WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperatively regulate abre-dependent

  1. The population genetics of cooperative gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Alexander J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in gene regulatory networks drive the evolution of phenotypic diversity both within and between species. Rewiring of transcriptional networks is achieved either by changes to transcription factor binding sites or by changes to the physical interactions among transcription factor proteins. It has been suggested that the evolution of cooperative binding among factors can facilitate the adaptive rewiring of a regulatory network. Results We use a population-genetic model to explore when cooperative binding of transcription factors is favored by evolution, and what effects cooperativity then has on the adaptive re-writing of regulatory networks. We consider a pair of transcription factors that regulate multiple targets and overlap in the sets of target genes they regulate. We show that, under stabilising selection, cooperative binding between the transcription factors is favoured provided the amount of overlap between their target genes exceeds a threshold. The value of this threshold depends on several population-genetic factors: strength of selection on binding sites, cost of pleiotropy associated with protein-protein interactions, rates of mutation and population size. Once it is established, we find that cooperative binding of transcription factors significantly accelerates the adaptive rewiring of transcriptional networks under positive selection. We compare our qualitative predictions to systematic data on Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factors, their binding sites, and their protein-protein interactions. Conclusions Our study reveals a rich set of evolutionary dynamics driven by a tradeoff between the beneficial effects of cooperative binding at targets shared by a pair of factors, and the detrimental effects of cooperative binding for non-shared targets. We find that cooperative regulation will evolve when transcription factors share a sufficient proportion of their target genes. These findings help to

  2. APPLYING CLASSICAL FOREST REGULATION METHODS TO SMALLHOLDINGS WITH COOPERATIVE CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the cooperative regulation process of forestry producers in comparison to the traditional individual regulation of properties. Twenty (20 forest properties are studied as examples of the development of three forest regulation scenarios: 1 individual regulation, 2 group regulation, and 3 cooperative regulation. The Net Present Value (NPV of each of the scenarios is optimized according to mathematical programming models and compared to a baseline scenario without forest regulation. According to the proposed cooperative regulation, properties had a proportion factor for annual net revenue distribution calculated from results of the baseline scenario. By comparing the NPV maximization results from scenarios 1 and 3 with the non-regulation scenario, the cost for individual regulation is on average 25%, while being only 11% for cooperative regulation, that is, a 14% reduction in property regulation costs. Additionally, cooperative regulation had the advantage of dividing properties into fewer areas when compared to individual regulation.

  3. Cooperative Output Regulation of Singular Heterogeneous Multiagent Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qian; Xu, Shengyuan; Lewis, Frank L; Zhang, Baoyong; Zou, Yun

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative output regulation problem of singular heterogeneous multiagent systems. General distributed observers are proposed for every agent obtaining the estimated state of the exosystem. The feedforward control technique and reduced-order approach are used to design distributed singular output feedback controllers and distributed normal output feedback controllers. The proposed cooperative dynamic controller is dependent on the plant parameters and the interaction topologies. A simulation example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  4. Cooperative Output Regulation of Multiagent Linear Parameter-Varying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Mesbahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The output regulation problem is examined in this paper for a class of heterogeneous multiagent systems whose dynamics are governed by polytopic linear parameter-varying (LPV models. The dynamics of the agents are decoupled from each other but the agents’ controllers are assumed to communicate. To design the cooperative LPV controllers, analysis conditions for closed-loop system are first established to ensure stability and reference tracking. Then, the LPV control synthesis problem is addressed, where the offline solution to a time-varying Sylvester equation will be used to determine and update in real time the controller state-space matrices. Two numerical examples will be finally given to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed cooperative design method.

  5. 76 FR 18767 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics... Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR-5 Meeting in Paris, France'' to provide information and receive comments on the International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR) as well...

  6. Regulation of AQP0 water permeability is enhanced by cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh-Cahalan, Karin L; Clemens, Daniel M; Hall, James E

    2013-03-01

    Aquaporin 0 (AQP0), essential for lens clarity, is a tetrameric protein composed of four identical monomers, each of which has its own water pore. The water permeability of AQP0 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes can be approximately doubled by changes in calcium concentration or pH. Although each monomer pore functions as a water channel, under certain conditions the pores act cooperatively. In other words, the tetramer is the functional unit. In this paper, we show that changes in external pH and calcium can induce an increase in water permeability that exhibits either a positive cooperativity switch-like increase in water permeability or an increase in water permeability in which each monomer acts independently and additively. Because the concentrations of calcium and hydrogen ions increase toward the center of the lens, a concentration signal could trigger a regulatory change in AQP0 water permeability. It thus seems plausible that the cooperative modes of water permeability regulation by AQP0 tetramers mediated by decreased pH and elevated calcium are the physiologically important ones in the living lens.

  7. Cooperative mechanism of self-regulation in hierarchical living systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lubashevsky, I A

    1998-01-01

    We study the problem of how a ``living'' system complex in structure can respond perfectly to local changes in the environment. Such a system is assumed to consist of a distributed ``living'' medium and a hierarchical ``supplying'' network that provides this medium with ``nutritious'' products. Because of the hierarchical organization each element of the supplying network has to behave in a self-consistent way for the system can adapt to changes in the environment. We propose a cooperative mechanism of self-regulation by which the system as a whole can react perfectly. This mechanism is based on an individual response of each element to the corresponding small piece of the information on the state of the ``living'' medium. The conservation of flux through the supplying network gives rise to a certain processing of information and the self-consistent behavior of the elements, leading to the perfect self-regulation. The corresponding equations governing the ``living'' medium state are obtained.

  8. Negative regulation of bacterial quorum sensing tunes public goods cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Schuster, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) often coordinates the expression of other, generally more costly public goods involved in virulence and nutrient acquisition. In many Proteobacteria, the basic QS circuitry consists of a synthase that produces a diffusible acyl-homoserine lactone and a cognate receptor that activates public goods expression. In some species, the circuitry also contains negative regulators that have the potential to modulate the timing and magnitude of activation. In this study, we experimentally investigated the contribution of this regulatory function to the evolutionary stability of public goods cooperation in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We compared fitness and public goods expression rates of strains lacking either qteE or qscR, each encoding a distinct negative regulator, with those of the wild-type parent and a signal-blind receptor mutant under defined growth conditions. We found that (1) qteE and qscR mutations behave virtually identically and have a stronger effect on the magnitude than on the timing of expression, (2) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants imposes a metabolic burden under nutrient conditions that advance induction and (3) high expression in qteE and qscR mutants increases population growth when QS is required, but also permits invasion by both wild-type and receptor mutant strains. Our data indicate that negative regulation of QS balances the costs and benefits of public goods by attenuating expression after transition to the induced state. As the cells cannot accurately assess the amount of cooperation needed, such bet-hedging would be advantageous in changing parasitic and nonparasitic environments.

  9. Regulation during Cooperative and Collaborative Learning: A Theory-Based Review of Terms and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoor, Cornelia; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the terms and concepts that have been used for describing regulation of learning during cooperative and collaborative learning and suggests differentiating them on the basis of which parts of a regulatory feedback loop model are being shared. During cooperative and collaborative learning, not only self-regulation but also the…

  10. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Matamalas, Joan T; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the $T-S$ plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy...

  11. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T-S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  12. Strategical incoherence regulates cooperation in social dilemmas on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamalas, Joan T.; Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    Cooperation is a very common, yet not fully-understood phenomenon in natural and human systems. The introduction of a network within the population is known to affect the outcome of cooperative dynamics, allowing for the survival of cooperation in adverse scenarios. Recently, the introduction of multiplex networks has yet again modified the expectations for the outcome of the Prisoner's Dilemma game, compared to the monoplex case. However, much remains unstudied regarding other social dilemmas on multiplex, as well as the unexplored microscopic underpinnings of it. In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of cooperation in all four games in the T - S plane on multiplex. More importantly, we find some remarkable and previously unknown features in the microscopic organization of the strategies, that are responsible for the important differences between cooperative dynamics in monoplex and multiplex. Specifically, we find that in the stationary state, there are individuals that play the same strategy in all layers (coherent), and others that don't (incoherent). This second group of players is responsible for the surprising fact of a non full-cooperation in the Harmony Game on multiplex, never observed before, as well as a higher-than-expected cooperation rates in some regions of the other three social dilemmas.

  13. Opening lecture: notes on cooperatives, partners and tax regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of cooperative society is not an empty and capricious concept. It has a definite basis in the Constitution (art.129.2, and its reflection in the tax legislation that applies to the member.

  14. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A.; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12–17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students’ academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and

  15. Self-Regulation, Cooperative Learning, and Academic Self-Efficacy: Interactions to Prevent School Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini, Jose A; Méndez-Gimenez, Antonio; Mendez-Alonso, David; Prieto, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    Learning to learn and learning to cooperate are two important goals for individuals. Moreover, self regulation has been identified as fundamental to prevent school failure. The goal of the present study was to assess the interactions between self-regulated learning, cooperative learning and academic self-efficacy in secondary education students experiencing cooperative learning as the main pedagogical approach for at least one school year. 2.513 secondary education students (1.308 males, 1.205 females), 12-17 years old (M = 13.85, SD = 1.29), enrolled in 17 different schools belonging to the National Network of Schools on Cooperative Learning in Spain agreed to participate. They all had experienced this pedagogical approach a minimum of one school year. Participants were asked to complete the cooperative learning questionnaire, the strategies to control the study questionnaire and the global academic self-efficacy questionnaire. Participants were grouped based on their perceptions on cooperative learning and self-regulated learning in their classes. A combination of hierarchical and κ-means cluster analyses was used. Results revealed a four-cluster solution: cluster one included students with low levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster two included students with high levels of cooperative learning, self-regulated learning and academic self-efficacy, cluster three included students with high levels of cooperative learning, low levels of self-regulated learning and intermediate-low levels of academic self-efficacy, and, finally, cluster four included students with high levels of self-regulated learning, low levels of cooperative learning, and intermediate-high levels of academic self-efficacy. Self-regulated learning was found more influential than cooperative learning on students' academic self-efficacy. In cooperative learning contexts students interact through different types of regulations: self, co, and shared

  16. Non-Cooperative Regulation Coordination Based on Game Theory for Wind Farm Clusters during Ramping Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Yongzhi; Liu, Yutian; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    of wind farm clusters (WFCs) in order to track scheduled wind power of the WFC during ramping events. In the proposed strategy, a non‐cooperative game is formulated and wind farms compete to provide regulation to the WFC during ramping events. A regulation revenue function is proposed to evaluate......With increasing penetration of wind power in power systems, it is important to track scheduled wind power output as much as possible during ramping events to ensure security of the system. In this paper, a non‐cooperative coordination strategy based on the game theory is proposed for the regulation...... the competition process of wind farms to provide regulation to the WFC which includes revenue of effective regulation (ER), power support regulation and punishment regulation. The multi‐time‐interval Nash equilibrium condition is derived for the regulation competition process of wind farms. By setting parameters...

  17. Modeling the role of negative cooperativity in metabolic regulation and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot C Bush

    Full Text Available A significant proportion of enzymes display cooperativity in binding ligand molecules, and such effects have an important impact on metabolic regulation. This is easiest to understand in the case of positive cooperativity. Sharp responses to changes in metabolite concentrations can allow organisms to better respond to environmental changes and maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, despite the fact that negative cooperativity is almost as common as positive, it has been harder to imagine what advantages it provides. Here we use computational models to explore the utility of negative cooperativity in one particular context: that of an inhibitor binding to an enzyme. We identify several factors which may contribute, and show that acting together they can make negative cooperativity advantageous.

  18. 78 FR 28492 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando... Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor in Charleston, South Carolina during the Low Country Splash on June 1, 2013. This special local regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of...

  19. Cooperative Control for Uncertain Multiagent Systems via Distributed Output Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The distributed robust output regulation problem for multiagent systems is considered. For heterogeneous uncertain linear systems and a linear exosystem, the controlling aim is to stabilize the closed-loop system and meanwhile let the regulated outputs converge to the origin asymptotically, by the help of local interaction. The communication topology considered is directed acyclic graphs, which means directed graphs without loops. With distributed dynamic state feedback controller and output feedback controller, respectively, the solvability of the problem and the algorithm of controller design are both investigated. The solvability conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. It is shown that, for polytopic uncertainties, the distributed controllers constructed by solving LMIs can satisfy the requirements of output regulation property.

  20. Mycotoxins: Risks, regulations and European co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Egmond Hans P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and mycotoxicises have been problems of the past and the present, but scientific attention for mycotoxins did not start until the early 1960’s. Nowa­days, many mycotoxins are known, and their occurrence in food and animal feed may cause various adverse effects on human and animal health, including carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, neurotoxic, oestrogenic and teratogenic effects. Some important mycotoxins include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, the fumonisins and the trichothecenes, and their significance is briefly described. To protect human and animal health, many countries have enacted specific regulations for mycotoxins in food and animal feed. Risk assessment is a major factor for scientific underpinning of regulations, but other factors such as availability of adequate sampling and analysis procedures also play an important a role in the establishment of mycotoxin regulations. In addition, socio-economic factors such as cost-benefit considerations, trade issues and sufficiency of food supply are equally important in the decision-taking process to come to meaningful regulations. Nowadays, more than 100 countries have formal mycotoxin regulations for food and feed. The mycotoxin regulations are the most stringent in the EU, where various organizations and pan-European networks contribute to combat the mycotoxin problem. It is to be expected that mycotoxins will stay with us in the future and climate change might have a negative influence in this respect. Several possibilities exist to mitigate the problems caused by mycotoxins. In particular prevention of mould growth and mycotoxin formation is key to the control of mycotoxins.

  1. Distributed Cooperative Regulation for Multiagent Systems and Its Applications to Power Systems: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders’ information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  2. Distributed cooperative regulation for multiagent systems and its applications to power systems: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Li, Yaping; Yong, Taiyou; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Jie; Mao, Wenbo

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative regulation of multiagent systems has become an active research area in the past decade. This paper reviews some recent progress in distributed coordination control for leader-following multiagent systems and its applications in power system and mainly focuses on the cooperative tracking control in terms of consensus tracking control and containment tracking control. Next, methods on how to rank the network nodes are summarized for undirected/directed network, based on which one can determine which follower should be connected to leaders such that partial followers can perceive leaders' information. Furthermore, we present a survey of the most relevant scientific studies investigating the regulation and optimization problems in power systems based on distributed strategies. Finally, some potential applications in the frequency tracking regulation of smart grids are discussed at the end of the paper.

  3. Cooperative Output Regulation of Nonlinear Multiagent Systems under a General Directed Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcai Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperative output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear multiagent systems modeled by nonlinear dynamics under a general directed communication topology. A type of distributed internal model is introduced to convert the cooperative output regulation problem into a robust stabilization problem of a so-called augmented system. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and M-matrix theorem, a kind of distributed output feedback controller only using the relative outputs of neighboring agents together with its stability analysis is further proposed with the aid of the backstepping technology, under which the outputs of the followers will asymptotically converge to that of the leader if, for each follower, there exists at least a directed path from the leader to the follower. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytic results.

  4. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  5. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  6. Cooperative linear output regulation for networked systems by dynamic measurement output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobao; Feng, Gang; Wang, Juan; Luo, Xiaoyuan; Guan, Xinping

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the cooperative linear output regulation problem of a class of heterogeneous networked systems with a common reference input but with different disturbances for individual nodes. A novel distributed control law is presented based on dynamic measurement output feedback. It is shown that the overall networked closed-loop control system is asymptotically stable and the output regulation errors asymptotically approach zero as time goes to infinity under a sufficient and necessary condition. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

  7. Arginine Vasotocin Regulation of Interspecific Cooperative Behaviour in a Cleaner Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Mendonça, Rute; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2012-01-01

    In an interspecific cooperative context, individuals must be prepared to tolerate close interactive proximity to other species but also need to be able to respond to relevant social stimuli in the most appropriate manner. The neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin and their non-mammalian homologues have been implicated in the evolution of sociality and in the regulation of social behaviour across vertebrates. However, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms of interspecific cooperative interactions. In interspecific cleaning mutualisms, interactions functionally resemble most intraspecific social interactions. Here we provide the first empirical evidence that arginine vasotocin (AVT), a non-mammalian homologue of arginine vasopressin (AVP), plays a critical role as moderator of interspecific behaviour in the best studied and ubiquitous marine cleaning mutualism involving the Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus. Exogenous administration of AVT caused a substantial decrease of most interspecific cleaning activities, without similarly affecting the expression of conspecific directed behaviour, which suggests a differential effect of AVT on cleaning behaviour and not a general effect on social behaviour. Furthermore, the AVP-V1a receptor antagonist (manning compound) induced a higher likelihood for cleaners to engage in cleaning interactions and also to increase their levels of dishonesty towards clients. The present findings extend the knowledge of neuropeptide effects on social interactions beyond the study of their influence on conspecific social behaviour. Our evidence demonstrates that AVT pathways might play a pivotal role in the regulation of interspecific cooperative behaviour and conspecific social behaviour among stabilized pairs of cleaner fish. Moreover, our results suggest that the role of AVT as a neurochemical regulator of social behaviour may have been co-opted in the evolution of cooperative behaviour in an

  8. Cooperative Adaptive Output Regulation for Second-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Jointly Connected Switching Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Jie

    2017-01-11

    This paper studies the cooperative global robust output regulation problem for a class of heterogeneous second-order nonlinear uncertain multiagent systems with jointly connected switching networks. The main contributions consist of the following three aspects. First, we generalize the result of the adaptive distributed observer from undirected jointly connected switching networks to directed jointly connected switching networks. Second, by performing a new coordinate and input transformation, we convert our problem into the cooperative global robust stabilization problem of a more complex augmented system via the distributed internal model principle. Third, we solve the stabilization problem by a distributed state feedback control law. Our result is illustrated by the leader-following consensus problem for a group of Van der Pol oscillators.

  9. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  10. Cooperation between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Luc; Finsterwald, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Ample evidence supports a role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the survival and differentiation of selective populations of neurons in the peripheral and central nervous systems. In addition to its trophic actions, BDNF exerts acute effects on synaptic transmission and plasticity. In particular, BDNF enhances excitatory synaptic transmission through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. In this regard, BDNF enhances glutamate release, the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), NMDA receptor activity and the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunits. Our recent studies revealed a novel cooperative interaction between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of dendritic development. Indeed, we found that the effects of BDNF on dendritic growth of cortical neurons require both the stimulation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation by BDNF and the activation of the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) by glutamate. Together, these studies highlight the importance of the cooperation between BDNF and glutamate in the regulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal development.

  11. Aggressive regulator or passive price-taker: what role should HIPCs (health insurance purchasing cooperatives) play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K

    1993-01-01

    Despite extensive variations on the theme, managed competition continues to be the favored model of federal and state governments in crafting health reform. A critical element in managed competition is the establishment of health insurance purchasing cooperatives (HIPCs), which band together the collective buying power of individuals or employers to give them market "clout". Policymakers must decide whether they want a HIPC to be an aggressive regulator--using its power to force changes among health plans--or a passive price-taker that contracts with plans meeting key criteria.

  12. Ligand binding to WW tandem domains of YAP2 transcriptional regulator is under negative cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Brett J; Mikles, David C; Hoang, Lawrence M; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-12-01

    YES-associated protein 2 (YAP2) transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of the WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules.

  13. Ligand Binding to WW Tandem Domains of YAP2 Transcriptional Regulator Is Under Negative Cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Brett J.; Mikles, David C.; Hoang, Lawrence M.; Bhat, Vikas; McDonald, Caleb B.; Sudol, Marius; Farooq, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    YAP2 transcriptional regulator drives a multitude of cellular processes, including the newly discovered Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, by virtue of the ability of its WW domains to bind and recruit PPXY-containing ligands to specific subcellular compartments. Herein, we employ an array of biophysical tools to investigate allosteric communication between the WW tandem domains of YAP2. Our data show that the WW tandem domains of YAP2 negatively cooperate when binding to their cognate ligands. Moreover, the molecular origin of such negative cooperativity lies in an unfavorable entropic contribution to the overall free energy relative to ligand binding to isolated WW domains. Consistent with this notion, the WW tandem domains adopt a fixed spatial orientation such that the WW1 domain curves outwards and stacks onto the binding groove of WW2 domain, thereby sterically hindering ligand binding to both itself and its tandem partner. Although ligand binding to both WW domains disrupts such interdomain stacking interaction, they reorient themselves and adopt an alternative fixed spatial orientation in the liganded state by virtue of their ability to engage laterally so as to allow their binding grooves to point outwards and away from each other. In short, while the ability of WW tandem domains to aid ligand binding is well-documented, our demonstration that they may also be subject to negative binding cooperativity represents a paradigm shift in our understanding of the molecular action of this ubiquitous family of protein modules. PMID:25283809

  14. KLF15 and PPARα Cooperate to Regulate Cardiomyocyte Lipid Gene Expression and Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenick A. Prosdocimo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. While the adult heart preferentially consumes fatty acids (FAs over carbohydrates, myocardial fuel plasticity is essential for organismal survival. This metabolic plasticity governing fuel utilization is under robust transcriptional control and studies over the past decade have illuminated members of the nuclear receptor family of factors (e.g., PPARα as important regulators of myocardial lipid metabolism. However, given the complexity of myocardial metabolism in health and disease, it is likely that other molecular pathways are likely operative and elucidation of such pathways may provide the foundation for novel therapeutic approaches. We previously demonstrated that Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15 is an independent regulator of cardiac lipid metabolism thus raising the possibility that KLF15 and PPARα operate in a coordinated fashion to regulate myocardial gene expression requisite for lipid oxidation. In the current study, we show that KLF15 binds to, cooperates with, and is required for the induction of canonical PPARα-mediated gene expression and lipid oxidation in cardiomyocytes. As such, this study establishes a molecular module involving KLF15 and PPARα and provides fundamental insights into the molecular regulation of cardiac lipid metabolism.

  15. Ena/VASP proteins cooperate with the WAVE complex to regulate the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing Judy; Squarr, Anna Julia; Stephan, Raiko; Chen, Baoyu; Higgins, Theresa E; Barry, David J; Martin, Morag C; Rosen, Michael K; Bogdan, Sven; Way, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ena/VASP proteins and the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) regulate cell motility by virtue of their ability to independently promote actin polymerization. We demonstrate that Ena/VASP and the WRC control actin polymerization in a cooperative manner through the interaction of the Ena/VASP EVH1 domain with an extended proline rich motif in Abi. This interaction increases cell migration and enables VASP to cooperatively enhance WRC stimulation of Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin assembly in vitro in the presence of Rac. Loss of this interaction in Drosophila macrophages results in defects in lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and redistribution of Ena to the tips of filopodia-like extensions. Rescue experiments of abi mutants also reveals a physiological requirement for the Abi:Ena interaction in photoreceptor axon targeting and oogenesis. Our data demonstrate that the activities of Ena/VASP and the WRC are intimately linked to ensure optimal control of actin polymerization during cell migration and development.

  16. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  17. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Yan, Wensheng; Jung, Yong Sam; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  18. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zhang

    Full Text Available Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  19. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  20. Cooperatively transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of sonic hedgehog overexpression drives malignant potential of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Hao-Chuan; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Ji, Xiao-Xin; Song, Min; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Cui, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a ligand of Hedgehog signaling pathway, is considered an important oncogene and an exciting potential therapeutic target in several cancers. Comprehensive understanding of the regulation mechanism of Shh in cancer cells is necessary to find an effective approach to selectively block its tumorigenic function. We and others previously demonstrated that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and promoter hypomethylation contributed to the overexpression of Shh. However, the relationship between transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of Shh, and their roles in the malignant phenotype of cancer cells are still not clearly elucidated. In the present study, our data showed that the level of Shh was higher in breast cancer tissues with positive NF-κB nuclear staining and promoter hypomethylation. In addition, survival analysis revealed that Shh overexpression, but not hypomethylation and NF-κB nuclear staining, was a poor prognosis indicator for breast cancers. Moreover, in vitro data demonstrated that both NF-κB activation and hypomethylation in promoter region were positively associated with the overexpression of Shh. Mechanistically, the hypomethylation in Shh promoter could facilitate NF-κB binding to its site, and subsequently cooperate to induce transcription of Shh. Furthermore, the biological function data indicated that overexpressed Shh enhanced the self-renewal capacity and migration ability of breast cancer cells, which could be augmented by promoter demethylation and NF-κB activation. Overall, our findings reveal multiple and cooperative mechanisms of Shh upregulation in cancer cells, and the roles of Shh in tumor malignant behavior, thus suggesting a new strategy for therapeutic interventions to reduce Shh in tumors and improve patients' prognosis.

  1. Allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments drives mutually exclusive binding with cofilin and myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Kien Xuan; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Kijima, Saku T; Kodera, Noriyuki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Furutani-Umezu, Nozomi; Nakajima, Jun; Noguchi, Taro Q P; Nagasaki, Akira; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2016-10-20

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) of myosin II and cofilin each binds to actin filaments cooperatively and forms clusters along the filaments, but it is unknown whether the two cooperative bindings are correlated and what physiological roles they have. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that HMM-GFP and cofilin-mCherry each bound cooperatively to different parts of actin filaments when they were added simultaneously in 0.2 μM ATP, indicating that the two cooperative bindings are mutually exclusive. In 0.1 mM ATP, the motor domain of myosin (S1) strongly inhibited the formation of cofilin clusters along actin filaments. Under this condition, most actin protomers were unoccupied by S1 at any given moment, suggesting that transiently bound S1 alters the structure of actin filaments cooperatively and/or persistently to inhibit cofilin binding. Consistently, cosedimentation experiments using copolymers of actin and actin-S1 fusion protein demonstrated that the fusion protein affects the neighboring actin protomers, reducing their affinity for cofilin. In reciprocal experiments, cofilin-actin fusion protein reduced the affinity of neighboring actin protomers for S1. Thus, allosteric regulation by cooperative conformational changes of actin filaments contributes to mutually exclusive cooperative binding of myosin II and cofilin to actin filaments, and presumably to the differential localization of both proteins in cells.

  2. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC’s abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. PMID:25429243

  3. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  4. Group Heterogeneity and Cooperation on the Geographical Indication Regulations: The Case of the 'Prosciutto di Parma Consortium'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Menozzi, D.; Capelli, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of individual group members’ heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies on their level of cooperation on defining the future regulation of Geographical Indications (GIs). By following a “grounded theory” approach, this study combines qualitative evidence f

  5. Auxiliary splice factor U2AF26 and transcription factor Gfi1 cooperate directly in regulating CD45 alternative splicing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyd, F.; Dam, G.B. ten; Moroy, T.

    2006-01-01

    By alternative splicing, different isoforms of the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase CD45 are generated that either enhance or limit T cell receptor signaling. We report here that CD45 alternative splicing is regulated by cooperative action of the splice factor U2AF26 and the transcription factor G

  6. Food Labeling Regulations in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC Countries: Benefits, Challenges and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mohammad Naim Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food labels describe the content of a food and are intended to guide the consumer in food selection. The nutrition information provided must be in consistency with legal requirements and dietary recommendations. Selection of the specific nutrients or food components to be listed should further take into account label space, the analytical feasibility of measuring the particular nutritional component within the food matrix, and the relative costs of such analyses. Information provided on labels should be truthful and not mislead consumers. At the same time, labeling regulations should provide incentives to manufacturers to develop products that promote public health and assist consumers in following dietary recommendations. In some countries some segments of the population benefit from information about the composition of foods. In such cases, countries should consider the need to provide for appropriate labeling and its presentation relative to existing regulations. Different approaches and legal requirements have been established. These create difficulties in developing and harmonizing labels, which have broad international applications. For these reasons, the Codex Guidelines on food labeling play an important role to provide guidance to member countries when they want to develop or update their national regulations and to encourage harmonization of national with international standards. These Guidelines are based on the principle that no food should be described or presented in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive. Exchange of information at the regional and sub-regional level is important, as each country can learn from the experience of others and regional co-ordination and co-operation can be developed.

  7. Multiple conductances cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting in mouse olfactory bulb external tufted cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaolin; Shipley, Michael T

    2008-02-13

    External tufted (ET) cells are juxtaglomerular neurons that spontaneously generate bursts of action potentials, which persist when fast synaptic transmission is blocked. The intrinsic mechanism of this autonomous bursting is unknown. We identified a set of voltage-dependent conductances that cooperatively regulate spontaneous bursting: hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)), persistent Na+ current (I(NaP)), low-voltage-activated calcium current (I(L/T)) mediated by T- and/or L-type Ca2+ channels, and large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ current (I(BK)). I(h) is important in setting membrane potential and depolarizes the cell toward the threshold of I(NaP) and I(T/L), which are essential to generate the depolarizing envelope that is crowned by a burst of action potentials. Action potentials depolarize the membrane and induce Ca2+ influx via high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (I(HVA)). The combined depolarization and increased intracellular Ca2+ activates I(BK), which terminates the burst by hyperpolarizing the membrane. Hyperpolarization activates I(h) and the cycle is regenerated. A novel finding is the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in autonomous ET cells bursting. A second novel feature is the role of BK channels, which regulate burst duration. I(L) and I(BK) may go hand-in-hand, the slow inactivation of I(L) requiring I(BK)-dependent hyperpolarization to deactivate inward conductances and terminate the burst. ET cells receive monosynaptic olfactory nerve input and drive the major inhibitory interneurons of the glomerular circuit. Modulation of the conductances identified here can regulate burst frequency, duration, and spikes per burst in ET cells and thus significantly shape the impact of glomerular circuits on mitral and tufted cells, the output channels of the olfactory bulb.

  8. Snail/Slug-YAP/TAZ complexes cooperatively regulate mesenchymal stem cell function and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Weiss, Stephen J

    2017-03-04

    Snail and Slug are zinc-finger transcription factors that play key roles in directing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs associated with normal development as well as disease progression. More recent work suggests that these EMT-associated transcription factors also modulate the function of both embryonic and adult stem cells. Interestingly, YAP and TAZ, the co-transcriptional effectors of the Hippo pathway, likewise play an important role in stem cell self-renewal and lineage commitment. While direct intersections between the Snail/Slug and Hippo pathways have not been described previously, we recently described an unexpected cooperative interaction between Snail/Slug and YAP/TAZ that controls the self-renewal and differentiation properties of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a cell population critical to bone development. Additional studies revealed that both Snail and Slug are able to form binary complexes with either YAP or TAZ that, together, control YAP/TAZ transcriptional activity and function throughout mouse development. Given the more recent observations that MSC-like cell populations are found in association throughout the vasculature where they participate in tissue regeneration, fibrosis and cancer, the Snail/Slug-YAP/TAZ axis is well-positioned to regulate global stem cell function in health and disease.

  9. Arabidopsis HDA6 Regulates Locus-Directed Heterochromatin Silencing in Cooperation with MET1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Akihiro; Kurihara, Yukio; Morosawa, Taeko; Ishida, Junko; Tanaka, Maho; Endo, Takaho; Kakutani, Tetsuji; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Seki, Motoaki

    2011-01-01

    Heterochromatin silencing is pivotal for genome stability in eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, a plant-specific mechanism called RNA–directed DNA methylation (RdDM) is involved in heterochromatin silencing. Histone deacetylase HDA6 has been identified as a component of such machineries; however, its endogenous targets and the silencing mechanisms have not been analyzed globally. In this study, we investigated the silencing mechanism mediated by HDA6. Genome-wide transcript profiling revealed that the loci silenced by HDA6 carried sequences corresponding to the RDR2-dependent 24-nt siRNAs, however their transcript levels were mostly unaffected in the rdr2 mutant. Strikingly, we observed significant overlap of genes silenced by HDA6 to those by the CG DNA methyltransferase MET1. Furthermore, regardless of dependence on RdDM pathway, HDA6 deficiency resulted in loss of heterochromatic epigenetic marks and aberrant enrichment for euchromatic marks at HDA6 direct targets, along with ectopic expression of these loci. Acetylation levels increased significantly in the hda6 mutant at all of the lysine residues in the H3 and H4 N-tails, except H4K16. Interestingly, we observed two different CG methylation statuses in the hda6 mutant. CG methylation was sustained in the hda6 mutant at some HDA6 target loci that were surrounded by flanking DNA–methylated regions. In contrast, complete loss of CG methylation occurred in the hda6 mutant at the HDA6 target loci that were isolated from flanking DNA methylation. Regardless of CG methylation status, CHG and CHH methylation were lost and transcriptional derepression occurred in the hda6 mutant. Furthermore, we show that HDA6 binds only to its target loci, not the flanking methylated DNA, indicating the profound target specificity of HDA6. We propose that HDA6 regulates locus-directed heterochromatin silencing in cooperation with MET1, possibly recruiting MET1 to specific loci, thus forming the foundation of silent chromatin structure

  10. Cooperative Semi-Global Output Regulation of Nonlinear Strict-Feedback Multi-Agent Systems With Nonidentical Relative Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youfeng

    2016-03-03

    In this paper, we study the cooperative semi-global output regulation problem for a class of nonlinear strict-feedback multi-agent systems, where the subsystems are assumed to have nonidentical relative degrees. We first introduce the so-called distributed internal model that converts our problem into the cooperative semi-global stabilization problem of the corresponding augmented system composed of the original multi-agent system and the internal model. We then put this augmented system into the general block lower triangular form, and develop the block semi-global backstepping technique to stabilize it. Comparing with some existing literatures, our design has removed the identical relative degree assumption, and hence applies to a much larger group of nonlinear multi-agent systems.

  11. Conditional Cooperativity in Toxin-Antitoxin Regulation Prevents Random Toxin Activation and Promotes Fast Translational Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataudella, Ilaria; Trusina, Ala; Sneppen, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    Many toxin–antitoxin (TA) loci are known to strongly repress their own transcription. This auto-inhibition is often called ‘conditional cooperativity’ as it relies on cooperative binding of TA complexes to operator DNA that occurs only when toxins are in a proper stoichiometric relationship...... system, relBE of Escherichia coli. We show that the model with the in vivo and in vitro established parameters reproduces experimentally observed response to nutritional stress. We further demonstrate that conditional cooperativity stabilizes the level of antitoxin in rapidly growing cells...

  12. Sialic acid transport and catabolism are cooperatively regulated by SiaR and CRP in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Jason W

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transport and catabolism of sialic acid, a critical virulence factor for nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, is regulated by two transcription factors, SiaR and CRP. Results Using a mutagenesis approach, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6P was identified as a co-activator for SiaR. Evidence for the cooperative regulation of both the sialic acid catabolic and transport operons suggested that cooperativity between SiaR and CRP is required for regulation. cAMP was unable to influence the expression of the catabolic operon in the absence of SiaR but was able to induce catabolic operon expression when both SiaR and GlcN-6P were present. Alteration of helical phasing supported this observation by uncoupling SiaR and CRP regulation. The insertion of one half-turn of DNA between the SiaR and CRP operators resulted in the loss of SiaR-mediated repression of the transport operon while eliminating cAMP-dependent induction of the catabolic operon when GlcN-6P was present. SiaR and CRP were found to bind to their respective operators simultaneously and GlcN-6P altered the interaction of SiaR with its operator. Conclusions These results suggest multiple novel features for the regulation of these two adjacent operons. SiaR functions as both a repressor and an activator and SiaR and CRP interact to regulate both operons from a single set of operators.

  13. Basic criteria for the legal regulation of capital in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Celaya Ullíbarri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The legislation virtually makes impossible the uptake and accumulation of capital resources in the long term. There have been numerous proposals for updating the legal regime aimed at creating new tools that enable the long-term financing of cooperatives.

  14. 78 FR 18277 - Special Local Regulation; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... ensure safety of life on the navigable water of the United States during the Low Country Splash. C... persons and vessels, except those participating in the Low Country Splash or serving as safety vessels are...; Low Country Splash, Wando River, Cooper River, and Charleston Harbor, Charleston, SC AGENCY:...

  15. Cooperative Education Guidelines for Administration: How to Comply with Federal and State Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Cooperative education is a method of instruction that enables students to combine academic classroom instruction (school-based learning component) with occupational instruction through learning on the job (work-based learning component) in a career area of choice. Emphasis is placed on the students' education and employability skills. Co-op is a…

  16. 76 FR 61597 - Grants and Cooperative Agreements to State and Local Governments: DOT Amendments on Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... organization or a Principles and Procedures, or non-profit organization listed in 2 uniform cost accounting CFR... principles for grants and cooperative agreements with State and Local Governments that appear in current... while 49 CFR 19.27 merely lists cost principles applicable to each kind of grant and agreement...

  17. Regulative processes in individual, 3D and computer supported cooperative learning contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Frank; Kollöffel, Bas; Meijden, van der Henny; Kleine Staarman, Judith; Janssen, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Three studies of student regulation of learning were undertaken. In the first study, the temporal organization of the self-regulation process was examined within an individual learning context. Multilevel analysis showed linear and quadratic relations between self-regulation process and the phase of

  18. Cooperative regulation of myosin-S1 binding to actin filaments by a continuous flexible Tm-Tn chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijailovich, Srboljub M; Kayser-Herold, Oliver; Li, Xiaochuan; Griffiths, Hugh; Geeves, Michael A

    2012-12-01

    The regulation of striated muscle contraction involves cooperative interactions between actin filaments, myosin-S1 (S1), tropomyosin (Tm), troponin (Tn), and calcium. These interactions are modeled by treating overlapping tropomyosins as a continuous flexible chain (CFC), weakly confined by electrostatic interactions with actin. The CFC is displaced locally in opposite directions on the actin surface by the binding of either S1 or Troponin I (TnI) to actin. The apparent rate constants for myosin and TnI binding to and detachment from actin are then intrinsically coupled via the CFC model to the presence of neighboring bound S1s and TnIs. Monte Carlo simulations at prescribed values of the CFC stiffness, the CFC's degree of azimuthal confinement, and the angular displacements caused by the bound proteins were able to predict the stopped-flow transients of S1 binding to regulated F-actin. The transients collected over a large range of calcium concentrations could be well described by adjusting a single calcium-dependent parameter, the rate constant of TnI detachment from actin, k(-I). The resulting equilibrium constant K(B) ≡ 1/K(I) varied sigmoidally with the free calcium, increasing from 0.12 at low calcium (pCa >7) to 12 at high calcium (pCa Hill coefficient of ~2.15. The similarity of the curves for excess-actin and excess-myosin data confirms their allosteric relationship. The spatially explicit calculations confirmed variable sizes for the cooperative units and clustering of bound myosins at low calcium concentrations. Moreover, inclusion of negative cooperativity between myosin units predicted the observed slowing of myosin binding at excess-myosin concentrations.

  19. Regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) activase: product inhibition, cooperativity, and magnesium activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Suratna; Henderson, J Nathan; Liles, Kevin; Hilton, Matthew T; Wachter, Rebekka M

    2015-10-01

    In many photosynthetic organisms, tight-binding Rubisco inhibitors are released by the motor protein Rubisco activase (Rca). In higher plants, Rca plays a pivotal role in regulating CO2 fixation. Here, the ATPase activity of 0.005 mm tobacco Rca was monitored under steady-state conditions, and global curve fitting was utilized to extract kinetic constants. The kcat was best fit by 22.3 ± 4.9 min(-1), the Km for ATP by 0.104 ± 0.024 mm, and the Ki for ADP by 0.037 ± 0.007 mm. Without ADP, the Hill coefficient for ATP hydrolysis was extracted to be 1.0 ± 0.1, indicating noncooperative behavior of homo-oligomeric Rca assemblies. However, the addition of ADP was shown to introduce positive cooperativity between two or more subunits (Hill coefficient 1.9 ± 0.2), allowing for regulation via the prevailing ATP/ADP ratio. ADP-mediated activation was not observed, although larger amounts led to competitive product inhibition of hydrolytic activity. The catalytic efficiency increased 8.4-fold upon cooperative binding of a second magnesium ion (Hill coefficient 2.5 ± 0.5), suggesting at least three conformational states (ATP-bound, ADP-bound, and empty) within assemblies containing an average of about six subunits. The addition of excess Rubisco (24:1, L8S8/Rca6) and crowding agents did not modify catalytic rates. However, high magnesium provided for thermal Rca stabilization. We propose that magnesium mediates the formation of closed hexameric toroids capable of high turnover rates and amenable to allosteric regulation. We suggest that in vivo, the Rca hydrolytic activity is tuned by fluctuating [Mg(2+)] in response to changes in available light.

  20. Cooperative regulation by G proteins and Na+ of neuronal GIRK2 K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Touhara, Kouki K; Weir, Keiko; Bean, Bruce P; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    G protein gated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels open and thereby silence cellular electrical activity when inhibitory G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are stimulated. Here we describe an assay to measure neuronal GIRK2 activity as a function of membrane-anchored G protein concentration. Using this assay we show that four Gβγ subunits bind cooperatively to open GIRK2, and that intracellular Na+ – which enters neurons during action potentials – further amplifies opening mostly by increasing Gβγ affinity. A Na+ amplification function is characterized and used to estimate the concentration of Gβγ subunits that appear in the membrane of mouse dopamine neurons when GABAB receptors are stimulated. We conclude that GIRK2, through its dual responsiveness to Gβγ and Na+, mediates a form of neuronal inhibition that is amplifiable in the setting of excess electrical activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15751.001 PMID:27074662

  1. A Co-operative Regulation of Neuronal Excitability by UNC-7 Innexin and NCA/NALCN Leak Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhours Magali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gap junctions mediate the electrical coupling and intercellular communication between neighboring cells. Some gap junction proteins, namely connexins and pannexins in vertebrates, and innexins in invertebrates, may also function as hemichannels. A conserved NCA/Dmα1U/NALCN family cation leak channel regulates the excitability and activity of vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. In the present study, we describe a genetic and functional interaction between the innexin UNC-7 and the cation leak channel NCA in Caenorhabditis elegans neurons. While the loss of the neuronal NCA channel function leads to a reduced evoked postsynaptic current at neuromuscular junctions, a simultaneous loss of the UNC-7 function restores the evoked response. The expression of UNC-7 in neurons reverts the effect of the unc-7 mutation; moreover, the expression of UNC-7 mutant proteins that are predicted to be unable to form gap junctions also reverts this effect, suggesting that UNC-7 innexin regulates neuronal activity, in part, through gap junction-independent functions. We propose that, in addition to gap junction-mediated functions, UNC-7 innexin may also form hemichannels to regulate C. elegans' neuronal activity cooperatively with the NCA family leak channels.

  2. Cooperative signaling between Slit2 and Ephrin-A1 regulates a balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, Charlene M; Hwang, Yoonha; Lindsley, Craig W; Cook, Rebecca S; Wu, Jane Y; Boothby, Mark; Chen, Jin; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M

    2011-02-01

    Slit proteins induce cytoskeletal remodeling through interaction with roundabout (Robo) receptors, regulating migration of neurons and nonneuronal cells, including leukocytes, tumor cells, and endothelium. The role of Slit2 in vascular remodeling, however, remains controversial, with reports of both pro- and antiangiogenic activity. We report here that cooperation between Slit2 and ephrin-A1 regulates a balance between the pro- and antiangiogenic functions of Slit2. While Slit2 promotes angiogenesis in culture and in vivo as a single agent, Slit2 potently inhibits angiogenic remodeling in the presence of ephrin-A1. Slit2 stimulates angiogenesis through mTORC2-dependent activation of Akt and Rac GTPase, the activities of which are inhibited in the presence of ephrin-A1. Activated Rac or Akt partially rescues vascular assembly and motility in costimulated endothelium. Taken together, these data suggest that Slit2 differentially regulates angiogenesis in the context of ephrin-A1, providing a plausible mechanism for the pro- versus antiangiogenic functions of Slit2. Our results suggest that the complex roles of Slit-Robo signaling in angiogenesis involve context-dependent mechanisms.

  3. Cooperation of Mtmr8 with PI3K regulates actin filament modeling and muscle development in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Mei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been shown that mutations in at least four myotubularin family genes (MTM1, MTMR1, 2 and 13 are causative for human neuromuscular disorders. However, the pathway and regulative mechanism remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we reported a new role for Mtmr8 in neuromuscular development of zebrafish. Firstly, we cloned and characterized zebrafish Mtmr8, and revealed the expression pattern predominantly in the eye field and somites during early somitogenesis. Using morpholino knockdown, then, we observed that loss-of-function of Mtmr8 led to defects in somitogenesis. Subsequently, the possible underlying mechanism and signal pathway were examined. We first checked the Akt phosphorylation, and observed an increase of Akt phosphorylation in the morphant embryos. Furthermore, we studied the PH/G domain function within Mtmr8. Although the PH/G domain deletion by itself did not result in embryonic defect, addition of PI3K inhibitor LY294002 did give a defective phenotype in the PH/G deletion morphants, indicating that the PH/G domain was essential for Mtmr8's function. Moreover, we investigated the cooperation of Mtmr8 with PI3K in actin filament modeling and muscle development, and found that both Mtmr8-MO1 and Mtmr8-MO2+LY294002 led to the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, we revealed a possible participation of Mtmr8 in the Hedgehog pathway, and cell transplantation experiments showed that Mtmr8 worked in a non-cell autonomous manner in actin modeling. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The above data indicate that a conserved functional cooperation of Mtmr8 with PI3K regulates actin filament modeling and muscle development in zebrafish, and reveal a possible participation of Mtmr8 in the Hedgehog pathway. Therefore, this work provides a new clue to study the physiological function of MTM family members.

  4. BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Splinter (Daniël); D.S. Razafsky (David); M.A. Schlager (Max); A. Serra-Marques (Andrea); I. Grigoriev (Ilya); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); N. Keijzer (Nanda); K. Jiang (Kai); S. Poser; A. Hyman (Anthony); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); S.J. King (Stephen); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus-end-directed cellular motor. Most dynein activities require dynactin, but the mechanisms regulating cargo-dependent dynein-dynactin interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we focus on dynein-dynactin recruitment to cargo by the

  5. BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Splinter (Daniël); D.S. Razafsky (David); M.A. Schlager (Max); A. Serra-Marques (Andrea); I. Grigoriev (Ilya); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); N. Keijzer (Nanda); K. Jiang (Kai); S. Poser; A. Hyman (Anthony); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); S.J. King (Stephen); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractCytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus-end-directed cellular motor. Most dynein activities require dynactin, but the mechanisms regulating cargo-dependent dynein-dynactin interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we focus on dynein-dynactin recruitment to cargo by the

  6. Classical and alternative NF-κB signaling cooperate in regulating adipocyte differentiation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, A.; Lovas, A.; Rauch, A.

    2016-01-01

    B in 3T3-L1 cells attenuated adipogenesis and modulated adipocyte functions via transcriptional downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). This LTβR-mediated pathway was synergistically regulated via a TNF-induced increase in p100 and RelB expression and nuclear translocation...

  7. Unprocessed Interleukin-36α Regulates Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation in Cooperation With Interleukin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milora, Katelynn A; Fu, Hangfei; Dubaz, Ornella; Jensen, Liselotte E

    2015-12-01

    Generalized pustular psoriasis is a severe skin disease characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, neutrophil-rich abscesses within the epidermis, and a mixed inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis. The disease may be caused by missense mutations in the IL-36 receptor antagonist, IL-36Ra. Curiously, the related IL-1Ra has therapeutic effects in some of these latter patients. Here, using an experimental mouse model of psoriasiform skin inflammation, we demonstrate in vivo connections between IL-36 and IL-1 expression. After disease initiation, IL-36α-deficient mice exhibited dramatically diminished skin pathology, including absence of epidermal neutrophils, reduced keratinocyte acanthosis, and less dermal edema. In contrast, IL-36β and IL-36γ knockout mice developed disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice. The endogenous IL-36α was not processed through proteolysis. Although IL-36α expression was strongly induced in an IL-1 signaling-dependent manner during disease, expression of IL-1α was also dependent upon IL-36α. Hence, after being upregulated by IL-1α, IL-36α acts through a feedback mechanism to boost IL-1α levels. Analyses of double knockout mice further revealed that IL-36α and IL-1α cooperate to promote psoriasis-like disease. In conclusion, IL-1α and IL-36α form a self-amplifying inflammatory loop in vivo that in patients with insufficient counter regulatory mechanisms may become hyper-engaged and/or chronic.

  8. The content of our cooperation, not the color of our skin: an alliance detection system regulates categorization by coalition and race, but not sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pietraszewski

    Full Text Available Humans in all societies form and participate in cooperative alliances. To successfully navigate an alliance-laced world, the human mind needs to detect new coalitions and alliances as they emerge, and predict which of many potential alliance categories are currently organizing an interaction. We propose that evolution has equipped the mind with cognitive machinery that is specialized for performing these functions: an alliance detection system. In this view, racial categories do not exist because skin color is perceptually salient; they are constructed and regulated by the alliance system in environments where race predicts social alliances and divisions. Early tests using adversarial alliances showed that the mind spontaneously detects which individuals are cooperating against a common enemy, implicitly assigning people to rival alliance categories based on patterns of cooperation and competition. But is social antagonism necessary to trigger the categorization of people by alliance--that is, do we cognitively link A and B into an alliance category only because they are jointly in conflict with C and D? We report new studies demonstrating that peaceful cooperation can trigger the detection of new coalitional alliances and make race fade in relevance. Alliances did not need to be marked by team colors or other perceptually salient cues. When race did not predict the ongoing alliance structure, behavioral cues about cooperative activities up-regulated categorization by coalition and down-regulated categorization by race, sometimes eliminating it. Alliance cues that sensitively regulated categorization by coalition and race had no effect on categorization by sex, eliminating many alternative explanations for the results. The results support the hypothesis that categorizing people by their race is a reversible product of a cognitive system specialized for detecting alliance categories and regulating their use. Common enemies are not necessary to

  9. Three chemokine receptors cooperatively regulate homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the embryonic mouse thymus

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Lesly; Boehm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The thymus lacks self-renewing hematopoietic cells, and thymopoiesis fails rapidly when the migration of progenitor cells to the thymus ceases. Hence, the process of thymus homing is an essential step for T-cell development and cellular immunity. Despite decades of research, the molecular details of thymus homing have not been elucidated fully. Here, we show that chemotaxis is the key mechanism regulating thymus homing in the mouse embryo. We determined the number of early thymic progenitors ...

  10. Integrative genome-wide analysis reveals cooperative regulation of alternative splicing by hnRNP proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelga, Stephanie C; Vu, Anthony Q; Arnold, Justin D; Liang, Tiffany Y; Liu, Patrick P; Yan, Bernice Y; Donohue, John Paul; Shiue, Lily; Hoon, Shawn; Brenner, Sydney; Ares, Manuel; Yeo, Gene W

    2012-02-23

    Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP) proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS) in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq), and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  11. Integrative Genome-wide Analysis Reveals Cooperative Regulation of Alternative Splicing by hnRNP Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C. Huelga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how RNA binding proteins control the splicing code is fundamental to human biology and disease. Here, we present a comprehensive study to elucidate how heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticle (hnRNP proteins, among the most abundant RNA binding proteins, coordinate to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing (AS in human cells. Using splicing-sensitive microarrays, crosslinking and immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq, and cDNA sequencing, we find that more than half of all AS events are regulated by multiple hnRNP proteins and that some combinations of hnRNP proteins exhibit significant synergy, whereas others act antagonistically. Our analyses reveal position-dependent RNA splicing maps, in vivo consensus binding sites, a surprising level of cross- and autoregulation among hnRNP proteins, and the coordinated regulation by hnRNP proteins of dozens of other RNA binding proteins and genes associated with cancer. Our findings define an unprecedented degree of complexity and compensatory relationships among hnRNP proteins and their splicing targets that likely confer robustness to cells.

  12. Characteristic features of kynurenine aminotransferase allosterically regulated by (alpha-ketoglutarate in cooperation with kynurenine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Okada

    Full Text Available Kynurenine aminotransferase from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PhKAT, which is a homodimeric protein, catalyzes the conversion of kynurenine (KYN to kynurenic acid (KYNA. We analyzed the transaminase reaction mechanisms of this protein with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, KYN and α-ketoglutaric acid (2OG or oxaloacetic acid (OXA. 2OG significantly inhibited KAT activities in kinetic analyses, suggesting that a KYNA biosynthesis is allosterically regulated by 2OG. Its inhibitions evidently were unlocked by KYN. 2OG and KYN functioned as an inhibitor and activator in response to changes in the concentrations of KYN and 2OG, respectively. The affinities of one subunit for PLP or 2OG were different from that of the other subunit, as confirmed by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry, suggesting that the difference of affinities between subunits might play a role in regulations of the KAT reaction. Moreover, we identified two active and allosteric sites in the crystal structure of PhKAT-2OG complexes. The crystal structure of PhKAT in complex with four 2OGs demonstrates that two 2OGs in allosteric sites are effector molecules which inhibit the KYNA productions. Thus, the combined data lead to the conclusion that PhKAT probably is regulated by allosteric control machineries, with 2OG as the allosteric inhibitor.

  13. 77 FR 23120 - Special Local Regulations; Lowcountry Splash Open Water Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Swim, Wando River and Cooper River, Mount Pleasant, SC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Wando River and Cooper River in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina during the Lowcountry Splash, a 2.4 mile... the Lowcountry Splash, a 2.4 mile open water swim in the Wando River and Cooper River along...

  14. Nuclear receptors HNF4α and LRH-1 cooperate in regulating Cyp7a1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kir, Serkan; Zhang, Yuan; Gerard, Robert D; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2012-11-30

    Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a postprandial enterokine induced by the nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, in ileum. FGF19 inhibits bile acid synthesis in liver through transcriptional repression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) via a mechanism involving the nuclear receptor SHP. Here, in a series of loss-of-function studies, we show that the nuclear receptors HNF4α and LRH-1 have dual roles in regulating Cyp7a1 in vivo. First, they cooperate in maintaining basal Cyp7a1 expression. Second, they enable SHP binding to the Cyp7a1 promoter and facilitate FGF19-mediated repression of bile acid synthesis. HNF4α and LRH-1 promote active transcription histone marks on the Cyp7a1 promoter that are reversed by FGF19 in a SHP-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that both HNF4α and LRH-1 are important regulators of Cyp7a1 transcription in vivo.

  15. LncRNA Directs Cooperative Epigenetic Regulation Downstream of Chemokine Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Zhen; Lin, Aifu; Li, Chunlai; Liang, Ke; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Yang; Park, Peter; Li QIN; Wei, Yongkun; Hawke, David; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    LncRNAs are known to regulate a number of different development and tumorigenic processes. Here we report a role for lncRNA BCAR4 in breast cancer metastasis that is mediated by chemokine-induced binding of BCAR4 to two transcription factors with extended regulatory consequences. BCAR4 binding of SNIP1 and PNUTS in response to CCL21 releases the SNIP1's inhibition of p300-dependent histone acetylation that in turn enables the BCAR4-recruited PNUTS to bind H3K18ac and relieve inhibition of RNA...

  16. α-synuclein and synapsin III cooperatively regulate synaptic function in dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltieri, Michela; Grigoletto, Jessica; Longhena, Francesca; Navarria, Laura; Favero, Gaia; Castrezzati, Stefania; Colivicchi, Maria Alessandra; Della Corte, Laura; Rezzani, Rita; Pizzi, Marina; Benfenati, Fabio; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Missale, Cristina; Spano, PierFranco; Bellucci, Arianna

    2015-07-01

    The main neuropathological features of Parkinson's disease are dopaminergic nigrostriatal neuron degeneration, and intraneuronal and intraneuritic proteinaceous inclusions named Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, respectively, which mainly contain α-synuclein (α-syn, also known as SNCA). The neuronal phosphoprotein synapsin III (also known as SYN3), is a pivotal regulator of dopamine neuron synaptic function. Here, we show that α-syn interacts with and modulates synapsin III. The absence of α-syn causes a selective increase and redistribution of synapsin III, and changes the organization of synaptic vesicle pools in dopamine neurons. In α-syn-null mice, the alterations of synapsin III induce an increased locomotor response to the stimulation of synapsin-dependent dopamine overflow, despite this, these mice show decreased basal and depolarization-dependent striatal dopamine release. Of note, synapsin III seems to be involved in α-syn aggregation, which also coaxes its increase and redistribution. Furthermore, synapsin III accumulates in the caudate and putamen of individuals with Parkinson's disease. These findings support a reciprocal modulatory interaction of α-syn and synapsin III in the regulation of dopamine neuron synaptic function. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. LncRNA Directs Cooperative Epigenetic Regulation Downstream of Chemokine Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Yang; Park, Peter; Qin, Li; Wei, Yongkun; Hawke, David; Hung, Mien-Chie; Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    Summary LncRNAs are known to regulate a number of different development and tumorigenic processes. Here we report a role for lncRNA BCAR4 in breast cancer metastasis that is mediated by chemokine-induced binding of BCAR4 to two transcription factors with extended regulatory consequences. BCAR4 binding of SNIP1 and PNUTS in response to CCL21 releases the SNIP1's inhibition of p300-dependent histone acetylation that in turn enables the BCAR4-recruited PNUTS to bind H3K18ac and relieve inhibition of RNA Pol II via activation of the PP1 phosphatase. This mechanism activates a noncanonical Hedgehog/GLI2 transcriptional program that promotes cell migration. BCAR4 expression correlates with advanced breast cancers and therapeutic delivery of Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) targeting BCAR4 strongly suppresses breast cancer metastasis in mouse models. The findings reveal a disease-relevant lncRNA mechanism consisting of both direct coordinated protein recruitment and indirect regulation of transcription factors. PMID:25416949

  18. ERG Cooperates with Androgen Receptor in Regulating Trefoil Factor 3 in Prostate Cancer Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Rickman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC, we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  19. ERG cooperates with androgen receptor in regulating trefoil factor 3 in prostate cancer disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, David S; Chen, Ying-Bei; Banerjee, Samprit; Pan, Yihang; Yu, Jindan; Vuong, Terry; Perner, Sven; Lafargue, Christopher J; Mertz, Kirsten D; Setlur, Sunita R; Sircar, Kanishka; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Bismar, Tarek A; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca

    2010-12-01

    To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC) and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression.

  20. HoxA-11 and FOXO1A cooperate to regulate decidual prolactin expression: towards inferring the core transcriptional regulators of decidual genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J Lynch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the menstrual cycle, the ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone control a dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs leading to a receptive state for blastocyst implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. A key marker gene of this decidualization process is the prolactin gene. Several transcriptional regulators have been identified that are essential for decidualization of ESCs, including the Hox genes HoxA-10 and HoxA-11, and the forkhead box gene FOXO1A. While previous studies have identified downstream target genes for HoxA-10 and FOXO1A, the role of HoxA-11 in decidualization has not been investigated. Here, we show that HoxA-11 is required for prolactin expression in decidualized ESC. While HoxA-11 alone is a repressor on the decidual prolactin promoter, it turns into an activator when combined with FOXO1A. Conversely, HoxA-10, which has been previously shown to associate with FOXO1A to upregulate decidual IGFBP-1 expression, is unable to upregulate PRL expression when co-expressed with FOXO1A. By co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate physical association of HoxA-11 and FOXO1A, and binding of both factors to an enhancer region (-395 to -148 relative to the PRL transcriptional start site of the decidual prolactin promoter. Because FOXO1A is induced upon decidualization, it serves to assemble a decidual-specific transcriptional complex including HoxA-11. These data highlight cooperativity between numerous transcription factors to upregulate PRL in differentiating ESC, and suggest that this core set of transcription factors physically and functionally interact to drive the expression of a gene battery upregulated in differentiated ESC. In addition, the functional non-equivalence of HoxA-11 and HoxA-10 with respect to PRL regulation suggests that these transcription factors regulate distinct sets of target genes during decidualization.

  1. BICD2, dynactin, and LIS1 cooperate in regulating dynein recruitment to cellular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Daniël; Razafsky, David S.; Schlager, Max A.; Serra-Marques, Andrea; Grigoriev, Ilya; Demmers, Jeroen; Keijzer, Nanda; Jiang, Kai; Poser, Ina; Hyman, Anthony A.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.; King, Stephen J.; Akhmanova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the major microtubule minus-end–directed cellular motor. Most dynein activities require dynactin, but the mechanisms regulating cargo-dependent dynein–dynactin interaction are poorly understood. In this study, we focus on dynein–dynactin recruitment to cargo by the conserved motor adaptor Bicaudal D2 (BICD2). We show that dynein and dynactin depend on each other for BICD2-mediated targeting to cargo and that BICD2 N-terminus (BICD2-N) strongly promotes stable interaction between dynein and dynactin both in vitro and in vivo. Direct visualization of dynein in live cells indicates that by itself the triple BICD2-N–dynein–dynactin complex is unable to interact with either cargo or microtubules. However, tethering of BICD2-N to different membranes promotes their microtubule minus-end–directed motility. We further show that LIS1 is required for dynein-mediated transport induced by membrane tethering of BICD2-N and that LIS1 contributes to dynein accumulation at microtubule plus ends and BICD2-positive cellular structures. Our results demonstrate that dynein recruitment to cargo requires concerted action of multiple dynein cofactors. PMID:22956769

  2. 7 CFR 989.12a - Cooperative bargaining association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.12a Cooperative bargaining association. Cooperative bargaining association means a nonprofit cooperative association...

  3. FOXO3-mTOR metabolic cooperation in the regulation of erythroid cell maturation and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Campreciós, Genís; Rimmelé, Pauline; Liang, Raymond; Yalcin, Safak; Mungamuri, Sathish Kumar; Barminko, Jeffrey; D'Escamard, Valentina; Baron, Margaret H; Brugnara, Carlo; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Rivella, Stefano; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-10-01

    Ineffective erythropoiesis is observed in many erythroid disorders including β-thalassemia and anemia of chronic disease in which increased production of erythroblasts that fail to mature exacerbate the underlying anemias. As loss of the transcription factor FOXO3 results in erythroblast abnormalities similar to the ones observed in ineffective erythropoiesis, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the defective Foxo3(-/-) erythroblast cell cycle and maturation. Here we show that loss of Foxo3 results in overactivation of the JAK2/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in primary bone marrow erythroblasts partly mediated by redox modulation. We further show that hyperactivation of mTOR signaling interferes with cell cycle progression in Foxo3 mutant erythroblasts. Importantly, inhibition of mTOR signaling, in vivo or in vitro enhances significantly Foxo3 mutant erythroid cell maturation. Similarly, in vivo inhibition of mTOR remarkably improves erythroid cell maturation and anemia in a model of β-thalassemia. Finally we show that FOXO3 and mTOR are likely part of a larger metabolic network in erythroblasts as together they control the expression of an array of metabolic genes some of which are implicated in erythroid disorders. These combined findings indicate that a metabolism-mediated regulatory network centered by FOXO3 and mTOR control the balanced production and maturation of erythroid cells. They also highlight physiological interactions between these proteins in regulating erythroblast energy. Our results indicate that alteration in the function of this network might be implicated in the pathogenesis of ineffective erythropoiesis.

  4. Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 Cooperatively Regulate Vascular Development in the Mouse Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulian Zhou

    Full Text Available Vascular development and maintenance are controlled by a complex transcriptional program, which integrates both extracellular and intracellular signals in endothelial cells. Here we study the roles of three closely related SoxF family transcription factors-Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 -in the developing and mature mouse vasculature using targeted gene deletion on a mixed C57/129/CD1 genetic background. In the retinal vasculature, each SoxF gene exhibits a distinctive pattern of expression in different classes of blood vessels. On a mixed genetic background, vascular endothelial-specific deletion of individual SoxF genes has little or no effect on vascular architecture or differentiation, a result that can be explained by overlapping function and by reciprocal regulation of gene expression between Sox7 and Sox17. By contrast, combined deletion of Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 at the onset of retinal angiogenesis leads to a dense capillary plexus with a nearly complete loss of radial arteries and veins, whereas the presence of a single Sox17 allele largely restores arterial identity, as determined by vascular smooth muscle cell coverage. In the developing retina, expression of all three SoxF genes is reduced in the absence of Norrin/Frizzled4-mediated canonical Wnt signaling, but SoxF gene expression is unaffected by reduced VEGF signaling in response to deletion of Neuropilin1 (Npn1. In adulthood, Sox7, Sox17, and Sox18 act in a largely redundant manner to maintain blood vessel function, as adult onset vascular endothelial-specific deletion of all three SoxF genes leads to massive edema despite nearly normal vascular architecture. These data reveal critical and partially redundant roles for Sox7, Sox17 and Sox18 in vascular growth, differentiation, and maintenance.

  5. c-Myc and AMPK Control Cellular Energy Levels by Cooperatively Regulating Mitochondrial Structure and Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia R Edmunds

    Full Text Available The c-Myc (Myc oncoprotein and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK regulate glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (Oxphos although often for different purposes. Because Myc over-expression depletes ATP with the resultant activation of AMPK, we explored the potential co-dependency of and cross-talk between these proteins by comparing the consequences of acute Myc induction in ampk+/+ (WT and ampk-/- (KO murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs. KO MEFs showed a higher basal rate of glycolysis than WT MEFs and an appropriate increase in response to activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor (MycER fusion protein. However, KO MEFs had a diminished ability to increase Oxphos, mitochondrial mass and reactive oxygen species in response to MycER activation. Other differences between WT and KO MEFs, either in the basal state or following MycER induction, included abnormalities in electron transport chain function, levels of TCA cycle-related oxidoreductases and cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox states. Transcriptional profiling of pathways pertinent to glycolysis, Oxphos and mitochondrial structure and function also uncovered significant differences between WT and KO MEFs and their response to MycER activation. Finally, an unbiased mass-spectrometry (MS-based survey capable of quantifying ~40% of all mitochondrial proteins, showed about 15% of them to be AMPK- and/or Myc-dependent in their steady state. Significant differences in the activities of the rate-limiting enzymes pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase, which dictate pyruvate and acetyl coenzyme A abundance, were also differentially responsive to Myc and AMPK and could account for some of the differences in basal metabolite levels that were also detected by MS. Thus, Myc and AMPK are highly co-dependent and appear to engage in significant cross-talk across numerous pathways which support metabolic and ATP-generating functions.

  6. Nipbl and mediator cooperatively regulate gene expression to control limb development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Muto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Haploinsufficiency for Nipbl, a cohesin loading protein, causes Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS, the most common "cohesinopathy". It has been proposed that the effects of Nipbl-haploinsufficiency result from disruption of long-range communication between DNA elements. Here we use zebrafish and mouse models of CdLS to examine how transcriptional changes caused by Nipbl deficiency give rise to limb defects, a common condition in individuals with CdLS. In the zebrafish pectoral fin (forelimb, knockdown of Nipbl expression led to size reductions and patterning defects that were preceded by dysregulated expression of key early limb development genes, including fgfs, shha, hand2 and multiple hox genes. In limb buds of Nipbl-haploinsufficient mice, transcriptome analysis revealed many similar gene expression changes, as well as altered expression of additional classes of genes that play roles in limb development. In both species, the pattern of dysregulation of hox-gene expression depended on genomic location within the Hox clusters. In view of studies suggesting that Nipbl colocalizes with the mediator complex, which facilitates enhancer-promoter communication, we also examined zebrafish deficient for the Med12 Mediator subunit, and found they resembled Nipbl-deficient fish in both morphology and gene expression. Moreover, combined partial reduction of both Nipbl and Med12 had a strongly synergistic effect, consistent with both molecules acting in a common pathway. In addition, three-dimensional fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that Nipbl and Med12 are required to bring regions containing long-range enhancers into close proximity with the zebrafish hoxda cluster. These data demonstrate a crucial role for Nipbl in limb development, and support the view that its actions on multiple gene pathways result from its influence, together with Mediator, on regulation of long-range chromosomal interactions.

  7. The Hedgehog-binding proteins Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to positively regulate Shh signaling during mouse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin L; Tenzen, Toyoaki; McMahon, Andrew P

    2007-05-15

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical for patterning and growth during mammalian embryogenesis. Transcriptional profiling identified Growth-arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) as a general negative target of Shh signaling. Data presented here define Gas1 as a novel positive component of the Shh signaling cascade. Removal of Gas1 results in a Shh dose-dependent loss of cell identities in the ventral neural tube and facial and skeletal defects, also consistent with reduced Shh signaling. In contrast, ectopic Gas1 expression results in Shh-dependent cell-autonomous promotion of ventral cell identities. These properties mirror those of Cdo, an unrelated, cell surface Shh-binding protein. We show that Gas1 and Cdo cooperate to promote Shh signaling during neural tube patterning, craniofacial, and vertebral development. Overall, these data support a new paradigm in Shh signaling whereby positively acting ligand-binding components, which are initially expressed in responding tissues to promote signaling, are then down-regulated by active Hh signaling, thereby modulating responses to ligand input.

  8. Cooperation of divalent ions and thiamin diphosphate in regulation of the function of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniecki, J; Czygier, M

    2001-12-01

    The role of Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ in regulation of purified pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) containing endogenous thiamin diphosphate (TDP) was studied. It was found that the effects of the cations depended on the presence of exogenous TDP. In the absence of added TDP, the divalent cations led to a shortening of a lag phase of the PDC reaction and a strong reduction of the Km value for pyruvate. The relative efficiency of the three types of ions are presented as follows: Mn2+>Ca2+>Mg2+. The other sources claim that in the presence of exogenous TDP, which alone strongly increased the affinity of PDC for pyruvate, any significant additional effects of the cations were not observed. However, Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ decreased the Km value for CoA in both cases, the absence and presence of exogenous TDP, in approximately a similar extent (about twofold). The affinity of PDC for NAD+ seems to be not sensitive to the presence of the divalent cations. The data obtained suggest that Mg2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+ can cooperate with TDP as positive regulatory effectors of pig heart PDC on the level of pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipoamide acetyltransferase components of the complex.

  9. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation sites and docking domain on the nuclear pore complex protein Tpr cooperatively regulate ERK2-Tpr interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vomastek, Tomás; Iwanicki, Marcin P; Burack, W Richard; Tiwari, Divya; Kumar, Devanand; Parsons, J Thomas; Weber, Michael J; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2008-11-01

    Identifying direct substrates of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and understanding how those substrates are selected is central to understanding how these ubiquitously activated enzymes generate diverse biological responses. In previous work, we identified several new candidate substrates for the MAPK ERK2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2), including the nuclear pore complex protein Tpr (translocated promoter region). In this report, we identify sites on Tpr for ERK2 phosphorylation and binding and demonstrate their functional interaction. ERK2 phosphorylation and dimerization are necessary for ERK2-Tpr binding, and this occurs through a DEF (docking site for ERK2, FXF) domain on Tpr. Surprisingly, the DEF domain and the phosphorylation sites displayed positive cooperativity to promote ERK2 binding to Tpr, in contrast to substrates where phosphorylation reduces binding. Ectopic expression or depletion of Tpr resulted in decreased movement of activated ERK2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, implying a role for Tpr in ERK2 translocation. Collectively, the data provide direct evidence that a component of the nuclear pore complex is a bona fide substrate of ERK2 in vivo and that activated ERK2 stably associates with this substrate after phosphorylation, where it could play a continuing role in nuclear pore function. We propose that Tpr is both a substrate and a scaffold for activated ERKs.

  10. Role of Ca2+ and L-Phe in regulating functional cooperativity of disease-associated "toggle" calcium-sensing receptor mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaSR regulates Ca(2+ homeostasis in the body by monitoring extracellular levels of Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+]o and amino acids. Mutations at the hinge region of the N-terminal Venus flytrap domain (VFTD produce either receptor inactivation (L173P, P221Q or activation (L173F, P221L related to hypercalcemic or hypocalcemic disorders. In this paper, we report that both L173P and P221Q markedly impair the functional positive cooperativity of the CaSR as reflected by [Ca(2+]o-induced [Ca(2+]i oscillations, inositol-1-phosphate (IP1 accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 activity. In contrast, L173F and P221L show enhanced responsiveness of these three functional readouts to [Ca(2+]o. Further analysis of the dynamics of the VFTD mutants using computational simulation studies supports disruption in the correlated motions in the loss-of-function CaSR mutants, while these motions are enhanced in the gain-of-function mutants. Wild type (WT CaSR was modulated by L-Phe in a heterotropic positive cooperative way, achieving an EC50 similar to those of the two activating mutations. The response of the inactivating P221Q mutant to [Ca(2+]o was partially rescued by L-Phe, illustrating the capacity of the L-Phe binding site to enhance the positive homotropic cooperativity of CaSR. L-Phe had no effect on the other inactivating mutant. Moreover, our results carried out both in silico and in intact cells indicate that residue Leu(173, which is close to residues that are part of the L-Phe-binding pocket, exhibited impaired heterotropic cooperativity in the presence of L-Phe. Thus, Pro(221 and Leu(173 are important for the positive homo- and heterotropic cooperative regulation elicited by agonist binding.

  11. The molecular basis of the cooperation between EGF, FGF and eCB receptors in the regulation of neural stem cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Philipp; Williams, Emma J; Chambers, David; Saraf, Kathryn; von Schack, David; Reisenberg, Melina; Doherty, Patrick; Williams, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis relies on EGF and FGF receptor (EGFR/FGFR) function and endocannabinoid (eCB) signalling. Here we have used a neural stem cell (NSC) line to determine how these systems cooperate to regulate neurogenesis. The results show the EGFR to be solely responsible for maintaining PI3K activation explaining its dominant role in promoting NSC survival. The EGFR and FGFR synergistically regulate the ERK/MAPK pathway, and this explains the requirement for both for optimal cell proliferation. The eCB receptors did not contribute to activation of the PI3K or ERK/MAPK pathways, highlighting the importance of another major proliferation pathway. The EGFR plays the dominant role in maintaining the transcriptome, with significant changes in the expression of over 3500 transcripts seen within hours of inhibition or activation of this receptor. The FGFR has a more modest effect on transcription with evidence for nodal integration with EGFR signalling at the level of the ERK/MAPK pathway. A common set of transcripts are regulated by the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with cooperation between these receptors and the EGFR apparent in the regulation of a pool of transcripts, most likely representing signal integration downstream from an as yet to be identified node. Finally, a first level molecular analysis of the transcriptional response shows regulation of a number of key growth factors, growth factor receptors and GPCRs to be under the control of the EGFR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF OPTIMAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF CREDIT COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra OSADETS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented scientific practical research we considered and explored the role and problems of state regulation and supervision of the financial sector of Ukraine, in particular of credit unions because they are inalienable participants in the financial market. In current conditions that have been established during the inancial crisis, one of the most urgent problems is the effective functioning of the regulation and supervision of the financial sector. The crisis that negatively affected the activities of financial sector participants discovered the discrepancy of regulation and supervision of them, which caused the negative trend of development of financial market of Ukraine, as evidenced by official data of the National Commission, which performs state regulation in the sphere of financial services. In the presented scientific practical research we identified the strengths and weaknesses of the modern system of state regulation and supervision in the financial sector of Ukraine, particularly in the sector of credit cooperation, and we formed suggestions on improving its model in the context of the concentration of regulatory and supervisory efforts in state financial regulators

  13. PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF OPTIMAL MODEL OF GOVERNMENTAL REGULATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF CREDIT COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandra OSADETS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented scientific practical research we considered and explored the role and problems of state regulation and supervision of the financial sector of Ukraine, in particular of credit unions because they are inalienable participants in the financial market. In current conditions that have been established during the financial crisis, one of the most urgent problems is the effective functioning of the regulation and supervision of the financial sector. The crisis that negatively affected the activities of financial sector participants discovered the discrepancy of regulation and supervision of them, which caused the negative trend of development of financial market of Ukraine, as evidenced by official data of the National Commission, which performs state regulation in the sphere of financial services. In the presented scientific practical research we identified the strengths and weaknesses of the modern system of state regulation and supervision in the financial sector of Ukraine, particularly in the sector of credit cooperation, and we formed suggestions on improving its model in the context of the concentration of regulatory and supervisory efforts in state financial regulators.

  14. Cooperative or Competitive? Private Regulators and Public Supervisors in the Post-Crisis European Financial Services Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherednychenko, Olha O.

    This article explores the interplay between private regulators and public supervisors within principles-based regulation and meta-regulation in the post-crisis European retail financial services landscape. It shows that the way in which the compliance with such regulatory frameworks is supervised

  15. miRNA array screening reveals cooperative MGMT-regulation between miR-181d-5p and miR-409-3p in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Susanna; Fabbri, Enrica; Santangelo, Alessandra; Bezzerri, Valentino; Cantù, Cinzia; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Finotti, Alessia; Ghimenton, Claudio; Eccher, Albino; Dechecchi, Maria; Scarpa, Aldo; Hirshman, Brian; Chen, Clark; Ferracin, Manuela; Negrini, Massimo; Gambari, Roberto; Cabrini, Giulio

    2016-05-10

    The levels of expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) are relevant in predicting the response to the alkylating chemotherapy in patients affected by glioblastoma. MGMT promoter methylation and the published MGMT regulating microRNAs (miRNAs) do not completely explain the expression pattern of MGMT in clinical glioblastoma specimens. Here we used a genome-wide microarray-based approach to identify MGMT regulating miRNAs. Our screen unveiled three novel MGMT regulating miRNAs, miR-127-3p, miR-409-3p, and miR-124-3p, in addition to the previously identified miR-181d-5p. Transfection of these three novel miRNAs into the T98G glioblastoma cell line suppressed MGMT mRNA and protein expression. However, their MGMT- suppressive effects are 30-50% relative that seen with miR-181d-5p transfection. In silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) revealed that miR-181d-5p is the only miRNA that consistently exhibited inverse correlation with MGMT mRNA expression. However, statistical models incorporating both miR-181d-5p and miR-409-3p expression better predict MGMT expression relative to models involving either miRNA alone. Our results confirmed miR-181d-5p as the key MGMT-regulating miRNA. Other MGMT regulating miRNAs, including the miR-409-3p identified in this report, modify the effect of miR-181d-5p on MGMT expression. MGMT expression is, thus, regulated by cooperative interaction between key MGMT-regulating miRNAs.

  16. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  17. The arabidopsis IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16 cooperatively regulate lateral organ morphogenesis and gravitropism by promoting auxin biosynthesis and transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Cui

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, and the spatial accumulation of auxin within organs, which is primarily attributable to local auxin biosynthesis and polar transport, is largely responsible for lateral organ morphogenesis and the establishment of plant architecture. Here, we show that three Arabidopsis INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD transcription factors, IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16, cooperatively regulate auxin biosynthesis and transport and thus aerial organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses. Gain-of-function of each IDD gene in Arabidopsis results in small and transversally down-curled leaves, whereas loss-of-function of these IDD genes causes pleiotropic phenotypes in aerial organs and defects in gravitropic responses, including altered leaf shape, flower development, fertility, and plant architecture. Further analyses indicate that these IDD genes regulate spatial auxin accumulation by directly targeting YUCCA5 (YUC5, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE of ARABIDOPSIS1 (TAA1, and PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1 to promote auxin biosynthesis and transport. Moreover, mutation or ectopic expression of YUC suppresses the organ morphogenic phenotype and partially restores the gravitropic responses in gain- or loss-of-function idd mutants, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal that a subfamily of IDD transcription factors plays a critical role in the regulation of spatial auxin accumulation, thereby controlling organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses in plants.

  18. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  19. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  20. Nuclear FAK and Runx1 Cooperate to Regulate IGFBP3, Cell-Cycle Progression, and Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canel, Marta; Byron, Adam; Sims, Andrew H; Cartier, Jessy; Patel, Hitesh; Frame, Margaret C; Brunton, Valerie G; Serrels, Bryan; Serrels, Alan

    2017-08-14

    Nuclear focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a potentially important regulator of gene expression in cancer, impacting both cellular function and the composition of the surrounding tumor microenvironment. Here, we report in a murine model of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that nuclear FAK regulates Runx1-dependent transcription of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and that this regulates SCC cell-cycle progression and tumor growth in vivo Furthermore, we identified a novel molecular complex between FAK and Runx1 in the nucleus of SCC cells and showed that FAK interacted with a number of Runx1-regulatory proteins, including Sin3a and other epigenetic modifiers known to alter Runx1 transcriptional function through posttranslational modification. These findings provide important new insights into the role of FAK as a scaffolding protein in molecular complexes that regulate gene transcription. Cancer Res; 77(19); 1-12. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Use of KPIs to Regulate Co-operation and to Improve Intercompany Benchmarking in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to investigate whether it can fairly be assumed that the prequalification and selection of co-operators via Key Performance Indicators (KPI) provide increased odds in favour of success, a study on contractors consisting of benchmark results from The Benchmark Centre for the Danish...... Construction Sector and financial statements has been accomplished. Through a comparative analysis based on detected correlations between economy and KPIs, it is explained how these factors are linked. The research showed that the use of KPIs has motivated companies to improve their competitive ability, thus...... their ability to become prequalified. It also showed that the use of KPIs (e.g. quality, timeliness, economy, customer satisfaction and accident rates) for selection and prequalification improves the probability of success in the building process as highly rated KPIs have a positive linear relationship...

  2. dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins and regulates expression at divergently paired genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenjak, Michael; Kwon, Eunjeong; Morris, Robert T; Anderssen, Endre; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-08-01

    dREAM complexes represent the predominant form of E2F/RBF repressor complexes in Drosophila. dREAM associates with thousands of sites in the fly genome but its mechanism of action is unknown. To understand the genomic context in which dREAM acts we examined the distribution and localization of Drosophila E2F and dREAM proteins. Here we report a striking and unexpected overlap between dE2F2/dREAM sites and binding sites for the insulator-binding proteins CP190 and Beaf-32. Genetic assays show that these components functionally co-operate and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on mutant animals demonstrate that dE2F2 is important for association of CP190 with chromatin. dE2F2/dREAM binding sites are enriched at divergently transcribed genes, and the majority of genes upregulated by dE2F2 depletion represent the repressed half of a differentially expressed, divergently transcribed pair of genes. Analysis of mutant animals confirms that dREAM and CP190 are similarly required for transcriptional integrity at these gene pairs and suggest that dREAM functions in concert with CP190 to establish boundaries between repressed/activated genes. Consistent with the idea that dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins, genomic regions bound by dREAM possess enhancer-blocking activity that depends on multiple dREAM components. These findings suggest that dREAM functions in the organization of transcriptional domains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Loss of Dnmt3a and endogenous KrasG12D/+ cooperate to regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell functions in leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-I; You, Xiaona; Kong, Guangyao; Ranheim, Erik A.; Wang, Jinyong; Du, Juan; Liu, Yangang; Zhou, Yun; Ryu, Myung-Jeom; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic NRAS and KRAS mutations are prevalent in human juvenile and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML/CMML). However, additional genetic mutations cooperating with oncogenic RAS in JMML/CMML progression and/or their transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain largely unknown. Here, we tested the potential genetic interaction of DNMT3A mutations and oncogenic RAS mutations in leukemogenesis. We found that Dnmt3a−/− induces multiple hematopoietic phenotypes after a prolonged latency, including T cell expansion in peripheral blood, stress erythropoiesis in spleen, and myeloid malignancies in liver. Dnmt3a−/− significantly promoted JMML/CMML progression and shortened the survival of KrasG12D/+ mice in a cell-autonomous manner. Similarly, downregulating Dnmt3a also promoted myeloid malignancies in NrasG12D/+ mice. Further studies show that Dnmt3a deficiency rescues KrasG12D/+-mediated depletion of hematopoietic stem cells and increases self-renewal of KrasG12D/+ myeloid progenitors. Moreover, ~33% of animals developed an AML-like disease, which is driven by KrasG12D/+; Dnmt3a−/− myeloid progenitors. Consistent with our result, COSMIC database mining demonstrates that the combination of oncogenic RAS and DNMT3A mutations exclusively occurred in patients with JMML, CMML, or AML. Our results suggest that DNMT3A mutations and oncogenic RAS cooperate to regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and promote myeloid malignancies. PMID:25801914

  4. The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yu, Q; Chen, M; Ma, H

    2001-07-01

    The Arabidopsis floral regulatory genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are required for the B function according to the ABC model for floral organ identity. AP3 and PI expression are positively regulated by the LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) genes. UFO encodes an F-box protein, and we have shown previously that UFO genetically interacts with the ASK1 gene encoding a SKP1 homologue; both the F-box containing protein and SKP1 are subunits of ubiquitin ligases. We show here that the ask1-1 mutation can enhance the floral phenotypes of weak lfy and ap3 mutants; therefore, like UFO, ASK1 also interacts with LFY and AP3 genetically. Furthermore, our results from RNA in situ hybridizations indicate that ASK1 regulates early AP3 and PI expression. These results support the idea that UFO and ASK1 together positively regulate AP3 and PI expression. We propose that the UFO and ASK1 proteins are components of a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of a repressor of AP3 and PI expression. Our genetic studies also indicate that ASK1 and UFO play a role in regulating the number of floral organ primordia, and we discuss possible mechanisms for such a regulation.

  5. Nemo-like kinase 1 (Nlk1) and paraxial protocadherin (PAPC) cooperatively control Xenopus gastrulation through regulation of Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Ciprianidis, Anja; Theiß, Susanne; Steinbeißer, Herbert; Kaufmann, Lilian T

    The Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway directs cell migration during vertebrate gastrulation and is essential for proper embryonic development. Paraxial protocadherin (PAPC, Gene Symbol pcdh8.2) is an important activator of Wnt/PCP signaling during Xenopus gastrulation, but how PAPC activity is controlled is incompletely understood. Here we show that Nemo-like kinase 1 (Nlk1), an atypical mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, physically associates with the C-terminus of PAPC. This interaction mutually stabilizes both proteins by inhibiting polyubiquitination. The Nlk1 mediated stabilization of PAPC is essential for Wnt/PCP signaling, tissue separation and gastrulation movements. We identified two conserved putative phosphorylation sites in the PAPC C-terminus that are critical for Nlk1 mediated PAPC stabilization and Wnt/PCP regulation. Intriguingly, the kinase activity of Nlk1 itself was not essential for its cooperation with PAPC, suggesting an indirect regulation for example by impeding a different kinase that promotes protein degradation. Overall these results outline a novel, kinase independent role of Nlk1, wherein Nlk1 regulates PAPC stabilization and thereby controls gastrulation movements and Wnt/PCP signaling during development. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The autoimmunity risk variant LYP-W620 cooperates with CSK in the regulation of TCR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa de la Puerta

    Full Text Available The protein tyrosine phosphatase LYP, a key regulator of TCR signaling, presents a single nucleotide polymorphism, C1858T, associated with several autoimmune diseases such as type I diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus. This polymorphism changes an R by a W in the P1 Pro rich motif of LYP, which binds to CSK SH3 domain, another negative regulator of TCR signaling. Based on the analysis of the mouse homologue, Pep, it was proposed that LYP and CSK bind constitutively to inhibit LCK and subsequently TCR signaling. The detailed study of LYP/CSK interaction, here presented, showed that LYP/CSK interaction was inducible upon TCR stimulation, and involved LYP P1 and P2 motifs, and CSK SH3 and SH2 domains. Abrogating LYP/CSK interaction did not preclude the regulation of TCR signaling by these proteins.

  7. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  8. Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Kotzia, Georgia; Maltezos, Anastasios; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2016-03-01

    A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione. Analysis of the Sh14 structure showed that a W114C point mutation is responsible for the altered kinetic properties. This was confirmed by the kinetic properties of the Sh14 C114W mutant. It is suggested that the replacement of the bulky tryptophan residue by a smaller amino acid (cysteine) results in conformational changes of the active-site cavity, leading to enhanced catalytic activity of Sh14. Moreover, the structural changes allow the strengthening of the two salt bridges between Glu(66) and Lys(104) at the dimer interface that triggers an allosteric effect and the communication between the hydrophobic sites.

  9. CD147, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway cooperate to regulate breast epithelial cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G Daniel; Tolliver, Lauren B; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P

    2013-09-06

    The immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is associated with an invasive phenotype in various types of cancers, including malignant breast cancer. We showed recently that up-regulation of CD147 in non-transformed, non-invasive breast epithelial cells is sufficient to induce an invasive phenotype characterized by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent invadopodia activity (Grass, G. D., Bratoeva, M., and Toole, B. P. (2012) Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147. J. Cell Sci. 125, 777-788). Here we found that CD147 induces breast epithelial cell invasiveness by promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-ERK signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44 interaction. Furthermore, CD147 promotes assembly of signaling complexes containing CD147, CD44, and EGFR in lipid raftlike domains. We also found that oncogenic Ras regulates CD147 expression, hyaluronan synthesis, and formation of CD147-CD44-EGFR complexes, thus forming a positive feedback loop that may amplify invasiveness. Last, we showed that malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia. Future studies should evaluate CD147 as a potential therapeutic target and disease stratification marker in breast cancer.

  10. Loss of the Drosophila cell polarity regulator Scribbled promotes epithelial tissue overgrowth and cooperation with oncogenic Ras-Raf through impaired Hippo pathway signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grusche Felix A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial neoplasias are associated with alterations in cell polarity and excessive cell proliferation, yet how these neoplastic properties are related to one another is still poorly understood. The study of Drosophila genes that function as neoplastic tumor suppressors by regulating both of these properties has significant potential to clarify this relationship. Results Here we show in Drosophila that loss of Scribbled (Scrib, a cell polarity regulator and neoplastic tumor suppressor, results in impaired Hippo pathway signaling in the epithelial tissues of both the eye and wing imaginal disc. scrib mutant tissue overgrowth, but not the loss of cell polarity, is dependent upon defective Hippo signaling and can be rescued by knockdown of either the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped or the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie in the eye disc, or reducing levels of Yorkie in the wing disc. Furthermore, loss of Scrib sensitizes tissue to transformation by oncogenic Ras-Raf signaling, and Yorkie-Scalloped activity is required to promote this cooperative tumor overgrowth. The inhibition of Hippo signaling in scrib mutant eye disc clones is not dependent upon JNK activity, but can be significantly rescued by reducing aPKC kinase activity, and ectopic aPKC activity is sufficient to impair Hippo signaling in the eye disc, even when JNK signaling is blocked. In contrast, warts mutant overgrowth does not require aPKC activity. Moreover, reducing endogenous levels of aPKC or increasing Scrib or Lethal giant larvae levels does not promote increased Hippo signaling, suggesting that aPKC activity is not normally rate limiting for Hippo pathway activity. Epistasis experiments suggest that Hippo pathway inhibition in scrib mutants occurs, at least in part, downstream or in parallel to both the Expanded and Fat arms of Hippo pathway regulation. Conclusions Loss of Scrib promotes Yorkie/Scalloped-dependent epithelial tissue

  11. The TWD40-2 protein and the AP2 complex cooperate in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cellulose synthase to regulate cellulose biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashline, Logan; Li, Shundai; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Gu, Ying

    2015-10-13

    Cellulose biosynthesis is performed exclusively by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthases (CESAs). Therefore, the trafficking of CESAs to and from the plasma membrane is an important mechanism for regulating cellulose biosynthesis. CESAs were recently identified as cargo proteins of the classic adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complex of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway. The AP2 complex of the CME pathway is conserved in yeast, animals, and plants, and has been well-characterized in many systems. In contrast, the recently discovered TPLATE complex (TPC), which is proposed to function as a CME adaptor complex, is only conserved in plants and a few other eukaryotes. In this study, we discovered that the TWD40-2 protein, a putative member of the TPC, is also important for the endocytosis of CESAs. Genetic analysis between TWD40-2 and AP2M of the AP2 complex revealed that the roles of TWD40-2 in CME are both distinct from and cooperative with the AP2 complex. Loss of efficient CME in twd40-2-3 resulted in the unregulated overaccumulation of CESAs at the plasma membrane. In seedlings of twd40-2-3 and other CME-deficient mutants, a direct correlation was revealed between endocytic deficiency and cellulose content deficiency, highlighting the importance of controlled CESA endocytosis in regulating cellulose biosynthesis.

  12. Multi-layered Regulation of SPL15 and Cooperation with SOC1 Integrate Endogenous Flowering Pathways at the Arabidopsis Shoot Meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Youbong; Richter, René; Vincent, Coral; Martinez-Gallegos, Rafael; Porri, Aimone; Coupland, George

    2016-05-09

    Flowering is initiated in response to environmental and internal cues that are integrated at the shoot apical meristem (SAM). We show that SPL15 coordinates the basal floral promotion pathways required for flowering of Arabidopsis in non-inductive environments. SPL15 directly activates transcription of the floral regulators FUL and miR172b in the SAM during floral induction, whereas its paralog SPL9 is expressed later on the flanks of the SAM. The capacity of SPL15 to promote flowering is regulated by age through miR156, which targets SPL15 mRNA, and gibberellin (GA), which releases SPL15 from DELLAs. Furthermore, SPL15 and the MADS-box protein SOC1 cooperate to promote transcription of their target genes. SPL15 recruits RNAPII and MED18, a Mediator complex component, in a GA-dependent manner, while SOC1 facilitates active chromatin formation with the histone demethylase REF6. Thus, we present a molecular basis for assimilation of flowering signals and transcriptional control at the SAM during flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermodynamics-based models of transcriptional regulation by enhancers: the roles of synergistic activation, cooperative binding and short-range repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    Full Text Available Quantitative models of cis-regulatory activity have the potential to improve our mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. However, the few models available today have been based on simplistic assumptions about the sequences being modeled, or heuristic approximations of the underlying regulatory mechanisms. We have developed a thermodynamics-based model to predict gene expression driven by any DNA sequence, as a function of transcription factor concentrations and their DNA-binding specificities. It uses statistical thermodynamics theory to model not only protein-DNA interaction, but also the effect of DNA-bound activators and repressors on gene expression. In addition, the model incorporates mechanistic features such as synergistic effect of multiple activators, short range repression, and cooperativity in transcription factor-DNA binding, allowing us to systematically evaluate the significance of these features in the context of available expression data. Using this model on segmentation-related enhancers in Drosophila, we find that transcriptional synergy due to simultaneous action of multiple activators helps explain the data beyond what can be explained by cooperative DNA-binding alone. We find clear support for the phenomenon of short-range repression, where repressors do not directly interact with the basal transcriptional machinery. We also find that the binding sites contributing to an enhancer's function may not be conserved during evolution, and a noticeable fraction of these undergo lineage-specific changes. Our implementation of the model, called GEMSTAT, is the first publicly available program for simultaneously modeling the regulatory activities of a given set of sequences.

  14. NFAT1 and NFAT3 cooperate with HDAC4 during regulation of alternative splicing of PMCA isoforms in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Kosiorek

    Full Text Available The bulk of human genes undergo alternative splicing (AS upon response to physiological stimuli. AS is a great source of protein diversity and biological processes and is associated with the development of many diseases. Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, characterized by an excessive Ca2+-dependent secretion of catecholamines. This underlines the importance of balanced control of calcium transport via regulation of gene expression pattern, including different calcium transport systems, such as plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs, abundantly expressed in pheochromocytoma chromaffin cells (PC12 cells. PMCAs are encoded by four genes (Atp2b1, Atp2b2, Atp2b3, Atp2b4, whose transcript products undergo alternative splicing giving almost 30 variants.In this scientific report, we propose a novel mechanism of regulation of PMCA alternative splicing in PC12 cells through cooperation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and histone deacetylases (HDACs. Luciferase assays showed increased activity of NFAT in PC12 cells, which was associated with altered expression of PMCA. RT-PCR experiments suggested that inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NFAT might result in the rearrangement of PMCA splicing variants in PC12 cells. NFAT inhibition led to dominant expression of 2x/c, 3x/a and 4x/a PMCA variants, while in untreated cells the 2w,z/b, 3z,x/b,c,e,f, and 4x/b variants were found as well. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that NFAT1-HDAC4 or NFAT3-HDAC4 complexes might be involved in regulation of PMCA2x splicing variant generation.We suggest that the influence of NFAT/HDAC on PMCA isoform composition might be important for altered dopamine secretion by PC12 cells.

  15. Klf5 regulates muscle differentiation by directly targeting muscle-specific genes in cooperation with MyoD in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichiro; Manabe, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yumi; Relaix, Frédéric; Oishi, Yumiko

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells. Klf5 knockdown suppressed induction of muscle differentiation-related genes, including myogenin. Klf5 ChIP-seq revealed that Klf5 binding overlaps that of MyoD and Mef2, and Klf5 physically associates with both MyoD and Mef2. In addition, MyoD recruitment was greatly reduced in the absence of Klf5. These results indicate that Klf5 is an essential regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting in concert with myogenic transcription factors such as MyoD and Mef2. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17462.001 PMID:27743478

  16. Tumor antigen PRAME is up-regulated by MZF1 in cooperation with DNA hypomethylation in melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Kyu; Park, Ui-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Jeong, Ji-Cheon; Um, Soo-Jong

    2017-09-10

    Elevated expression of preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) has been implicated in disease progression in a variety of cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional regulation of PRAME remain largely unexplored. Initially, we observed that PRAME was elevated in proportion to the malignant potential of melanoma cells. From the in silico prediction of PRAME gene structure, we identified the putative myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) binding sites, which overlap with a CpG-rich region located in the first intron. The transcription factor MZF1 increased PRAME expression via its direct binding to the intron DNA. Upon treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine (5-azaC), together with ectopic expression of MZF1, PRAME expression was significantly enhanced at both the protein and mRNA levels. More pronounced MZF1 binding to the PRAME DNA was observed in the presence of 5-azaC. DNA methylation was inversely correlated with PRAME expression in melanoma cells. Finally, we observed that MZF1, like PRAME, promotes the colony-forming ability in melanoma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that MZF1, via stimulation of PRAME expression, may be a potential prognostic and therapeutic target in melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unique and shared signaling pathways cooperate to regulate the differentiation of human CD4+ T cells into distinct effector subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cindy S; Wong, Natalie; Rao, Geetha; Nguyen, Akira; Avery, Danielle T; Payne, Kathryn; Torpy, James; O'Young, Patrick; Deenick, Elissa; Bustamante, Jacinta; Puel, Anne; Okada, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Martinez-Barricarte, Ruben; Elliott, Michael; Sebnem Kilic, Sara; El Baghdadi, Jamila; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Bousfiha, Aziz; Robertson, Nic; Hambleton, Sophie; Arkwright, Peter D; French, Martyn; Blincoe, Annaliesse K; Hsu, Peter; Campbell, Dianne E; Stormon, Michael O; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Fulcher, David A; Cook, Matthew C; Stepensky, Polina; Boztug, Kaan; Beier, Rita; Ikincioğullari, Aydan; Ziegler, John B; Gray, Paul; Picard, Capucine; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Phan, Tri Giang; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus; Holland, Steven M; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Tangye, Stuart G

    2016-07-25

    Naive CD4(+) T cells differentiate into specific effector subsets-Th1, Th2, Th17, and T follicular helper (Tfh)-that provide immunity against pathogen infection. The signaling pathways involved in generating these effector cells are partially known. However, the effects of mutations underlying human primary immunodeficiencies on these processes, and how they compromise specific immune responses, remain unresolved. By studying individuals with mutations in key signaling pathways, we identified nonredundant pathways regulating human CD4(+) T cell differentiation in vitro. IL12Rβ1/TYK2 and IFN-γR/STAT1 function in a feed-forward loop to induce Th1 cells, whereas IL-21/IL-21R/STAT3 signaling is required for Th17, Tfh, and IL-10-secreting cells. IL12Rβ1/TYK2 and NEMO are also required for Th17 induction. Strikingly, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations recapitulated the impact of dominant-negative STAT3 mutations on Tfh and Th17 cells, revealing a putative inhibitory effect of hypermorphic STAT1 over STAT3. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the requirements for human T cell effector function, and explain clinical manifestations of these immunodeficient conditions. Furthermore, they identify molecules that could be targeted to modulate CD4(+) T cell effector function in the settings of infection, vaccination, or immune dysregulation. © 2016 Ma et al.

  18. The Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPase and the Plasma Membrane Sodium Calcium Exchanger Cooperate in the Regulation of Cell Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is an ambivalent signal: it is essential for the correct functioning of cell life, but may also become dangerous to it. The plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA) and the plasma membrane Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) are the two mechanisms responsible for Ca2+ extrusion. The NCX has low Ca2+ affinity but high capacity for Ca2+ transport, whereas the PMCA has a high Ca2+ affinity but low transport capacity for it. Thus, traditionally, the PMCA pump has been attributed a housekeeping role in maintaining cytosolic Ca2+, and the NCX the dynamic role of counteracting large cytosolic Ca2+ variations (especially in excitable cells). This view of the roles of the two Ca2+ extrusion systems has been recently revised, as the specific functional properties of the numerous PMCA isoforms and splicing variants suggests that they may have evolved to cover both the basal Ca2+ regulation (in the 100 nM range) and the Ca2+ transients generated by cell stimulation (in the μM range). PMID:21421919

  19. MAML1 acts cooperatively with EGR1 to activate EGR1-regulated promoters: implications for nephrogenesis and the development of renal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus L Hansson

    Full Text Available Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1 is a transcriptional coregulator of activators in various signaling pathways, such as Notch, p53, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C and beta-catenin. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that MAML1 enhanced p300 acetyltransferase activity, which increased the acetylation of Notch by p300. In this study, we show that MAML1 strongly induced acetylation of the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1 by p300, and increased EGR1 protein expression in embryonic kidney cells. EGR1 mRNA transcripts were also upregulated in the presence of MAML1. We show that MAML1 physically interacted with, and acted cooperatively with EGR1 to increase transcriptional activity of the EGR1 and p300 promoters, which both contain EGR1 binding sites. Bioinformatics assessment revealed a correlation between p300, EGR1 and MAML1 copy number and mRNA alterations in renal clear cell carcinoma and p300, EGR1 and MAML1 gene alterations were associated with increased overall survival. Our findings suggest MAML1 may be a component of the transcriptional networks which regulate EGR1 target genes during nephrogenesis and could also have implications for the development of renal cell carcinoma.

  20. The short coiled-coil domain-containing protein UNC-69 cooperates with UNC-76 to regulate axonal outgrowth and normal presynaptic organization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used extensively to identify the genetic requirements for proper nervous system development and function. Key to this process is the direction of vesicles to the growing axons and dendrites, which is required for growth-cone extension and synapse formation in the developing neurons. The contribution and mechanism of membrane traffic in neuronal development are not fully understood, however. Results We show that the C. elegans gene unc-69 is required for axon outgrowth, guidance, fasciculation and normal presynaptic organization. We identify UNC-69 as an evolutionarily conserved 108-amino-acid protein with a short coiled-coil domain. UNC-69 interacts physically with UNC-76, mutations in which produce similar defects to loss of unc-69 function. In addition, a weak reduction-of-function allele, unc-69(ju69, preferentially causes mislocalization of the synaptic vesicle marker synaptobrevin. UNC-69 and UNC-76 colocalize as puncta in neuronal processes and cooperate to regulate axon extension and synapse formation. The chicken UNC-69 homolog is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system, and its inactivation by RNA interference leads to axon guidance defects. Conclusion We have identified a novel protein complex, composed of UNC-69 and UNC-76, which promotes axonal growth and normal presynaptic organization in C. elegans. As both proteins are conserved through evolution, we suggest that the mammalian homologs of UNC-69 and UNC-76 (SCOCO and FEZ, respectively may function similarly.

  1. Oxygen Tension and Riboflavin Gradients Cooperatively Regulate the Migration of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Revealed by a Hydrogel-Based Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beum Jun; Chu, Injun; Jusuf, Sebastian; Kuo, Tiffany; TerAvest, Michaela A.; Angenent, Largus T.; Wu, Mingming

    2016-01-01

    Shewanella oneidensis is a model bacterial strain for studies of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). It has two extracellular electron transfer pathways: (1) shuttling electrons via an excreted mediator riboflavin; and (2) direct contact between the c-type cytochromes at the cell membrane and the electrode. Despite the extensive use of S. oneidensis in BESs such as microbial fuel cells and biosensors, many basic microbiology questions about S. oneidensis in the context of BES remain unanswered. Here, we present studies of motility and chemotaxis of S. oneidensis under well controlled concentration gradients of two electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized form of riboflavin (flavin+), using a newly developed microfluidic platform. Experimental results demonstrate that either oxygen or flavin+ is a chemoattractant to S. oneidensis. The chemotactic tendency of S. oneidensis in a flavin+ concentration gradient is significantly enhanced in an anaerobic in contrast to an aerobic condition. Furthermore, either a low oxygen tension or a high flavin+ concentration considerably enhances the speed of S. oneidensis. This work presents a robust microfluidic platform for generating oxygen and/or flavin+ gradients in an aqueous environment, and demonstrates that two important electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized riboflavin, cooperatively regulate S. oneidensis migration patterns. The microfluidic tools presented as well as the knowledge gained in this work can be used to guide the future design of BESs for efficient electron production. PMID:27703448

  2. Oxygen tension and riboflavin gradients cooperatively regulate the migration of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 revealed by a hydrogel-based microfluidic device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beum Jun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis (S. oneidensis is a model bacterial strain for studies of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs. It has two extracellular electron transfer pathways: 1 shuttling electrons via an excreted mediator riboflavin; and 2 direct contact between the c-type cytochromes at the cell membrane and the electrode. Despite the extensive use of S. oneidensis in bioelectrochemical systems such as microbial fuel cells and biosensors, many basic microbiology questions about S. oneidensis in the context of BES remain unanswered. Here, we present studies of motility and chemotaxis of S. oneidensis under well controlled concentration gradients of two electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized form of riboflavin (flavin+ using a newly developed microfluidic platform. Experimental results demonstrate that either oxygen or flavin+ is a chemoattractant to S. oneidensis. The chemotactic tendency of S. oneidensis in a flavin+ concentration gradient is significantly enhanced in an anaerobic in contrast to an aerobic condition. Furthermore, either a low oxygen tension or a high flavin+ concentration considerably enhances the speed of S. oneidensis. This work presents a robust microfluidic platform for generating oxygen and/or flavin+ gradients in an aqueous environment, and demonstrates that two important electron acceptors, oxygen and oxidized riboflavin, cooperatively regulate S. oneidensis migration patterns. The microfluidic tools presented as well as the knowledge gained in this work can be used to guide the future design of BESs for efficient electron production.

  3. 7 CFR 981.14 - Cooperative handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.14 Cooperative handler. Cooperative handler means any handler as defined in § 981.13 of this subpart which qualifies for treatment as a nonprofit cooperative association... the approval of the Secretary, may modify this definition, if necessary....

  4. National Report for the Netherlands ‘Study on the implementation of the Regulation 1435/2003 on the Statute for European Cooperative Society (SCE)’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sangen, G.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    This National Report contains an analysis of the implementation of the SCE assessing its attractiveness vis-a-vis the national cooperative business form, based on the legal research and a survey of the cooperative movement in the Netherlands. It will be an integral part of the European Commission's

  5. EphA4 Regulates the Balance between Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Radial Glial Cells and Intermediate Neuronal Precursors in Cooperation with FGF Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Chen

    Full Text Available In mouse cerebral corticogenesis, neurons are generated from radial glial cells (RGCs or from their immediate progeny, intermediate neuronal precursors (INPs. The balance between self-renewal of these neuronal precursors and specification of cell fate is critical for proper cortical development, but the signaling mechanisms that regulate this progression are poorly understood. EphA4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily, is expressed in RGCs during embryogenesis. To illuminate the function of EphA4 in RGC cell fate determination during early corticogenesis, we deleted Epha4 in cortical cells at E11.5 or E13.5. Loss of EphA4 at both stages led to precocious in vivo RGC differentiation toward neurogenesis. Cortical cells isolated at E14.5 and E15.5 from both deletion mutants showed reduced capacity for neurosphere formation with greater differentiation toward neurons. They also exhibited lower phosphorylation of ERK and FRS2α in the presence of FGF. The size of the cerebral cortex at P0 was smaller than that of controls when Epha4 was deleted at E11.5 but not when it was deleted at E13.5, although the cortical layers were formed normally in both mutants. The number of PAX6-positive RGCs decreased at later developmental stages only in the E11.5 Epha4 deletion mutant. These results suggest that EphA4, in cooperation with an FGF signal, contributes to the maintenance of RGC self-renewal and repression of RGC differentiation through the neuronal lineage. This function of EphA4 is especially critical and uncompensated in early stages of corticogenesis, and thus deletion at E11.5 reduces the size of the neonatal cortex.

  6. Cooperative regulation of non-small cell lung carcinoma by nicotinic and beta-adrenergic receptors: a novel target for intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A N Al-Wadei

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death; 80-85% of lung cancer cases are non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Smoking is a documented risk factor for the development of this cancer. Although nicotine does not have the ability to initiate carcinogenic events, recent studies have implicated nicotine in growth stimulation of NSCLC. Using three NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H322, NCI-H441 and NCI-H1299, we identified the cooperation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs as principal regulators of these effects. Proliferation was measured by thymidine incorporation and MTT assays, and Western blots were used to monitor the upregulation of the nAChRs and activation of signaling molecules. Noradrenaline and GABA were measured by immunoassays. Nicotine-treated NSCLC cells showed significant induction of the α7nAChR and α4nAChR, along with significant inductions of p-CREB and p-ERK1/2 accompanied by increases in the stress neurotransmitter noradrenaline, which in turn led to the observed increase in DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. Effects on cell proliferation and signaling proteins were reversed by the α7nAChR antagonist α-BTX or the β-blocker propranolol. Nicotine treatment also down-regulated expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD 65 and the level of endogenous GABA, while treatment of NSCLC cells with GABA inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, GABA acts by reducing β-adrenergic activated cAMP signaling. Our findings suggest that nicotine-induced activation of this autocrine noradrenaline-initiated signaling cascade and concomitant deficiency in inhibitory GABA, similar to modulation of these neurotransmitters in the nicotine-addicted brain, may contribute to the development of NSCLC in smokers. Our data suggest that exposure to nicotine either by tobacco smoke or nicotine supplements facilitates growth and progression of NSCLC and that pharmacological intervention by β blocker may

  7. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  8. The upside of downsizing: asymmetric trifunctional organocatalysts as small enzyme mimics for cooperative enhancement of both rate and enantioselectivity with regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei

    2013-11-01

    Small molecule organic catalysts (organocatalysts) are widely used in asymmetric catalysis and synthesis. Compared to their enzymatic and transition-metal counterparts, organocatalysts have advantages in catalytic scope and efficiency but are more limited in proficiency. Chiral trifunctional organocatalysts, in which multiple catalytic motifs act cooperatively on a chiral scaffold, are an emerging class of organocatalysts with improved proficiency. Cooperativity design that enables both enantioselectivity and rate enhancement is essential to developing future generations of organocatalysts in biomimetic asymmetric catalysis.

  9. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  10. Air quality co-benefits and costs under state, regional, or national cooperation to regulate CO2 from existing power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, R.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the effect of state, regional, and national cooperation on the costs and air quality co-benefits of a policy to limit the carbon intensity of existing electricity generation. Electricity generation is a significant source of both greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions that harm human health. Previous studies have shown that air quality co-benefits can be substantial compared to the costs of limiting carbon emissions in the energy system. The EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan seeks to impose carbon intensity limits for each state, but allows states to cooperate in order to meet combined limits. We explore how such cooperation might produce trade-offs between lower costs, widespread pollution reductions, and local reductions. We employ a new state-level model of the US energy system and economy to examine the costs and emissions as states reduce demand or deploy cleaner generation. We use an advanced air quality impacts modeling system, including SMOKE, CAMx, and BenMAP, to estimate health-related air quality co-benefits and compare these to costs under different levels of cooperation. We draw conclusions about the potential impacts of cooperation on economic welfare at various scales.

  11. Values of the Laws and Regulations Trying to Guide Farmer Cooperatives to Help the Poor%法律与政策对合作社益贫性的引导价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任大鹏; 王敬培

    2015-01-01

    Scholars studying on issues of farmer cooperatives tend to focus on function of the market on farmer coopera-tives,for the vast majority of farmer cooperatives in China today are all trying to maximize interests of the big holders who control the organization.Some of these scholars expressed their dissatisfaction with this trend and argued that the government should supervise farmer cooperatives according to the law;the others devote them-selves to show the reasonable aspect of the trend.Contrary to the market,laws and regulations is playing an u-nique role in the development of farmer cooperatives in China.Big holders in farmer cooperatives may seem to trade on support from government at first,but this aim can be transformed into intrinsic motivation to help the poor if the government implement proper strategies.%由于实践中的合作社日渐表现出明显的趋利性与公司化倾向,学术界关注的焦点也主要集中于市场力量引导下的合作社特征:或则表达对合作社趋利性的不满,呼吁政府加强对合作社监管;或则论证合作社公司化倾向的合理性。然而,与市场力量相对,法律和政策的力量在合作社发展中已经发挥了特殊的引导作用,这种引导作用最初似乎表现为一种政策交易,但最终却可内化为合作社发挥其益贫性或社会功能的动力。

  12. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  13. Cooperative Role of Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Caveolin-1 in Regulating the Vascular Response to Low Nitric Oxide-High Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiovascular Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojoga, Luminita H; Yao, Tham M; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Reslan, Ossama M; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Gordon H; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-10-01

    . Vascular relaxation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside was increased with L-NAME + AngII in WT mice but not in cav-1(-/-) mice. Plasma aldosterone levels increased and cardiac MR expression decreased in L-NAME + AngII treated WT and cav-1(-/-) mice and did not change with EPL. Thus, during L-NAME + AngII induced hypertension, MR blockade increases contraction and alters vascular relaxation via NO-cGMP, and these changes are absent in cav-1 deficiency states. The data suggest a cooperative role of MR and cav-1 in regulating vascular contraction and NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation during low NO-high AngII-dependent cardiovascular injury.

  14. Milkindustry, state regulation and dairy cooperative sector, 1930-1950 Agroindustria láctea, regulación estatal y cooperativismo, 1930-1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ongoing research into the strategies deployed by the dairy cooperative sector and the interference of these in the design of sectoral policies. We believe a diverse portfolio of sources: legislation, diagnoses, edit and unpublished reports produced by the State and by various actors in the dairy cooperative. In the treatment of this subject discussed the issue of corporate logic state actors and cooperative. We consider also the process of aggregation of interests in public space that came from the discussions and experiences of action, organization and partnerships between dairy cooperative entities.En este artículo presentamos los resultados de la investigación en curso sobre las estrategias institucionales desplegadas por el sector lácteo cooperativo y su injerencia en el diseño de las políticas sectoriales. Consideramos una variado repertorio de fuentes: legislación, diagnósticos, informes éditos e inéditos producidos por el Estado y por diversos actores del cooperativismo lácteo. En el tratamiento de esta temática problematizamos la cuestión de la lógica corporativa entre actores estatales y cooperativos. Consideramos además, los proceso de agregación de intereses en el espacio público que se dieron a partir de los debates y las experiencias de acción, organización y alianzas entre las entidades cooperativas lácteas.

  15. 16 CFR 307.10 - Cooperative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative advertising. 307.10 Section 307... REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMPREHENSIVE SMOKELESS TOBACCO HEALTH EDUCATION ACT OF 1986 Advertising Disclosures § 307.10 Cooperative advertising. The Act prohibits any manufacturer, packager, or importer of...

  16. Legal Considerations in Cooperative Education Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Donald C.

    The laws, regulations, and rulings that are common to all cooperative education programs and that frequently present problems to coordinators, faculty, administrators, and employers are briefly explained. The objective is to provide coordinators of cooperative programs in education, business, industry, and government with a discussion of the…

  17. 33 CFR 117.925 - Cooper River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.925 Section 117.925 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.925 Cooper River. The draw of the...

  18. 33 CFR 117.713 - Cooper River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River. 117.713 Section 117.713 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.713 Cooper River. (a) The drawspans for...

  19. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factors and Epidermal Growth Factor Cooperate with Oocyte-Derived Members of the TGFbeta Superfamily to Regulate Spry2 mRNA Levels in Mouse Cumulus Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Koji; Su, You-Qiang; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Mouse oocytes produce members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, including bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), as well as fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). These growth factors cooperate to regulate cumulus cell function. To identify potential mechanisms involved in these interactions, the ability of fully grown oocytes to regulate expression of BMP or FGF antagonists in cumulus cells was examined. Oocytes promoted cumulus cell expression of transcripts encoding antagonists to TGFbeta superfamily members, including Grem2, Htra1, Htra3, and Nog mRNAs. In contrast, oocytes suppressed cumulus cell expression of Spry2 mRNA, which encodes a regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signals, such as FGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signals. The regulation of Spry2 mRNA levels in cumulus cells was studied further as a model for analysis of potential mechanisms for cooperativity of FGF/EGF signaling with oocyte-derived members of the TGFbeta superfamily. Oocytes suppressed basal and FGF-stimulated Spry2 mRNA levels in cumulus cells but promoted EGF-stimulated levels. Furthermore, recombinant TGFbeta superfamily proteins, including BMP15 and GDF9, mimicked these effects of oocytes. Elevated expression of Spry2 mRNA in cumulus and mural granulosa cells correlated with human chorionic gonadotropin-induced expression of mRNAs encoding EGF-like peptides. Therefore, oocyte-derived members of the TGFbeta superfamily suppress FGF-stimulated Spry2 mRNA levels before the luteinizing hormone surge but promote Spry2 mRNA levels stimulated by EGF receptor-mediated signals after the surge. PMID:19553596

  1. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  2. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization to the American Soybean Association, which conducts foreign market development activities on behalf... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  3. FUNCIÓN DE LAS COOPERATIVAS EN LA NORMATIVA DE FOMENTO DEL DESARROLLO RURAL/FUNCTION OF THE CO-OPERATIVES IN THE REGULATION OF THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis GALLEGO SEVILLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades cooperativas son agentes económicos con gran implantación en el ámbito agrario y constituyen uno de los instrumentos más eficaces para ejecutar los objetivos de la política comunitaria de desarrollo rural. El marco jurídico del desarrollo rural se halla fundamentalmente en la legislación de la Unión Europea, que establece un complejo sistema de medidas y que actualmente gira entorno al Reglamento (CE nº 1698/2005, relativo a la ayuda al desarrollo rural a través del Fondo Europeo Agrícola de Desarrollo Rural (FEADER. El Derecho interno de los Estados miembros aplica e implementa la normativa comunitaria, pero además contiene una regulación propia sobre cooperativas y desarrollo rural. En el caso español, hay que tener en cuenta las normas estatales y autonómicas tanto en materia de cooperativas como de desarrollo rural. El presente trabajo, partiendo de la legislación sustantiva española, analiza el papel que desempeñan las cooperativas agrarias en el actual marco jurídico comunitario, estatal y autonómico en materia de desarrollo rural. Las cooperativas agrarias pueden ser agentes promotores del desarrollo local cuando actúan como interlocutores de la administración pública y como miembros de los “grupos de acción local” constituidos mediante la metodología LEADER. Igualmente, las cooperativas agrarias pueden ser beneficiarias de las ayudas suplementarias que algunas Comunidades Autónomas establecen para llevar a cabo acciones de fomento del desarrollo local./Cooperatives are economic agents widely established in the agrarian sector and constitute one of the most effective tools to attain the objectives of the European Union policies for rural development. The legal framework for rural development is mainly found in the European Union’s legislation which implements a complex system of measures and that nowadays revolves around the (CE Regulation no. 1698/2005, on support for rural development by

  4. Apoptotic Efficacy of Etomoxir in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Cooperation with Arsenic Trioxide and Glycolytic Inhibitors, and Regulation by Oxidative Stress and Protein Kinase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estañ, María Cristina; Calviño, Eva; Calvo, Susana; Guillén-Guío, Beatriz; Boyano-Adánez, María del Carmen; de Blas, Elena; Rial, Eduardo; Aller, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis and oxidation are frequently exacerbated in leukemia cells, and may therefore represent a target for therapeutic intervention. In this work we analyzed the apoptotic and chemo-sensitizing action of the fatty acid oxidation inhibitor etomoxir in human acute myeloid leukemia cells. Etomoxir caused negligible lethality at concentrations up to 100 µM, but efficaciously cooperated to cause apoptosis with the anti-leukemic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO, Trisenox), and with lower efficacy with other anti-tumour drugs (etoposide, cisplatin), in HL60 cells. Etomoxir-ATO cooperation was also observed in NB4 human acute promyelocytic cells, but not in normal (non-tumour) mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Biochemical determinations in HL60 cells indicated that etomoxir (25–200 µM) dose-dependently inhibited mitochondrial respiration while slightly stimulating glycolysis, and only caused marginal alterations in total ATP content and adenine nucleotide pool distribution. In addition, etomoxir caused oxidative stress (increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, decrease in reduced glutathione content), as well as pro-apoptotic LKB-1/AMPK pathway activation, all of which may in part explain the chemo-sensitizing capacity of the drug. Etomoxir also cooperated with glycolytic inhibitors (2-deoxy-D-glucose, lonidamine) to induce apoptosis in HL60 cells, but not in NB4 cells. The combined etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment did not increase oxidative stress, caused moderate decrease in net ATP content, increased the AMP/ATP ratio with concomitant drop in energy charge, and caused defensive Akt and ERK kinase activation. Apoptosis generation by etomoxir plus 2-deoxy-D-glucose was further increased by co-incubation with ATO, which is apparently explained by the capacity of ATO to attenuate Akt and ERK activation. In summary, co-treatment with etomoxir may represent an interesting strategy to increase the apoptotic

  5. Treatment of social capital in the transformation of cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Nagore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Provided for in Article 69.2 of the Spanish Law on Cooperatives, to regulate the transformation of the cooperative society in civil or commercial society of any kind, that the participation of cooperative members in the capital of the new entity will be proportional to they had in that.

  6. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  7. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  8. The Bicoid class homeodomain factors ceh-36/OTX and unc-30/PITX cooperate in C. elegans embryonic progenitor cells to regulate robust development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Walton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While many transcriptional regulators of pluripotent and terminally differentiated states have been identified, regulation of intermediate progenitor states is less well understood. Previous high throughput cellular resolution expression studies identified dozens of transcription factors with lineage-specific expression patterns in C. elegans embryos that could regulate progenitor identity. In this study we identified a broad embryonic role for the C. elegans OTX transcription factor ceh-36, which was previously shown to be required for the terminal specification of four neurons. ceh-36 is expressed in progenitors of over 30% of embryonic cells, yet is not required for embryonic viability. Quantitative phenotyping by computational analysis of time-lapse movies of ceh-36 mutant embryos identified cell cycle or cell migration defects in over 100 of these cells, but most defects were low-penetrance, suggesting redundancy. Expression of ceh-36 partially overlaps with that of the PITX transcription factor unc-30. unc-30 single mutants are viable but loss of both ceh-36 and unc-30 causes 100% lethality, and double mutants have significantly higher frequencies of cellular developmental defects in the cells where their expression normally overlaps. These factors are also required for robust expression of the downstream developmental regulator mls-2/HMX. This work provides the first example of genetic redundancy between the related yet evolutionarily distant OTX and PITX families of bicoid class homeodomain factors and demonstrates the power of quantitative developmental phenotyping in C. elegans to identify developmental regulators acting in progenitor cells.

  9. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  10. Normalizing medical waste regulation by multi-department cooperation%多科室合作规范医疗废物管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪学勇; 袁晓宁

    2011-01-01

    Medical waste management is a systematic management process which involves hospital logistic department, hospital infection management department, medical affair department, nursing department, clinical departments and medical technology departments. Based on the situations of Peking University Third Hospital, medical waste management committee was founded. By establishing organization, designing management mechanism and increasing facility, functions for medical waste management in corrective department was cleared. Coordination and cooperation in corrective departments were strengthened and PDCA management mode was used to assure medical waste total management.%医疗废物管理是一个系统的管理工程,涉及到医院后勤、医院感染管理科、医务处、护理部和临床、医技科室等众多部门.北京大学第三医院结合医院实际,成立了医疗废物管理委员会,通过建立健全组织机构、完善管理机制及设施建设,明确各部门职责,加强协调与合作,运用PDCA循环管理模式,实现医疗废物的全程管理.

  11. The long non-coding RNA GAS5 cooperates with the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E to regulate c-Myc translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Hu

    Full Text Available Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs are important regulators of transcription; however, their involvement in protein translation is not well known. Here we explored whether the lncRNA GAS5 is associated with translation initiation machinery and regulates translation. GAS5 was enriched with eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E (eIF4E in an RNA-immunoprecipitation assay using lymphoma cell lines. We identified two RNA binding motifs within eIF4E protein and the deletion of each motif inhibited the binding of GAS5 with eIF4E. To confirm the role of GAS5 in translation regulation, GAS5 siRNA and in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA were used to knock down or overexpress GAS5, respectively. GAS5 siRNA had no effect on global protein translation but did specifically increase c-Myc protein level without an effect on c-Myc mRNA. The mechanism of this increase in c-Myc protein was enhanced association of c-Myc mRNA with the polysome without any effect on protein stability. In contrast, overexpression of in vitro transcribed GAS5 RNA suppressed c-Myc protein without affecting c-Myc mRNA. Interestingly, GAS5 was found to be bound with c-Myc mRNA, suggesting that GAS5 regulates c-Myc translation through lncRNA-mRNA interaction. Our findings have uncovered a role of GAS5 lncRNA in translation regulation through its interactions with eIF4E and c-Myc mRNA.

  12. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  13. The TCF4/β-catenin pathway and chromatin structure cooperate to regulate D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovich, Luydmila A; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Kondratov, Aleksandr G; Gubanova, Natalya V; Kharchenko, Olga A; Kutsenko, Olesya S; Vavilov, Pavel V; Haraldson, Klas; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Ernberg, Ingemar; Zabarovsky, Eugene R; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2012-08-01

    D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is a potential tumor-suppressor gene involved in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. GLCE expression is significantly decreased in breast tumors; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. This study examined the possible epigenetic mechanisms for GLCE inactivation in breast cancer. Very little methylation of the GLCE promoter region was detected in breast tumors in vivo and in breast cancer cells (MCF7 and T47D) in vitro and GLCE expression in breast cancer cells was not altered by 5-deoxyazacytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment, suggesting that promoter methylation is not involved in regulating GLCE expression. Chromatin activation by Trichostatin A (TSA) or 5-aza-dC/TSA treatment increased GLCE expression by two to 3-fold due to an increased interaction between the GLCE promoter and the TCF4/β-catenin transactivation complex, or H3K9ac and H3K4Me3 histone modifications. However, ectopic expression of TCF4/β-catenin was not sufficient to activate GLCE expression in MCF7 cells, suggesting that chromatin structure plays a key role in GLCE regulation. Although TSA treatment significantly repressed canonical WNT signaling in MCF7 cells, it did not influence endogenous TCF4/β-catenin mRNA levels and activated TCF4/β-catenin-driven transcription from the GLCE promoter, indicating GLCE as a novel target for TCF4/β-catenin complex in breast cancer cells. A correlation was observed between GLCE, TCF4 and β-catenin expression in breast cancer cells and primary tumors, suggesting an important role for TCF4/β-catenin in regulating GLCE expression both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, the results indicate that GLCE expression in breast cancer is regulated by a combination of chromatin structure and TCF4/β-catenin complex activity.

  14. The cooperative roles of the dopamine receptors, D1R and D5R, on the regulation of renal sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Shah, Ishan T; Van Sciver, Robert E; Israel, Jonathan A; Enzensperger, Christoph; McGrath, Helen E; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2014-07-01

    Determining the individual roles of the two dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R and D5R) on sodium transport in the human renal proximal tubule has been complicated by their structural and functional similarity. Here we used a novel D5R-selective antagonist (LE-PM436) and D1R- or D5R-specific gene silencing to determine second messenger coupling pathways and heterologous receptor interaction between the two receptors. D1R and D5R colocalize in renal proximal tubule cells and physically interact, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescent resonance energy transfer microscopy. Stimulation of renal proximal tubule cells with fenoldopam (D1R/D5R agonist) led to both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C (PLC) activation using real-time fluorescent resonance energy transfer biosensors ICUE3 and CYPHR, respectively. Fenoldopam increased cAMP accumulation and PLC activity and inhibited both NHE3 and NaKATPase activities. LE-PM436 and D5R siRNA blocked the fenoldopam-stimulated PLC pathway but not cAMP accumulation, whereas D1R siRNA blocked both fenoldopam-stimulated cAMP accumulation and PLC signaling. Either D1R or D5R siRNA, or LE-PM436 blocked the fenoldopam-dependent inhibition of sodium transport. Further studies using the cAMP-selective D1R/D5R agonist SKF83822 and PLC-selective D1R/D5R agonist SKF83959 confirmed the cooperative influence of the two pathways on sodium transport. Thus, D1R and D5R interact in the inhibition of NHE3 and NaKATPase activity, the D1R primarily by cAMP, whereas the D1R/D5R heteromer modulates the D1R effect through a PLC pathway.

  15. IGF-IR cooperates with ERα to inhibit breast cancer cell aggressiveness by regulating the expression and localisation of ECM molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afratis, Nikolaos A.; Bouris, Panagiotis; Skandalis, Spyros S.; Multhaupt, Hinke A.; Couchman, John R.; Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Karamanos, Nikos K.

    2017-01-01

    IGF-IR is highly associated with the behaviour of breast cancer cells. In ERα-positive breast cancer, IGF-IR is present at high levels. In clinical practice, prolonged treatment with anti-estrogen agents results in resistance to the therapy with activation of alternative signaling pathways. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, and especially IGF-IR, have crucial roles in these processes. Here, we report a nodal role of IGF-IR in the regulation of ERα-positive breast cancer cell aggressiveness and the regulation of expression levels of several extracellular matrix molecules. In particular, activation of IGF-IR, but not EGFR, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells results in the reduction of specific matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. In contrast, IGF-IR inhibition leads to the depletion by endocytosis of syndecan-4. Global important changes in cell adhesion receptors, which include integrins and syndecan-4 triggered by IGF-IR inhibition, regulate adhesion and invasion. Cell function assays that were performed in MCF-7 cells as well as their ERα-suppressed counterparts indicate that ER status is a major determinant of IGF-IR regulatory role on cell adhesion and invasion. The strong inhibitory role of IGF-IR on breast cancer cells aggressiveness for which E2-ERα signaling pathway seems to be essential, highlights IGF-IR as a major molecular target for novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:28079144

  16. China Revises Its Oil Resources Rules for Foreign Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiujuan

    2001-01-01

    @@ The State Council has recently revised two regulations concerning recovery of oil and gas resources to relax the restrictions on foreign companies.The revised regulations are "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Onshore Petroleum Resources" and "The Rules of the People's Republic of China for Cooperative Recovery of Offshore Petroleum Resources".

  17. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  18. A Novel Splicing Variant of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (Pparγ1sv) Cooperatively Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation with Pparγ2

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiro Takenaka; Ikuo Inoue; Takanari Nakano; Yuichi Shinoda; Masaaki Ikeda; Takuya Awata; Shigehiro Katayama

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that regulate expression of a number of genes associated with the cellular differentiation and development. Here, we show the abundant and ubiquitous expression of a newly identified splicing variant of mouse Pparγ (Pparγ1sv) that encodes PPARγ1 protein, and its importance in adipogenesis. The novel splicing variant has a unique 5'-UTR sequence, relative to those of Pparγ1 and Pparγ2 mRNAs, indicating the presence of a ...

  19. Interplay of Electronic Cooperativity and Exchange Coupling in Regulating the Reactivity of Diiron(IV)-oxo Complexes towards C-H and O-H Bond Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azaj; Ansari, Mursaleem; Singha, Asmita; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2017-07-26

    Activation of inert C-H bonds such as those of methane are extremely challenging for chemists but in nature, the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) enzyme readily oxidizes methane to methanol by using a diiron(IV) species. This has prompted chemists to look for similar model systems. Recently, a (μ-oxo)bis(μ-carboxamido)diiron(IV) ([Fe(IV)2 O(L)2 ](2+) L=N,N-bis-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-methoxypyridyl-2'-methyl)-N'-acetyl-1,2-diaminoethane) complex has been generated by bulk electrolysis and this species activates inert C-H bonds almost 1000 times faster than mononuclear Fe(IV) =O species and at the same time selectively activates O-H bonds of alcohols. The very high reactivity and selectivity of this species is puzzling and herein we use extensive DFT calculations to shed light on this aspect. We have studied the electronic and spectral features of diiron {Fe(III) -μ(O)-Fe(III) }(+2) (complex I), {Fe(III) -μ(O)-Fe(IV) }(+3) (II), and {Fe(IV) -μ(O)-Fe(IV) }(+4) (III) complexes. Strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the Fe centers leads to spin-coupled S=0, S=3/2, and S=0 ground state for species I-III respectively. The mechanistic study of the C-H and O-H bond activation reveals a multistate reactivity scenario where C-H bond activation is found to occur through the S=4 spin-coupled state corresponding to the high-spin state of individual Fe(IV) centers. The O-H bond activation on the other hand, occurs through the S=2 spin-coupled state corresponding to an intermediate state of individual Fe(IV) centers. Molecular orbital analysis reveals σ-π/π-π channels for the reactivity. The nature of the magnetic exchange interaction is found to be switched during the course of the reaction and this offers lower energy pathways. Significant electronic cooperativity between two metal centers during the course of the reaction has been witnessed and this uncovers the reason behind the efficiency and selectivity observed. The catalyst is found to prudently choose the

  20. Apoptotic DNA Fragmentation May Be a Cooperative Activity between Caspase-activated Deoxyribonuclease and the Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-regulated DNAS1L3, an Endoplasmic Reticulum-localized Endonuclease That Translocates to the Nucleus during Apoptosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Youssef; Naura, Amarjit S.; Kim, Hogyoung; Ju, Jihang; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; El-Bahrawy, Ali H.; Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Hemeida, Ramadan A.; Mansy, Moselhy S.; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Ming; Smulson, Mark E.; Brim, Hassan; Boulares, A. Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-activated DNase (CAD) is the most favorable candidate for chromatin degradation during apoptosis. Ca2+-dependent endonucleases are equally important in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (INDF), including the PARP-1-regulated DNAS1L3. Despite the elaborate work on these endonucleases, the question of whether these enzymes cooperate during INDF was not addressed. Here, we show a lack of correlation between INDF and CAD expression levels and inactivation by cleavage of its inhibitor (ICAD) during apoptosis. The cells that failed to induce INDF accumulated large amounts of 50-kb breaks, which is suggestive of incomplete chromatin processing. Similarly, INDF was blocked by Ca2+ chelation without a block in ICAD cleavage or caspase-3 activation, which is consistent with the involvement of CAD in 50-kb DNA fragmentation and its Ca2+ independence. However, DNAS1L3 expression in INDF-deficient cells promoted INDF during apoptosis and was blocked by Ca2+ chelation. Interestingly, expression of DNAS1L3 in ICAD-deficient cells failed to promote tumor necrosis factor α-induced INDF but required the coexpression of ICAD. These results suggest a cooperative activity between CAD and DNAS1L3 to accomplish INDF. In HT-29 cells, endogenous DNAS1L3 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and translocated to the nucleus upon apoptosis induction but prior to INDF manifestation, making it the first reported Ca2+-dependent endonuclease to migrate from the ER to the nucleus. The nuclear accumulation of DNAS1L3, but not its exit out of the ER, required the activity of cysteine and serine proteases. Interestingly, the endonuclease accumulated in the cytosol upon inhibition of serine, but not cysteine, proteases. These results exemplify the complexity of chromatin degradation during apoptosis. PMID:23229555

  1. The transmembrane protein Sho1 cooperates with the mucin Msb2 to regulate invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    In the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1 is essential for plant infection. The mucin-like membrane protein Msb2 regulates a subset of Fmk1-dependent functions. Here, we examined the role of the tetraspan transmembrane protein Sho1 as an additional regulator of the Fmk1 pathway and determined its genetic interaction with Msb2. Targeted Δsho1 mutants were generated in wild-type and Δmsb2 backgrounds to test possible interactions between the two genes. The mutants were examined for hyphal growth under different stress conditions, phosphorylation of the MAPK Fmk1 and an array of Fmk1-dependent virulence functions. Similar to Msb2, Sho1 was required for the activation of Fmk1 phosphorylation, as well as Fmk1-dependent gene expression and invasive growth functions, including extracellular pectinolytic activity, cellophane penetration, plant tissue colonization and virulence on tomato plants. Δsho1 mutants were hypersensitive to the cell wall-perturbing compound Calcofluor White, and this phenotype was exacerbated in the Δmsb2 Δsho1 double mutant. These results highlight that Sho1 and Msb2 have partially overlapping functions upstream of the Fmk1 MAPK cascade, to promote invasive growth and plant infection, as well as cell wall integrity, in F. oxysporum. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. FGF and canonical Wnt signaling cooperate to induce paraxial mesoderm from tailbud neuromesodermal progenitors through regulation of a two-step EMT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hana; Kimmey, Samuel C; Row, Richard H; Matus, David Q; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-02-27

    Mesoderm induction begins during gastrulation. Recent evidence from several vertebrate species indicates mesoderm induction continues after gastrulation in neuromesodermal progenitor cells (NMPs) within the posterior-most embryonic structure called the tailbud. It is unclear to what extent the molecular mechanisms of mesoderm induction are conserved between gastrula and post-gastrula stages of development. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for mesoderm induction during gastrulation through positive transcriptional regulation of the t-box transcription factor brachyury (ntla in zebrafish). We find that FGF is continuously required for paraxial mesoderm (PM) induction in post-gastrula NMPs, but has the opposite effect on brachyury expression. FGF signaling represses brachyury and the NMP marker sox2 through regulation of tbx16 and msgn1, thereby committing cells to a PM fate. FGF mediated PM induction in NMPs functions in tight coordination with canonical Wnt signaling during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition from NMP to mesodermal progenitor. Wnt signaling initiates the EMT, while FGF signaling terminates this event. Our results indicate that germ layer induction in the tailbud is not a simple continuation of gastrulation events.

  3. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  4. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  5. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  6. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  7. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  8. 48 CFR 245.603-71 - Disposal of contractor inventory for NATO cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of contractor inventory for NATO cooperative projects. 245.603-71 Section 245.603-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations... inventory for NATO cooperative projects. (a) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative...

  9. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  10. Cooperative regulation of anxiety and panic-related defensive behaviors in the rat periaqueductal grey matter by 5-HT1A and μ-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncon, Camila M; Biesdorf, Carla; Coimbra, Norberto C; Audi, Elisabeth A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2013-12-01

    Previous results with the elevated T-maze (ETM) test indicate that the antipanic action of serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal periaqueductal grey (dPAG) depends on the activation endogenous opioid peptides. The aim of the present work was to investigate the interaction between opioid- and serotonin-mediated neurotransmission in the modulation of defensive responses in rats submitted to the ETM. The obtained results showed that intra-dPAG administration of morphine significantly increased escape latency, a panicolytic-like effect that was blocked by pre-treatment with intra-dPAG injection of either naloxone or the 5-HT1A antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1 piperazinyl] ethyl] -N- 2- pyridinyl-ciclohexanecarboxamide maleate (WAY-100635). In addition, previous administration of naloxone antagonized both the anti-escape and the anti-avoidance (anxiolytic-like) effect of the 5-HT1A agonist (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), but did not affect the anti-escape effect of the 5-HT2A agonist (±)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI). Moreover, the combination of sub-effective doses of locally administered 5-HT and morphine significantly impaired ETM escape performance. Finally, the µ-antagonist D-PHE-CYS-TYR-D-TRP-ORN-THR-PEN (CTOP) blocked the anti-avoidance as well as the anti-escape effect of 8-OHDPAT, and the association of sub-effective doses of the µ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin acetate salt (DAMGO) and of 8-OHDPAT had anti-escape and anti-avoidance effects in the ETM. These results suggest a synergic interaction between the 5-HT1A and the µ-opioid receptor at post-synaptic level on neurons of the dPAG that regulate proximal defense, theoretically related to panic attacks.

  11. Functional cooperativity by direct interaction between PAK4 and MMP-2 in the regulation of anoikis resistance, migration and invasion in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesanakurti, D; Chetty, C; Rajasekhar Maddirela, D; Gujrati, M; Rao, J S

    2012-12-20

    Gliomas display anoikis resistance, enhanced invasion in to the adjacent brain parenchyma and eventually recur despite using the standard therapies. Our studies on increased anoikis sensitization in matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-knockdown 4910 and 5310 human glioma xenograft cells were interestingly correlated with p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) inhibition, prompting us to further investigate the role of PAK4 in glioma. Here, we report the PAK4 upregulation in positive correlation with increasing glioma pathological grades. The siRNA-mediated PAK4 knockdown elevated anoikis, and inhibited invasion and migration by downregulating MMP-2, αvβ3-integrin and phospho-epidermal growth factor receptor (phospho-EGFR). The cDNA-PCR arrays revealed a transcriptional suppression of essential proteins involved in cell proliferation and adhesion in PAK4-knockdown cells. Most importantly, glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays demonstrated the MMP-2 as a new PAK4-interacting protein which binds to PAK4 kinase domain. Individual EGFR/ErbB2 inhibitor and αvβ3 antibody treatments in PAK4si-treated cells indicated the regulation of αvβ3/EGFR survival signaling by PAK4. Overexpression of PAK4 significantly reversed the MMP2si-induced cell death in both cell lines. Codepletion of PAK4 and MMP-2 resulted in robust anoikis-mediated cell death, and severely inhibited invasive and migratory properties in these cells. PAK4si inhibited in vivo tumor growth in nude mice by inhibiting MMP-2, β3-integrin and phospho-EGFR levels in tumors. Our findings indicate a physical association between PAK4 and MMP-2, and suggest the future therapeutic potential of PAK4/MMP-2 dual targeting in glioma treatment.

  12. Genetic Enhancer Analysis Reveals that FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 and OsMADS3 Co-operatively Regulate Maintenance and Determinacy of the Flower Meristem in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yukiko; Tanaka, Wakana; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki

    2017-05-01

    Meristems such as the shoot apical meristem and flower meristem (FM) act as a reservoir of stem cells, which reproduce themselves and supply daughter cells for the differentiation of lateral organs. In Oryza sativa (rice), the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 (FON2) gene, which is similar to Arabidopsis CLAVATA3, is involved in meristem maintenance. In fon2 mutants, the numbers of floral organs are increased due to an enlargement of the FM. To identify new factors regulating meristem maintenance in rice, we performed a genetic screening of mutants that enhanced the fon2 mutation, and found a mutant line (2B-424) in which pistil number was dramatically increased. By using a map-based approach and next-generation sequencing, we found that the line 2B-424 had a complete loss-of-function mutation (a large deletion) in OsMADS3, a class C MADS-box gene that is known to be involved in stamen specification. Disruption of OsMADS3 in the fon2 mutant by CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology caused a flower phenotype similar to that of 2B-424, confirming that the gene responsible for enhancement of fon2 was OsMADS3. Morphological analysis showed that the fon2 and osmads3 mutations synergistically affected pistil development and FM determinacy. We also found that whorl 3 was duplicated in mature flowers and the FM was enlarged at an early developmental stage in severe osmads3 single mutants. These findings suggest that OsMADS3 is involved not only in FM determinacy in late flower development but also in FM activity in early flower development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Roles of PU.1 in monocyte- and mast cell-specific gene regulation: PU.1 transactivates CIITA pIV in cooperation with IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomonobu; Nishiyama, Chiharu; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Nishiyama, Makoto; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kanada, Shunsuke; Fukuyama, Kanako; Akiba, Hisaya; Tokura, Tomoko; Hara, Mutsuko; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Okumura, Ko

    2009-07-01

    Over-expression of PU.1, a myeloid- and lymphoid-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets family, induces monocyte-specific gene expression in mast cells. However, the effects of PU.1 on each target gene and the involvement of cytokine signaling in PU.1-mediated gene expression are largely unknown. In the present study, PU.1 was over-expressed in two different types of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMMCs): BMMCs cultured with IL-3 plus stem cell factor (SCF) and BMMCs cultured with pokeweed mitogen-stimulated spleen-conditioned medium (PWM-SCM). PU.1 over-expression induced expression of MHC class II, CD11b, CD11c and F4/80 on PWM-SCM-cultured BMMCs, whereas IL-3/SCF-cultured BMMCs expressed CD11b and F4/80, but not MHC class II or CD11c. When IFN-gamma was added to the IL-3/SCF-based medium, PU.1 transfectant acquired MHC class II expression, which was abolished by antibody neutralization or in Ifngr(-/-) BMMCs, through the induction of expression of the MHC class II transactivator, CIITA. Real-time PCR detected CIITA mRNA driven by the fourth promoter, pIV, and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated direct binding of PU.1 to pIV in PU.1-over-expressing BMMCs. PU.1-over-expressing cells showed a marked increase in IL-6 production in response to LPS stimulation in both IL-3/SCF and PWM-SCM cultures. These results suggest that PU.1 overproduction alone is sufficient for both expression of CD11b and F4/80 and for amplification of LPS-induced IL-6 production. However, IFN-gamma stimulation is essential for PU.1-mediated transactivation of CIITA pIV. Reduced expression of mast cell-related molecules and transcription factors GATA-1/2 and up-regulation of C/EBPalpha in PU.1 transfectants indicate that enforced PU.1 suppresses mast cell-specific gene expression through these transcription factors.

  14. 78 FR 29331 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC689 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  15. 77 FR 55457 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC220 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  16. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  17. Cooperative credit systems: defence of the model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sánchez Boza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role carried out by saving and credit cooperatives in Central America where they have gained momentum, mainly in the past ten years. Cooperatives of this type are called financial intermediation cooperatives due to the influence of various legislative regulations that have placed them in the context of international control, the type of economic activity they perform and the fact that they make profits from both public and private international entities which enable their growth.Many of these organisations can be commended. They are highly competitive on financial markets and strive to extend their profits to increasingly larger parts of the population while also searching for new products to benefit the sector of the population that has chosen the cooperative model as a means to progress in a sphere of equity and respect for the rights of their fellow men.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015

  18. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INTER-FIRM COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Busygin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of presence in the Russian economy, various forms of co-operation and collaboration. The author summarizes and complemented the fundamental principles of functioning of the economic system, conducted in-depth analysis of interfi rm cooperation. The article explains the importance of inter-fi rm cooperation in achieving sustainable development of innovative enterprises. Emphasizes the role of the cluster approach to create new forms of knowledge, the formation of new scientifi c and technical fi elds, to support education, commercialization of innovations. Analyzes the problems of implementation of cluster initiatives inRussia. Provides guidelines for coordination, state regulation of inter-fi rm cooperation

  19. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  20. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  1. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  2. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  3. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  4. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  5. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  6. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  7. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  8. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  9. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  10. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  11. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  12. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  13. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  14. 论体育行业自治与法治的反思性合作--以中国足球协会为中心%On Reflective Cooperation between Professional Self-regulation and Rule of Law in the Sport Industry-Taking Chinese Football Association as Key Target of Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦志明

    2016-01-01

    在法治与体育行业自治关系的研究上,“介入说”和“自治说”以及积极性合作式路径都缺少反思性思维,忽视了这些路径可能产生的负效应影响。反思性合作受启于反思法理论和“合作治理”理论,是对二者的吸收与超越。在中国语境下,法治与体育行业自治应该建立在一种反思性合作关系之上。据此,反思性思维将主导合作关系,间接性合作将成为主导的合作路向,在此基础上构建具体的反思性合作制度。既可通过自治来实现合作,还可以通过设定用尽内部救济原则、法院的有限度介入和内部救济司法化等方面的间接规制来实现合作。中国足球协会在机构建制和制度建制方面的努力在某种程度上实现了内部的分工自治,但存在与政府的依赖性合作、行业自治被压缩与变形、绝对拒斥与司法权的合作、内部救济司法化建制不力等问题。对此,问题的具体解决思路应以反思性合作思维来设计。%of the study on the relationship between professional self‐regulation and rule of law in the sport industry ,“Doctrine of Intervention” ,“Doctrine of Self‐regulation” and enthusiastic cooperative approaches all lack missing reflective thinking and ignore the negative effects which such approaches may bring about .Edified by reflection law theory and “cooperative govern‐ance” theory ,reflective cooperation absorbs and goes beyond the two .In the Chinese context , the rule of law and the professional self‐regulation in the sports industry should be established on the basis of reflective cooperation .Accordingly ,the reflective thinking will dominate the co‐operative relationship ,and the indirect cooperation will become the dominant route to coopera‐tion ;then the system of reflective cooperation will be built thereon .Thus cooperation can be realized both through professional self‐regulation and

  15. Computational implications of cooperative plasticity induction at nearby dendritic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kenji

    2009-01-06

    Recent studies have revealed that plasticity is not regulated independently at individual synapses but rather that there is cooperativity or associativity between nearby synapses in the dendritic tree of individual cortical pyramidal cells. Here, I summarize experimental results regarding such cooperative plasticity and its underlying mechanisms and consider their computational implications.

  16. Vocal Emotion Expressions Effects on Cooperation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Meneses, Jonathan Azael; Menez Díaz, Judith Marina

    2017-01-01

    Emotional expressions have been proposed to be important for regulating social interaction as they can serve as cues for behavioral intentions. The issue has been mainly addressed analyzing the effects of facial emotional expressions in cooperation behavior, but there are contradictory results regarding the impact of emotional expressions on that…

  17. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  18. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates.

  19. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  20. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  1. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....... of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  2. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  3. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  4. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  5. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  6. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  7. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  8. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  9. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  10. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  11. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  12. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  13. Cooperative Fire Protection Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Agreement is to provide for cooperation in the prevention, detection and suppression of wildland fires within the protection areas designated in...

  14. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  15. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  16. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  17. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  18. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  19. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  20. Cooperation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendan Clark, C; Thorne, Christopher B; Hardy, Sonya; Cropsey, Karen L

    2013-09-25

    Deficits in pro-social cooperation are common in many individuals with mental illnesses such as depression. For decades, researchers have used economic game paradigms to compare cross-cultural cooperative behavior. However, research using economic games to assess cooperative behavior in clinical populations is in the early stages. We hypothesized that individuals with greater depressive symptoms would struggle to maintain reciprocity in iterative games, but not in single-iteration games measuring personal values. Participants (n=41) played four computer-based economic games (prisoner's dilemma, the public goods game, the ultimatum game, and the trust game) measuring different aspects of cooperation. Participants completed the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and other measures of personality and demographics. Analyses assessed the relationships between game performance and psychological distress as measured by the DASS. Significant correlations were found between game performance and depressive symptoms, but not symptoms of anxiety or stress. Performance in the prisoner's dilemma and public goods game was significantly related to depression in a linear regression even when known associations with depressive affect such as age, gender, race, education, marital status, and neuroticism were controlled for. Depressive symptoms were associated with an inability to sustain reciprocal cooperation. Participants showed the predicted deficits in cooperation in these economic games. Economic games show the potential for assessing the social deficits associated with depressive symptoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 48 CFR 52.222-19 - Child Labor-Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child Labor-Cooperation... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-19 Child Labor—Cooperation with Authorities and Remedies. As prescribed in 22.1505(b), insert the following clause: Child Labor—Cooperation With Authorities and Remedies...

  2. 7 CFR 1484.34 - Must Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct? 1484.34 Section 1484.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct? (a) A Cooperator shall conduct its business...

  3. 24 CFR 213.275 - Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund. 213.275 Section 213.275 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Nature of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund. The Cooperative Management Housing Insurance...

  4. 33 CFR 165.709 - Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Cooper River, South Carolina. 165.709 Section 165.709 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.709 Security Zone; Charleston Harbor, Cooper River, South Carolina. (a) Regulated area. The Coast Guard is establishing a fixed security zone on all waters of the Cooper River, bank-to-bank and...

  5. 33 CFR 334.460 - Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and tributaries at... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.460 Cooper River and tributaries at Charleston, SC. (a) The areas: (1) That portion of the Cooper River beginning on the west...

  6. 76 FR 53492 - South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Public Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper); Combined Licenses for... as Santee Cooper), for two Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) part 52 combined... Service Authority (Also Referred to as Santee Cooper) Application for the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear...

  7. Cooperative Feedback for MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kaibin

    2010-01-01

    Multi-antenna precoding effectively mitigates the interference in wireless networks. However, the precoding efficiency can be significantly degraded by the overhead due to the required feedback of channel state information (CSI). This paper addresses such an issue by proposing a systematic method of designing precoders for the two-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) interference channels based on finite-rate CSI feedback from receivers to their interferers, called cooperative feedback. Specifically, each precoder is decomposed into inner and outer precoders for nulling interference and improving the data link array gain, respectively. The inner precoders are further designed to suppress residual interference resulting from finite-rate cooperative feedback. To regulate residual interference due to precoder quantization, additional scalar cooperative feedback signals are designed to control transmitters' power using different criteria including applying interference margins, maximizing sum throughput, an...

  8. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Ankur; Rahwan, Iyad; Pentland, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the `tragedy of the commons' in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global cooperation by localizing externalities to one's peers in a social network, thus leveraging the power of peer-pressure to regulate behavior. The mechanism relies on a joint model of externalities and peer-pressure. Surprisingly, this mechanism can require a lower budget to operate than the Pigouvian mechanism, even when accounting for the social cost of peer pressure. Even when the available budget is very low, the social mechanisms achieve greater improvement in the outcome.

  9. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  10. Asymmetric evaluation promotes cooperation in network population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Li, Xiaoping; Shi, Lei; Deng, Zhenghong

    2017-05-01

    The evolution of cooperation remains a fundamental challenge in human society. Many previous studies investigated these questions via spatial reciprocity, where players obtain their payoffs by interacting with their direct neighbors. It has also been verified that environmental factors can influence the evolution of cooperation theoretically and empirically. In reality, however, individuals may have the limit knowledge about their indirect neighbors. Inspired by this fact, we consider an asymmetric fitness calculation mechanism, which only integrates the environment factors into the focal player, to explore the evolution of cooperation. Here, the environmental factor is defined as the average payoff of all individual neighbors, which is regulated by a tunable parameter u. Through numerical simulation, we find that, compared with the traditional version (u = 0), that the cooperation level can be greatly enhanced when u is positive. Interestingly, the larger the value of u, the higher the level of cooperation. Finally, to explore the generality of this finding, we have tested the results on different topologies.

  11. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  12. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement....

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  15. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  16. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  17. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  18. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...... officials. With the consolidation of Nordic Energy Research in 1999, the cooperation benefitted from having an institution that exclusively could focus on Nordic energy policy issues and deliver research-based decision support to decision makers in the Nordic energy sector....

  19. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  20. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...... in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing...

  1. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  2. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  5. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  6. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  7. Family Sequencing and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the allocation problem of the maximal cost savings of the whole group of jobs, we define and analyze a so-called corresponding cooperative family sequencing game which explicitly takes into account the maximal cost savings for any coalition of jobs. Using nonstandard techniques we prove t

  8. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  9. Physicality and Cooperative Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    CSCW researchers have increasingly come to realize that material work setting and its population of artefacts play a crucial part in coordination of distributed or co-located work. This paper uses the notion of physicality as a basis to understand cooperative work. Using examples from an ongoing

  10. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  11. Educating for World Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Louise M.; Miel, Alice

    This booklet presents a variety of perspectives on educating for world cooperation. Section 1 discusses major world problems and calls for the reorientation of education as a potential solution. Section 2 deals with the design of such a reorientation and offers three approaches to teaching and curriculum development--knowing, being, and doing. In…

  12. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, Victor D.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  13. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  14. Cooperation Across the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China and Mexico, two significant developing countries in the world, have been strengthening cooperation in all fields in recent years. And the two countries are confident about improving their ties in the future. Mexican Foreign Minister Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista shares his views on bilateral relations in a written response to questions from Beijing Review reporter Ding Ying.

  15. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Philippine President Benigno Aquino Ⅲ recently completed a five-day visit to China,his first state visit to China since he took office last year.The two countries reached consensus on promoting all-round cooperation,especially in trade and the economy,and downplayed disputes in the South China Sea.

  16. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  17. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  18. Empirical Study on the Impact of University-Industry Cooperation on Academic Team Building: A Test of Regulating Effect of Team Heterogeneity%产学研合作对学术团队建设影响的实证研究——团队特征差异的调节效应检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马卫华; 刘佳; 樊霞

    2012-01-01

    Because of today's technological advances and interdisciplinary integration, academic team has been used as a new organizational model to explore science and technology. With our substantial increase in R&D and in-depth cooperation between university and industry, academic research teams integrate and utilize internal and external knowledge resources through university-industry cooperation in order to enhance academic team's R&D capability.'In essence, developing academic team's high-level core ability is a team-building process and the results of a large number of academic research practices. For instance, academic teams are improving the research conditions, standardizing the team management regulation, and forming effective knowledge sharing and creation among team members through the integration of internal and external funding. Achieving the excavation, conversion, application of knowledge assets and generating new knowledge are critical to enhancing the core competence of academic team. University-industry cooperation has the advantage of achieving knowledge integration and resource optimization of main cooperation body and generating synergistic effect through exchanging and sharing its knowledge from inter-organization and within the organization. Although academic institutions have played an important role for the funding of research projects, they often ignore the impact of university-industry cooperation on university academic team building. More research projects should investigate how academic team achieves knowledge exchanging and sharing among different enterprises, and teams, thereby affecting the knowledge creation within the team through university-industry cooperation.From the dynamic perspective of academic team building, we use academic teams in Guangdong universities as our database to analyze the cooperation from two dimensions-cooperation breadth and cooperation depth- and to explore the impact on the academic team core ability. We further

  19. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  20. Tax cooperation among member states of European Union and Directive on administrative cooperation in the field of taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimovski Aleksandar G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Countries have possibility to choose between several alternatives for cooperation in international tax matters at global level. They can decide not to cooperate or provide some form of tax cooperation. Because of harmful tax competition among countries and efforts of international organizations, all countries in the world are oblidged to comply with one of multiple alternatives for tax cooperation. Situation in European Union (hereinafter EU is specific. EU is not country or classic international organization. By the reason of its successful functioning, EU has need for tax cooperation. EU has attempted to harmonise tax policies of member states, but member states did not approve that. Only indirect taxes are harmonized on EU level, direct taxes are harmonized only to the point necessarily for functioning of single market. That is why tax cooperation instruments are so important. Object of this paper are procedures and measures, stipulated by the most important instrument in the field of tax cooperation enacted by institutions of EU, its development and status in international tax law. Regulatives and directives in field of tax cooperation in the EU are 'pioneers' in tax matters. EU instruments provide standards which are subsequently accepted by several international organizations - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and United Nations (UN. Our purpose is to present positive and negative aspects of tax cooperation in the EU. In time of crisis efficient tax cooperation provides higher revenues for the member states, on the other hand, taxpayers and tax administrations have increased expenses as result of tax cooperation which are not fairly distributed.

  1. Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization of Farmers: Problems and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangzhiKong; QiaoGuanghua

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the problems of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers in their development process. These problems are: excessive interference by local governments; low service capacity at the operating level; administrative and management confusion resulting from the lack of status as a legal entity, with rules and regulations. It is suggested that the relevant laws and regulations concerning these organizations be established as soon as possible, giving them a legal identification; that the regulations and organizational structure be perfected; that support be increased and the financial situation of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers be improved.

  2. 浅析法律法规对于规范职业教育校企合作的意义--以《宁波市职业教育校企合作促进条例》为例%A Brief Analysis on the Significance of Laws and Regula-tions in Regulating School-Enterprise Cooperation for Vocational Education:A Case Study on"Promotion Ordi-nances for School-Enterprise Cooperation of Ningbo Vo-cational Education"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政

    2013-01-01

      法治社会的不断进步与完善,迫切要求职业教育校企合作办学模式的发展以健全的法律法规作为支撑和保障,只有通过法律和地方性法规的强制力,明确办学主体、权利义务,规范办学行为、资源使用,才能实现校企合作有序健康地运行。%Continuous progress and improvement of the society governed by the rule of law, urgently requires legal support and guarantee for the development of vocational education school-enterprise cooperation, only through the force of law and local regulations can we make clear every conditions and achieve an orderly and healthy school-enterprise cooperation.

  3. Photocontrol over cooperative porphyrin self-assembly with phenylazopyridine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Takashi; Helmich, Floris; Meijer, E W

    2013-01-02

    The cooperative self-assembly of chiral zinc porphyrins is regulated by a photoresponsive phenylazopyridine ligand. Porphyrin stacks depolymerize into dimers upon axial ligation and the strength of the coordination is regulated by its photoinduced isomerization, which shows more than 95 % conversion ratio for both photostationary states.

  4. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  5. 中国农民专业合作社的“规制失灵”--基于规制政策执行和供给的视角%“Failure in Regulation”in China’s Specialized Farmers’ Cooperatives -from Perspectives of Regulating Policy Implementation and Provision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任梅

    2014-01-01

    Government regulation is a measure adopted to regulate behaviors of market entities in order to protect public interests and correct dysfunction of the market .Specialized farmers cooperatives is a spe-cial positive market entity due to farmers’ improved organizing level .How to regulate and stimulate its de-velopment has been a key issue to government regulation .At present ,there exists the phenomenon of“regulation failure” in China’s regulating her specialized farmers’ cooperatives .On one hand ,when imple-menting regulative policies ,there is “an emphasis on hardware but a negligence of software” in financial in-vestment .Governmental support is overly directed to “the better ,the stronger” ,however ,government’s regulation to safeguard the cooperatives’ healthy operation is weak .Consequently ,implementation of reg-ulative policies is flawed and efficiency of governmental regulation is harmed .On the other hand ,when providing regulation policies ,there is a lack of an effective system supervising the operation of the coopera-tives .The delays of complementing measures and detailed implementing rules plus the delayed provision of rural financial policies and farming insurance policies are all obstacles to optimize government regulation .%政府规制是政府为了维护公众利益和纠正市场失灵而规范市场主体活动的行为。农民合作社是因提高农民组织化程度而具有广泛正外部效应的特殊市场主体,如何规范并推动其发展,是政府规制的重要议题。目前中国政府对农民专业合作社的规制中存在“规制失灵”现象:一方面,在规制政策执行层面,财政资金投向“重硬件,轻软件”,政府扶持过分强调“扶优扶强”,政府对合作社规范运行的规制不力,以及规制政策执行层面漏洞较多等问题,使政府规制的效率受损;另一方面,在规制政策供给层面,尚未建立有效的合作社运行

  6. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  7. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  8. Seeking Cooperation in Green Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jifei

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May28,the 2 n d China-South Korea Green Economic Cooperation Forum,sponsored by CCPIT and KCCI,was held in Seoul,South Korea. The subjects tallked about at the forum were "New Recycle Energy Cooperation Plan and Strategy"and Cooperation Plan and Strategy in Green Industries"etc

  9. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  10. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  11. Cooperation in Networks and Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with various models of cooperation in networks and scheduling. The main focus is how the benefits of this cooperation should be divided among the participating individuals. A major part of this analysis is concerned with stability of the cooperation. In addition, allocation rules a

  12. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von;

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  13. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  14. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  15. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  16. Growth, Cooperation And Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping called for strengthened cconomic,political and cultural ties with Bangladesh,Laos,New Zealand and Australia during his visits to these countries from June 14-24. In a speech at a trade forum in Canberra,Xi suggested China and Australia deepen cooperation in energy and resources.The two countries' governments and companies should work together to build "'long-term and stable"relations for trade and investment in these fields.

  17. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  18. Decentralized Cooperative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    protocols (such as DSR and AODV ) where route request (RREQ) and route reply (RREP) control packets are transmitted via SISO transmissions. Then, specific... routing . To make the routing protocol scalable, M-group Dis-STBC is applied, and an analysis of the cooperative transmission range is provided to guide...higher throughput in comparison to a Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) based routing protocol . On the other hand, because LACR is designed to

  19. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  20. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  1. Working for Better Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the United States seek to iron out differences at the recent Strategic and Economic Dialogue Despite disputes over trade,exchange rates and the investment climate,China and the United States are striving to promote cooperation through dialogue,as the two countries become increasingly dependent on each other and benefit substantially from each other’s development,said Chinese officials and scholars.

  2. Hypothesis and Testing on the Regulation Strategy of Certified Medical Institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme%新型农村合作医疗定点医疗机构监管策略的假设与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐; 徐凌忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal regulation strategy of certified medical institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Methods: Testing a hypothetical proposition based on the game analysis method. Results: In the condition of information asymmetry, increasing the punishment of regulatory bodies is the most optimal strategy, rewarding the regulatory behavior is the second best strategy, and increasing the violation cost of certified medical institutions is inferior strategy. Conclusion: The regulation strategy of certified medical institution of New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme has defects, and needs to be further optimized.%目的:探讨对新型农村合作医疗定点医疗机构监管的最优策略.方法:采用博弈分析的方法,对一个假设命题进行检验.结果:在信息不对称的情况下,加大对监管机构的惩罚是最优策略,对监管行为奖励是次优策略,而加大定点医疗机构的违规成本是劣等策略.结论:对定点医疗机构采取的监管策略存在缺陷,有待进一步优化.

  3. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site... Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., including on-site leased workers from...

  4. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  5. Shaping the Future: Asia-Pacific and Latin America-Caribbean Cooperation: ADB and IDB Partnership for South-South Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation between Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is rapidly increasing in the spirit of South-South cooperation. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) enter into a new chapter of cooperation in areas such as sustainable integration corridors (trade facilitation, transportation, energy, and telecommunications, including broadband investment and regulation); sustainable cities and climate change; institutional development; social policy...

  6. Empathy in cooperative versus non-cooperative situations: the contribution of self-report measures and autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Bortolotti, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Shared representations, emotion comprehension, and emotion regulation constitute the basic macro components of social empathy. The present study integrated two different measures of empathic behavior in a social context: verbal self-report measures (empathic response, emotional involvement and emotional significance, and valence), and autonomic responses (facial expression-corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle-, SCR-skin conductance-, and HR-heart rate-). Participants (N = thirty-five) were presented with different interpersonal scene types (cooperation, non-cooperation, conflict, indifference). Different empathic sensitivity to these interpersonal situations was verified, since self-rating on empathy, emotional involvement and valence varied as a function of interpersonal context. Situation rated as more empathically significant were considered also as the most positive (cooperation) and negative (non cooperation and conflictual) and emotionally significant (high emotional significance of the scenes) in comparison with neutral scenes. Nevertheless, subjective empathic response and personal emotional involvement were found to be dissociated measures in non-cooperative condition. On the autonomic level, facial mimicry was linked to and coherent with the empathic response in cooperative, non-cooperative and conflictual conditions, whereas SCR and HR were increased only in response to cooperative and conflictual situation, rated as more involving by the subject. The convergence of these multidimensional measures was discussed: empirical evidences are far from able to warrant claims that processes of emotional contagion and simulation provide the sole, primary important way by which we come to know what others are feeling.

  7. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  8. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  9. Cooperation Between Equals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 MARKS the 55th anniversary of the start of contemporary friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu’s recent African trip gave another boost to the burgeoning China-Africa ties,said Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun.Hui visited five African countries - Mauritius, Zambia,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Cameroon and Senegal -from January 6 to 19.Agriculture and trade were some of the most promising areas of cooperation between China and these countries,said Zhai in a recent interview with ChinAfrica.Excerpts follow:

  10. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  11. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  12. LA REAFIRMACIÓN DE LAS APORTACIONES DE (PROPIEDAD DE LOS SOCIOS DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS. PROPUESTA DE REGULACIÓN DE LAS SOCIEDADES DE RESPONSABILIDAD LIMITADA COOPERATIVA /THE REAFFIRMATION OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF (PROPERTY OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES ASSOCIATES. PROPOSAL OF REGULATION FOR SOCIETIES OF LIMITED COOPERATIVE RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos GARCÍA-GUTIÉRREZ FERNÁNDEZ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las denominadas Normas Internacionales (que sólo son europeas de Contabilidad han puesto de manifiesto un problema latente que no es sólo terminológico: reclaman la consideración de recurso ajeno de la rúbrica que recoge las aportaciones de los socios de las sociedades cooperativas, como no podía ser de otro modo al tratarse de empresas en las que la condición de socio no se adquiere por la aportación obligatoria (y, en su caso, voluntaria. La contabilidad pretende, entre otras cosas, ofrecer una imagen fiel de la situación patrimonial y económico-financiera de la empresa. El principio de puerta abierta, establecido por la única organización ¡mundial! que establece lo que es una sociedad cooperativa, conlleva el reembolso de esas aportaciones cuando el socio deja de serlo; lo que configura al impropiamente denominado capital social (debería ser capital aportado por los socios como una deuda, no convencional, pero deuda. Pero el crédito, la confianza del mercado financiera, se basa más en lo que prometen los empresarios que en una relación contable del pasivo (y mucho menos si es engañosa. No se pueden tergiversar las cosas para atender a los derechos de los acreedores de la sociedad (que son sagrados. Éstos ya saben “con quienes se juegan los cuartos”; y, si no lo saben, es su problema. No se puede cargar las tintas sobre los socios actuales a favor de los futuros; y menos aún a favor de los directivos presentes. La sociedad cooperativa es una asociación de empresarios en democracia, cada uno de los cuales… responde de su aportación, si llega el caso; pero no antes, “por si acaso”. Porque esto es antifinanciero, antieconómico y anticooperativo./The denominated International Norms (that are only European of Accounting they have shown a latent problem that is not only terminological: they claim the resource consideration unaware of the heading that picks up the contributions of the partners of the cooperative

  13. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  14. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  15. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  16. Regulation Effectiveness Evaluation Model for New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme Fund Supervision%新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性评价指标体系构建与方法选定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新瑞; 薛兴利

    2012-01-01

    The thesis stated the concept of new rural cooperative medical fund supervision effectiveness and the evaluation principle. On the basis of establishment principle, the thesis constructed the evaluation index system for the new rural cooperative medical fund supervision effectiveness with 30 performance indicators, mainly from the 3 areas, namely the supervisory ability, the regulatory efficiency and the external supervision. Finally, according to the characteristics of new rural cooperative medical fund supervision, the thesis selected fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method as evaluation method, discussed the steps and emphasized the evaluation results of treatment, to provide references for regulation effectiveness evaluation.%文章在阐明新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性基本内涵与评价原则的基础上,从监管能力、监管效率和外部监督等3个方面,选取30个指标构建了新型农村合作医疗基金监管有效性评价指标体系;从新型农村合作医疗基金监管的特点出发,通过比较,选取模糊综合评价法作为适宜方法,介绍了模糊综合评价法的操作步骤及其评价结果的分析和处理,以期为实现新型农村合作医疗基金的有效监管提供依据.

  17. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  18. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  19. Cooperative Directors: Perspective and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, John L., Jr.; Kiser, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    Cooperative directors’ perceptions of their roles, knowledge, and implementation of cooperative principles, business decision making, financial analysis, cooperative law, and division of responsibility with management were analyzed using data from forty-eight agricultural and thirty-one rural electric directors. Directors performed well in these areas with the best performance being related to decision-making scenarios. Self-assessments and performance for capabilities/situational items wer...

  20. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  1. Cooperation and between-group competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2000-01-01

    Introducing competition between groups may induce cooperation to emerge in defection games despite considerable cost of cooperation. If the groups can confine themselves to a cooperative sector, either by providing incentives to raise the cooperation level in one group, or by providing disincentives so that the cooperation level in the other group gets lowered to match that of the first, maximum degrees of cooperation can be obtained. The cooperative sector broadens as the degrees of cooperat...

  2. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  3. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  4. International Grants and Cooperative Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA provides grants and enters into cooperative agreements that support protecting human health and the environment while advancing U.S. national interests through international environmental collaboration.

  5. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  6. The European Divorce (Applicable Law Council Regulation (EU No 1259/2010 of 20 December 2010 Implementing Enhanced Cooperation in the Area of the Law Applicable to Divorce and Legal Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Alina Tagarta (DE SMET

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives with this paper are to give a brief overview of the Scope of application of the regulation; of the main conflict-of-law rules adopted by the regulation, in special those that are more relevant to the role that a notary might have in an international divorce situation. The regulation provides citizens with appropriate outcomes in terms of legal certainty, predictability and flexibility, protects weaker partners during divorce disputes and prevents 'forum shopping'. This also helps avoiding complicated, lengthy and painful proceedings. More specifically, it allows international couples to agree in advance which law would apply to their divorce or legal separation as long as the agreed law is the law of the Member State which they have a closer connection with. In case the couple cannot agree, the judges can use a common formula for deciding which country's law applies. This paper will bring to light some risks and coordination difficulties with the regulation and a few matters that the regulation does not apply to.

  7. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu.; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current-voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  8. Quantum Cooperation of Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Summhammer, J

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the cooperation of two insects who share a large number of maximally entangled EPR-pairs to help them decide whether to execute certain actions. In the first example, two ants must push a pebble, which may be too heavy for one ant. In the second example, two distant butterflies must find each other. In both examples the individuals make classical random choices of possible directions, followed by a quantum decision whether to move or to wait. This combination reflects scarce environmental information and the small brain's limited capacity for complex analysis. With quantum mechanical entanglement the two ants can push the pebble up to twice as far as uncorrelated ants, and the two butterflies need only between 48% and 83% of the classical flight path to find each other.

  9. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short...... rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear...

  10. The update of the accounting procedures in Agricultural Cooperatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of Internal Control in Agricultural Cooperatives from the standards established by the General Controller of the Republic, and the harmonization of accounting procedures Cuban Accounting Standards, It is need to update the accounting procedure manuals to guide and regulate the flows, times and registration basis, considering the current legislation, being these the purpose of the discussion in this investigation. The results focused on organizational dynamics of cooperatives, serving the agricultural cooperative sector and its relation to internal control and accounting management guidelines based on economic and social policy of the Party and the Revolution, as well as updating the procedure manuals. It even showed limitations in the application of internal control procedures and accounting according to the current regulations in Cuba, expressing the need to continue its development.

  11. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters — individuals who profit without cooperating themselves — have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making cheati

  12. Aircrew cooperation in the Royal Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, C. B.

    1987-01-01

    The progressive introduction of modern, high performance aircraft, coupled with a significant increase in the complexity of the operational environment, has highlighted crew co-operation as a critical factor in aircraft safety. Investigation into recent MAC aircraft accidents supports the conclusion reached by NASA and other U.S. research institutions that a positive training program is required to improve resource management in the cockpit and prevent a breakdown under stress of the crew process. Past training and regulation has concentrated on the attainment of individual flying skills, but group skills have been neglected through lack of knowledge and understanding of the group process. This long-standing deficiency is now being addressed in the U.S. by the progressive and widespread introduction of theoretical and practical training programs to improve crew co-operation. The RAF should provide similar training for its aircrews through the adaptation and development of existing training resources. Better crew co-operation would not only reduce the number of RAF aircraft accidents but also improve the morale of the Service.

  13. [Parenthood and cooperation in legal custody determination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, J A

    1996-11-01

    Dealing with custody and visitation problems forensic psychology has to refer to the findings and construct-developments of the particular psychological fields. In a discoursive manner this is shown for the crucial concepts of parenthood and cooperation. An expanding number of new studies about parenting and parenthood, mostly in the domain of developmental psychology, is reviewed, status and validity of the scientific constructs and consequences for forensic-psychological affairs are discussed. Gains and desiderata are indicated. The bio-psycho-social character of parenting is emphasized as well as the integration of these elements in an interdisciplinary way. A review of the literature concerning cooperation is less productive. Cooperation is mainly discussed in the realm of conflict-solution and operationalized by variants of the prisoners-dilemma-game. The essence of those approaches and the implications for separation or divorce and regulation of its effects are shown. Findings of psycho-biological studies are added as well as considerations to use them conditionally by analogy. Finally a guide or rather a schema for interviews in familypsychological examination is proposed.

  14. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  15. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  16. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...

  17. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  18. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  19. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  2. Cooperative Games in Graph Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    By a cooperative game in coalitional structure or shortly coalitional game we mean the standard cooperative non-transferable utility game described by a set of payoffs for each coalition that is a nonempty subset of the grand coalition of all players.It is well-known that balancedness is a sufficien

  3. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  4. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...

  5. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  6. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  7. 34 CFR 350.33 - What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineering Research Centers Does the Secretary Assist? § 350.33 What cooperation requirements must a... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What cooperation requirements must a Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center meet? 350.33 Section 350.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  8. 34 CFR 361.31 - Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration § 361.31 Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. The State plan must describe... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. 361.31 Section 361.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  9. 76 FR 24713 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ..., and 381 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Product; Final Rule... Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products AGENCY: Food Safety and... amending the Federal meat and poultry products inspection regulations to establish a new...

  10. 77 FR 38339 - Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor Exemption From Certain Security... Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC). The LACBWR was a nuclear power plant of nominal 50 Mw electrical output... from the regulations in part 73 as it determines are authorized by law and will not endanger life...

  11. Innovation and knowledge generation in cooperation nets: challenges for regulations in the nuclear safety area in Brazil; Inovacao e geracao de conhecimento nas redes de cooperacao: desafios para a regulacao na area de seguranca nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The importance of inter-organisational cooperation within the innovation process has been increasingly recognized. In fact, all organisations, at some point, need to look to external sources for inputs to the process of building up technological competence. In this sense, through a detailed case study, this thesis examine theoretical and empirically how collaborative initiatives have supported the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the development and implementation of innovations, in order to verify the positive relationship between the collaboration and the organisational innovation performance. Emphasizing the importance of both internal sources of knowledge and external participation, the study encompasses documentary analysis, a preliminary survey and semi-structured interviews with the regulatory body employers in charge of controlling medical and research facilities and activities involving radiation sources. The thesis demonstrates that innovations developed and implemented in the Brazilian nuclear safety and security area are associated with collaborative initiatives, in order to improve the organizational capability to fulfill safety obligations, providing some important implications for regulatory body managers concerned with the management of innovation. The findings also identified actors with a significant degree of influence in the innovation process. The result reveals that the support provided by these actors has a significant influence on the innovation performance of the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body, suggesting that Brazil should adopt more interactive models of innovation and knowledge transfer. In addition, the findings show that these key actors can play a very distinctive role in the context of sectoral systems of innovation information regime. (author)

  12. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... purchasing power on the volatile open electric market. The Action Alternative at White Site 1 would be... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations...

  13. 33 CFR 385.27 - Project Cooperation Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project Cooperation Agreements. 385.27 Section 385.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN...

  14. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  15. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic

  16. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  17. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  18. 76 FR 31941 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Horseshoe Crabs; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  19. 75 FR 31421 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW53 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permit; Horseshoe Crabs AGENCY: National Marine... otherwise restricted by the regulations promulgated under the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries...

  20. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would control lobster trap fishing effort by limiting access into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster...

  1. MINI John Cooper Works Convertible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    这辆名字巨长的迷你古巴其实和MINI CooperS没什么太大区别,最大的不同点就是MINI John Cooper Works Convertible采用软顶敞篷,而动力部分则是由John Cooper Works精心调校的那台1.6L排量双涡轮增压发动机.这台发动机与MINI Challenge赛车上使用的完全相同,拥有211hp和280Nm的动力输出。

  2. Marketing Operations of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The Nation's 435 dairy cooperatives marketed 95.6 billion pounds of milk, or about 77 percent of all milk sold to plants and dealers in 1980. There were 146 cooperatives with no milk handling facilities, 97 with only milk and cream receiving stations, and 192 operating 456 dairy processing and manufacturing plants. Cooperatives sold about 16 percent of the Nation's packaged fluid products, 10 percent of the ice cream, 64 percent of the butter, 87 percent of the dry milk products, 22 percent o...

  3. Environment and cooperation: cooperative values as an assumption of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to establishing an understanding of the meaning of environment, the work clarifies that the environmental damage resulting value gives the minimization of the man dedicated to nature. In this regard, bearing in mind the environmental crisis confrontation served humanity, the future is viewed with doubt. It also offers, the alternative cooperative established by the Declaration of Rio and cooperative values is presented as a precondition for sustainability.Received: 06.06.10Accepted: 25.06.10

  4. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  6. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  7. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  8. Cooperative Compute-and-Forward

    CERN Document Server

    Nokleby, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We examine the benefits of user cooperation under compute-and-forward. Much like in network coding, receivers in a compute-and-forward network recover finite-field linear combinations of transmitters' messages. Recovery is enabled by linear codes: transmitters map messages to a linear codebook, and receivers attempt to decode the incoming superposition of signals to an integer combination of codewords. However, the achievable computation rates are low if channel gains do not correspond to a suitable linear combination. In response to this challenge, we propose a cooperative approach to compute-and-forward. We devise a lattice-coding approach to block Markov encoding with which we construct a decode-and-forward style computation strategy. Transmitters broadcast lattice codewords, decode each other's messages, and then cooperatively transmit resolution information to aid receivers in decoding the integer combinations. Using our strategy, we show that cooperation offers a significant improvement both in the achi...

  9. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  10. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  11. Cooperation and Competition, Strategic Alliances, and the Cambrian Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, JuliÁn; Molina-Meyer, Marcela

    Ecology, Economy and Management require a huge interdisciplinary effort to ascertain the hidden mechanisms driving the evolution of communities and firm networks. This article shows that strategic alliances in competitive environments provoke an explosive increment of productivity and stability through a feedback mechanism promoted by cooperation, while competition causes segregation within cooperative profiles. Some further speciation and radiation mechanisms enhancing innovation, facilitated by environmental heterogeneities and specific market regulations, might explain the biodiversity of life and the high complexity of industrial and financial markets. Extinctions occur by the lack of adaptation of strongest competitors to sudden environmental stress.

  12. Protist predation can favour cooperation within bacterial species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Diggle, Stephen P.; Buckling, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Here, we studied how protist predation affects cooperation in the opportunistic pathogen bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which uses quorum sensing (QS) cell-to-cell signalling to regulate the production of public goods. By competing wild-type bacteria with QS mutants (cheats), we show that a functioning QS system confers an elevated resistance to predation. Surprisingly, cheats were unable to exploit this resistance in the presence of cooperators, which suggests that resistance does not appear to result from activation of QS-regulated public goods. Instead, elevated resistance of wild-type bacteria was related to the ability to form more predation-resistant biofilms. This could be explained by the expression of QS-regulated resistance traits in densely populated biofilms and floating cell aggregations, or alternatively, by a pleiotropic cost of cheating where less resistant cheats are selectively removed from biofilms. These results show that trophic interactions among species can maintain cooperation within species, and have further implications for P. aeruginosa virulence in environmental reservoirs by potentially enriching the cooperative and highly infective strains with functional QS system. PMID:23945212

  13. LA RESPONSABILIDAD DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DERIVADA DEL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE LAS OBLIGACIONES CONTABLES. INFLUENCIA DE LA REFORMA PENAL Y LA NUEVA REGULACIÓN CONTABLE / THE CRIMINAL RESPONSABILITY OF THE COOPERATIVES ARISING FROM NOT COMPLYING WITH THE ACCOUNTING OBLIGATIONS. THE REPERCUSSION OF THE REFORM OF THE PENAL CODE AND THE NEW ACCOUNTING REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Begoña VILLARROYA LEQUERICAONANDIA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo perseguido con la realización de este trabajo es conocer la responsabilidad penal derivada del incumplimiento de las obligaciones contables por parte de los órganos sociales de las cooperativas, observando la incidencia de la reforma del Código Penal en la responsabilidad. Para ello, se comienza haciendo una breve descripción de las obligaciones contables, no solo el deber de llevanza de la contabilidad, libros obligatorios,… sino también las obligaciones específicas de las cooperativas recientemente reguladas en la Orden de 21 de diciembre de 2010 sobre los aspectos contables de las sociedades cooperativas (BOE de 29 de diciembre, donde nos encontramos con numerosos cambios en los que parte de las aportaciones de los socios pasarán a calificarse como pasivo. A continuación se analizan los distintos artículos del Código Penal en los que la contabilidad tuviera relevancia, incidiendo en como podría verse afectada la responsabilidad de la empresa con la reciente reforma. / The aim of this work is to know the criminal responsibility for social organs arising from not complying with the accounting obligations and the repercussion of the reform of the Penal Code in the treatment of responsibility. The paper starts with a brief description of the accounting obligations, not only formal but also material obligations, and the specific rules for the valuation of cooperatives that have recently been regulated in the Order of December 21, 2010 (BOE December, 29 of the countable aspects of cooperative companies will be analyzed in this paper. In it we will find numerous changes in whicht parts of the contributions of the partners will be classified as debts.. Finally, this work analyzes various articles of the Criminal Code in which the accounting is most important, highlighting the possibility of responsibility of the companies after the new reform.

  14. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  15. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  16. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  17. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  18. Cooperation and deception in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Katie; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2017-08-01

    Though competition and cooperation are often considered opposing forces in an arms race driving natural selection, many animals, including humans, cooperate in order to mitigate competition with others. Understanding others' psychological states, such as seeing and knowing, others' goals and intentions, and coordinating actions are all important for complex cooperation-as well as for predicting behavior in order to take advantage of others through tactical deception, a form of competition. We outline evidence of primates' understanding of how others perceive the world, and then consider how the evidence from both deception and cooperation fits this framework to give us a more complete understanding of the evolution of complex social cognition in primates. In experimental food competitions, primates flexibly manipulate group-mates' behavior to tactically deceive them. Deception can infiltrate cooperative interactions, such as when one takes an unfair share of meat after a coordinated hunt. In order to counter competition of this sort, primates maintain cooperation through partner choice, partner control, and third party punishment. Yet humans appear to stand alone in their ability to understand others' beliefs, which allows us not only to deceive others with the explicit intent to create a false belief, but it also allows us to put ourselves in others' shoes to determine when cheaters need to be punished, even if we are not directly disadvantaged by the cheater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss.

  20. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  1. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects...

  2. 7 CFR 1415.17 - Cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the “right of enforcement” clause to read as set forth in the GRP cooperative agreement. This right is... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreements. 1415.17 Section 1415.17... Cooperative agreements. (a) NRCS may enter into cooperative agreements which establish terms and...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  4. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  5. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  6. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  7. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  8. Features of the organization of separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of the dwelling-construction cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ildusovna Khairullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp

  9. Cooperative Precoding with Limited Feedback for MIMO Interference Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Kaibin

    2010-01-01

    Multi-antenna precoding effectively mitigates the interference in wireless networks. However, the resultant performance gains can be significantly compromised in practice if the precoder design fails to account for the inaccuracy in the channel state information (CSI) feedback. This paper addresses this issue by considering finite-rate CSI feedback from receivers to their interfering transmitters in the two-user multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) interference channel, called \\emph{cooperative feedback}, and proposing a systematic precoder design. Specifically, each precoder is decomposed into inner and outer precoders for nulling interference and improving the data-link array gain, respectively. The inner precoders are further designed to suppress the residual interference resulting from the finite-rate cooperative feedback. To regulate such interference, additional scalar cooperative feedback signals are designed to control transmission power using different criteria including fixed interference margins, ...

  10. Analysis of Current Global Nuclear Safety and Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chong

    2014-01-01

    Last year, global nuclear security and safety cooperation achieved some progress. In terms of nuclear safety, too many flaws are exposed by the current severe situation of the Fukushima in Japan’s new nuclear safety regulation system, and sound the alarm for East Asia countries accelerating the regional nuclear safety cooperation. In terms of nuclear security, since the Seoul Summit in March 2012, global nuclear security cooperation has achieved new successes. IAEA has and would play the central role in pushing forward the international framework and strengthening nuclear security globally. However, there are still some obstacles to overcome in the future, which need international society to enhance communication and common understanding, especially high-level consultations.

  11. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others.

  12. Identifying cooperative transcription factors by combining ChIP-chip data and knockout data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Yang; Zili Zhang; Yixue Li; Xin-Guang Zhu; Qi Liu

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Eukaryotic transcriptional regulation networks are extremely complex.Usually,multiple transcription factors(TFs)bind to the promoter region of a gene and cooperate to control gene expression precisely.Identifying cooperative TFs remains a major challenge in modern biological research.Various types of data,including genomic sequences,expression profiles,ChiP-chip data and protein-protein interactions,have been used to identify mechanisms of cooperative transcriptional regulation.However,because of the noise inherent in these data and the fact that each data source only provides partial information about regulation,combining multiple types of data to improve their ability to infer cooperative TFs is advantageous[1-3].

  13. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  14. Co-operative effect of glutathione depletion and selenium induced oxidative stress on API and NFkB expression in testicular cells in vitro: insights to regulation of spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, Sonia; Bansal, Mohinder P

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se) was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 microM and 1.5 microM. It was observed that at 1.5 microM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility.

  15. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  17. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  18. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... that this difference in the framing effect across political point of views is to some extent explained by differences in beliefs and basic cooperation preferences.......This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...

  19. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  20. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  1. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  2. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  3. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  4. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  5. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development...... for the benefit of all....

  6. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  7. SEC14 and spectrin domains 1 (Sestd1) and Dapper antagonist of catenin 1 (Dact1) scaffold proteins cooperatively regulate the Van Gogh-like 2 (Vangl2) four-pass transmembrane protein and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway during embryonic development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XiaoYong; Cheyette, Benjamin N R

    2013-07-12

    The planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is a conserved non-canonical (β-catenin-independent) branch of Wnt signaling crucial to embryogenesis, during which it regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movements. Disruption of PCP components in mice, including Vangl2 and Dact1, results in defective neural tube closure and other developmental defects. Here, we show that Sestd1 is a novel binding partner of Vangl2 and Dact1. The Sestd1-Dact1 interface is formed by circumscribed regions of Sestd1 (the carboxyl-terminal region) and Dact1 (the amino-terminal region). Remarkably, we show that loss of Sestd1 precisely phenocopies loss of Dact1 during embryogenesis in mice, leading to a spectrum of birth malformations, including neural tube defects, a shortened and/or curly tail, no genital tubercle, blind-ended colons, hydronephrotic kidneys, and no bladder. Moreover, as with Dact1, a knock-out mutation at the Sestd1 locus exhibits reciprocal genetic rescue interactions during development with a semidominant mutation at the Vangl2 locus. Consistent with this, examination of Wnt pathway activities in Sestd1 mutant mouse embryonic tissue reveals disrupted PCP pathway biochemistry similar to that characterized in Dact1 mutant embryos. The Sestd1 protein is a divergent member of the Trio family of GTPase regulatory proteins that lacks a guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain. Nonetheless, in cell-based assays the Sestd1-Dact1 interaction can induce Rho GTPase activation. Together, our data indicate that Sestd1 cooperates with Dact1 in Vangl2 regulation and in the PCP pathway during mammalian embryonic development.

  8. Cooperation for knowledge demands know-how for cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. de la Rive Box (Louk)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractValedictory Address by Louk de la Rive Box, Professor of international cooperation and Rector of the International Institute of Social Studies (22 April 2010). Which Knowledge and for Which Development? Old Timers and New Players More than a decade ago the cyber-revolution gave rise

  9. The sound of cooperation: Musical influences on cooperative behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Yan, Jubo; Wansink, Brian; Schulze, William D

    2017-03-01

    Music as an environmental aspect of professional workplaces has been closely studied with respect to consumer behavior while sparse attention has been given to its relevance for employee behavior. In this article, we focus on the influence of music upon cooperative behavior within decision-making groups. Based on results from two extended 20-round public goods experiments, we find that happy music significantly and positively influences cooperative behavior. We also find a significant positive association between mood and cooperative behavior. Consequently, while our studies provide partial support for the relevance of affect in relation to cooperation within groups, we also show an independently important function of happy music that fits with a theory of synchronous and rhythmic activity as a social lubricant. More generally, our findings indicate that music and perhaps other atmospheric variables that are designed to prime consumer behavior might have comparably important effects for employees and consequently warrant closer investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Organizational Behavior Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Taxation of cooperatives. A model that strengthens equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEBA POLANCO BELDARRAIN

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-operatives are a type of business with their own special characteristics, including the distribution andmanner of control, the way of sharing out dividends, the existence of obligatory funds, the self-regulation ofwork, the procedure for attributing economic funds when one member leaves and the fact that workers have ashare in profit.In consequence, the institutional bodies in power in society have considered that this business formula shouldbe fostered, and for this reason a series of regulations that offer tax benefits to these entities was developed,providing that certain requirements are fulfilled. Among the different requirements included are the contributionto Obligatory Reserve Funds (F.R.O within the company as well as to specific expenses that remain undercontrol of the Co-operative for social reasons, such as The Education and Promotion Fund. (F.E.P.C.

  11. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  12. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Ethan B.; Xiong, Yong; Wang, Jimin; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6Å crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for ho...

  13. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  14. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    has been paid so far to the possibilities of including primary producers in the process of product development. 11. While the theoretical expectations are largely confirmed by historical evidence, there is both quantitative and qualitative evidence showing cooperatives to be generally disinclined...

  15. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  16. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  17. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    the objects the robots manipulate are hazardous waste. I have not actually applied the robots to reA toxic waste spills, since they are simply small...1993] Bruce Randall Donald, James Jennings, and Daniela Rus. To- wards a theory of information invariants for cooperating autonomous mobile robots

  18. The transformation of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sacristán Bergia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Cooperative´s transformation process. The Author study the positions of creditors and members, and the general assembly decisions. This paper systematizes the transformation into private limited company.Received: 12.06.10Accepted: 28.06.10

  19. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  20. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  1. International cooperation for the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engfeldt, Lars-Göran; Kjellén, Bo; Liefferink, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    go on without concern for the environment. The international agenda for the environment influences the life of everyone: it determines the price for gasoline, where we can build summer houses, and what food we can buy. This chapter will describe how international cooperation for the environment has...

  2. Cooperative Games and Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Airiau

    2013-01-01

    Forming coalitions is a generic means for cooperation: people, robots, web services, resources, firms; they can all improve their performance by joining forces. The use of coalitions has been successful in domains such as task allocations, sensor networks, and electronic marketplaces. Forming effici

  3. The financing of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative enterprise has an important role as voluntary association instrument aimed at socio-economic equilibrium of a world crisis. Its stability is linked to the economic mechanisms that ensure their birth, development and maintenance as a solvent and active competitor.

  4. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  5. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  6. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  7. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique feat...

  8. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1986 annual reports from 48 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource sharing activities supported by the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds. In response to the 1984 amendment to Title III (which required each state to include in…

  9. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... that this difference in the framing effect across political point of views is to some extent explained by differences in beliefs and basic cooperation preferences.......This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... good, contributions are the same regardless of political attitudes. In an economically equivalent version, in which subjects take from a public good, left-wingers cooperate significantly more than subjects in the middle or to the right of the political spectrum. Through simulation techniques we find...

  10. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  11. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...

  12. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  13. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  14. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, Anne van

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking in

  15. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  16. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  17. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  18. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  19. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  20. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  1. Failures of Corporate Governance in Housing Cooperatives – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Walczak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is a discussion and in-depth analysis of the legal and organizational circumstances associated with the activities of Supervisory Boards in housing cooperatives.Methodology: A critical analysis of the existing legislation, own analytical analysis of the source documents, supplemented by conclusions and observations formulated on the basis of a case study, for the preparation of which information has been used obtained from primary sources in the form of documents of the analyzed housing cooperative and information obtained through participant observation.Findings: What has a decisive impact on the mechanisms of corporate governance in housing cooperatives are the direct behaviors of Supervisory Board members, as well as the lack of awareness and involvement of the residents, who do not want to actively participate in the life of the cooperative. A diagnosis is presented of the most important factors that infl uence the actual operations of the analyzed Supervisory Board. While the current legal regulations make it possible to ensure effective and proper control as well as adequate supervision over the activities of cooperatives.Originality: The paper enriches the theory of management sciences in terms of a wider perception of the term corporate governance in relation to other organizations than companies. The presented methodological approach that is the basis for a comprehensive and thorough inspection of the activities of the Management Board can be used in other cooperatives as well. In the literature on the subject no similar analysis, supported by the results of own analytical research, had been found.

  2. The international environmental law of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The author puts the question of whether the international environmental law can be called an international law of cooperation and examines its particular features and the available instruments for transboundary cooperation on various levels. (Orig./CB)

  3. The capital of cooperatives (the Uruguayan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegbert Rippe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problems facing cooperatives in financing its activities and operations are considered, including both those on self-financing and its external financing and the solutions provided in Uruguayan cooperative legislation.

  4. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  5. Inactive sites and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, E. J.; Wardil, L. L.; da Silva, J. K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation is often conditioned on environmental factors. Behaviors may be inactive due to external factors, and yet the trait itself may not change. We study the evolution of cooperation with active and inactive sites. In inactive sites cooperators behave as defectors, receiving but not providing benefits. This unintentional mimicry provides local advantage to cooperation, but also prevents the mutual reinforcement provided by clusters of active cooperators. In general, we found that cooperation is enhanced by inactivity. In particular, if most sites are inactive, cooperation survives even if the temptation to defect is very large. Interestingly, in the square lattice with pairwise comparison rule we found that cooperation is enforced by inactive sites only up to a certain limit.

  6. History and legal reality of cooperatives in Cuba. Approaching new non-agricultural cooperatives in Pinar del Río from practical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio José Rivera Gort

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently work is valued the historical development of the artificial regulation of the cooperative in Cuba, making emphasis in the juridicalinstitutional platform in that the current process of expansion of the figure is sustained toward other sectors of the national economy besides the agricultural one. In a beginning their artificial regulation is characterized in each one of the stages by those that it has crossed and next the analysis is centered in the practical experience of the Pinar del Río, with those recently orchestrated ones Urban Cooperatives, during the process for its constitution and later operation.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  7. Regulatory aspects of pharmaceuticals' exports in gulf cooperation council countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateriya, S; Janodia, Md; Deshpande, Pb; Ligade, Vs; Talole, Kb; Kulshrestha, T; Kamariya, Y; Musmade, Pb; Udupa, N

    2011-04-01

    The Gulf cooperation council (GCC) region is considered as "Emerging market" for pharmaceutical export and bilateral trade. The understanding of the regulatory requirements of this region can be beneficial for pharmaceutical export. Some incidents of the year 2008-09, like recession or economic slowdown in highly well-off and regulated market of the EU and US, raised the demand for alternate destinations for business. The regulations of Gulf countries are encouraging the import of quality generic products, which can be good news to the Indian drug manufacturers.

  8. Cooperative Optimal Operation of Wind-Storage Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    As the penetration of wind power increases in power systems across the world, wind forecast errors become an emerging problem. Storage units are reliable tools to be used in cooperation with wind farms to mitigate imbalance penalties. Nevertheless they are not still economically viable due to huge...... investment cost. We suggest benefitting the storage unit as a regulation service provider beside its normal operation for mitigating wind power imbalances. This idea comes from the fact that storage units have a fast ramping capability which is necessary to meet close to real-time regulation needs...

  9. Cooperative Optimal Operation of Wind-Storage Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    As the penetration of wind power increases in power systems across the world, wind forecast errors become an emerging problem. Storage units are reliable tools to be used in cooperation with wind farms to mitigate imbalance penalties. Nevertheless they are not still economically viable due to huge...... investment cost. We suggest benefitting the storage unit as a regulation service provider beside its normal operation for mitigating wind power imbalances. This idea comes from the fact that storage units have a fast ramping capability which is necessary to meet close to real-time regulation needs...

  10. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  11. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  12. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  13. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  14. More Cooperation, Much Stronger%More Cooperation, Much Stronger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    To further boost the cooperation between China and Germany on sustainable industrial textiles, China-Germany for Sustainable Solutions with Technical Textiles Performance show was held on Sep.15th by China Nonwovens & Industrial Textiles Association associated with the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT and Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry, vice president of CNTAC Xu Kunyuan, vice president of CNTAC Wang Tiankai, Peter Schwartze,

  15. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  16. 76 FR 34692 - Inside Passage Electric Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inside Passage Electric Cooperative Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, and supplemented on May 18, 2011, the Inside Passage Electric Cooperative filed an application.... Applicant Contact: Mr. Peter A. Bibb, Operations Manager, Inside Passage Electric Cooperative, P.O....

  17. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  18. Treatment of capital in Brasilian cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergílio Frederico Perius

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the cooperative system never taxed much importance to capital formation in cooperatives. The first German consumer cooperative had no equity in their accounting records. We want to analyze, even though the capital was not essential, what is its function actually.

  19. Culture, Cooperation, and the General Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berigan, Nick; Irwin, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Solutions to social dilemmas require cooperation. Given that there are commonly multiple avenues for cooperation, sometimes social dilemmas require coordination of strategies in addition to sufficient cooperation to be successful. This study examines one social dilemma where such coordination is necessary: supporting the general welfare. Using…

  20. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  1. 45 CFR 302.34 - Cooperative arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.34 Cooperative arrangements. The State plan shall provide that the State will enter into written agreements for cooperative arrangements under § 303.107 with appropriate courts, law... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative arrangements. 302.34 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 11.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 11.114 Section 11.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  3. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  4. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  5. Human and automation: a matter of cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoc, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Most of the time, machine design should be considered as human-machine system design in order to solve human-machine cooperation problems. The traditional levels of automation should be re-interpreted in terms of cooperation requirements. A framework is proposed in order to categorise car-driving assistance devices on the basis of human-machine cooperation.

  6. Cooperation Agreement Signed Between CPAFFC and HSF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An agreement on cooperation between theCPAFFC and the Hanns Seidel Foundation was signed in Beijing on October 24, 2003. The agreement sets forth the framework of cooperation between the two sides and concrete forms and programmes of cooperation. The two sides will regularly carry out exchanges between parlia-

  7. 20 CFR 616.3 - Interstate cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate cooperation. 616.3 Section 616.3 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.3 Interstate cooperation. Each State agency will cooperate with...

  8. 34 CFR 97.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 97.114 Section 97.114 Education... Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more...

  9. 22 CFR 225.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative research. 225.114 Section 225.114... research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible...

  10. 40 CFR 26.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 26.114 Section 26... Basic EPA Policy for Protection of Subjects in Human Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which...

  11. 45 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46.114 Public... HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In...

  12. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The res

  13. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program Notice is hereby given that, on September 13, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...--Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Programs (``P3'') has filed written...

  14. 7 CFR 989.115 - Independent handler, major cooperative marketing association handler, and small cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means any handler who is not a cooperative marketing association of producers. (b) Major cooperative marketing association handler means any handler who is a cooperative marketing association of producers... nominations. (c) Small cooperative marketing association handler means any handler who is a...

  15. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  16. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  17. Cooperation Networks: Endogeneity and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, S

    2006-01-01

    Insights from the Complex Systems literature are employed to develop a computational model of truly endogenous strategic network formation. Artificial Adaptive Agents, implemented as Finite State Automata (FSA), play a modified two-player IPD game with an option to further develop the interaction space as part of their strategy. Several insights result from this minor modification: first, I find that network formation is a necessary condition for cooperation to be sustainable but that both the frequency of interaction and the degree to which edge formation impacts agent mixing are both necessary conditions for cooperative networks. Second, within the FSA-modified IPD frame-work, a rich ecology of agents and network topologies is observed and described. Third, the system dynamics are investigated and reveal that initially simple dynamics with small interaction length between agents gives way to complex, a-periodic dynamics with self-organized critical properties when interaction lengths are increased by a sing...

  18. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  19. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    Executive Summary 1. Innovation intensity varies by several orders of magnitude across economic sectors. According to the evidence presented in Chapter 1, this is mainly due to differences in the demand for innovation. Thus, the relatively low levels of product orientated R & D for the food sectors...... of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... cooperative is invested with limited authorities and does not normally control the production of its membership. Also, the well-known equal-treatment proviso serves to secure the cohesion of the organization by preventing the distribution of the cooperative gain from being politicized. As a result...

  20. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...... to create a better understanding of the nature of the supply task. The operating task concerns the use of the existing supply system, while the system development task concerns the appropriate development of the company’s supply system. Finally, the management task concerns creating consistency between...... of the company’s products and (production) processes, the product and process development task. A number of contingency variables have been identified and described for the delivery task, the product and process development task and the system development task. The contingency variables are used to characterise...

  1. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... and political impacts, and how this may change with increased competition for water” (DIIS 2007). The country research teams developed an overview of the national water governance frameworks at an early stage of the Competing for Water programme period (Bustamante and Cossio, 2007; Djiré et al., 2007; Gómez et...

  2. Cooperative epidemics on multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi-Tafreshi, N

    2015-01-01

    The spread of one disease, in some cases, can stimulate the spreading of another infectious disease. Here, we treat analytically a symmetric co-infection model for spreading of two diseases on a 2-layer multiplex network. We allow layer overlapping, but we assume that each layer is random and locally loop-less. Infection with one of the diseases increases the probability to get infected by the other. Using generating function method, we calculate exactly the fraction of individuals infected with both diseases (so-called co-infected clusters) in the stationary state, as well as the epidemic spreading thresholds and the phase diagram of the model. With increasing cooperation, we observe a tricritical point and the type of transition changes from continuous to hybrid. Finally we compare the co-infected clusters in the case of co-operating diseases with the so-called viable clusters in networks with dependencies.

  3. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. Kaname Ikeda, the Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organisation (ITER) (on the right) and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN, signing the agreement.The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March. One of the main purposes of this agreement is for CERN to give ITER the benefit of its experience in the field of technology as well as in administrative domains such as finance, procurement, human resources and informatics through the provision of consultancy services. Currently in its start-up phase at its Cadarache site, 70 km from Marseilles (France), ITER will focus its research on the scientific and technical feasibility of using fusion energy as a fu...

  4. [Multiprofessional cooperation in palliative care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falckenberg, Maja

    2007-04-01

    "Nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come." (Victor Hugo) Originally referring to the beginning of the enlightenment (reconnaissance) of the French revolution the transcription of this words regarding to German palliative Care structures would mean a tremendous effort. The meaning of the new idea is a holistic kind of care for patients with a chronic disease at the end of their lives, so that they can die as most self determined as possible at a location of their choice. The special aim of palliative care, the need of interdisciplinary cooperation leading to multidisciplinary solutions is pointed out. The meaning of palliative care team as a team with special communication skills in between the team and with further cooperating partners is described. Communication in palliative care means more than telling facts.

  5. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim...... approximation, only three real values per message passing iteration have to be broadcast to neighboring agents. Despite these very low communication requirements, the estimation accuracy can be comparable to that of particle-based belief propagation....

  6. New Century,Broad Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During his recent visit to the United States,Chinese Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi delivered a speech entitled "Broaden China-U.S. Cooperation in the 21st Century" at the Center for Strategic and International Studies(CSIS) in Washington,D.C. on March 12. John Hamre,President and Chief Executive Officer of the CSIS,and John Frisbie,President of the U.S.-China Business Council,hosted the event. Yang’s remarks follow:

  7. Global Stability Through Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    operations via piracy , smuggling of weapons, narcotics, human trafficking, conducting terrorist operations, and if possible terrorist operations with...sovereign state and region. This collaboration, coordination, and cooperation require a unity of purpose and reading from the “same sheet of music .” The...requirement for three distinct organizations to operate together and be on the same “sheet of music ” must demand a strategic, comprehensive assessment

  8. Cooperative Distributed Sequential Spectrum Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    S, Jithin K; Gopalarathnam, Raghav

    2010-01-01

    We consider cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radios. We develop an energy efficient detector with low detection delay using sequential hypothesis testing. Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is used at both the local nodes and the fusion center. We also analyse the performance of this algorithm and compare with the simulations. Modelling uncertainties in the distribution parameters are considered. Slow fading with and without perfect channel state information at the cognitive radios is taken into account.

  9. Cross-border Innovation Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    Introduction Increase in innovation cooperation of firms is related to; faster product life cycles, complexity of technology and sharing of risk Choice between different partners is based on significance of the knowledge they offer and cost savings (Balderboes et al. 2004). Choosing a foreign...... partner can give access to knowledge not available in the region but comes with a cost (Boschma, 2005). Choice of partner is influenced by firm characteristics, industry and location of the firm...

  10. International Business: cooperation within networks

    OpenAIRE

    Van Delft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking international activities. Internationalisation has been shown to be very beneficial for firms. Cross-border activities are an important means through which SMEs are able to create value, generate gro...

  11. A Model of Cooperative Threads

    CERN Document Server

    Abadi, Martín

    2010-01-01

    We develop a model of concurrent imperative programming with threads. We focus on a small imperative language with cooperative threads which execute without interruption until they terminate or explicitly yield control. We define and study a trace-based denotational semantics for this language; this semantics is fully abstract but mathematically elementary. We also give an equational theory for the computational effects that underlie the language, including thread spawning. We then analyze threads in terms of the free algebra monad for this theory.

  12. Cooperative binding of transcription factors promotes bimodal gene expression response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Gutierrez

    Full Text Available In the present work we extend and analyze the scope of our recently proposed stochastic model for transcriptional regulation, which considers an arbitrarily complex cis-regulatory system using only elementary reactions. Previously, we determined the role of cooperativity on the intrinsic fluctuations of gene expression for activating transcriptional switches, by means of master equation formalism and computer simulation. This model allowed us to distinguish between two cooperative binding mechanisms and, even though the mean expression levels were not affected differently by the acting mechanism, we showed that the associated fluctuations were different. In the present generalized model we include other regulatory functions in addition to those associated to an activator switch. Namely, we introduce repressive regulatory functions and two theoretical mechanisms that account for the biphasic response that some cis-regulatory systems show to the transcription factor concentration. We have also extended our previous master equation formalism in order to include protein production by stochastic translation of mRNA. Furthermore, we examine the graded/binary scenarios in the context of the interaction energy between transcription factors. In this sense, this is the first report to show that the cooperative binding of transcription factors to DNA promotes the "all-or-none" phenomenon observed in eukaryotic systems. In addition, we confirm that gene expression fluctuation levels associated with one of two cooperative binding mechanism never exceed the fluctuation levels of the other.

  13. POLISH-RUSSIAN COOPERATION OF POMORSKIE PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina GOMULKA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Russian Cooperation of Pomorskie Province commenced in 1999 and was based on the intergovernmental agreements. The new agreement, executed between the authorities of the Pomeranian Province and Kaliningrad Oblast in 2002, provided for cooperation in many areas. The contacts between the partners were dominated by economic cooperation. The Polish–Russian cooperation stopped with Polish accession to the Schengen zone. Cooperation resumed when in 2011 and agreement on small cross-border traffic was signed and then ratified in 2012. 

  14. Benevolent characteristics promote cooperative behaviour among humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Capraro

    Full Text Available Cooperation is fundamental to the evolution of human society. We regularly observe cooperative behaviour in everyday life and in controlled experiments with anonymous people, even though standard economic models predict that they should deviate from the collective interest and act so as to maximise their own individual payoff. However, there is typically heterogeneity across subjects: some may cooperate, while others may not. Since individual factors promoting cooperation could be used by institutions to indirectly prime cooperation, this heterogeneity raises the important question of who these cooperators are. We have conducted a series of experiments to study whether benevolence, defined as a unilateral act of paying a cost to increase the welfare of someone else beyond one's own, is related to cooperation in a subsequent one-shot anonymous Prisoner's dilemma. Contrary to the predictions of the widely used inequity aversion models, we find that benevolence does exist and a large majority of people behave this way. We also find benevolence to be correlated with cooperative behaviour. Finally, we show a causal link between benevolence and cooperation: priming people to think positively about benevolent behaviour makes them significantly more cooperative than priming them to think malevolently. Thus benevolent people exist and cooperate more.

  15. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  16. Development of cooperative learning process scale (CLPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Bay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important components of social constructivist learning environment is that learners are in co-operation. Effectiveness of cooperative learning process also depends on implementing the requirements of cooperative learning by the learners. The key components of cooperative learning are those positive dependence, personal responsibility, face-to-face supportive interaction, group process, interpersonal social skills. The purpose of this study has taken place to determine the psychometric properties of the measurement tool that was developed to examine effectiveness of cooperative learning process. The study was carried out on 177 students at the Gaziantep University, Faculty of Education. Learning environment was instructed under the social constructivist approach and the students have done their assigned tasks in cooperation with. 48-item test was applied to students. Factor analysis was implemented to the obtained data. Results of the study indicated that measurement tool should be used to measure process of cooperative learning.

  17. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  18. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  19. RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kira; Maul, Katrin; Tekin, Nilgün; Kriebitzsch, Neele; Indenbirken, Daniela; Prassolov, Vladimir; Müller, Ursula; Serve, Hubert; Cammenga, Jörg; Stocking, Carol

    2017-03-06

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induced by the cooperative action of deregulated genes that perturb self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase are common mutations in AML, confer poor prognosis, and stimulate myeloproliferation. AML patient samples with FLT3-ITD express high levels of RUNX1, a transcription factor with known tumor-suppressor function. In this study, to understand this paradox, we investigated the impact of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD coexpression. FLT3-ITD directly impacts on RUNX1 activity, whereby up-regulated and phosphorylated RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. Inactivating RUNX1 in tumors releases the differentiation block and down-regulates genes controlling ribosome biogenesis. We identified Hhex as a direct target of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD stimulation and confirmed high HHEX expression in FLT3-ITD AMLs. HHEX could replace RUNX1 in cooperating with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. These results establish and elucidate the unanticipated oncogenic function of RUNX1 in AML. We predict that blocking RUNX1 activity will greatly enhance current therapeutic approaches using FLT3 inhibitors. © 2017 Behrens et al.

  20. Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Rosa, Francescantonio; Frattasi, Simone; Figueiras, Joao

    2011-01-01

    Conventional software applications are usually operated on a platform similar to the one on which they were developed and tested. Wireless application development, on the other hand, is more challenging because applications are developed on one platform (like UNIX or Windows) and deployed on a to...... - Wireless application programming models - Testing and deploying wireless applications - Applying the Service-Oriented Architecture - Web services for mobile devices - Securing wireless applications and service...

  1. Trans-Dniester Regulation Problem in the Context of Relations between Russia and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kurylev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern situation as well as prospects of cooperation between Russia and Ukraine in Trans-Dniester regulation are analyzed in this article. National interests of both countries are considered. Problems of cooperation between two countries and importance of cooperation for Russia and Ukraine are also estimated.

  2. A Three-Dimensional Cooperative Guidance Law of Multimissile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct saturation attacks on a static target, the cooperative guidance problem of multimissile system is researched. A three-dimensional guidance model is built using vector calculation and the classic proportional navigation guidance (PNG law is extended to three dimensions. Based on this guidance law, a distributed cooperative guidance strategy is proposed and a consensus protocol is designed to coordinate the time-to-go commands of all missiles. Then an expert system, which contains two extreme learning machines (ELM, is developed to regulate the local proportional coefficient of each missile according to the command. All missiles can arrive at the target simultaneously under the assumption that the multimissile network is connected. A simulation scenario is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  3. Cheating and punishment in cooperative animal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Frederickson, Megan E

    2016-02-05

    Cheaters-genotypes that gain a selective advantage by taking the benefits of the social contributions of others while avoiding the costs of cooperating-are thought to pose a major threat to the evolutionary stability of cooperative societies. In order for cheaters to undermine cooperation, cheating must be an adaptive strategy: cheaters must have higher fitness than cooperators, and their behaviour must reduce the fitness of their cooperative partners. It is frequently suggested that cheating is not adaptive because cooperators have evolved mechanisms to punish these behaviours, thereby reducing the fitness of selfish individuals. However, a simpler hypothesis is that such societies arise precisely because cooperative strategies have been favoured over selfish ones-hence, behaviours that have been interpreted as 'cheating' may not actually result in increased fitness, even when they go unpunished. Here, we review the empirical evidence for cheating behaviours in animal societies, including cooperatively breeding vertebrates and social insects, and we ask whether such behaviours are primarily limited by punishment. Our review suggests that both cheating and punishment are probably rarer than often supposed. Uncooperative individuals typically have lower, not higher, fitness than cooperators; and when evidence suggests that cheating may be adaptive, it is often limited by frequency-dependent selection rather than by punishment. When apparently punitive behaviours do occur, it remains an open question whether they evolved in order to limit cheating, or whether they arose before the evolution of cooperation.

  4. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  5. Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Nuclear Power Group

    1998-03-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) describes intergranular environmental cracking of material exposed to ionizing radiation. The implications of IASCC are significant, both in terms of repair and outage costs as well as the potential for cracking in components that may be extremely difficult to repair or replace. Significant advancements have been made in the understanding of IASCC. However, it is clear that major unknowns persist and must be understood and quantified before the life of a reactor component at risk from IASCC can be predicted or significantly extended. Although individual organizations are continuing to effectively address IASCC, it became apparent that a more direct form of cooperation would be more timely and efficient in addressing the technical issues. Thus in 1995 EPRI formed the Cooperative IASCC Research (CIR) Program. This is a cooperative, jointly funded effort with participants from eight countries providing financial support and technical oversight. The efforts of the CIR Program are directed at the highest priority questions in the areas of material susceptibility, water chemistry and material stress. Major research areas of the Program are: (1) evaluation of IASCC mechanisms, (2) development of methodology for predicting IASCC, and (3) quantification of irradiation effects on metallurgy, mechanics and electrochemistry. Studies to evaluate various IASCC mechanisms include work to better understand the possible roles of radiation-induced segregation (RIS), radiation microstructure, bulk and localized deformation effects, overall effects on strength and ductility, hydrogen and helium effects, and others. Experiments are being conducted to isolate individual effects and determine the relative importance of each in the overall IASCC mechanism. Screening tests will be followed by detailed testing to identify the contribution of each effect over a range of conditions. The paper describes the completed and ongoing work being

  6. Models of conflict and cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Gillman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Models of Conflict and Cooperation is a comprehensive, introductory, game theory text for general undergraduate students. As a textbook, it provides a new and distinctive experience for students working to become quantitatively literate. Each chapter begins with a "dialogue" that models quantitative discourse while previewing the topics presented in the rest of the chapter. Subsequent sections develop the key ideas starting with basic models and ending with deep concepts and results. Throughout all of the sections, attention is given to promoting student engagement with the material through re

  7. Long Standing Friendship Continuous Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yun

    2004-01-01

    @@ This year we celebrate the 55th anniversary of the establishment of dipomatic relations between China and Romania. As a friendly country, having long-term relations with China, what kind of economic cooperation exists between the two nations? What are the incentives that made the trade volume highly rated in the recent years, particularly this year? Which are the perspectives of the Sino-Romanian relationship? With those questions, the reporters have interviewed H.E. Ambassador Viorel Isticioaia-Budura, Ambassador of Romania to China.

  8. Launching "the evolution of cooperation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Robert

    2012-04-21

    This article describes three aspects of the author's early work on the evolution of the cooperation. First, it explains how the idea for a computer tournament for the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma was inspired by the artificial intelligence research on computer checkers and computer chess. Second, it shows how the vulnerability of simple reciprocity of misunderstanding or misimplementation can be eliminated with the addition of some degree of generosity or contrition. Third, it recounts the unusual collaboration between the author, a political scientist, and William D. Hamilton, an evolutionary biologist.

  9. Cooperative effects in spherical spasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    a shell/core contains an arbitrarily large number of active molecules in the vicinity of a metallic core/shell. An essential aspect of the theory is an ab initio account of the feedback from the core/shell boundaries which significantly modifies the molecular dynamics. The theory provides rigorous, albeit......A fully analytical semiclassical theory of cooperative optical processes which occur in an ensemble of molecules embedded in a spherical core-shell nanoparticle is developed from first principles. Both the plasmonic Dicke effect and spaser generation are investigated for the designs in which...

  10. Reversible Switching of Cooperating Replicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtel, Georg C.; Rind, Thomas; Braun, Dieter

    2017-02-01

    How can molecules with short lifetimes preserve their information over millions of years? For evolution to occur, information-carrying molecules have to replicate before they degrade. Our experiments reveal a robust, reversible cooperation mechanism in oligonucleotide replication. Two inherently slow replicating hairpin molecules can transfer their information to fast crossbreed replicators that outgrow the hairpins. The reverse is also possible. When one replication initiation site is missing, single hairpins reemerge from the crossbreed. With this mechanism, interacting replicators can switch between the hairpin and crossbreed mode, revealing a flexible adaptation to different boundary conditions.

  11. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  12. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  13. It is the cooperation, stupid!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of aesthetics in medicine has resulted from society′s acknowledgement of the importance of physical beauty. This has led to an emerging conflict between allied specialties. The author introduces the concept of "Aesthetic Socialism" according to which everyone should have an opportunity to enhance or restore the beauty where it is missing or when it is lost due to disease, trauma or ageing. However, there are multiple aspects of aesthetics, which can not be addressed by a single specialty, therefore author recommends interdisciplinary cooperation rather than conflict to achieve aesthetic socialism.

  14. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  15. 时尚着,运动着——MINI Cooper S & MINI Cooper S Clubman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于英钊

    2008-01-01

    <正>在成功地推出MINI Cooper和MINI Cooper Clubman车型后,宝马中国将MINI的顶级车型Cooper S引入中国大陆市场。不久前,MINI Cooper S和MINI Cooper S Clubman在上海联袂登场,使MINI品牌产品系列更加丰富。作为车系中的高端车型, MINI Cooper S和MINI Cooper S Clubman价格不菲,售价分别为人民币385,000元和410,000元。

  16. Modeling of a Cooperation Environment in a Virtual Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨楠; 郑会永; 杨涛; 韩向利; 肖田元

    2002-01-01

    Virtual enterprises (VEs) are the most promising structure for future enterprises. The cooperative environment of VEs is investigated in this paper. The cooperation in a VE is a process and the depth of the cooperation and the information transparency change in different phases of the cooperation. A tri-layered cooperative structure pattern is discussed with a tri-layered cooperative process model which includes the conceptual cooperation model, the detailed cooperation model, and the executive cooperation model. Analysis of the tri-layered process modeling provides a foundation for the cooperation environment.

  17. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  18. Evolution of Cooperation on Temporal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Aming; Su, Qi; Cornelius, Sean P; Liu, Yang-Yu; Wang, Long

    2016-01-01

    The structure of social networks is a key determinant in fostering cooperation and other altruistic behavior among naturally selfish individuals. However, most real social interactions are temporal, being both finite in duration and spread out over time. This raises the question of whether stable cooperation can form despite an intrinsically fragmented social fabric. Here we develop a framework to study the evolution of cooperation on temporal networks in the setting of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma. By analyzing both real and synthetic datasets, we find that temporal networks generally facilitate the evolution of cooperation compared to their static counterparts. More interestingly, we find that the intrinsic human interactive pattern like bursty behavior impedes the evolution of cooperation. Finally, we introduce a measure to quantify the temporality present in networks and demonstrate that there is an intermediate level of temporality that boosts cooperation most. Our results open a new avenue for investi...

  19. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  20. Cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of the recently discovered cooperative internal conversion process is investigated theoretically. In the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange investigated the coupling of bound-free electron and proton transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to proton exchange and an electron emission. General expression of the cross section of the process obtained in the one particle spherical nuclear shell model is presented. As a numerical example the cooperative internal conversion process by proton exchange in $Al$ is dealt with. As a further generalization, cooperative internal conversion process by heavy charged particle exchange and as an example of it the cooperative internal conversion process by triton exchange is discussed. The process is also connected to the field of nuclear waste disposal.