominent in patients with lower intelligence levels. Twenty-six patients with psychogenic neurological disorders (PND) were tested for coping abilities and intelligence and co

  5. Parents grieving the loss of their child : interdependence in coping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaards-de Meij, Leoniek; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Dijkstra, Iris

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A longitudinal study was conducted among bereaved parents, to examine the relationship between parents' own and their partners' ways of coping in terms of the constructs loss-orientation and restoration-orientation (coping strategies based on the bereavement-specific Dual Process Model (

  6. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea; Blank Gebre, Michèle; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. PMID:28331356

  7. Coping, Regulation, and Development during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter identifies four challenges to the study of the development of coping and regulation and outlines specific theoretical and empirical strategies for addressing them. The challenges are (1) to integrate work on coping and processes of emotion regulation, (2) to use the integration of research on neuro-biology and context to inform the…

  8. Exploring coping strategies of entrepreneurship : the issue of business transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weesie, Edwin; Teeffelen, Lex van

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores 14 traditional coping strategies by Carver et al. in an entreperneurial setting of 880 business owners. Findings indicate that business owners in the process of selling their business may cope differently with stress than business owners that are not. They specifically seem to co

  9. Coping styles in farmed fish: consequences for aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Conceição, Luís E.C.; Millot, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    on coping styles may contribute to improved sustainability of the aquaculture industry, including welfare and performance of farmed fish. Moreover, we will suggest areas for future research, where genetic basis (heritability/epigenetic) of coping styles, and the neuroendocrine mechanisms behind consistent...

  10. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  11. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  12. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV.

  13. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  14. Coping Strategies and the Development of Psychological Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Jessie W.; Neill, James T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes psychological theory about stress, coping, and psychological resilience, and considers how coping strategies can help develop resilience in the context of outdoor education. Outdoor education programs often aim to develop psychological resilience through structured challenging and reflective experiences. Use of coping…

  15. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  16. Goal Orientations, Coping with School Failure and School Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Ingrid; Rijavec, Majda; Loncaric, Darko

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between goal orientation, coping with school failure and school achievement. Two questionnaires. Goal Orientation (Niemivirta, 1996a) and The School Failure Coping Scale (Rijavec & Brdar, 1997), were administered to 1057 high school students (aged from 15 to 17 years). The first goal of this study…

  17. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  18. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  19. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  20. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  1. Coping with threats of terrorism: a protocol for group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenstein, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a group protocol designed to assist people in coping with direct and ongoing threats of terrorism. The protocol is intended to enable participants to address the psychological issues necessary to cope during periods of extreme threat. A step-by-step description of the protocol is provided.

  2. Emotion awareness and coping in children with functional abdominal pain: A controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.C. van der Veek; H.H.F. Derkx; E. de Haan; M.A. Benninga; F. Boer

    2012-01-01

    Literature on somatization suggests that patients suffering from medically unexplained symptoms are less aware of their emotions and use maladaptive coping strategies when coping with everyday problems. In addition, coping is hypothesized to mediate between emotion awareness and medically unexplaine

  3. A comparison of two short education programs for improving low back pain-related disability in the elderly: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Francisco; Abraira, Víctor; Santos, Severo; Díaz, Elena; Gestoso, Mario; Muriel, Alfonso; Gil del Real, María Teresa; Mufraggi, Nicole; Noguera, Juan; Zamora, Javier

    2007-05-01

    Cluster randomized clinical trial. To assess the effectiveness of 2 minimal education programs for improving low back pain (LBP)-related disability in the elderly. No education program has shown effectiveness on low back pain (LBP)-related disability in the elderly. A total of 129 nursing homes (6389 residents) in northern Spain were invited to participate in the study. The actual participants were 12 nursing homes randomly assigned to 3 groups and 661 subjects. An independent physician gave a 20-minute talk with slide projections summarizing the content of the Back Book (active management group), the Back Guide (postural hygiene group), and a pamphlet on cardiovascular health (controls). Disability was measured with the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RMQ). Blind assessments were performed before the intervention, and 30 and 180 days later. The effect of the intervention on disability was estimated by generalized mixed linear random effects models. Mean age of participants ranged between 79.9 and 81.2 years. Disability improved in all groups, but at the 30-day assessment the postural education group showed an additional improvement of 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.2-1.9), RMQ points and at the 180-day assessment the active education group an additional improvement of 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6-3.4). In the subset of subjects with LBP when entering the study, postural education had no advantages over controls, while an additional improvement of 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5- 4.5) RMQ points at the 180-day assessment was observed in the active education group. In institutionalized elderly, the handing out of the Back Book supported by a 20-minute group talk improves disability 6 months later, and is even more effective in those subjects with LBP.

  4. Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy: A preliminary open trial of an integrated model of care for people with persistent low back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSchutze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This pilot study investigated the feasibility and clinical utility of implementing a novel, evidence-informed, interdisciplinary group intervention – Mindfulness Based Functional Therapy (MBFT – for the management of persistent low back pain (LBP in primary care. MBFT aimed to improve physical and psychological functioning in patients with persistent LBP. Design: A single-group repeated measures design was utilized to gather data about feasibility, effect sizes, clinically significant changes and patient satisfaction.Setting: A community sample of 16 adults (75% female, mean (SD age 47.00 (9.12 years (range 26-65 years, with mean (SD LBP duration of 8.00 (9.00 years participated, using a simulated primary care setting at Curtin University in Australia.Intervention: MBFT is an 8-week group intervention co-facilitated by psychology and physiotherapy disciplines. Content includes: mindfulness meditation training, cognitive-functional physiotherapeutic movement retraining, pain education, and group support.Main outcome measures: Several validated self-report measures were used to assess functional disability, emotional functioning, mindfulness, pain catastrophizing, health-related quality of life at baseline, post-intervention, and 6 months follow-up.Results: Adherence and satisfaction was high, with 85% of participants highly satisfied with MBFT. Clinical significance analysis and effect size estimates showed improvements in a number of variables, including pain catastrophizing, physical functioning, role limitations due to physical condition, and depression, although these may have occurred due to non-intervention effects. Conclusions: MBFT is feasible to implement in primary care. Preliminary findings suggest that a randomized controlled trial is warranted to investigate its efficacy in improving physical and emotional functioning in people with disabling persistent LBP.

  5. Testing the 'Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger' Youth Anger Intervention Program in a Rural School-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn Rose; Ren, Dianxu; McFadden, Tricia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the longitudinal effects of the 'Teaching Kids to Cope with Anger' (TKC-A) program on self-reported anger in rural youth. Through a randomized controlled trial, 179 youths of 14-18 years of age, from three rural high schools, were randomized into a control (n  =  86) and an intervention group (n  =  93) for eight TKC-A weekly sessions. These students completed the STAXI-2 anger instrument questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, 6 months, and at 1 year. T-test statistics were used to analyze and compare the control and intervention groups. Through analysis of the Anger Index sub-scale of the STAXI-2 at 1 year post-intervention, a significant difference was reported between the control and intervention group. Participants reported that the TKC-A intervention was helpful in coping with emotional, behavioral, and social aspects of anger. Future research may utilize the TKC-A with youth who have anger management problems. Psychiatric-mental health nurses can screen youth for anger and be cognizant of coping skills of youth, assess for anger problems and provide health education to youth about approaches for coping with anger.

  6. The impact of partner coping in couples experiencing infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B D; Pirritano, M; Christensen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    as the unit of analysis. RESULTS: A partner's use of active-avoidance coping was related to the increased personal, marital and social distress for men and women. A woman's use of active-confronting coping was related to increased male marital distress. And a partner's use of meaning-based coping...... is particularly relevant. METHODS: Data were based on a questionnaire in a consecutive sample of 1169 women and 1081 Danish men prior to beginning assisted reproduction treatment. Multilevel modeling using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model and follow-up analysis of variance were used to examine the couple...... was associated with decreased marital distress in men and increased social distress in women. CONCLUSIONS: Although understudied, partner coping patterns play a key role in a partner's ability to cope with the infertility experience. Physicians and mental health providers can help couples to understand...

  7. Coping with Daily Stress: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Carrie E.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined how specific coping strategies mediate the relationship between Conscientiousness (C) and positive affect (PA) in a large, multiethnic sample. Using an internet-based daily diary approach, 366 participants (37.6% Caucasian, 30.6% Asian American, 20.7% Hispanic, 9.1% African American) completed measures that assessed daily stressors, coping strategies used to deal with those stressors, and PA over the course of five days. In addition, participants completed a measure of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Problem-Focused coping partially mediated the relationship between C and PA. Individuals higher in C used more problem-focused coping, which, in turn, was associated with higher PA. The findings of the current study suggest C serves as a protective factor from stress through its influence on coping strategy selection. Other possible mediators in the C-PA relationship are discussed. PMID:21076634

  8. Personality and Coping in Peruvian volunteers for poverty alleviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gastelumendi Gonçalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between coping styles and strategies, and personality styles in a sample of 41 young volunteers of an institution that alleviates poverty in Lima. Peruvian adaptations of COPE and MIPS scales were administered. The results show that volunteers have higher scores on adaptive coping strategies. High scores in some particular personality styles were reported, which allowed to establish a personality profile of this group. According with theoretical framework, most coping strategies correlated with most personality styles, revealing four particular tendencies in these volunteers: they wish to have contact with other people, they usually see positive aspects of situations, they look forward for challenges, and they developed adaptive coping strategies.

  9. Stressing factors and coping strategies used by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andrea Bezerra; Chaves, Eliane Corrêa

    2008-01-01

    In the oncology specialty, many factors can result in occupational stress in nursing professionals. As an attempt to controlling this situation, individuals may use coping strategies. Coping is a cognitive and behavioral effort one uses to face a stressful situation. The aims of this study were to identify the stressful factors regarding oncology nurses, and to verify what coping strategies they use. Two questionnaires were used: a demographic data inventory, designed by the researcher, and the Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies inventory. The results showed that the main stressful factors for oncology nurses are patient death (28.6%), emergency situations (16.9%), relationship issues with the nursing team (15.5%), and work-process situations (15.5%). In the studied population, the main coping strategy used was positive reappraisal.

  10. Stakeholder demands and corporate environmental coping strategies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Zhan, Xueyong

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how stakeholder demand and compliance capacity jointly shape corporate environmental coping strategies and subsequently environmental protection practices. A four-dimensional classification of coping strategies-formalism, accommodation, referencing, and self-determination-is conceptualized. Drawing on survey and interview data collected from manufacturing enterprises in China between 2010 and 2012, the paper shows that compared with formalism and accommodation, coping strategies of referencing and self-determination are associated with stronger environmental protection practices. Enterprises adjust their coping strategies by taking into account the constraints defined by both their internal and external environments. The results also demonstrate the potential synergetic effects of state and non-state stakeholders working together in promoting better corporate environmental coping strategies and environmental practices in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.

  12. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Exploring coping strategies of business leaders during an economic downturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise van Zyl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As a large part of South Africa’s economy is based on the mining industry, this research focused on exploring the coping strategies of business leaders in the mining industry during an economic downturn. Using qualitative research within a constructivist-interpretive paradigm, the researchers sought a deeper understanding of how mining leaders cope during an economic downturn. A purposive sample of seven executive mining leaders of different mining houses was interviewed and data was analysed using Atlas.ti. A conceptual framework for understanding coping strategies at the individual, group and organisational levels for business leaders during an economic downturn was developed and is discussed here. This study contributed to theory and practice by focusing on coping responses to specific situations within a specific context instead of on general coping strategies.

  14. Spiritualitet som coping hos tibetanske torturoverlevere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Carlsson, Jessica; Husum, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    symptoms of severe traumatisation (Hopkin's Symptom Checklist), but probably not as extensive as torture survivors from other cultures. CONCLUSION: The Tibetan torture survivors use Tibetan Buddhism as an important coping mechanism. Most clients expressed satisfaction with counselling, but criticised......INTRODUCTION: There is solid documentation for the positive relationship between spirituality and health, but few examples of how this link may be used in projects of rehabilitation after war, civil conflicts and natural disasters. One such example is the Danida funded Tibetan Torture Program...... in India. This study aims to provide evidence of the Tibetan torture survivors' degree of traumatisation and their use of spirituality to overcome their difficult situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study consists of an assessment and a rehabilitation part. A total of 102 Tibetan torture survivors were...

  15. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  16. The psychobiology of PTSD: coping with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P R

    2005-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychiatric conditions where a specific psychosocial stressor is explicitly tied to etiology. Although a majority of people experience a traumatic event in their life, most of them will not develop PTSD or other mental health problems such as depressive or anxiety disorders. Emotional and neurobiological responses to psychosocial stressors show striking individual variation. In this paper cognitive appraisal and coping factors are explored as potential sources of individual differences in the neuroendocrinological stress response, and subsequently in mental health outcome. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD will enhance our understanding of adaptation to psychosocial stressors and support efforts to treat associated psychological and biological sequelae.

  17. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burri A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Burri,1–3 Michèle Blank Gebre,4 Guy Bodenmann1 1Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Health and Rehabilitation Research Institute, Auckland University of Technology, 3Waitemata Pain Service, Department of Anaesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, North Shore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Private Practice, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. Keywords: individual coping, dyadic coping, social support, chronic pain

  18. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  19. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  20. Ways of coping with asthma in everyday life: validation of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Aro, Arja R;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the validity of the Asthma Specific Coping Scale. METHODS: Study samples were comprised of persons with drug-treated asthma (n=3464) drawn from the Drug Reimbursement Registry and asthma rehabilitation participants [brief (n=278) and comprehensive (n=316) intervention...... also showed sensitivity to change after rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Though further longitudinal studies are needed, this scale seems to be a promising instrument to be used in surveys and outcome studies....

  1. Effect of spinal manipulation on sensorimotor functions in back pain patients: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli R Maruti

    2011-06-01

    associated with changes in self-report outcome assessments. Discussion This study may provide clues to the sensorimotor mechanisms that explain observed functional deficits associated with LBP, as well as the mechanism of action of SM. Trial registration This trial is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT00830596, registered on January 27, 2009. The first participant was allocated on 30 January 2009 and the final participant was allocated on 17 March 2011.

  2. LBP-Based Segmentation of Defocus Blur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Yi; Eramian, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Defocus blur is extremely common in images captured using optical imaging systems. It may be undesirable, but may also be an intentional artistic effect, thus it can either enhance or inhibit our visual perception of the image scene. For tasks, such as image restoration and object recognition, one might want to segment a partially blurred image into blurred and non-blurred regions. In this paper, we propose a sharpness metric based on local binary patterns and a robust segmentation algorithm to separate in- and out-of-focus image regions. The proposed sharpness metric exploits the observation that most local image patches in blurry regions have significantly fewer of certain local binary patterns compared with those in sharp regions. Using this metric together with image matting and multi-scale inference, we obtained high-quality sharpness maps. Tests on hundreds of partially blurred images were used to evaluate our blur segmentation algorithm and six comparator methods. The results show that our algorithm achieves comparative segmentation results with the state of the art and have big speed advantage over the others.

  3. A Survey of Studies on Anti-tumor Effects of LBP and Its Mechanisms%枸杞多糖的抗肿瘤作用及其机理研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培

    2011-01-01

    Lycium barbarum is a traditional Chinese medicine,which owns many medical values.LBP is the main active ingredient of Lycium barbarum,which can benefit health in anti-aging,antifatigue and so on.LBP'anti-tumor effects are introduced in the treatment of liver cancer,cervical cancer,prostate cancer,liver ascites cancer,ovarian cancer,colon cancer,cancer of the esophagus,leukemia and lung cancer,the mechanisms of which are also stated,mainly containing adjusting inmmune system and inducing the apoptosis,regulating genes and anti-oxidization.All of these are expected to be referred to for Lycium barbarum's further exploitation.%枸杞是传统常用中药,具有多种药用价值。枸杞多糖是枸杞中的主要活性成分,具有抗衰老、抗疲劳等多种保健功能,本文概述了其在肝癌、宫颈癌、前列腺癌、肝腹水癌、卵巢癌、大肠癌、食管癌、血癌、肺癌等方面的抗肿瘤作用并对其可能存在的机制如免疫系统调节机制、细胞凋亡诱导机制、基因表达调控机制、抗氧化机制做了阐述,以期为枸杞的进一步开发利用提供参考。

  4. Face detection based on MB-LBP and eye tracking%基于多块局部二值模式特征和人眼定位的人脸检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小玉; 张亚洲; 陈德运

    2014-01-01

    人脸检测是人脸识别和重构问题中最基本的任务,同样也是人脸识别问题中的一个关键环节,其结果直接关乎到人脸识别最终的效果。所以,构建一种稳健而优秀的检测算法是人脸检测的目的。本文提出了一种基于多块局部二值模式特征的 adaboost 算法和模板匹配的人眼定位方法,从而提高人脸检测的正确率和稳定率,减少了误差。通过 MIT CBCL人脸数据库、生活、网络等渠道照片的实验验证,该方法提高了检测效率,降低误检率,兼具了实时性和鲁棒性。%Face detection is not only a basic task for face recognition and reconstruction, but also is the key section of face recognition system. The result of face detection has important influence on the effect of face recognition. It is necessary to build an excellent face detection algorithm. The face detection method based on MB-LBP and eye tracking is presented. Experimental result shows that the method not only enhances the accuracy and robustness, but also reduces the false alarm rate and operation time.

  5. O conceito de coping: uma revisão teórica The concept of coping: a theoretical review

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    Adriane Scomazzon Antoniazzi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de coping tem sido descrito como o conjunto das estratégias utilizadas pelas pessoas para adaptarem-se a circunstâncias adversas ou estressantes. O presente artigo apresenta os modelos de coping de Folkman e Lazarus, e de Rudolph, Denning e Weisz, bem como suas diferentes posições teóricas e metodológicas. As definições de estilos e estratégias de coping, sua eficácia e possíveis relações com traços de personalidade são discutidas. É salientada a necessidade de uma teoria de stress-coping específica para crianças, tendo em vista as mudanças cognitivas que ocorrem no curso de seu desenvolvimento. Este artigo apresenta também questões controversas sobre o tema e aponta a necessidade de pesquisas sobre coping no Brasil, para auxiliar na compreensão e desenvolvimento deste conceito.The concept of coping has been described as the set of strategies utilized by individuals in order to adapt themselves to adverse or stressful events. This review presents two process models of coping: one by Folkman and Lazarus, and the other by Rudolfh, Denning and Weisz, as well as their different theoretical and methodological assumptions. The definitions of styles and strategies of coping, their effectiveness and possible relationships to personality traits are discussed. The need for a theory of stress-coping specific for children is emphasized, due to the cognitive changes which occur along their development. Controversial issues about the subject are discussed and the need for research in Brazil about coping is pointed. This procedure would be helpful for the understanding and development of this concept.

  6. Dyadic Empathy, Dyadic Coping, and Relationship Satisfaction: A Dyadic Model

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    Christine Levesque

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate a theoretical model specifying the direct and indirect associations between dyadic empathy, dyadic coping, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of 187 heterosexual couples. Dyadic and structural aspects of mediation were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Results revealed that greater levels of an individual’s own propensity for dyadic empathy (i.e., one’s ability to experience empathic concern and perspective-taking significantly predicted greater levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies among both male and female participants. Moreover, increased levels of an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies significantly predicted a similar greater degree of an individual’s own relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, results also provide support for the possible mediating role that an individual’s own dyadic coping strategies may hold in explaining the links between an individual’s own empathic concern and an individual’s own relationship satisfaction among male participants. With regard to the dyadic components of the study’s model, findings indicated that perspective-taking among males significantly improve their female partners’ propensity to employ positive dyadic coping strategies. Moreover, empathic concern among female participants was found to improve their male partners’ dyadic coping strategies. Findings suggest the potential utility of examining dyadic coping as a means to expand clinical and empirical insights regarding the links between dyadic empathy and relationship satisfaction.

  7. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  8. Coping strategies of long-term cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, M T; Fernsler, J I

    1994-04-01

    Cancer survival is a stressful experience requiring coping for the maintenance of equilibrium. Lazarus' Theory of Stress and Coping was the framework for this descriptive study of the use and effectiveness of coping strategies as assessed by long-term survivors of cancer. The Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS) and a subject information sheet (SIS) were mailed to 128 potential subjects, identified by the snowball technique, who survived cancer for > 5 years, were not currently receiving therapy, and were not in a terminal stage of disease. Fifty-nine subjects with a mean survival of 13.03 years correctly completed and returned the questionnaire and were included in data analysis. Respondents were predominantly white (88.1%), female (83.7%), married (72.8%), employed as professionals (57.8%), 41-65 years of age (59.3%), and diagnosed with breast cancer (50.8%). Subjects rated optimistic, supportive, and confrontive strategies as most often used and effective. Length of survival did not result in different choices of strategies. Statistically significant differences were found in coping styles between elderly and middle-aged survivors. Results of this study increase nurses' awareness of effective coping strategies and the importance of assessment of coping in long-term survivors of cancer. The importance of social support, spirituality, and helping others is emphasized.

  9. The Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire: Development of a New Measure

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    Fabio Sticca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Victims of cyberbullying report a number of undesirable outcomes regarding their well-being, especially those who are not able to successfully cope with cyber victimization. Research on coping with cyberbullying has identified a number of different coping strategies that seem to be differentially adaptive in cases of cyber victimization. However, knowledge regarding the effectiveness of these strategies is scarce. This scarcity is partially due to the lack of valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of coping strategies in the context of cyber victimization. The present study outlines the development of the Coping with Cyberbullying Questionnaire (CWCBQ and tests of its reliability and construct validity over a total of five questionnaire development stages. The CWCBQ was developed in the context of a longitudinal study carried out in Switzerland and was also used with Italian and Irish samples of adolescents. The results of these different studies and stages resulted in a questionnaire that is composed of seven subscales (i.e., distal advice, assertiveness, helplessness/self-blame, active ignoring, retaliation, close support and technical coping with a total of 36 items. The CWCBQ is still being developed, but the results obtained so far suggested that the questionnaire was reliable and valid among the countries where it was used at different stages of its development. The CWCBQ is a promising tool for the understanding of potential coping with experiences of cyber victimization and for the development of prevention and intervention programs.

  10. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  11. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

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    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping.

  12. Testing the predictions of coping styles theory in threespined sticklebacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensky, Miles K.; Paitz, Ryan; Pereira, Laura; Bell, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments. Here, we assess evidence for coping styles within a natural population of threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We developed a criterion-based learning paradigm to evaluate individual variation in initial and reversal learning. We observed strong individual differences in boldness, cortisol production, and learning performance. Consistent with coping styles, fish that released more cortisol were more timid in response to a predator attack and slower to learn a color discrimination task. However, there was no evidence that reactive individuals performed better when the environment changed (when the rewarded color was reversed). The failure to detect trade-offs between behavioral routinization and flexibility prompts other explanations for the maintenance of differing coping styles. PMID:28017848

  13. Coping profiles characterize individual flourishing, languishing, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought-action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio - the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions - at or above 2.9 promotes human flourishing. A ratio below 2.9 is indicative of languishing individuals, whereas a ratio below 1.0 is a marker of depression. This study examined whether adaptive and maladaptive coping profiles differentiated those who flourish, languish, or are depressed in two convenience samples - military spouses (n =367) and public school teachers (n=267). Results were consistent with the theoretical predictions, as coping profiles of the groups differed significantly, with flourishing individuals favoring adaptive coping strategies more than those who were languishing or depressed. Conversely, depressed individuals reported greater use of maladaptive coping strategies than those who were languishing or flourishing. These results provide further empirical support for the mathematical model of Fredrickson and Losada, as the set of positivity criteria were predictive of coping profiles in two samples where successful coping and adaptation are important.

  14. Coping in aged people with Alzheimer's disease Coping en ancianos con la enfermedad de Alzheimer Coping em idosos com doença de Alzheimer

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    Juliana Nery de Souza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of stress experiences and elaboration of coping essentially depend on individuals' cognitive assessment. Considering the cognitive impairment of elderly persons with Alzheimer's disease (DA, this study aimed to identify their coping style. The Jalowiec Coping Inventory was applied to 60 elderly, 30 in the control group and 30 in the DA group. The results demonstrated a predominance of emotion-focused coping in the DA group and problem-focused coping in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.124. In addition, it was observed that individuals with better cognitive development in the DA group selected problem-focused coping strategies (p=0.0074. Thus, it seems there is a tendency to select evasive and emotional control strategies in demented elderly with worsened cognitive performance, rather than attempting to solve the problem or minimize its consequences.La elaboración de estrategias de ataque a las situaciones estresantes depende de la evaluación cognitiva hecha por el individuo. Considerando el déficit cognitivo de los ancianos con la enfermedad de Alzheimer (DA, este estudio tuvo por objetivo verificar el estilo de coping predominantemente utilizado por ellos. Para esto, fue aplicado el inventario de Coping de Jalowiec en 60 ancianos, de los cuales 30 individuos eran cognitivamente saludables (grupo control y 30 individuos con DA. Se observó un predominio del coping enfocado en la emoción en el grupo DA y enfocado en el problema en el grupo control, aunque no hubo una diferencia significativa. Así, parece haber una tendencia, en los ancianos con demencia, a elegir estrategias evasivas y de control emocional, en detrimento de la tentativa de solucionar el problema o minimizar sus consecuencias.A intensidade da experiência do estresse e a elaboração do coping dependem, fundamentalmente, da avaliação cognitiva feita pelo indivíduo. Considerando o déficit cognitivo de idosos com

  15. Coping strategies among patients with newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson Larsson, Birgitta; Nordin, Karin; Askmark, Håkan; Nygren, Ingela

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively identify different coping strategies among newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and whether they change over time and to determine whether physical function, psychological well-being, age and gender correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease with impact on both physical function and psychological well-being. Different coping strategies are used to manage symptoms and disease progression, but knowledge about coping in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is scarce. This was a prospective study with a longitudinal and descriptive design. A total of 33 patients were included and evaluation was made at two time points, one to three months and six months after diagnosis. Patients were asked to complete the Motor Neuron Disease Coping Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Physical function was estimated using the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale. The most commonly used strategies were support and independence. Avoidance/venting and information seeking were seldom used at both time points. The use of information seeking decreased between the two time points. Men did not differ from women, but patients ≤64 years used positive action more often than older patients. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale was positively correlated with positive action at time point 1, but not at time point 2. Patients' psychological well-being was correlated with the use of different coping strategies. Support and independence were the most used coping strategies, and the use of different strategies changed over time. Psychological well-being was correlated with different coping strategies in newly diagnosed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. The knowledge about coping strategies in early stage of the disease may help the nurses to improve and develop the care and support for these patients. © 2014 John Wiley

  16. Burnout and coping strategies among hospital staff nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceslowitz, S B

    1989-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between use of coping strategies and burnout among 150 randomly selected staff nurses from four hospitals. The instruments used were the frequency dimension of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson 1981) and the Ways of Coping (Revised) (Folkman & Lazarus 1985). In the canonical correlation analysis, two significant canonical variate sets differentiated nurses on the dimension of burnout. Nurses who experienced increased levels of burnout used the coping strategies of escape/avoidance, self-controlling and confronting (P less than 0.001). Nurses who experience decreased levels of burnout used the coping strategies of planful problem solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support, and self-controlling (P less than 0.003). Self-controlling coping, although present in both variate sets, was used to a lesser extent by nurses with decreased burnout levels. The positive relationship between planful problem solving and reduced burnout levels supports the theoretical framework of Lazarus. This framework asserts that during the appraisal process, persons evaluate the harmfulness of an event and their own coping resources. Persons with lower levels of burnout may perceive the event as amenable to change or they may perceive their coping resources as adequate. Either perception may promote the view that the situation is amenable to problem solving. Another rationale for the effectiveness of particular coping strategies may lie in the reactions that these strategies engender in others. The use of planful problem solving, seeking social support and positive reappraisal has been reported to result in the offering of greater social support than when confronting and self-controlling coping were used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Psychological stress and coping in recently discharged postsurgical cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer patients and survivors need to cope with various stressful situations and problems even after treatment. In this study, we sought to investigate psychological stress and coping in recently discharged postsurgical cancer patients. Methods: A mail-in questionnaire survey about stress response, perceived illness-related demands, and coping strategies and styles was administered to postsurgical Japanese cancer patients. The questionnaires were returned a week after the patients′ discharge from the hospital. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical analyses were used. Results: Forty-two patients completed the questionnaire; their average age was 58.1 years, and 61.9% were female. The stress response scale-18 (SRS-18 score was lower than that reported among the general population. The proportion of patients who were concentrating coping on social support or positive reappraisal was high. The scores for problem- and emotion-focused coping were nearly identical. SRS-18 scores were weakly correlated with those for emotion-focused coping (r = 0.38, P = 0.014. The demographic data were not significantly associated with any of the stress or coping variables. However, SRS-18 scores for patients who had adjuvant therapy and physical, functional disorders were significantly higher than those for patients who did not (P = 0.004 and P = 0.008, respectively. Conclusions: Most of the patients had a low-stress response and used appropriate coping strategies. However, the findings suggest that attention must be paid to stress-coping in patients who have a physical, functional disorder as well as in those receiving adjuvant therapy.

  18. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

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    Nakkas C

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Can Nakkas,1 Hubert Annen,1 Serge Brand2,3 1Department of Military Psychology Studies, Military Academy at ETH Zurich, Zurich, 2Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 3Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods: A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility, and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results: Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion: Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for

  19. Stressors and coping mechanisms associated with perceived stress in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sasha M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between causes of perceived stress and the coping mechanisms used by Latino adults with perceived stress. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 200 Latino adults (aged ≥18 years). They were recruited from clinics, migrant camps, community events, and churches located in Charleston, S.C. This survey included questions regarding causes of perceived stress, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 10), coping mechanisms (Brief COPE), and depression (Perceived Health Questionnaire 9). High perceived stress (PSS ≥15) was the primary outcome measure. Coping mechanisms and stressors were secondary outcomes. Most (92%) of the sample was born outside the United States, and 66% reported high perceived stress. Stressors associated with high perceived stress included discrimination (P=.0010), lack of insurance (P=.0193), health problems (P=.0058), and lack of money (P=.0015). The most frequently utilized coping mechanisms were self-distraction (54.77%), active coping (69.85%), positive reframing (56.78%), planning (63.82%), acceptance (57.87%), and religion (57.79%). Latinos with higher perceived stress were more likely to report discrimination (OR: 3.401; 95%CI 1.285-9.004) and health problems (OR: 2.782; 95%CI 1.088-7.111) as stressors, and to use denial as a coping mechanism (OR: 2.904; 95%CI 1.280-6.589). An increased prevalence of perceived stress among the Latinos evaluated in this study was associated with using denial as a coping mechanism, and encountering discrimination and health problems as sources of perceived stress. Most individuals responded to stressors by utilizing a variety of both adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms.

  20. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.