WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperative growth study

  1. Physiological growth hormone replacement and rate of recurrence of craniopharyngioma: the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy R; Cote, David J; Jane, John A; Laws, Edward R

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The object of this study was to establish recurrence rates in patients with craniopharyngioma postoperatively treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) as a basis for determining the risk of rhGH therapy in the development of recurrent tumor. METHODS The study included 739 pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma who were naïve to GH upon entering the Genentech National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) for treatment. Reoperation for tumor recurrence was documented as an adverse event. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were developed for time to recurrence, using age as the outcome and enrollment date as the predictor. Patients without recurrence were treated as censored. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the incidence of recurrence with adjustment for the amount of time at risk. RESULTS Fifty recurrences in these 739 surgically treated patients were recorded. The overall craniopharyngioma recurrence rate in the NCGS was 6.8%, with a median follow-up time of 4.3 years (range 0.7-6.4 years.). Age at the time of study enrollment was statistically significant according to both Cox (p = 0.0032) and logistic (p craniopharyngioma after surgery in children, but long-term follow-up of GH-treated patients is required to establish a true natural history in the GH treatment era.

  2. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development......, business model development and financial development. The trinity requires time to get the specific insight on application for each SME. An enhanced contribution is made to the field of SMEs, to academia and to public bodies to understand the needed initiatives to support SMEs for innovation and growth...

  3. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in short stature: data from National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) Substudy 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen F; Alter, Craig A; Dana, Ken; Baptista, Joyce; Blethen, Sandra L

    2002-05-01

    The primary use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of children with short stature (SS) is to discover lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly tumors that may require intervention. MRI has a secondary role in identifying structural abnormalities responsible for growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We examined data from the National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) Substudy 8 to determine how American physicians are using MRI in evaluating children with SS. Of the 21,738 short children enrolled in NCGS, 5% underwent MRI during their follow-up. Children who had GH stimulation testing were more likely to have had an MRI than those in whom no GH stimulation test was performed (19% vs 2%, p 10 ng/ml), respectively. Abnormalities unrelated to the hypothalamus or pituitary represented 30% of these findings, while disorders in pituitary anatomy, including pituitary hypoplasia, pituitary stalk interruption, and ectopic posterior pituitary, represented an additional 30% of abnormal MRI examinations. CNS tumors comprised 23% of abnormal findings in these patients. We conclude that MRI provides significant value in the evaluation of children with SS, by identifying CNS tumors associated with growth failure as well as anatomical abnormalities of the pituitary. These findings are useful in confirming the diagnosis of GHD in children and identifying potential candidates for continued GH replacement in adulthood.

  4. Cooperation of Indian Hedgehog and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Tumor Angiogenesis and Growth in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas, an Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guangxi; Wang, Yuxiang; Guo, Limei

    2018-04-07

    The Hedgehog pathway was recently shown to be involved in vascular development and neovascularization in human embryogenesis and disease. However, the role of Hedgehog pathway in modulating tumor angiogenesis is still unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with immunohistochemical staining and compared the immunoreaction data with various clinicopathologic characteristics. Immunoreactivity of Ihh and VEGF proteins was observed in 61.5% (56/91) and 64.5% (59/91) cases of HCC tumor tissues, respectively, which was considerably higher than the adjacent nonmalignant tissues. Ihh protein was observed predominantly in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells with a staining pattern of which was sparse and dot-like, or circular around the cell membrane. VEGF protein was expressed heterogenously in the cytoplasm in tumor cells and was negative in peritumoral areas in all cases. CD34 showed diffuse staining in the tumor parenchyma in most HCC specimens. The association of expression of Ihh and VEGF with tumor size was statistically significant (PIhh and VEGF proteins in HCC (r=0.6, PIhh and CD34 staining (r=0.261, P=0.012). Our findings suggest that Ihh is involved in the development of HCC. These findings are also consistent with the concept that cooperation of Ihh and VEGF modulate HCC tumor angiogenesis and growth.

  5. Interfrm Cooperation Strategy of Hyper-Growth and Stable-Growth ICT Firms in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Golonka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to compare the phenomenon of interfrm cooperation strategy in both hyper-growth, and stable-growth knowledge and technology–intensive frms, in a country characterized by a high level of generalized trust: Sweden. Methodology: Qualitative methods were incorporated: direct semistructured interviews with top managers in 13 ICT frms (8 hyper-growth and 5 stable-growth, analyzis of reports, corporate websites and press releases. Furthermore, interviews in 3 expert frms in the industry were conducted, facilitating interfrm cooperation. Conclusions: There were signifcant differences in interfrm cooperation strategy in two distinguished groups of the frms: hyper-growth, and stable-growth. Managers’ individual approaches to uncertainty, strategy and cooperation might be more important than institutional settings. The ICT frms operate in a constantly changing global environment and local context seems to have only a minor impact on the rules of the game in the industry. Research limitations: This study was a qualitative explorative approach as an introduction to further empirical research. Originality: The study presents an interfrm cooperation phenomenon incorporating different perspectives and settings. It contributes to alliance portfolio literature (forming and managing of alliance portfolio in a different context/country/industry, and enhances understanding of frm strategies characterized by different growth rates.

  6. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  7. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  8. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-09-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  9. Bacterial Quorum Sensing Stabilizes Cooperation by Optimizing Growth Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruger, Eric L; Waters, Christopher M

    2016-11-15

    Communication has been suggested as a mechanism to stabilize cooperation. In bacteria, chemical communication, termed quorum sensing (QS), has been hypothesized to fill this role, and extracellular public goods are often induced by QS at high cell densities. Here we show, with the bacterium Vibrio harveyi, that QS provides strong resistance against invasion of a QS defector strain by maximizing the cellular growth rate at low cell densities while achieving maximum productivity through protease upregulation at high cell densities. In contrast, QS mutants that act as defectors or unconditional cooperators maximize either the growth rate or the growth yield, respectively, and thus are less fit than the wild-type QS strain. Our findings provide experimental evidence that regulation mediated by microbial communication can optimize growth strategies and stabilize cooperative phenotypes by preventing defector invasion, even under well-mixed conditions. This effect is due to a combination of responsiveness to environmental conditions provided by QS, lowering of competitive costs when QS is not induced, and pleiotropic constraints imposed on defectors that do not perform QS. Cooperation is a fundamental problem for evolutionary biology to explain. Conditional participation through phenotypic plasticity driven by communication is a potential solution to this dilemma. Thus, among bacteria, QS has been proposed to be a proximate stabilizing mechanism for cooperative behaviors. Here, we empirically demonstrate that QS in V. harveyi prevents cheating and subsequent invasion by nonproducing defectors by maximizing the growth rate at low cell densities and the growth yield at high cell densities, whereas an unconditional cooperator is rapidly driven to extinction by defectors. Our findings provide experimental evidence that QS regulation prevents the invasion of cooperative populations by QS defectors even under unstructured conditions, and they strongly support the role of

  10. Symbiotic Cell Differentiation and Cooperative Growth in Multicellular Aggregates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumpei F Yamagishi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As cells grow and divide under a given environment, they become crowded and resources are limited, as seen in bacterial biofilms and multicellular aggregates. These cells often show strong interactions through exchanging chemicals, as evident in quorum sensing, to achieve mutualism and division of labor. Here, to achieve stable division of labor, three characteristics are required. First, isogenous cells differentiate into several types. Second, this aggregate of distinct cell types shows better growth than that of isolated cells without interaction and differentiation, by achieving division of labor. Third, this cell aggregate is robust with respect to the number distribution of differentiated cell types. Indeed, theoretical studies have thus far considered how such cooperation is achieved when the ability of cell differentiation is presumed. Here, we address how cells acquire the ability of cell differentiation and division of labor simultaneously, which is also connected with the robustness of a cell society. For this purpose, we developed a dynamical-systems model of cells consisting of chemical components with intracellular catalytic reaction dynamics. The reactions convert external nutrients into internal components for cellular growth, and the divided cells interact through chemical diffusion. We found that cells sharing an identical catalytic network spontaneously differentiate via induction from cell-cell interactions, and then achieve division of labor, enabling a higher growth rate than that in the unicellular case. This symbiotic differentiation emerged for a class of reaction networks under the condition of nutrient limitation and strong cell-cell interactions. Then, robustness in the cell type distribution was achieved, while instability of collective growth could emerge even among the cooperative cells when the internal reserves of products were dominant. The present mechanism is simple and general as a natural consequence of

  11. SMEs’ Organizational Performance: Comparative Study between Cooperated and Uncooperated Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla de Lucena Justino Gomes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the need for survival and competitiveness, here called micro and small enterprises (MPE, they seek to develop competitive differentials, such as the insertion of the company into a cooperation network. Several researches seek to identify the benefits of cooperative strategies, but few studies seek to compare the organizational performance of cooperating companies with that of uncooperated companies. Thus, the present study has as general objective to verify if the MPE, when inserted in cooperation networks, present organizational performance superior to those that are not inserted in that context. The present research is of the survey type and involves 67 companies inserted in cooperation networks and 154 companies that do not participate in cooperation networks. To achieve the objective, the organizational performance was analyzed based on the managers' perception regarding aspects associated to the following performance measures: customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, company growth, company profitability and overall performance. The results indicate that the companies included in cooperation networks presented superior performance when compared to the companies not included in cooperation networks

  12. Cooperation and Development: a study of case in network cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June Alisson Westarb Cruz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to develop new surviving strategies and competitive advantage by individuals and organizations make cooperation to obtain complementary competences and potentialities very important, through the insertion of social actors in multiple networks of relationships and interactions.  This research was made in an Association Network of Carrinheiros[1] located in Curitiba and in the coast of Paraná.  The objective of the study was to analyze the structural characteristics of the network and its implications to develop collective actions. The data was collected through questionnaires, interviews, document analysis, and the daily direct observation of the network.  An interaction system between individuals and organizations from various sectors in society could be verified. This interaction stimulates the structured work connected to associations and cooperatives.  Between the actors of the network, concepts and realities are different, as well as individual objectives are distinct.  However, they converge to a common general objective that establish a common base for collaborative work.

  13. Cooper Drive pedestrian study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the findings of the pedestrian study conducted for Cooper Drive from Nicholasville Road to Sports Center Drive on the University of Kentucky Campus in Lexington, KY. This study was initiated by the Universit...

  14. Maternal, social and abiotic environmental effects on growth vary across life stages in a cooperative mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Sinead; Bateman, Andrew W; Mares, Rafael; Ozgul, Arpat; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2014-03-01

    Resource availability plays a key role in driving variation in somatic growth and body condition, and the factors determining access to resources vary considerably across life stages. Parents and carers may exert important influences in early life, when individuals are nutritionally dependent, with abiotic environmental effects having stronger influences later in development as individuals forage independently. Most studies have measured specific factors influencing growth across development or have compared relative influences of different factors within specific life stages. Such studies may not capture whether early-life factors continue to have delayed effects at later stages, or whether social factors change when individuals become nutritionally independent and adults become competitors for, rather than providers of, food. Here, we examined variation in the influence of the abiotic, social and maternal environment on growth across life stages in a wild population of cooperatively breeding meerkats. Cooperatively breeding vertebrates are ideal for investigating environmental influences on growth. In addition to experiencing highly variable abiotic conditions, cooperative breeders are typified by heterogeneity both among breeders, with mothers varying in age and social status, and in the number of carers present. Recent rainfall had a consistently marked effect on growth across life stages, yet other seasonal terms only influenced growth during stages when individuals were growing fastest. Group size and maternal dominance status had positive effects on growth during the period of nutritional dependence on carers, but did not influence mass at emergence (at 1 month) or growth at independent stages (>4 months). Pups born to older mothers were lighter at 1 month of age and subsequently grew faster as subadults. Males grew faster than females during the juvenile and subadult stage only. Our findings demonstrate the complex ways in which the external environment

  15. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Toshio; Nagata, Kazuyuki; Nagakubo, Akihiko

    1998-01-01

    This study aims to develop a dispersed cooperative intellectualized system technique and a sensing system required for construction of a robot group inspectable in patrol and maintainable in selfish in a plant with large scale and complex variety. In particular, in order to establish a system with flexibility response to environment and soundness durable to abnormal accident, a cooperative active sensing technique and real-time active vision sensing technique were started. On the base of last two years results, in 1996 fiscal year, important and expansion of each element technique was conducted to start a study on movement of focussing point which was an important function of the active vision sensing. (G.K.)

  16. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Hirai, Shigeoki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro

    1999-01-01

    In order to realize autonomous type nuclear plant, three-dimensional geometrical modelling method, and a basic technology on information collection and processing system preparation in some nuclear basic technology developments such as 'study on system evaluation of nuclear facility furnished with artificial intelligence for nuclear power' and 'study on adaptability evaluation of information collection and processing system into autonomous type plant' had already been developed. In this study, a study on sensing system required for constructing robot groups capable of conducting autonomously traveling inspection and maintenance in large scale, complicated and diverse plant has been processed by aiming at establishment of dispersed cooperative intelligent system technology. In 1997 fiscal year, integration of cooperative visual sensing technique was attempted. And, at the same time, upgrading of individual element technology and transportation method essential to the integrated system were investigated. As a result, an operative active sensing prototype system due to transportation robot groups furnished with real time processing capacity on diverse informations by integration of cooperative active sensing technique and real time active sensing technique developed independently plural transportation robot. (G.K.)

  17. A strategy study on international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong Rae; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Kim, Young Min; Shin, Kyung Hye; Yoon, Sung Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Jong Hee; Hong Young Don

    1995-12-01

    The implementing methodologies suggested from this study cover the following: 1) strategies for the promotion of the nation's leading roles in such international organizations as the IAEA and OECD/NEA; 2) strategies for the implementation of national nuclear policy, positively coping with international nuclear trends; 3) strategies for the promotion of technical cooperation with the Russian Federation to introduce essential nuclear technology by utilizing its new environment of science and technology. 39 tabs., 28 figs., 64 refs. (Author)

  18. Study on a cooperative active sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukune, Hideo; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro; Matsushita, Toshio; Nagata, Kazuyuki; Nagakubo, Akihiko

    1997-01-01

    This study was made as a part of the research project ''Study on the evaluation of applicability of information collection·processing system to autonomous plant''. Previously, the basic techniques for 3-dimensional geometric modeling of working environments and for systemizing of information collection and processing have been developed. Thus, this study aimed to establish the techniques for a decentralized and cooperatively intellectualized system which allows to automatically perform patrol for inspection and maintenance in complicated plants. First, developments of cooperative active sensing for functioning in a multi-robot system and real-time active visual sensing were attempted and then the both were integrated to produce a prototype system for cooperative active sensing. The outcomes of the project in this year were as follows; a mobile platform with expanded functions, acoustic information processing, parallel EusLisp, a simulator for moving robot's behaviors, a visual monitoring system for moving objects, etc. All of these were usable for general purpose. (M.N.)

  19. Cooperative Learning in Accounting Classes: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William B.

    1999-01-01

    Accounting student teams worked cooperatively on homework, problem solving, and test preparation. Group study helped retention, especially when interdependence was rewarded. Although they enjoyed cooperative learning, most students preferred individual study. (SK)

  20. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  1. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  2. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-07-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  3. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  4. Social networks and cooperation: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Lopes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The social network analysis involves social and behavioral science. The decentralization of productive activities, such as the formation of "network organizations" as a result of downsizing of large corporate structures of the past, marked by outsoucing and formation of alliances, shows the importance of this theme. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the theory of cooperation and social networks over a period of 24 years. For this, was performed a bibliometric study with content analysis. The database chosen for the initial sample search was ISI Web of Science. The search topics were “social network” and “cooperation”. Were analyzed 97 articles and their references, through networks of citations. The main identified research groups dealing with issues related to trust, strategic alliances, natural cooperation, game theory, social capital, intensity of interaction, reciprocity and innovation. It was found that the publications occurred in a large number of journals, which indicates that the theme is multidisciplinary, and only five journals published at least three articles. Although the first publication has occurred in 1987, was from 2006 that the publications effectively increased. The areas most related to the theme of the research were performance, evolution, management, graphics, model and game theory.

  5. Implementing interorganizational cooperation in labour market reintegration: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Christian

    2012-06-01

    To bring people with complex medical, social and vocational needs back to the labour market, interorganizational cooperation is often needed. Yet, studies of processes and strategies for achieving sustainable interorganizational cooperation are sparse. The aim of this study was to analyse the implementation processes of Swedish legislation on financial coordination, with specific focus on different strategies for and perspectives on implementing interorganizational cooperation. A multiple-case study was used, where two local associations for financial coordination were studied in order to elucidate and compare the development of cooperative work in two settings. The material, collected during a 3-year period, consisted of documents, individual interviews with managers, and focus groups with officials. Two different implementation strategies were identified. In case 1, a linear strategy was used to implement cooperative projects, which led to difficulties in maintaining cooperative work forms due to a fragmented and time-limited implementation process. In case 2, an interactive strategy was used, where managers and politicians were continuously involved in developing a central cooperation team that became a central part of a developing structure for interorganizational cooperation. An interactive cooperation strategy with long-term joint financing was here shown to be successful in overcoming organizational barriers to cooperation. It is suggested that a strategy based on adaptation to local conditions, flexibility and constant evaluation is preferred for developing sustainable interorganizational cooperation when implementing policies or legislation affecting interorganizational relationships.

  6. Cooperation, Technology, and Performance: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Thomas; Dickenson, Sabrina; Brandt, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the CTP (Cooperation, Technology, and Performance) model and explains how it is used by the Department of Veterans Affairs-Veteran's Benefit Administration (VBA) for training. Discusses task analysis; computer-based training; cooperative-based learning environments; technology-based learning; performance-assessment methods; courseware…

  7. Energetic requirements for growth of the jackass penguin | Cooper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicks in the field grew at a slower rate than the hand-reared birds and were estimated to have consumed approximately half as much food by time of fledging. Feeding of chicks in the field occurred mainly in the afternoon and daily food intake increased with age. It is possible that the slower growth rates in the field may be ...

  8. Growth strategies and governance of horizontal business networks: the case of the biggest German cooperative food retail network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wegner

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several growth strategies may be adopted by cooperative retail networks, but these strategies create dilemmas about how to organize business networks with a large number of participants and the adjustments in the governance system that are necessary to facilitate growth. The article examines the relations between the growth strategies adopted by a horizontal business network and its governance system. We analyze the case of Edeka, a centennial cooperative network, leader in food retail in Germany, showing its growth strategies and implications for the network structure. The case study was based on various secondary data sources and focuses the whole network – and not the networked firms – as the unit of analysis. Results indicate that, in order to grow, the network changed its governance structure and the process of participation of members in decision making, creating a hierarchical structure with professional management. The paper contributes to the discussions on cooperative governance and demonstrates that governance systems are transient and adapt to the network strategies. From a management viewpoint, the results show the effects of the growth strategies adopted by business networks, regarding the role of network managers and entrepreneurs in network management.

  9. Deviations from cooperative growth mode during eutectoid transformation: Insights from a phase-field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankit, Kumar; Mukherjee, Rajdip; Mittnacht, Tobias; Nestler, Britta

    2014-01-01

    The non-cooperative eutectoid transformation relies on the presence of pre-existing cementite particles in the parent austenitic phase and yields a product, popularly known as the divorced eutectoid. Under isothermal conditions, two of the important parameters that influence the transformation mechanism and determine the final morphology are undercooling (below the A 1 temperature) and interparticle spacing. Although the criteria that govern the morphological transition from lamellar to divorced is experimentally well established, numerical studies giving a detailed exposition of the non-cooperative transformation mechanism have not been reported extensively. In the present work, we employ a multiphase-field model that uses thermodynamic information from the CALPHAD database to numerically simulate the pulling-away of the advancing ferrite–austenite interface from cementite, which results in a transition from lamellar to divorced eutectoid morphology in Fe–C alloy. We also identify the onset of a concurrent growth and coarsening regime at small interparticle spacing and low undercooling. We analyze the simulation results to unravel the essential physics behind this complex spatial and temporal evolution pathway and amend the existing criteria by constructing a Lamellar-Divorced-Coarsening (LDC) map

  10. Cooperative endeavors: A case study of success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Partnerships and cooperative agreements abound in the environmental arena today. This paper briefly highlights the collaborative approach used by the International Cooperative for Ozone Layer Protection (ICOLP). ICOLP has helped international members and non-members to eliminate most of the ozone-depleting solvents from manufacturing processes through the exchange of technical information in a non-proprietary manner. By using alternatives, companies and governments have realized savings in the multiple millions of dollars. Advantages of participating in cooperative environmental partnerships may include: (1) improved access and exchange of information, (2) cost minimization, (3) promotion and facilitation of business opportunities, (4) improved dialogue between groups, (5) coordinated approach to complex issues, and (6) technology development and transfer opportunities.

  11. Cooperation Agreements in Biotechnology Companies: An Advantage for the Acquisition of New Capabilities and Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Gabriel Bas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation agreements in biotechnology allow us to observe the complexity surrounding alliances. The market globalization, the exorbitant costs of R&D and the rapid changes in technology, are arguably amongst the principal reasons that push companies to establish cooperation agreements. Biotechnology companies use this instrument to develop external features in the search for resources and missing expertise. This paper sets out to identify if such cooperation agreements in biotechnology companies are an advantage in themselves, sufficient for the acquisition of new capabilities and if they help the growth of these companies. For this approach, a private database of companies in the two most advanced countries in this sector: United States and United Kingdom, will be used.

  12. University-Company Cooperation in a Hydroelectric Plant: Cooperation Study in Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Mussi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroelectric power plants are considered strategic for the country when considering their relevance and impact on other sectors of the economy. However, the dynamics of the operation of a plant, its support structure and power generation activities can cause impacts on the environment, which must be constantly monitored in order to mitigate any environmental risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the partnership relations between a plant by menas of the creation of a department within the environmental management and universities and research institutes to identify specific partnerships in environmental management and hydroelectric plants. Six projects have been selected for analysis, four of them related to projects with universities and two related to cooperation with research institutes. The focus of the analysis was restricted to the main points observed in the management of these partnerships, which are: (a motivation for establishing partnerships, (b the composition of the estimated costs for implementing these partnerships, (c the difficulties of reconciling technical management and financial management, and (d the measurement of results and contributions from these interactions. Administrative practices of management of partnerships were also analyzed in the stages preceding cooperation for cooperation and further cooperation. Although other such studies are needed to strengthen the findings presented, one can conclude that the purposes of the establishment of cooperation in environmental management differ from those observed in other fields of knowledge such as engineering and biotechnology, for example.

  13. Post-socialist agricultural cooperatives in Russia : A case study of top-down cooperatives in the Belgorod region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kurakin (Alexander); O. Visser (Oane)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThrough a study of agricultural service cooperatives in Russia’s Belgorod region, this article addresses two gaps in the literature: _first_, the dearth of empirical studies on cooperatives in post-socialist Russia; _second_, the lack of attention to top-down cooperatives in

  14. Exploring Hope, Self-Efficacy, Procrastination, and Study Skills between Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; McBeath, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in cooperative education, and several psychological constructs believed to be related to success in both academic and professional settings. Participants, undergraduate cooperative (n = 1224) and non-cooperative education (n = 746) students in all years of study and from…

  15. Evaluating the Cooperative Component in Cooperative Learning: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; English, Linda K.; McGoldrick, KimMarie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors employed a quasi-experimental research design to examine the efficacy of a cooperative learning pedagogy (i.e., think-pair-share exercises) integrated into sections of microeconomic principles. Materials, exercises, and assessment instruments for all study sections are identical except for the nature of the…

  16. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  17. THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS ON THE GROWTH OF ITALIAN SOCIAL COOPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Agliata; Caterina Ferrone; Danilo Tuccillo

    2014-01-01

    The Third Sector in Italy records a slow but constant growth due to the increase of the number of entities but not of their dimension. The difficulties in financial management, generated by a low attraction of debt and equity financial resources and a low level of managerial skills characterized the non profit organizations. Focused on the social cooperatives, the article describe the effects on the financial structure of innovative financial instruments as the participative loan. In the last...

  18. An Experimental Study of Career Development in Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Education Liberal Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martello, John S.; Shelton, Paul D.

    1980-01-01

    A study comparing cooperative and noncooperative education students across time on several variables related to career maturity, career choice, and major certainty showed that co-op students rate higher in career maturity, career planning and problem-solving abilities. (JOW)

  19. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  20. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this phase III study was to compare the efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) versus docetaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative patients were randomly assigned...

  1. An Exploratory Study of Cooperative Survival: Strategic Adaptation to External Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Grashuis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Farmer cooperatives have been portrayed in the literature as flawed and complex organizations with ambiguous objectives. However, research on the observed survival of farmer cooperatives in spite of their weaknesses and limitations is scarce, in part because academic attention to cooperative performance has been static and introspective. Using evidence collected from case studies and print media publications, this paper contributes to the literature with a qualitative study of farmer cooperatives which spurred survival and longevity by means of strategic adaptation in response to four current developments in the external environment: industry consolidation, consumer segmentation, price volatility, and policy change. The qualitative study concludes farmer cooperatives in general respond to such developments by means of organizational growth. Common strategies are vertical integration, geographic expansion, and portfolio diversification. While survival and longevity are promoted in theory, strategic adaptation also often facilitates the pursuit of investor-oriented as opposed to user-oriented objectives. In some scenarios, member ownership and control may become burdensome to the business and prompt conversion to another structure if further adaptation to internal and external developments is unsuccessful. More research is therefore needed to explore the dynamic and variable impact of strategy on cooperative survival.

  2. Hybrid Method for Mobile learning Cooperative: Study of Timor Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Tavares, Ofelia Cizela; Suyoto; Pranowo

    2018-02-01

    In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and SAW (simple additive Weighting) method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.

  3. Hybrid Method for Mobile learning Cooperative: Study of Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Costa Tavares Ofelia Cizela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process and SAW (simple additive Weighting method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.

  4. Inequality, trust and growth : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadrieh, A.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    In a three player dynamic public goods experiment, social output today determines production possibilities tomorrow.In each period, players choose to sabotage, to co-operate, or to play best response.Sabotage harms social output and growth.Mutual co-operation maximises both.The property rights to

  5. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN DISTANCE LEARNING: A MIXED METHODS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Kupczynski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning has facilitated innovative means to include Cooperative Learning (CL in virtual settings. This study, conducted at a Hispanic-Serving Institution, compared the effectiveness of online CL strategies in discussion forums with traditional online forums. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 56 graduate student participants. Quantitative results revealed no significant difference on student success between CL and Traditional formats. The qualitative data revealed that students in the cooperative learning groups found more learning benefits than the Traditional group. The study will benefit instructors and students in distance learning to improve teaching and learning practices in a virtual classroom.

  6. Cooperative learning benefits scale: construction and validation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale of benefits of the Cooperative Learning (SBCL given the exiguity of instruments that evaluate these outputs of the method. The study resorted to a convenience sample comprised of 162 students, males and females, aged between 11 and 18 years. The final instrument has 23 items in a two-dimensional factor structure: psychological and academic benefits and social benefits. The results indicate that the SBCL present good psychometric properties (construct and discriminant validity and reliability. The results are discussed in light of the model of cooperative learning.

  7. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  8. Cooperative Research Twin Trawl Sweep Comparison Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Twin-Trawl Sweep Efficiency Study" was intended to compare the sweep efficiency and selectivity of the NEFSC standardized bottom trawl to that of a standardized...

  9. Gender, cooperative organisation and participatory intervention in rural Tanzania : a case study of different types of cooperatives and Moshi University College’s support to rural women

    OpenAIRE

    Msonganzila, M.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes cooperation in a broad sense as the act or process of people working together; cooperative groups and cooperatives thereby become synonyms in this study. In contrast to literature that only recognise...

  10. Failures of Corporate Governance in Housing Cooperatives – Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Walczak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is a discussion and in-depth analysis of the legal and organizational circumstances associated with the activities of Supervisory Boards in housing cooperatives.Methodology: A critical analysis of the existing legislation, own analytical analysis of the source documents, supplemented by conclusions and observations formulated on the basis of a case study, for the preparation of which information has been used obtained from primary sources in the form of documents of the analyzed housing cooperative and information obtained through participant observation.Findings: What has a decisive impact on the mechanisms of corporate governance in housing cooperatives are the direct behaviors of Supervisory Board members, as well as the lack of awareness and involvement of the residents, who do not want to actively participate in the life of the cooperative. A diagnosis is presented of the most important factors that infl uence the actual operations of the analyzed Supervisory Board. While the current legal regulations make it possible to ensure effective and proper control as well as adequate supervision over the activities of cooperatives.Originality: The paper enriches the theory of management sciences in terms of a wider perception of the term corporate governance in relation to other organizations than companies. The presented methodological approach that is the basis for a comprehensive and thorough inspection of the activities of the Management Board can be used in other cooperatives as well. In the literature on the subject no similar analysis, supported by the results of own analytical research, had been found.

  11. The benefit of sustainable industrial cooperation. Study on the economical and ecological benefits of industrial cooperatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.H.J.M.; Lavrijsen, T.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2005-01-01

    From scientific literature and policy memoranda it appears that sustainable industrial cooperatives result into economical and ecological benefits. However, little empirical data on practical results is available. Therefore, recently, an analysis has been carried out determining the benefit of industrial cooperation. The economical and ecological offer businesses a cost-effective option to reduce the environmental burden. Still, real implementation of such cooperatives is only realized yet by forerunners in the field of environmental management [nl

  12. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to English Listening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a strategic instructional system applied by many educators the world over. Researchers of cooperative learning have carried out the study in this field and proved that cooperative learning can create a more interesting and relaxed learning atmosphere. It is generally acknowledged that cooperative learning can reduce…

  13. The Continuing Growth of Global Cooperation Networks in Research: A Conundrum for National Governments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Wagner

    Full Text Available Global collaboration continues to grow as a share of all scientific cooperation, measured as coauthorships of peer-reviewed, published papers. The percent of all scientific papers that are internationally coauthored has more than doubled in 20 years, and they account for all the growth in output among the scientifically advanced countries. Emerging countries, particularly China, have increased their participation in global science, in part by doubling their spending on R&D; they are increasingly likely to appear as partners on internationally coauthored scientific papers. Given the growth of connections at the international level, it is helpful to examine the phenomenon as a communications network and to consider the network as a new organization on the world stage that adds to and complements national systems. When examined as interconnections across the globe over two decades, a global network has grown denser but not more clustered, meaning there are many more connections but they are not grouping into exclusive 'cliques'. This suggests that power relationships are not reproducing those of the political system. The network has features an open system, attracting productive scientists to participate in international projects. National governments could gain efficiencies and influence by developing policies and strategies designed to maximize network benefits-a model different from those designed for national systems.

  14. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-15

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries.

  15. A study on the enhancement of nuclear cooperation with African countries including utilization of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Oh, K. B; Lee, H. M. and others

    2005-05-01

    In this study, potential countries for nuclear cooperation in African region and possible cooperation areas were investigated between Korea and African countries including radioisotopes and more fields were also analysed in depth in order to suggest the recommendations for future cooperation to be considered as follows; First, current status and perspectives of demand and supply of energy and electricity in the African countries, use and development of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation were analyzed. Second, current status of nuclear cooperation between Korea and African countries were investigated as well as analysis of future cooperation potential and countries having potential for nuclear cooperation and possible cooperative activities were suggested considering potential of nuclear market in mid- and long term base and step by step. Third, desirable strategies and directions for the establishment and promotion of nuclear cooperation relations between Korea and African developing countries were suggested in order to develope cooperative relations in efficient and effective manners with African developing countries

  16. Affective Synchrony and Autonomic Coupling during Cooperation: A Hyperscanning Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elide Vanutelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research highlighted that during social interactions people shape each other’s emotional states by resonance mechanisms and synchronized autonomic patterns. Starting from the idea that joint actions create shared emotional experiences, in the present study a social bond was experimentally induced by making subjects cooperate with each other. Participants’ autonomic system activity (electrodermal: skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR; cardiovascular indices: heart rate: HR was continuously monitored during an attentional couple game. The cooperative motivation was induced by presenting feedback which reinforced the positive outcomes of the intersubjective exchange. 24 participants coupled in 12 dyads were recruited. Intrasubject analyses revealed higher HR in the first part of the task, connoted by increased cognitive demand and arousing social dynamic, while intersubject analysis showed increased synchrony in electrodermal activity after the feedback. Such results encourage the use of hyperscanning techniques to assess emotional coupling in ecological and real-time paradigms.

  17. How the workload impacts on cognitive cooperation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Arico, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Toppi, Jlenia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastatios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels. The combination of such data showed that high workload demand impacted significantly on the performance, workload perception, and degree of cooperation.

  18. International Scientific Cooperation in the Field of Spatial Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Aleksandrovich Minakir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the existing structure of international cooperation of scientific organizations in the field of regional studies in different parts of the world. The authors define current major organizations that coordinate the work of scientific subdivisions in the field of regional studies in the whole world and also in Europe, North and South America and the Asia-Pacific region. The researchers offer the new term - ‘public-scientific partnership’ (PSP - and discuss PSP mechanisms and its implementation ways that may strengthen regional scientific research in Russia. The authors also debate the idea of creation of the Russian Association of Regional Science

  19. Global Business Networks and Cooperation within Supply Chain as a Strategy of High-Tech Companies’ Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Ratajczak-Mrozek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The specificity of the operation profile of high-tech companies, including the necessity of operating at the international scale may account for the fact that these companies may find in network relationships, business networks and cooperation an essential determinant for growth and competitiveness. Foreign entities should be especially interesting business partners for high- tech companies, as they are often seen as representing more advanced knowledge, resources and experience. The aim of the article is to point out to global business networks (i.e. including both local and foreign entities, and especially to cooperation within supply chain, as an important basis for a growth strategy of a high-tech company. The article adopts assumptions of the network approach as a concept of companies cooperation. An analysis of the author’s own as well as secondary empirical research, with the focus on high- tech companies located in Poland is presented. In particular, the data from own research of 62 high-tech companies in Poland conducted in the first half of 2011 is analysed. It shows that the high-tech companies placing great importance on cooperation within supply chain demonstrate a higher growth and level of competitiveness than the companies which do not ascribe such importance (bearing in mind that supply chain forms an important part of a business network.

  20. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  1. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  2. [Saarland Growth Study: sampling design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, H; Zabransky, S

    2000-01-01

    The use of reference data to evaluate the physical development of children and adolescents is part of the daily routine in the paediatric ambulance. The construction of such reference data is based on the collection of extensive reference data. There are different kinds of reference data: cross sectional references, which are based on data collected from a big representative cross-sectional sample of the population, longitudinal references, which are based on follow-up surveys of usually smaller samples of individuals from birth to maturity, and mixed longitudinal references, which are a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional reference data. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection and the resulting reference data are discussed. The Saarland Growth Study was conducted for several reasons: growth processes are subject to secular changes, there are no specific reference data for children and adolescents from this part of the country and the growth charts in use in the paediatric praxis are possibly not appropriate any more. Therefore, the Saarland Growth Study served two purposes a) to create actual regional reference data and b) to create a database for future studies on secular trends in growth processes of children and adolescents from Saarland. The present contribution focusses on general remarks on the sampling design of (cross-sectional) growth surveys and its inferences for the design of the present study.

  3. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  4. A Phenomenological Study of Experienced Teacher Perceptions Regarding Cooperative Learning Training and Cooperative Learning Implementation in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study sought to explore the perceptions of experienced teachers regarding cooperative learning training and its implementation in the classroom. Twelve total participants, nine teachers and three administrators, volunteered for this six-week study at a private, K3-12 school in Broward County, Florida. The study's…

  5. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  6. Study on the strategy of negotiation for Korea-Euratom Nuclear Cooperation Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Ryu Jae; Lee, Gwang Seok; Lee, Hanmyung; Jun, Eunju; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2012-09-15

    We suggested the draft of Korea-EURATOM nuclear cooperation agreement that is expected to conclude in the near future by analyzing status and policy on the nuclear development and nuclear cooperation agreement in EURATOM. We expect that results of this study will propose basic strategy and direction of negotiations for Korea-EURATOM nuclear cooperation agreement in the near future.

  7. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders' design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP), was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes.…

  8. West German nuclear politics: a study of international cooperative behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation of the motivations behind West German policies and behavior in the area of nuclear politics. It examines and attempts to explain this behavior using a taxonomy built around the factors of vulnerability, power, domestic support, and autonomy. These are called international cooperative behavior factors. Chapters I and II develop the taxonomy and define the factors in terms of the Federal Republic. Chapter III covers the period up through the functioning of the Nuclear Planning Group, while Chapter IV analyzes NATO's December 1979 modernization decision. The presentation is less chronological and more selective: it focuses on the four international cooperative behavior factors as explanatory concepts. Chapter V examines the utility of the taxonomy. It concludes that the factors of autonomy, domestic support and vulnerability appear to be key in understanding and predicting West German nuclear behavior. The chapter then studies the potential applicability of the taxonomy to other nations or issues. It concludes that the factors are very nation-specific, but they do in fact provide a useful classification and explanatory scheme

  9. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  10. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  11. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  12. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  13. Leon Cooper's Perspective on Teaching Science: An Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Klassen, Stephen; McMillan, Barbara; Metz, Don

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this paper portray the perspective of Professor Leon Cooper, a theoretical physicist, Nobel laureate, active researcher, and physics textbook author, on teaching science and on the nature of science (NOS). The views presented emerged from an interview prepared by the authors and responded to in writing by Professor Cooper. Based on…

  14. Attitudes of Economics and Sociology Students towards Cooperation. A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dzionek-Kozlowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of university education on the learners’ attitudes remains uncertain. Nevertheless, the Economics students’ unwillingness to cooperate is frequently attributed to the content of economic courses, and the theories of profit maximization. This article contributes to the discussion on students’ attitudes towards cooperation based on the survey of 341 Polish and Romanian students. Since these countries differ in terms of collectivism/individualism dimension, we focus on tracing the influence of cultures on cooperativeness. Specifically, we investigate three variables. First, the impact of culture on the willingness to cooperate, secondly, the influence of gender on collaboration, and finally, the differences in attitudes among the students of Sociology and Economics. We find significant differences between Polish and Romanian students’ attitudes towards cooperation, we also observe higher level cooperation among females than males. We detect a drop in cooperation from the first year to the subsequent years of undergraduate studies in Economics.

  15. A Short Study on Cooperative Sector in Iran. Challenges and Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Danaee Fard

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the issues of cooperative sector in Iran. According to the theories,among the three sectors i.e. Public, private and cooperative sector probably cooperative sectorbecause of participating people directly in its process, can work better for economic development andcan be considered as a country economic developer example by job creation and others, Prior Workbecause Islam religion has invited people for having cooperation and also Iranian is a Muslim countrythen there have been a lot work on cooperative sector and this work is among the others who looks forthe challenges and issues in this sector, Approach this paper looks for the challenges and issues ofthe cooperative sector in Iran to run effective cooperation, Results Cooperative sector in alldeveloped and undeveloped and developing countries has its own challenges and in Iran as a fastdeveloping country which want to speed the developing process then needs to consider thecooperative sector challenges in Iran and other countries as well, Implications Practitioners,academician and others who want to work on challenges and issues of cooperative sector in Iran andothers . Value among the other important variables in economic development, cooperative has thepriority because of its fast returned effects in economic development then this paper aims to study thechallenges of this sector.

  16. Stakeholders' Cooperation in the Study Programme Quality Assurance: Theory and Practice in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileicikiene, Nora

    2011-01-01

    The cooperation of various stakeholders' groups is a prerequisite to develop and realise high-quality study programmes, i.e. during studies to develop skills that are relevant to the labour market and social life. In order to achieve effective stakeholders' cooperation, it is necessary to identify stakeholder's groups relevant to a study programme…

  17. A study on the establishment of strengthened infrastructures for bilateral nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pyung Hoon; Jung, Jun Keuk; Shim, Jae Sun; Kim, Myug Ro; Seo, Min Won; Lee, Jeong Kong

    2001-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to look into and analyze the current status of international cooperation activities so far conducted, especially focused on the Joint Standing Committees on Nuclear Energy Cooperation which have served as channels of dialogue for promoting nuclear cooperation between Korea and the counterpart countries, to present the identified problems to be addressed and to come up with appropriate measures to actively and effectively participate in international nuclear cooperation activities in the future by nuclear-related industries, academia and institute with the aim of establishing a firm foundation for implementing more systematic cooperation while the government takes lead. Further, effective and systematic implementation of nuclear bilateral cooperation through full participation of industries, academia and institutes will contribute to national development by advancing nuclear technology

  18. A report of the study committee on problems of the cooperation with developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the long-range program of nuclear energy development and utilization, the need for cooperation with developing countries, meeting their expectations, is stated, while such expectations toward Japan are rising recently. Various aspects in this cooperation have been studied by the ad hoc committee. and the results are presented in this report. The cooperation with developing countries in the nuclear field is significant in its contribution to the economic advances in those countries, Japan's responsibility of lending the aid to the countries, and so on. Contents are the following: significance of the cooperation, the present states of nuclear energy research and development in the developing countries and the expectations, the present state of cooperation and problems in Japan, future aspects of the cooperation with developing countries. (Mori, K.)

  19. Cooperative Game Study of Airlines Based on Flight Frequency Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanming Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the game theory, the relationship between airline ticket price and optimal flight frequency is analyzed. The paper establishes the payoff matrix of the flight frequency in noncooperation scenario and flight frequency optimization model in cooperation scenario. The airline alliance profit distribution is converted into profit distribution game based on the cooperation game theory. The profit distribution game is proved to be convex, and there exists an optimal distribution strategy. The results show that joining the airline alliance can increase airline whole profit, the change of negotiated prices and cost is beneficial to profit distribution of large airlines, and the distribution result is in accordance with aviation development.

  20. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  1. Punishment mechanisms and their effect on cooperation: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farjam, M.D.; Faillo, M.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    In social dilemmas punishment costs resources, not just from the one who is punished but often also from the punisher and society. Reciprocity on the other side is known to lead to cooperation without the costs of punishment. The questions at hand are whether punishment brings advantages besides its

  2. A Lifespan Study of Cooperative Education Graduates: Quantitative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Patricia L.; Ferguson, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Career histories of 73 graduates of Antioch College's liberal arts co-op program, 1946-55, showed an average of 6.5 jobs before retirement and high rates of self-employment. Those with low performance in cooperative education were much more likely to have earned graduate degrees. Self-employed graduates had more varied jobs and retired later. (SK)

  3. Driving Simulator study for intelligent cooperative intersection safety system (IRIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.; Schendzielorz, T.; Mathias, P.; Feenstra, P.

    2008-01-01

    About forty percent of all accidents occur at intersections. The Intelligent Cooperative Intersection Safety system (IRIS), as part of the European research project SAFESPOT, is a roadside application and aims at minimizing the number of accidents at controlled and uncontrolled intersections. IRIS

  4. Influence of different initial distributions on robust cooperation in scale-free networks: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaojie; Fu Feng; Wang Long

    2008-01-01

    We study the evolutionary Prisoner's dilemma game on scale-free networks, focusing on the influence of different initial distributions for cooperators and defectors on the evolution of cooperation. To address this issue, we consider three types of initial distributions for defectors: uniform distribution at random, occupying the most connected nodes, and occupying the lowest-degree nodes, respectively. It is shown that initial configurations for defectors can crucially influence the cooperation level and the evolution speed of cooperation. Interestingly, the situation where defectors initially occupy the lowest-degree vertices can exhibit the most robust cooperation, compared with two other distributions. That is, the cooperation level is least affected by the initial percentage of defectors. Moreover, in this situation, the whole system evolves fastest to the prevalent cooperation. Besides, we obtain the critical values of initial frequency of defectors above which the extinction of cooperators occurs for the respective initial distributions. Our results might be helpful in explaining the maintenance of high cooperation in scale-free networks

  5. Study on the Introduction of High-Quality Educational Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In Sino-foreign cooperative education, high-quality introduced educational resources must benefit the growth and development of students, facilitate the school's capacity building and the improvement of overall educational standards, and promote national socioeconomic development. It is necessary to establish and perfect the various working…

  6. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M H; Kim, H S; Chung, W S; Yun, S W; Ko, H S; Lee, J K

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies.

  7. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Lee, J. K.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with vietnam and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Vietnam. During the study, current status of use and development of nuclear energy in vietnam, were investigated including nuclear power plant and cooperative relations between two nations were also established. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) holding of policy seminar for high level decision makers of Vietnam 3) cooperaton between KAERI/VAEC, 4) joint feasibility study for the construction of KSNP into Vietnam and technical presentation of KSNP. It is recommended that cooperaion with vietnam be implemented systematically through the long term based basic directions and integrated national strategies

  8. EPR studies of cooperative binding of Cu (II) to hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louro, S.R.W.; Tabak, M.

    1983-07-01

    The investigation of the relative affinities of the two pairs of hemoglobin copper sites by monitoring the EPR spectra of the complexes formed by the reaction of copper with deoxyhemoglobin is reported. A model in which two sites are assumed to accept copper ions in a noncooperative way is not able to predict the experimental results. Thus it is conclude that the binding of these ions to hemoglobin is a cooperative phenomenon. (Author) [pt

  9. Cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation: An electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Kenta; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether or not a cooperative context is a determinant of the social influence on the evaluation of two action outcomes: a monetary outcome and a conflict of opinion with other group members. In the present study, three-person groups were randomly assigned to be either a cooperative or individual group and asked to perform a gambling task. The monetary outcomes in the cooperative group were interrelated among group members, whereas those in the individual group did not influence each other. The present results showed that monetary outcomes elicited feedback-related negativity (FRN) and a conflict of opinion with other group members elicited FRN-like negativity, which reflect an evaluation of the motivational significance of action outcomes. The FRN elicited by monetary outcomes was reduced when participants shared decisions with other group members only in the cooperative group, indicating that the cooperative context reduced the motivational significance of monetary outcomes through the diffusion of responsibility. The FRN-like negativity elicited by a conflict of opinion showed a different pattern between the cooperative and individual groups, indicating that the cooperative context can influence the evaluation of a conflict of opinion, possibly via the modulation of group cohesiveness or conflict processing. The present results suggest that a cooperative context, rather than the social setting, is a determinant of the social influence on outcome evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design Fixation and Cooperative Learning in Elementary Engineering Design Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  11. Design fixation and cooperative learning in elementary engineering design project: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study examining 3rd, 4th and 5th graders’ design fixation and cooperative learning in an engineering design project. A mixed methods instrument, the Cooperative Learning Observation Protocol (CLOP, was adapted to record frequency and class observation on cooperative learning engagement through detailed field notes. Students’ design journals and reflections were also analyzed for an inductive qualitative analysis. The findings indicate three major themes of design fixation: 1 fixation on common features of things; 2 fixation on popular teenage culture; 3 fixation on the first design idea. In the cooperative learning process of elementary engineering design project, although pupils had demonstrated some abilities to solve concrete problems in a logical fashion, the participants encountered a number of obstacles in the group. Dominance, social loafing, and other problems occurring in the group process might have offset certain benefits of cooperative learning. Implications of the findings are also discussed.

  12. Human-FES cooperative control for wrist movement: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Gui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional electrical stimulation (FES sometimes applies to patients with partial paralysis, so human voluntary control and FES control both exist. Our study aims to build a cooperative controller to achieve human-FES cooperation. This cooperative controller is formed by a classical FES controller and an impedance controller. The FES controller consists of a back propagation (BP neural network-based feedforward controller and a PID-based feedback controller. The function of impedance controller is to convert volitional force/torque, which is estimated from a three-stage filter based on EMG, into additional angle. The additional angle can reduce the FES intensity in our cooperative controller, comparing to that in classical FES controller. Some assessment experiments are designed to test the performance of the cooperative controller.

  13. NMR study of the cooperative behavior of thermotropic model polypeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurková, Dana; Kříž, Jaroslav; Rodríguez-Cabello, J. C.; Arias, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 186-194 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500604 Grant - others:Spanish Ministry of Science and Culture(ES) A002/02; MAT2000-1764-C02; MAT2001-1853-C02-01; MAT2003- Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thermotropic polymers * cooperativity * synthetic polypeptides Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2007

  14. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  15. Institutionalising co-operation : a study of the Elysée treaty and Franco-German co-operation 1963-1993

    OpenAIRE

    Sverdrup, Bjørn Otto

    1994-01-01

    "INSTITUTIONALISING CO-OPERATION. A STUDY OF THE ELYSÉE TREATY AND FRANCO-GERMAN CO-OPERATION 1963-93" In 1963, France and Germany completed 'The Franco-German Treaty on Organization and Principles of Co-operation', the so-called Elysée Treaty. The Elysée Treaty, and its protocols, are in this study viewed as a political institution, hence the Elysée Treaty will be referred to as the Franco-German institution. This study seeks to answer the question of how the Franco-German institution has...

  16. Update on International Cooperative Groups Studies in Thoracic Malignancies: The Emergence of Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Navika D; Salahudeen, Ameen A; Taylor, Gregory A; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E; Goss, Glenwood D; Decker, Roy H; Kelly, Karen; Scagliotti, Giorgio V; Mok, Tony S; Wakelee, Heather A

    2018-03-17

    Cancer cooperative groups have historically played a critical role in the advancement of non-small-cell lung cancer therapy. Representatives from cooperative groups worldwide convene at the International Lung Cancer Congress annually. The International Lung Cancer Congress had its 17th anniversary in the summer of 2016. The present review highlights the thoracic malignancy studies discussed by presenters. The included studies are merely a sample of the trials of thoracic malignancies ongoing globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  18. Telemanipulation of cooperative robots: a case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliego-Jiménez, Javier; Arteaga-Pérez, Marco

    2018-06-01

    This article addresses the problem of dexterous robotic grasping by means of a telemanipulation system composed of a single master and two slave robot manipulators. The slave robots are analysed as a cooperative system where it is assumed that the robots can push but not pull the object. In order to achieve a stable rigid grasp, a centralised adaptive position-force control algorithm for the slave robots is proposed. On the other hand, a linear velocity observer for the master robot is developed to avoid numerical differentiation. A set of experiments with different human operators were carried out to show the good performance and capabilities of the proposed control-observer algorithm. In addition, the dynamic model and closed-loop dynamics of the telemanipulation is presented.

  19. Measuring the relative performance in mining industry: A case study of cooperative Seif mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Lotfi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the performance of a salt refinery named Seif cooperative mining. The study uses Political–Economical-Social– Technological Analysis (PEST technique to evaluate opportunities and threats associated with external as well as internal factors influencing the firm. The study designs a questionnaire in Liket scale and asks decision maker to evaluate internal/external threats. In terms of external factors, there are four opportunities and ten threats associated with External factor evaluation (EFE factors. In terms of opportunities, existing potential for export has received the highest priority followed by easy access to national transportation and government support. On the threats part, firm’s dependency on importing necessary parts, global price reduction and mineral reserve termination in near future are the most important issues. In addition, in terms of internal factors, on the opportunity part, access to necessary utilities is considered as the most important factor followed by availability of high level lab equipment and sufficient assets and equities. On the threats, depreciation is considered as the most important issue followed by lack of optimum utilization of equipment and lack of enterprise resource planning. In addition, the study uses balanced score card (BSC technique to look at the performance of the firm in terms of learning and growth, internal process, customer and financials. The study determines the present and ideal status of the firm.

  20. The role of cooperatives in food safety management of fresh produce chains: Case studies in four strawberry cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirezieva, K.K.; Bijman, J.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks with fresh produce have raised questions regarding management of quality and safety in the complex supply chains, where cooperatives play a central role. The overall objective of this article was to investigate the role of cooperatives in food quality and safety management in the

  1. Experiential learning implementation based on joint responsibility in women's cooperative development (Case study on Farmer Women Cooperative, Sumedang, West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Gijanto Purbo; Nataliningsih

    2017-09-01

    Cooperative extension is one form of non-formal education. The follow up of cooperative extension is a coaching that aims to cooperative boards and members apply the knowledge and skills acquired during extension. Learning from the experience (experience learning) of others combined with the concept of joint responsibility is expected to develop the participation of cooperative members as indicated by the repayment of loans on time. The research was conducted at Sumedang Farmer Women Cooperative of West Java with the stages of cooperative extension and coaching for 6 months so it can be evaluated its impact. The results showed that from 30 extension participants who stated willingness to be a member of joint responsibility group as many as 15 people (50%), which then divided into 3 groups of mutual responsibility with member of each group is 5 people. The result of impact evaluation showed the development of group dynamics of the joint liability shown by 9 people (60%) developing business, 3 people (20%) business stagnant and 3 (20%) less profitable business. Implementation of experiental learning based on the concept of mutual responsibility encourages the improvement of entrepreneurship and cooperative skills and the ability of members to pay loan installments on cooperatives in a timely manner.

  2. Introduction [to tenth anniversary report of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth in pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1989-01-01

    The formation and development of the International Cooperative Group on Cyclic Crack Growth Rate (ICCGR) is outlined. By 1976, it had become apparent that the number of variables that affected the cyclic crack growth rate in reactor water was large and that the rate of data generation was very slow, because it was the low frequency regime that was of major practical importance. A clear need was recognised for a forum to exchange ideas and data, but most important of all to explore collaborative testing to minimise duplication and achieve economies. It was from the outset recognised as a complex and therefore very expensive materials testing area. In response to this situation, it was agreed to set up a group which was formally chartered as the ICCGR in 1978. What had begun as a sharing of views rapidly became an active collaborative group concerned to resolve three issues: 1. development of a consistent method for data reduction; 2. the practice of consistent testing methods; 3. a physical understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the process. Three Task Groups were eventually formed to address these issues; Test Methods, Mechanisms, Data Collection and Evaluation. (author)

  3. Cooperative credit banks and regional growth: creation of a local development model and analysis of the «G. Toniolo» Cooperative Credit Bank in San Cataldo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cermelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has called into question not only the banking systems, but also the development model. Cooperative credit banks have returned to occupy a central role, demonstrating with his broad background that another way of providing financial services can exist. In Italy, cooperative credit banks are principal players in the banking economic system. One of those banks is the «G. Toniolo», which has become over the years a reference in the local banking system.Received: 07.06.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  4. An Empirical Study on Alleviating Career English Writing Anxiety through Cooperative Learning in a Chinese Polytechnic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on writing anxiety alleviation through a pre-test/post-test assessment. 120 EFL learners from a Chinese polytechnic institute were assigned into two groups: one experimental (cooperative writing) and the other comparison (solitary writing). Results revealed that cooperative learning…

  5. Mergers of agrifood cooperatives and their effects: from expectations to results. An empirical study in four Spanish Autonomous Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melia, E.; Julia, J. F.; Martinez, A.

    2010-07-01

    Mergers have become the most widely accepted formula for business growth among many different sectors. However, these processes do not always contribute to obtaining the expected results, particularly from an economic viewpoint. In light of these reflections, this study attempts to establish whether mergers carried out between Spanish agrifood cooperatives during the period 1995-2005 have contributed to reaching some of the objectives they were set out to achieve: improving the economic-financial situation of the companies involved, increasing income and reducing costs. To do so, mergers that took place during this period were analyzed in four autonomous communities (Andalusia, Navarra, La Rioja and the Basque Country). Despite the considerable variability observed following the time-based analysis of the economic-financial situation of cooperatives prior to and after merger, statistically significant differences were only found in four of the fifteen variables studied. These were operating profit (a 99% reduction), financial income (an increase of 240%), extraordinary income (400% increase) and cost of goods sold (16% reduction), of all of which are calculated with respect to production value. The results obtained generally indicate that the objectives that were originally the motivation for initiating the merger processes have not been reached, as the financial situation of the cooperatives has not, by and large, undergone any significant improvement, nor have average unit costs been reduced. Performance and profitability have not improved either and the firms involved have found themselves at lower levels than the average for the sector. (Author) 49 refs.

  6. UNH Data Cooperative: A Cyber Infrastructure for Earth System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, B. H.; Fekete, B. M.; Prusevich, A.; Gliden, S.; Magill, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Earth system scientists and managers have a continuously growing demand for a wide array of earth observations derived from various data sources including (a) modern satellite retrievals, (b) "in-situ" records, (c) various simulation outputs, and (d) assimilated data products combining model results with observational records. The sheer quantity of data, and formatting inconsistencies make it difficult for users to take full advantage of this important information resource. Thus the system could benefit from a thorough retooling of our current data processing procedures and infrastructure. Emerging technologies, like OPeNDAP and OGC map services, open standard data formats (NetCDF, HDF) data cataloging systems (NASA-Echo, Global Change Master Directory, etc.) are providing the basis for a new approach in data management and processing, where web- services are increasingly designed to serve computer-to-computer communications without human interactions and complex analysis can be carried out over distributed computer resources interconnected via cyber infrastructure. The UNH Earth System Data Collaborative is designed to utilize the aforementioned emerging web technologies to offer new means of access to earth system data. While the UNH Data Collaborative serves a wide array of data ranging from weather station data (Climate Portal) to ocean buoy records and ship tracks (Portsmouth Harbor Initiative) to land cover characteristics, etc. the underlaying data architecture shares common components for data mining and data dissemination via web-services. Perhaps the most unique element of the UNH Data Cooperative's IT infrastructure is its prototype modeling environment for regional ecosystem surveillance over the Northeast corridor, which allows the integration of complex earth system model components with the Cooperative's data services. While the complexity of the IT infrastructure to perform complex computations is continuously increasing, scientists are often forced

  7. Application of cooperative and non-cooperative games in large-scale water quantity and quality management: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjouri, Najmeh; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two cooperative and non-cooperative methodologies are developed for a large-scale water allocation problem in Southern Iran. The water shares of the water users and their net benefits are determined using optimization models having economic objectives with respect to the physical and environmental constraints of the system. The results of the two methodologies are compared based on the total obtained economic benefit, and the role of cooperation in utilizing a shared water resource is demonstrated. In both cases, the water quality in rivers satisfies the standards. Comparing the results of the two mentioned approaches shows the importance of acting cooperatively to achieve maximum revenue in utilizing a surface water resource while the river water quantity and quality issues are addressed.

  8. Enhancement of environment and resources engineering studies through an international cooperation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.; Tuneski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Higher education plays a very important role in the modern societies development, enhancing social, cultural and economic development for a sustainable growth, environment respectful. In this framework, the European Commission promotes the TEMPUS-Trans European Mobility Programme for University Studies. Curricula harmonization and lifelong learning programme development in higher education are among the focused aspects of the TEMPUS programme. The DEREL-Development of Environment and Resources Engineering Learning, is a three years TEMPUS project coordinated by the University of Firenze, in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje financed and activated since October 2010. The DEREL Project Consortium consists of 4 EU Universities (from Italy, Greece, Germany and Austria), 7 Partner Countries (PC) Universities (from FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Albania), and 1 PC Ministry, 4 PC National Agencies, 1 PC non governmental organization and 1 PC enterprise. In cooperation with the same 4 EU Universities and the same Macedonian Institutions, in the period 2005-2008 also a TEMPUS JEP entitled DEREC-Development of Environmental and Resources Engineering Curriculum, was also carried out by the University of Firenze in cooperation with colleagues of the Ss Cyril and Methodius University. Within DEREC a new three-years first cycle curriculum in Environmental and Resources Engineering was opened at the University Ss Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, and the necessary conditions for offering a Joint Degree Title, on the basis of an agreement between the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University and the University of Firenze, were fulfilled. The running DEREL project, as a continuation of DEREC, is aimed to introduce a new, up-to-date, postgraduate second cycle curriculum in Environment and Resources Engineering at the Ss Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, FYR of Macedonia, University of Novi Sad, Serbia and Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania

  9. An autoradiographic study of equine hoof growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report introduces an autoradiographic method of studying the growth of entire equine hoof sections. It has the advantage that accurate measurements can be made of changes in the rate of growth before and after treatment such as dietary supplementation with biotin on the development of laminitis

  10. Prospects for the Growth and Influence of the Gulf Cooperation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    DARSP-supported Middle East study on "The Future of Islamic Fundemental ism in the Arab World in the 1980’s," and find them very helpful. We rfill...for Arab Economic Development (1974) Arab Investment Company (1974) Sa’udi Development Fund (1974) Gulf International Bank (1974) Gulf Arab...marketing. 3. The institution of joint policies to allocate investments at home and pursue financial interests world wide. 4. The coordination of

  11. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  12. Instructional Uses of Podcasting in Online Learning Environments: A Cooperative Inquiry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Brown, Carol; Fine, Bethann; Luterbach, Kenneth; Sugar, William; Vinciguerra, David C.

    2009-01-01

    A report on the results of a year-long cooperative inquiry study in which 11 faculty members at a southeastern university examined their various uses of podcasting for instruction. Through participation in the study, members developed insights into what technologies are most commonly applied to the task of podcast production and dissemination as…

  13. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  14. Five hydrologic studies conducted by or in cooperation with the Center for Forested Wetlands Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin; R. Wayne Skaggs; T.J. Callahan; Ge Sun; J.E. Nettles; J.E. Parsons; M. Miwa

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Center for Forested Wetlands Research has conducted or cooperated in studies designed to improve understanding of fundamental hydrologic and biogeochemical processes that link aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Five of these studies are discussed here. The first is based on observations made on long-term experimental...

  15. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  16. Teaching Theory in Occupational Therapy Using a Cooperative Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments. The students were asked to complete two questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward group environments and their perception toward group learning before and after the semester. MANCOVA was used to examine changes in attitudes and perceived learning among groups. Students' summary sheets for each in-class assignment and course evaluations were collected for content analysis. Results indicated significant changes in students' attitude toward working in small groups regardless of their prior group experience.

  17. Tactile communication, cooperation, and performance: an ethological study of the NBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Huang, Cassey; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-10-01

    Tactile communication, or physical touch, promotes cooperation between people, communicates distinct emotions, soothes in times of stress, and is used to make inferences of warmth and trust. Based on this conceptual analysis, we predicted that in group competition, physical touch would predict increases in both individual and group performance. In an ethological study, we coded the touch behavior of players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) during the 2008-2009 regular season. Consistent with hypotheses, early season touch predicted greater performance for individuals as well as teams later in the season. Additional analyses confirmed that touch predicted improved performance even after accounting for player status, preseason expectations, and early season performance. Moreover, coded cooperative behaviors between teammates explained the association between touch and team performance. Discussion focused on the contributions touch makes to cooperative groups and the potential implications for other group settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. A Study on Governance and Human Resources for Cooperative Road Facilities Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sachiko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kurauchi, Fumitaka; Demura, Yoshifumi

    Within today's infrastructure management, Asset Management systems are becoming a mainstream feature. For region where the risk is low, it is necessary to create a "cooperative road facilities management system". This research both examined and suggested what kind of cooperative road facilities management system should be promoted by the regional society. Concretely, this study defines the operational realities of a previous case. It discusses the problem of the road facilities management as a governance. Furthermore, its realization depends on "the cooperation between municipalities", "the private-sector initiative", and "residents participation" .Also, it discusses the problem of human resources for governance. Its realization depends on "the engineers' promotion", and "creation of a voluntary activity of the resident" as a human resources. Moreover, it defines that the intermediary is important because the human resources tied to the governance. As a result, the prospect of the road facilities management is shown by the role of the player and the relation among player.

  19. Patient satisfaction with out-of-hours GP cooperatives: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Marleen; Huibers, Linda; Oude Bos, Anita; Giesen, Paul

    2012-12-01

    For over a decade, out-of-hours primary care in the Netherlands has been provided by general practitioner (GP) cooperatives. In the past years, quality improvements have been made and patients have become acquainted with the service. This may have increased patient satisfaction. The objective of this study was to examine changes in patient satisfaction with GP cooperatives over time. Longitudinal observational study. A validated patient satisfaction questionnaire was distributed in 2003-2004 (T1) and 2007-2008 (T2). Items were rated on a scale from 0 to 10 (1 = very bad; 10 = excellent). Eight GP cooperatives in the Netherlands. Stratified sample of 9600 patients. Response was 55% at T1 (n = 2634) and 51% at T2 (n = 2462). Expectations met; satisfaction with triage nurses, GPs, and organization. For most patients the care received at the GP cooperative met their expectations (T1: 86.1% and T2: 88.4%). Patients were satisfied with the triage nurses (overall grade T1: 7.73 and T2: 7.99), GPs (T1: 8.04 and T2: 8.25), and organization (overall grade T1: 7.60 and T2: 7.78). Satisfaction with triage nurses showed the largest increase over time. The quality and effectiveness of advice or treatment were given relatively low grades. Of all organizational aspects, the lowest grades were given for waiting times and information about the cooperative. In general, patients were initially satisfied with GP cooperatives and satisfaction had even increased four years later. However, there is room for improvement in the content of the advice, waiting times, and information supply. More research is needed into satisfaction of specific patient groups.

  20. Semiconductor Research Corporation: A Case Study in Cooperative Innovation Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Nathaniel; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    In the study of innovation institutions, it is important to consider how different institutional models can affect a research organization in conducting or funding successful work. As an industry collaborative, Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an example of a privately funded institution that leverages the inputs of several member…

  1. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  2. The CRC Contribution to Research Training: Report of a Scoping Study for the Cooperative Research Centres Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This report summarises findings from a scoping study conducted for the Cooperative Research Centres Association (CRCA) by the Centre for the Study of Higher Education. The purpose of the scoping study is to inform the research training activities of Cooperative Research Centres (CRCs). While previous studies have focussed on the outcomes supported…

  3. An Approachment to Cooperative Learning in Higher Education: Comparative Study of Teaching Methods in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estébanez, Raquel Pérez

    2017-01-01

    In the way of continuous improvement in teaching methods this paper explores the effects of Cooperative Learning (CL) against Traditional Learning (TL) in academic performance of students in higher education in two groups of the first course of Computer Science Degree at the university. The empirical study was conducted through an analysis of…

  4. Cooperative Work-Study Programs in Vocational Rehabilitation: Results of a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

    1983-01-01

    Conducted a national survey of vocational rehabilitation agencies (N=42) to determine the present status of cooperative work study programs serving mentally retarded secondary students. Results documented a decrease both in formal programs and number of students served. (Author/JAC)

  5. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Students' Learning Outcomes during a Cooperative Education Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Katherine T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to describe the learning outcomes of the cooperative-education experience from an Information Technology student's perspective at a large Fortune 500 manufacturing/sales company located in the Midwest United States. Open-ended interview questions were developed based on the four-component model…

  6. A Framework of Retailer-Manufacturer Cooperation and Coopetition: Consumer Durable Goods Retailers’ Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Katarzyna Witek-Hajduk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework of cooperation and coopetition between retailers and key manufacturers from a perspective of retailers offering consumer durables. Research Design & Methods: In order to answer the research questions semi-structured, in-depth and face-to-face interviews with managers of six SMEs or large retailers operating in Poland and offering consumer durables were carried out. Findings: The empirical studies confirm both cooperation and coopetition between retailers and manufacturers – suppliers of consumer durables depending on, among others, the category of consumer goods and the balance of power between retailers and manufacturers. The scope of cooperation is not too wide, and concerns only some of the value chain processes indicated in the literature. Implications & Recommendations: Conducted studies are exploratory and need to be deepen with the use of quantitative research that will help determine the impact of the balance of power between manufacturers and retailers and the strength of retailer-manufacturer relations on the range / areas and financial and non-financial performance of this cooperation. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of retailers’ relations with their key suppliers operating in consumer durables market.

  7. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  8. Factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives: A case study in Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aligholi Heydari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives in Southwest Iran. Using a questionnaire, the data were collected from 95 managing directors of the cooperatives who were chosen through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. This study showed an essential need for a systemic framework to analyze the cooperatives’ success. The results showed that the “Honey Bee”, “Cattle (dairy”, and “Lamb” cooperatives were the most successful among different kinds of the cooperatives. Also, among individual attributes, “interest”, “technical knowledge”, and “understanding the concept of cooperative”; among economic variables, “income” and “current investment”; and among external factors, “market access” have significant correlation with the success while structural variables have no significant relation. Furthermore, among all the factors, four variables (“interest”, “understanding the concept of cooperative”, “market access”, and “other incomes” can explain the variations of the success.

  9. An evaluation of technical and economic capacity of farmers of Rural Production Cooperatives. Case Study: Neishabour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hadizadeh Bazaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to investigate the impact of cooperatives on the technical and economical empowering of farmers and agricultural development in the villages of Neishabour. The method of this research is analytical – descriptive and it has been carried out in 2013.  The statistical society is composed of 4685 members and non-members of cooperatives in twenty villages of Neishabour. The sample size via the Cochran formula and stratified sampling technique has been calculated to be 252.  Data collection has been performed through documentation and field study. For data analysis, the SPSS software package and the T-Student Test have been employed. The results of statistical analysis based on 13 economic indicators revealed that the average economic stability of the members is 2.64 which is slightly higher than 2.47; that is the average economic stability of non-members. Independent samples T-Test results between members and non-members revealed that the probability value is 0.004 which indicates that there exists a significant difference between average economic stability of members and non-members. The T-Test results with hypothetical mean of 3 and 4 showed that the majority of indicators are less than the average. Therefore, the impact of cooperatives in economic development is evaluated to be below the average limit and cooperatives could not play an important role in increasing the economic empowerment of farmers.

  10. Effects of ecstasy on cooperative behaviour and perception of trustworthiness: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L H; Ferguson, B; Morgan, C J A; Swaboda, N; Jones, L; Fenton, R; Wall, M B; Curran, H V

    2014-11-01

    Acute recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') can promote pro-social effects which may alter interpersonal perceptions. To explore such effects, this study investigated whether acute recreational use of ecstasy was associated with changes in individual perception of trustworthiness of people's faces and co-operative behaviours. An independent group, repeated measures design was used in which 17 ecstasy users were tested on the night of drug use (day 0) and again three days later (day 3); 22 controls were tested on parallel days. On each day, participants rated the trustworthiness of 66 faces, carried out three co-operative behaviour tasks (public good; dictator; ultimatum game) and completed mood self-ratings. Acute ecstasy use was associated with increased face trustworthiness ratings and increased cooperative behaviour on the dictator and ultimatum games; on day 3 there were no group differences on any task. Self-ratings showed the standard acute ecstasy effects (euphoria, energy, jaw clenching) with negative effects (less empathy, compassion, more distrust, hostility) emerging on day 3. Our findings of increased perceived trustworthiness and co-operative behaviours following use of ecstasy suggest that a single dose of the drug enhances aspects of empathy. This may in turn contribute to its popularity as a recreational drug and potentially to its enhancement of the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Problems of integrated palliative care: a Dutch case study of routines and cooperation in the region of Arnhem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raak, Arno; Paulus, Aggie; Cuijpers, Rianne; Te Velde, Clary

    2008-12-01

    Cooperation in networks of providers of palliative care in Europe is problematic. Based on the concept of routines (patterns of behavior) and data about a Dutch network, we developed an explanation of this problem, in order to better understand the conditions for cooperation. Although more research is needed, the study suggests that disparate matches (divergence) between routines of the network members hampers cooperation. To promote cooperation, divergence, and legislation that stabilizes existing routines, must be identified. Divergence must be overcome and negotiations and transformational leadership, which require power sources, may be useful for this.

  12. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study: an international cooperative scientific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Simon, S L; Trott, K R; Fujimori, K; Nakashima, N; Arisawa, K; Schoemaker, M J

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer.

  13. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  14. A progress report of the Marshall Islands nationwide thyroid study. An international cooperative scientific study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Arisawa, Kokichi; Simon, S.L.; Trott, K.R.; Fujimori, Keisei; Nakashima, Noriaki; Schoemaker, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present a summary of progress of the Marshall Islands Nationwide Thyroid Study. As well known, the US atomic weapons testing program in the Pacific was conducted primarily between 1946 and 1958 in the Marshall Islands. The nuclear tests resulted in radioactive contamination of a number of atolls and resulted in exposure of Marshallese to undefined levels before our study. Little information has been paid to health consequences among residents of the nearly twenty inhibited atolls except for some information about nodular thyroid disease which was reported on by an US group. In a cooperative agreement with the Government of the Marshall Islands, between 1993 and 1997 we studied the prevalence of both thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer among 4766 Marshallese potentially exposed to radioiodines from bomb test fallout. That group represents more than 65% of the population at risk. We diagnosed 45 thyroid cancers and 1398 benign thyroid nodules. In addition, 23 study participants had been operated on prior to our study for thyroid cancer. Presently, we are developing a database of information to estimate radiation doses and planning a statistical analysis to determine if a dose-response relationship exists. These data will be important for the health promotion of exposed people all over the world including Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Semipalatinsk, Chernobyl and other locations. A timely completion is important for purpose of assisting Marshallese as well as to add the global understanding of radiation induced thyroid cancer. (author)

  15. Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    in interprofessional courses and if the model has a potential as mean of pedagogical development and collaboration. Methods The study is based on action research and is a mixed method study. In 2016 the project will gather data in cooperation with lecturers through qualitative methods and a followup on the baseline...... to further explore the potential of the study activity model as a mean of pedagogical development. The qualitative data will be processed by current hermeneutical and phenomenological methods. Outcomes and implications The outcome of the project should provide deeper insight into facilitating IPE and IPC......Title: Facilitating cooperation in interprofessional education using a study activity model- An action research project . Background Metropolitan University College has over the years developed interprofessional courses for students from 12 different professions, and since 2013 worked...

  16. Revolutionary interdisciplinary cooperation. Effects of short- term regulation studied in a river environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saimakallio, H.; Virsu, R.

    1996-11-01

    A three-year study on how short-term regulation affects the river environment provides power plant builders with new capabilities to meet the needs of the riverside population, recreational users and power plants. The study also opens up new perspectives to researchers. Interdisciplinary cooperation between experts on the living environment, vegetation, fish, recreational use and energy has been revolutionary even on the international scale. (orig.)

  17. GPs' experiences with out-of-hours GP cooperatives: a survey study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Marleen; Keizer, Ellen; Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Out-of-hours primary care has been provided by general practitioner (GP) cooperatives since the year 2000 in the Netherlands. Early studies in countries with similar organizational structures showed positive GP experiences. However, nowadays it is said that GPs experience a high workload at the cooperative and that they outsource a considerable part of their shifts. To examine positive and negative experiences of GPs providing out-of-hours primary care, and the frequency and reasons for outsourcing shifts. A cross-sectional observational survey among 688 GPs connected to six GP cooperatives in the Netherlands, using a web-based questionnaire. The response was 55% (n = 378). The main reasons for working in GP cooperatives were to retain registration as GP (79%) and remain experienced in acute care (74%). GPs considered the peak hours (81%) and the high number of patients (73%) as the most negative aspects. Most GPs chose to provide the out-of-hours shifts themselves: 85% outsourced maximally 25% of their shifts. The percentage of outsourced shifts increased with age. Main reasons for outsourcing were the desire to have more private time (76%); the high workload in daytime practice (71%); and less the workload during out-of-hours (46%). GPs are motivated to work in out-of-hours GP cooperatives, and they outsource few shifts. GPs consider the peak load and the large number of (non-urgent) help requests as the most negative aspects. To motivate and involve GPs for 7 × 24-h primary care, it is important to set limits on their workload.

  18. A study on strategies for effective participation in the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Lee, Eui Jin; Jun, Byung Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Lee, Chang Hee; Shim, Jae Sun; Noh, In Young; Lee, Jeong Kong; Han, Bong O

    2001-02-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following scopes were categorized for in-depth study. First of all, a general overview of FNCA, the including background and strategic plans of the forum, structure and activities of the forum, and the FNCA framework was reviewed. Secondly, major activities and implemented achievements in the 7 cooperation projects were also reviewed. Thirdly, the trends and prospects of nuclear power development programs in the participating countries in the FNCA were studied. Finally, proper strategies and recommendations for effective participation in FNCA were presented. This study can be utilized as basic reference material in the efficient implementation of FNCA in the future and for personnel involved in the FNCA affairs as the fundamental elements for implementing FNCA cooperation are presented. Strategies for strengthening Korea's participation in FNCA can be utilized as basic reference for the effective planning and implementation of FNCA activities in the future. Strategies for contributing to promoting nuclear cooperation in the region, for example, cash or in-kind contributions, should be established to effectively participate in the FNCA. It is hoped that this study will be widely utilized for encouraging Korea's participation in the FNCA and for establishing a future direction for FNCA by governments, industries, academic circles and research institutions

  19. A quantitative study of quasiparticle traps using the single-Cooper-pair-transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Court, N. A.; Ferguson, A. J.; Lutchyn, Roman; Clark, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    We use radio-frequency reflectometry to measure quasiparticle tunneling rates in the single-Cooper-pair-transistor. Devices with and without quasiparticle traps in proximity to the island are studied. A $10^2$ to $10^3$-fold reduction in the quasiparticle tunneling rate onto the island is observed in the case of quasiparticle traps. In the quasiparticle trap samples we also measure a commensurate decrease in quasiparticle tunneling rate off the island.

  20. Case studies in public/private cooperation to revitalize America: coal. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The committee found that coal is the preferred fuel to (1) bridge the gap until renewable energy supplies are adequate, and (2) support economic growth. It also found that the US is in a good position to expand coal production and export, which would help to revitalize American industry and improve the US balance of payments. To do this, they feel the government must increase its support of mining and coal-use research and developments, encourage the development and use of safer and less-polluting technology, grant eminent domain for slurry-pipeline construction, improve port facilities, establish national environmental standards with special assistance to states as needed, and accelerate research on the effects and alleviation of acid rain. The private and public sectors must cooperate to finance these efforts, with the government filling the role of catalyst. 30 references. (DCK)

  1. COOPERATION AND SUSTAINABILITY CASE STUDY OF A SOCIETY OF SOCIAL SOLIDARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Carrillo González

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability studies have been addressed from an economic, social, cultural, and environmental point of view. They have exceeded dimensions and developed mechanisms, which have involved various elements to establish cooperation and social networks. The aim of this paper is to analyze cooperation and establishment of farmers' organizations as critical factors in achieving sustainable local projects oriented to reforestation and land recovery, illustrating with the case of a triple S (Society of Social Solidarity, in the town of Zapotitlan Lagunas in the State of Oaxaca. Positive effects derived from these kinds of societies are reforestation in the area, land recovery, consolidation of social relationships and job creations. Therefore, thinking and acting locally is a condition to positively impact on the environment and add a social and economic vision can contribute to sustainability.

  2. Digital Communication and a Concern with the Community: A Case Study in a Cooperative Credit Araguaina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumeninng Abrantes Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to address the attributes of Digital Communication used by a cooperative of Credit to meet the seventh cooperative principle of Concern for Community. The same occurred in a credit union in the city of Araguaina Tocantins, with the aim of identifying the digital communication developed by the cooperative. The article begins with a literature review on the emergence of cooperative, then the conceptualization of the credit union and its history in Brazil, then the cooperative principles and their evolution, conceptualizations of concern for the community, digital communication, social marketing and the presentation and analysis of results. The methodology was based on the case study, which according to Yin (2001 it is important because it is the reality studied. The research showed that the performance of the cooperative is geared entirely to their members and do not have a lot of focus related to social actions, but it promotes actions to attract members and to promote community development through digital media. Another important result of the research was that the principle addressed is one of the goals of the cooperative that aims to meet the interests, promote the welfare of members and the entire community where the cooperative operates.

  3. Studying Crystal Growth With the Peltier Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David J., Jr.; Dressler, B.; Silberstein, R. P.; Poit, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Peltier interface demarcation (PID) shown useful as aid in studying heat and mass transfer during growth of crystals from molten material. In PID, two dissimilar "metals" solid and liquid phases of same material. Current pulse passed through unidirectionally solidifying sample to create rapid Peltier thermal disturbance at liquid/solid interface. Disturbance, measured by thermocouple stationed along path of solidification at or near interface, provides information about position and shape of interface.

  4. Cooperation between NIEP and Karlsruhe University in crust and upper mantle studies of the Vrancea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodehl, Claus

    2002-01-01

    Active cooperation between seismologists at Bucharest and Karlsruhe started in 1974 with the installation of seismic stations at Romanian dam sites. These stations also recorded the destructive earthquake of 1977 and formed the nucleus for a broader cooperation between seismologists at Bucharest and Karlsruhe and was followed by a continuing exchange of knowledge by vice versa research visits. The cooperation was finally intensively increased by the installation of a major priority research program on earthquake risk problems of Karlsruhe University with Romanian research institutions in 1996, when Romanian and German scientists from various fields (geology, seismology, civil engineering, operation research) organized themselves in the Collaborative Research Center 461 (CRC 461) 'Strong earthquakes: a challenge for geosciences and civil engineering' (Germany) and the Romanian Group for Strong Vrancea Earthquakes (RGVE) in a multidisciplinary attempt towards earthquake mitigation. The cooperation between the Geophysical and Geological Institutes of Karlsruhe University with both NIEP and the Faculty of Geology of Bucharest University focussed in particular on the deep geology of the Vrancea area and surrounding provinces with emphasis on seismicity studies and crust and upper-mantle investigations. Two long-range seismic wide-angle profiles from Bacau to the Danube south of Bucharest recorded in 1999 and from Transylvania to the Dobrogea recorded in 2001, both crossing each other in the Vrancea area, will provide a detailed 3-dimensional crustal structure image of Vrancea and adjacent Carpathians and their surrounding basins, while a temporary array of 120 mobile stations distributed throughout southeastern Romania recorded local and far-distant earthquakes for about 6 months in 1999 which will allow to derive a 3-dimensional tomographic image of the underlying uppermost mantle to depths of about 300 km. (author)

  5. Forensic Investigation of Cooperative Storage Cloud Service: Symform as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teing, Yee-Yang; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Dargahi, Tooska; Conti, Mauro

    2017-05-01

    Researchers envisioned Storage as a Service (StaaS) as an effective solution to the distributed management of digital data. Cooperative storage cloud forensic is relatively new and is an under-explored area of research. Using Symform as a case study, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of cooperative cloud storage services. In particular, we consider both mobile devices and personal computers running various popular operating systems, namely Windows 8.1, Mac OS X Mavericks 10.9.5, Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS, iOS 7.1.2, and Android KitKat 4.4.4. Potential artefacts recovered during the research include data relating to the installation and uninstallation of the cloud applications, log-in to and log-out from Symform account using the client application, file synchronization as well as their time stamp information. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artifacts that are likely to remain after the use of cooperative storage cloud on client devices. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. A Policy study on cooperation for the development of underground resources in North Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jung Nam [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    For the smooth promotion of joint development program of underground resources in North Korea, it requires a domestic legal authority applicable when a private company begins the development program of underground resources in North Korea. It is recommended that the supply of initial fund of resources development program in North Korea will utilize the supply method of existing resources development subsidizing fund instead of establishing new fund. In the case of enlarging its program by minerals, it is desirable to support it by creating the South-North resources development cooperation fund for a certain period to attract voluntary participation of the private sector. In this study, minerals able to develop among natural minerals in North Korea were classified and presented by grouping according to the higher order. Also, a plan for institutionalizing this was sought by connecting a development program by types of minerals for the smooth operation of South-North resources development cooperation program. Considering types of minerals, area, and the size and cost of development, it should be operated step by step, but for programs realizable at once, it should be started in its early stage. It is recommended to review a step by step plan for mineral resources development in North Korea continuously in connection with other economic cooperation sector such as the manufacturing industry. (author). 30 refs., 40 tabs.

  7. Cell growth, intracellular calcium concentration and metabolic cooperation measured in cells exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skauli, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    Colony-forming efficiency, DNA/protein and DNA/cell were measured in cells exposed to magnetic fields of 0.2 and 1 mT at a frequency of 50 Hz. Intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in cells exposed to 0.3 and 1 mT at 50 Hz. Metabolic cooperation was measured in cells exposed to 1 mT at 50 Hz. No significant effects of the fields were observed. 20 refs., 10 figs

  8. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin): Application of AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-01-01

    Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data col...

  9. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  10. Case Study on the Forestry Cooperation Model from Game Structure Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hao; Cai, Zhijian; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Take Chinese yew cooperative organization for example,different game structures of forestry cooperation model were analyzed,the elative merit and applicable occasion was discussed combined with empirical investigation,and some suggestions were given also.The results showed that depending entirely on normal forest farmers cooperate spontaneously is difficult. Policies should be designed from the perspective of promoted village cadres and influential family salons to cooperation. When m...

  11. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  12. Interpretive Study of Research and Development Relative to Educational Cooperatives. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Larry W.; And Others

    This document analyzes some of the aspects of the trend toward educational regionalism and cooperation. Educational cooperatives are designed to provide the flexibility and service associated with large districts while allowing for local control and school district autonomy. Types of educational cooperatives discussed include intermediate…

  13. Global Education and the Cooperation of NGOs and Schools: A German Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmüller, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing pressure but also an increase of possibilities for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to cooperate with schools in the field of global education. However, especially in cases of more continuous forms of cooperation, difficulties in process management are noted and the intended cooperation impacts often…

  14. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  15. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  16. Final report of the cooperative study on seismic isolation design. The second stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Terada, Syuji; Shioya, Tsutomu (and others)

    1999-05-01

    The applicability of the seismic isolation design onto the nuclear fuel facilities, which must clear severe criteria of integrity, has been examined. Following the first stage of the cooperative study, conducted from 1988 to 1991, the second stage included critical vibration testing, seismic observation of seismic isolation building and founded buildings of non-isolation, with the objectives of clarifying the policies on critical design of seismic isolation building. Integrity of the seismic isolation piping system was tested by means of static deformation test, with variable inner water pressure and relative deformation. (Yamamoto, A.)

  17. A Comparative Study on Cooperative Learning in Multimedia and Network Environment Used by English Majors between China Mainland and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper first based on the theory of cooperative learning research. It analyses the characteristics and advantages of cooperative learning under the multimedia network environment.And then take China Three Gorges University and Taiwan I-Shou University English major students for example, using questionnaires and interviews to investigate the students's cooperative learning in the network environment. Survey results showed that cooperative learning teaching mode has been widely used in English classrooms across the Taiwan Strait. Students think highly of cooperative learning in the multimedia-aided, and it can have a positive effect on learning; but on cooperative learning ability and the specific learning process, students still have some problems.Nowadays,cooperative learning in the network environment has various ways, but there exist certain differences in the learning styles across the Strait. Taiwan students rely more on teachers’ help and teachers feedback, while students in mainland depend mainly on networking and panel discussion. On qualitative analysis of interview is a supplement to the questionnaire and further explore its deeper causes, which provide valuable evidence for the study and learning practice. Finally, according to the comparative analysis ,the author puts forward some constructive suggestions.

  18. Study on the Cooperative E-commerce Model between Enterprises based on the Value Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun[1,2; LIU Xiaoxing[1

    2015-01-01

    The real e-commerce between enterprises is based on the internal departments of enterprises and the cooperative interaction between enterprise and its partners. In this paper, on the basis of the theory of value chain, 11 cooperative e-commerce models between enterprises have been classified according to the activities of the cooperation between enterprises, and then every cooperative e-commerce model between enterprises is discussed. In practice, cooperative e-commerce between enterprises can be a combination of one or more e-commerce models between enterprises.

  19. CD147, CD44, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway cooperate to regulate breast epithelial cell invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G Daniel; Tolliver, Lauren B; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P

    2013-09-06

    The immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is associated with an invasive phenotype in various types of cancers, including malignant breast cancer. We showed recently that up-regulation of CD147 in non-transformed, non-invasive breast epithelial cells is sufficient to induce an invasive phenotype characterized by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent invadopodia activity (Grass, G. D., Bratoeva, M., and Toole, B. P. (2012) Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147. J. Cell Sci. 125, 777-788). Here we found that CD147 induces breast epithelial cell invasiveness by promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-ERK signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44 interaction. Furthermore, CD147 promotes assembly of signaling complexes containing CD147, CD44, and EGFR in lipid raftlike domains. We also found that oncogenic Ras regulates CD147 expression, hyaluronan synthesis, and formation of CD147-CD44-EGFR complexes, thus forming a positive feedback loop that may amplify invasiveness. Last, we showed that malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia. Future studies should evaluate CD147 as a potential therapeutic target and disease stratification marker in breast cancer.

  20. CD147, CD44, and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Signaling Pathway Cooperate to Regulate Breast Epithelial Cell Invasiveness*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, G. Daniel; Tolliver, Lauren B.; Bratoeva, Momka; Toole, Bryan P.

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily glycoprotein CD147 (emmprin; basigin) is associated with an invasive phenotype in various types of cancers, including malignant breast cancer. We showed recently that up-regulation of CD147 in non-transformed, non-invasive breast epithelial cells is sufficient to induce an invasive phenotype characterized by membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)-dependent invadopodia activity (Grass, G. D., Bratoeva, M., and Toole, B. P. (2012) Regulation of invadopodia formation and activity by CD147. J. Cell Sci. 125, 777–788). Here we found that CD147 induces breast epithelial cell invasiveness by promoting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-ERK signaling in a manner dependent on hyaluronan-CD44 interaction. Furthermore, CD147 promotes assembly of signaling complexes containing CD147, CD44, and EGFR in lipid raftlike domains. We also found that oncogenic Ras regulates CD147 expression, hyaluronan synthesis, and formation of CD147-CD44-EGFR complexes, thus forming a positive feedback loop that may amplify invasiveness. Last, we showed that malignant breast cancer cells are heterogeneous in their expression of surface-associated CD147 and that high levels of membrane CD147 correlate with cell surface EGFR and CD44 levels, activated EGFR and ERK1, and activated invadopodia. Future studies should evaluate CD147 as a potential therapeutic target and disease stratification marker in breast cancer. PMID:23888049

  1. National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study in patients with chronic renal failure--an interim report. The National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, N W; Lazarus, J M; Nissenson, A R

    1993-08-01

    This second interim report of the National Cooperative rHu Erythropoietin Study presents data from 324 patients new to recombinant human erythropoietin (Epoetin alfa) who completed at least 12 months of study participation. Mean hematocrit levels increased to approximately 30% by month 3 in patients on hemodialysis (n = 293) and stabilized for the remainder of the study whether Epoetin alfa was administered by the intravenous (n = 250) or subcutaneous (n = 42) route. The intravenous dosage level ranged between 106.9 and 121.6 U/kg/wk; subcutaneous dosing ranged between 87.4 and 108.0 U/kg/wk; dosing levels in patients on peritoneal dialysis (n = 31) were similar, although there was a trend towards slightly higher hematocrit levels. Throughout the 12 months of the study, there was no relationship between blood pressure and either hematocrit level or Epoetin alfa dose. Approximately two thirds of the patients were receiving iron supplementation at any given time, and there was a trend towards the increased use of oral iron supplements. The incidence of adverse events in this cohort of patients was low throughout the study, and there was no relationship between the incidence of adverse events and either hematocrit level or Epoetin alfa dose. Based on an analysis of data from baseline to first follow-up, Epoetin alfa therapy resulted in improvement in several quality-of-life factors, most notable of which was vitality. Improvement occurred in all patient subgroups with some variability in the level and intensity of effect. Overall, these data demonstrate that Epoetin alfa therapy is safe and effective when used in a broad cross-section of patients on dialysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Gender, cooperative organisation and participatory intervention in rural Tanzania : a case study of different types of cooperatives and Moshi University College’s support to rural women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Msonganzila, M.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis examines cooperation and participation as modes of institutional action to address women’ social and economic problems and needs in the context of rural Tanzania. It does so against the background of the history of cooperatives in Tanzania and development cooperation. The thesis takes

  3. Study on the Flexibility in Cross-Border Water Resources Cooperation Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zongrui; Wang, Teng; Zhou, Li

    2018-02-01

    Flexible strategy is very important to cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources, which may be employed to reconcile contradictions and ease conflicts. Flexible characters of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources could be analyzed and revealed, using flexible strategic management framework, by taking international cooperation protocols related to water from Transboundary Freshwater Disputes Database (TFDD) as samples from the number of cooperation issues, the amount of management layers and regulator agencies in cooperation organization and the categories of income (cost) distribution (allocation) mode. The research demonstrates that there are some flexible features of cross-border cooperation in international rivers water resources: Riparian countries would select relative diversification strategies related to water, tend to construct a flexible cooperation organization featured with moderate hierarchies from vertical perspective and simplified administrations from horizontal perspective, and adopt selective inducement modes to respect ‘joint and several liability’.

  4. Cooperative study with sup(99m)Tc diisopropil-IDA on biliary tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitta, A.E.A.; Mollerach, F; Almeida, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a cooperative study on the investigation of the biliary tract with sup(99m)Tc diisopropyl-IDA are presented. 15 normal volunteers and 75 patients with acute cholecystitis (AC), chronic cholecystitis (CC), hepatocellular jaundice (HCJ), incomplete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (IEBO) and complete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (CEBO) were studied. The biological behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical in the two groups was determined through the measurement of the uptake times and of the times of arrival in the hepatic parenchyma, in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts, in the gallbladder, in the duodenum and in the kidneys. The pathophysiologic features found in the AC, CC, HCJ, IEBO and CEBO are described. It is concluded that the procedure has a selective indication in the AC, that its value is limited in the CC, and that in jaundice, except in very special situations, the method gives very little information of clinic value. The possibility of performing cooperative scientific studies between Latin-American Departments, increasing their efficiency, is emphasized. (author) [es

  5. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality

  6. Do Women Socialize Better? Evidence from a Study on Sociality Effects on Gender Differences in Cooperative Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peshkovskaya, Anastasia; Myagkov, Mikhail; Babkina, Tatiana; Lukinova, Evgeniya

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is greatly influenced by the social context. The currrent study on men’ and women’s cooperative behavior investigated the influence of long-term and short-term effects of socializing in group. The repeated Prisoner’s dilemma carried out in groups of 6 participants was used as the main experimental situation. The differences were found in changes in the level of cooperation, taking in to account the effects of mixing social and gender variables. Socialization made ...

  7. Cross-Border Cooperation (CBC in Southern Europe—An Iberian Case Study. The Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Alexandre Castanho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiences of cross-border cooperation (CBC, undertaken not only in Europe but throughout the world, have enabled areas to gain greater importance in recent decades at an international level, showing potential for integrative functions and joint development as exemplified by several CBC projects. The present paper assesses the impact of CBC projects by analyzing a protocol established in 2013 between the cities of Elvas and Badajoz, which induced the creation of the Eurocity Elvas-Badajoz. The paper kicks off with a critical review on territorial factors for success in CBC areas, considering the analysis of several case studies throughout Europe. The lessons learned, taken from the analyzed case studies, and the identified territorial success factors were used as assessment points for the investigation of the target study area, the Eurocity ElvasBadajoz. The investigation explores public participation perceptions towards the identification of what changes with respect to standards of life with the CBC project, providing the current state of affairs and identifying where to place efforts in order to reach sustainable development for the region. While being a transition area, it presents several opportunities for growth. These opportunities have not yet been object of analysis and debate with respect to lasting, sustainable successful growth. The present research enables the identification of several territorial factors for success in the study area, such as the connectivity/movement between cities and strong political commitment. From the identified critical factors, it was possible to highlight the importance of public transportation as a priority for achieving success in this CBC project.

  8. Studies of transformational leadership in consumer service: leadership trust and the mediating-moderating role of cooperative conflict management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Feng

    2012-02-01

    This is the third in a series of studies evaluating how transformational leadership is associated with related variables such as job satisfaction, change commitment, leadership trust, cooperative conflict management, and market orientation. The present paper evaluates the effects of transformational leadership and cooperative conflict management along with their mediating and moderating of leadership trust in the life insurance industry for two sample groups, sales managers and sales employees. The main effect of leadership trust was mediated and moderated by cooperative conflict management. Cooperative conflict management made a more important contribution than transformational leadership or the moderating effect (interaction), but these three together were the most important variables predicting highest leadership trust. Transformational leadership has an indirect influence on leadership trust. This work summarizes the specific contribution and importance of building successful leadership trust associations with employees in relation to leadership and satisfaction with change commitment.

  9. Interspecific cooperation: enhanced growth, attachment and strain-specific distribution in biofilms through Azospirillum brasilense-Pseudomonas protegens co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnussat, Luciana A; Salcedo, Florencia; Maroniche, Guillermo; Keel, Christoph; Valverde, Claudio; Creus, Cecilia M

    2016-10-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria belonging to Azospirillum and Pseudomonas genera are major inhabitants of the rhizosphere. Both are increasingly commercialized as crops inoculants. Interspecific interaction in the rhizosphere is critical for inoculants aptness. The objective of this work was to evaluate Azospirillum and Pseudomonas interaction in mixed biofilms by co-cultivation of the model strains Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and Pseudomonas protegens CHA0. The results revealed enhanced growth of both strains when co-cultured in static conditions. Moreover, Sp245 biofilm formed in plastic surfaces was increased 2-fold in the presence of CHA0. Confocal microscopy revealed highly structured mixed biofilms showing Sp245 mainly on the bottom and CHA0 towards the biofilm surface. In addition, A. brasilense biofilm was thicker and denser when co-cultured with P. protegens. In a colony-colony interaction assay, Sp245 changed nearby CHA0 producing small colony phenotype, which accounts for a diffusible metabolite mediator; though CHA0 spent medium did not affect Sp245 colony phenotype. Altogether, these results point to a cooperative interaction between A. brasilense Sp245 and P. protegens CHA0 in which both strains increase their static growth and produce structured mixed biofilms with a strain-specific distribution. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Impact of Business Interoperability on the Performance of Complex Cooperative Supply Chain Networks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izunildo Cabral

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an agent-based model for evaluating the effect of business interoperability on the performance of cooperative supply chain networks. The model is based on insights from the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing network approach and the complex systems theory perspective. To demonstrate its applicability, an explanatory case study regarding a Portuguese reverse logistics cooperative supply chain network is presented. Face-to-face interviews and forms were used to collect data. The findings show that the establishment of appropriate levels of business interoperability has helped to reduce several non-value-added interaction processes and consequently improve the operational performance of the Valorpneu network. Regarding the research implications, this paper extends the current knowledge on business interoperability and an important problem in business: how business interoperability gaps in dyadic organizational relationships affect the network of companies that the two companies belong to—network effect. In terms of practical implications, managers can use the proposed model as a starting point to simulate complex interactions between supply chain network partners and understand better how the performance of their networks emerges from these interactions and from the adoption of different levels of business interoperability.

  11. A study on the establishment of a standard nuclear cooperation agreement and the revision of existing nuclear cooperation agreements in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, K S; Lee, D J; Lee, B Y; Cho, I H; Ko, H S

    1997-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to suggest a standard nuclear cooperation agreement (SNCA) as a model for new nuclear cooperation agreements (NCA`s) which are expected to be concluded in the near future and to suggest a proposal text and strategy for the revision of existing NCA`s with advanced countries such as the United States. To accomplish the objectives, this study: First, establishes a framework for a NCA through clarifying the basic concept of NCA and identifying key elements of NCA. Second, draws implications for a standard NCA and revision of existing NCA`s through analyzing by comparison those NCA`s between other countries. Third, clarifies the purpose and underlying philosophy for the SNCA, determines the elements to be included in the SNCA, and suggests a final draft of the SNCA. And fourth, clarifies general concepts of the revision of NCA`s, analyzes the needs of the revision of the Korea-U.S. NCA, and assesses the position of the United States on the matter. (author). 28 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  13. A Study on the cooperation policy in multilateral nuclear control regimes and the advancing of national export control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K. S.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Kim, J. S.

    2004-08-01

    This study carried out the analysis of trends of the multilateral nuclear control in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the past trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and the physical protection of nuclear materials. Second, this study establishes the multilateral cooperation strategies for the effective cooperation in the process of strengthening the nuclear control regimes. Third, this study reviews the major agenda of nuclear control regimes and establishes national positions on each agenda. Fourth, this study also analyzes outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derives some factors to reflect national nuclear control system

  14. Growth performance, haematological and biochemical study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A significant difference (P<0.05) was established in the growth parameters determined in the C. gariepinus fingerlings fed with the four frog formulations, namely, final weight, total weight, and mean feed gain, mean weight gain and feed conversion ratio The 40% R. galamensis ration elicited higher growth values than all ...

  15. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  16. The initial growth of complex oxides : study and manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, the initial growth stage, i.e., nucleation and growth of the first few unit cell layers, of complex oxides was studied in real time during pulsed laser deposition (PLD). These studies were performed at their optimal epitaxial growth conditions, i.e., high temperature and high oxygen

  17. Grain growth studies on nanocrystalline Ni powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, G.K.; Welzel, U.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microstructure of nanocrystalline Ni powder produced by ball-milling and its thermal stability were investigated by applying different methods of X-ray diffraction line-profile analysis: single-line analysis, whole powder-pattern modelling and the (modified) Warren–Averbach method were employed. The kinetics of grain growth were investigated by both ex-situ and in-situ X-ray diffraction measurements. With increasing milling time, the grain-size reduction is accompanied by a considerable narrowing of the size distribution and an increase in the microstrain. Upon annealing, initial, rapid grain growth occurs, accompanied by the (almost complete) annihilation of microstrain. For longer annealing times, the grain-growth kinetics depend on the initial microstructure: a smaller microstrain with a broad grain-size distribution leads to linear grain growth, followed by parabolic grain growth, whereas a larger microstrain with a narrow grain-size distribution leads to incessant linear grain growth. These effects have been shown to be incompatible with grain-boundary curvature driven growth. The observed kinetics are ascribed to the role of excess free volume at the grain boundaries of nanocrystalline material and the prevalence of an “abnormal grain-growth” mechanism.

  18. Cooperative credit systems: defence of the model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Sánchez Boza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role carried out by saving and credit cooperatives in Central America where they have gained momentum, mainly in the past ten years. Cooperatives of this type are called financial intermediation cooperatives due to the influence of various legislative regulations that have placed them in the context of international control, the type of economic activity they perform and the fact that they make profits from both public and private international entities which enable their growth.Many of these organisations can be commended. They are highly competitive on financial markets and strive to extend their profits to increasingly larger parts of the population while also searching for new products to benefit the sector of the population that has chosen the cooperative model as a means to progress in a sphere of equity and respect for the rights of their fellow men.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 17.07.2015

  19. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolyatko, V. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russia)

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject “Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium.” This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  20. Study on the international cooperation improvement for the safety management of high-level radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Soo; Gang, Mun Ja; Kim, Seung Soo; Park, Jung Gyun; Bak, Min Hoon; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Gung Gyun; Han, Gyung Won

    2004-02-01

    This project has supported the international Migration'03 conference, and formed a working group which is consisted with domestic and foreign experts for HLW and is held biennially. For the international research cooperation with advanced countries, foreign research activities and facilities/equipments for the study of HLW, especially actinides, were reviewed. And two arrangements between KAERI and JNC, KAERI and FZK/INE in the field of R and D for geological disposal of HLW were signed. For a recent hot issue about the selection of Wi-Island in Jun-Buk as a candidate of disposal site for Low and Middle radioactive Waste(LMLW), an open forum about the stability of the disposal of radioactive waste held at JeonJu, the capital of Jun-Buk province, with foreign experts who take part in Migration'03 conference. And their interview contents about the stability of LMLW in newspapers might be the good propaganda for the nuclear power industry

  1. Cooperation of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger with the Ventilation Unit During Summer - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romańska-Zapała, Anna; Furtak, Marcin; Dechnik, Mirosław

    2017-10-01

    Renewable energy sources are used in the modern energy-efficient buildings to improve their energy balance. One of them is used in the mechanical ventilation system ground air heat exchanger (earth-air heat exchanger - EAHX). This solution, right after heat recovery from exhaust air (recuperation), allows the reduction in the energy needed to obtain the desired temperature of supply air. The article presents the results of "in situ" measurements of pipe ground air heat exchanger cooperating with the air handling unit, supporting cooling the building in the summer season, in Polish climatic conditions. The laboratory consists of a ventilation unit intake - exhaust with rotor for which the source of fresh air is the air intake wall and two air intakes field cooperating with the tube with ground air heat exchangers. Selection of the source of fresh air is performed using sprocket with actuators. This system is part of the ventilation system of the Malopolska Laboratory of Energy-Efficient Building (MLBE) building of Cracow University of Technology. The measuring system are, among others, the sensors of parameters of air inlets and outlets of the heat exchanger channels EAHX and weather station that senses the local weather conditions. The measurement data are recorded and archived by the integrated process control system in the building of MLBE. During the study measurements of operating parameters of the ventilation unit cooperating with the selected source of fresh air were performed. Two cases of operation of the system: using EAHX heat exchanger and without it, were analyzed. Potentially the use of ground air heat exchanger in the mechanical ventilation system can reduce the energy demand for heating or cooling rooms by the pre-adjustment of the supply air temperature. Considering the results can be concluded that the continuous use of these exchangers is not optimal. This relationship is appropriate not only on an annual basis for the transitional periods (spring

  2. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  3. Sexual selection of human cooperative behaviour: an experimental study in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Tognetti

    Full Text Available Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could donate part of their gain to the village school in the presence of the same observers. Both contributions to the public good and donations to the school, which reflect different components of cooperativeness, were influenced by the sex of the observers. The results suggest that in this non-Western population, sexual selection acts mainly on men's cooperative behaviour with non-kin, whereas women's cooperativeness is mainly influenced by nonsexual social selection.

  4. Short-range mobility and the evolution of cooperation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-05-20

    A pressing issue in biology and social sciences is to explain how cooperation emerges in a population of self-interested individuals. Theoretical models suggest that one such explanation may involve the possibility of changing one's neighborhood by removing and creating connections to others, but this hypothesis has problems when random motion is considered and lacks experimental support. To address this, we have carried out experiments on diluted grids with human subjects playing a Prisoner's Dilemma. In contrast to previous results on purposeful rewiring in relational networks, we have found no noticeable effect of mobility in space on the level of cooperation. Clusters of cooperators form momentarily but in a few rounds they dissolve as cooperators at the boundaries stop tolerating being cheated upon. Our results highlight the difficulties that mobile agents have to establish a cooperative environment in a spatial setting.

  5. A Study of Sino-Russian Energy Cooperation from the Perspective of Theories of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyue Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy cooperation is an important component in the Sino-Russia relationship. After more than a decade of efforts, China and Russia have made great progress in their cooperation in the area of oil and natural gas, which has not only promoted the economic developments in both countries, but also expanded their common interests to a large extent, resulting in a tremendous improvement of the two countries’ international strategies towards each other. Nevertheless, constrained and influenced by the evolution of contemporary international politics and economies, the Sino-Russia energy cooperation is facing some problems and barriers. Therefore, the aim of this article is to analyze the multiple elements affecting the Sino-Russia energy cooperation through the prism of Neo-realism, Neo-liberalism and Social Constructivism, hence a clear account of the opportunities and challenges that constitute this cooperation will be gained.

  6. Animal studies on growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    Despite the fact that no plausible biological mechanism has yet been identified how electromagnetic fields below recommended exposure limits could negatively affect health of animals or humans, many experiments have been performed in various animal species, mainly mice and rats, to investigate the possible effects on growth and development. While older studies often suffered from sub-optimal exposure conditions, recent investigations, using sophisticated exposure devices and thus preventing thermal effects, have been performed without these limitations. In principle, two types of studies can be addressed: those which have investigated the carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects of exposure in developing animals, and those which have been done in developing animals without the focus on carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic effects. In both areas, the vast majority of publications did not show adverse effects. The largest study so far has been done in normal mice which have been chronically exposed to UMTS signals up to 1.3 W/kg SAR, thus 16 times higher than the whole-body exposure limit for humans. Even after four generations, no systematic or dose-dependent alterations in development or fertility could be found, supporting the view that negative effects on humans are very unlikely. Ongoing experiments in our laboratory investigate the effects of head-only exposure in rats (up to 10 W/kg local SAR) which are exposed from 14 days of age daily for 2 h. A battery of behavioral tests is performed in young, adult, and pre-senile animals. The results will help to clarify possible effects of exposure on brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Hurricane Ivan on the regional longleaf pine growth study: is there a relation to site or stand conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; John C. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    The US Forest Service Regional Longleaf Pine Growth Study (RLGS) began its eighth re-measurement (40th year) during 2004 autumn. The study has 305 plots of which 171 plots are located on the Escambia Experimental Forest (EEF) in Brewton AL. EEF is operated by the U.S. Forest Service in cooperation with the T.R. Miller Mill Company. The RLGS has plots distributed across...

  8. THE ERASMUS PLUS PROGRAM AS A FACTOR TO INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kugiejko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Content and methods of education implemented in schools are changing rapidly. One of the reasons fuelling these changes is implementation of such programs like the Lifelong Learning Program (LLP Erasmus Plus, which motto „Learning for life” is gaining more and more followers. For the purpose of proving this theory, the researcher presents below the profiles of two primary schools (Primary School in Krosno and CEIP Villa Romana in Spain, which participate in this international cultural and educational exchange. The researcher paid special attention to the assumptions of the LLP project, tourism mobility and achievements resulting from the international cooperation between the educational institutions. To present the problem, the researcher used one of the qualitative research methods for case studies. It determined the careful analysis of the individual interviews as well as participating observation of the program coordinators and teachers’ behavior showed how much potential lies in the cooperation of teachers and pupils participating in such educational exchanges. The undertaken research (including interviews with the staff and observation of the projects management and its analysis confirmed the hypothesis that every type of school, regardless of its location (city or countryside can benefit from participation in an international exchange. The main limiting factor, noticeable especially in the schools located in rural areas, is the mentality and fear from participation in an international program, challenging the language skills of the staff and resulting in more administrative work. However, the success of the Erasmus Plus program is best measured by the fact that after initial participating, both village schools continued the project in the following years.

  9. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Methods on Academic Success in Social Studies Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ŞENTÜRK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique used in the application of cooperative learning model on the academic success of social studies of 6th degree students. Experimental research design, including pretest and post-test, was used in the study. Work group of the study consisted of 54 6th grade students studying in three different classes of a secondary school in Trabzon between 2015-2016 school years. The study was conducted with two experimental groups and one control group. The related unit was taught via the related techniques for four weeks with experimental groups. Academic Success Test (AST was used as data collection tool of the study. The pre-test and post test scores of experimental and control groups from AST were analysed by using ANOVA and ANCOVA. According to the AST pre-test and posttest results of research groups, there was no significant difference between pre-test and posttest scores of Jigsaw and Ask Together Learn Together technique students in experimental groups, while significant difference was measured between experimental groups and control group.

  10. Cooperative Marketing alliances for New Products Commercialization as an entrepreneurial strategy; an Analytical-Comparative Study of Football Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimi, Mehdi; Zarea, Hadi; Khajeheian, Datis

    2012-01-01

    Marketing of new products as important part of the commercialization process, plays a critical role in success of developer companies. Most of new products fail, and in sequence cause the company not to reach the financial and marketing aims. The paper concentrates on cooperative marketing...... alliances as a successful approach to commercialization of new products, by study the Iranian football premier league as a context for cooperative marketing alliances among football clubs and business enterprises. Popularity of football clubs has mentioned as a business platform, for commercialization...... usage from their equities, and help the business enterprise to joy from popularity of football club to exploit the market potential. Study results that cooperative marketing may offer an entrepreneurial approach to new product commercialization, and will promote the marketing abilities of football clubs....

  11. Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

    2014-10-01

    In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation.

  12. The management of cooperatives: a study in Savings and Credit sector of Quito, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Fernández Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The administrative management of savings and credit cooperatives has become a determining factor for the evaluation of business performance, in which the current administration has become a tool with many declines, which causes damage to the organizational structure of each cooperative causing inefficiency in their processes. That is why this research is aimed at analyzing the administrative management of twenty Savings and Credit Cooperatives of segments four and five of Quito, Ecuador, with the application of a survey to the managers of said entities where the fundamental administrative variables are evaluated, under a concept of integrality between the financial-economic and social.

  13. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 18--Rocky Brook, 1963-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the history and results of the Rocky Brook installation of the cooperative levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), over the 41-year period 1965 to 2006. This 1938 plantation is one of the two site-IV installations among the nine installations in the study. Much public...

  14. Cooperative Learning in Graduate Education: A Study of Its Effectiveness in Administrator Training in Two California Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H. Woodrow; Townley, Arthur J.

    This paper presents findings from a study that explored students' perceptions of cooperative learning strategies used in educational administration classes. Specifically, the study sought to determine whether students perceived the strategies to be more effective than traditional methods in increasing their knowledge and retention and in improving…

  15. A study on international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance strategies for nuclear development in other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Han, Pil Soon; Park, Yun Sik; Song, Ki Dong; Yang, Mang Ho; Oh, Keun Bae; Jang, Hong Lae; Lee, Dong Jin; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Sung Ki; Ko, Han Suk

    1993-12-01

    This study deals with international nuclear cooperation and technology self-reliance for nuclear development in other countries. This study also analyses the international and domestic nuclear environment such as NPT, nuclear export control, gloval environmental issues, and public acceptance. Finally, a suggestion is made for the future direction of strategy for nuclear technology self-reliance in Korea. (Author)

  16. Leptin administration affects growth and skeletal development in a rat intrauterine growth restriction model: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-El Dadon, Shimrit; Shahar, Ron; Katalan, Vered; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Reifen, Ram

    2011-09-01

    Skeletal abnormalities are one of the hallmarks of growth delay during gestation. The aim of this study was to determine changes induced by leptin in skeletal growth and development in a rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. Intrauterine growth retardation was induced prepartum and the effects of leptin to mothers prenatally or to offspring postnatally were studied. Radii were harvested and tested mechanically and structurally. Tibias were evaluated for growth-plate morphometry. On day 40 postpartum, total bone length and mineral density and tibial growth-plate width and numbers of cells within its zones of offspring treated with leptin were significantly greater than in the control group. Postnatal leptin administration in an IUGR model improves the structural properties and elongation rate of bone. These findings could pave the way to preventing some phenotypic presentations of IUGR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of emittance growth in the ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, F.

    1997-03-01

    Several different mechanisms of emittance growth in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK are investigated: the author calculates rise times of the fast beam-ion instability for the damping ring (DR), and discusses the emittance growth caused by coherent synchrotron radiation in the beam-transport line (BT), the effect of quadrupole wake fields in the injector linac, and, finally, a single-bunch head-tail ion effect that can occur in both the DR and the BT. A first attempt to measure the quadrupole wake on the real machine is also reported

  18. Study of Mechanisms for Development and Strengthening of Water User Cooperatives (Case Study of Aras River Basin: Application of AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohallah maghabl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water user cooperatives were formed due to consideration to people's empowerment and participation in water investment and management. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of development and strengthening of water user cooperatives in the Aras River Basin. The study population consisted of the management board members of the water user cooperatives in the Aras Basin in the year 2012. Respondents were selected by purposeful stratified sampling method. Having the data collected by interviews and questionnaires, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (through the software Expert Choice 11 was used to prioritize mechanisms for the development and strengthening of water user cooperatives. Based on the final weights, criterias including supportive strategies, education - extension, policy, communications and legal mechanisms, were prioritized, respectively. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that sub-criterias including reallocation of credit to change the traditional irrigation to drip and sprinkler irrigation, holding extension and educational courses purposed at promoting farmers’knowledge about their responsibilities for the formation and management of water user cooperatives collaborated with the department of Jihad Agricultural Organization (JKO, the department of Cooperatives and Regional Water Organization; credit and investment provision to improve the processing and package industries, modeling appropriate cropping systems based on the area capacity were the most influential sub-criterias in developing and strengthening water user cooperatives.

  19. The effectiveness of nurse practitioners working at a GP cooperative: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijers, Nancy; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Giesen, Paul; Vrijhoef, Hubertus; van der Burgt, Regi; Mintjes, Joke; Wensing, Michel; Laurant, Miranda

    2012-08-07

    In many countries out-of-hours care faces serious challenges, including shortage of general practitioners, a high workload, reduced motivation to work out of hours, and increased demand for out-of-hours care. One response to these challenges is the introduction of nurse practitioner as doctor substitutes, in order to maintain the (high) accessibility and safety of out of hours care. Although nurse practitioners have proven to provide equally safe and efficient care during daytime primary care, it is unclear whether substitution is effective and efficient in the more complex out of hours primary care. This study aims to assess the effects of substitution of care from general practitioners to nurse practitioners in an out of hours primary care setting. A quasi experimental study is undertaken at one "general practitioner cooperative" to offer out-of-hours care for 304.000 people in the South East of the Netherlands. In the experimental condition patient care is provided by a team of one nurse practitioner and four general practitioners; where the nurse practitioner replaces one general practitioner during one day of the weekend from 10 am to 5 pm. In the control condition patient care is provided by a team of five general practitioners during the other day of the weekend, also from 10 am to 5 pm. The study period last 15 months, from April 2011 till July 2012. Data will be collected on number of different outcomes using a range of methods. Our primary outcome is substitution of care. This is calculated using the number and characteristics of patients that have a consultation at the GP cooperative. We compare the number of patients seen by both professionals, type of complaints, resource utilization (e.g. prescription, tests, investigations, referrals) and waiting times in the experimental condition and control condition. This data is derived from patient electronic medical records. Secondary outcomes are: patient satisfaction; general practitioners workload; quality

  20. A study of personality of leader and style of his co-operation in sporting command

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolar I.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The personality features of leader of sporting command and style of his co-operation are considered. The problems of adjusting and optimization of co-operation of leader and other players of command are selected in achievement of the set team purpose. 37 skilled sportsmen-handballers took part in research. An informal structure is exposed in commands, leaders and followers are certain. The quantitative indexes of personality features of leader, follower of sporting command are certain. Style of co-operation of leader and follower (prevailing and goodwill and quality is exposed personalities which will be realized by them in a sporting command. It is set that in interpersonality co-operation a leader will realize dominant style, and follower equal will realize dominant and benevolent styles.

  1. AFSC/REFM: Aleutian Islands Cooperative Acoustic Survey Study 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this project was to investigate whether cooperative biomass surveys can be an effective way to manage fisheries at the local scales that are...

  2. A study on the Nuclear Cooperation between the Republic of Korea and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hanmyung; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ryu, J. S.; Jeon, E. J.; Yeo, J. W.; Yun, S. W.

    2010-09-01

    As the nuclear cooperation including nuclear trade between Korea and Japan grows, the necessity for the conclusion of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreement is emerging. As nuclear cooperation agreement affects future nuclear development and utilization, the establishment of optimized scheme for both countries is essential. The nuclear cooperation between Korea and Japan is expected to be established based on the understanding that both countries are major suppliers in world nuclear industries. As the nuclear export control regimes of both countries are based on the NSG Guidelines, the nuclear agreement between two countries are expected to be built based on the mutual respects of each other's national nuclear policy and the recognition on the optimized export control

  3. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  4. Study on DSM-based task planning of product cooperative development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyzing the managerial characteristics and complexity of product cooperative development suggest that task planning is an important aspect for process management of product cooperative development and the method for planning tasks should be able to model the dependency between tasks and iterations during the development process. In this paper, a DSM-based method and its corresponding optimization algorithms are developed. At first the coupled task sets and uncoupled task sets are identified...

  5. A study of cooperative urban district geoexchange for heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-20

    Natural gas is the largest source for home heating in Canada. However, natural gas prices are sensitive to falling continental supplies, and the increased penetration of natural gas-fired electricity generation in areas of North America is placing additional pressure on continental sources and prices. This feasibility study examined the use of urban geo-exchange projects and community power developers (CPD) to increase the number of geo-exchange units installed by reducing high upfront costs while improving market infrastructure and consumer awareness and confidence. The CPD will provide community building and resource development services in order to facilitate cooperatively owned organization's to manage shared geothermal assets. An urban block in Toronto was used as a case study of a potential redevelopment site. The study showed that a shared geo-exchange system will increase the per residence installation costs. It was concluded that CPDs will play an important role in increasing geo-exchange penetration by addressing the lack of public awareness in renewable energy systems. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  6. A study of cooperative urban district geoexchange for heating and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is the largest source for home heating in Canada. However, natural gas prices are sensitive to falling continental supplies, and the increased penetration of natural gas-fired electricity generation in areas of North America is placing additional pressure on continental sources and prices. This feasibility study examined the use of urban geo-exchange projects and community power developers (CPD) to increase the number of geo-exchange units installed by reducing high upfront costs while improving market infrastructure and consumer awareness and confidence. The CPD will provide community building and resource development services in order to facilitate cooperatively owned organization's to manage shared geothermal assets. An urban block in Toronto was used as a case study of a potential redevelopment site. The study showed that a shared geo-exchange system will increase the per residence installation costs. It was concluded that CPDs will play an important role in increasing geo-exchange penetration by addressing the lack of public awareness in renewable energy systems. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Studies on the mechanism of functional cooperativity between progesterone and estrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, M S; Tsai, S Y; Leng, X H; Dobson, A D; Conneely, O M; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1991-09-05

    Steroid response elements (SREs) cooperate with many different cis-acting elements including NF-1 sites, CACCC boxes, and other SREs to induce target gene expression (Schule, R., Muller, M., Otsuka-Murakami, H., and Renkawitz, R. (1988) Nature 332, 87-90; Strahle, U., Schmid, W., and Schutz, G. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 3389-3395). Induction of gene expression can be additive or synergistic with respect to the level of activation by either transactivators. Two mechanisms have been proposed for how synergism occurs: 1) cooperative binding of transcriptional activators to DNA or 2) simultaneous interaction of individually bound activators with a common target protein. We have shown previously that cooperative binding of receptors is important for synergism between two progesterone response elements (PREs). Here we showed that an estrogen response element (ERE) and a PRE can also functionally cooperate and this synergism between an ERE and a PRE is not contributed by cooperative DNA binding. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the activation domains of the progesterone receptor (PR) (C1Act) are required for synergism between two PREs and sufficient for confirming cooperative binding. However these two activation domains of PR are not sufficient for synergism between an ERE and a PRE. Additional regions within the NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal domains are also required for synergistic interaction between two heterologous SREs.

  8. Growth failure, somatomedin and growth hormone levels in juvenile diabetes mellitus--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, H

    1979-06-01

    Growth hormone (hGH) responsiveness to exercise and somatomedin C (SmC) activity were measured in ten children with insulin-deficient diabetes mellitus. Four of the ten children showed a significant degree of growth retardation. Normal SmC activity was found in association with elevated hGH levels. The hypothesis that growth-retarded diabetics have a failure of Sm production despite high hGH levels (analogous to malnutrition and Laron dwarfism) was not substantiated by this study. Chronic deficiency of insulin, itself a somatomedin, may play a major role in diabetic growth failure.

  9. Protocols to Study Growth and Metabolism in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburger, Katrin; Teleman, Aurelio A

    2016-01-01

    Signaling pathways such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor pathway concurrently regulate organismal growth and metabolism. Drosophila has become a popular model system for studying both organismal growth and metabolic regulation. Care must be taken, however, when assessing such phenotypes because they are quantitative in nature, and influenced by environment. This chapter first describes how to control animal age and nutrient availability, since growth and metabolism are sensitive to these parameters. It then provides protocols for measuring tissue growth, cell size, and metabolic parameters such as stored lipids and glycogen, and circulating sugars.

  10. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  11. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  12. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Method and Systematic Teaching on Students' Achievement and Retention of Knowledge in Social Studies Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Toklucu, Selma; Tay, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Many effective instructional strategies, methods, and techniques, which were developed in accordance with constructivist approach, can be used together in social studies lessons. Constructivist education comprises active learning processes. Two active learning approaches are cooperative learning and systematic teaching. Purpose…

  13. Influence of Cooperative Learning on Students' Self-Perception on Leadership Skills: A Case Study in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gallardo, José-Reyes; López-Cirugeda, Isabel; Moreno-Rubio, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the self-perception of pre-service teachers on leadership after getting involved into a Cooperative Learning approach. For that purpose, a pre/post-test has been applied to 57 undergraduate students enrolled in a unit course on Natural and Social Science Education, compulsory in the curriculum of a degree in…

  14. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE AND INDIVIDUALISTIC GAMES ON WORD SPELLING: A STUDY OF YOUNG IRANIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokooh SHAHZADEH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on the instructional effectiveness and efficiency of two game approaches on word spelling of EFL beginners. The approaches under study were cooperative approach and individualistic approach. The participants of this study consisted of 59 fifth and sixth grade students from two elementary schools in the same district in Firoozeh, Neyshabur- Iran. They received 90 minutes instruction per week for a total of ten sessions in two groups of cooperative and individualistic. The results of the study indicated that there is not a significant difference between the performance of learners in cooperative and individualistic groups. A questionnaire was also given to the learners at the end in order to measure learners' attitude toward the games. The results showed that there is not a big difference between students' attitude toward learning spelling in cooperative group and individualistic group, and both groups have positive attitude toward the games. The researcher concluded that the combination of these two approaches seems more favorable.

  15. Estudi empíric sobre els efectes de l’aplicació de la NIC 32 a les cooperatives Empirical study about the effects of the application of IAS 32 in Cooperatives Empirical study about the effects of the application of IAS 32 in Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Carreras

    2013-09-01

    financial information presented before and after the application of IAS 32, to determine the existing differences.  We used the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to contrast if these differences are significant. We also used the U-Mann Whitney Test to contrast if there are significant differences in the relative impact of applying IAS 32 between various groups of cooperatives. Finally, we performed an analysis of the effects of the IAS 32 application on the economic and financial situation of the cooperatives, and the evolution of its intangible assets, using techniques of financial statements analysis. Findings and value: The results obtained confirm that the application of IAS 32 caused significant differences in some financial components of the balance sheet and the profit and loss account, as well as in the ratios analyzed. The differences are present in a reduction in the level of capitalization and an increase in the indebtedness of the co-operatives, as well as a general worsening of economic ratios of solvency and financial autonomy. Research limitations: It is important to note that this study has been done with a sample of audited cooperatives. Therefore, the results must be interpreted in the context of big-sized cooperatives. Also we want to note that we have made a comparative analysis of financial statements for 2011 and 2010. This has allowed us to know the differences in the financial information of the cooperative before and after applying IAS 32. Although some of these differences, could also be caused by other factors such as the economic situation, changes in the application of accounting standards, etc... Originality: We believe it is the right time to do this research because, since 2011, all Spanish cooperatives must apply IAS 32. As far we know, there are no other empirical studies with cooperatives that had applied IAS 32 in their financial statements. The results of this research can be useful for different stakeholders. First, because the agencies issuing

  16. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  17. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  18. Economic growth constraints in Vietnam: A study using the growth diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Thanh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have clearly pointed out a decreasing trend of Vietnam’s economic growth in the short and the medium terms. This paper presents a study applying the growth diagnostic method for Vietnam to determine growth constrains. The binding growth constrains of Vietnam are found to include a poor business environment; an underdeveloped infrastructure, especially the transportation network market; failures related to information externalities, learning externalities and coordination failures. Notably, the energy infrastructure could be a vital constraint in a near future, but is not a binding constraint at present. The inefficiency of financial intermediaries and the government’s over-investment could become a binding constraint when the economy returns to its high growth path.

  19. Characterizing the Land Shareholding Cooperative: A Case Study of Shanglin Village in Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The land tenure reform is the key to sustainable development in rural China. Without challenging the collective ownership of land, the land shareholding cooperative (LSC system came into being and is being strongly endorsed by the authority: It re-collectivizes the contracted land from peasants and enables better regional planning and large-scale modern agricultural production. This paper studies a specific LSC (Shanglin LSC in the Sunan region of the Yangtze River Delta based on our fieldwork. We found that the LSC system is a bottom-up institutional innovation towards sustainable land use in China. Both village cadres and ordinary peasants’ decision making contributes to its successful establishment and development. This shareholding system increases peasants’ income through dividends and employment opportunities. The concentrated land enables ecological farming. Acting as a quasi-government agency, the LSC also provides public service and social security to the village community. On the other hand, the LSCs’ success depends on certain prior conditions and the LSCs’ multiple missions may contradict each other from time to time, and lead to loss of efficiency. We argue that this approach to land tenure reform may not be universally applied to any regions in China.

  20. Secular change in cardiorespiratory fitness of men: Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Benjamin L; Morrow, James R; Jackson, Allen W; Defina, Laura F; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2011-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been shown to be an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, as well as health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. During the last four decades, national guidelines for physical activity and fitness have emerged in an ongoing effort to improve health outcomes through enhanced CRF risk profiles. The purpose of the study was to describe the secular trend in CRF as a function of decade and age in a large cohort of men during the past 40 yr. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline fitness data collected during comprehensive medical examinations of 52,785 men age 20-74 yr evaluated at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, from 1970 to 2009 who completed a maximum treadmill exercise test for estimation of aerobic capacity was conducted. Comparisons were made between mean fitness levels in each decade stratified by five age groups. Mean CRF in MET from estimated V·O 2max has increased overall approximately 1 MET during a 40-yr period for each of the five age groups (P < 0.0001). The greatest change occurred during the 1970s to 1980s with minimal subsequent increase and a small decline commencing in the last decade especially in younger men. In a large cohort of men, average CRF has improved during the last 40 yr with a slight decline in the favorable trend notable in the most recent decade.

  1. A study on current status of KAERI's international cooperation programs and strategies for effective implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Park, Chun Kab; Noh, In Young; Kim, Young Min

    1998-12-01

    This is a report on the status and analysis of standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment. This report comprises a total of six chapters. Chapter II discusses the status of the technical cooperation agreement which took effect late 1998, and various other model agreements for technical cooperation. Chapter III provides information on the status, regulations, procedures for the expert mission service, and Chapter IV details the current status of the technical staff attachment and the related procedures. Chapter V deals with the utilization status and analysis of the English Counselor, and Chapter VI is the Conclusion. This report has tow objectives. First, we have never published reference books related to standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment necessary for international joint research until now. As a result, the research divisions have often asked many questions to the office of international cooperation. Therefore, we expect that many difficulties will be removed and procedures simplified if the research divisions use this report as a reference book. Second, we plan to use this report reference book for policy decisions after establishing the database. (author). 5 tabs., 9 figs

  2. Soviet scientists in chinese institutes: A historical study of cooperation between the two academies of sciences in 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuchen; Yu, Feklova T

    2018-03-01

    In the 1950s, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) engaged in close cooperation with the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The CAS sent scientists to the Soviet Academy to work as interns, study for advanced degrees, or engage in academic cooperation, and a large number of Soviet scientists were invited by the various institutes of the CAS to come to China to give lectures, direct research, help make scientific plans, and collaborate. The comprehensive cooperation between the two academies was launched at a time when the CAS institutes were in their embryonic stage, which suggests that the better-established Soviet scientists had the opportunity to play a dominate role. But the reality is not so straightforward. The case studies in this paper suggest that besides the influence of compatible political movements in China and the Soviet Union and bilateral ties between these two nations' scientific institutes, disharmony in actual working relationships prevented Soviet scientists from playing the role they might have envisioned within the CAS institutes. The rapid development of the cooperative relationship in a short span of time, combined with lack of experience on both sides, made for a disharmonious collaboration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of training workshops as an object of study for the transformation of the cooperative community environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ojeda Suárez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the potential of didactics for capacity building is a must to ensure organizational sustainability. We used a set of tools, such as, object of study, didactics, action-participatory research, generating exploratory, descriptive, correlational and explanatory studies within the cooperative organization. The workshops allowed the design of innovative teaching-learning processes to meet the demands of organizational knowledge systems, identify the main administrative management problems and actions to contribute to the organizational sustainability of the cooperative with the active, creative, participatory and compromising contribution of the social actors involved in the programs or projects. The measurement of the impacts of the projects of connection with the society, can be more easily determinable from identifying the base line that is part and the shortcomings of the organization for which the workshops of proactive socialization of information are an essential tool. On the other hand, it is required that the continuous training of teachers that lead to modify their educational conceptions and, as a consequence, their methodologies and practices at the time of tackling work with the community. The proposed actions were accepted in their entirety by the cooperative's directive, transforming itself into a Cooperative Participatory Development Program.

  4. Cooperative assembly of Co-Smad4 MH1 with R-Smad1/3 MH1 on DNA: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Wang

    Full Text Available Smads, the homologs of Sma and MAD proteins, play a key role in gene expression regulation in the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β signaling pathway. Recent experimental studies have revealed that Smad4/R-Smad heterodimers bound on DNA are energetically more favorable than homodimeric R-Smad/R-Smad complexes bound on DNA, which indicates that Smad4 might act as binding vehicle to cooperatively assemble with activated R-Smads on DNA in the nucleus. However, the details of interaction mechanism for cooperative recruitment of Smad4 protein to R-Smad proteins on DNA, and allosteric communication between the Smad4-DNA and R-Smad-DNA interfaces via DNA mediating are not yet clear so far.In the present work, we have constructed a series of Smadn+DNA+Smadn (n = 1, 3, 4 models and carried out molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations and DNA dynamics analysis for them to study the interaction properties of Smadn (n = 1, 3, 4 with DNA molecule.The results revealed that the binding of Smad4 protein to DNA molecule facilitates energetically the formation of the heteromeric Smad4+DNA+Smad1/3 complex by increasing the affinity of Smad1/3 with DNA molecule. Further investigations through the residue/base motion correlation and DNA dynamics analyses predicted that the binding of Smad4 protein to DNA molecule in the heteromeric Smad4+DNA+Smad1/3 model induces an allosteric communication from the Smad4-DNA interface to Smad1/Smad3-DNA interface via DNA base-pair helical motions, surface conformation changes and new hydrogen bond formations. The present work theoretically explains the mechanism of cooperative recruitment of Smad4 protein to Smad1/3 protein via DNA-mediated indirect readout mode in the nucleus.

  5. Study on Cooperative Mechanism of Prefabricated Producers Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good cooperation mechanism is an important guarantee for the advancement of industrialization construction. To strengthen the partnership between producers, we analyze the behavior evolution trend of both parties using an evolutionary game theory. Based on the original model, the mechanism of coordination and cooperation between prefabricated producers is explained under the condition of punishment and incentive. The results indicate that stable evolutionary strategies exist under both cooperation and noncooperation, and the evolutionary results are influenced by the initial proportion of both decision-making processes. The government can support the production enterprises to establish a solid partnership through effective punishment and incentive mechanisms to reduce the initial cost in the supply chain of prefabricated construction, resulting in a win-win situation.

  6. Studies on the growth behavior of Chlorella, Haematococcus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth studies were conducted on green algae Chlorella, Scenedesmus and Haematococcus strains in batch mode cultures. In this study, the effect of sodium bicarbonate salt (NaHCO3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as carbon source on microalgal cultures were investigated. For this purpose, growth response of the ...

  7. Genesis of a growth triangle in Southeast Asia : a study of economic connections between Singapore, Johor and the Riau Islands, 1870s – 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the history of a regional cooperation framework, the SIJORI Growth Triangle with a focus on the mutual economic connections between Singapore, Johor and the Riau Islands. These long-exiting connections formed the initial shape of local networks which were enlarged, intensified

  8. A CASE STUDY OF LUNTIAN MULTI-PURPOSE COOPERATIVE IN BARANGAY LALAIG, TIAONG, QUEZON, PHILIPPINES: A VERTICAL INTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Perilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Luntian Multi-Purpose Cooperative located in Tiaong, Quezon, Philippines. The Luntian MultiPurposecooperative focuses more on feed production as well as hog fattening. The LMC applied thevertical integration to develop the cooperative. They have their members as their primary costumers of theirfeeds. The cooperative’s business activity includes also meat shop, granting of production loan, microfinance,mobilization of saving deposits, aside from feed milling and hog fattening. Different agencies, industryorganizations and private institutions provide trainings, seminars, assistance, as well as credit for thecooperative.The aims of the study was to determine the present and discuss a noteworthy business issue (sof Luntian Multipurpose Cooperative, evaluate the business environment prevailing at a particular time ofthis case , assess the cooperative’s performance in terms of the four business functions , define the problemrelevant to the business issue(s being studied. The study used primary and secondary data. Primary datawere gathered through interviews with the key personnel, managers, and other informants of the LuntianMultipurpose Cooperative in order to obtain responses regarding the overall status of the cooperative includingits problem and plans. Secondary data were taken from files and documents, especially the history, backgroundinformation and financial statements. Other data were taken through research materials such as book,unpublished special problems and from some government institutions. The recommendation of this researchshowed that Luntian MPC should engage in establishing a communal farm as to become the primary sourceof hybrid piglets that their members would raised. The alternatives solution was establishing a breeding farmthat would ask for initial investment.

  9. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  10. A study on the international cooperation through the NSG-DMTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae, Jaewoong; Lee, Youngwook; Choi, Sundo; Kim, Jongsook

    2013-01-01

    A final agreement for a total of seven areas will be drawn up in June 2013. The purpose of reviewing the control list is to harmonize NSG guidelines with the current level of nuclear technology. However, unnecessary control of items is likely to cause negative impacts on the development of the domestic nuclear power industry according to results of the revision. Therefore, the revision of the control list should be carried out carefully by thorough consideration. It is need to minimize the negative impact on domestic nuclear industries and research institutes due to strengthened export control regime. There is also a need to promote a solid foothold of Korea in NSG through the appropriate response such as new suggestion for the revision. The following measures to strengthen international cooperation were derived based on negotiation processes. Suggesting proposals PGs which suggested proposals in DMTE have many opportunities to have comments on revisions and occupy an advantageous position to dominate discussion. The active intervention in the fundamental review will invigorate future cooperation activities with many countries. Building bilateral communication channel It is difficult to grasp the practical position of each country in formal meetings. Sometimes, some proposals are related to some states' national policy and political issues even if the amendments are based on technical reviews. Unofficial diplomatic channels will contribute to build the communication and cooperation with many countries. Cooperation with like-minded states Joint suggestions of proposals, joint opposition to proposals establish cooperation channels between like-minded states, which may help to manage other proposals. Cooperation with like-minded states can exert a big influence to build consensus considering the decision system of NSG

  11. Trust and the successful coordination of SME co-operation – an empirical study in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the role of trust and test the impact of trust on performance in the context of co-operation between small- and medium-sized enterprises (‘SMEs’ in a transition country. Based on a sample of 122 Slovenian SMEs, an analysis based on OLS regression reveals that trust does have a strong impact on performance. We thereby identify trust as a powerful co-ordinating mechanism for SME relationships involving co-operation in transition economies.

  12. Sexual Selection of Human Cooperative Behaviour: An Experimental Study in Rural Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Tognetti, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Raymond, Michel; Faurie, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human cooperation in large groups and between non-kin individuals remains a Darwinian puzzle. Investigations into whether and how sexual selection is involved in the evolution of cooperation represent a new and important research direction. Here, 69 groups of four men or four women recruited from a rural population in Senegal played a sequential public-good game in the presence of out-group observers, either of the same sex or of the opposite sex. At the end of the game, participants could do...

  13. Performance Measurement Using Balanced Scorecard Concept On Co-Operatives Implication In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to apply the concept of balanced scorecards in measurement of co-operatives performance based on vision and mission. So far the assessment of co-operative performance in Indonesia is not take into account the social hold co-operative while co-operatives carrying a dual mission. Research conducted in in North Sumatera Province in Indonesia. The sample consisting of one hundred co-operatives that are still active run annual members meeting. Co-operative performance was assessed based on its fourth perspective i.e. membership financial internal process and learning amp growth. The indicator key of cooperative performance was determined by taking into account the performance assessment on co-operatives as articulated of State Minister for Co-operatives and SMEs No.129KEPMKUMKMXI2002 and the regulations of the State Minister for Co-operatives and SME No.06PerM.KUKMV2006. Therefore this research were contributed a method in assessing co-operative performance using Balanced Scorecard concept with the four perspective namely membership perspective financial perspective internal process perspective and learning amp growth perspective.

  14. Cooperation in Creating Innovation in Polish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Light of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zastempowski Maciej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sources of competitive advantage and economic development are sought in the sphere of innovation. They are at the centre of interest of representatives of the world of politics, science, and business. Moreover, they have been incorporated into governmental and international strategic development programmes. This article attempts to characterize and evaluate cooperation in creating innovation in small and medium-sized enterprises in Poland. Empirical research, a fragment of which is presented in this article, was conducted at the turn of March and April 2015 on a representative sample of Polish small and medium-sized enterprises. The subject of the analysis was business innovation expressed through the indicators of innovation and frequency of cooperation with different entities from the business environment to create new solutions, as well as forms of business innovation. The evaluation of the existing dependence was performed on the basis of the estimation results of the logit model. The objective of this study was to identify key factors related to cooperation and their impact on the innovativeness of Polish companies, using the tools of econometric analysis. The article presents a contemporary approach to managing innovative activity – open innovation, which is both widely reported and reflected in the results of research conducted. The logit model that was developed also indicates that companies that are open to cooperation with customers and academic institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN and are members of clusters are more likely to implement innovations of a radical nature.

  15. Using model fish to study the biological mechanisms of cooperative behaviour: A future for translational research concerning social anxiety disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Carvalho, Tamires Dos Santos; Maximino, Caio

    2018-03-02

    Human societies demand of its composing members the development of a wide array of social tools and strategies. A notable example is human outstanding ability to cooperate with others, in all its complex forms, depicting the reality of a highly demanding social framework in which humans need to be integrated as to attain physical and mental benefits. Considering the importance of social engagement, it's not entirely unexpected that most psychiatric disorders involve some disruption of normal social behaviour, ranging from an abnormal absence to a significant increase of social functioning. It is however surprising that knowledge on these social anxiety disorders still remains so limited. Here we review the literature focusing on the social and cooperative toolbox of 3 fish model species (cleaner fishes, guppies and zebrafish) which are amenable systems to test for social disorders. We build on current knowledge based on ethological information, arising from studies on cooperative behaviour in cleanerfishes and guppies, while profiting from the advantages of the intense use of zebrafish, to create novel paradigms aiming at the major socio-cognitive modules/dimensions in fish species. This focus may enable the discovery of putative conserved endpoints which are relevant for research into social disorders. We suggest that cross-species, cross-domain, functional and genetic approaches could provide a wider array of information on the neurobiological bases of social and cooperative behaviour, crucial to understanding the neural bases of social disorders and key to finding novel avenues towards treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  17. Tree growth studies on uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Turcotte, M.

    1982-01-01

    Coniferous trees planted in 1974 and deciduous species that have volunteered since 1970 on uranium mill tailings that had been stabilized to varying degrees using limestone and vegetation were evaluated. Their survival and growth rates were compared with those from other investigations. Competition for light appears to be a major contributor to mortality. Differences in soil moisture conditions under a tree stand as compared to those under a grass sward are potentially significant enough to affect the tailings hydrology and effluent contamination. Recommendations include planting seeds of deciduous species or deciduous and coniferous seedlings on strips of freshly disturbed tailings. The disturbed strips would provide reduced competition for the initial year and assist in tree survival. The planting of block stands of coniferous or deciduous trees would be useful for evaluating the hydrological impact of the trees as compared to the present grass sward

  18. The dialysis outcomes and practice patterns study phase 5 in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries: Design and study methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L Pisoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS is an international prospective cohort study of the relationships between hemodialysis (HD care practices and HD patient outcomes. The DOPPS began in 1996, in the United States, and has since expanded to 21 countries, collecting detailed data from >75,000 HD patients, with >200 scientific publications, focused on describing HD practices associated with improved HD patient outcomes. The goal of DOPPS is to help HD patients "live better and live longer." Starting in 2012, the DOPPS was able to expand to all six of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The DOPPS study design consists of selecting HD facilities for study participation in each country to represent the different types of HD facilities and geographic regions within each GCC country. Within each study site, HD patients were randomly selected for detailed data collection to represent the HD practices within each participating HD facility. Altogether, 41 HD facilities have participated in the GCC-DOPPS Phase 5 study including 20 facilities from Saudi Arabia, nine from the United Arab Emirates, four each from Kuwait and Oman, two from Qatar, and one from Bahrain. Herein, we provide a detailed description of the study design and methods, data collection, study management, scientific investigator oversight and guidance, and study governance and support for the GCCDOPPS Phase 5 study.

  19. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Al Wardy, N; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, K

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait, and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education, particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  20. Undergraduate medical education in the Gulf Cooperation Council: a multi-countries study (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H; Telmesani, A W; Wardy, N Al; Abdel-Khalek, N; Carruthers, G; Hassan, F; Kassab, S; Abu-Hijleh, M; Al-Roomi, K; O'Malley, K; El Din Ahmed, M G; Raj, G A; Rao, G M; Sheikh, J

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have witnessed over the last 40 years a rapid and major social, cultural, and economic transformation. The development of medical education in the region is relatively new, dating from the late 1960s. An important goal among the medical colleges in the region is to graduate national physicians who can populate the healthcare service of each country. The aim of this study is to provide understanding of undergraduate medical education in each of the six GCC countries and the challenges that each face. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fourteen senior medical faculty were requested to submit information about undergraduate medical education in their own countries, focusing on its historical background, student selection, curriculum, faculty, and challenges. The information provided was about 27 medical colleges: 16 from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), five from the United Arab Emirates, two from the Kingdom of Bahrain, two from Sultanate of Oman, one from Kuwait and one from the State of Qatar. It was found that older colleges are reviewing their curriculum while new colleges are developing their programs following current trends in medical education particularly problem-based learning and integrated curricula. The programs as described 'on paper' look good but what needs to be evaluated is the curriculum 'in action'. Faculty development in medical education is taking place in most of the region's medical colleges. The challenges reported were mainly related to shortages of faculty, availability of clinical training facilities, and the need to more integration with the National Health Care services. Attention to quality, standards, and accreditation is considered essential by all colleges.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia - Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (PCroatia was 1.185 per 1000 people. Characteristics of VTE in Croatia are similar to those reported in large international studies. Improved thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden.

  2. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome.

  3. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  4. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/13: Cooperative monitoring for confidence building: A case study of the Sino-Indian border areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIDHU,WAHEGURU PAL SINGH; YUAN,JING-DONG; BIRINGER,KENT L.

    1999-08-01

    This occasional paper identifies applicable cooperative monitoring techniques and develops models for possible application in the context of the border between China and India. The 1993 and 1996 Sino-Indian agreements on maintaining peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and establishing certain confidence building measures (CBMs), including force reductions and limitation on military exercises along their common border, are used to examine the application of technically based cooperative monitoring in both strengthening the existing terms of the agreements and also enhancing trust. The paper also aims to further the understanding of how and under what conditions technology-based tools can assist in implementing existing agreements on arms control and confidence building. The authors explore how cooperative monitoring techniques can facilitate effective implementation of arms control agreements and CBMS between states and contribute to greater security and stability in bilateral, regional, and global contexts.

  5. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  6. A study to analyze IAEA planning of 2004-2005 programme and to establish cooperation directions with the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, T. J.; Kim, M. R

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to utilize the IAEA effectively through reflecting Korea's opinion fully for the planning of the Agency's 2004{approx}2005 Programme. This study first analyzed the current status of the IAEA Programme and Budget and reviewed the issues relevant to Korea. Second, this study assessed the IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme and drew up Korea's opinion for it. The official document including the opinions was submitted to the Secretariat. In reviewing the Programme, this study considered the strengths of Korea related to the Programme. Also some projects and CRPs, which can be lead by Korea, were proposed. The IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme reflected well the technical and social changes and its structure seems to be proper. The budget was proposed to be increased over 10%, violating the zero-real growth principle. This seems to be inevitable considering the increase of safeguards activities. However, there should be prepared some measures to avoid rapid increase of the burdens of the Member States. In the process of the planning of the IAEA 2004{approx}2005 Programme, the following points should be emphasized. First, SMR activities should be given a high priority considering the high interests of developing countries and be set up as a separate project as in the 2002{approx}2003 Programme. Second, more budget should be allocated for Project A.4.04(Support for demonstration of nuclear seawater desalination), considering the highest priority of the project in Program A. Third, it's better to change the title of Subprogram C.3 to 'Nuclear knowledge Preservation' to stick to the original rationale of the subprogram. There is a need for further activities such as establishing and implementing the concept of international nuclear school based on the result of the feasibility study done in 2002{approx}2003. Fourth, further activities needs to be added to the Project D.2.03 for the efficient conversion to high density

  7. A study to analyze IAEA planning of 2004-2005 programme and to establish cooperation directions with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, T. J.; Kim, M. R.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study is to utilize the IAEA effectively through reflecting Korea's opinion fully for the planning of the Agency's 2004∼2005 Programme. This study first analyzed the current status of the IAEA Programme and Budget and reviewed the issues relevant to Korea. Second, this study assessed the IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme and drew up Korea's opinion for it. The official document including the opinions was submitted to the Secretariat. In reviewing the Programme, this study considered the strengths of Korea related to the Programme. Also some projects and CRPs, which can be lead by Korea, were proposed. The IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme reflected well the technical and social changes and its structure seems to be proper. The budget was proposed to be increased over 10%, violating the zero-real growth principle. This seems to be inevitable considering the increase of safeguards activities. However, there should be prepared some measures to avoid rapid increase of the burdens of the Member States. In the process of the planning of the IAEA 2004∼2005 Programme, the following points should be emphasized. First, SMR activities should be given a high priority considering the high interests of developing countries and be set up as a separate project as in the 2002∼2003 Programme. Second, more budget should be allocated for Project A.4.04(Support for demonstration of nuclear seawater desalination), considering the highest priority of the project in Program A. Third, it's better to change the title of Subprogram C.3 to 'Nuclear knowledge Preservation' to stick to the original rationale of the subprogram. There is a need for further activities such as establishing and implementing the concept of international nuclear school based on the result of the feasibility study done in 2002∼2003. Fourth, further activities needs to be added to the Project D.2.03 for the efficient conversion to high density, low enriched uranium in Member States; for instance, review

  8. Multidisciplinary Cooperation in GIS Education: A Case Study of US Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Mizuki; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Oguchi, Takashi; Tsou, Ming-Hsiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of multidisplinary cooperation for Geographic Information Science (GIS) education programs that award GIS-related degrees or certificates at US colleges and universities. We classified departments and courses into ten major disciplines using Dewey Decimal Classification. In the 2007-2008 academic year, approximately…

  9. 77 FR 31072 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  10. 76 FR 19189 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  11. 78 FR 70102 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies; Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... notice under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and... Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the...

  12. 78 FR 41198 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and.... The Committee advises the Chief Research and Development Officer through the Director of the Clinical...

  13. 75 FR 79446 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative... Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  14. 76 FR 65781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  15. 77 FR 72438 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and... through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and...

  16. 78 FR 53015 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service Cooperative... under the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 2, that the Clinical Science Research and... Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and feasibility of proposed projects and...

  17. 76 FR 73781 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative... Officer through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  18. 75 FR 28686 - Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative Studies Scientific Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Clinical Science Research and Development Service; Cooperative... through the Director of the Clinical Science Research and Development Service on the relevance and... notice under Public Law 92-463 (Federal Advisory Committee Act) that a meeting of the Clinical Science...

  19. A Case Study of Cooperative Learning in Bushenyi District in Uganda: Educational Leaders' and Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujuni, John Bosco

    2015-01-01

    In 2003-2007, the government of Uganda through the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES), under the umbrella of UPHOLD and in Partnership with USAID, introduced cooperative learning as a "student-centered teaching approach" in some selected districts and schools in Uganda. This dissertation explored the current state and practice of…

  20. International cooperation in the field of studying seismic resistance of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaznovskij, S.P.; Chechenov, Kh.D.

    1989-01-01

    Main results of the conference of representations from the USSR, Bulgarie, Hungary and Chechoslovakia related to the problems of seismology and seismic resistance of NPPs are briefly formulated. One of the important results of the conference consists in the agrement concerning cooperation and mutual application of seismoexplosive testing ground near Nalchik

  1. Study on the effect of paclitaxel nanostructure lipid carrier cooperated with radiation on the KB Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Li Zhihui; Xu Yujie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity effect of paclitaxel nanostructure lipid carrier (TAX-NLC) cooperated with radiation treatment on the KB cells. Methods: The cytotoxicity effect of TAX-NLC compared with free paclitaxel (TAX) on the KB cells was measured by MTT assay, and the cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: The cytotoxicity effect of TAX-NLC was stronger than that of the free TAX. And the cooperative effect between the TAX-NLC and ionized radiation were observed, the cooperative effect of TAX-NLC was stronger than that of the free TAX. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the rearrangement of cell cycle in KB cells were induced by TAX-NLC. The more G2/M phase cells were observed in KB cells treated by TAX-NLC compared with free TAX. The effect of TAX-NLC in the rearrangement of cell cycle was stronger than that of the free TAX. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity effect of TAX-NLC is stronger than that of the free TAX. And the cooperative effect of TAX-NLC is stronger than that of the free TAX. (authors)

  2. Teaching Yugoslavia the Cooperative Way: An Upper Elementary/Middle School Social Studies Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica

    1992-01-01

    Suggests methods for teaching about Yugoslavia. Recommends assigning students to maintain journals of news clippings about developments in Yugoslavia. Proposes forming cooperative-learning groups for researching the country's various regions. Offers activities for teaching about language arts, fine arts, reading and literature, religion,…

  3. Effect of Cooperative Type and Age on Profit Performance: A Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    ownership control and use of services (Nweze, 2001). Cooperative ... making sufficient returns on investments in order to remain viable and sustainable. ... information by the respondents could be exaggerated or even outright false. .... include current assets, current liabilities, cash and account receivable, and owners' ...

  4. Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative phytochemical and growth inhibitory studies on the leaf and root bark extracts of securinega Virosa (roxb ex. Willd) baill ... The growth inhibitory tests were carried out between 1-30 mg/ in a period of 24-96 h while the phytochemical screening was carried out on the plant parts using standard methods. At 24 h ...

  5. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  6. Laboratory study on influence of plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of rhizobacteria on the growth and tolerance of Zea mays (maize) in a petroleum hydrocarbon (crude oil) impacted medium was investigated. This study evaluated the effect of inoculating maize seeds with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains in a crude oil impacted medium. The rhizobacterial strains ...

  7. The value of repeating studies and multiple controls: replicated 28-day growth studies of rainbow trout exposed to clofibric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Stewart F; Huggett, Duane B; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Hetheridge, Malcolm J; McCormack, Paul; Kinter, Lewis B; Ericson, Jon F; Constantine, Lisa A; Sumpter, John P

    2010-12-01

    Two studies to examine the effect of waterborne clofibric acid (CA) on growth-rate and condition of rainbow trout were conducted using accepted regulatory tests (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] 215). The first study (in 2005) showed significant reductions after 21 d of exposure (21-d growth lowest-observed-effect concentration [LOEC] = 0.1 µg/L, 21-d condition LOEC = 0.1 µg/L) that continued to 28 d. Growth rate was reduced by approximately 50% (from 5.27 to 2.67% per day), while the condition of the fish reduced in a concentration-dependant manner. Additionally, in a concentration-dependent manner, significant changes in relative liver size were observed, such that increasing concentrations of CA resulted in smaller livers after 28-d exposure. A no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) was not achieved in the 2005 study. An expanded second study (in 2006) that included a robust bridge to the 2005 study, with four replicate tanks of eight individual fish per concentration, did not repeat the 2005 findings. In the 2006 study, no significant effect on growth rate, condition, or liver biometry was observed after 21 or 28 d (28-d growth NOEC = 10 µg/L, 28-d condition NOEC = 10 µg/L), contrary to the 2005 findings. We do not dismiss either of these findings and suggest both are relevant and stand for comparison. However, the larger 2006 study carries more statistical power and multiple-tank replication, so probably produced the more robust findings. Despite sufficient statistical power in each study, interpretation of these and similar studies should be conducted with caution, because much significance is placed on the role of limited numbers of individual and tank replicates and the influence of control animals. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  8. The effectiveness of Nurse Practitioners working at a GP cooperative: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijers Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries out-of-hours care faces serious challenges, including shortage of general practitioners, a high workload, reduced motivation to work out of hours, and increased demand for out-of-hours care. One response to these challenges is the introduction of nurse practitioner as doctor substitutes, in order to maintain the (high accessibility and safety of out of hours care. Although nurse practitioners have proven to provide equally safe and efficient care during daytime primary care, it is unclear whether substitution is effective and efficient in the more complex out of hours primary care. This study aims to assess the effects of substitution of care from general practitioners to nurse practitioners in an out of hours primary care setting. Design A quasi experimental study is undertaken at one “general practitioner cooperative” to offer out-of-hours care for 304.000 people in the South East of the Netherlands. In the experimental condition patient care is provided by a team of one nurse practitioner and four general practitioners; where the nurse practitioner replaces one general practitioner during one day of the weekend from 10 am to 5 pm. In the control condition patient care is provided by a team of five general practitioners during the other day of the weekend, also from 10 am to 5 pm. The study period last 15 months, from April 2011 till July 2012. Methods Data will be collected on number of different outcomes using a range of methods. Our primary outcome is substitution of care. This is calculated using the number and characteristics of patients that have a consultation at the GP cooperative. We compare the number of patients seen by both professionals, type of complaints, resource utilization (e.g. prescription, tests, investigations, referrals and waiting times in the experimental condition and control condition. This data is derived from patient electronic medical records. Secondary outcomes

  9. Cooperation and Intertrade between Community Currencies : From Fundamentals to Rule-Making and Clearing Systems, including a Case Study of the Zurich Area, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Martignoni (Jens)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCooperation, interchange or intertrade of complementary currencies is not yet very common, perhaps of because the funding impulse of most complementary currencies does not cover the question of interchange and cooperation yet, or because theoretical aspects are not often studied. The

  10. Postural and ergonomic analysis: study of productive activities on a Dairy Cooperative located in the city of Itaperuna - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssyca Barrozo de Souza Castilho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This Final Paper proposes an ergonomic and postural analysis of a dairy cooperative located in the city of Itaperuna. Within this scope, the main goal of this study was to analyze the existing ergonomic situation at the cooperative under study. The research method consisted, firstly, of data collection at the company via questionnaires, interviews, photographic records and videos. Later, taking into consideration the data obtained, the OWAS and RULA methods were applied in order to generate a correlation between the movements and positions taken during working hours and the symptoms reported by workers in the proposed questionnaires. Analyzing the questionnaire responses, it was found that 82.1% of employees can be classified as suffering severe fatigue. The tools used for postural assessment, OWAS and RULA, reported the need for corrections in performing some tasks. Thus, measures are proposed in order to reduce the incidence of employee health disorders and, consequently, to increase the organization’s profitability.

  11. CT-angiography source images indicate less fatal outcome despite coma of patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Lars P; Khomenko, Andrei; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Barlinn, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Zerna, Charlotte; van der Hoeven, Erik Jrj; Algra, Ale; Kapelle, L Jaap; Michel, Patrik; Bodechtel, Ulf; Demchuk, Andrew M; Schonewille, Wouter; Puetz, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Background Coma is associated with poor outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Aims We sought to assess whether the posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score and the Pons-Midbrain Index applied to CT angiography source images predict the outcome of comatose patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study. Methods Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study was a prospective, observational registry of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion with 48 recruiting centers worldwide. We applied posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score and Pons-Midbrain Index to CT angiography source images of Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study patients who presented with coma. We calculated adjusted risk ratios to assess the association of dichotomized posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (≥8 vs. International Cooperation Study registry, CT angiography source images were available for review in 158 patients. Among these, 78 patients (49%) presented with coma. Compared to non-comatose patients, comatose patients were more likely to die (risk ratios 2.34; CI 95% 1.56-3.52) and less likely to have a favourable outcome (risk ratios 0.44; CI 95% 0.24-0.80). Among comatose patients, a Pons-Midbrain Index < 3 was related to reduced mortality (adjusted RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.96), but not to favourable outcome (adjusted RR 1.19; 95% CI 0.39-3.62). Posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score dichotomized at ≥ 8 vs. <8 was not significantly associated with death (adjusted RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.46-1.05). Conclusion In comatose patients with basilar artery occlusion, the extent of brainstem ischemia appears to be related to mortality but not to favourable outcome.

  12. Isolation of a bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. from centrate wastewater and study of its cooperation with algae in nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Wen; Wei, Qian; Ren, Hongyan; Ming, Caibing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-07-01

    Algae were able to grow healthy on bacteria-containing centrate wastewater in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The batch experiment indicated that the co-cultivation of algae and wastewater-borne bacteria improved the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus in centrate wastewater to 93.01% and 98.78%, respectively. A strain of beneficial aerobic bacteria, Acinetobacter sp., was isolated and its biochemical characteristics were explored. Synergistic cooperation was observed in the growth of algae and Acinetobacter sp. Removal efficiencies of some nutrients were improved significantly by the co-cultivation of algae and Acinetobacter sp. After treatment, residual nutrients in centrate wastewater reached the permissible discharge limit. The cooperation between algae and Acinetobacter sp. was in part attributed to the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the algae and bacteria. This synergetic relationship between algae and Acinetobacter sp. provided a promising way to treat the wastewater by improving the nutrients removal and biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Cooperative learning for improving healthy housing conditions in Bogota: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Parra, Camilo A; García-Ubaque, Juan C; García-Ubaque, César A

    2014-01-01

    This was a community-based effort at constructing an educational proposal orientated towards self-empowerment aimed at improving the target population's sanitary, housing and living conditions through cooperative learning. A constructivist approach was adopted based on a programme called "Habitat community manger". The project involved working with fifteen families living in the Mochuelo Bajo barrio in Ciudad Bolívar in Bogotá, Colombia, for identifying the most relevant sanitary aspects for improving their homes and proposing a methodology and organisation for an educational proposal. Twenty-one poor housing-related epidemiological indicators were identified which formed the basis for defining specific problems and establishing a methodology for designing an educational proposal. The course which emerged from the cooperative learning experience was designed to promote the community's skills and education regarding health aimed at improving households' living conditions and ensuring a healthy environment which would allow them to develop an immediate habitat ensuring their own welfare and dignity.

  14. Study on DSM-based task planning of product cooperative development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zengqiang; Liu Mingzhou; Zhao Han; Ge Maogen; Guo Jia

    2008-01-01

    The results of analyzing the managerial characteristics and complexity of product cooperative development suggest that task planning is an important aspect for process management of product cooperative development and the method for planning tasks should be able to model the dependency between tasks and iterations during the development process. In this paper, a DSM-based method and its corresponding optimization algorithms are developed. At first the coupled task sets and uncoupled task sets are identified, and the tasks are then optimized by the corresponding algorithms. The optimal tasks plan will reduce the development time and cost. Considering the practical requirements in real world, a Multilayer DSM is proposed, and its information communication techniques between DSM and traversing principle are described in details.

  15. A strategy study on the effective participation in the IAEA technical cooperation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Choi, P. H.; Kim, K. P.; Hong, Y. D.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Chung, H. S.; Han, B. O.; Seo, M. W.; Chung, J. M.

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of this research are to seek the most effective means of participation in implementing IAEA technical cooperation programs, to seek and establish a desirable role for Korea in these program, to predict future opportunities among IAEA programs, to enhance the status of Korea within the international society and to keep up with rapidly changing international nuclear developments in effective and positive ways. Participation in IAEA programs are to coincide with our efforts to upgrade and achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Seven activities should be considered in Korea's future directions regarding the IAEA. These include strengthening our diplomatic activities, expanding coordinated research programs (CRP's), domestic personnel becoming IAEA staff members, encouraging domestic experts to participate as members of IAEA advisory groups, increasing participation in international meetings, implementing footnote a/ projects, strengthening cooperation with the IAEA-operational research laboratories and actively implementing technology transfer to developing countries and encouraging IAEA fellowships. (author). 57 refs., 74 tabs., 17 figs

  16. Customers satisfaction and brand awareness : A case study of Bulsho cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research is to find out ways to create an awareness of Bulsho cooperative, its brand image and brand identity in order to strengthen the brand and develop a competitive advantage over other similar brands. To satisfy customers’ needs by providing quality goods and services, know how customers behave, make the decision to purchase goods or services, what factors influence those decisions and how do these factors change their purchasing patterns. Improve sales services and bro...

  17. Off Shore wind energy – Case study of cooperation mechanisms design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Jansen, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    This document reports activities and results of Task 3.3 of the Intelligent Energy Europe supported project RES4Less. This work is the initial analyses and survey of barriers for implementing cooperation mechanisms in the EU countries. This work builds on earlier Intelligent Energy Europe projects...... also shared and enriched by comments from other members of the RES4Less Team during internal meetings of the project....

  18. The Study of Cooperative Obstacle Avoidance Method for MWSN Based on Flocking Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the space fixed feature of traditional wireless sensor network (WSN, mobile WSN has better robustness and adaptability in unknown environment, so that it is always applied in the research of target tracking. In order to reach the target, the nodes group should find a self-adaptive method to avoid the obstacles together in their moving directions. Previous methods, which were based on flocking control model, realized the strategy of obstacle avoidance by means of potential field. However, these may sometimes lead the nodes group to fall into a restricted area like a trap and never get out of it. Based on traditional flocking control model, this paper introduced a new cooperative obstacle avoidance model combined with improved SA obstacle avoidance algorithm. It defined the tangent line of the intersection of node’s velocity line and the edge of obstacle as the steering direction. Furthermore, the cooperative obstacle avoidance model was also improved in avoiding complex obstacles. When nodes group encounters mobile obstacles, nodes will predict movement path based on the spatial location and velocity of obstacle. And when nodes group enters concave obstacles, nodes will temporarily ignore the gravity of the target and search path along the edge of the concave obstacles. Simulation results showed that cooperative obstacle avoidance model has significant improvement on average speed and time efficiency in avoiding obstacle compared with the traditional flocking control model. It is more suitable for obstacle avoidance in complex environment.

  19. The study of cooperative obstacle avoidance method for MWSN based on flocking control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zuo; Ding, Lei; Chen, Kai; Li, Renfa

    2014-01-01

    Compared with the space fixed feature of traditional wireless sensor network (WSN), mobile WSN has better robustness and adaptability in unknown environment, so that it is always applied in the research of target tracking. In order to reach the target, the nodes group should find a self-adaptive method to avoid the obstacles together in their moving directions. Previous methods, which were based on flocking control model, realized the strategy of obstacle avoidance by means of potential field. However, these may sometimes lead the nodes group to fall into a restricted area like a trap and never get out of it. Based on traditional flocking control model, this paper introduced a new cooperative obstacle avoidance model combined with improved SA obstacle avoidance algorithm. It defined the tangent line of the intersection of node's velocity line and the edge of obstacle as the steering direction. Furthermore, the cooperative obstacle avoidance model was also improved in avoiding complex obstacles. When nodes group encounters mobile obstacles, nodes will predict movement path based on the spatial location and velocity of obstacle. And when nodes group enters concave obstacles, nodes will temporarily ignore the gravity of the target and search path along the edge of the concave obstacles. Simulation results showed that cooperative obstacle avoidance model has significant improvement on average speed and time efficiency in avoiding obstacle compared with the traditional flocking control model. It is more suitable for obstacle avoidance in complex environment.

  20. Implementation of a study material for economic culture from cooperative education issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Gámez Iglesias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of the process of updating the Cuban economic model, our country has decided to articulate a serie of transformations directed, among other issues, to the strengthening of the cooperative sector, therefore forming human capital with knowledge and skills for this achievement is a challenge that has today higher education, therefore contributing to the learning of the contents related to cooperatives and its transformations in Cuba from the Agricultural Economics subject in the Degree in Education. Economy that is developed in the Faculty of Economic and Business Sciences of the University of Pinar del Río is a priority to respond to this challenge. In this sense, the main objective of the research is to develop a support material to contribute to the economic culture from the issues of cooperative education in the third year students of this career. The experience was applied in the educational practice with satisfactory results, in addition it was submitted to the criterion of the specialists and they consider it is viable.

  1. [Social network analysis of interdisciplinary cooperation and networking in early prevention and intervention. A pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künster, A K; Knorr, C; Fegert, J M; Ziegenhain, U

    2010-11-01

    Child protection can only be successfully solved by interdisciplinary cooperation and networking. The individual, heterogeneous, and complex needs of families cannot be met sufficiently by one profession alone. To guarantee efficient interdisciplinary cooperation, there should not be any gaps in the network. In addition, each actor in the network should be placed at an optimal position regarding function, responsibilities, and skills. Actors that serve as allocators, such as pediatricians or youth welfare officers, should be in key player positions within the network. Furthermore, successful child protection is preventive and starts early. Social network analysis is an adequate technique to assess network structures and to plan interventions to improve networking. In addition, it is very useful to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions like round tables. We present data from our pilot project which was part of "Guter Start ins Kinderleben" ("a good start into a child's life"). Exemplary network data from one community show that networking is already quite effective with a satisfactory mean density throughout the network. There is potential for improvement in cooperation, especially at the interface between the child welfare and health systems.

  2. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  3. Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Schulz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual. Growth models can handle these specificities, whereas standard methods, such as event history analyses can't. We illustrate the use of growth models by studying career success of men and women, using data from the Historical Sample of the Netherlands. The results show that the method is applicable to male careers, but causes trouble when analyzing female careers.

  4. Cooperative Societies in Greenland and Nunavik: A Lesson on the Importance of Supporting Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Gorm; Duhaime, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    Different co-operatives and constraints to the emergence of co-operatives are presented. Historical financial Data on Nunavik cooperatives suggest, that the co-operatives fared well and have accomplished growth. The lesson of the co-operative success in Nunavik and the failure of Co-operatives in......Different co-operatives and constraints to the emergence of co-operatives are presented. Historical financial Data on Nunavik cooperatives suggest, that the co-operatives fared well and have accomplished growth. The lesson of the co-operative success in Nunavik and the failure of Co...

  5. Effects of cooperative learning groups during social studies for students with autism and fourth-grade peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, E; Kamps, D; Leonard, B

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the use of cooperative learning groups as an instructional strategy for integrating 2 students with autism into a fourth-grade social studies class. Baseline consisted of 40 min of teacher-led sessions including lecture, questions and discussion with students, and the use of maps. The intervention condition consisted of 10 min of teacher introduction of new material, followed by cooperative learning groups that included tutoring on key words and facts, a team activity, and a whole class wrap-up and review. An ABAB design showed increases for target students and peers for the number of items gained on weekly pretests and posttests, the percentage of academic engagement during sessions, and durations of student interaction during the intervention. PMID:7601803

  6. Synergistic growth studies of Entamoeba gingivalis using an Ecologen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, J T; Linke, H A

    1992-11-01

    A unique multiple diffusion growth chamber, an Ecologen, designed for the study of interactions among microorganisms, was introduced as a means of growing xenic cultures of Entamoeba gingivalis with Crithidia sp. or Yersinia enterocolitica. Entamoeba gingivalis was grown in the central diffusion reservoir of the Ecologen connected to separate growth chambers inoculated with the microorganisms to be evaluated. Growth of the accompanying bacteria in the E. gingivalis compartment was almost completely eliminated, except for sparse Pseudomonas sp. growth. The most vital E. gingivalis cultures were observed when either Crithidia sp. or Y. enterocolitica were added to the Ecologen 48 h prior to the E. gingivalis inoculum. The medium which provided the best growth of the oral protozoan in this system was the new improved E. gingivalis medium containing antibiotics.

  7. Growth and development studies Hiroshima and Nagasaki: research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Jablon, S; Hrubec, Zdenek

    1962-03-21

    This report summarizes the research plan for prospective evaluation of growth and development in those exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation during childhood or while in utero in Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Some experimental observations are briefly presented to provide background information, and the results of previous studies of growth and development at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) are reviewed. Procedures have been described for determining the top of the growth curve for the in utero exposed and the maximum growth and development of those exposed during childhood in comparison to their nonexposed counterparts. Differences in growth and development found between exposed and nonexposed individuals will be analysed in relation to radiation dose, age at time of exposure, sex, and socioeconomic factors. Attempts will be made to determine whether or not abnormalities in visual acuity are increased in those exposed while in utero or during childhood as compared to nonexposed or comparable ages. 23 references, 2 tables.

  8. The first Seriatum study of growth by R. E. Scammon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2018-03-01

    Richard E. Scammon's article, "The First Seriatim Study of Human Growth," provided one of the best-known visuals in the field of human biology. Scammon resurrected longitudinal height data of one child from Buffon's Histoire Naturelle, converted them to metric, and plotted these measurements as a function of age. The result was the first graph of one individual's growth curve from birth to 18 years of age. This image was subsequently reproduced in numerous texts on human growth and biology. Published in 1927, Scammon's article provides a snapshot of the state of growth research at the time and gives a (literal) picture of the future of human biology. The graph of the growth of one child symbolizes the importance of process and variation in biological anthropology. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Simulation studies of emittance growth in RMS mismatched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchetti, A.; Wangler, T.; Reiser, M.

    1991-01-01

    As shown in a separate paper, a charged-particle beam, whose rms size is not matched when injected into a transport channel or accelerator, has excess energy compared with that of a matched beam. If nonlinear space-charge forces are present and the mismatched beam transforms to a matched equilibrium state, rms-emittance growth will occur. The theory yields formulas for the possible rms-emittance growth, but not for the time it takes to achieve this growth. In this paper we present the results of systematic simulation studies for a mismatched 2-D round beam in an ideal transport channel with continuous linear focusing. Emittance growth rates obtained from the simulations for different amounts of mismatch and initial charge will be presented and the emittance growth will be compared with the theory. 6 refs., 7 figs

  10. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David; Allen, Pauline; Doheny, Shane; Petsoulas, Christina; Vincent-Jones, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990 s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs involving common contracting technologies and management cultures that meant that differences in on-the-ground contracting practices might be smaller than headline policy differences suggested. The nature of real-world contracting behaviour was investigated by undertaking two qualitative case studies in England and two in Wales, each based on a local purchaser/provider network. The case studies involved ethnographic observations and interviews with staff in primary care trusts (PCTs) or local health boards (LHBs), NHS or Foundation trusts, and the overseeing Strategic Health Authority or NHS Wales regional office, as well as scrutiny of relevant documents. Wider policy differences between the two NHS systems were reflected in differing contracting frameworks, involving regional commissioning in Wales and commissioning by either a PCT, or co-operating pair of PCTs in our English case studies, and also in different oversight arrangements by higher tiers of the service. However, long-term relationships and trust between purchasers and providers had an important role in both systems when the financial viability of organisations was at risk. In England, the study found examples where both PCTs and trusts relaxed contractual requirements to assist partners faced with deficits. In Wales, news of plans to end the purchaser/provider split meant a return to less precisely-specified block contracts and a renewed concern to build cooperation between LHB and trust staff. The interdependency of local

  11. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 19—The Iron Creek study, 1966–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the history and results of the Iron Creek installation of the cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), over the period 1966–2006 (ages 19 to 59). This is a 1949 plantation on an excellent site, and is one of nine installations in the study. Results are generally...

  12. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 08—The LOGS Study, 20-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    1986-01-01

    This progress report reviews the history and status of the cooperative levels-of-growing-stock study in coast Douglas-fir, begun in 1961, in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. It presents new analyses, including comparisons among some installations. Data now available are primarily from the site II installations, which are approaching completion of the study....

  13. Sun-Earth System Interaction studies over Vietnam: an international cooperative project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Amory-Mazaudier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During many past decades, scientists from various countries have studied separately the atmospheric motions in the lower atmosphere, in the Earth's magnetic field, in the magnetospheric currents, etc. All of these separate studies lead today to the global study of the Sun and Earth connections, and as a consequence, new scientific programs (IHY- International Heliophysical Year, CAWSES- Climate and Weather in the Sun-Earth System are defined, in order to assume this new challenge. In the past, many scientists did not have the possibility to collect data at the same time in the various latitude and longitude sectors. Now, with the progress of geophysical sciences in many developing countries, it is possible to have access to worldwide data sets. This paper presents the particularities of geophysical parameters measured by the Vietnamese instrument networks. It introduces a cooperative Vietnamese-IGRGEA (International Geophysical Research Group Europe Africa project, and presents, for the first time, to the international community, the geophysical context of Vietnam. Concerning the ionosphere: since 1963, during four solar cycles, the ionosonde at Phu Thuy (North Vietnam was operating. The Phu Thuy data exhibits the common features for the ionospheric parameters, previously observed in other longitude and latitude sectors. The critical frequencies of the E, F1 and F2 ionospheric layers follow the variation of the sunspot cycle. F2 and E critical frequencies also exhibit an annual variation. The first maps of TEC made with data from GPS receivers recently installed in Vietnam illustrate the regional equatorial pattern, i.e. two maxima of electronic density at 15° N and 15° S from the magnetic equator and a trough of density at the magnetic equator. These features illustrate the equatorial fountain effect. Concerning the Earth's magnetic field: a strong amplitude of the equatorial electrojet was first observed by the CHAMP satellite at the height

  14. Cooperation, cheating, and collapse in microbial populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Natural populations can suffer catastrophic collapse in response to small changes in environmental conditions, and recovery after such a collapse can be exceedingly difficult. We have used laboratory yeast populations to study proposed early warning signals of impending extinction. Yeast cooperatively breakdown the sugar sucrose, meaning that there is a minimum number of cells required to sustain the population. We have demonstrated experimentally that the fluctuations in the population size increase in magnitude and become slower as the population approaches collapse. The cooperative nature of yeast growth on sucrose suggests that the population may be susceptible to cheater cells, which do not contribute to the public good and instead merely take advantage of the cooperative cells. We have confirmed this possibility experimentally by using a cheater yeast strain that lacks the gene encoding the cooperative behavior [1]. However, recent results in the lab demonstrate that the presence of a bacterial competitor may drive cooperation within the yeast population.[4pt] [1] Gore et al, Nature 459, 253 -- 256 (2009)

  15. A study on a strategic participation in a new International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation(IFNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jae Soo; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Han Myung; Jun, Eun Ju; Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, Dong Hoon; Oh, Keun Bae; Ko, Won ll; Lim, Chae Young

    2011-11-15

    The objective of the study is to analyze the current status and future direction of a new IFNEC, and to establish the national strategy for effective participation in IFNEC. To this end, the contents of this study are to compare former GNEP with a new IFNEC, to analyze the major contents and trend of the IFNEC, to examine the concept of Cradle to Grave (CTG) in nuclear fuel supply, and to establish the national strategy for effective participation in IFNEC including CTG. The result of this study may be used for contribution to strengthening the international nuclear cooperation and to promote the national nuclear activities.

  16. U.S. Security Cooperation with India and Pakistan: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    news_and_features/. /07indicipline_force.htm. 284 Richard Van Atta et al ., “Export Controls and the U.S. Defense Industrial Base,” Institute for Defense...Kargil War,” Indian Defense and Strategic Analysis, November 17, 2012. Available at defenceforumindia.com › Opinion › History. Atta, Richard Van et al ...This document was downloaded on August 22, 2013 at 10:36:47 Author(s) Bajwa, Shahid Latif Title U.S. security cooperation with India and Pakistan

  17. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  18. Report on Workshop "Planning of Future Science in the Polar Ocean Study with Cooperation among Study Groups"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Fukuchi

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on "Planning of Future Science in the Polar Ocean Study with Cooperation among Study Groups" was held on November 1,2000,at the National Institute of Polar Research with 21 participants. In this workshop, a plan to charter a research vessel other than "Shirase" was introduced and a science plan using the chartered research vessel by 43rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition was discussed. This study is going to be conducted in the sea ice area around 140-150°E in mid-summer (February 2002, when biological production becomes active in the Antarctic Ocean. Oceanographic observations using "Shirase" are difficult to conduct in this season since she supports a wide range of summer operations around Syowa Station. The relationships between biological production and greenhouse effect gas production and the vertical transport of organic materials from the surface to deep ocean will be the focus of this study. At this stage, one deputy leader and three members of JARE, and 25-26 other scientists including graduate students and foreign scientists, will participate in the field observations using the chartered vessel. The members of JARE will conduct a project science program of the VI Phase of JARE, while the other participants will do part of the science program "Antarctic Ocean in Earth System". Since further observations for several years after the summer of 2002 will be required to understand the role of the Antarctic Ocean in global climate change, we have applied for a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research for the next project, which will start from 2001,to the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan. The proposal was discussed in detail in this workshop.

  19. Microarray analysis of early adipogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells: Cooperative inhibitory effects of growth factors and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, Paul R.; Cimafranca, Melissa A.; Liu Xueqing; Cho, Young C.; Jefcoate, Colin R.

    2005-01-01

    C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts differentiate into adipocytes when stimulated by a standard hormonal mixture (IDMB). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), inhibits induction of the key adipogenic gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and subsequent adipogenesis. This TCDD-mediated inhibition requires activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which can be accomplished by serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In the absence of serum or growth factors, IDMB induced adipogenesis without mitosis. Microarray analysis identified 200 genes that exhibited expression changes of at least twofold after 24 h of IDMB treatment. This time precedes most PPARγ stimulation but follows the period of TCDD/ERK cooperation and periods of increased cell contraction and DNA synthesis. Functionally related gene clusters include genes associated with cell structure, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism, oxidative regulation, and secreted proteins. In the absence of growth factors TCDD inhibited 30% of these IDMB responses without inhibiting the process of differentiation. A combination of EGF and TCDD that blocks differentiation cooperatively blocked a further 44 IDMB-responsive genes, most of which have functional links to differentiation, including PPARγ. Cell cycle regulators that are stimulated by EGF were substantially inhibited by IDMB but these responses were unaffected by TCDD. By contrast, TCDD and EGF cooperatively reversed IDMB-induced changes in cell adhesion complexes immediately prior to increases in PPARγ1 expression. Changes in adhesion-linked signaling may play a key role in TCDD affects on differentiation

  20. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed

  1. A strategy study on the effective participation in the IAEA technical cooperation programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Choi, P. H.; Kim, K. P.; Hong, Y. D.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Chung, H. S.; Han, B. O.; Seo, M. W.; Chung, J. M

    1997-12-01

    The objectives of this research are to seek the most effective means of participation in implementing IAEA technical cooperation programs, to seek and establish a desirable role for Korea in these program, to predict future opportunities among IAEA programs, to enhance the status of Korea within the international society and to keep up with rapidly changing international nuclear developments in effective and positive ways. Participation in IAEA programs are to coincide with our efforts to upgrade and achieve self-reliance in nuclear technology. Seven activities should be considered in Korea`s future directions regarding the IAEA. These include strengthening our diplomatic activities, expanding coordinated research programs (CRP`s), domestic personnel becoming IAEA staff members, encouraging domestic experts to participate as members of IAEA advisory groups, increasing participation in international meetings, implementing footnote a/ projects, strengthening cooperation with the IAEA-operational research laboratories and actively implementing technology transfer to developing countries and encouraging IAEA fellowships. (author). 57 refs., 74 tabs., 17 figs

  2. Profit Allocation of Hybrid Power System Planning in Energy Internet: A Cooperative Game Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicheng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of Energy Internet (EI has prompted numbers of generators to participate, leading to a hybrid power system. Hence, how to plan the hybrid power system and allocate its profit becomes necessary. In this paper, the cooperative game theory is introduced to discuss this problem. We first design the basic structure of EI, and point out the object of this study—coal power plant-wind farm-photovoltaic power station-energy storage provider (CWPE alliance. Subsequently, average allocation strategy (AAS, capacity-based allocation strategy (CAS and Shapley value allocation strategy (SAS are proposed, and then the modified disruption propensity (MDP index is constructed to judge the advantages and disadvantages of the three schemes. Thirdly, taking a certain area of A Province as an example, the profits of CWPE under three strategies are calculated respectively. Finally, by analyzing individual rationality and collective rationality of cooperative game and the MDP index of the three profit allocation schemes, we find that SAS is the most stable.

  3. Limitations to CO2-induced growth enhancement in pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughay, K D M; Berntson, G M; Bazzaz, F A

    1993-07-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that small pots may reduce or eliminate plant responses to enriched CO 2 atmospheres due to root restriction. While smaller pot volumes provide less physical space available for root growth, they also provide less nutrients. Reduced nutrient availability alone may reduce growth enhancement under elevated CO 2 . To investigate the relative importance of limited physical rooting space separate from and in conjunction with soil nutrients, we grew plants at ambient and double-ambient CO 2 levels in growth containers of varied volume, shape, nutrient concentration, and total nutrient content. Two species (Abutilon theophrasti, a C 3 dicot with a deep tap root andSetaria faberii, a C 4 monocot with a shallow diffuse root system) were selected for their contrasting physiology and root architecture. Shoot demography was determined weekly and biomass was determined after eight and ten weeks of growth. Increasing total nutrients, either by increasing nutrient concentration or by increasing pot size, increased plant growth. Further, increasing pot size while maintaining equal total nutrients per pot resulted in increased total biomass for both species. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were greatest in pots with high nutrient concentrations, regardless of total nutrient content or pot size, and were also mediated by the shape of the pot. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were unaffected by pot size (growth) or were greater in small pots (reproductive yield), regardless of total nutrient content, contrary to predictions based on earlier studies. These results suggest that several aspects of growth conditions within pots may influence the CO 2 responses of plants; pot size, pot shape, the concentration and total amount of nutrient additions to pots may lead to over-or underestimates of the CO 2 responses of real-world plants.

  4. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study on Douglas-fir: report no. 02—The Hoskins Study, 1963-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Bell; Alan B. Berg

    1972-01-01

    Public and private agencies are cooperating in a study of eight thinning regimes in young Douglas-fir stands. Regimes differ in the amount of basal area allowed to accrue in growing stock at each successive thinning. All regimes start with a common level-of-growing-stock which is established by a conditioning thinning. Thinning interval is...

  5. A Computational Study of the Growth of Hexagonal Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Maxwell; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Parrinello, Michele; Molteni, Carla

    Hexagonal ice (Ih) has two distinct crystallographic surfaces; a basal and prism surface. At low vapour pressures, Ih forms thin plates and elongated prisms, depending on the temperature. The macroscopic shape depends on the relative rate of growth of the basal and prism surfaces. The aim of our research is to estimate the relative rate of growth of the two surfaces for a range of temperatures and ultimately predict the shape of Ih, using computer simulations. Our simulations show the well-know phenomenon that the surface of ice lowers its interfacial free energy by forming a stable quasi-liquid layer (QLL). The QLL mediates crystal growth and has a thickness which varies with temperature and crystallographic surface. We use a combination of Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics to study how the interfacial structure at the ice/quasi-liquid and quasi-liquid/vapour interfaces influence the adsorption potential, surface transport properties and growth shape..

  6. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  7. TEM studies of the crystal growth of indanthrone pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHendry, P.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the crystal growth of indanthrone during the pigmentation process. The colouring properties of a pigment are dependant on the chemical and crystallographic structure of the pigment. However, other factors are known to affect these properties including particle size, particle size distribution and level of dispersion in the chosen application medium. The parameters which affect the growth of the pigment particles were investigated with the emphasis placed on the mechanism by which growth took place. The final form of the crystals after growth was also investigated in some detail. Various electron microscopy techniques were employed in the investigations in this thesis. High and low magnification imaging and diffraction were studied on the CTEM (conventional transmission electron microscope) whilst PEELS (parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy) and DPC (differential phase contrast) studies took place on the VG HB5 STEM (scanning transmission electron microscope). In addition to these studies, x-ray diffraction and surface area analysis techniques were employed. The low magnification CTEM work gave good information on the size, shape and size distribution of the pigment particles and enabled detailed analysis of the level of growth attained under varied reaction conditions. (author)

  8. Human-Capital based Governance Structure, Success Factors and Barriers to Effective Governance: Co-operatives in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohana Othman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-operatives comprise the crucial third engine of growth for the Malaysian economy after the public and private sectors. This study investigates the human capital based governance structure, success factors and barriers to effective governance of co-operatives in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to the top 100 co-operatives listed in the Malaysian Co-operative Societies Commission website. Analysis of the responses to the questionnaires showed that human capital based co-operatives governance comprise members’ participation, independence of the board, depth of expertise and competencies of directors and other characteristics of the board. This study also identified branding as the most important success factor ahead of competitiveness and proximity. Malaysia’s economy is projected to continue relying significantly on the performance of co-operatives. Thus, it is incumbent for greater attention to be given towards an effective governance that results in successful co-operatives.

  9. Opting for cooperation: A case study in siting a low level radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976, the Canadian federal government called a halt to efforts by a crown corporation to site a low-level radioactive waste management facility when it became apparent that continuation of the siting process would likely result in significant social disruption and political conflict. It established an independent six-person Task Force to advise it on how to proceed. Twelve months later, the Task Force put forward a radically different siting process based on the voluntary participation of communities and collaborative, joint problem-solving and decision making. Cabinet endorsed the approach and in September 1988 authorized the Task Force to begin implementing the recommended process. The first three phases of the process have been implemented and so far it appears to be achieving its desired objective -- to encourage less confrontation and more cooperation in the siting of the low-level radioactive waste management facility

  10. Hierarchy is Detrimental for Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Hernández, Penélope; Sánchez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior consistently demonstrate that the social environment impacts cooperation, yet the effect of social dynamics has been largely excluded from studies of human cooperation. Here, we introduce a novel approach inspired by nonhuman primate research to address how social hierarchies impact human cooperation. Participants competed to earn hierarchy positions and then could cooperate with another individual in the hierarchy by investing in a common effort. Cooperation was ac...

  11. Multilateral nuclear approaches (MNAs), factors and issues lessons from IAEA study to regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo

    2005-01-01

    In response to the increasing emphasis being placed on the importance of international cooperation as part of global efforts to cope with growing non proliferation, and security concerns in the nuclear field, the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohammed Elbaradei, appointed an international group of experts to consider possible multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. The mandate of the Expert Group was three fold: · To identify and provide an analysis of issues and options relevant to multilateral approaches to the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; · To provide an overview of the policy, legal, security, economic, institutional and technological incentives and disincentives for cooperation in multilateral arrangements for the front and back ends of the nuclear fuel cycle; and · To provide a brief review of the historical and current experiences and analyses relating to multilateral fuel cycle arrangements relevant to the work of the Expert Group. The overall purpose was to assess MNAs in the framework of a double objective: strengthening the international nuclear non proliferation regime and making the peaceful uses of nuclear energy more economical and attractive. The Group identifies options for MNAs - options in terms of policy, institutional and legal factors - for those parts of the nuclear fuel cycle of greatest sensitivity from the point of view of proliferation risk. It also reflects the Groups deliberations on the corresponding benefits and disadvantages (pros and cons) of the various options and approaches. Although the Expert Group was able to agree to forward the resulting report to the Director General, it is important to note that the report does not reflect agreement by all of the experts on any of the options, nor a consensus assessment of their respective value. It is intended only to present options for MNAs, and to reflect on the range of considerations which could impact on the

  12. Case Study in International Cooperation: Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Reid, Mary; Segal, Brahm; Abrams, Scott I; Lee, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    In 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba, and in 1962 an embargo was imposed on trade and financial relations with that country. It was not until five decades later that the USA and Cuba would reestablish relations. This opened the way for the New York State Trade Mission to Cuba in April 2015, during which Cuba's Molecular Immunology Center and Buffalo, New York's Roswell Park Cancer Institute signed a formal agreement that would set in motion biotechnology research collaboration to address one of the most important causes of death in both countries. Significant research from Cuba led to this groundbreaking collaboration. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of this cooperation, from the Molecular Immunology Center's initial investigations, through the opening of a phase I clinical trial at Roswell Park Cancer Institute with therapies developed at the Center. This cooperation was responsible for the first clinical trial for CIMAvax-EGF involving advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in the USA. A license was also approved by the US Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control authorizing a commercial partnership for development of biotechnology products, combining the cancer research efforts of both institutions. This unusual collaboration between Cuba and the USA-the US economic embargo and travel restrictions not withstanding-opens good prospects for expanded medical research between the two countries. While political and logistical challenges remain, the shared mission and dedication of these Cuban and US scientists points the way towards relationships that can lead to development, testing, approval and use of promising new therapies for cancer patients. KEYWORDS Biotechnology, clinical trials, cancer vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer, NSCLC, Cuba, USA.

  13. Cultural Dimension of International Relations During Interwar Period: International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation and the Scientific Study of International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anişoara Popa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the past is highly influenced/leaded by the “lens” (readings, ideologies, etc. that have guided us through approaching realities of a specific period of time. In this article, we will discuss the cultural dimension of international relations characteristic for the interwar period , emphasizing , while tracing back on Romanian historiography, the aspects regarding the role that the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation had in organizing the scientifically study of IR and the specific participation of Romania within this League of Nations‘ body activity.

  14. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  15. The High-Technology Connection: Academic/Industrial Cooperation for Economic Growth. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn G.

    Cooperative arrangements between academic institutions and industry are examined, with attention to linkages in high technology research and development (R&D), the commercial application of R&D (technology transfer), and the preparation and continuing development of scientific and engineering personnel. Incentives and barriers to campus/corporate…

  16. Theoretical study of fractal growth and stability on surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the fractal growing process on surface by using the deposition, diffusion, aggregation method. We present a detailed analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in a nanofractal on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal...... dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate that these kinetic processes are responsible for the formation of the final shape of the islands on surface after the post-growth relaxation....

  17. Dynamic capabilities for cooperation in Brazilian multinational and factors determining its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Rezende da Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of emerging companies’ growth, current challenges depend on the local generation of product and process innovations, as well as dynamic capability to generate innovative solutions cooperatively and new globe business models. The objective of this study is to analyse the determining managerial factors for the dynamic capability of cooperation in Brazilian multinationals (BMNs. A survey was conducted with a sample of 60 BMNs, and a structured questionnaire and statistical tests with factorial analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used. The aggregate analysis of the results indicates that BMNs are going through a transitional process between the operational capability of cooperation and the capability for dynamic cooperation, which are relevant to the continuous adaptation of already-established cooperative management routines and the evaluation and incorporation of the relational capability of management practices that consider systemic flows, open innovation and integrate strategic intentionality into cooperative processes.

  18. Cooperative Game for Fish Harvesting and Pollution Control

    KAUST Repository

    Dia, Ben Mansour

    2015-01-07

    We study fishery strategies in a shallow river subject to agricultural and industrial pollution. The flowing pollutants in the river are modeled by a nonlinear stochastic differential equation in a general manner. The logistic growth model for the fish population is modified to cover the pollution impact on the fish growth rate. A stochastic cooperative game is formulated to design strategies for preserving the fish population by controlling the pollution as well as the harvesting fish.

  19. A cross-sectional study of paramedics' readiness for interprofessional learning and cooperation: results from five universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm; Brightwell, Richard; McCall, Michael; McMullen, Paula; Munro, Graham; O'Meara, Peter; Webb, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    Healthcare systems are evolving to feature the promotion of interprofessional practice more prominently. The development of successful and functional interprofessional practice is best achieved through interprofessional learning. Given that most paramedic programmes take an isolative uni-professional educational approach to their healthcare undergraduate courses, serious questions must be raised as to whether students are being adequately prepared for the interprofessional healthcare workplace. The objective of this study was to assess the attitudes of paramedic students towards interprofessional learning across five Australian universities. Using a convenience sample of paramedic student attitudes towards interprofessional learning and cooperation were measured using two standardised self-reporting instruments: Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS). Students' readiness for interprofessional learning did not appear to be significantly influenced by their gender nor the type of paramedic degree they were undertaking. As students progressed through their degrees their appreciation for collaborative teamwork and their understanding of paramedic identity grew, however this appeared to negatively affect their willingness to engage in interprofessional learning with other healthcare students. The tertiary institute attended also appeared to influence students' preparedness and attitudes to shared learning. This study has found no compelling evidence that students' readiness for interprofessional learning is significantly affected by either their gender or the type of degree undertaken. By contrast it was seen that the tertiary institutions involved in this study produced students at different levels of preparedness for IPL and cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Can growth hormone treatment improve growth in children with severe growth failure due to anorexia nervosa? A preliminary pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Léger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Growth failure is a difficult but key aspect of care in children with anorexia nervosa (AN. The effects of hGH therapy have not been studied. The aim was to investigate the effect of hGH treatment on height velocity (HV in children with AN. Methods: We carried out a retrospective observational study. Ten girls diagnosed with AN at 10.0 ± 1.9 years, with prolonged severe growth failure (HV < 2.5 cm/year for at least 18 months at the age of 13.3 ± 1.1 years and delayed puberty after nutritional rehabilitation, were treated with hGH (0.040 mg/kg/day from a bone age of 10.9 ± 1.7 years until they reached adult height. Height and HV were measured before treatment and at 12-month intervals during treatment. Results: Mean body mass index SDS remained unchanged, but HV increased significantly, from a median of 1.0 (0.7–2.1 to 7.1 (6.0–9.5 cm/year after one year (P < 0.002 and 5.6 (4.8–6.2 cm/year after two years of treatment. Height SDS increased from −2.2 ± 1.3 to −1.6 ± 1.3 after one year (P < 0.002 and −1.1 ± 1.5 after two years of GH treatment. Adult height (−0.1 ± 1.0 SDS was close to target height after 3.6 ± 1.4 years of GH treatment. Serum IGF-I levels increased significantly during treatment (P < 0.01. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusions: This proof-of-concept study shows that hGH treatment is associated with significant improvements in linear growth in adolescents with AN and severe growth failure. A randomized placebo-controlled trial is required to determine the ultimate impact of GH treatment in patients with this severe, rare condition.

  1. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  2. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  3. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns. 3. Growth pattern of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Kutty, M.K.

    Experimental studies on the growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ for three and a half months under different levels of feeding gave a growth pattern different from that of von Bertalanffy. The two distinct growth patterns...

  4. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  5. Yakutia and International Scientific Cooperation on Arctic Studies. The End of 20th – Beginning of 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleymanov Aleksandr Albertovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issues of participation of Yakutia in the international scientific cooperation in the Arctic during the last decade of the 20th and the first years of the 21st century. The author describes the history of realization of the international initiatives for studying social and cultural transformations and challenges of life of Arctic Indigenous Peoples, studying natural phenomena and processes, as well as environmental protection in the Yakutia’s Arctic and their main results on the basis of a set of archival documents, English- and Frenchlanguage materials. The author called the most important factors that determine the extent of joint research of Russian scientists and their foreign colleagues, identified the key participants (scientists from Great Britain, Germany, Canada, Russia, Finland, France and Japan, forms (collection of field data, its processing and laboratory analysis; provision of academic institutions of Yakutia, their research base, provision of special equipment for foreign partners; coordination of research and the exchange of the data obtained; organization of conferences and workshops; organization of protected areas; publication of research results, and mechanisms (organization of special structures to intensify and coordinate research; association of research through a unified methodology; elaboration of international programs and projects, taking into account the potential of the involved parties – financing, tools and staff of international scientific cooperation development.

  6. Explaining development aid allocation by growth: A meta study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

      an interesting factor for two reasons: (1) It is relatively easy to interpret the results, and (2) it  is an important piece in the picture which suggests aid ineffectiveness. The paper is a meta-analysis of the 211 growth-aid estimates found in the 30 empirical studies. Additionally, we present new evidence...... using a panel data for 147 countries for the period 1967-2004. The result from both the meta-analysis and the primary data analysis is that growth does generate aid, so the dominating sign is positive. This result is driven partly by the large development banks....

  7. studies on growth, organs weight and haematological parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... Maize which is the most available basal energy feedstuff is in constant demand for human and animal nutrition and for industrial processing (Esonu, 2000). The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding graded level of cassava root meal flour on haematological and growth performance of broiler.

  8. Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Growth and high pressure studies of zirconium sulphoselenide single ... tance was monitored in a Bridgman opposed anvil set-up up to 8 GPa pressure to identify .... The optical band gaps of the as-grown crystals were obtained by optical ab-.

  9. Study on Silkworm Bed Cleaning Frequency during Larval Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on Silkworm Bed Cleaning Frequency during Larval Growth Period. Abiy Tilahun, Kedir Shifa, Ahmed Ibrahim, Metasebia Terefe. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/star.v4i2.5 · AJOL African ...

  10. A combined optical, SEM and STM study of growth spirals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some novel results of a combined sequential study of growth spirals on the basal surface of the richly polytypic CdI2 crystals by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are presented and discussed. In confirmation of the known structural data, the STM pictures ...

  11. Studying historical occupational careers with multilevel growth models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, W.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose to study occupational careers with historical data by using multilevel growth models. Historical career data are often characterized by a lack of information on the timing of occupational changes and by different numbers of observations of occupations per individual.

  12. Study on Biodiesel plants growth performance and tolerance to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In this research, we studied the growth performance and tolerance of three biodiesel plants namely; Jatropha curcas, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis to water stress. Research conducted on the three different soils from Kaita, Jibiya and Mai'adua in the semi-desert environments of Katsina State, Nigeria.

  13. A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary study on growth response of broiler finishers fed processed mottle Mucuna beans ( Mucuna pruriens var. utilis ) ... They were fed diets (20% CP, 13 MJME/kg) incorporating 0%, 5% and 10% processed mottle “Mucuna” beans. A completely randomized design was used. Feed and water were supplied and ...

  14. SIMS studies of oxide growth on beta-NiAl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. F.; Prescott, R.; Graham, M. J.; Doychak, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the growth of aluminum oxide on beta-NiAl at temperatures up to 1200 C. The scales have been formed in two-stage experiments using O2-16 and O2-18 gases, and the various isotopic species have been located by direct imaging using SIMS. Supplementary information on oxide morphologies and structures has been obtained by SEM. SIMS images and depth profiles indicate where oxidation has taken place predominantly by cation or anion diffusion at different stages of the growth process. The way in which the presence of small amounts of reactive elements can affect scale growth is also considered. These results help to provide an improved understanding of the mechanism of alumina scale formation, which is of benefit in the development of oxidation-resistant alloys and intermetallics for service at high temperatures.

  15. How to cooperate efficiently with the media in situation of crisis – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Baradziej-Krzyżankowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The essence of this article is to show the differences and the degree of difficulty in standard and crisis communication. Communication that we use every day in cooperation with the media should serve as the basis and contribution to obtaining certain efficiency of information distribution, which will pay off in a crisis situation. Rescuing a dog named Baltic could prove to be a major crisis in the history of the NMFRI. There were many threats and decisions that could be regarded as unfavourable for the Institute — is it allowed and for the sake of what — to threaten health and life of people to save an animal; what would happen if the rescue action failed? Three mandatory rules for communicating with the media were adopted: Speed — proactive communication 24/24. Transparency —in the full sense of the word. Communicating through the same channels as journalists communicated with the Institute. Strict adherence to these rules resulted in a fact that, in spite of these difficulties, the communication was actually exemplary.

  16. A basic study on the international cooperation using international nuclear DB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Ji Ho; Kim, T. W.; Oh, J. H. and others

    2001-12-01

    KAERI has collected the domestic data related to nuclear energy and sent the INIS a total of 1,296 items inputted according to the INIS bibliographic input rules. Korea inputted a total of 1,360 items to the IAEA INIS DB in 2000, and ranked 12th among the 103 INIS member countries in input amount. So Korea has reached to the level of advanced countries in input amount. In order to induce the INIS DB Mirror Site in Korea, the Korea INIS National Center has cooperated with KAERI and organizations concerned, contacted the INIS Secretariat and strengthened the relationship with Asian nations. As INIS liaison officers from each country agreed to induce the INIS DB Mirror Site in Korea, In 2002 the Mirror Site will be launched in Korea. The total records of our local OECD NEA documents are 2,742. KAERI will develop the OECD NEA documents retrival system and service will start. The KAERI has contributed to the improvement of domestic nuclear energy technology by inducing more OECD NEA computer codes from advanced countries and utilizing the codes

  17. Performance study and optimization of cooperative diversity networks with co-channel interference

    KAUST Repository

    Ikki, Salama Said

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of co-channel interference on the performance of cooperative diversity networks with amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying. We consider both conventional and opportunistic relaying. First, we obtain a tight upper-bound for the equivalent signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the destination. Subsequently, the cumulative distribution function (CDF), probability density function (PDF) and moment generating function (MGF) of the effective SINR are determined based on the upper-bound. Expressions for the error probabilities in both conventional and opportunistic relaying are derived utilizing the statistical characterization of the effective SINR. We also derive an approximate PDF of the equivalent instantaneous SINR at the destination. This leads to a simple and general asymptotic error probability expression which facilitates better insight into the effect of different system parameters on the error probability. Furthermore, we investigate the problem of optimum resource allocation in the network aiming at improving performance in the presence of resource constraints. We present numerical results that illustrate the excellent match between the analytical results and the simulation results, and the performance enhancement resulting from the proposed optimal resource allocation. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. A study on the promotion of cooperation with 'women in nuclear (WIN)- global'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Joo; Kim, K. R.; Kim, D. Y.

    2001-04-01

    International collaboration with WIN-Global. 1) Evaluation on current status for the foundation of WIN-Korea and investigation on the 1st to 8th WIN-Global conferences for the arrangement of 9th WIN-Global conferences 2) Manifestation on the roles of WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 3) Encouragement of active participation for WIN-Global activies -Establishment of internet net working for effective communication through the internet net working between women in science in Korea and other foreign countries. 1) Preparation and Organization of Women in Korea 2) Foundation of WIN-Korea Home Page in Net 3) Assembly of data for the net work construction in Korea - Enhancement of international cooperation between WIN-Korea and WIN-Global 1) Invitation of 9th WIN-Global Conference in Seoul, Korea 2) Enrollment of one of the Executives and Strengthening the activity of WIN-Korea as member of Board members 3) Characterization on main movements of WIN-Global through the active participation in international activities. - Arrangement for the 9th WIN-Global conference 1) Opperation of Organizing Committee and Supporting Committee and Secretariat 2) Supporting the 9th WIN-Global Confernce

  19. Lessons from collaborative governance and sociobiology theories for reinforcing sustained cooperation: a government food security case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, L A; Montoya, I; Sánchez González, O D

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to understand how cooperation and collaboration work in interagency arrangements using a case study of the public management of food security and nutrition in Bogotá, Colombia. This study explored the available scientific literature on Collaborative Governance within the Public Management body of knowledge and the literature on Cooperation from the Sociobiology field. Then, proposals were developed for testing on the ground through an action-research effort that was documented as a case study. Finally, observations were used to test the proposals and some analytical generalizations were developed. To document the case study, several personal interviews, file reviews and normative reviews were conducted to generate a case study database. Collaboration and cooperation concepts within the framework of interagency public management can be understood as a shared desirable outcome that unites different agencies in committing efforts and resources to the accomplishment of a common goal for society, as seen in obtaining food and nutrition security for a specific territory. Collaboration emerges when the following conditions exist and decreases when they are absent: (1) a strong sponsorship that may come from a central government policy or from a distributed interagency consensus; (2) a clear definition of the participating agencies; (3) stability of the staff assigned to the coordination system; and (4) a fitness function for the staff, some mechanism to reward or punish the collaboration level of each individual in the interagency effort. As this research investigated only one case study, the findings must be taken with care and any generalization made from this study needs to be analytical in nature. Additionally, research must be done to accept these results universally. Food security and nutrition efforts are interagency in nature. For collaboration between agencies to emerge, a minimum set of characteristics that were established during the

  20. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  1. Establishing cooperation in a mixed-motive social dilemma. An fMRI study investigating the role of social value orientation and dispositional trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emonds, Griet; Declerck, Carolyn H; Boone, Christophe; Seurinck, Ruth; Achten, Rik

    2014-02-01

    When people are confronted with social dilemmas, their decision-making strategies tend to be associated with individual social preferences; prosocials have an intrinsic willingness to cooperate, while proselfs need extrinsic motivators signaling personal gain. In this study, the biological roots for the proselfs/prosocials concept are explored by investigating the neural correlates of cooperative versus defect decisions when participants engage in a series of one-shot, anonymous prisoner's dilemma situations. Our data are in line with previous studies showing that prosocials activate several social cognition regions of the brain more than proselfs (here: medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, and precuneus BA 7 (Brodmann area 7), and that dispositional trust positively affects prosocials' decisions to cooperate. At the neural level, however, dispositional trust appears to exert a greater marginal effect on brain activity of proselfs in three social cognition regions, which does not translate into an increase in cooperation. An event-related analysis shows that cooperating prosocials show significantly more activation in the precuneus (BA 7) than proselfs. Based on previous research, we interpret this result to be consistent with prosocials' enhanced tendency to infer the intentions of others in social dilemma games, and the importance of establishing norm congruence when they decide to cooperate.

  2. Practice and Evaluation of a Cooperative Learning Support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hideyuki; Kamata, Motohiro; Yamagami, Norihisa

    The purpose of my study was to develop of cooperative learning support on Educational Function as Teamwork in Project-based Learning with Regional Cooperation. Analysis of validation of the original method were made using correlation analysis of student satisfaction of relationships among teammate and educational function as teamwork, result of self-diagnose. As a result, we achieved analysis results with a collective creativity were involved in student‧s planning skill. It was shown that educational functions as teamwork plays an important part in the growth of students. Our study revealed that there was method using cooperative learning technique helps to promote improvement of educational function as teamwork.

  3. Development of regional growth centres and impact on regional growth: A case study of Thailand’s Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattapon Sang-arun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the spatial economic structure and inequality in Thailand at the national and regional levels, with a particular focus on the Northeastern region in the period from 1987 to 2007. The study has three main points: 1 examination of the economic structure and inequality at the national level and in the Northeastern region according to the Theil index, 2 determination of regional growth centres and satellite towns by using growth pole theory as a conceptual framework and incorporating spatial interaction analysis and 3 analysis of the relationship between regional growth centres and satellite towns with regard to the impact on growth and inequality. The results show that the Northeastern region is definitely the lagging region in the nation, by both gross domestic product (GDP and gross regional product (GRP per capita. It was therefore selected for a case study. Spatial analysis identified Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Udon Thani and Ubon Ratchathani as regional growth centres. Each of them has its own sphere of influence (or satellite towns, and the total area of regional growth centres and satellite towns are classified as sub-regions. The development of regional growth centres has a direct impact on sub-regional economic growth through economic and social relationships: urbanisation, industrial development, per capita growth, the number of higher educational institutes and so on. However, such growth negatively correlates with economic equality among the provinces in a sub-region. The inequality trend is obviously on an upswing. This study suggests that industrial links between regional growth centres and their satellite towns should be improved in order for regional growth centre development to have a consistently desirable effect on both economic growth and equality. Such a strong process means that the growth of regional growth centres will spread, leading to the development of their surrounding areas.

  4. A Comparative Study on Safeguards Implementation under Bilateral Nuclear Cooperation Agreements and the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jihye; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Young Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A Nuclear Cooperation Agreement (NCA) requires several conditions, so-called obligations, on the items under the agreement such as: 1) peaceful use, 2) retransfer consent, 3) consent prior to reprocessing or enrichment and 4) safeguards and security. These obligations of the NCAs are imposed by the supplier country. The Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its member states require similar activities. However, there is a significant gap in nuclear material accountancy between safeguards implementation under the NCA and CSA. The difference of those two frameworks is compared herein, focusing on the unique features of the NCA safeguards and its implications are presented. In this study, the NCAs between the ROK and Canada, Australia and US were analyzed since each of them is one of the ROK’s major nuclear trading partners. The safeguards implementation under the NCA is usually specified in an Administrative Arrangement (AA) under the Agreement. The ROK has two AAs in force with Canada and Australia among 29 countries with NCA. Recently, the AA with Canada was revised in December 2015, with those concepts mentioned above. The AA with the US is currently under discussion. Cooperation in nuclear energy between two countries could be further enhanced through reliable implementation of the NCA undertakings. Taking into account the unique features of the NCA, we need to establish effective strategy for fulfilling the obligation under the Agreement.

  5. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  6. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  7. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  8. Study on the promotion of international cooperation through the technical exhibition on RI production and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Hong, Y D; Han, H S. and others

    2001-05-01

    For the IAEA Technical Exhibition, it was required to analyze the all the informations from the researches which has been done till recently related to the applications of radiation and radioisotopes. A few aspects drawn from the analysis were made and it was able to represent the scopes and the prospects regarding the applications of radiation and radioisotopes developed in Korea at the IAEA Technical Exhibition. Exhibition was mainly focus into the RI production, utilization in medical, engineering and agricultural fields and irradiation of food products. Exhibition representing Korea were readily prepared under the entitled name of 'Pillars for Quality of Life', Multi-cube and Panel presentation at the same time. IAEA Technical Exhibition was held from September 18 to 21, 2000. Exhibition was successfully proceeded and presentation led to get the attention from IAEA Member Counturies including developed and developing countries about Korea's recent development on improving quality of human life using radiation and radioisotopes. The outcome of IAEA Technical Exhibition prepared by based on the successful experiences and activity related to the subjects was primarily on the elucidation of international cooperation between Korea and foreign countries. Multi-cube and Panel presentation expressed fully and effectively the scopes of the researches recently undergone in Korea and the efforts put into the technical development on radiation and radioisotopes application. In addition, other important research results were provided by Leaflet and those were about 'Radioisotope Production', 'Application of Radioisotope Tracers', 'Wastewater Treatment by Irradiation' and 'Food Irradiation'. All the exhibition materials including Compact Diskette were prepared in English for the IAEA Technical Exhibition held in Austria Center Vienna during the 44th IAEA General Conference. The reported informations and materials should be employed to the other objectives like presentation

  9. Study on the promotion of international cooperation through the technical exhibition on RI production and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Bae; Hong, Y. D.; Han, H. S. and others

    2001-05-01

    For the IAEA Technical Exhibition, it was required to analyze the all the informations from the researches which has been done till recently related to the applications of radiation and radioisotopes. A few aspects drawn from the analysis were made and it was able to represent the scopes and the prospects regarding the applications of radiation and radioisotopes developed in Korea at the IAEA Technical Exhibition. Exhibition was mainly focus into the RI production, utilization in medical, engineering and agricultural fields and irradiation of food products. Exhibition representing Korea were readily prepared under the entitled name of 'Pillars for Quality of Life', Multi-cube and Panel presentation at the same time. IAEA Technical Exhibition was held from September 18 to 21, 2000. Exhibition was successfully proceeded and presentation led to get the attention from IAEA Member Counturies including developed and developing countries about Korea's recent development on improving quality of human life using radiation and radioisotopes. The outcome of IAEA Technical Exhibition prepared by based on the successful experiences and activity related to the subjects was primarily on the elucidation of international cooperation between Korea and foreign countries. Multi-cube and Panel presentation expressed fully and effectively the scopes of the researches recently undergone in Korea and the efforts put into the technical development on radiation and radioisotopes application. In addition, other important research results were provided by Leaflet and those were about 'Radioisotope Production', 'Application of Radioisotope Tracers', 'Wastewater Treatment by Irradiation' and 'Food Irradiation'. All the exhibition materials including Compact Diskette were prepared in English for the IAEA Technical Exhibition held in Austria Center Vienna during the 44th IAEA General Conference. The reported informations and materials should be employed to the other objectives like presentation

  10. Cooperation between gatekeepers in sickness insurance – the perspective of social insurance officers. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvidsson Barbro

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective was to describe variations in how social insurance officers conceive the cooperation with the health care in their daily work with sick leave. Methods Fifteen social insurance officers (SIOs working with administration of sickness benefits were interviewed. They were purposefully recruited to represent different parts of the social insurance office organization, different ages, gender, education, and work experience. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using phenomenographic approach. Results 11 women and 4 men, aged 25–65, with a work experience ranging from 1–40 years were interviewed. Three descriptive categories embracing eleven subcategories emerged: 1 Communication channels included three subcategories; to obtain medical opinions, to hold meetings with actors involved, to experience support functions; 2 Organizational conditions included five subcategories; to experience lack of time, to experience problems of availability, to experience lack of continuity, to experience unclear responsibility, to experience ongoing change; 3 Attitudes included three subcategories; to conceive the attitudes of the physicians, to conceive the attitudes of the patients, to conceive the attitudes of the SIOs. Conclusion Personal communication was described as crucial to ensure a more efficient working process. The personal contact was obstructed mainly by issues related to work load, lack of continuity, and reorganisations. By enhancing and enabling personal contact between SIOs and health care professionals, the waiting times for the sick-listed might be shortened, resulting in shorter periods of sick-leave. Issues around collaboration and communication between gatekeepers need to be recognized in the ongoing work with new guidelines and education in insurance medicine.

  11. Study of creep crack growth behavior of 316LN welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, S.; Kumar, Yatindra; Sasikala, G.

    2016-01-01

    Creep crack growth (CCG) behavior plays an important role in the assessment of structural integrity of components operating at elevated temperature under load/stress condition. Integrity of the welded components is decided primarily by that of the weld. Creep crack growth behavior of 316LN welds prepared using consumables developed indigenously for welding the 316L(N) SS components for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor has been studied. The composition of the consumable is tailored to ensure about 5 FN (ferrite number) of δ ferrite in the weld deposit. Constant load CCG tests were carried out as per ASTM E1457 at different applied loads at temperatures in the range 823-923 K on CT specimens fabricated from 'V-type' weld joints with notch in the weld centre. The creep crack growth rate (α) is commonly correlated to a time dependent fracture mechanics parameter known as C*. The α3-C* correlations (α=D(C*) φ ) were established in the temperature range 823-923 K. The crack growth rates at different temperature have been compared with that given in RCC-MR. Extensive microstructural and fractographic studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out on the CCG tested specimens to understand the effect of transformation of delta ferrite on the creep damage and fracture mechanisms associated with CCG in the weld metal at different test conditions. (author)

  12. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, J.M.; Bilde, T.

    2008-01-01

    also promote helping behavior in many cooperatively breeding taxa. Investigating transitional systems is therefore particularly suitable for understanding the influence of kin selection on the initial spread of cooperative behaviors. Here we investigated the role of kinship in cooperative feeding. We...... in prey capture and feed communally. We provide clear experimental evidence for net benefits of cooperating with kin. Genetic relatedness within groups and not association with familiar individuals directly improved feeding efficiency and growth rates, demonstrating a positive effect of kin cooperation...

  13. Systematic study of influence of growth parameters on island morphology during molecular beam epitaxy growth: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Prasad Shrestha; Park, C.-Y.

    2006-05-01

    We have made a systematic study of influence of diffusion flux ratio (D/F), diffusional anisotropy (DA) and sticking anisotropy (SA) on island morphology to show the influence of each growth parameter on island morphology in presence of the other growth parameters. Our results show that the influence of D/F ratio and DA on island morphology depends on the sticking anisotropy of the adatoms. At the intermediate anisotropic case, increase in D/F ratio results in transition of the island morphology from 1d nature to 2 d nature. In anisotropic diffusion case, D/F ratio can change the growth direction of the island morphology. We also find that only sticking anisotropy is not sufficient to produce elongated islands, low D/F ratio is also essential. (author)

  14. Research on Contractual Model Selection of Farmers’ Cooperatives——A Case Study of Production and Marketing Cooperative of Sweet Pomegranate in Mengzi,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the perspective of new institutional economics,we regard farmers’ cooperatives as a "contractual set" integrating a series of long-term contractual relations,and transform the selection problem of organization forms into selection problem of contractual model within organization.By the theoretical framework of Transaction Cost Economics,we analyze the formation mechanism and determinant factors of contractual model of different farmers’ cooperatives and conduct case study on Production and Marketing Cooperative of Sweet Pomegranate in Mengzi,Yunnan.The results show that selecting contractual forms of cooperatives is the result of weighing many factors;new organization model or contractual arrangement is complementary to the former system arrangement;the selection of cooperatives model is an important factor impacting cooperation efficiency and stability of organization.One organization model with efficiency not only hinges on the transaction characteristic of organization,but also considers the compatibility with exterior transaction environment.In the process of selecting contractual model,we should conform to objective evolving law,but not be in thrall to a certain given form.

  15. Canine-assisted therapy for children with ADHD: preliminary findings from the positive assertive cooperative kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Sabrina E B; Emmerson, Natasha A; Fine, Aubrey H; Lakes, Kimberley D

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide preliminary findings from an ongoing randomized clinical trial using a canine-assisted intervention (CAI) for 24 children with ADHD. Project Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids (P.A.C.K.) was designed to study a 12-week cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered with or without CAI. Children were randomly assigned to group therapy with or without CAI. Parents of children in both groups simultaneously participated in weekly parent group therapy sessions. Across both treatment groups, parents reported improvements in children's social skills, prosocial behaviors, and problematic behaviors. In both groups, the severity of ADHD symptoms declined during the course of treatment; however, children who received the CAI model exhibited greater reductions in the severity of ADHD symptoms than did children who received cognitive-behavioral therapy without CAI. Results suggest that CAI offers a novel therapeutic strategy that may enhance cognitive-behavioral interventions for children with ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  16. Job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease European cooperative study (the JACE study): Design of a multicentre prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Kornitzer, M.; Smet, P. de; Koyuncu, R.; Backer, G. de; Pelfrene, E.; Romon, M.; Boulenguez, C.; Ferrario, M.; Origgi, G.; Sans, S.; Perez, I.; Wilhelmsen, L.; Rosengren, A.; Isacsson, S.-O.; Östergren, P.-O.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The motives, objectives and design of a multicentre prospective study on job stress, absenteeism and coronary heart disease in Europe (the JACE study) is presented in this paper. Some specific gaps in the reviewed literature are explicitly tapped into by the JACE study. Its objectives

  17. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  18. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  19. Growth studies on Lens culinaris after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Bokhari, F.S.; Shahnaz, F.

    1996-01-01

    A study on growth parameters was carried out on two varieties of Lens culinaris after gamma irradiation. Experiment was conducted at Botanical Garden, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan in 1993. The germination percentage, survival percentage, height, branch number, pods per plant and 100-seed weight decreased with the increasing dose of radiation. Comparing the two varieties, variety-86642 appeared more sensitive to radiation than variety-87528

  20. Japanese citizens' attitude toward end-of-life care and advance directives: A qualitative study for members of medical cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yoko; Otani, Takashi; Matsushima, Masato

    2017-12-01

    Japanese citizens are interested in choosing their own end-of-life care, but few have created their own advance directive. This study examined changes among Japanese citizens' attitudes toward end-of-life care and advance directives and explored factors that affected these attitudes. We conducted five focus groups with 48 participants in 2009 and 2010. All participants were members of health cooperatives in Tokyo. We identified many barriers and reasons for creating and writing down advance directives. Experience caring for dying people and having a serious disease affected attitudes toward advance directives. Some participants changed their attitude toward end-of-life care by writing their own advance directive. When someone is writing advance directives, asking about his/her past experience of caring may be helpful. And learning about or filling out advance directives may help to break down resistance to using these documents.

  1. The Effects of Partnership Management on Supply Chain Cooperative Performance: A Case Study of High-Tech Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Ying; Chang, Yun-Ju; Weng, Yung-Chien

    2009-08-01

    With the structural change of global supply chains, the relationship between manufacturers and suppliers has transformed into a long-term partnership. Thus, this study aims to explore the partnership between manufacturers and suppliers in Taiwan's high-tech industry. Four constructs, including partner characteristic, partnership quality, partnership closeness, and cooperative performance, induced from previous literatures are used to construct the research framework and hypotheses. A questionnaire survey is then performed on executives and staffs involved in the high-tech industry. The proposed framework and hypotheses are empirically validated through confirmatory factory analysis and structural equation modeling. It is expected that the research findings can serve as a reference for Taiwan's high-tech industry on building partnerships.

  2. A Comparative Study on Cooperative Learning in Multimedia and Network Environment Used by English Majors between China Mainland and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gong; Lingling, Liu

    2018-01-01

    This paper first based on the theory of cooperative learning research. It analyses the characteristics and advantages of cooperative learning under the multimedia network environment. And then take China Three Gorges University and Taiwan I-Shou University English major students for example, using questionnaires and interviews to investigate the…

  3. Effects of Cooperative Learning Plus Inquiry Method on Student Learning and Attitudes: A Comparative Study for Engineering Economic Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehizadeh, M. Reza; Behin-Aein, Noureddin

    2014-01-01

    In the Iranian higher education system, including engineering education, effective implementation of cooperative learning is difficult because classrooms are usually crowded and the students never had a formal group working background in their previous education. In order to achieve the benefits of cooperative learning in this condition, this…

  4. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Megan F.; Gutberlet, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions

  5. Contribution of cooperative sector recycling to greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A case study of Ribeirão Pires, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Megan F., E-mail: mfking@uvic.ca [The Community-Based Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada); Gutberlet, Jutta, E-mail: gutber@uvic.ca [Department of Geography, University of Victoria, PO Box 3060 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3R4 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Cooperative recycling achieves environmental, economic and social objectives. • We calculate GHG emissions reduction for a recycling cooperative in São Paulo, Brazil. • The cooperative merits consideration as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) project. • A CDM project would enhance the achievements of the recycling cooperative. • National and local waste management policies support the recycling cooperative. - Abstract: Solid waste, including municipal waste and its management, is a major challenge for most cities and among the key contributors to climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions can be reduced through recovery and recycling of resources from the municipal solid waste stream. In São Paulo, Brazil, recycling cooperatives play a crucial role in providing recycling services including collection, separation, cleaning, stocking, and sale of recyclable resources. The present research attempts to measure the greenhouse gas emission reductions achieved by the recycling cooperative Cooperpires, as well as highlight its socioeconomic benefits. Methods include participant observation, structured interviews, questionnaire application, and greenhouse gas accounting of recycling using a Clean Development Mechanism methodology. The results show that recycling cooperatives can achieve important energy savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and suggest there is an opportunity for Cooperpires and other similar recycling groups to participate in the carbon credit market. Based on these findings, the authors created a simple greenhouse gas accounting calculator for recyclers to estimate their emissions reductions.

  6. The role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of rural communities: The case of rural cooperatives in Shurugwi District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Mhembwe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research was to analyse the role of cooperatives in sustaining the livelihoods of local rural communities in Shurugwi District in Zimbabwe. Descriptive survey design was used in this mixed method approach to the study. A questionnaire, interviews and observation methods were employed as the main research instruments. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and data were collected from government officials and from members of the six cooperatives in Shurugwi District. A total of 50 research participants were involved in the study. It was found that cooperatives were established as a strategy to sustain livelihoods of rural communities. With the adoption of cooperatives, people in the rural communities managed to generate employment, boost food production, empower the marginalised, especially women, and promote social cohesion and integration, thereby improving their livelihoods and reducing poverty. Most cooperatives face a number of challenges that include lack of financial support, poor management and lack of management skills, and lack of competitive markets to sell their produce. The study recommends that the government and the banking sector render financial support to cooperatives in rural communities to allow them to expand and diversify their business operations; constant training on leadership and management skills is provided to cooperatives’ members. There is also a need for cooperatives, especially those in the agricultural sector, to form some producer associations so as to easily market their produce. Lastly, the study recommends that future research should focus on investigating issues that hinder the growth of the cooperative movement in rural communities of Zimbabwe. It is hoped that policy-makers, the academia and communities would benefit from the study.

  7. Evaluation of Development of Cooperation in South Bohemian Municipalities in the Years 2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušek Jiří

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the research of cooperation of municipalities in the South Bohemian Region, focused on the analysis of forms and means of cooperation between 2007 and 2014. The published results are part of an internal research that lasted for many years, the goal of which was both to analyse the development of cooperation of municipalities in the studied region and to identify the prerequisites and barriers of all cooperative relations. The research was done on a sample of 623 South Bohemian municipalities in the period of 2007-2010 and 2013- 2016, the obtained data was processed using descriptive statistics and multidimensional statistical methods, and the results show an almost 20% increase in the means of municipal cooperation across the entire South Bohemian Region. Based on the respective means of cooperation, National Healthy Cities Network of the Czech Republic saw the biggest growth, amounting to +3.275% between 2007 and 2014. Participation in local action groups, where the total of 580 municipalities are already engaged, increased by 32.12%. Although less dynamic, this growth is much more important, as it significantly contributes to the development of rural areas and their absorption abilities, mainly as regards financial resources from the national and European sources. However, fragmented means of municipal cooperation is a current problem of cooperation of municipalities, leading to the disintegrated power of the respective municipalities.

  8. Monitoring of urban growth and its related environmental impacts: Niamey case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Tankari Dan-Badjo, Abdourahamane; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela; Spadafora, Francesco; Yadji, Guero; Konaté, Moussa

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution is about a preliminary study of the evolution of Niamey city (Niger) during last decades. Such research is part of an UNICOO project (funded by the University of Turin) and connected to the Edulink Cooperation Project (R.U.S.S.A.D.E.), a multidisciplinary project between Italy, Niger, Burkina Faso and Tchad funded on ACP- EU cooperation program in Higher Education. Recent advances in remote sensing, both in satellite hardware technology (i.e. image availability) and image processing algorithm development, provide opportunities for collection and analysis of multitemporal information on urban form and size that can be useful for policy and planning. In spite of these developments, there are also limitations to remote sensing and its application in practice. Some opportunities for, and limitations on, monitoring urban growth using remote sensing data are shown in the present contribution; moreover examples of environmental impacts of urban growth, as monitored with remote sensing, are provided. Niamey is the capital of Niger and is the first city in the country in size and economic importance. Its population increased gradually, from about 3,000 units in 1930 to about 30,000 in 1960, rising to 250,000 in 1980 and, according to estimates, to 800,000 units in 2000. Its patterns of population distribution, livelihoods, and its dominant role within the national economy of Niger make it a good representative case study for West Africa. This case study will consider the recent historical context of continued urban growth and will assess potential future impacts of settlement patterns. The rapid growth of Niamey in the last decades brought relative prosperity but it certainly affected patterns of land use within the city and the emerging urban system. After a preliminary sketch of the georesources in the city (qualitative and quantitative characterization of the surface water and groundwater, and of aggregates), an analyses of the urban growth and

  9. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  10. Education-growth dynamics for Australia: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunofiwa Tsaurai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this research is to establish the relevancy of the Keynesian theory in explaining education expenditure on the economy of Austria using a case study approach. Wagner (1890 and Keynes (1936 have been for a long time been the two major theorists on the relationship between education expenditure and economic growth. Both theoretical and empirical literature review concludes that the two variables relate to each other in two distinct ways, the popular one being that education boost the economy (Keynes view followed by the Wagner view that says it is the economy that is doing well that pushes investment in education. A case study review for Austria clearly shows that an increase in education expenditure does not only constitute a significant portion of the GDP per capita in Austria but also provided a positive influence on economic growth and development. The author recommends Austria policymakers and responsible authorities to up their education development programmes and budgets in order to lay a strong foundation for sustainable economic growth and prosperity.

  11. Analysis of Business Revenue Residual Sharing System in Cooperatives in Indonesia on Islamic Law Review: A case study at KSU Mitra Bersama in Palu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidin Djafar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain profit sharing system in Mitra Bersama Cooperative in the Overview of Islamic Law. To achieve this objective, this research uses descriptive qualitative method by employing three data collecting techniques i.e. observation, interview, as well as documentation. The data of this research are obtained from the Chairman, the Secretary and the Employees of the Multipurpose Cooperative (KSU Mitra Bersama. The results showed that the distribution of Business revenue Residual (SHU, at Mitra Bersama Cooperative, amounted to 5% which was distributed to all members of the cooperative in December. This sharing system displays no injustice and extortion disadvantageous to the cooperative’s members.  It performs an open management system and shares the profits and losses to its members according to the prevailing regulations already known by all shareholders. We concluded that the system of the Business Revenue Residual (SHU sharing at this Multipurpose Cooperative is permissible in Islam. Therefore, the results of this study can be used as a good model for Business Revenue Residual (SHU sharing system which conforms to Islamic Law.

  12. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  13. Protein crystal growth studies at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Long, Marianna M.; Moore, Karen M.; Harrington, Michael; McDonald, William T.; Smith, Craig D.; Bray, Terry; Lewis, Johanna; Crysel, William B.; Weise, Lance D.

    2000-01-01

    The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) has been involved in fundamental studies of protein crystal growth (PCG) in microgravity and in our earth-based laboratories. A large group of co-investigators from academia and industry participated in these experiments by providing protein samples and by performing the x-ray crystallographic analysis. These studies have clearly demonstrated the usefulness of a microgravity environment for enhancing the quality and size of protein crystals. Review of the vapor diffusion (VDA) PCG results from nineteen space shuttle missions is given in this paper

  14. Placental Growth during Normal Pregnancy - A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Lasse; Grønbeck, Lene; von Huth, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    were measured in both sagittal and transversal slices. All placentas were weighed after delivery to make a comparative study. RESULTS: Sixteen of the 20 women had increasing placental volumes from the 14th to 38th week of gestation. The 6th and 7th scan showed that 4 women had placentas of the same...... was 640 g (range 500-787 g). All pregnancies were carried to term, resulting in the delivery of healthy infants with good correlation between placental size and birth weight (R = 0.56, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Placental growth was measured systematically in a longitudinal study through the second and third...

  15. COOPERATION, STRATIFICATION AND RESEARCH DESIGN IN STRATEGY STUDIES IN BRAZIL [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20100902005] COOPERAÇÃO, ESTRATIFICAÇÃO E PERFIL DA PESQUISA EM ESTRATÉGIA NO BRASIL [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20100902005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bonfim Albuquerque Filho

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The documentary analysis of publications permits to identify scientific production standards associated with characteristics and tendencies expressed in a certain area of knowledge. Considering the area of Strategy in Organizations and its thematic axes, this study analyzed 765 articles published between 2001 and 2006, in the proceedings of EnAnpad’s and 3Es in order to evaluate quantitatively the research design mostly used throughout the period. Moreover, tendencies expressed in terms of stratification standards and cooperation in the area were also investigated. The data were treated in a descriptive-quantitative way, through statistic procedures and multivariate technique of analysis of multiple correspondence. The findings indicated a predominance of a scientific production focused on empirical articles, mainly case studies and surveys. Additionally, the results revealed the growth of the area concerning the number of articles, authors and institutions, accompanied by greater cooperation in scientific production and changes regarding the regional and institutional stratification standards.   Keywords Strategy; scientific production; methodology; cooperation and academic productivity; management Diego M. Coraiola 12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE RESUMO A análise documental de publicações permite identificar características e tendências expressas em determinada área do conhecimento científico. Tendo em vista a área de Estratégia em Organizações, este estudo analisou 765 artigos, publicados entre 2001 e 2006, nos anais dos EnAnpad e 3Es, objetivando avaliar quantitativamente os delineamentos de pesquisa utilizados e analisar tendências acerca dos padrões de estratificação e cooperação na área. Por meio de procedimentos estatísticos e da técnica multivariada de análise de correspondência múltipla, verificou-se a predominância de uma produção científica voltada para artigos empíricos apoiados

  16. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  17. The Application of Carousel Feedback and Round Table Cooperative Learning Models to Improve Student's Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) and Social Studies Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusmanto, Harry; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Djatmika, Ery Tri

    2017-01-01

    This Classroom Action Research aims to improve students' HOTS (High Order Thinking Skills) and Social Studies learning outcomes through the application of Carousel Feedback and Round Table cooperative learning methods. This study was based on a model proposed by Elliott and was implemented for three cycles. The subjects were 30 female students of…

  18. Factors that influence cooperation in networks for innovation and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Stoyanov, Slavi; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Networked cooperation fails if the available partnerships remain opaque. A literature review and Delphi study uncovered the elements of a fruitful partnership. They relate to personality, diversity, cooperation, and management. Innovation networks and learning networks share the same cooperative

  19. Some results of Soviet-Czechoslovak co-operation in the study of the solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekhtyar, I; Cizek, A

    1981-04-01

    The principle is described of positron annihilation for the non-destructive study of the internal structure of solids. The application of the method for the study of defects in plastic deformed metals, of hydrogen in metals, anomalous positron passage, of ion and metal radii yielded a number of important findings.

  20. Some results of Soviet-Czechoslovak co-operation in the study of the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.; Cizek, A.

    1981-01-01

    The principle is described of positron annihilation for the non-destructive study of the internal structure of solids. The application of the method for the study of defects in plastic deformed metals, of hydrogen in metals, anomalous positron passage, of ion and metal radii yielded a number of important findings. (Ha)

  1. A Mapping Study on Cooperation between Information System Development and Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, Floris; Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Daneva, Maia; Jedlitschka, Andreas; Kuvaja, Pasi; Kuhrmann, Marco; Männistö, Tomi; Münch, Jürgen; Raatikainen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    DevOps is a conceptual framework for reintegrating development and operations of Information Systems.We performed a Systematic Mapping Study to explore DevOps. 26 articles out of 139 were selected, studied and summarized. Based on this a concept table was constructed. We discovered that DevOps has

  2. Monte Carlo studies of domain growth in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaldram, K.; Ahsan Khan, M.

    1983-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to study the effect of temperature on the kinetics of domain growth. The concept of ''spatial entropy'' is introduced. It is shown that ''spatial entropy'' of the domain can be used to give a measure of the roughening of the domain. Most of the roughening is achieved during the initial time (t< or approx. 10 Monte Carlo cycles), the rate of roughening being greater for higher temperatures. For later times the roughening of the domain for different temperatures proceeds at essentially the same rate. (author)

  3. Cell transfection as a tool to study growth hormone action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norstedt, G; Enberg, B; Francis, S

    1994-01-01

    The isolation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA clones has made possible the transfection of GHRs into cultured cells. Our aim in this minireview is to show how the application of such approaches have benefited GHR research. GH stimulation of cells expressing GHR cDNAs can cause an alteration...... is important in GH action. The GH signals are transmitted to the nucleus and GH regulated genes have now begun to be characterized. The ability to use cell transfection for mechanistic studies of GH action will be instrumental to define domains within the receptor that are of functional importance...

  4. The Effects of Individual Versus Cooperative Testing in a Flipped Classroom on the Academic Achievement, Motivation Toward Science, and Study Time for 9th Grade Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Megan O'Neill

    This study examined the effects of cooperative testing versus traditional or individual testing and the impacts on academic achievement, motivation toward science, and study time for 9th grade biology students. Research questions centered on weekly quizzes given in a flipped classroom format for a period of 13 weeks. The study used a mixed methods research design, which combined quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. The study examined 66 students enrolled in three sections of a 9 th grade biology course at a private K-12 school. Students were randomly assigned to groups of three or four students. Weekly quizzes on regularly assigned curriculum material were provided from the flipped classroom videos. Six quizzes were randomly selected for each class to be in the cooperative testing format and six quizzes were randomly selected to be given individually or traditional-style testing format. Week 7 was reserved for administration of the mid-study questionnaire and no quiz was administered. Quantitative data collected included student grades on the 12 weekly quizzes. Qualitative data were also collected from pre-study, mid-study, and post-study questionnaires as well as semi-structured individual interviews and one focus group. Cooperative testing groups scored higher on the quizzes than when students took quizzes as individuals for five of the nine quizzes analyzed. Students did not score significantly higher than the best scorer in groups taking quizzes individually. For one quiz, the best scorer did better than the cooperative groups. Overall, cooperatively tested groups in some cases scored higher than the average of groups taking the quizzes individually, but the impact was not consistent across all quiz weeks. Difficulty level of the material, contextual factors, and ceiling effects are among potential explanations of the inconsistent outcomes. Across the study, motivation toward science stayed the same or increased depending on the aspect of

  5. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  6. Comparing the Productive Efficiency of Cooperatives and Private Enterprises: The Portuguese Wine Industry as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Santos, J.C. Gomes

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the efficiency of cooperatives and private enterprises in the Portuguese wine industry, employing data envelopment analysis (DEA). The use of DEA for the analysis of comparative efficiency within a sector is a key tool in evaluating organizational competitiveness. Competitiveness should be based on benchmarking the different types of organizations that comprise the viniculture sector. We conclude that Portuguese wine cooperatives, on average, are more efficient than their ...

  7. Study of a Dynamic Cooperative Trading Queue Routing Control Scheme for Freeways and Facilities with Parallel Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret-Batlle, Roger; Jayakrishnan, R.

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the coalitional stability of a new cooperative control policy for freeways and parallel queuing facilities with multiple servers. Based on predicted future delays per queue or lane, a VOT-heterogeneous population of agents can agree to switch lanes or queues and transfer payments to each other in order to minimize the total cost of the incoming platoon. The strategic interaction is captured by an n-level Stackelberg model with coalitions, while the cooperative structure ...

  8. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Fasting glucose, obesity, and metabolic syndrome as predictors of type 2 diabetes: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFina, Laura F; Vega, Gloria Lena; Leonard, David; Grundy, Scott M

    2012-12-01

    To determine risk for type 2 diabetes in subjects with fasting glucose levels in the ranges of normoglycemia, mild hyperglycemia, and intermediate hyperglycemia and to assess the effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on this risk. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was evaluated in 28,209 relatively healthy subjects participating in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. They were included in the study if they had more than 1 fasting plasma glucose measurement, anthropometry, and other parameters of interest. Three subgroups were identified: normoglycemic (obesity, and metabolic syndrome status. Incident diabetes was assessed at the earliest clinic visit at which the individual exhibited a blood glucose level of more than 7.0 mmol/L or reported a diagnosis of diabetes. Thirty-one percent of men and 15.9% of women had mild hyperglycemia and 11.9% of men and 3.6% of women had intermediate hyperglycemia. Yearly conversion rates to diabetes were low in individuals with normoglycemia and mild hyperglycemia but were strikingly higher in those with intermediate hyperglycemia. In subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia, presence of obesity and/or metabolic syndrome doubled conversion rates to diabetes. This study showed a marked difference in outcomes in subjects with mild and intermediate hyperglycemia. Moreover, obesity and metabolic syndrome were associated with strikingly elevated risk for diabetes in subjects with intermediate hyperglycemia. Thus intermediate hyperglycemia plus obesity/metabolic syndrome seemingly justifies intensive clinical intervention for prevention of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  10. Reliability of instruments in a cooperative, multisite study: employment intervention demonstration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, M P; McHugo, G J; Cook, J A; Razzano, L A; Drake, R E; Mueser, K T

    2001-09-01

    Reliability of well-known instruments was examined in 202 people with severe mental illness participating in a multisite vocational study. We examined interrater reliability of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the PANSS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Quality of Life Interview. Most scales had good levels of reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient alphas above .70. However, the SF-36 scales were generally less stable over time, particularly Social Functioning (ICC = .55). Test-retest reliability was lower among less educated respondents and among ethnic minorities. We recommend close monitoring of psychometric issues in future multisite studies.

  11. Does the risk of sperm competition help explain cooperation between reproductive competitors? A study in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiver, Kelly A; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-03-01

    Although cooperating individuals may gain benefits, they risk being cheated by their allies. Therefore, to understand the persistence of cooperation by mutual benefits, it is important to document both the potential benefits of cooperation and the risks of cheating. We experimentally examined evidence of cooperation in the ocellated wrasse (Symphodus ocellatus), a fish species with males that exercise three reproductive strategies: satellite and sneaker males attempt to parasitically spawn in the nests of nesting males. Nesting males have been hypothesized to tolerate satellites as a result of satellite aid in defense against sneaker males and help in courting females. Here, we provide evidence that cooperation between reproductive competitors may arise in response to sperm competition from other males. After we experimentally removed satellites, nesting males had more sneakers at their nest and experienced a higher rate of sneaking when they spawned (increased sperm competition risk). When we experimentally distracted nesting males to prevent their acting aggressively toward satellites, satellites spawned with females and ate eggs in the nest. Our results suggest that nesting males and satellites gain fitness benefits of reduced direct reproductive and sperm competition through cooperation. However, nesting males risk losing paternity, while satellites experience increased aggression and must invest in aggression themselves (i.e., they act aggressively toward sneakers).

  12. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of religious setting on cooperative behaviour. A case study from Mauritius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xygalatas, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists and folk wisdom have both claimed that there is an association between religiosity and prosocial behavior, but hard evidence for such a relationship is limited. Studies show that religiosity is correlated with self- reported prosociality; however, this relationship is not very...

  14. [Anthology of the first clinical studies with hypothalamic hormones: a story of successful international cooperation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schally, Andrew V; Gual, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Our early pioneering clinical trials in Mexico with natural and synthetic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LH-RH) also known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (Gn-RH), were reviewed. Highly purified TRH of porcine origin was shown to stimulate Thyrotropin (TSH) release in hypothyroid cretins. Subsequent tests with synthetic TRH also demonstrated significant increases in plasma TSH in normal men and women as well as in patients with primary hypothyroidism and other endocrine disorders. Even more extensive clinical studies were carried out with highly purified natural porcine LH-RH. Subjects with normal basal serum levels of gonadotropins, low levels (men and women pretreated with steroids) and high levels (e.g. post menopausal women) all responded to LH-RH with a release of LH and FSH. The results of these early studies with the natural LH-RH were confirmed by the use of synthetic LH-RH. These investigations made in Mexico with TRH and LH-RH preceded all other clinical studies by a wide margin. Subsequently various clinical investigations with LH-RH agonists and antagonists were also carried out. All these studies played a major role in introducing hypothalamic-releasing hormones into clinical medicine.

  15. Nagasaki cooperative group study of radio-chemo-immunotherapy following surgery for glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Shobu; Moriyama, Tadayoshi; Tanaka, Keisei; Moroki, Jiro.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this interinstitutional controlled study was to assess the usefulness of radio-chemo-immunotherapy following surgery for glioma. Immediately after surgery for glioma, patients were randomly allocated into the group A with radiotherapy (5,000 to 6,000 rad), ACNU, and OK-432 and the group B with radiotherapy and ACNU. Fifty-one patients consisting of 24 in the froup A and 27 in the group B entered the study from January 1981 to December 1983. No significant differences in one-year, two-year, and three-year survival rates were observed between the groups. Protective effects on leukopenia were observed in the group A, compared with the group B, with a significant difference. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  17. Laboratory study on influence of plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-03-06

    Mar 6, 2015 ... promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth response and tolerance of Zea ... inoculating maize seeds with plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains in a crude oil impacted medium. ..... Botany and Environmental Health.

  18. Study of growth kinetic and modeling of ethanol production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coefficient (0.96299). Based on Leudking-Piret model, it could be concluded that ethanol batch fermentation is a non-growth associated process. Key words: Kinetic parameters, simulation, cell growth, ethanol, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves with increasing cooperativity in an experimental microbial population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Saurabh; Yurtsev, Eugene; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff

    Range expansions are becoming more frequent due to environmental changes and rare long distance dispersal, often facilitated by anthropogenic activities. Simple models in theoretical ecology explain many emergent properties of range expansions, such as a constant expansion velocity, in terms of organism-level properties such as growth and dispersal rates. Testing these quantitative predictions in natural populations is difficult because of large environmental variability. Here, we used a controlled microbial model system to study range expansions of populations with and without intra-specific cooperativity. For non-cooperative growth, the expansion dynamics were dominated by population growth at the low-density front, which pulled the expansion forward. We found these expansions to be in close quantitative agreement with the classical theory of pulled waves by Fisher and Skellam, suitably adapted to our experimental system. However, as cooperativity increased, the expansions transitioned to being pushed, i.e. controlled by growth in the bulk as well as in the front. Although both pulled and pushed waves expand at a constant velocity and appear otherwise similar, their distinct dynamics leads to very different evolutionary consequences. Given the prevalence of cooperative growth in nature, understanding the effects of cooperativity is essential to managing invading species and understanding their evolution.

  20. Territorial Cooperation With Non-Eu Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cohard, Juan Carlos; Alfonso, Javier; Vázquez-Barquero, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    TERRITORIAL COOPERATION WITH NON-EU REGIONS Territorial Cooperation (TC) has been possible because there is a trajectory of many years of work invested by the local actors, participants who have become the architects of TC through the city or region involved. Transcontinental cooperation as studied by the European Union TERCO project is providing important lessons for understanding TC. The purpose of the presentation is to analyze the Andalusian-North of Morocco territorial cooperation during...

  1. A study of self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer calculations with finite-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Co', G.; De Donno, V.

    2014-02-01

    In this work we test the validity of a Hartree-Fock plus Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer model in which a finite-range interaction is used in the two steps of the calculation by comparing the results obtained to those found in fully self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the same interaction. Specifically, we consider the Gogny-type D1S and D1M forces. We study a wide range of spherical nuclei, far from the stability line, in various regions of the nuclear chart, from oxygen to tin isotopes. We calculate various quantities related to the ground state properties of these nuclei, such as binding energies, radii, charge and density distributions, and elastic electron scattering cross sections. The pairing effects are studied by direct comparison with the Hartree-Fock results. Despite its relative simplicity, in most cases, our model provides results very close to those of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations, and it reproduces the empirical evidence of pairing effects rather well in the nuclei investigated.

  2. Diagnostic and Prognostic Impact of pc-ASPECTS Applied to Perfusion CT in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Gerber, Johannes; Dzialowski, Imanuel; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; Michel, Patrik; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Ozdoba, Christoph; Kappelle, L Jaap; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Khomenko, Andrei; Algra, Ale; Hill, Michael D; von Kummer, Ruediger; Demchuk, Andrew M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Puetz, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-APECTS) applied to CT angiography source images (CTA-SI) predicts the functional outcome of patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS). We assessed the diagnostic and prognostic impact of pc-ASPECTS applied to perfusion CT (CTP) in the BASICS registry population. We applied pc-ASPECTS to CTA-SI and cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) parameter maps of BASICS patients with CTA and CTP studies performed. Hypoattenuation on CTA-SI, relative reduction in CBV or CBF, or relative increase in MTT were rated as abnormal. CTA and CTP were available in 27/592 BASICS patients (4.6%). The proportion of patients with any perfusion abnormality was highest for MTT (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76%-99%), compared with 78% (58%-91%) for CTA-SI and CBF, and 46% (27%-67%) for CBV (P < .001). All 3 patients with a CBV pc-ASPECTS < 8 compared to 6/23 patients with a CBV pc-ASPECTS ≥ 8 had died at 1 month (RR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6). CTP was performed in a minority of the BASICS registry population. Perfusion disturbances in the posterior circulation were most pronounced on MTT parameter maps. CBV pc-ASPECTS < 8 may indicate patients with high case fatality. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels and the risk of death in the cooperative study of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Roberto F; Hildesheim, Mariana; Mendelsohn, Laurel; Remaley, Alan T; Kato, Gregory J; Gladwin, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological studies support a hypothesis that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) that is associated with a high risk of death and evolves as a complication of haemolytic anaemia. This fundamental hypothesis has been recently challenged and remains controversial. In order to further test this hypothesis in a large and independent cohort of SCD patients we obtained plasma samples from the Cooperative Study of Sickle Cell Disease (CSSCD) for analysis of a biomarker, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), which is elevated in the setting of pulmonary arterial and venous hypertension. A NT-pro-BNP value previously identified to predict PH in adults with SCD was used to determine the association between the risk of mortality in 758 CSSCD participants (428 children and 330 adults). An abnormally high NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was present in 27·6% of adult SCD patients. High levels were associated with markers of haemolytic anaemia, such as low haemoglobin level (P<0·001), high lactate dehydrogenase (P<0·001), and high total bilirubin levels (P<0·007). A NT-proBNP level ≥160ng/l was an independent predictor of mortality (RR 6·24, 95% CI 2·9-13·3, P<0·0001). These findings provide further support for an association between haemolytic anaemia and cardiovascular complications in this patient population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  5. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  6. The relationship between organizational commitment and knowledge sharing: A case study of university employee cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Bahramzadeh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge sharing plays an important role on helping organizations reach their goals, it facilitates distribution of overall awareness among workers and create better environment for adding more value. There are different factors influencing knowledge sharing and organizational commitment is believed one of the most important items. In this paper, we present an empirical study in one of privately held universities located in city of Bojnourd, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample size 145 out of 236 people from both regular employees and university professors and we have used different tests such as Pearson correlation test to analyze the results. The proposed model of the paper has confirmed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between these two components when the level of significance is set to five percent. The results of this survey also reveals that while ethical commitment and normative play important role on knowledge sharing, continuity has no significant impact on knowledge sharing within organization. The other observation is that while gender and age has no impact on knowledge sharing, higher educational background is an important factor on knowledge sharing.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor and canonical WNT/beta-catenin signaling cooperate in suppression of chondrocyte differentiation in experimental models of FGFR signaling in cartilage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buchtová, Marcela; Oralová, Veronika; Aklian, A.; Mašek, J.; Veselá, I.; Ouyang, Z.; Obadalová, T.; Konečná, Ž.; Spoustová, T.; Pospíšilová, T.; Matula, P.; Vařecha, M.; Balek, L.; Gudernová, I.; Jelínková, I.; Ďuran, I.; Červenková, I.; Murakami, S.; Kozubík, Alois; Dvořák, P.; Bryja, Vítězslav; Krejčí, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1852, č. 5 (2015), s. 839-850 ISSN 0925-4439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP302/12/J059; GA ČR GBP302/12/G157; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31540S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor receptor * FGFR3 * WNT Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 5.158, year: 2015

  8. Creative Problem Solving and Social Cooperation of Effective Physical Therapy Practice: A Pioneer Study and Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Carmeli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research (AR has an important role to play in educating physical therapists. Increasing efforts should be encouraged to instigate AR programs in physical therapy practice and clinical education. Such programs commonly require considerable effort and understanding by clinical instructors, and require adoption of new educational methods. AR programs can lead physical therapists and clinicians to be more questioning and reflective in evaluating practical questions regarding patient therapy and education. The purpose of this article is to educate the readers on the importance of AR and to provide a few relevant references on that topic. A specific study is described in this paper in which physical therapy clinical instructors participated in a structured workshop designed to demonstrate the values of AR and how such values can be incorporated in teaching their students. AR can lead to improved therapist-patient interaction and help solve specific practical problems arising during therapy sessions.

  9. Opisthorchis felineus negatively associates with skin test reactivity in Russia-EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorova, O S; Janse, J J; Ogorodova, L M; Fedotova, M M; Achterberg, R A; Verweij, J J; Fernández-Rivas, M; Versteeg, S A; Potts, J; Minelli, C; van Ree, R; Burney, P; Yazdanbakhsh, M

    2017-07-01

    Most studies on the relationship between helminth infections and atopic disorders have been conducted in (sub)tropical developing countries where exposure to multiple parasites and lifestyle can confound the relationship. We aimed to study the relationship between infection with the fish-borne helminth Opishorchis felineus and specific IgE, skin prick testing, and atopic symptoms in Western Siberia, with lifestyle and hygiene standards of a developed country. Schoolchildren aged 7-11 years were sampled from one urban and two rural regions. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) against food and aeroallergens were measured, and data on allergic symptoms and on demographic and socioeconomic factors were collected by questionnaire. Diagnosis of opisthorchiasis was based on PCR performed on stool samples. Of the 732 children included, 34.9% had opisthorchiasis. The sensitization to any allergen when estimated by positive SPT was 12.8%, while much higher, 24.0%, when measured by sIgE. Atopic symptoms in the past year (flexural eczema and/or rhinoconjunctivitis) were reported in 12.4% of the children. SPT was positively related to flexural eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, but not to wheezing. Opisthorchiasis showed association with lower SPT response, as well as borderline association with low IgE reactivity to any allergen. However, the effect of opisthorchiasis on SPT response was not mediated by IgE, suggesting that opisthorchiasis influences SPT response through another mechanism. Opisthorchiasis also showed borderline association with lower atopic symptoms. There is a negative association between a chronic helminth infection and skin prick test reactivity even in a developed country. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Optical properties of organic semiconductor thin films. Static spectra and real-time growth studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, Ute

    2009-07-20

    The aim of this work was to establish the anisotropic dielectric function of organic thin films on silicon covered with native oxide and to study their optical properties during film growth. While the work focuses mainly on the optical properties of Diindenoperylene (DIP) films, also the optical response of Pentacene (PEN) films during growth is studied for comparison. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and differential reflectance spectroscopy are used to determine the dielectric function of the films ex-situ and in-situ, i.e. in air and in ultrahigh vacuum. Additionally, Raman- and fluorescence spectroscopy is utilized to characterize the DIP films serving also as a basis for spatially resolved optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit. Furthermore, X-ray reflectometry and atomic force microscopy are used to determine important structural and morphological film properties. The absorption spectrum of DIP in solution serves as a monomer reference. The observed vibronic progression of the HOMO-LUMO transition allows the determination of the Huang-Rhys parameter experimentally, which is a measure of the electronic vibrational coupling. The corresponding breathing modes are measured by Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of DIP films on native oxide show significant differences compared to the monomer spectrum due to intermolecular interactions. First of all, the thin film spectra are highly anisotropic due to the structural order of the films. Furthermore the Frenkel exciton transfer is studied and the energy difference between Frenkel and charge transfer excitons is determined. Real-time measurements reveal optical differences between interfacial or surface molecules and bulk molecules that play an important role for device applications. They are not only performed for DIP films but also for PEN films. While for DIP films on glass the appearance of a new mode is visible, the spectra of PEN show a pronounced energy red-shift during growth. It is shown how the

  11. Measured and modelled trends in European mountain lakes: results of fifteen years of cooperative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Papers included in this Special Issue of the Journal of Limnology present results of long-term ecological research on mountain lakes throughout Europe. Most of these studies were performed over the last 15 years in the framework of some EU-funded projects, namely AL:PE 1 and 2, MOLAR and EMERGE. These projects together considered a high number of remote lakes in different areas or lake districts in Europe. Central to the projects was the idea that mountain lakes, while subject to the same chemical and biological processes controlling lowland lakes, are more sensitive to any input from their surroundings and can be used as earlywarning indicators of atmospheric pollution and climate change. A first section of this special issue deal with the results of long-term monitoring programmes at selected key-sites. A second section focuse on site-specific and regional applications of an acidification model designed to reconstruct and predict long-term changes in the chemistry of mountain lakes.

  12. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastases: An International Cooperative Study to Define Response and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M., E-mail: daniel.trifiletti@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Lee, Cheng-Chia [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veteran General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kano, Hideyuki; Cohen, Jonathan [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Janopaul-Naylor, James; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Lee, John Y.K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Simonova, Gabriela; Liscak, Roman [Department of Radiation and Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague (Czech Republic); Wolf, Amparo; Kvint, Svetlana [Department of Neurosurgery, New York University Lagone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Grills, Inga S.; Johnson, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Liu, Kang-Du; Lin, Chung-Jung [Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veteran General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Mathieu, David; Héroux, France [Division of Neurosurgery, Université de Sherbrooke, Centre de recherche du CHUS, Sherbrooke, Québec (Canada); Silva, Danilo; Sharma, Mayur [Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cifarelli, Christopher P. [Departments of Neurosurgery and Radiation Oncology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States); and others

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To pool data across multiple institutions internationally and report on the cumulative experience of brainstem stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: Data on patients with brainstem metastases treated with SRS were collected through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Clinical, radiographic, and dosimetric characteristics were compared for factors prognostic for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 547 patients with 596 brainstem metastases treated with SRS, treatment of 7.4% of tumors resulted in severe SRS-induced toxicity (grade ≥3, increased odds with increasing tumor volume, margin dose, and whole-brain irradiation). Local control at 12 months after SRS was 81.8% and was improved with increasing margin dose and maximum dose. Overall survival at 12 months after SRS was 32.7% and impacted by age, gender, number of metastases, tumor histology, and performance score. Conclusions: Our study provides additional evidence that SRS has become an option for patients with brainstem metastases, with an excellent benefit-to-risk ratio in the hands of experienced clinicians. Prior whole-brain irradiation increases the risk of severe toxicity in brainstem metastasis patients undergoing SRS.

  13. Cooperative Study of the Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group (GETP): Surgical Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Herraiz, Angel; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Ferrer-Fábrega, Joana; Manrique Municio, Alejandro; Pérez-Daga, José Antonio; Muñoz-Casares, Cristóbal; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Casanova-Rituerto, Daniel; Sanchez-Bueno, Francisco; Jimenez-Romero, Carlos; Fernández-Cruz Pérez, Laureano

    2015-05-01

    Technical failure in pancreas transplant has been the main cause of the loss of grafts. In the last few years, the number of complications has reduced, and therefore the proportion of this problem. The Spanish Pancreas Transplant Group wanted to analyze the current situation with regard to surgical complications and their severity. A retrospective and multicenter study was performed. 10 centers participated, with a total of 410 pancreas transplant recipients between January and December 2013. A total of 316 transplants were simultaneous with kidney, 66 after kidney, pancreas-only 10, 7 multivisceral and 11 retrasplants. Surgical complication rates were 39% (n=161). A total of 7% vascular thrombosis, 13% bleeding, 6% the graft pancreatitis, 12% surgical infections and others to a lesser extent. Relaparotomy rate was 25%. The severity of complications were of type IIIb (13%), type II (12%) and type IVa (8.5%). Graft loss was 8%. Early mortality was 0.5%. The percentage of operations for late complications was 17%. The number of surgical complications after transplantation is not negligible, affecting one in 3 patients. They are severe in one out of 5 and, in one of every 10 patients graft loss occurs. Therefore, there is still a significant percentage of surgical complications in this type of activity, as shown in our country. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. ARTIST: a cooperative safety project to study fission product retention in a ruptured steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentay, S.; Dehbi, A.; Suckow, D.; Birchley, J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences such as a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) with stuck-open relief valve represent a significant public risk by virtue of the open path for release of radioactivity. The release may be lessened by deposition of fission products on the steam generator (SG) tubes and other structures or by scrubbing in the secondary coolant. The absence of empirical data, the complexity of the geometry and controlling processes, however, make the retention difficult to quantify and credit for it is typically not taken in risk assessments. The ARTIST experimental program to be conducted at Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland, will simulate the flow and retention of aerosol-borne fission products in the SG secondary, and thus provide a unique database to support safety assessments and analytical models. The project, foreseen in seven phases, will study phenomena at the separate effect and integral levels, and also address accident management (AM) issues. The prescribed values of the controlling parameters (aerosol size, aerosol type, gas flow velocity, residence time, etc) cover the range expected in severe and design basis accident scenarios. (authors)

  15. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  16. Therapeutic efficacy of cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation in Crohn's disease: Japanese cooperative Crohn's disease study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, K; Shoda, R; Takazoe, M; Hiwatashi, N; Bamba, T; Kobayashi, K; Saito, T; Terano, A; Yao, T

    1995-11-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) often flares up and requires frequent hospitalization and/or surgery. Cyclic home elemental enteral alimentation (C-HEEA) was developed to prevent flare-up of CD and to minimize patient hospitalization. However, its therapeutic efficacy has not been studied in a large patient population. Therefore, questionnaires were sent to members of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) Research Group of Japan to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA and to define the factors that may affect the efficacy of the treatment. Data for 410 patients (C-HEEA-treated n = 322; drug-treated n = 88) were collected from 29 institutions and analysis showed the following results. The cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates of the C-HEEA treated group were significantly higher than the rates of the drug-treated group in all patients and in those with ileitis and ileo-colitis (P < 0.0001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively), but no significant difference was noted in patients with colitis. Cumulative remission and non-hospitalization rates were also influenced by the daily calorie content of the elemental diet (ED); more than 1200 kcal of the ED per day was found to be more effective than lower amounts to maintain remission and to prevent hospitalization. The therapeutic efficacy of C-HEEA was shown to be superior to that of drug treatment in patients with CD with ileal involvement, and it is suggested that more than 1200kcal per day should be supplied by the ED to enhance its therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Design of VA Cooperative Study #591: CERV-PTSD, comparative effectiveness research in veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Paula P; Chard, Kathleen M; Ruzek, Josef I; Chow, Bruce K; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Resick, Patricia A; Foa, Edna B; Marx, Brian P; Huang, Grant D; Lu, Ying

    2015-03-01

    CERV-PTSD is a randomized controlled trial of two of the most effective treatments for PTSD, Prolonged Exposure (PE) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT). Despite solid evidence that both treatments are effective, there is limited evidence about their effectiveness relative to one another. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing PTSD symptom severity in a healthcare system that offers both treatments. The secondary objective is to compare the effectiveness of PE and CPT for reducing the severity of comorbid mental health problems and service utilization as well as improving functioning and quality of life. The tertiary objective is to examine whether discrepancy between patient preferences and treatment assignment reduces the effectiveness of each treatment. Exploratory analyses will examine whether demographic and clinical characteristics predict differential response to PE and CPT. The study is designed to randomize 900 male and female veterans with PTSD due to any traumatic military event to receive PE or CPT. The standard dose of treatment is 12 weekly sessions but veterans who improve more rapidly may finish in fewer sessions and veterans who improve more slowly may have additional sessions. The primary outcome is improvement in PTSD symptoms, measured during and after treatment and then 3 and 6 months later. As a large multi-site trial with men and women, CERV-PTSD is designed to advance the delivery of care for PTSD by providing conclusive information about whether one treatment is better than the other, overall, and for different types of patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. radiochemical studies on the growth of myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshershaby, H.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth. humans of all ages develop cancer, and a wide variety of organs are affected. multiple myeloma is a cancer in which antibody-producing plasma cells grow in an uncontrolled and invasive (malignant) manner. melphalan (DNA cross-linker), is one of the most widely used and effective drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma. thalidomide as an immunomodulatory agent is clinically useful in a number of cancers. antitumor activity may be related to a number of known properties, including antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and T-cell costimulatory and antiangiogenic effect. however, it may also involve direct antitumor effects. radiotherapy is an important modality in the treatment of cancer. the aim of radiotherapy is to deliver radiation doses and schedules that kill cancer cells, while preserving normal tissue function. the aim of these studies was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of some chemical substances (chemotherapy)such as melphalan and thalidomide and γ-radiation (radiotherapy)on the growth of myeloma cells. also some confirmatory tests such as β2-microglobulin, caspases enzymes 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analyses were performed for the obtained optimum doses.

  19. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  20. Volumetric MRI study of the intrauterine growth restriction fetal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, A.; Barlow, S.; Ber, R.; Achiron, R.; Katorza, E. [Tel Aviv University, Sackler School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)

    2017-05-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathologic fetal condition known to affect the fetal brain regionally and associated with future neurodevelopmental abnormalities. This study employed MRI to assess in utero regional brain volume changes in IUGR fetuses compared to controls. Retrospectively, using MRI images of fetuses at 30-34 weeks gestational age, a total of 8 brain regions - supratentorial brain and cavity, cerebral hemispheres, temporal lobes and cerebellum - were measured for volume in 13 fetuses with IUGR due to placental insufficiency and in 21 controls. Volumes and their ratios were assessed for difference using regression models. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between two observers. In both groups, all structures increase in absolute volume during that gestation period, and the rate of cerebellar growth is higher compared to that of supratentorial structures. All structures' absolute volumes were significantly smaller for the IUGR group. Cerebellar to supratentorial ratios were found to be significantly smaller (P < 0.05) for IUGR compared to controls. No other significant ratio differences were found. ICC showed excellent agreement. The cerebellar to supratentorial volume ratio is affected in IUGR fetuses. Additional research is needed to assess this as a radiologic marker in relation to long-term outcome. (orig.)

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Low-dimensional Cooperative Phenomena : the Possibility of High-Temperature Superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental work on solids with low-dimensional cooperative phenomena has been rather explosively expanded in the last few years, and it seems to be quite fashionable to con­ tribute to this field, especially to the problem of one-dimensional metals. On the whole, one could divide the huge amount of recent investigations into two parts although there is much overlap bet­ ween these regimes, namely investigations on magnetic exchange interactions constrained to mainly one or two dimensions and, secondly, work done on Id metallic solids or linear chain compounds with Id delocalized electrons. There is, of course, overlap from one extreme case to the other with these solids and in some rare cases both phenomena are studied on one and the same crystal. In fact, however, most of the scientific groups in this area could be associated roughly with one of these categories and,in addition, a separation between theoreticians and experimentalists in each of these groups leads to a further splitting of...

  2. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  3. COOPERATION BETWEEN INSTITUTIONS OF PUBLIC ORDER AND SAFETY FROM BIHOR (ROMANIA AND HAJDU-BIHAR (HUNGARY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucur Catalin-Adrian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The forms and degree of cooperation between public order and safety on both sides of the border took on different forms from country to country, from one region to another. Some countries have a very extensive inter-institutional cooperation and substantial, while in other countries relations are characterized by a deep division, competition and lack of communication. To understand existing forms of cooperation, and how best practices can be transferred to some Member States it is necessary to understand the existing diversity across the European Union. This paper focuses on presenting several cooperation projects with direct reference to public order and safety activities implemented in Bihor - Hajdu-Bihar euroregion, within the CBC Programme Hungary-Romania 2004 and especially the project "Mirror network for operative and operational data trasfer", a joint project of cooperation in the public order and safety in Bihor - Hajdu-Bihar Euroregion. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis on Integrate perspective on companies sector, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bn#259;dulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics.

  4. A study on current status of KAERI's international cooperation programs and strategies for effective implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Park, Chun Kab; Noh, In Young; Kim, Young Min

    1998-12-01

    This is a report on the status and analysis of standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment. This report comprises a total of six chapters. Chapter II discusses the status of the technical cooperation agreement which took effect late 1998, and various other model agreements for technical cooperation. Chapter III provides information on the status, regulations, procedures for the expert mission service, and Chapter IV details the current status of the technical staff attachment and the related procedures. Chapter V deals with the utilization status and analysis of the English Counselor, and Chapter VI is the Conclusion. This report has tow objectives. First, we have never published reference books related to standard agreement for technical cooperation, expert mission service and technical staff attachment necessary for international joint research until now. As a result, the research divisions have often asked many questions to the office of international cooperation. Therefore, we expect that many difficulties will be removed and procedures simplified if the research divisions use this report as a reference book. Second, we plan to use this report reference book for policy decisions after establishing the database. (author). 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Growth, spectral and thermal studies of ibuprofen crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramukutty, S.; Ramachandran, E. [Department of Physics, Thiruvalluvar College, Papanasam (India)

    2012-01-15

    RS -Ibuprofen was crystallized for the first time in silica gel under suitable pH conditions by reduction of solubility method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and density measurement. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Optical bandgap energy of ibuprofen was estimated as 3.19(3) eV from UV-Vis spectrum. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that ibuprofen is thermally stable upto 102.9 C and the initial loss of mass was due to evaporation only. Morphological study showed that the growth is prominent along b-axis and the prominent face is {l_brace}100{r_brace}. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. [Pubertal growth of 1,453 healthy children according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset. The Barcelona longitudinal growth study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Antonio; Yeste, Diego; Moreno-Galdó, Antonio; Gussinyé, Miquel; Ferrández, Ángel; Clemente, María; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica

    2018-02-20

    Pubertal growth pattern differs according to age at pubertal growth spurt onset which occurs over a five years period (girls: 8-13 years, boys: 10-15 years). The need for more than one pubertal reference pattern has been proposed. We aimed to obtain five 1-year-age-interval pubertal patterns. Longitudinal (6 years of age-adult height) growth study of 1,453 healthy children to evaluate height-for-age, growth velocity-for-age and weight-for-age values. According to age at pubertal growth spurt onset girls were considered: very-early matures (8-9 years, n=119), early matures (9-10 years, n=157), intermediate matures (10-11 years, n=238), late matures (11-12 years, n=127) and very-late matures (12-13 years, n=102), and boys: very-early matures (10-11 years, n=110), early matures (11-12 years, n=139), intermediate matures (12-13 years, n=225), late matures (13-14 years, n=133) and very-late matures (14-15 years, n=103). Age at menarche and growth up to adult height were recorded. In both sexes, statistically-significant (P<.0001) and clinically-pertinent differences in pubertal growth pattern (mean height-for-age, mean growth velocity-for-age and mean pubertal height gain, values) were found among the five pubertal maturity groups and between each group and the whole population, despite similar adult height values. The same occurred for age at menarche and growth from menarche to adult height (P<.05). In both sexes, pubertal growth spurt onset is a critical milestone determining pubertal growth and sexual development. The contribution of our data to better clinical evaluation of growth according to the pubertal maturity tempo of each child will obviate the mistakes made when only one pubertal growth reference is used. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Cooperation: the foundation of improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmer, T P; Spuhler, V J; Berwick, D M; Nolan, T W

    1998-06-15

    Cooperation--working together to produce mutual benefit or attain a common purpose--is almost inseparable from the quest for improvement. Although the case for cooperation can be made on ethical grounds, neither the motivation for nor the effects of cooperation need to be interpreted solely in terms of altruism. Cooperation can be a shrewd and pragmatic strategy for accomplishing personal goals in an interdependent system. Earlier papers in this series have explored the conceptual roots of modern approaches to improvement, which lie in systems theory. To improve systems, we must usually attend first and foremost to interactions. Among humans, "better interaction" is almost synonymous with "better cooperation." Physicians have ample opportunities and, indeed, an obligation to cooperate with other physicians in the same or different specialties, with nurses and other clinical workers, with administrators, and with patients and families. Many intellectual disciplines have made cooperation an object of study. These include anthropology; social psychology; genetics; biology; mathematics; game theory; linguistics; operations research; economics; and, of course, moral and rational philosophy. Scientifically grounded methods to enhance cooperation include developing a shared purpose; creating an open, safe environment; including all who share a common purpose and encouraging diverse viewpoints; negotiating agreement; and insisting on fairness and equity in the application of rules. These methods apply at the organizational level and at the level of the individual physician. This paper describes the application of these methods at the organizational level and focuses on one especially successful example of system-level cooperation in a care delivery site where interactions matter a great deal: the modern intensive care unit.

  8. The early growth and development study: a prospective adoption design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ge, Xiaojia; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2007-02-01

    The Early Growth and Development Study is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children (N=359 triads) that was initiated in 2003. The primary study aims are to examine how family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences in order to aid in the identification of specific family processes that could serve as malleable targets for intervention. Participants in the study are recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the United States, following the birth of a child. Assessments occur at 6-month intervals until the child reaches 3 years of age. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: infant and toddler temperament, social behavior, and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, psychopathology, competence, stress, and substance use; adoptive parenting and marital relations; and prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress. Preliminary analyses suggest the representativeness of the sample and minimal confounding effects of current trends in adoption practices, including openness and selective placement. Future plans are described.

  9. Cost-Efficient and Sustainable Deployment of Renewable Energy Sources towards the 20% Target by 2020, and beyond. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Longa, F. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Pade Hnasen, L. [Technical University of Denmark DTU, Lyngby (Denmark); Tantareanu, C. [Center for Promotion of Clean and Efficient Energy ENERO, Bucharest (Romania); Caldes-Gomez, N.; Santamaria-Belda, M. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu. The objective of the RES4LESS project is to develop a Roadmap to cost-efficient deployment of energy from renewable sources (RES) in Europe, via cross-border cooperation mechanisms. The Commission has indicated that the 2020 targets for renewable energy (European Commission 2009) can be achieved through cooperation between Member States. This cooperation could lead to win-win situations, when a country with a large low-cost potential for renewable electricity could sell part of its surplus to a country with a limited and/or expensive potential. In the project, first a scoping exercise has been carried out to identify which countries could be candidates for cooperation. Next, three case studies have been elaborated to give a better view of what these cooperation mechanisms would entail in practice. The analysis has focused on renewable electricity (RES-E), although cooperation mechanisms could also be envisaged for renewable heat. Among the Member States providing the largest and cheapest surpluses Denmark, Romania and Spain have been chosen as Host Countries for the RES4LESS case studies. The technologies considered in the case studies are Offshore Wind for Denmark, Biomass for Romania, and CSP for Spain.

  10. Heuristics for Cooperative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    behaviors of cooperating humans are not necessary for simple tasks. Those of cooperating wolves or wasps might perform more reliably and could be...observed in wolves (Mech 1970), lions (Schaller 1972), and coyotes (Robinson 1952, Hamlin 1979). In coyotes this behavior seems to be directed toward...predation in Yellowstone National Park. J. Mammal. 33:470-476. value - low Schaller, G. B. 1972. The Serengeti lion: a study of predator-prey relationships

  11. Study of growth mechanism of conducting polymers by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coletta, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Today conductive polymers have many applications in several devices. For these reasons they have received much attention in recent years. Despite intensive research, the mechanism of conducting polymers growth is still poorly understood and the methods of polymerization are limited to two principal ways: chemical and electrochemical synthesis. On the other hand, the complex properties of polymers can be controlled only if a good knowledge of polymerization process is acquired. In this case, it is possible to control the process during the synthesis (functionalization, hydrophilicity, chain length, doping level), and consequently to improve the conductive properties of the synthesized polymers. Water radiolysis represents an easy and efficient method of synthesis comparing to chemical and electrochemical polymerization routes. It enables the polymerization under soft conditions: ambient temperature and pressure, without any external dopant. Among all conductive polymers, poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) (PEDOT, a derivative of poly-thiophene) and poly-Pyrrole (PPy) have gained some large scale applications for their chemical and physical proprieties. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of PEDOT and PPy in aqueous solution and the study of their growth mechanism by pulsed radiolysis. Thanks to the electron accelerator ELYSE, the use of pulsed radiolysis coupled with time-resolved absorption spectroscopy allowed to study the kinetics of polymerization. The first transient species involved in the mechanism were identified by time resolved spectroscopy and the rate constants were determined. First, the reaction of hydroxyl radicals onto EDOT and Py monomers was studied, as well as the corresponding radiation induced polymerization. Then, the study was transposed to others oxidizing radicals such as CO3 .- , N 3 . and SO 4 .- at different pHs. This approach allowed to check and to highlight the influence of oxidizing species onto the first transient species

  12. In Situ Study of Noncatalytic Metal Oxide Nanowire Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Jiang, Hua; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    a catalyst is still widely disputed and unclear. Here, we show that the nanowire growth during metal oxidation is limited by a nucleation of a new layer. On the basis of in situ transmission electron microscope investigations we found that the growth occurs layer by layer at the lowest specific surface...

  13. Knowledge and Skill Competency Values of an Undergraduate University Managed Cooperative Internship Program: A Case Study in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarash, David

    2016-01-01

    Students from the Purdue University landscape architecture program undergo a year-long managed cooperative internship between their junior and senior years of enrollment. During this paid internship students experience the realities of a professional design office outside of the protection of the academic classroom. Through surveys of faculty…

  14. Simple and cooperative electrostatic binding of amonium ions to phosphate-polyions: NMR, infrared and theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kříž, Jaroslav; Dybal, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 26 (2004), s. 9306-9314 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : cooperative interactions * electrostatic binding * hydrophobic interactions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.834, year: 2004

  15. Study and Application of Reinforcement Learning in Cooperative Strategy of the Robot Soccer Based on BDI Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bo-ying

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic cooperation model of multi-Agent is formed by combining reinforcement learning with BDI model. In this model, the concept of the individual optimization loses its meaning, because the repayment of each Agent dose not only depend on itsself but also on the choice of other Agents. All Agents can pursue a common optimum solution and try to realize the united intention as a whole to a maximum limit. The robot moves to its goal, depending on the present positions of the other robots that cooperate with it and the present position of the ball. One of these robots cooperating with it is controlled to move by man with a joystick. In this way, Agent can be ensured to search for each state-action as frequently as possible when it carries on choosing movements, so as to shorten the time of searching for the movement space so that the convergence speed of reinforcement learning can be improved. The validity of the proposed cooperative strategy for the robot soccer has been proved by combining theoretical analysis with simulation robot soccer match (11vs11 .

  16. La Cooperacion Internacional en Educacion: Estudio De La Experiencia Peruana. (International Cooperation in Education: Case Study of the Peruvian Experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappo, Leopoldo

    Educational development in Peru is discussed as part of a series surveying UNESCO's involvement in educational cooperation with developing nations. There are seven chapters to the report, which is written in Spanish. The first chapter describes Peru's national education policy, and discusses how it relates to the country's plan for national…

  17. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING ASSISTED WITH MODULE AND STUDENTS LEARNING MOTIVATION TOWARD THE STUDY RESULT ON STUDENTS SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotman Sitanggang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve learning quality of high school students in grade ten (X to the study material is about the vector. This research is a quasiexperimental study. Samples selection is random, using the control class from the adjacent class to avoid the large bias. The results of samples selection are the students of class X-H as the control class and the students of class X-I as the experimental class. The motivation variable was distinguished from the observations of student activities at the pre-study and at current research. Highly motivated students are the students who actively ask the questions and give answers to problems. While the low-motivated students are the students whose learning activities are the less. This research was designed using 2x2 factorial ANOVA, namely the effects of cooperative learning between learning without module and module-assisted learning on students’ learning results; and the effects of students’ learning motivation between highly motivated students and low motivated students. After given the treatment, those are: the same pre-test, cooperative learning without modules in control class, module-assisted cooperative learning in experimental class, the same post-test, questionnaires distribution, collection and tabulation of the data. The data were analyzed using qualitative-descriptive technique and percentage. The data analysis results using SPSS 17.0 conclude that: (1 There is a significant difference of study results in cooperative learning without module against module-assisted cooperative learning. (2 There is a significant difference of study results between highly motivated students and low motivated students. (3 There is a significant difference of study results between the group of cooperative learning and the group of student motivation at the significance value of = 0.05.

  18. Scope of Cooperative Learning (CL) Strategies in Teaching English to Saudi Adult EFL Learners: A Study of Practical Barriers and Possible Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Ishtiaq; Muhammad Sabboor Hussain

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the teachers’ practices and perceptions in teaching English in Saudi Arabia by viewing their stance on Cooperative Learning (CL) — an innovative teaching approach proposed to raise the language proficiency level of adult EFL learners. The study has been conducted in Qassim University, Saudi Arabia—a vibrant and flourishing EFL context. A quantitative tool (a questionnaire) has been used to collect data and to serve qualitative purposes. It reports 80 EFL teach...

  19. Outcomes of basilar artery occlusion in patients aged 75 years or older in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Compter, Annette; Tanne, David; Engelter, Stefan T; Audebert, Heinrich; Thijs, Vincent; de Freitas, Gabriel; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2012-11-01

    Patients with an acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) have a high risk of long-lasting disability and death. Only limited data are available on functional outcome in elderly patients with BAO. Using data from the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study, we aimed to determine outcomes in patients ≥75 years. Primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 4-6). Secondary outcomes were death, insufficient vessel recanalization (defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score 0-1) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Patients were divided into four age-groups, based on quartiles: 18-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years. Outcomes were compared between patients ≥75 years and patients aged 18-54 years. Risk ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). We included 619 patients [18-54 years n = 153 (25 %), 55-64 years n = 133 (21 %), 65-74 years n = 171 (28 %), and ≥75 years n = 162 (26 %)]. Compared with patients aged 18-54 years, patients ≥75 years were at increased risk of poor functional outcome [aRR 1.33 (1.14-1.55)] and death [aRR 2.47 (1.75-3.51)]. Nevertheless, 35/162 (22 %, 95 % CI 15-28 %) of patients ≥75 years had good functional outcome. No significant differences between age groups were observed for recanalization rate and incidence of SICH. Although patients ≥75 years with BAO have an increased risk of poor outcome compared with younger patients, a substantial group of patients ≥75 years survives with a good functional outcome.

  20. EXPANSIóN Y CRECIMIENTO DE LAS COOPERATIVAS DE CRéDITO DURANTE EL PERIODO 1993-2007 EN LA COMUNIDAD VALENCIANA/EXPANSION AND GROWTH OF THE CREDIT COOPERATIVES BETWEEN 1993 AND 2007 IN THE COMMUNITY OF VALENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo MELIÁN NAVARRO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available La Comunidad Valenciana es junto con Andalucía y el País Vasco, las Comunidades Autónomas donde más imbricadas se hallan las cooperativas de crédito; estas se han vinculado al sector agrario vía cajas rurales en las dos primeras, y al sector industrial, vía cajas populares, en la tercera. En este trabajo se analiza la evolución en los últimos quince años, período 1993-2007, del crédito cooperativo en la Comunidad Valenciana, materializado en el estudio de las cajas rurales con sede social en la misma. En él destacamos la experiencia de concentración de algunas entidades, así como la reciente creación de otras a partir de secciones de crédito de cooperativas agrarias. El estudio se efectúa con base en el análisis del balance y otros indicadores de gestión./The Community of Valencia, together with Andalusia and the Basque Country, are the autonomous communities where credit cooperatives are more involved; these have been linked to the agricultural sector through rural savings banks in the first two, and the industrial sector, via popular savings banks in the third case. This paper analyses the evolution over the past fifteen years, 1993-2007 of the credit cooperatives in Valencia, focusing in the study of the rural savings banks that have their headquarters there. We highlight the experience of concentration of some entities, as well as the recent establishment of others arising from credit sections of agricultural cooperatives. The study is based on an analysis of the balance sheet and other management indicators.

  1. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  2. Studies on the utility and mechanism of the V-79 cell metabolic cooperation assay for tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke condensate and its fractions were tested for activity in the V-79 Metabolic Cooperation Assay to determine the usefulness of the assay for analysis of a complex mixture and to compare the results obtained with previously conducted in vivo promoter assays. The whole condensate and several of its fractions were positive in the assay. In general, the Metabolic Cooperation Assay results were comparable to previously published results obtained on mouse skin. The effect of cell density, phorbol 12-myrystate-13-acetate (PMA) exposure time, concentration, pre-exposure and binding activity on the recovery of mutant V-79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts in the Metabolic Cooperation Assay was determined. A PMA exposure interval of only 1 minute resulted in maximum recovery of mutant cells. PMA began to inhibit metabolic cooperation at an exposure concentration of 0.1 ng/ml. Pre-exposure of cells to PMA increased the recovery of both post-PMA-treated and non-treated mutant cells in a dose-dependent manner. 3 H-PMA was rapidly bound to or taken up by the V-79 cells under assay conditions. The effect of calcium antagonists and representative compounds from several classes of anti-promoters including anti-inflammatory sterols, protease inhibitors, retinoids and cyclic nucleotides on metabolic determined. Each compound was tested for its effect on metabolic cooperation and also for its ability to reverse or modify the inhibitory properties of PMA on inter-cellular communication. Of all the compounds tested only cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was able to antagonize the inhibitory effect of PMA

  3. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  4. Fatigue crack growth in an aluminum alloy-fractographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, I.; Muhammad, W.; Ejaz, N.

    2016-08-01

    A two-fold approach was adopted to understand the fatigue crack growth process in an Aluminum alloy; fatigue crack growth test of samples and analysis of fractured surfaces. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted on middle tension M(T) samples prepared from an Aluminum alloy cylinder. The tests were conducted under constant amplitude loading at R ratio 0.1. The stress applied was from 20,30 and 40 per cent of the yield stress of the material. The fatigue crack growth data was recorded. After fatigue testing, the samples were subjected to detailed scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. The resulting fracture surfaces were subjected to qualitative and quantitative fractographic examinations. Quantitative fracture analysis included an estimation of crack growth rate (CGR) in different regions. The effect of the microstructural features on fatigue crack growth was examined. It was observed that in stage II (crack growth region), the failure mode changes from intergranular to transgranular as the stress level increases. In the region of intergranular failure the localized brittle failure was observed and fatigue striations are difficult to reveal. However, in the region of transgranular failure the crack path is independent of the microstructural features. In this region, localized ductile failure mode was observed and well defined fatigue striations were present in the wake of fatigue crack. The effect of interaction of growing fatigue crack with microstructural features was not substantial. The final fracture (stage III) was ductile in all the cases.

  5. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  6. Growth Factor-Activated Stem Cell Circuits and Stromal Signals Cooperatively Accelerate Non-Integrated iPSC Reprogramming of Human Myeloid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Ann; Talbot, C. Conover; Verma, Karan; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Kaplan, Ian M.; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2012-01-01

    Nonviral conversion of skin or blood cells into clinically useful human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) occurs in only rare fractions (∼0.001%–0.5%) of donor cells transfected with non-integrating reprogramming factors. Pluripotency induction of developmentally immature stem-progenitors is generally more efficient than differentiated somatic cell targets. However, the nature of augmented progenitor reprogramming remains obscure, and its potential has not been fully explored for improving the extremely slow pace of non-integrated reprogramming. Here, we report highly optimized four-factor reprogramming of lineage-committed cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors with bulk efficiencies of ∼50% in purified episome-expressing cells. Lineage-committed CD33+CD45+CD34− myeloid cells and not primitive hematopoietic stem-progenitors were the main targets of a rapid and nearly complete non-integrated reprogramming. The efficient conversion of mature myeloid populations into NANOG+TRA-1-81+ hiPSC was mediated by synergies between hematopoietic growth factor (GF), stromal activation signals, and episomal Yamanaka factor expression. Using a modular bioinformatics approach, we demonstrated that efficient myeloid reprogramming correlated not to increased proliferation or endogenous Core factor expressions, but to poised expression of GF-activated transcriptional circuits that commonly regulate plasticity in both hematopoietic progenitors and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Factor-driven conversion of myeloid progenitors to a high-fidelity pluripotent state was further accelerated by soluble and contact-dependent stromal signals that included an implied and unexpected role for Toll receptor-NFκB signaling. These data provide a paradigm for understanding the augmented reprogramming capacity of somatic progenitors, and reveal that efficient induced pluripotency in other cell types may also require extrinsic activation of a molecular framework that commonly regulates self

  7. Volume growth trends in a Douglas-fir levels-of-growing-stock study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis

    2006-01-01

    Mean curves of increment and yield in gross total cubic volume and net merchantable cubic volume were derived from seven installations of the regional cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock Study (LOGS) in Douglas-fir. The technique used reduces the seven curves for each treatment for each variable of interest to a single set of readily interpretable mean curves. To a top...

  8. Rare cancers in children - The EXPeRT Initiative: a report from the European Cooperative Study Group on Pediatric Rare Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisogno, G; Ferrari, A; Bien, E; Brecht, I B; Brennan, B; Cecchetto, G; Godzinski, J; Orbach, D; Reguerre, Y; Stachowicz-Stencel, T; Schneider, D T

    2012-10-01

    The low incidence and the heterogeneity of very rare tumors (VRTs) demand for international cooperation. In 2008, EXPeRT (European Cooperative Study Group for Pediatric Rare Tumors) was founded by national groups from Italy, France, United Kingdom, Poland and Germany. The first aims of EXPeRT were to agree on a uniform definition of VRTs and to develop the currently most relevant scientific questions. Current initiatives include international data exchange, retrospective and prospective studies of specific entities, and the development of harmonized and internationally recognized guidelines. Moreover, EXPeRT established a network for expert consultation to assist in clinical decision in VRTs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  10. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  11. A Comparative Growth and Pigments Study of Nine Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... Comparative biodiversity and effect of different media on growth and ... of the food chain will accumulate astaxanthin in their ... and are very fast when compared to most other ..... Bad and the Recovery in an Assisted Migration.

  12. Study on growth performance of Murrah buffaloes raised under farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    Non-genetic and genetic factors influencing growth performance in. Murrah ... Central Cattle Breeding Farm, Alamadhi, Tamil Nadu, India, born in the period between 1990 and 2004 were .... and permanent environmental effects due to dam.

  13. Growth, characterization and dielectric property studies of gel grown ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    chemical reaction method. Plate-like single ... Barium succinate; gel growth; single crystals; dielectric constant; dielectric loss. 1. .... The chemical reaction involved in the birth of a new .... due to the displacement of electrons and ions, respec-.

  14. The knowledge absorptive capacity to improve the cooperation and innovation in the firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Saiz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the absorptive capacity types in the knowledge management literature and aims to understand how companies can strength their contexts of cooperation in order to innovate. Design/methodology/approach: A balanced panel of 1,220 firms that respond to the Survey of Business Strategies for a three-year period was used, which represents a total of 3,660 observations.   Findings: The justification of absorptive capacity typology for an innovation efficiency process. The influence of the potential and realized absorptive capacity on new products is significant and causes effects on internal research and development in diverse way. The impact of the joint ventures, suppliers’ cooperation and customers’ cooperation are significant on absorptive capacity. Research limitations/implications: It would be interesting to extend the research to another innovation metrics as new organizational methods, new processes, new designs or new methods in the use of sales channels. Practical implications: The agreement of cooperation activities constitutes an important decision for the firm’s innovation. Companies must be conscious that while suppliers and customers’ cooperation are relevant cooperation actions to increase the internal research and development, joint ventures and customers’ cooperation are significant to the growth of the new products. Social implications: The types of absorptive capacity and internal research and development serve as mediating mechanisms between cooperative activities and innovative performance. Originality/value: This paper advances the literature on absorptive capacity by showing how firms use their positions of technological vigilance and management to form their capabilities, and subsequently, to enhance innovation outcomes. This study considers it is necessary to analyze the typology of the absorptive capacity that can allow managers to understand an innovation efficiency

  15. Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative: Basis for Business Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JENNIFER D. MASICAT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the proposed business initiatives to enhance the operation of Batangas Heavy Fabrication Yard Multi-Purpose Cooperative for the long survival and growth. More specifically, it shall answer the following objectives to describe the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, type of membership and shared capital; to assess the business operation of the cooperative in the aspects of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and their delivery of services; to identify the problems encountered by the cooperative in its business operation; to determine the significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and their assessment to its business operation; and to propose an action plan and to assess the business operation of BHFY Multi-Purpose Cooperative. The researcher used the descriptive correlation design in the study to obtain information concerning the current status of the BHFY-MPC cooperative; to describe what exists with respect to the variables or conditions in a situation. Based on the result, majority of the members are aged 51 to 55 years old, holding the regular type of membership and have a shared capital ranging from 51,001 to 100,000.The finding of the study states that the BHFY Multi-purpose cooperative performs well in terms of its management, marketing, finances, facilities and technology and delivery of services. Also, there are problems seldom encountered in the operation of the cooperative but the cooperative never encountered problems like overinvestment, ineffective leadership of management team and board of directors, inadequate source of fund, income of cooperative affected by negative issues and mismanagement of funds by the officers. Also, the type of membership influences the members’ assessment on the type of delivery of services; moreover, age contributes to the assessment of the business operation in terms of management and delivery of

  16. Simulation study on the growth of grains in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    1997-01-01

    A new particle simulation code is developed for studying the dynamics of the grains which are exposed to charging by the background plasma particles. Effects of regular attachment of electrons and ions, effects of secondary electron emission, and coagulation of grains are included in this code. Simulation results show that grains randomly change their charges from negative to positive, or from positive to negative in a 'flip-flop' fashion as a result of competition between the electron attachment and secondary electron emission. It is found that the flip-flop effect becomes remarkable when the radius of grains is of the order of 10 nm, because the attachment of a single electron to a grain is less effective on the surface potential for larger grains, while the average probability of electron attachment is smaller for smaller grains. Grains with opposite charges attract each other to coagulate, so that grains of size of 10 nm are likely to grow in size. The flip-flop effect is found to be essential to the growth of grains. (author)

  17. Crystal growth of uranium compounds and study of UGe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufour, V.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, the study on the superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 is presented. Crystal growth of UGe 2 single crystals was realized in a tetra-arc furnace using the Czochralski technique. This technique was also used to obtain high quality single crystals of other uranium compounds, notably UCoGe and URu 2 Si 2 . The Curie temperature of UGe 2 (T(Curie) = 53 K) decreases with pressure and is suppressed at p c = 1.5 GPa. Before being suppressed, the ferromagnetic transition changes from second to first order at a tricritical point. Precise resistivity and Hall resistivity measurements under pressure and magnetic field revealed the position of the tricritical point as well as its evolution under magnetic field which draw a wing structure phase diagram. Despite the theoretical prediction that this diagram is general for a ferromagnet, here we present the first experimental observation. Other measurements focus on the superconductivity (T sc = 0.75 K) which coexists with ferromagnetism under pressure. The bulk nature of the superconductivity is investigated by AC calorimetry measurements under pressure. The attention is turned to the interesting phenomenon of field enhanced superconductivity. (author) [fr

  18. Study on Growth Rhythm of Juveniles Cistolemmys Flavomarginata for One and Two Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin

    Growth of one and two year old Cistolemmys flavomarginata is studied. In natural temperature and under artificial feeding condition, juvenile turtles grow for 180 days in Xinyang, one year old turtle average body weight increased from 18.1 g to 54.5 g, the relative growth rate is 204.1%, the absolute growth rate is 0.21. two year old turtle average body weight increased from 46.8 g to 101.1 g, the relative growth rate is 115.98%, the absolute growth rate is 0.30. But two year old turtle growth rate is slower than that of one year old turtle. The body weight, carapace length, carapace width, plastron length, plastron width and carapace high are correlated positively to daily age. The body weight growth equations of one and two year old turtles are deduced. Compared with other reptiles, whole growth cycle is grasped systemically by the growth patterns.

  19. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  20. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  1. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  2. Aerosol composition, oxidation properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA: sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary organic aerosol (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass-burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation

  3. Aerosol composition, oxidative properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidative properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA = sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosols (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary OA (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary OA (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation degrees during the aging

  4. What's the effect of the implementation of general practitioner cooperatives on caseload? Prospective intervention study on primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Hilde; Remmen, Roy; Van Royen, Paul; Teblick, Marc; Geudens, Leo; Bronckaers, Marc; Meeuwis, Herman

    2010-07-30

    Out-of-hours care in the primary care setting is rapidly changing and evolving towards general practitioner 'cooperatives' (GPC). GPCs already exist in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Scandinavia, all countries with strong general practice, including gatekeepers' role. This intervention study reports the use and caseload of out-of-hours care before and after implementation of a GPC in a well subscribed region in a country with an open access health care system and no gatekeepers' role for general practice. We used a prospective before/after interventional study design. The intervention was the implementation of a GPC. One year after the implementation of a GPC, the number of patient contacts in the intervention region significantly increased at the GPC (OR: 1.645; 95% CI: 1.439-1.880), while there were no significant changes in patient contacts at the Emergency Department (ED) or in other regions where a simultaneous registration was performed. Although home visits decreased in all general practitioner registrations, the difference was more pronounced in the intervention region (intervention region: OR: 0.515; 95% CI: 0.411-0.646, other regions: OR: 0.743; 95% CI: 0.608-0.908). At the ED we observed a decrease in the number of trauma cases (OR: 0.789; 95% CI: 0.648-0.960) and of patients who came to hospital by ambulance (OR: 0.687; 95% CI: 0.565-0.836). One year after its implementation more people seek help at the GPC, while the number of contacts at the ED remains the same. The most prominent changes in caseload are found in the trauma cases. Establishing a GPC in an open health care system, might redirect some patients with particular medical problems to primary care. This could lead to a lowering of costs or a more cost-effective out of hours care, but further research should focus on effective usage to divert patient flows and on quality and outcome of care.

  5. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  6. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  7. [Femicide Across Europe COST Action, a transnational cooperation network for the study of and approach to femicide in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Boira, Santiago; Marcuello, Chaime; Vives Cases, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Femicide or the murder of women because of their gender is a recognised public health problem as well as a serious violation of human rights. Its magnitude worldwide is still unknown, given the methodological difficulties to differentiate these murders from other female homicides. The European Union programme entitled «European Cooperation in Science and Technology» (COST) launched the «Femicide across Europe» COST Action in 2013, establishing an optimal European framework for transnational cooperation among experts addressing great social and public health challenges such as femicide. This field note describes the main objectives, the participating groups of experts and the mid-term results of this experience. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  9. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  10. Metodologia de rating em cooperativas agropecuárias: um estudo de caso Rating methodology in agricultural cooperatives: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rogério de Moura Costa

    2009-12-01

    information asymmetry among cooperatives and the financial markets agents. In this way, developing a rating methodology applied to agricultural cooperatives in Brazil to reduce moral hazard and adverse selection that creates business and contractual organizational inefficiency among cooperatives and financial markets agents. The 'five C' method was used which considers organizational financial capacity, corporate governance characteristics, relations with members, and commodity market characteristics, among others. A weighting and evaluation were associated with each variable. The result was applied to an agricultural cooperative case study which concluded that this methodology is applicable and that results, evaluations and weights, could be discussed in cooperative rating committees. As a final consideration, an agenda is discussed for new applications of this methodology, for testing in other agricultural cooperative organizations and to consolidate it as a market financial information signal.

  11. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, David; Allen, Pauline; Doheny, Shane; Petsoulas, Christina; Vincent-Jones, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990 s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs inv...

  12. Comparison study of catalyst nanoparticle formation and carbon nanotube growth: Support effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunyu; Luo Zhiquan; Li Bin; Ho, Paul S.; Yao Zhen; Shi Li; Bryan, Eugene N.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    A comparison study has been conducted on the formation of catalyst nanoparticles on a high surface tension metal and low surface tension oxide for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD). Silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and tantalum have been deposited as supporting layers before deposition of a thin layer of iron catalyst. Iron nanoparticles were formed after thermal annealing. It was found that densities, size distributions, and morphologies of iron nanoparticles were distinctly different on the two supporting layers. In particular, iron nanoparticles revealed a Volmer-Weber growth mode on SiO 2 and a Stranski-Krastanov mode on tantalum. CCVD growth of CNTs was conducted on iron/tantalum and iron/SiO 2 . CNT growth on SiO 2 exhibited a tip growth mode with a slow growth rate of less than 100 nm/min. In contrast, the growth on tantalum followed a base growth mode with a fast growth rate exceeding 1 μm/min. For comparison, plasma enhanced CVD was also employed for CNT growth on SiO 2 and showed a base growth mode with a growth rate greater than 2 μm/min. The enhanced CNT growth rate on tantalum was attributed to the morphologies of iron nanoparticles in combination with the presence of an iron wetting layer. The CNT growth mode was affected by the adhesion between the catalyst and support as well as CVD process

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  14. Theoretical study on the cooperative exciton dissociation process based on dimensional and hot charge-transfer state effects in an organic photocell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Tomomi; Nakajima, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the exciton dissociation process at the donor–acceptor interface in organic photocells. In our previous study, we introduced a local temperature to handle the hot charge-transfer (CT) state and calculated the exciton dissociation probability based on the 1D organic semiconductor model [T. Shimazaki and T. Nakajima, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 12538 (2015)]. Although the hot CT state plays an essential role in exciton dissociations, the probabilities calculated are not high enough to efficiently separate bound electron–hole pairs. This paper focuses on the dimensional (entropy) effect together with the hot CT state effect and shows that cooperative behavior between both effects can improve the exciton dissociation process. In addition, we discuss cooperative effects with site-disorders and external-electric-fields.

  15. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on international cooperation for technology transfer; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Gijutsu iten ni kakawaru kokusai kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    CTI (Climate Technology Initiative) is a framework for use by developed countries in international cooperation and voluntary promotion of the development and diffusion of technologies contributory to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The CTI's activity goal is to accelerate the transfer and diffusion of technologies for climate change control. As the first step toward personnel development programs relating to energy efficiency, CTI organized its workshop on that theme. The results of the workshop have been examined, and its achievements were reported at COP4 meeting, while responses by participatory countries were studied to evaluate the potential of international cooperation with regard to personnel development for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In fiscal 1998, the CTI workshop 'Energy Efficiency' was held. The participants from developing countries understood the necessity and importance of energy saving enough through discussions in the workshop, and announced their message toward the world at COP4 meeting. (NEDO)

  16. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  17. How does the New Cooperative Medical Scheme influence health service utilization? A study in two provinces in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Shenglan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization in rural China, there is only limited evidence available. This paper aims to assess the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient services among different income groups and provinces under NCMS in rural China. Methods Using multistage sampling processes, a cross-sectional household survey including 6,147 rural households and 22,636 individuals, was conducted in six counties in Shandong and Ningxia Provinces, China. Chi-square test, Poisson regression and log-linear regression were applied to analyze the association between NCMS and the utilization of outpatient and inpatient services and the length of stay for inpatients. Qualitative methods including individual interview and focus group discussion were applied to explain and complement the findings from the household survey. Results NCMS coverage was 95.9% in Shandong and 88.0% in Ningxia in 2006. NCMS membership had no significant association with outpatient service utilization regardless of income level and location. Inpatient service utilization has increased for the high income group under NCMS, but for the middle and low income, the change was not significant. Compared with non-members, NCMS members from Ningxia used inpatient services more frequently, while members from Shandong had a longer stay in hospital. High medical expenditure, low reimbursement rate and difference in NCMS policy design between regions were identified as the main reasons for the differences in health service utilization. Conclusions Outpatient service utilization has not significantly changed under NCMS. Although utilization of inpatient service in general

  18. How does the New Cooperative Medical Scheme influence health service utilization? A study in two provinces in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baorong; Meng, Qingyue; Collins, Charles; Tolhurst, Rachel; Tang, Shenglan; Yan, Fei; Bogg, Lennart; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2010-05-10

    Many countries are developing health financing mechanisms to pursue the goal of universal coverage. In China, a rural health insurance system entitled New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is being developed since 2003. Although there is concern about whether the NCMS will influence the serious situation of inequity in health service utilization in rural China, there is only limited evidence available. This paper aims to assess the utilisation of outpatient and inpatient services among different income groups and provinces under NCMS in rural China. Using multistage sampling processes, a cross-sectional household survey including 6,147 rural households and 22,636 individuals, was conducted in six counties in Shandong and Ningxia Provinces, China. Chi-square test, Poisson regression and log-linear regression were applied to analyze the association between NCMS and the utilization of outpatient and inpatient services and the length of stay for inpatients. Qualitative methods including individual interview and focus group discussion were applied to explain and complement the findings from the household survey. NCMS coverage was 95.9% in Shandong and 88.0% in Ningxia in 2006. NCMS membership had no significant association with outpatient service utilization regardless of income level and location.Inpatient service utilization has increased for the high income group under NCMS, but for the middle and low income, the change was not significant. Compared with non-members, NCMS members from Ningxia used inpatient services more frequently, while members from Shandong had a longer stay in hospital.High medical expenditure, low reimbursement rate and difference in NCMS policy design between regions were identified as the main reasons for the differences in health service utilization. Outpatient service utilization has not significantly changed under NCMS. Although utilization of inpatient service in general has increased under NCMS, people with high income tend to benefit

  19. Land Cover Change and Remote Sensing in the Classroom: An Exercise to Study Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Tina; Lewis-Gonzales, Sarah; Phelps, Jack; Sawicki, Ben; Roberts, Charles; Carpenter, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The processes and implications of urban growth are studied in a variety of disciplines as urban growth affects both the physical and human landscape. Remote sensing methods provide ways to visualize and mathematically represent urban growth; and resultant land cover change data enable both quantitative and qualitative analysis. This article helps…

  20. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  1. Experimental study on the radiation effects to the bone growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiko

    1980-01-01

    The radiation effects on growing bone were studied using immature rabbits. The irradiation was done with telecobalt to the right knee joint. The rabbits were divided into six groups according to the dose, such as 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, 6,000 and 8,000 rad respectively. The effects of irradiation were investigated by RI-scintigraphy, X-ray photography and pathohistological examination. The following results were obtained. 1. In RI-scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, the change of accumulation ratio of the irradiated side was investigated. In terms of chronological observation, the accumulation ratio decreased most 5 weeks after irradiation and subsequently increased in the group irradiated with less than 4,000 rad. In the 6,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio decreased rapidly until 5 weeks after irradiation, and subsequently increased slightly. In the 8,000 rad group, the accumulation ratio progressively decreased unabated during the time observed. 2. X-ray findings of irradiated bones were as follows: In the group irradiated with more than 3,000 rad, sclerosis of the metaphysis and unclearness of the trabecula, thickening of the compact bone, bending, fissure and fracture of the bone appeared early with increased frequency with an increased in radiation doses. Also, according to an increase in radiation doses, growth inhibition in the length of the tibia was conspicuous. 3. In the histopathological findings, disturbances of the epiphyseal cartilage, the blood vessel system, trabecula, and medullary tissue becomes intense with increasing radiation doses. (author)

  2. Pilotscale studies of dried fish irradiation. Part of a coordinated programme in Asian Regional Cooperative Project on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.

    1983-03-01

    Pilot scale experiments on irradiation of semi-dried mackerel with regard to shelf-life extension, packaging, transportation and cost-analysis were carried out. The results showed that dipping mackerel in saturated brine for 5 hours and then soaking it in 2% potassium sorbate before sun-drying to approximately 40% moisture content produced a good quality product. Sorbate treatment was effective in controlling mould growth while irradiation with 2 kGy was effective in reducing the bacterial load. Carton boxes were found most suitable as packaging material for irradiated dried fish from the point of view of strength, convenience for irradiation and better dose uniformity ratio than polypropylene bags which have ununiform configuration. Irradiation with doses up to 10 kGy has no significant effect on physical properties of the packaging materials tested. Carton boxes of 20 kg capacity provided with strapping bands are durable for land or sea transportation of dried fish. A radiation dose of 0.5 kGy was sufficient to control insect damage and reduce mould growth on dried fish. Irradiated dried fish can be marketed for 3-4 months at ambient conditions in Jakarta. Small scale consumer studies of irradiated samples using employees of the institute showed no negative reactions. Using the small pilot irradiator at CAIR and assuming 1 kGy minimum dose for dried fish, the total cost of irradiation and packaging was estimated to be approximately 10 U.S. cents/kg of fish, which is about 2-3% of the cost of the product

  3. The cooperation of the government and digital media industry in social development (a study in Cirebon city, West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, M.; Mariana, D.; Anwar, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the role of government in encouraging and providing a model of economic growth, including in the field of micro, small, and medium enterprises. The case studied in this research is the digital media industry. It could be a potential in creating public welfare. The questions in this research are about how to model a development of community-based digital media industry in Cirebon City, West Java; whether the government could bring people to the digital media industry to foster a productive economic society; and how the community appreciates and becomes a part of the digital media industry. By using descriptive and qualitative methods, this study finds that the government has sufficiently active roles in the development of the digital media industry in the society. The society itself has already been open-minded in responding the government’s programs and the development of contemporary technology, such as in the field of selling goods and services. Still, some obstacles might continue to be refined for the success of the community’s digital media industry.

  4. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  5. Third-party punishment increases cooperation in children through (misaligned) expectations and conditional cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Angerer, Silvia; Glätzle-Rützler, Daniela; Sutter, Matthias

    2014-05-13

    The human ability to establish cooperation, even in large groups of genetically unrelated strangers, depends upon the enforcement of cooperation norms. Third-party punishment is one important factor to explain high levels of cooperation among humans, although it is still somewhat disputed whether other animal species also use this mechanism for promoting cooperation. We study the effectiveness of third-party punishment to increase children's cooperative behavior in a large-scale cooperation game. Based on an experiment with 1,120 children, aged 7 to 11 y, we find that the threat of third-party punishment more than doubles cooperation rates, despite the fact that children are rarely willing to execute costly punishment. We can show that the higher cooperation levels with third-party punishment are driven by two components. First, cooperation is a rational (expected payoff-maximizing) response to incorrect beliefs about the punishment behavior of third parties. Second, cooperation is a conditionally cooperative reaction to correct beliefs that third party punishment will increase a partner's level of cooperation.

  6. STUDIES OF SHADING LEVELS AND NUTRITION SOURCES ON GROWTH, YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Purwanto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth and biochemical content of medicinal crops are influenced by agroecosystems characteristics . The objective of this research was to determine the optimum shading level and type of fertilizer as sources of nutrition on the growth, yield, and andrographolide content of sambiloto. The experiment used Split Plot Design with basic design of Randomized Complete Block Design arranged with two treatment factors, with three replications. The first factor as the main plot was shading levels, namely without shading, 25% shading, 50% shading, and 75% shading. The second factor as the sub plot was sources of nutrition reprented by type of fertilizer, namely NPK fertilizer, cow stable fertilizer, and compost fertilizer. The result of research indicated that shading level and the kind of nutrition influenced some growth and yield variables such as number of leaves, number of branches, plant height, plant dry weight and simplisia weight, and andrographolide content. Interaction of shading level at 25% and straw compost fertilizer performed best in growth characteristics, while the highest andrographolide content resulted from the treatment combination of 50% shading level and straw compost fertilizer.

  7. Growth and micro-topographical studies of gel grown cholesterol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The single test-tube diffusion method (Henisch 1988) was employed ... solution was filtered and kept in a clean flask. ... vents in the gel will enhance the growth of crystals in the ... Results. 3.1 Effect of different solvents. In the first case the stock solution was mixed with acetone ... A 0⋅5% (w/v) solution of cholesterol in ace-.

  8. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  9. ECONOMIC GROWTH - AN ILLUSION? STUDY CASE:ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MORARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has devoted considerable attention to economic growth because it creates the premises for achieving major goals such as route out of poverty of underdeveloped countries or contribute to raising the standard of living in developed countries. Economic growth has become an “order of the day” term, propagated by various "players" of economic and social life, in this way gaining various interpretations and meanings. This paper presents the results of the measures adopatate in order to recover Romanian economic situation. The austerity measures adopted until recently not allowed, however, to create a favorable environment for growth, taking into consideration that it is almost impossible for an economy to grow when conditions are limiting. Fiscal policies have focused on reducing the budget deficit, which led on slaughtering economic growth. Given the uncertain economic context, FDI was hardly drew into our country, their value last year has been insignificant. We can even say that the previous ended year was one economically, because our country did not recognize the road to the economic recovery.

  10. Studies on growth, nitrogen and energy metabolism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Eggum, B O

    1982-01-01

    Feed intake, growth, nitrogen retention and energy metabolism were measured in 12 male Wistar rats fed ad lib. for 14 weeks with non-purified diets. The feed intake increased rapidly in 4 weeks time from 16 g/d to 25 g/d, and then it was constant in the following 10 weeks. In relation to metabolic...

  11. Growth and photoemission spectroscopic studies of ultrathin noble ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-24

    May 24, 2015 ... Growth of Cu, Ag and Au thin films on graphite(0 0 0 1)surface and possible ... als on HOPG, MoTe2, WTe2, WSe2 [5,14,15] and on single-crystalline ..... but with opposite sign, and as a result Ag grows epitaxially even at RT, ...

  12. Growth study on chrysene degraders isolated from polycyclic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... naphthalene, crude oil, kerosene, diesel and engine oil as sole carbon ... (P< 0.05) in the growth of these organisms on chrysene as sole carbon and energy source when .... minimal salt plates free of chrysene were included.

  13. Studies on the Effects of Media on Growth and Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different solutions and media on growth and nutrient composition of Pleurotus tuber-regium were investigated. The different solutions used are glucose, fructose, sucrose and Knop\\'s solutions. The media used are cassava agar, cocoyam agar, corn agar, potato agar and yam agar. Glucose solution produced ...

  14. Comparative study on growth and survival of larval and juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total fatty acid and total unsaturated fatty acid in the algae significantly increased (P < 0.001) for ch1, D1, N1 and T1 taking into consideration that the state of C22:6 significantly increased. The ch1 gave better growth and survival percentage followed by D1 for enrich Brachionus plicatilis and newly hatched Artemia.

  15. Comparative study on the growth performance of the hybrid catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance of the hybrid catfish Heteroclarias reared in concrete and earthen pond systems were investigated in a 92-day experiment. Experiment was conducted using four rectangular ponds (2 concrete and 2 earthen) each measuring 14 × 6 × 1.5 metres in duplicates. The ponds were uniformly limed, fertilized ...

  16. AN ANALYSIS OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH- CASE STUDY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Oluwabunmi Adejumo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to address the direction of causality between human capital and productivity growth in Nigeria, the study first investigated the pattern of productivity growth in Nigeria between 1970 and 2010. Following the endogenous growth model, which argued that technical progress, through an effective labor force, could lead to long-run growth which can be determined from within an economy; but it actually depends on the efficiency with which resources available to such an economy are utilized. This is against the exogenous growth model which emphasized that long-run growth can be attained by some unexplained technological progress, which is exogenous to any economy. Based on this controversy in literature, this study empirically determined the productivity growth in Nigeria, as well as the causal relation between human capital development and productivity growth in Nigeria using the Engle-Granger causality test. The results revealed that productivity growth has been very low and unstable in Nigeria as it oscillated between -1.5% and 0.6%. In addition, the nexus between human capital and productivity growth was examined. The findings revealed that while productivity growth caused human capital development, human capital development did not cause productivity growth.

  17. Cooperative Learning as a Democratic Learning Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbil, Deniz Gökçe; Kocabas, Ayfer

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the effects of applying the cooperative learning method on the students' attitude toward democracy in an elementary 3rd-grade life studies course was examined. Over the course of 8 weeks, the cooperative learning method was applied with an experimental group, and traditional methods of teaching life studies in 2009, which was still…

  18. A study on the international nuclear Co-operation and the nuclear technology self-reliance strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwa Sup

    1993-02-01

    To setup a basement for the national nuclear technology strategy, the reorganization of the world structure and the environmental issues are analyzed. And with regards to the self-reliance of nuclear technology, the method for the settlement of the national nuclear infrastructure and the method to strengthen our role in international nuclear community through the co-operation with IAEA is suggested. Also the status and strategy of major nuclear pushing countries are investigated. And followed by this, national nuclear technology status and strategy are analyzed. (Author)

  19. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  20. Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit m...