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Sample records for cooperation nucleaire dans

  1. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation; Equilibre entre automatisation et action humaine dans la conduite des centrale nucleaires, resultats de la cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. d' Analyse de Surete; Bastl, W [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany); Olmstead, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Mississauga (Canada); Oudiz, A [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Jenkinson, J [Nuclear Electric PLC, Gloucester (United Kingdom); Kossilov, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1990-07-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [French] L'automatisation a longtemps ete une caracteristique bien etablie des centrales nucleaires. Dans certaines applications, l'utilisation de l'automatisation a ete le facteur decisif qui a permis a la technologie des centrales de progresser jusqu'a son etat actuel. Les exigences de l'opinion publique en matiere de securite renforcee ont conduit a l'utilisation d'une plus grande redondance et a une plus grande diversification et ceci, en retour, a encore accru le niveau d'automatisation. Toutefois, il est possible que le facteur preponderant de cet accroissement de l'automatisation soit constitue par les progres effectues dans la technologie de l'information. Plus recemment, l'attention s

  2. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture and international cooperation in their use; Les sciences nucleaires dans l'alimentation et l'agriculture et la cooperation internationale dans ce domaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M.; Sigurbjörnsson, B. [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    that the medfly attacking citrus, the olive fly, the codling moth attacking apples, the tsetse fly and a number of other insects can be eliminated in this way. Radiation can be used to attenuate parasitic larvae attacking animals. The parasites which have thus lost their virulence are used in the production of animal vaccines. In fact, this is still the only known method of producing such vaccines. Isotopic tracers are used to study the movement and metabolism of nutrients in animal production and are particularly useful in studies of essential micronutrients. This unique ability of isotopic tracers to enable detection of chemicals in minute quantities forms the basis for a new program on studies of harmful pesticide residues on plant and animal foods. The sterilizing and killing effect of radiation has been shown to be uniquely effective in preventing or delaying spoilage in a variety of food commodities. Radiation preservation can, for example, be applied to perishable products which do not tolerate cooking or freezing - even after the products are packed. To foster international activities in the field of nuclear science in food and agriculture, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture carries out a single joint program of work approved by the two parent organizations. To carry out work in all these fields, the Division relies heavily on the concept of coordinated research based on research contracts or research agreements. A large part of the work is carried out under various technical assistance projects including expert advice, equipment and training and through the two UNDP Special Fund Projects executed by the IAEA. The IAEA Laboratory plays an indispensable role in the Division’s programs by providing various coordinating services, research, and specialized training. (author) [French] Les méthodes nucléaires sont employées dans la recherche et la production à tous les niveaux successifs de la chaîhe alimentaire: sol et eau

  3. Cooperation in the Event of Nuclear Accidents; Cooperation en Matiere d'Accidents Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, G. [CEA, Centre d' etudes nucleaires, de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1969-10-15

    This paper is concerned only with the action to be taken in respect of an individual directly affected by an accident and not with the more general measures relating to the population as a whole. Keeping the same sequence of ideas, the paper deals with nuclear establishments and cites criteria for classifying them; hence only the relationship between the establishment and the hospital, and between the radiation protection experts and medical personnel, is discussed. The complex organization of emergency measures, reception of the victim of the accident, and the treatment possibly required should be based on standard practice and published material, both national and international, allowance being made for the characteristics of each sector. A ''flexible'' plan of co-ordination is given as an illustration. Action must be taken in such cases at the site of the accident, inside and outside the establishment, and above all at the hospital. All categories of persons are involved in the process, i.e. fellow-workers, management, specialized services, and medical personnel, each with their own part to play. The manpower and equipment brought into service therefore vary, and depend upon the internal and external relations maintained by the establishment. The measures envisaged should provide for the transport, reception and treatment of those involved in the accident. An existing organization of this kind is described as an illustration. Finally, no action can be of value without full knowledge of the facts and thorough training of the personnel. Some clearly defined ideas on the.subject are considered under this heading. (author) [French] Le memoire ne traite que de la conduite a tenir envers un accidente et non du probleme, plus general, des mesures relatives a une population. Dans le meme ordre d'idees, l'etude porte sur les etablissements nucleaires et leurs criteres de classement; il ne s'agit donc que des liaisons entre retablissement et l'hopital et entre les

  4. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory; L'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires: theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C.T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [French] Expose general sur les fondements de l'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires; representation de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee elastique par celle due a un potentiel complexe; developpement de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee inelastique et discussion de la contribution de la premiere approximation de Bohr (sur des distendues) a l'excitation d'etats individuels et collectifs. (auteur)

  5. Molten salts in nuclear reactors; Les sels fondus dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirian, J; Saint-James, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Collection of references dealing with the physicochemical studies of fused salts, in particular the alkali and alkali earth halides. Numerous binary, ternary and quaternary systems of these halides with those of uranium and thorium are examined, and the physical properties, density, viscosity, vapour pressure etc... going from the halides to the mixtures are also considered. References relating to the corrosion of materials by these salts are included and the treatment of the salts with a view to recuperation after irradiation in a nuclear reactor is discussed. (author) [French] Bibliographie regroupant l'etude physico-chimique des sels fondus, en particulier des halogenures alcalins et alcalino-terreux. On etudie de nombreux systemes binaires, ternaires et quaternaires de ces halogenures avec des halogenures d'uranium, et de thorium. On etudie egalement les proprietes physiques des halogenures ou des melanges d'halogenures (densite, viscosite, tension de vapeur, etc...). On donne egalement des references quant a la corrosion des materiaux par ces sels, et le traitement de ceux-ci en vue de recuperation, apres irradiation dans un reacteur nucleaire. (auteur)

  6. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  7. Contribution to the study of nuclear resonance in magnetic media (1963); Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les milieux magnetique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann-Boutron, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-06-15

    An attempt is made to interpret the results of nuclear magnetic resonance experiments made by various workers on ferro and ferrimagnetic compounds of the iron group. The problems encountered are the following: effects of the dipolar fields and the hyperfine structure anisotropy; signal intensity; frequency pulling due to the Suhl-Nakamura interaction between nuclear spins ; nuclear relaxation and ferrimagnetic resonance in single domain samples of impure YIG; nuclear relaxation in the Bloch walls of insulators. The results of our calculations are generally in good agreement with experiment. (author) [French] On se propose d'interpreter les resultats d'experiences de resonance magnetique nucleaire fates par divers auteurs sur des composes ferro et ferrimagnetiques du groupe du fer. Les problemes abordes sont les suivants: effets des champs dipolaires et de l'anisotropie de structure hyperfine; intensite des signaux; deplacement de frequence du a l'interaction de Suhl-Nakamura entre spins nucleaires; relaxation nucleaire et resonance ferrimagnetique dans les echantillons monodomaines de grenat de fer et d'yttrium impur; relaxation nucleaire dans les parois de Bloch des isolants. Les resultats des calculs sont generalement en bon accord avec l'experience. (auteur)

  8. The dangers of irradiate uranium in nuclear reactors; Les dangers de l'uranium irradie dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Joffre, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The danger of the uranium cans sur-activated by the use in the nuclear reactors is triple: - Irradiation from afar, during manipulations of the cans. - Contamination of air when decladding. - Contamination of air by fire of uranium in a reactor in function The first two dangers are usual and can be treated thanks to the rules of security in use in the atomic industry. The third has an accidental character and claimed for the use of special and exceptional rules, overflowing the industrial setting, to reach the surrounding populations. (authors) [French] Le danger des cartouches d'uranium suractive par utilisation dans les reacteurs nucleaires est triple: - Irradiation a distance, lors des manipulations des cartouches. - Contamination de l'air au moment de leur degainage. - Contamination de l'air par incendie d'uranium dans un reacteur en fonctionnement. Les deux premiers dangers sont habituels et peuvent etre traites grace aux regles de securite en usage dans l'industrie atomique. Le troisieme revet un caractere accidentel et reclame l'emploi de regles speciales et exceptionnelles, debordant le cadre industriel, pour atteindre celui des populations environnantes. (auteurs)

  9. International co-operation in the nuclear field. Europe and OCDE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1981-05-01

    This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) []Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques

  10. French achievements in the field of nuclear electronics; Realisations francaises dans le domaine de l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doireau, M; Fabre, R; Guillon, H; Guyot, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Nuclear electronic equipment used by the french Atomic Energy Commission has been developed, with an increasing participation of the radioelectric industry (manufacture under AEC license, contracts for prototypes). The equipment for general use has been standardized and satis the technical specification sheets in which are specified more particularly, the conditions for construction, the choice of the spare parts and the conditions for acceptance by the french AEC at factory. The electronic equipment is classified in nine classes, and a brief description of the principal instruments is given in each class. The reliability of the equipment in use is satisfactory, as it is shown by the mean frequency of faults per 1000 hours operation. (author)Fren. [French] L'appareillage d'electronique nucleaire utilise au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique fran is a ete developpe en demandant un concours de plus en plus important a l'industrie radioelectrique (fabrications sous licence CEA, marches de prototypes, etc...). Le materiel d'emploi courant a ete standardise et repond aux specifications de cahiers des charges ou sont precises en particulier les conditions de realisation du materiel, le choix des pieces detachees et les conditions de recette en usine. L'appareillage electronique est classe en neuf rubriques et une description sommaire des principaux appareils est donnee dans chacune des rubriques. La tenue en service du materiel est satisfaisante, ainsi que le montre la frequence moyenne des pannes observees par 1000 heures de fonctionnement. (auteur)

  11. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors; la corrosion par les gaz caloporteurs dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darras, R. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre de Saclay, Section d' etude de la corrosion par gaz et metaux liquides (France)

    1960-07-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [French] Dans cet article, on passe tout d'abord en revue les divers materiaux utilisables et les gaz de refroidissement dans lesquels ils peuvent etre chauffes, en insistant sur l'interet d'atteindre des temperatures aussi elevees que possible. On rappelle ensuite quelques generalites sur l'oxydation seche des metaux et alliages, notamment en ce qui concerne les phenomenes de diffusion et leurs divers mecanismes possibles ainsi que les methodes d'etude. Enfin, le comportement des principaux materiaux nucleaires chauffes dans les divers gaz est etudie successivement. On traita ainsi des materiaux combustibles (uranium metallique, oxyde, carbures et siliciures d'uranium), des materiaux de gainage (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, aciers inoxydables et refractaires), des materiaux de structure (aciers ordinaires

  12. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  13. Contribution to the Study of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Ferromagnets; Contribution a l'etude de la resonance nucleaire dans les corps ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1962-07-01

    Properties of nuclear magnetic resonance in the field acting on the nucleus in a ferromagnet were studied. Nuclei were {sup 57}Fe in iron and yttrium iron garnet. Static properties of resonance (frequency, line-width, dipolar structure) were investigated and compared with magnetic behavior and magnetic structure of the materials. Relaxation in garnet points out importance of long range fluctuations induced by impurities in a ferromagnetic lattice. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie les proprietes de la resonance nucleaire dans le champ existant a remplacement d'un noyau dans un corps ferromagnetique (champ local). Les noyaux etaient ceux de {sup 57}Fe dans le fer et dans le grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les proprietes statiques de la resonance (frequence de resonance, largeur de la raie, structures dues a l'interaction dipolaire) ont ete etudiees et reliees aux caracteristiques magnetiques et a la structure de ces corps. La relaxation dans le grenat a mis en evidence les fluctuations a longue distance induites par des impuretes dans un reseau ferromagnetique. (auteur)

  14. Spectrographic determination of lithium in nuclear grade calcium; Determination spectrographique du lithium dans le calcium nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaud, J; Cittanova, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    A method is described for the spectrographic determination of lithium in calcium. The samples are converted directly to CaCO{sub 3}. A method of fractional distillation in the arc, using KCl as carrier, makes it possible to detect and measure the Li content to 0,1 ppm. (author) [French] On decrit une methode de determination spectrographique de Li dans Ca. Les echantillons sont transformes d'une facon simple en CO{sub 3}Ca. Une methode de distillation fractionnee dans l'arc utilisant KCl comme entraineur permet la detection et le dosage de teneurs de Li jusqu'a 0,1 ppm. (auteur)

  15. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de l'ebullition dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondin, H; Lavigne, P; Semeria, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    oscillation, the conditions of burnout are compared with those obtained under steady conditions. The burn-out flux following uniform 'stopped' heating has been studied in a channel containing still water. The flux shows a maximum as a function of unsaturation. The influence of the geometry and the nature of the metal was investigated. 4 - Output Oscillations: Using a low pressure (8 atm) loop, the influence of various parameters on the periods of output oscillations in a boiling channel on the thresholds at which they appear, was studied. Some new aspects of this complex phenomena were observed and are reported. (authors) [French] On indique les principaux resultats obtenus a Grenoble depuis quatre ans dans le domaine des mecanismes de l'ebullition et des phenomenes connexes dans les reacteurs nucleaires. 1 - OBSERVATION DE L'EBULLITION: Par photographie et cinematographie ultrarapide (8000 images par seconde maximum) on a observe l'ebullition en vase ou en canal jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a denombre les populations de germes (sites) generateurs de bulles et obtenu une correlation donnant leur nombre par unite de surface en fonction du flux thermique et de la pression. Le diametre des bulles se detachant de la paroi a ete etudie jusqu'a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}. On a mis en evidence trois types de bulles: - Les bulles en equilibre dont le diametre suit la formule de Fritz et Ende, - Les bulles d'ebullition dont le diametre diminue rapidement avec la pression (1/100 mm a 140 kg/cm{sup 2}), - Les coalescences apparaissant en liquide sature au-dessus de 15 W/cm{sup 2} et dont la proportion est independante de la pression. Par visualisation en strioscopie on observe les mouvements du film thermique associes a l'amorcage des germes, au depart et a la condensation des bulles; les mecanismes responsables de l'excellent transfert de chaleur ont pu ainsi etre precises. 2 - PERTES DE PRESSION EN ECOULEMENT DIPHASE: On a etabli un modele de variation continue du taux de vide dans un canal

  16. Description of methods for making activation detectors for use in nuclear reactors; Description des procedes de fabrication des detecteurs d'activation utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbalat, R; Le Coguie, R; Leger, P; Salon, L; Thierry, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A brief description of methods currently used for making activation detectors, thin films and various deposits used in nuclear reactors. The thicknesses required vary from about a few tenths of a micron to a few tenths of a millimeter. Different techniques are used for fixing the large variety of elements: rolling, moulding, painting, electrolysis, vacuum deposition, thin films, wires, enamels, protective linings, etc. (authors) [French] Expose succinct des procedes actuellement mis en oeuvre pour la realisation des detecteurs d'activation, feuilles minces et depots divers utilises dans les reacteurs nucleaires. La gamme des epaisseurs necessaires s'etendant approximativement des dixiemes de micrometre aux dixiemes de millimetre. La diversite des elements a fixer justifiant les techniques differentes selon les cas: laminage, moulage, peinture, electrolyse, depot sous vide, couches minces, fils, emaux, revetements protecteurs, etc. (auteurs)

  17. Performances of nuclear installations in the world; Performances des installations nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Z.T. [World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-01-01

    During the last years the operators of nuclear power plants in the world, have realized numerous improvements. This success is imputable to several factors, especially an important data exchange. The Chernobyl accident, in 1986, provoked the creation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (W.A.N.O.). It allowed to exchange information and to develop cooperation in order to go beyond cultural barriers, linguistics and policies. Then, operators in the world have brought important improvements in matter of safety, reliability. (N.C.)

  18. Thermal energy of nuclear origin produced in non-fissile materials (1962); Energie calorifique d'origine nucleaire degagee dans les materiaux non fissiles (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Millies, P; Berger, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A first part is devoted to the description of the interaction phenomena between elementary particles and material that may be observed during the irradiation process in a nuclear reactor: nuclear reactions due to neutrons, production of gamma rays and absorption of those gamma rays through various processes. In a second part the phenomena producing calorific energy in irradiated material are quantitatively examined. In the third part results are summed up in a formulary. The fourth part presents tables and figures giving to the reader all the numerical values necessary for practical calculations. (authors) [French] Une premiere partie est consacree a l'examen des principaux phenomenes d'interaction des particules avec la matiere qui interviennent lors d'une irradiation dans un reacteur: reactions nucleaires dues aux neutrons, production des rayons gamma et absorption de ces derniers par les divers processus. Une deuxieme partie etudie quantitativement les phenomenes qui conduisent a l'apparition d'energie calorifique dans le materiau irradie. En troisieme partie, un formulaire resume les resultats etablis. Dans une quatrieme partie, des tableaux et des courbes fournissent a l'experimentateur toutes les valeurs numeriques necessaires aux calculs pratiques. (auteurs)

  19. Factors and uncertainties in the profitability of using nuclear energy in desalination of water; Facteurs et incertitudes de la rentabilite du recours a l'energie nucleaire dans le dessalement des eaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Lievre, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    One of the economic advantages of nuclear energy consists of the small proportional element in its cost structure. Economies of scale favour the nuclear station as compared with the conventional thermal one, and when the demand for electricity and heat, in particular for desalination, are sufficient, nuclear energy may, subject to certain conditions, prove advantageous. The object of this paper is to discuss the validity of the conclusions reached according to the hypotheses adopted. In the first part, the different kind of uncertainties connected with technical, economic and financial data (the various transmission coefficients, the life of equipment according to the choice of materials, changes in prices, the form of price functions and interest rates), and with the various constraints, are examined and discussed. In the second part the uncertainties connected with the method of optimisation used and the criterion of selection adopted are examined and discussed. It is shown thereby that it is usually extremely difficult to assume absolutely the competitiveness, or conversely the non-competitiveness, of using nuclear energy in the desalination of water, and that a large number of aspects have to be carefully examined. (author) [French] On sait que l'un des avantages economiques de l'energie nucleaire reside dans la faible part proportionnelle dans la structure de son cout. Les economies d'echelle favorisent le nucleaire par rapport au thermique classique, et lorsque les demandes d'electricite et de chaleur, notamment pour le dessalement, sont suffisantes on peut envisager favorablement, sous certaines hypotheses, le recours a l'energie nucleaire. L'objet de cette communication est de discuter la validite des conclusions auxquelles on parvient selon les hypotheses envisagees. Dans une premiere partie, on etudie et on discute les differentes sortes d'incertitudes, liees aux donnees techniques, economiques et financieres (les divers coefficients de transmission, les

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-57 nuclei in local fields in yttrium and iron garnets; Resonance magnetique nucleaire des noyaux du fer 57 dans les champs locaux du grenat d'yttrium et de fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have demonstrated the nuclear resonance of {sup 57}Fe nuclei in the local field of each of the two magnetic sub-lattices of yttrium and iron garnets. The resonance frequencies and the relaxation times have been measured as a function of the temperature. (author) [French] Nous avons mis en evidence la resonance nucleaire des noyaux de {sup 57}Fe dans le champ local de chacun des deux sous-reseaux magnetiques du grenat d'yttrium et de fer. Les frequences de resonances et les temps de relaxation ont ete mesures en fonction de la temperature. (auteur)

  1. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de

  2. Can-rupture detection in gas-cooled nuclear reactors; La detection des ruptures de gaine dans les piles nucleaires refroidies par gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Can-rupture detection (DRG) is one important aspect of pile safety, more particularly so in the case of gas-cooled reactors. A rapid and sure detection constitutes also an improvement as far as the efficiency of electricity-producing nuclear power stations are concerned. Among the numerous can-rupture detection methods, that based on the measurement of the concentration of short-lived fission gases in the heat-carrying fluid has proved to be the most sensitive and the most rapid. A systematic study of detectors based on the electrostatic collection of the daughter products of fission gases has been undertaken with a view to equip the reactors EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 and EDF 3, the gas loops of PEGASE and EL 4. The different parameters are studied in detail in order to obtain a maximum sensitivity and to make it possible to construct detection devices having the maximum operational reliability and requiring the minimum maintenance. The primary applications of these devices are examined in the case of the above-mentioned reactors. (author) [French] La Detection des Ruptures de Gaines (D. R. G.) est un aspect important de la securite des piles et plus particulierement des piles refroidies par un gaz. Une detection rapide et sure constitue aussi un element d'amelioration du rendement des centrales nucleaires productrices d'energie electrique. Parmi les nombreuses methodes de detection des ruptures de gaines, la mesure de la concentration dans le fluide caloporteur des gaz de fission a vie courte s'est revelee comme la plus sensible et la plus rapide. Une etude systematique des detecteurs a collection electrostatique des descendants des gaz de fission a ete entreprise en vue d'equiper les piles EL 2, G 3, EDF 1, EDF 2 et EDF 3, les boucles a gaz de la pile Pegase et la pile EL 4. Les divers parametres sont etudies en detail pour obtenir une sensibilite maximum et permettre la realisation de dispositifs de detection ayant le maximum de securite de fonctionnement et le

  3. Enforcement agreement between the French atomic energy commission and the federal atomic energy agency for the implementation of the framework-agreement dispositions related to the environmental multilateral program in the nuclear domain in Russian Federations during the nuclear cooperation in the framework of the G8 world partnership against the proliferation of mass destruction weapons and their related materials; Accord d'application entre le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et l'Agence Federale de l'Energie Atomique pour la mise en oeuvre des dispositions de l'accord-cadre relatif au programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie lors de la cooperation nucleaire dans le cadre du partenariat mondial du G8 contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive et des matieres connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In order to give assistance to the Russian Federations, the G8 partners have agreed to carry on joint actions in the following domains: dismantling of out-of-service nuclear submarines of the Russian navy, management of the spent fuels and wastes generated by this dismantlement, rehabilitation of fuel storage and waste management facilities, management of nuclear materials and safety of facilities or sites with a potential radiological risk. This document defines the domain of cooperation between France (CEA) and the Russian federal atomic energy agency: creation of a coordination parity technical committee, financing conditions and conclusion of contracts for joint actions, access to sites, exchange of informations, intellectual property, nuclear safety and radioprotection, changes and amendments to the agreement, enforcement and duration. A protocol relative to the access of French representatives to Russian work sites is attached. (J.S.)

  4. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  5. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  6. Non cooperative games applied to nuclear safeguards; Jeux non-cooperatifs finis appliques a la securite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutal, P

    1997-07-01

    This study presents the utilization of the non cooperative games in the nuclear safeguards. In order to dissuade from possible diversions of nuclear materials, an inspector has to realize a certain number of inspections in a nuclear installation. The inspector has to minimize the detection time of a diversion and the diverter has to maximize this time. A software, JADIS, is realized to obtain optimum inspection strategy for a great number of periods. Another game is studied: the infiltration game. An infiltration agent has to brake into the installation without being headed off. (A.L.B.)

  7. The behaviour of some polyatomic gases in nuclear reactors; Le comportement de quelques gaz polyatomiques dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    'influence des radiations. La radiolyse de NH{sub 3}, procede par un mecanisme complexe, et la cinetique obeit a une loi d'ordre 2,5 environ qui augmente avec le taux de decomposition. La decomposition de l'hydrogene sulfure est notablement plus rapide que celle de NH{sub 3}. Le seul produit gazeux de la reaction est l'hydrogene. Le soufre, qui se depose sur les parois des ampoules, est nettement perceptible a l'oeil. On a obtenu jusqu'ici des decompositions allant jusqu'a 84 pour cent. L'influence de la reaction {sup 32}S (n, p) {sup 32}P est consideree. La decomposition radiochimique du protoxyde d'azote N{sub 2}O se fait avec des rendements eleves. La reaction est compliquee des ses debuts par la formation d'oxydes superieurs de l'azote que nous identifions et mesurons. Le methane donne par decomposition radiochimique des quantites d'hydrocarbures superieurs. Certains de ces systemes gazeux pourraient trouver des applications dans la mesure de fortes doses de rayonnement. Ce probleme est discute en conclusion. (auteur)

  8. Quantitative measurements of small isotopic samples in gaseous mixtures by utilization of some nuclear properties; Etude des possibilites de mesures de faibles quantites de gaz radioactifs dans un melange en utilisant simultanement plusieurs proprietes nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maragnon, J; Delperie, C

    1967-12-01

    The question is to define the characteristics of a group of measurements allowing the analysis of traces of radioactive rare gases in gas mixtures of different composition. To distinguish the radioactive isotopes from each other and the activity level reaching 10{sup 6} due to their nuclear properties, the method was chosen to use several nuclear properties: gamma radiation energy, beta particle energy, lifetime of excited states. The choice of a plastic scintillator as beta detector allows to answer satisfactorilly to this demand by measurement of nuclear constants because of the short de/excitation time of this detector. Another advantage is that it can be a reservoir for the sample without any destruction nor modification of the sample. The study has been based on the mixture of Kr-85, the analysis of other rare gases follwos immediately from the adopted principle. [French] Les auteurs ont oriente leur recherche vers une solution permettant de distinguer les isotopes radioactifs les uns des autres et dans des rapports d'activite pouvant atteindre 10{sup 6}, grace a plusieurs de leurs proprietes nucleaires, energie de rayonnement gamma, energie de la particule beta, temps de vie des niveaux excites. Le choix d'un scintillateur plastique comme detecteur beta permet de repondre d'une maniere satisfaisante a la mesure des constantes nucleaires en raison du temps de de/excitation rapide de ce scintillateur. Il offre en outre l'avantage de pouvoir servir de reservoir a l'echantillon sans entrainer aucune destruction ni modification de celui-ci. L'etude a ete basee sur la mixture de Kr-85, l'analyse des autre gaz rares decoulant immediatement du principe adopte. (auteur)

  9. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La discussion des resultats experimentaux

  10. Contribution to the study of the evolution of radiation induced He in Be O; Etudes sur l'evolution de l'helium produit par reactions nucleaires dans l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    The purpose of this work in-pile investigation of He formed by (n, 2n) and (n, {alpha}) nuclear reactions, released from irradiated BeO, in the temperature range 1000 - 1350 deg. C. The experimental results show that, for an instantaneous neutron fast flux of 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}, an equilibrium is attempted, after several days, for a part lower than 20 per cent of the quantity of He formed, theoretically calculated from the neutron cross sections of nuclear reactions, and from the analytical form of the neutron fast flux, releases from the solid. The validity of the values of calculated helium and the gas chromatographic analytical method are also verified by dissolution of the BeO pellets in cryolite. A new fast neutron flux measuring method may be so defined. The discussion of the experimental results enables to establish that the processus of He release is characterized by two phenomena: the first one which controls the release of He atoms out of the solid and the second which reveals a capture processus, connected to the irradiation and probably due to the vacancies induced in the lattice. (author) [French] On etudie en pile le degagement de l'helium forme par reactions nucleaires (n, 2 n) et (n, {alpha}) dans l'oxyde de beryllium irradie entre 1000 et 1350 deg. C. Les resultats experimentaux montrant que, pour un flux rapide instantane de 10{sup 13} n{sub r} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, on aboutit, au bout de quelques jours, a un etat d'equilibre pour lequel une partie, inferieure a 20 pour cent de la quantite d'helium forme, calculee theoriquement a partir des sections efficaces des reactions nucleaires et de la forme analytique du flux rapide, s'echappe du solide. On verifie egalement par dissolution des echantillons de BeO dans la cryolithe la validite du calcul de l'helium et de la methode de dosage par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. On peut ainsi definir une methode nouvelle de mesure des flux rapides. La

  11. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation; Les systemes nucleaires du futur. Enjeux, strategie de recherche et developpement, et cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  12. Atomic Transport Problems of Interest in Nuclear Systems; Problemes de Transport Atomique Presentant un Interet dans les Systemes Nucleaires; Problemy perenosa atomov, predstavlyayushchie interes v yadernykh sistemakh; Problemas de Transporte Atomico de Interes para la Ingenieria Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundy, T. S.; Winslow, F. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    ) [French] Les auteurs discutent plusieurs problemes qui surgissent lorsqu'on veut appliquer les constantes fondamentales de diffusion a des systemes presentant un interet pratique, notamment a ceux que l'on rencontre dans le genie nucleaire. Ces problemes comprennent des experiences de diffusion isotherme, la diffusion sous gradient thermique et les effets de rayonnements sur les processus de diffusion. La plupart des donnees dignes de foi sur la diffusion dans les solides ont ete obtenues a partir de cas dans lesquels il n'y avait essentiellement pas de gradient de concentration des especes diffusantes. Toutefois, dans les systemes qui presentent un interet pour les specialistes du genie nucleaire, il y a presque invariablement des gradients de concentration. C'est pourquoi il faut avoir une connaissance pratique de la relation entre les coefficients d'autodiffusion et de diffusion chimique pour pouvoir determiner les coefficients applicables dans chaque cas d'espece. En outre, il faut egalement connaitre les coefficients d'activite thermodynamique en fonction de la composition. Recemment, il a ete clairement demontre qu'il est dangereux d'utiliser aveuglement une expression d'Arrhenius pour decrire les variations de la diffusion selon la temperature, car cela peut entrainer des erreurs considerables dans le calcul theorique des coefficients de diffusion. Les auteurs discutent les consequences qui en decoulent, particulierement pour les systemes cubiques centres refractaires. Ils ont etudie, tant theoriquement qu'experimentalement, l'effet d'un gradient thermique sur la distribution des impuretes de substitution dans un metal. Ces travaux ont permis de mieux apprecier l'importance de cet effet dans des systemes presentant un interet du point de vue nucleaire. L'accroissement de la diffusion par les champs de rayonnements demeure toujours un probleme d'un interet reel. Les auteurs ont fait les premieres mesures directes de l'effet du bombardement par des particules rapides

  13. Resonance quadripolaire nucleaire dans les halogenures d'actinides, ThBr 4, ThCl 4 ET UCl 4. II. Polymorphisme et transition de phase du premier ordre dans ThBr 4. Resonance du Brome dans UBr 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, M.; Péneau, A.; Genet, M.; Guibé, L.

    1983-12-01

    La poursuite de recherches antérieures a permis de caractériser la résonance quadripolaire du brome dans la phase α de ThBr 4 et d'étudier la variation, en fonction de la température, entre 63 et 295 K, de la fréquence de résonance, ν Q(T), correspondante. Une première analyse des conditions expérimentales du passage de la transition α↔β à 426 C a été faite. La résonance du brome dans UBr 4 a également été observée et l'étude en fonction de la température des fréquences de résonance (il y a deux résonances distinctes pour chacun des deux isotopes du brome dans ce composé) a révélé un comportement inattendu en ce sens que les pentes dν Q/dT des courbes ν Q(T) correspondant aux deux résonances sont de signe contraire.

  14. Analisis Balance of Interest pada Aliansi Tiongkok dan Rusia dalam Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO Periode 2001-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candini Candanila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaksi Cina dan Rusia di kawasan Asia Tengah, khususnya dalam kerangka kerjasama Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO, merupakan fenomena yang menarik untuk dikaji mengingat kedua negara tersebut tergolong sebagai great power, memiliki kepentingan yang hampir serupa di bidang energi dalam kawasan tersebut, namun memiliki political goals yang cukup berbeda. Tulisan ini mencoba mengkaji secara mendalam tentang bagaimana kesetimbangan kepentingan (balance of interest dari Cina dan Rusia di bidang energi beserta besarnya kapabilitas nasional dari kedua negara tersebut menjadi faktor penentu dalam pembentukan SCO bersama Kazakstan, Kirgistan, Tajikistan, dan Uzbekistan. Tulisan ini juga menunjukkan bagaimana political goals yang berbeda dapat dikesampingkan oleh negara-negara demi tercapainya kepentingan nasional mereka.

  15. General trends in the use of uranium in the nuclear industry; Tendances generales d'emploi de l'uranium dans les industries nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    It can be seen from a consideration of the development of the military and civil needs for uranium that, in the long run, the main outlet for the metal will be provided by its industrial applications. The technical uncertainties concerning the best method of producing atomic energy are still numerous and in fact reflect the hesitation in choosing one of two classes of fuel: that based on the metal and that based on the oxide. Four main factors should influence the choice: - the neutron reactivity and the enrichment of the uranium; - the operating temperature; - the resistance to radiation effects; - the chemical stability; but in actual fact, when the choice for a particular use has to be made, it will be another type of factor, such as the cost price, and weight and space considerations which will determine the choice of either metallic uranium or uranium oxide reactors. (author) [French] D'apres le developpement des besoins militaires ou civils en uranium, on voit que les usages industriels de ce metal constituent, a long terme, le debouche essentiel. Les incertitudes techniques, sur le procede optimum pour faire de l'energie nucleaire, restent nombreuses, et se traduisent finalement par une hesitation entre deux grandes classes de combustibles: ceux a base de metal et ceux a base d'oxyde: la preference a l'une ou l'autre de ces deux categories doit s'inspirer de quatre considerations: - la reactivite neutronique et l'enrichissement de l'uranium; - la temperature de fonctionnement; - la resistance aux effets du rayonnement; - la stabilite chimique; mais en definitive, lorsqu'il s'agira d'une application determinee, ce seront des considerations d'un autre ordre, comme le prix de revient, le poids et l'encombrement, qui determineront le choix entre piles a uranium metallique et piles a oxyde d'uranium. (auteur)

  16. Some problems on the aqueous corrosion of structural materials in nuclear engineering; Problemes de corrosion aqueuse de materiaux de structure dans les constructions nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to give a comprehensive view of some aqueous corrosion studies which have been carried out with various materials for utilization either in nuclear reactors or in irradiated fuel treatment plants. The various subjects are listed below. Austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys: the behaviour of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in nitric medium and in the presence of hexavalent chromium; the stress corrosion of austenitic alloys in alkaline media at high temperatures; the stress corrosion of austenitic Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in 650 C steam. Ferritic steels: corrosion of low alloy steels in water at 25 and 360 C; zirconium alloys; the behaviour of ultrapure zirconium in water and steam at high temperature. (authors) [French] On presente un ensemble d'etudes de corrosion en milieu aqueux effectuees sur des materiaux utilises, soit dans la construction des reacteurs soit pour la realisation des usines de traitement des combustibles irradies. Les differents sujets etudies sont les suivants. Les alliages austenitiques Fer-Nickel-Chrome: comportement d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome en milieu nitrique en presence de chrome hexavalent; Corrosion sous contrainte d'alliages austenitiques dans les milieux alcalins a haute temperature; Corrosion sous contrainte dans la vapeur a 650 C d'alliages austenitiques fer-nickel-chrome. Les aciers ferritiques; Corrosion d'aciers faiblement allies dans l'eau a 25 et 360 C; le zirconium et ses alliages; Comportement du zirconium tres pur dans l'eau et la vapeur a haute temperature. (auteurs)

  17. The Management of Nuclear Materials in a Research Establishment; Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans un Centre de Recherche; Uchet yadernykh materialov v nauchno-issledovatel'skom uchrezhdenii; Administracion de Sustancias Nucleares en un Centro de Investigaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W. J.; Hocking, D. R. [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1966-02-15

    The functions of a nuclear materials management scheme are reviewed in relation to the activities of research establishments. Since these activities are normally non-repetitive, there is little opportunity to establish statistical quality and quantity control. The risks of an error in the material accounts must therefore be established from relatively few analytical measurements and the implications of this are discussed. Similar arguments are applied to illustrate the difficulties of quality control on suppliers when a large variety of materials are being purchased in small quantities. (author) [French] Les auteurs examinent le role d'un systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires applique aux activites des centres de recherche. Comme ces activites ne sont normalement pas appelees a se repeter, il n'est guere possible d'organiser un controle statistique quantitatif et qualitatif. Il faut donc determiner les possibilites d'erreurs dans la comptabilite matieres en s'appuyant sur un nombre relativement restreint de mesures analytiques et les auteurs examinent les conclusions a tirer de cette situation. Ils recourent a une argumentation analogue pour illustrer les difficultes inherentes au controle de la qualite des matieres livrees par les fournisseurs lorsqu'il doit porter sur une grande diversite de matieres en petites quantites. (author) [Spanish] Los autores examinan el funcionamiento de un sistema de administracion de materiales nucleares en relacion con las actividades de los centros de investigaciones. Como estas actividades son por lo comun muy diversas, hay pocas oportunidades de establecer un control estadistico de la calidad y la cantidad. Por ello es necesario determinar los riesgos de error en la contabilidad de los materiales partiendo de un numero relativamente reducido de mediciones analiticas; en la memoria se examinan las consecuencias de este hecho. Los autores aplican razonamientos analogos para poner de manifiesto las dificultades con que, en el

  18. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible

  19. Experimental study of the hydrodynamic instabilities occurring in boiling-water reactors; Etude experimentale des instabilites hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs nucleaires a ebullition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabreca, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-10-01

    The subjects is an experimental out-of pile loop study of the hydrodynamic oscillations occurring in boiling-water reactors. The study was carried out at atmospheric pressure and at pressure of about 8 atmospheres, in channels heated electrically by a constant and uniform specified current. In the test at 8 atmospheres the channel was a round tube of approximately 6 mm interior diameter. At 1 atmosphere a ring-section channel was used, 10 * 20 mm in diameter, with an inner heating tube and an outer tube of pyrex. It was possible to operate with natural convection and also with forced convection with test-channel by-pass. The study consists of 3 parts: 1. Preliminary determination of the laws governing pressure-drop during boiling. 2. Determination of the fronts at which oscillation appears, within a wide range of the parameters involved. 3. A descriptive study of the oscillations and measurement of the periods. The report gives the oscillation fronts with natural and forced convection for various values of the singular pressure drop at the channel inlet and for various riser lengths. The results are presented in non-dimensional form, which is available, in first approximation, for all geometric scales and for all fluids. Besides the following points were observed: - the wall (nature and thickness) can be an important factor ; - oscillation can occur in a horizontal channel. (author) [French] II a ete effectue une etude experimentale, en boucle hors-pile, des oscillations hydrodynamiques survenant dans les reacteurs a ebullition. L'etude a ete effectuee a la pression atmospherique et a une pression voisine de 8 atmospheres dans des canaux chauffes electriquement a puissance imposee constante et uniforme. Dans les essais a 8 atmospheres le canal etait un tube circulaire de diametre interieur 6 mm environ. A 1 atmosphere le canal etait de section annulaire 10 * 20 mm avec un tube interieur chauffant et un tube exterieur en pyrex. Le fonctionnement etait possible en

  20. Perangkat Pembelajaran Model Cooperative Scripts Untuk Meningkatkan Pemahaman Konsep dan Mengeliminasi Miskonsepsi IPA pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka Indriani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran IPA di Sekolah Dasar model Cooperative Scripts dengan 4D modifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengeliminasi Miskonsepsi pemahaman konsep IPA pada pokok bahasan materi sistem pernapasan. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif kualitatif dan deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perangkat pembelajaran valid, keterlaksanaan pembelajaran baik (3.97, kegiatan berpusat pada murid aktif. Hasil tes pemahaman konsep siswa dianalisis dengan N-gain menunjukkan pemahaman konsep IPA siswa meningkat (0.65 begitu pula dengan eliminasi Miskonsepsi siswa, sejalan dengan hasil penilaian afektif siswa menunjukkan hasil yang baik (3.9. Simpulan penelitian ini, bahwa perangkat pembelajaran IPA model Cooperative Scripts layak, dapat meningkatkan dan berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap eliminasi Miskonsepsi pemahaman konsep IPA siswa di Sekolah Dasar. 

  1. The use of tracers in the study of the ionic permeability of the nerve; Utilisation des indicateurs nucleaires dans l'etude de la permeabilite ionique du nerf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinnebault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The use of the radioactive tracers {sup 24}Na and {sup 42}K, and the electrophysiological fine study carried out on the plant Cephalopods nervous cells have made it possible, during ten years, to study the relationships between the electrical phenomena observed during the propagation of the nervous impulse and the ionic movements which occur at the cell membrane between the intra- and extra-cellular media. In the state of rest, the nerve fibres present a certain permeability towards sodium and potassium, a permeability which allows the renewal, from the extra-cellular medium, of the cations contained in the cytoplasm. At the moment of the passage of the nervous impulse, it is possible to demonstrate a temporary increase in the permeability towards the sodium which causes the entry of Na{sup +} ions into the nerve fibre, whilst, a few milliseconds later, the increase in the potassium permeability causes the departure of an equivalent quantity of K{sup +} ions. A recovery phase follows the passage of the nervous impulse, during which the original ionic conditions are re-established. If the potassium movements can be considered as passive, the expulsion of Na{sup +} requires, on the part of the cell, the use of a part of the metabolic energy. (author) [French] L'utilisation des indicateurs radioactifs {sup 24}Na et {sup 42}K, et l'etude electrophysiologique fine realisee sur des cellules nerveuses geantes de Cephalopodes a permis, depuis une dizaine d'annees, d'etudier les rapports entre les phenomenes electriques observes lors de la propagation de l'influx nerveux et les mouvements ioniques qui s'effectuent au niveau de la membrane cellulaire entre milieux intracellulaire et extracellulaire. A l'etat de repos, les fibres nerveuses possedent pour le sodium et le potassium, une permeabilite qui permet le renouvellement, a partir du milieu extracellulaire des cations contenus dans le cytoplasme. Au moment du passage de l'influx nerveux, on peut mettre en evidence une

  2. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  3. Contribution to the study of molecular movements in cyclohexane by electron spin resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance using a radical probe; Contribution a l'etude des mouvements moleculaires dans le cyclohexane par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance electronique-nucleaire a l'aide d'une sonde radicalaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volino, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Solutions of stable free radicals of the nitroxide type have been studied as a function of temperature. In the plastic or globular state, the cyclohexane molecules have rapid rotational and diffusional movements. They transmit this movement to dissolved free radicals. Conversely, measurements by electron spin resonance of the absolute movement of the radicals, and by electron nuclear double resonance of their movement relative to the cyclohexane molecules give very precise methods for local analyses of the movement present in the cyclohexane matrix. The principle of these techniques makes up the 'radical probe method'. (author) [French] Des solutions de radicaux libres stables, du type nitroxyde dans le cyclohexane ont ete etudiees, en fonction de la temperature. Les molecules de cyclohexane, dans l'etat plastique ou globulaire, sont animees de mouvements rapides de rotation sur elles-memes et de diffusion. Elles transmettent leur mobilite aux radicaux libres dissous. Reciproquement, la mesure du mouvement absolu des radicaux, a l'aide de la resonance paramagnetique electronique, et celle du mouvement relatif des radicaux et des molecules de cyclohexane par double resonance electronique-nucleaire, constituent des methodes tres precises pour analyser localement les mouvements presents dans la matrice de cyclohexane. Ce principe et ces techniques constituent la 'methode de la sonde radicalaire'. (auteur)

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  6. Mechanics and electronics as auxiliary techniques in nuclear research and exploitation; Mecanique et electronique auxiliaires de la recherche et de l'exploitation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes nucleaires de Saclay, Departement Electronique, Groupe Controle des Reacteurs (France)

    1959-07-01

    Electronics and mechanics form the basic techniques used in the field of measurement and control in nuclear physics experiments, and in nuclear machine installations. The delegate describes some instruments typical of the use of these techniques in the fields of calculation, detection, amplification and nuclear Installations. Reprint of a paper published in 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3. quarter 1957) [French] L'electronique et la mecanique constituent les techniques de base utilisees clans le domaine des mesures et du controle effectues dans les experiences de physique nucleaire et dans les installations des engins nucleaires. Le Conferencier decrit plusieurs appareils caracteristiques de l'emploi de ces techniques dans les domaines du calcul, des detecteurs, de l'amplification et des lnstallations nucleaires. Reproduction d'un article publie dans le 'Bulletin S.F.M.' n. 25 (3e trimestre 1957)

  7. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l

  8. French research in the field of nuclear agronomy; Les recherches francaises en agronomie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin De Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    , industrial firms, university laboratories scientific institutes. The role of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique is defined: on the one hand it supplies information and support, and on the other hand it takes charge of specifically nuclear aspects of the work. Its part in the field has recently found expression in the creation, within the Biology Department, of a Radio-agronomy Section; its objective are described,, as well as the, means placed att its disposal at the Centre d'etudes Nucleaires, Cadarache. (author) [French] On propose un bilan des travaux les plus significatifs effectues en France depuis la deuxieme conference internationale en matiere d'agronomie nucleaire et qui vont d'une recherche apparemment desinteressee a l'application la plus directe. Une telle differenciation recouvre de moins en moins, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des programmes, la distinction qui est faite dans l'expose entre l'action biologique des rayonnements et les autres emplois des techniques nucleaires. C'est ainsi que les recherches do radiogenetique agricole sont poursuivies dans deux directions: d'un point de vue theorique et methodologique avec l'etude comparative de l'action des divers types de rayonnements, l'influence du debit de dose et de la temperature, l'action des agents mutagenes chimiques, la production de chimeres sous irradiation gamma; et d'autre part, sous un aspect pratique aboutissant a la creation de varietes nouvelles plus resistantes ou plus precoces (riz, mil, arachide). Les problemes de destruction des insectes (eradication) et de conservation des denrees sous irradiation se trouvent egalement abordes par des voies et avec des objectifs tres divers. A la demarche globale representee par une irradiation pure et simple (grains humides, pommes de terre...) sont parfois associees des etudes souvent originales, d'ordre biochimique ou microbiologique (par exemple: alteration de l'amidon, metabolisme glucidique des tubercules irradies, radioresistance des levures

  9. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  10. Nuclear safety in countries that are candidate for entry to the European Union; La surete nucleaire dans les pays candidats a l'entree dans l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)

  11. Nuclear safety in countries that are candidate for entry to the European Union; La surete nucleaire dans les pays candidats a l'entree dans l'Union Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In this report, experts from countries members of the European Union have wished to give their collective opinion about nuclear safety in countries that are standing for integrating the E.U.. The investigated countries are Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, Rumania, Slovenia and Czech Republic. This report is based on information given in international cooperation programmes such as Phare programmes as well as in bilateral contacts. 2 aspects are considered: regulatory authorities and the level of safety in operating nuclear power plants. This report does not deal with radioactive waste management nor with radiation protection. (A.C.)

  12. Modelling turbulent fluid flows in nuclear and fossil-fired power plants; La modelisation des ecoulements turbulents rencontres dans les reacteurs nucleaires et dans les centrales thermiques a flamme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viollet, P.L.

    1995-06-01

    The turbulent flows encountered in nuclear reactor thermal hydraulic studies or fossil-fired plant thermo-aerodynamic analyses feature widely varying characteristics, frequently entailing heat transfers and two-phase flows so that modelling these phenomena tends more and more to involve coupling between several branches of engineering. Multi-scale geometries are often encountered, with complex wall shapes, such as a PWR vessel, a reactor coolant pump impeller or a circulating fluidized bed combustion chamber. When it comes to validating physical models of these flows, the analytical process highlights the main descriptive parameters of local flow conditions: tensor characterizing the turbulence anisotropy, characteristic time scales for turbulent flow particle dynamics. Cooperative procedures implemented between national or international working parties can accelerate validation by sharing and exchanging results obtained by the various organizations involved. With this principle accepted, we still have to validate the products themselves, i.e. the software used for the studies. In this context, the ESTET, ASTRID and N3S codes have been subjected to a battery of test cases covering their respective fields of application. These test cases are re-run for each new version, so that the sets of test cases systematically benefit from the gradually upgraded functionalities of the codes. (author). refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology; Communications recues de certains Etats Membres concernant les directives applicables aux transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels a double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-10

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [French] Le Directeur general de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique a recu des notes verbales datees du 1er decembre 2006 des representants permanents aupres de l'Agence des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Croatie, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Italie, Japon, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraine, au sujet des transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels e double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes.

  14. Material movement of medium surrounding an underground nuclear explosion; Mouvement materiel du milieu environnant une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrini, C; Garnier, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The results of measurements of the mechanical effects in the, intermediate zone around underground nuclear explosions in Sahara granite are presented. After a description of the main characteristics of the equipment used, the laws drawn up using experimental results for the acceleration, the velocity, and the material displacement are presented. These laws are compared to those published in other countries for nuclear tests in granite, in tuff and in alluvial deposits. (authors) [French] Les resultats de mesures d'effets mecaniques en zone intermediaire autour d'essais nucleaires souterrains dans le granite du Sahara sont exposes. Apres avoir decrit, dans leurs grandes lignes, les materiels utilises, on presente les lois etablies avec les resultats experimentaux pour l'acceleration, la vitesse et le deplacement materiel. Ces lois sont comparees a celles publiees a l'etranger pour des essais nucleaires dans le granite, le tuf et les alluvions. (auteur)

  15. Plutonium, nuclear fuel; Le plutonium, combustible nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay

    1960-07-01

    A review of the physical properties of metallic plutonium, its preparation, and the alloys which it forms with the main nuclear metals. Appreciation of its future as a nuclear fuel. (author) [French] Apercu sur les proprietes physiques du plutonium metallique, sa preparation, ses alliages avec les principaux metaux nucleaires. Consideration sur son avenir en tant que combustible nucleaire. (auteur)

  16. Problems related with the power regulation of reactors by physico-chemical methods, and the behaviour of water and heavy water in nuclear reactors; Comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires et problemes de la regulation de puissance par voie physico-chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, L; Conan, D; Dirian, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Experience of the CEA heavy water reactors and a systematic study of the radiolytic decomposition of water in the core of swimming-pool reactors are described. Setting up of reactivity control by physico-chemical methods. Reactivity control by homogeneous poisoning of the reactor A comparison of the evolution of xenon poisoning with the residual anti reactivity of the poison in solution during its nuclear consumption establishes the programme which must govern the variation in its concentration if the exact compensation is to be produced The behaviour of the poison towards the reactor materials under the particular operational conditions must be taken into account. Radiolytic decomposition of water in the reactors in the presence of soluble poisons: A study of the effect of certain chemically inert salts, present in small concentrations in the water, on its radiolytic decomposition rate, has led to some new results which are discussed. The choice of a soluble poison is justified on the basis of the above results. Reactivity control by the use of a gaseous absorbent The use of a gas control rod circuit for compensation purposes, in place of solid control rods is described. The use of soluble poisons in the moderator to compensate the xenon effect, and of a gaseous absorbent in a circuit known as a gas control rod form original aspects of the reactivity control in the reactor EL 4. (authors) [French] L'observation du comportement de l'eau et de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs en exploitation, contribue au fonctionnement sur de ceux-ci et oriente certaines etudes relatives aux techniques de controle de la reactivite par mise en oeuvre de poisons solubles. L'utilisation de poisons nucleaires dissous dans l'eau du reacteur entraine une pollution chimique de celle-ci. Les conditions d'emploi permettant d'eviter les effets indesirables de cette pollution sont etudiees. Les problemes analytiques - bien qu'importants - ne sont pas abordes dans le cadre de la communication

  17. Legal and Administrative Problems of Controlling the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes in the Sea; Problemes Juridiques et Administratifs Poses par le Controle de l'Elimination des Dechets Nucleaires dans la Mer; 041f 0420 041e 0414 ; Problemas Juridicos y Administrativos que Plantea el Control de la Evacuacion de Desechos Nucleares En El Mar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydeman, Lee M.; Berman, William H. [Atomic Energy Research Project, University of Michigan Law School (United States)

    1960-07-01

    The basic purpose of the paper is to present some approaches to multinational control of the sea disposal of nuclear wastes, considering both the type of international .control which may be appropriate and the means for accomplishing such control. First, the authors give a brief description of the kind of control which appears to be necessary in protecting public health against the hazards of the disposal of wastes in the sea. The second part consists of a general analysis of the legal problems posed by nuclear wastes. Emphasis is placed on the authority of coastal states to impose unilateral control on the disposal of wastes by other nations if such disposal might adversely affect their interests. The authors inquire into the adequacy of legal remedies as well as the possible rule of law regarding the prevention of damage from waste disposal and the apportionment of liability in the event that such damage does occur. The third part is an analysis of how other problems of control have been handled, both unilaterally and multilaterally. The final part consists of an inquiry into various means of internationally controlling the sea disposal of nuclear wastes. The role of existing international bodies in the maintenance of continuing administrative control at the international level is mentioned. (author) [French] Le but essentiel du memoire est d'exposer diverses facons d'envisager le probleme du controle multinational de l'evacuation des dechets nucleaires dans l'eau de mer, en examinant a la fois le type de controle international approprie et les moyens de le mettre en oeuvre. La premiere partie contiendra une description succincte du genre de controle qui semble necessaire pour la protection de la sante publique contre les effets de l'evacuation des dechets dans la mer. La deuxieme partie consistera en une analyse generale des problemes juridiques poses par. l'elimination des dechets nucleaires. Les auteurs traiteront particulierement du droit des Etats riverains

  18. Technique of nuclear reactors controls; Technique des controles des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weill, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-12-15

    This report deal about 'Techniques of control of the nuclear reactors' in the goal to achieve the control of natural uranium reactors and especially the one of Saclay. This work is mainly about the measurement into nuclear parameters and go further in the measurement of thermodynamic variables,etc... putting in relief the new features required on behalf of the detectors because of their use in the thermal neutrons flux. In the domain of nuclear measurement, we indicate the realizations and the results obtained with thermal neutron detectors and for the measurement of ionizations currents. We also treat the technical problem of the start-up of a reactor and of the reactivity measurement. We give the necessary details for the comprehension of all essential diagrams and plans put on, in particular, for the reactor of Saclay. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la ''Technique du Controle des reacteurs nucleaires'' dans le but de realiser le controle du reacteur de Saclay. C'est ainsi que nous avons ete amene a etudier le probleme dans son ensemble, tel qu'il se pose pour tout reacteur a uranium naturel. Ce travail traite principalement du domaine des mesures a caractere nucleaire et s'etend dans le domaine des mesures thermodynamque de niveaux, etc... mettant en relief les caracteristiques nouvelles exigees de la part des detecteurs du fait de leur utilisation dans le flux de neutrons thermiques. Dans le domaine de mesures nucleaires, nous indiquons principalement les realisations et les resultats obtenus pour les detecteurs de neutrons thermiques et pour la mesure de courants d'ionisations. Nous traitons egalement du probleme technique du demarrage d'un reacteur et du probleme de la mesure de la reactivite. Nous donnons les details necessaires a la comrehension de tous les schemas et plans de cablages essentiels mis au point, en particulier, pour le reacteur de Saclay. (auteur)

  19. KEEFEKTIFAN PEMBELAJARAN AKUNTANSI MATERI JURNAL PENYESUAIAN DENGAN METODE COOPERATIVE SCRIPT DAN RESITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resti Khanaliya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to (1 know the effectiveness of the teaching and learning of accounting subject in adjustment journal topic using cooperative script method. (2 know the effectiveness of the teaching and learning of accounting subject in adjustment journal topic using recitation method. (3 know which method that is more effective in teaching and learning of accounting subject in adjustment journal topic. This study used quasi experimental design with the design form of non equivalent control group design. The result of this study showed that cooperative script method is effective towards teaching and learning is 27,44% ; recitation method is effective towards teaching and learning is 50,47 %; which that the teaching and learning in the recitation method is more effective than the one cooperative script method.

  20. Socialité et co-operation dans l'oeuvre de Charles Goodwin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2016-01-01

    As a linguistic anthropologist, Goodwin elaborates a conceptual and methodological framework to describe the organization of human activities and conducts. The central notion of « co-operation » accounts for what is at stake in ordinary conversation as well as in professional practices, cultural...

  1. PENERAPAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE JIGSAW UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN DAN KETERAMPILAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rediana Setiani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are: (1 to improve students’ understanding in Accounting Computer subject mahasiswa pada mata kuliah Komputer Akuntansi, (2 to improve students’ skills in Accounting Computer subject. The subject of this research is accounting students of education program that take accounting computer subject. This research is class action research consists of  3 cycles. The given action in the first cycle according to the result of beginning reflection. In every cycle consists of 4 stages that are planning, actuating, observation, and reflection. This research reached standardized indicator that 70% students have minimum score that was 71 (B. It showed that the application of cooperative learning jigsaw type can improve the students’ ability in a computer accounting subject.   Key Words : Cooperative Learning, Jigsaw, the students’ understanding, creativity

  2. PENERAPAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE JIGSAW UNTUK MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN DAN KETERAMPILAN MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rediana Setiani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are: (1 to improve students’ understanding in Accounting Computer subject mahasiswa pada mata kuliah Komputer Akuntansi, (2 to improve students’ skills in Accounting Computer subject. The subject of this research is accounting students of education program that take accounting computer subject. This research is class action research consists of  3 cycles. The given action in the first cycle according to the result of beginning reflection. In every cycle consists of 4 stages that are planning, actuating, observation, and reflection. This research reached standardized indicator that 70% students have minimum score that was 71 (B. It showed that the application of cooperative learning jigsaw type can improve the students’ ability in a computer accounting subject.   Key Words : Cooperative Learning, Jigsaw, the students’ understanding, creativity

  3. Cooper, Frederick. — L'Afrique dans le monde. Capitalisme, Empire, État-nation

    OpenAIRE

    Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    C'est un livre qui va devenir indispensable aux enseignants, aux étudiants et à tous ceux que l'Afrique intéresse. Dans un style aussi limpide que précis (hommage à la traduction), il démontre pourquoi l'histoire de l'Afrique subsaharienne ne peut se comprendre sans l'histoire du monde, et l'histoire du monde sans celle de l'Afrique. Domine un esprit de synthèse dû à l'origine de ce livre : cinq conférences publiques délivrées à l'Institut W. E. B. Du Bois à Harvard, destinées à offrir des pi...

  4. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water; Elimination de l'alumine en suspension dans l'eau lourde des reacteurs nucleaires par voie chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [French] La corrosion de l'aluminium au contact de l'eau moderatrice des reacteurs nucleaires, donne lieu a la formation d'un hydrosol d'alumine nuisible au bon fonctionnement des reacteurs. Plusieurs methodes physiques ont ete mises en oeuvre pour pallier ces inconvenients. On propose ici d'eliminer l'alumine par solubilisation pour la fixer ensuite sous forme ionique par des resines echangeuses d'ions, en lit melange. A cette fin on determine les parametres et leurs grandeurs favorables a cette solubilisation. Si le moderateur est de l'eau lourde la preparation d'acide deutere peut etre effectuee par passage d'une solution en eau lourde a un sel de l'acide sur resine cationique deuteree.

  5. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    sont decrites telles qu'elles ont ete realisees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Des specifications sont donnees pour les betons de barytine et pour la fabrication des blocs de protection du synchrotron a protons 'Saturne'. (auteur)

  6. Study and installation of concrete shielding in the civil engineering of nuclear construction (1960); Etude et mise en place des betons de protection dans le genie civil des ouvrages nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    etudes, deux applications pratiques sont decrites telles qu'elles ont ete realisees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Des specifications sont donnees pour les betons de barytine et pour la fabrication des blocs de protection du synchrotron a protons 'Saturne'. (auteur)

  7. Application of neutron activation analysis to the study of impurities in molybdenum, tungsten and nuclear graphite; Application de l'analyse par activation neutronique a l'etude des impuretes dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinte, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    A neutron activation method is described for the analysis of a maximum number of foreign elements in molybdenum, tungsten and graphite. The various elements are isolated using a systematic separation programme; the elements are subsequently analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using {gamma}-spectrometry. By this method are dosed 27 elements in molybdenum and tungsten, and 20 elements in graphite to which can be added those elements which are already the object of routine analysis: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl and 14 rare earths. (author) [French] On decrit une methode d'analyse par activation neutronique permettant de doser un maximum d'elements etrangers dans le molybdene, le tungstene et le graphite. En suivant un schema de separation systematique, on isole les differents elements dont les analyses qualitatives et quantitatives sont ensuite effectuees par spectrometrie {gamma}. Par cette methode, on dose 27 elements dans le molybdene et le tungstene, 20 elements dans le graphite, auxquels on peut encore ajouter les elements doses couramment: V, Mn, Si, P, S, Cl et 14 Terres Rares. (auteur)

  8. The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' for developing the nuclear components industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    The 'Pole Nucleaire Bourgogne' (PNB) is a high-technology and heavy industries cluster in Burgundy with an international calling. It aims at innovating, educating and federating in order to place the French nuclear industry in a leading position. PNB gathers 76 small-, and medium-sized enterprises, most of them operating in the metal sector, in design and in the control/measuring sector. The aim of PNB is to make enterprises work and cooperate on specific topics according to their sectors of activities and their skills. PNB has identified 3 domains of strategical innovations: -) ecological manufacturing and durability of heavy components, -) controls for high performance components, and -) maintenance and dismantling techniques in hostile environments. The various industry sectors represented in PNB allows a cross-fertilization between high-tech industries (aeronautics, energy, transportation)

  9. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  10. Contribution to the study of the fission-gas release in metallic nuclear fuels; Contribution a l'etude du degagement des gaz de fission dans les combustibles nucleaires metalliques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryger, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-10-01

    In order to study the effect of an external pressure on the limitation of swelling due to fission-gas precipitation, some irradiations have been carried out at burn-ups of about 35.000 MWd/ton, and at average sample temperatures of 575 Celsius degrees, of non-alloyed uranium and uranium 8 per cent molybdenum gained in a thick stainless steel can. A cylindrical central hole allows a fuel swelling from 20 to 33 per cent according to the experiment. After irradiation, the uranium samples showed two types of can rupture: one is due to the fuel swelling, and the other, to the pressure of the fission gases, released through a network of microcracks. The cans of the uranium-molybdenum samples are all undamaged and it is shown that the gas release occurs by interconnection of the bubbles for swelling values higher than those obtained in the case of uranium. For each type of fuel, a swelling-fission gas release relationship is established. The results suggest that good performances with a metallic fuel intended for use in fast reactor conditions can be obtained. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier l'effet d'une pression exterieure sur la limitation du gonflement due a la precipitation des gaz de fission, on a irradie a des taux de combustion d'environ 35.000 MWj/t et a des temperatures moyennes de 575 degres des echantillons d'uranium non allie et d'uranium-molybdene 8 pour cent contenus dans une gaine en acier inoxydable epaisse. Un trou cylindrique central permet au combustible de gonfler librement de 20 a 33 pour cent suivant les cas. Apres irradiation les echantillons d'uranium presentent deux types de ruptures de gaine: l'une due au gonflement du combustible, l'autre a la pression des gaz degages, ce degagement des gaz etant provoque par un reseau de micro-fissures. Les gaines des echantillons d'alliage uranium-molybdene sont toutes intactes et l'on montre que le relachement des gaz opere par interconnexion des bulles pour des valeurs de gonflement plus elevees que dans

  11. Separation of Graphitic Line in Debyegram of the Reactor Graphite; Separation de la raie graphitique dans le debyegramme du graphite nucleaire; Otdelenie linii grafita v debaiegramme reaktornogo grafita; Separacion de la linea grafitica en el diagrama de debye del grafito nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandic, B. [Institut Rudjer Boskovio, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1963-11-15

    The author sets forth a method for the determination of crystallite dimensions L{sub c} in reactor graphite. The method consists of the mathematical correction of the diffraction profile (002) obtained by means of a Philips diffractometer with scintillation counter. During the work CuK{sub {beta}} radiation is used. The convenience of using CuK{sub {beta}} radiation rather than that of a CuK{sub {alpha}} doublet is discussed. All instrumental errors except that of the sample adsorption are eliminated using corresponding slits. Sample adsorption is corrected mathematically. Highly symmetrical lines of graphitic and non-graphitic phase could be analytically separated from such corrected line profiles. Experimental error in the determination of the half-height and half-width of these lines does not exceed 5%. (author) [French] On a elabore une methode pour determiner la hauteur moyenne L{sub c} des cristallites du graphite nucleaire. Il s'agit d'une methode mathematique de correction du profil de la raie de diffraction (002), obtenu par le diffractometre Philips avec un compteur a scintillation. On a discute les avantages des rayons CuK{sub {beta}} par rapport au doublet CuK{sub {alpha}}. Le choix des ouvertures elimine toutes les erreurs, sauf l'erreur d'absorption dans les echantillons, que l 'on ecarte mathematiquement. Les raies de diffraction pures et tres symetriques des phases graphitique et non graphitique peuvent etre separees du profil corrige de cette facon. L'incertitude dans la mesure de la demi-largeur de ces raies n'est pas superieure a 5%. (author) [Spanish] El autor de la memoria expone un metodo para determinar la altura media Lc de las cristalitas del grafito nuclear. Consiste en corregir matematicamente el perfil de la linea de difraccion (002) obtenido con un difractometro Philips y un contador de centelleo. En la memoria se explican las ventajas que la radiacion CuK{sub {beta}} ofrece sobre el doblete CuK{sub {alpha}} Si se elige correctamente la

  12. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    is of secondary importance and the cooling time is unimportant. Also, there is more precise nuclear data for the stable fission products. Of the stable isotopes produced during the fission process, zirconium, molybdenum, ruthenium, and neodymium appear to be the most useful. The proposed non-destructive methods using stable isotopes will be discussed. (author) [French] Il est a la fois utile et souhaitable d'utiliser des methodes non destructives pour proceder a la mesure quantitative du taux de combustion des elements combustibles d'un reacteur nucleaire. L'ideal serait de pouvoir analyser le combustible a l'aide d'une methode ne necessitant pas de renseignements particuliers sur les spectres des neutrons, le schema d'irradiation ou le temps de refroidissement. Les isotopes radioactifs et les isotopes stables resultant du processus de fission qui sont presents dans un element combustible irradie caracterisent son irradiation. Malheureusement, que l'analyse soit effectuee au moyen de methodes destructives ou non destructives, les resultats obtenus varient en fonction du spectre de neutrons, du schema d'irradiation et du temps de refroidissement. Deplus, l'absence de donnees nucleaires precises, comme les valeurs des section efficaces, influe sur tous les calculs qui peuvent etre effectues. L'analyse non destructive est egalement genee par la presence de champs de rayonnements intenses qui augmentent le bruit de fond. Il est difficile d'etablir des normes utiles et realistes. Bien que, dans l'etat actuel de la technique, les methodes non destructives n'aient pas toute la precision et l'exactitude voulues, elles presentent neanmoins un grand interet' notamment dans les cas ou il faut obtenir rapidement et economiquement une valeur approximative du taux de combustion. Plusieurs methodes non destructives d'evaluation du taux de combustion sont actuellement appliquees, a l'etude ou en projet. Plusieurs types de spectrometres sont utilises pour la mesure du rayonnement

  13. Determination of the cross-sections of some nuclear reactions occurring as a result of cosmic radiation (1963); Determination des sections efficaces de quelques reactions nucleaires intervenant dans les effets ou rayonnement cosmique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamers, M A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The high energy reactions studied during this research are reactions liable to occur as a result of cosmic radiation. On the one hand the reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C was studied and its cross-section measured between 65 MeV and 2.7 GeV; a value of 2.3 mb {+-} 0.5 was found. These values have mode it possible to forecast measurable quantities of carbon-14 in meteorites and also to measure them. On the other hand the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) and {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) have been studied and an attempt has been made to explain the mechanism of these reactions. (author) [French] Les reactions a hautes energies qui ont ete etudiees au court de ce travail sont des reactions susceptibles de se produire sous l'effet du rayonnement cosmique. Il s'agit d'une part de la reaction {sup 16}O(p, 3p){sup 14}C dont on a mesure la section efficoce egale a 2,3 mb {+-} 0,5 entre 65 MeV et 2,7 GeV. Ces valeurs ont permis de prevoir des quantites mesurables de carbone 14 dans les meteorites et par suite de les determiner. D'autre part les reaction {sup 12}C({sup 16}O...), {sup 12}C({sup 14}N...) et {sup 12}C({sup 12}C...) ont ete etudiees et on a tente d'expliquer le mecanisme de ces reactions. (auteur)

  14. Nuclear explosion and internal contamination; Explosion nucleaire et contamination interne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    By the study of the conditions of internal contamination due to the radioactive mixture produced by a nuclear explosion, the parts played by the relative weights of the different elements and the mode of expression of the doses are considered. Only the knowledge of the weight composition of the contamination mixture and of its evolution as a function of time can provide the required basis for the study of its metabolism in the organism. The curves which give the composition of the fission product mixture - in number of nuclei - - as a function of time - have been established. These curves are applied to some practical examples, particularly relative to the nature of contamination, radiotoxicity of some elements and assessment of hazards. (author) [French] Etudiant les modalites de la contamination interne par les elements radioactifs apparus lors d'une explosion nucleaire, le role de la 'masse' et le mode d'expression des doses sont envisages. La connaissance de la composition en 'masse' du melange contaminant et de son evolution en fonction du temps peut seule apporter les bases necessaires a l'etude de son comportement dans l'organisme. Les courbes donnant la composition du melange de produits de fission - en nombre de noyaux - - en fonction du temps - ont ete etablies. Quelques applications pratiques, relatives en particulier a la nature de la contamination, a la radiotoxicite de certains elements et a l'evaluation de risque, sont envisagees a titre d'exemple. (auteur)

  15. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay; Formation des scientifiques et des techniciens au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiesse, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    , thermique. 2- Creation d'un Centre Associe du Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (200 eleves), pour les agents techniques, dessinateurs, etc. 3- En collaboration avec l'industrie electronique et le Ministere du Travail, le Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires collabore a une formation acceleree d'agents techniques dans des Centres Professionnels. Conclusion: La formation des scientifiques et des chercheurs est une des activites importantes du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Sans perdre son efficacite technique, elle revet des formes souples et variees adaptees a la diversite des buts a atteindre. (auteur)

  16. A mathematical model for cost of maritime transport. Application to competitiveness of nuclear vessels; Modele mathematique du cout de transport maritime application a la competitivite du navire nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1966-05-01

    In studying the competitiveness of a nuclear merchant vessel, economic assessments in terms of figures were discarded in favor of a simplified model, which gives a clearer idea of the mechanism of the comparison between alternative vessels and the particular influence of each parameter. An expression is formulated for the unit cost per ton carried over a given distance as a function of the variables (speed and deadweight tonnage) and is used to determine the optima for conventional and nuclear vessels. To represent the freight market involved in the optimization studies, and thus in the competitiveness computation, two cases are taken into account: the tonnage to be carried annually is limited, and the tonnage to be carried annually is not limited. In both cases the optima are calculated and compared for a conventional and a nuclear vessel. Competitiveness curves are plotted as a function of the ratios of nuclear and conventional fuel costs and nuclear and conventional marginal power costs. These curves express the limiting values of the above two ratios for which the transport costs of the nuclear and conventional vessels are equal. The competitiveness curves vary considerably according to the hypothesis adopted for the freight market and the limit of tonnage carried annually. (author) [French] Pour etudier la competitivite du navire marchand nucleaire, plutot que de nous livrer a des evaluations economiques chiffrees, discutables dans l'etat actuel des etudes, nous utilisons un modele simplifie permettant de mieux saisir le mecanisme de la comparaison des navires et l'influence particuliere de chaque parametre. Nous etablissons une expression du cout unitaire de la tonne transportee sur un parcours donne en fonction des variables vitesse et port en lourd. Et nous l'utilisons pour determiner les optima des navires classiques et nucleaires. Pour representer le marche du fret qui intervient dans les etudes d'optimisation, et donc dans la recherche de la

  17. An absolute nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer; Magnetometre absolu a resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvi, A [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-10-15

    After an introduction in which the various work undertaken since the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance is rapidly reviewed, the author describes briefly In the first chapter three types of NMR magnetometers, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each of them and deducing from this the design of the apparatus having the greatest number of qualities Chapter II is devoted to the crossed coil nuclear oscillator which operates continuously over a wide range (800 gamma). To avoid an error due to a carrying over the frequency, the measurement is carried out using bands of 1000 {gamma}. Chapter III deals with frequency measurements. The author describes an original arrangement which makes possible the frequency-field conversion with an accuracy of {+-} 5 x 10{sup -6}, and the differential measurement between two nuclear oscillators. The report finishes with a conclusion and a few recordings. (author) [French] Apres une introduction rappelant les divers travaux effectues en resonance magnetique nucleaire depuis sa mise en evidence, l'auteur decrit sommairement dans le premier chapitre trois types de magnetometre a R.M.N. enumerant les avantages et les inconvenients de chacun a partir desquels il projet, l'appareillage reunissant le maximum de qualites. Le chapitre II est consacre a l'oscillateur nucleaire a bobines croisees permettant un fonctionnement continu dons une large plage (800 gamma). Pour eviter une erreur due a l'entrainement de frequence, la mesure s'effectue par bandes de 1000 {gamma} chacune. Le chapitre III traite la mesure de frequence. L'auteur expose un montage original permettant la traduction frequence-champ avec une precision egale a {+-} 5.10{sup -6}, et la mesure differentielle entre deux oscillateurs nucleaires. Une conclusion et quelques enregistrements terminent ce travail. (auteur)

  18. Convention on the establishment of a security control in the field of nuclear energy. Protocol on the tribunal established by the convention on the establishment of a security control in the field of nuclear energy; Convention sur l'etablissement d'un controle de securite dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire. Protocole relatif au tribunal cree par la Convention sur l'etablissement d'un controle de securite dans le domaine de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1957-12-20

    The governments of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Ireland, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Netherlands, Portugal, United Kingdom, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey, having resolved to promote the development of the production and uses of nuclear energy in the Member countries of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation between these countries and the harmonisation of national measures; considering that the joint action undertaken to this end in the Organisation is intended to develop the European nuclear industry for purely peaceful ends and must not further any military purpose; considering that at its meeting of' 18 July, 1956, the Council of the Organisation decided to establish to this effect an international security control; considering that by a Decision dated this day the Council has established, within the Organisation, a European Nuclear Energy Agency with the task of pursuing the joint action undertaken; have agreed the present convention. The governments party to the Convention, desirous of determining in accordance with Article 12 of the Convention the organisation of the Tribunal established by the said Article and the status of its judges; have agreed upon the provisions which are annexed to the Convention.

  19. Indium-Gallium Radiation Contour of the IRT Nuclear Reactor; Circuit d'activation d'indium-gallium dans le reacteur nucleaire IRT; Indij-gallievyj radiatsionnyj kontur yadernogo reaktora IRT; Circuito de radiaciones de indio-galio del reactor IRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, A K; Ryabukin, Y S; Tulkes, S G; Volkov, E N

    1960-07-15

    Following on theoretical work already published, an indium-gallium radiation contour of the IRT nuclear reactor has been prepared, and represents a powerful new source of gamma-radiation. The first contour of this type ''RK-1'' was prepared on the IRT reactor at the Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR. The paper gives the activation calculations for indium-gallium alloy; the structural components of RK-1 and their arrangement in the reactor tank and the hot cell; the devise for feeding liquid and gaseous substances into the irradiation zone; and the conveyor for solid substances to be irradiated. When the IRT reactor is at a power of 2000 kW, the radiation strength of the contour is equivalent to that of a gamma-emitter having an activity of 20,000 g. Ra equivalent. The prospects for the use of the indium-gallium radiation contour for research and semi-industrial purposes are discussed. (author) [French] A la suite de la publication d'un ouvrage theorique, on a etabli autour du reacteur nucleaire IRT un circuit d'activation d'indium-gallium qui represente une nouvelle source de rayonnements gamma de grande intensite. Le premier circuit de ce type ''RK-1'' a ete etabli sur le reacteur IRT a l'Institut de physique de l'Academie des sciences de la RSS de Georgie. Les auteurs donnent les calculs de l'activation pour l'alliage indium-gallium; ils indiquent les elements structurels du RK-1 et leur disposition dans le reservoir et dans la cellule de haute activite du reacteur; ils decrivent le dispositif permettant d'introduire des substances liquides et gazeuses dans la zone d'irradiation et le systeme qui transporte les substances solides a irradier. Lorsque le reacteur IRT fonctionne a 2 000 kW, la puissance de rayonnement du circuit equivaut a celle d'un emetteur gamma ayant une activite equivalente a 20 000 grammes de radium. Les auteurs examinent les perspectives d'emploi de ce processus pour la recherche et a des fins semi

  20. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  1. Nuclear biological studies in France; Les etudes de biologie nucleaires en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author) [French] Un colloque sur les programmes de recherche en radiobiologie nous a donne l'occasion de reunir des documents sur les realisations et les projets francais dans ce domaine. Il nous a semble utile de reunir en un rapport l'ensemble de ces documents, qui, malgre leur brievete et malgre les lacunes qu'ils comportent, donnent un certain nombre d'informations, permettent une vue d'ensemble et peuvent dessiner aussi l'ebauche d'une politique coherente en matiere de recherches biologiques 'nucleaires', c'est-a-dire de recherches basees sur la methode des indicateurs nucleaires ou consacrees a l'action des rayonnements ionisants. (auteur)

  2. Nuclear Materials Management in a Recovery Facility for Unirradiated Enriched Uranium; Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans une Installation de Recuperation d'Uranium Enrichi Non Irradie; Administrativno-khozyajstvennyj uchet yadernykh materialov na ustanovke po regeneratsii neobluchennogo obogashchennogo urana; Administracion de Materiales Nucleares en una Planta de Recuperacion para Uranio Enriquecido No Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasny, G. R. [Union Carbide Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    poussee du personnel charge des operations. Le transfert des informations au service de comptabilite des matieres nucleaires est assure au moyen d'un systeme de fiches qui accompagnent les matieres: chaque lot est identifie par une fiche individuelle et la livraison du lot est signalee par transfert de la fiche au service de comptabilite des matieres nucleaires{sup .} La plupart des operations comptables sont executees sur des appareils electroniques de traitement de l'information; outre les dossiers et calculs necessaires pour l'etablissement des bilans matieres, on enregistre regulierement des donnees sur la retention et la concentration afin de faciliter la detection des anomalies dans les bilans entree/sortie ou dans les inventaires. L'analyse statistique est largement utilisee pour verifier les mesures et reduire au minimum le nombre d'analyses chimiques. Toutefois, l'application des statistiques n'a pas donne de bons resultats pour l'evaluation des erreurs d'inventaire. Le memoire etudie de maniere detaillee les methodes de controle des matieres indiquees plus haut et certains des problemesiqu'elles posent. (author) [Spanish] Desde hace mas de veinte anos, la planta Y-12 de la Comision de Energia Atomica, situada en Oak Ridge, Tennessee, viene tratando y recuperando diversas formas de uranio enriquecido no irradiado. El proceso de recuperacion consiste en un tren semicontinuo de operaciones unitarias: disolucion, combustion, evaporacion, extraccion, desnitrificacion e hidrofluoracion. El equipo de tratamiento y almacena - miento es de dimensiones restringidas para evitar la criticidad y tiene una capacidad combinada de varios centenares de kg de uranio enriquecido al mes. El material sometido a las operaciones de recuperacion proviene tanto de la planta como de otras instalaciones que la CEA posee en los Estados Unidos. Este material incluye practicamente todos los tipos de residuos de uranio enriquecido sin irradiar. El control fisico se ejerce satisfactoriamente

  3. Contribution to the study of thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems; Contribution a l'etude du melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmann, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This work describes methods of dynamic nuclear polarization in solids based on the thermal mixing between nuclear spin systems. The description of the thermal mixing processes involves most of the fundamental aspects of the spin temperature theory. The experiments, conducted with paradichlorobenzene and para-dibromobenzene, yield a detailed confirmation of the theoretical predictions. (author) [French] Ce travail decrit des methodes de polarisation dynamique nucleaire dans les solides basees sur le melange thermique entre systemes de spins nucleaires. La description des processus de melange thermique met en jeu la plupart des aspects fondamentaux de la theorie de la temperature de spin. Les experiences, realisees avec du paradichlorobenzene et du paradibromobenzene, apportent une confirmation detaillee des previsions theoriques. (auteur)

  4. Statistical pulses generator. Application to nuclear instrumentation (1962); Generateur d'impulsions aleatoires. Application a l'instrumentation nucleaire (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This report describes a random pulses generator adapted to nuclear instrumentation. After a short survey on the statistical nature of electronic signals, the different ways for generating pulses with a Poisson's time-distribution are studied. The final generator built from a gaseous thyratron in a magnetic field is then described. Several tests are indicated : counting-rate stability, Pearson's criterion, distribution of time-intervals. Applications of the generator in 'whole testing' of nuclear instrumentation are then indicated for sealers, dead time measurements, time analyzers. In this application, pulse-height spectrums have been made by Poissonian sampling of a recurrent or random low-frequency signal. (author) [French] Cette etude decrit un generateur d'impulsions aleatoires et ses applications a l'instrumentation nucleaire. Apres un bref rappel sur la nature statistique des signaux en electronique nucleaire, sont passes en revue les principaux moyens d'obtenir des impulsions distribuees en temps suivant une loi de Poisson. Le generateur utilisant un thyratron a gaz dans un champ magnetique est ensuite decrit; diverses methodes de test sont appliquees (stabilite du taux de comptage, criterium de Pearson, spectre des intervalles ds temps). Les applications du generateur a l'electronique nucleaire dans le domaine des 'essais globaux' sont indiques: test des echelles de comptage et mesure des temps morts, test des analyseurs en temps apres division du taux de comptage par une puissance de deux, test des analyseurs multicanaux en amplitude. Pour cette derniere application, on a realise des spectres d'amplitudes suivant une loi connue, par echantillonnage poissonien d'un signal basse frequence recurrent ou aleatoire. (auteur)

  5. Nuclear power in our societies; Le nucleaire dans nos societes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fardeau, J.C.

    2011-07-01

    Hiroshima, Chernobyl, Fukushima Daiichi are the well known sad milestones on the path toward a broad development of nuclear energy. They are so well known that they have blurred certainly for long in a very unfair way the positive image of nuclear energy in the public eye. The impact of the media appetite for disasters favours the fear and puts aside all the achievements of nuclear sciences like nuclear medicine for instance and all the assets of nuclear power like the quasi absence of greenhouse gas emission or its massive capacity to produce electricity or heat. The unique solution to enhance nuclear acceptance is the reduction of the fear through a better understanding of nuclear sciences by the public. (A.C.)

  6. experience du service de medecine nucleaire sahloul sousse dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tics of the tumor and the Tg values of. Conclusion: The ablative efficiency is optimized by 131 cures iodine should be extended until the Tg remains high. Monitoring life is necessary and the thresholds Tg below 2ng/ml is required. Keywords: Differentiated thyroid Cancers, Thyroglobulin, Iodine 131, Prediction, Monitoring.

  7. IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people; La cooperation technique de l`AIEA. Un partenariat pour le developpement. La science nucleaire au service de l`humanite; La cooperacion tecnica del OIEA. Un socio para el desarrollo. La ciencia nuclear al servicio de la gente; Tekhnicheskoe sotrudnichestvo magateh. Partner v tselyakh razvitiya. Yadernaya nauka na sluzhbe chelovechestva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D; Perez Vargaz, J

    1998-12-31

    This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource management, pollution control for a sustainable environment, nuclear medicine, and ensuring nuclear reactor safety

  8. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    'impulsion du CEA, mais aussi de maitres d'oeuvres tels qu'Electricite de France et la Marine Marchande, l'effort nucleaire fran is atteint pour les annees 1957-1961, environ 600 milliards de francs: plus de la moitie de cette somme sera depensee par l'industrie chimique en recherches, installations pilotes, constructions d'usines et livraisons. Faire bien, vite et rentable sont les buts recherches. Ces objectifs sont atteints grace a une collaboration intime des grands services de l'etat et de l'industrie privee. Ce gros effort s'exerce principalement dans les voies suivantes: - Un traitement chimique pousse de tonnages croissants des minerais de l'Union fran ise, visant a produire un uranium pur, abondant et bon marche. - Une preparation soigneuse de combustibles nucleaires economiques et parfaitement adaptes aux divers types de reacteurs en fonctionnement ou en construction. - Un retraitement des combustibles irradies pour en extraire le plutonium de facon complete ainsi que l'uranium et certains produits de fission. - Une fabrication industrielle des materiaux nucleairement purs ou resistants a la corrosion exiges par la technologie des reacteurs producteurs d'energie et de recherches. - La fourniture aux multiples utilisateurs etrangers et fran is d'isotopes et de traceurs radioactifs reclames par la medecine, l'industrie et l'agriculture en nombre toujours croissant. - Un traitement chimique meticuleux des effluents gazeux ou liquides dans des stations au controle rigoureux afin de rendre les reacteurs et leurs annexes parfaitement surs d'emploi. Cet expose aura montre l'ampleur de l'effort deploye par une industrie chimique nucleaire jeune, dynamique et en plein essor. Ayant assure ses techniques, realise de nombreuses installations, elle est largement en etat de faire face au programme atomique fran is. En outre, elle est capable et desireuse d'etre associee aux developpements de l'industrie atomique etrangere notamment dans te cadre de l'Euratom et d

  9. UPAYA PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN PRESTASI BELAJAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA HINDU MELALUI PENERAPAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida I Dewa Ayu Ketut Putri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning : group investigation (GI is a learning strategy to determine the student’s development and progress that oriented to class activities and allow students to use a variety of learning resources besides teachers. Thelow learning achievement obtained by students in particular on the subjects of Hinduism is noteworthy. It is caused by several factors, including the intelligence of students, student motivation, interest in learning, study habits, as well as external factors such as student living environment, the infrastructure that supports the learning process inadequate. To see whether the implementation of Cooperative Learning type Group Investigation able to improve student learning outcomes, this study applied the model to the 2nd year student (class F in SMP Negeri 3 Denpasar school year 2011/2012. This study was classifiedas a class action (classroom action reseach which is the subject is the 2nd year student (class F as many as 28 people and the object of research is thestudent’s learning activities. This study used primary data obtained directly from the students by using the technique of testing and observation sheet. The collected data were analyzed descriptively based on the average and standarddeviation that obtained through the results of the evaluation scores at each end of the cycle. The results showed a very significant increase in activity of students from an average score of 2.93 in the first cycle to 4.14 in the second cycle. The average student achievement in the first cycle is 70.64 with classical completeness of 60% increased to 75.54 with classical completeness of 92.9%.

  10. France's nuclear power programme; Le programme nucleaire francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanius, J [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    -increasing importance, by using the country's resources of natural uranium, and later plutonium, to the best ends. (authors) [French] Les perspectives d'evolution de la consommation d'energie electrique francaise confirment l'aggravation du deficit des ressources energetiques metropolitaines. Les centrales nucleaires doivent permettre de diminuer ce deficit si un certain nombre d'incertitudes actuelles sont levees. Le premier programme presente par MM AILLERET et TARANGER a la Conference de Geneve en 1955 visait la mise en service pour 1965 de 850 MWe; il a ete consacre au developpement de la filiere uranium naturel - graphite - gaz et s'acheve avec la realisation d'EDF 3, premiere unite capable de 500 MWe engagee dans le monde. Avant de passer du stade des prototypes a celui des duplications, ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE a decide, en accord avec le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE, la realisation d'EDF 4 qui, en reprenant la partie reacteur d'EDF 3 ainsi que l'appareil de chargement et de dechargement, l'ensemble de controle et divers materiels, apporte une innovation importante en incorporant les echangeurs et les soufflantes a l'interieur du caisson en beton precontraint contenant le coeur. En meme temps, les etudes se poursuivent dans cette meme filiere et laissent entrevoir les possibilites d'utiliser un nouvel element combustible annulaire dont l'emploi ameliorerait notablement les performances d'EDF 5. Dans la filiere eau lourde, la realisation d'EL 4 a Brennilis par le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE et ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE se poursuit. Les etudes d'un reacteur de 500 MWe de cette filiere ont deja commence. Dans la filiere a eau pressurisee, la centrale de CHOOZ est realisee en association par ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE et les Producteurs Belges. Enfin, le COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE poursuit a Cadarache la realisation du surgenerateur 'Rapsodie' et les etudes d'un reacteur de puissance plus important. Ainsi, les connaissances techniques et economiques acquises dans ces diverses

  11. Experience and co-operation in the development of nuclear engineering education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Gladieux, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents various aspects of the international co-operation set up at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (INSTN) for developing the nuclear engineering education in a European framework, with the Tempus programmes, or worldwide, through the IAEA technical co-operation programme. As such co-operation mainly relies on the courses established in the INSTN for national purposes, a short presentation of them is made first. (author)

  12. Communication Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material, Software and Related Technology; Communication recue de certains Etats Membres concernant les directives applicables aux transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels a double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-09

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Hungary, dated 14 June 2010, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 7 May 2010 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Ms. Gyorgyi Martin Zanathy, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America,1 providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [French] L'Agence a recu une note verbale de la mission permanente de la Hongrie, en date du 14 juin 010, lui demandant de communiquer a tous les Etats Membres une lettre du 7 mai 2010 du president du Groupe des fournisseurs nucleaires, l'ambassadeur Gyorgyi Martin Zanathy, adressee au Directeur general au nom des gouvernements des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Chine, Croatie, Chypre, Danemark, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Federation de Russie, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Japon, Kazakhstan, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvege, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Roumanie, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovaquie, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraine1. Cette lettre apporte des informations supplementaires sur les Directives de ces gouvernements applicables aux transferts nucleaires.

  13. Neutron noise in nuclear reactors; Le bruit neutronique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A. [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (France); Pachowska, R. [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1961-06-15

    The power of a nuclear reactor, in the operating conditions, presents fluctuations due to various causes. This random behaviour can be included in the study of 'noises'. Among other sources of noise, we analyse hereafter the fluctuations due: a) to the discontinuous emissions of neutrons from an independent source; b) to the multiplication of neutrons inside the reactor. The method which we present makes use of the analogies between the rules governing a nuclear reactor in operation and a number of radio-electrical systems, in particular the feed-back loops. The reactor can be characterized by its 'passing band' and is described as a system submitted to a sequence of random pulses. In non linear operating condition, the effect of neutron noise is defined by means of a non-linear functional, this theory is thus related to previous works the references of which are given at the end of the present report. This leads us in particular in the case of nuclear reactors to some results given by A. Blaquiere in the case of radio-electrical loops. (author) [French] La puissance d'un reacteur nucleaire, dans les conditions du regime, est affectee de fluctuations dont les causes sont tres diverses. Ce comportement aleatoire rentre dans le cadre general de l'etude des 'bruits'. Entre autres sources ce bruit, nous analysons ici les fluctuations dues: a) a l'emission discontinue des neutrons provenant d'une source autonome; b) a la multiplication des neutrons au sein du reacteur. La methode que nous introduisons exploite les analogies entre les lois qui regissent un reacteur nucleaire au regime et certains systemes radioelectriques, en particulier les circuits a boucle de reaction. Le reacteur est caracterise par sa 'bande passante' et est decrit comme un systeme soumis a une succession d'impulsions aleatoires. Dans les conditions de fonctionnement non lineaires, l'effet du bruit neutronique est precise en utilisant une fonctionnelle non lineaire, ce qui relie cette theorie a

  14. Underground nuclear explosions. Geological survey of the cavities; Explosions nucleaires souterraines etude geologique des cavites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A geological survey of underground nuclear explosions makes it possible to determine the main characteristics of the cavity formed. The lower portion is spherical; the same was very likely true of the roof, which collapses in the majority of media with the exception of rock-salt. Its radius, for a given bomb size, can vary by a factor of two according to the type of rock. The lay-out of its contents depends on the characteristics of the solid and liquid products at the moment of the roof collapse; according to the medium involved, mixing of the rubble and the mud-flow occurs (granite) or does not occur (tuff and alluvia). In all media, the average physical properties can be evaluated. (author) [French] L'etude geologique d'explosions nucleaires souterraines permet de determiner les principaux caracteres de la cavite creee. Sa partie inferieure est spherique; il en etait vraisemblablement de meme de sa voute, effondree dans la plupart des milieux a l'exception du sel gemme. Son rayon, a energie d'engin egale, varie selon les roches du simple au double. La disposition de son contenu depend des caracteristiques des produits solides et liquides au moment de la chute du toit; selon le cas, il n'y a pas (tuf et alluvions) ou il y a (granite) melange des eboulis et des laves. Dans tous les milieux, les proprietes physiques moyennes peuvent etre evaluees. (auteur)

  15. Study of the chimney produced by an underground nuclear explosion; Etude de la cheminee creee par une explosion nucleaire souterraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    Underground nuclear explosions lead to the formation of a cavity which is roughly of spherical shape. The roof of this cavity is unstable and collapses in most cases, leading to the formation of a chimney. The height and the diameter depend on the energy of the charge and on the nature of the surroundings. The chronology of the various stages can be determined by seismic observations. The interior of the chimney is filled, either partially or completely, with rubble earth. This phenomenon is of great importance as far as the use of nuclear explosions for industrial applications is concerned. (author) [French] Les explosions nucleaires souterraines creent une cavite de forme grossierement spherique. La voute de cette cavite est instable et s'effondre dans la plupart des cas, donnant lieu a la formation d'une cheminee. La hauteur et le diametre sont fonction de l'energie du tir et de la nature du milieu. La chronologie des evenements peut etre determinee par des observations seismiques. L'interieur des cheminees est occupe, en partie ou en totalite, par des eboulis. Ce phenomene presente un grand interet pour l'utilisation des explosions nucleaires a des fins industrielles. (auteur)

  16. The Problems of Controlling Defects in the Materials Used for the First Czechoslovak Nuclear-Power Station; Problemes de Controle des Defauts dans les Materiaux Utilises a la Premiere Centrale Nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie; Problemy defektoskopicheskogo kontrolya stroitel'nykh materialov reaktora pervoj chekhoslovatskoj atomnoj ehlektrostantsii; Problemas de Control de Defectos en los Materiales Utilizados en la Primera Central Nuclear de Checoslovaquia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radislav, Filipp [Zavody Im.V.I. Lenina, Pl' zen, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1965-09-15

    cassettes. In radiographing thick welds, betatrons of Czechoslovak manufacture are used. The paper describes the methods used for testing and the results obtained and compares the Czechoslovak 15-MeV betatron with the Siemens' betatron. (author) [French] Le memoire donne une description succincte de la cuve du reacteur de la premiere centrale nucleaire de Tchecoslovaquie. En raison des specifications rigoureuses auxquelles doivent repondre les methodes de construction et d'assemblage de la cuve du reacteur, en acier inoxydable faiblement allie de grande epaisseur (650 mm), il a fallu elaborer une methode de controle non destructif du materiau de base et des soudures, fondes sur l'emploi de ' temoins ' . Pour controler la qualite du materiau de base et des sourdures, on utilise essentiellement des ultrasons puises et une sonde. Le memoire decrit les methodes d'essais et l'evaluation des donnees au cours de l'examen du materiau de base, ainsi que le procede qui permet de verifier la qualite des soudures electriques a scorie, des soudures en atmosphere de gaz carbonique et des soudures a l'arc faites a la main. Le controle des plaques forgees et laminees se fait au moyen d'un dispositif automatique de defectoscopie qui a ete mis au point en Tchecoslovaquie. Ce dispositif se compose de deux parties: un mecanisme mobile et un detecteur a ultrasons du type U1D-A2, de fabrication tchecoslovaque. Il comprend plusieurs elements inedits. On a compense l'effet de la distance sur l'ampleur du signal declenche par un defaut de maniere que cette ampleur reste constante. On a compense aussi l'effet du aux irregularites de la liaison acoustique, les impulsions etant communiquees a un dispositif d'enregistrement a distance. L'importance du defaut est evalue a l'aide d'unattenuateur. On metau point un dispositif automatique pour controler une surface cylindrique verticale. Les soudures d'assemblage circulaire doivent etre verifiees a une temperature elevee. Dans les usines V. I. Lenine de

  17. Tâches et coopération dans deux dispositifs universitaires de formation à distance Tasks and cooperation within two university level open and distance learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mangenot

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude sur les apprentissages à distance via Internet au niveau universitaire se focalise sur deux aspects : les tâches d'apprentissage et les formes d'apprentissage collectif. Elle s'appuie sur l'étude qualitative de deux formations ouvertes et à distance ayant fonctionné en grandeur réelle, l'une sur un mode entièrement à distance, l'autre sur un mode hybride. Après une discussion sur le terme très polysémique de "tâche", le corpus est présenté, puis une typologie des tâches est proposée ; une réflexion sur les notions d'apprentissage collectif, coopératif et collaboratif clôt le propos, tentant de caractériser les relations entre les étudiants lors de la réalisation des tâches. Bien que les interactions entre étudiants ne relèvent certainement pas de la collaboration, on avance néanmoins qu'elles peuvent être étudiées dans le cadre des apprentissages collaboratifs assistés par ordinateur.This study deals with distance learning through the Internet in university context. The focus lies on two topics: learning tasks and collective learning. It is based on the qualitative case study of two open and distance learning (ODL courses, one case of fully distance learning and one case of blended learning. After having discussed the concept of "task", the data are then presented and a task typology is proposed. The paper ends with a discussion about collective, cooperative and collaborative learning, trying to characterize the kind of relationship between the students during the fulfillment of the tasks. Although it seems impossible to consider the interactions between the students as collaboration, we suggest that studying them nevertheless belongs to the domain of computer supported collaborative learning.

  18. Statistical treatment of data. Application to nuclear electronics; Traitement des informations en regime statistique. Applications a l'electronique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this report the data of probability calculations are applied to the analyses of counting losses in experiments on chance events encountered in nuclear physics. The distribution of time intervals according to Poisson's law is studied and various applications of this are given: calculation of counting losses on a scale preceded by a fast de-multiplying circuit, decrease of the counting rate on the multichannel selectors, recording of statistical distribution phenomena on magnetic bands. (author) [French] Ce rapport applique les donnees du calcul des probabilites a l'analyse des pertes de comptage dans les experiences sur des evenements aleatoires rencontres en physique nucleaire. La distribution des intervalles de temps suivant une loi de Poisson est etudiee et differentes applications en sont donnees: calcul des pertes de comptage sur une echelle precedee d'un circuit de demultiplication rapide, diminution du taux de comptage sur les selecteurs multicanaux, enregistrement de phenomenes a distribution statistique sur bandes magnetiques. (auteur)

  19. Siloette, Siloe mock-up; Siloette, modele nucleaire de siloe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delcroix, V; Jeanne, G; Mitault, G; Schulhof, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Siloette is the Siloe mock-up. The main installations are described: various tanks, building, auxiliaries, control systems... Precis ions are given about precautions taken for using spent fuel elements. (authors) [French] Siloette est le modele nucleaire de SILOE. On decrit ses diverses installations: bassins, batiments, auxiliaires, controle... Des precisions sont donnees sur les precautions prises pour y utiliser des elements uses. (auteurs)

  20. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  1. Possibilities and limitations of analogue methods for studying the dynamics of nuclear power stations; Possibilites et limitations du calcul analogique pour les etudes dynamiques de centrales nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C; Deat, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1. Introduction: the present paper is devoted to analog simulation of problems related to nuclear reactors other than the simulation of the kinetic equations which is well known. 2. Thermodynamic problems: various problems relative to temperature evolution in a reactor, in a pipe, in an exchanger, in a turbine, are studied, and simulation techniques used by earlier authors are critically reviewed. 3. Pipe simulators: it is shown that this problem can be solved by the use of specialized simulators which will be described and analysed. 4. Rotating machine simulators: the particular aspect of rotating machine calculations introducing frequent use of diagrams is emphasized. A simulator requiring both digital and analogue methods is described. 5. The study of a nuclear power station: as an example it is proposed to discuss problems a rising in connection with the preceding elements (a, b, c, d) when simulating the behaviour of large nuclear plants. The part played by ordinary computing elements for the simulation of the different servomechanism transfer functions is considered and process of regulation is outlined. 6. Conclusion: the necessity of the use of high quality simulators and computers is underlined and the accuracy of the solutions is discussed. (author)Fren. [French] 1. Cinetique des reacteurs: la simulation des equations cinetiques d'un reacteur nucleaire ne pose desormais plus de probleme. II est donc possible de faire le point des differentes applications de la technique analogique dans ce domaine. 2. Les problemes thermodynamiques: on discute les differents problemes poses par l'evolution des temperatures dans un reacteur, dans une tuyauterie, dans un echangeur, dans une turbine, et on passe en revue les techniques de simulation proposees jusqu'a ce jour. 3s simulateurs de tuyauteries: on montre comment les differents problemes poses ci-dessus peuvent etre resolus, pour une classe tres vaste de reacteurs par l'emploi de simulateurs speciaux que l

  2. Rôle du Liver X Receptor dans la régulation transcriptionnelle de la lipogenèse

    OpenAIRE

    Ducheix, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Chez les mammiferes, la lipogenese ou synthese de novo des acides gras joue un rôle essentiel a l'homeostasie energetique. Elle est particulierement active dans le foie. Le Liver X Receptor (LXR) est un recepteur nucleaire de classe II qui est implique dans la regulation de l'expression de genes importants dans cette voie metabolique. Au niveau hepatique, LXR regule directement l'expression de certains genes de la lipogenese et aussi l'expression des facteurs de transcription SREBP-1c et ChRE...

  3. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H; Mechali, D; Dousset, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  4. Piles used for the nuclear control of materials; Empilements pour le controle nucleaire des materiaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raievski, V; Sautiez, B; Bailly du Bois, B; Tretiakoff, O; Thome, P; Vidal, R; Koppel Martelly, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The devices which make it possible to check on the nuclear qualities of the materials used in reactor construction are described. These verifications bear on substantial masses of materials, following the last stage of their machining. The components found in all these are a graphite pile into which the material to be investigated is inserted, a source of neutrons made up of an Ra-Be system, and a proportional BF{sub 3} counter. The devices described here bear on checking graphite, beryllium oxide and uranium absorption, as well as on a verification of the {sup 235}U content of fuel elements. (author)Fren. [French] On decrit des dispositifs permettant de controler les qualites nucleaires de materiaux utilises dans la construction des piles. Ce controle s'effectue sur des masses importantes de materiaux apres la phase finale d'usinage. Ces dispositifs ont en commun un empilement de graphite recevant le materiau a etudier, une source de neutrons de Ra-Be et un compteur proportionnel a BF{sub 3}. Les dispositifs decrits concernent le controle de l'absorption du graphite, de la glucine et de l'uranium, ainsi que le controle de la teneur en {sup 235}U des elements de combustion. (auteur)

  5. Neutron detection in an atomic reactor core using semi-conductors; Detection des neutrons par semi-conducteur dans un coeur de reacteur atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divoux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    In this paper, the first part describes the principle of nuclear particle detection by means of semiconductor diodes and the general application of these. The second part describes fabrication of the device used to estimate thermic neutron fluxes in core of a swimming pool type reactor. The useful volume (2.9 mm thickness) is in the light water moderator, between combustible elements plates. The results, principally obtained in the core of Siloette reactor at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble' at low power, are mentioned in the third part. Flux maps have been set and comparison between converter's products: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235 is made. (author) [French] Dans ce rapport, une premiere partie porte sur la description du principe de detection des particules nucleaires par diodes a semi-conducteur et sur l'application generale de celles-ci. Une deuxieme partie s'attache a decrire la fabrication du materiel utilise pour evaluer les flux de neutrons thermiques dans un coeur de reacteur type pile piscine. L'espace de mesure (2,9 mm d'epaisseur) se situe entre les plaques des elements combustibles, dans le moderateur eau legere. Les resultats, obtenus principalement dans le coeur du reacteur Siloette du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble aux basses puissances de fonctionnement, sont rapportes dans la troisieme partie. Des cartes de flux ont ete dressees et une comparaison est faite entre les produits 'convertisseurs' suivants: Bore 10, Lithium 6, Uranium 235. (auteur)

  6. Cooperative strategies in the LNG industry: is the rationalisation argument grounded?; Strategies cooperatives dans l'industrie du GNL: l'argument de la rationalisation est-il fonde?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massol, O.; Tchung-Ming, St

    2009-02-15

    The authors are commenting the emergence of cooperative strategies between 12 LNG (liquefied natural gas) exporting countries which are part of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF). In this economic study, they more particularly examine the often evoked scenario of a cooperation only aimed at a logistic rationalisation, which has no impact of LNG prices. Using a simple static model calibrated with data from 2007, they assess the benefit of this cooperation. Numerical results suggest that, in absence of a redistribution policy, this cooperative strategy is likely not to be adopted. Without any redistribution, choosing cooperation would not be rational for some exporters. The issue of sharing this collective benefit is then formulated by using concepts of the cooperative game theory. Several redistribution policies are then studied, including the Shapley value and several concepts based on the nucleolus. The results reveal a relatively restrained choice for the redistribution policy. Among the used methods, only the 'per capita nucleolus', a rather sophisticated one, matches the both desirable properties: to belong to the cooperative game core and a monotony with respect to the aggregate.

  7. Calculation of the shock-wave in the region close to an underground nuclear explosion (method Cades); Calcul de l'onde de choc en zone proche d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (methode cades)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supiot, F; Brugies, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    The outline of a method is presented for calculating the characteristics of a shock wave produced by an underground nuclear explosion (pressure, wave velocity, velocity of the medium, energy left in the medium by the shock, etc.). By means of an application to a granitic medium and of a comparison with results obtained during French nuclear explosions, it has been possible to show the good agreement existing between the calculations and the experimental results. The advantages of such a method for studying the industrial applications of underground nuclear explosions are stressed. (authors) [French] On expose les grandes lignes d'une methode de calcul des caracteristiques de l'onde de choc issue d'une explosion nucleaire souterraine (pression, vitesse de l'onde, vitesse du milieu, energie deposee par le choc dans le milieu...). Une application a un milieu granitique et une comparaison aux resultats obtenus au cours d'explosions nucleaires francaises permet de montrer la bonne concordance entre le calcul et les resultats experimentaux. On souligne l'interet d'une telle, methode pour l'etude d'applications industrielles des explosions nucleaires souterraines. (auteurs)

  8. Dans la cuisine du partenariat. Retour sur les obstacles interculturels et institutionnels dans un projet de coopération universitaire franco-algérienne  In the kitchen of the partnership. A reflexive look at intercultural and institutional obstacles in a Franco-Algerian project of academic co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Blanc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse de manière réflexive une expérience de coopération universitaire franco-algérienne et il examine l’impact sur le partenariat des tensions produites par la mise à l’épreuve du terrain. Emboîté dans de multiples dispositifs, l’objet de la coopération concentre un faisceau d’attentes, aussi diverses que contradictoires, susceptibles de créer des tensions dans des négociations qu’il faut en permanence reprendre. L’article montre que l’approche par la transaction sociale est pertinente pour analyser des processus partenariaux qui passent par de la coopération conflictuelle et des arrangements informels. Deux obstacles majeurs apparaissent : les cercles vicieux bureaucratiques et les malentendus interculturels. Des transactions implicites et tacites permettent de débloquer lentement la situation.This paper makes a reflexive assessment of an experiment in Franco-Algerian academic co-operation. It addresses the impact on the partnership of the tensions which emerge at field level practice. Embedded in various institutional patterns, the aim of co-operation is caught between diverging and contradictory expectations, creating tensions which fuel never-ending negotiations. The paper highlights the relevance of a social transaction approach for the understanding of partnership processes which necessarily involve conflictual co-operation and informal arrangements. Two major obstacles emerge: bureaucratic vicious circles and intercultural misunderstandings. Implicit and/or tacit transactions can allow for the slow unfolding of situations.

  9. The Radioisotopic Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Currents in Natural Waters. Surface Collection of Radioactive Fall-Out on a Large Alpine Lake; Determination par detection nucleaire des coefficients de diffusion et des courants dans les eaux naturelles. Evolution de la surface de collection d'un grand lac alpin pour les retombees radioactives; Opredelenie koehffitsienta diffuzii i skorosti techeniya estestvennykh vod pri pomoshchi yadernogo detektirovaniya. Ehvolyutsiya poverkhnosti sbora radioaktivnykh osadkov na bol'shom al'pijskom ozere; Determinacion por deteccion nuclear de los coeficientes de difusion y de las corrientes en las aguas naturales evolucion de la superficie de captacion de un gran lago alpino para las precipitaciones radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesselet, R.; Nordemann, D. [Service d' Electronique Physique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dussart, B. [Centre de Recherches Hydrobiologiques, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-08-15

    'un coefficient de diffusion pour l'emetteur utilise et a la mesure eventuelle de la vitesse du courant au point ou la mesure est effectuee (dans le cas decrit, le lac Leman). Dans une seconde etape, en correlation avec une etude de geophysique concernant le probleme general des retombees radioactives, les auteurs ont utilise l'apport des retombees radioactives ayant pour origine les essais nucleaires atmospheriques (octobre 1961-janvier 1962). Des mesures de la radioactivite ont ete effectuees chaque jour sur des prelevements d'eau du lac Leman a des profondeurs de 0 m, 10 m, 20 m et sur un collecteur de retombees atmospheriques seches et humides. Malgre la complexite du regime des apports en fonction du temps, l'interpretation des diagrammes obtenus peut contribuer a resoudre le probleme du devenir des produits radioactifs dans les conditions de diffusion et de courants rencontrees. L'utilisation de la diffusion de produits radioactifs en tres faibles quantites et des differentes techniques de detection nucleaires a haute sensibilite actuellement disponibles peut conduire a une meilleure connaissance de la diffusion in situ et du mouvement des masses d'eaux naturelles. (author) [Spanish] En una primera etapa, los autores ha i provecado la difusion in situ de un emisor radiactivo, el sodio-22 en forma de Na{sup +}, de actividad muy baja (inferior al milicurie). La aplicacion de las leyes de la difusion a este caso facilita el calculo de la velocidad de difusion de la ''nube radiactiva''. Por consiguiente, el registro en funcion del tiempo de las actividades medidas con dos detectores gamma dispuestos de modo conveniente permite asignar un coeficiente de difusion ai emisor empleado y, eventualmente, evaluar la velocidad de la corriente en el punto en que se efectua la medicion (en el caso descrito, el lago Leman). En una segunda etapa, en relacion con un estudio geofisico del problema general de las precipitaciones radiactivas, los autores utilizaron la aportacion de las

  10. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux

  11. Study of thick, nuclear-compensated silicon detectors; Etude des detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Coroller, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-09-01

    A study is made here, from the point of view of the realization and the performance, of thick nuclear-compensated silicon detectors. After recalling the need for compensation and reviewing the existing methods, the author describes in detail the controlled realization of thick detectors by nuclear compensation from the theoretical and experimental points of view. The practical precautions which should be observed are given: control of the homogeneity of the starting material, control of the evolution of the compensation, elimination of parasitic processes. The performances of the detectors obtained are then studied: electrical characteristics (current, life-time) on the one hand, detection and spectrometry of penetrating radiations on the other hand. The results show, that the compensated diodes having an effective thickness of two millimeters operate satisfactorily as detectors for applied voltages of about 500 volts. The resolutions observed are then about 2 per cent for mono-energetic electrons and about 4 per cent for the gamma; they can be improved by the use of a pre-amplifier of very low background noise. (author) [French] Les detecteurs epais au silicium compense nucleairement sont etudies ici du double point de vue realisation et performances. Apres un rappel sur la necessite de la compensation et les procedes existants, la realisation controlee des detecteurs epais par compensation nucleaire est decrite en detail sous l'aspect theorique et l'aspect experimental. On met en evidence les precautions a prendre dans la pratique: controle de l'homogeneite du materiau de base, controle de l'evolution de la compensation, elimination des processus parasites. On etudie ensuite les performances de detecteurs obtenus : caracteristiques electriques (courant, duree de vie) d'une part, d'autre part detection et spectrometrie des rayonnements penetrants. Les resultats montrent que les diodes compensees ayant une epaisseur utile de deux millimetres fonctionnent

  12. Nuclear Materials Management in Relation to Safety and Criticality Control: A Study of Non-Inherently Safe Systems; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans ses Rapports avec la Securite et le Controle de la Criticite; Etude des Systemes a Securite Non Inherente; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami s uchetom bezopasnosti i kontrolya za kritichnost'yu. izuchenie sistem dopolnitel'noj avarijnoj zashchity; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad y el Control de la Criticidad; Estudio de los Sistemas de Seguridad No Inherente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, Y. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France)

    1966-02-15

    a securite inherente. Toutefois, les systemes a securite non inherente restent nombreux dans les installations nucleaires et le recours a l'une ou l'autre des deux premieres methodes devient necessaire. Ces methodes sont liees a la gestion des matieres nucleaires. Dans les installations ou sont manipulees de petites quantites de matieres fissiles, il est souvent possible d'assurer la securite nucleaire en admettant dans chaque salle une masse de matiere fissile inferieure a la masse ciritique minimale. Pour des installations plus importantes, un tel controle, qui repose entierement sur la gestion des matieres, devient impossible. L'auteur examine, dans le cas particulier d'une usine oe traitement de combustibles irradies par voie aqueuse (les combustibles sont a base d'uranium naturel), comment se presente la liaison entre gestion et securite nucleaire. Une telle usine comprend grossierement trois parties au point de vue du controle de la criticite: Dans la premiere partie, traitant des solutions assez diluees, le controle qui s'impose est celui de la concentration. Si ce controle est aise (analyse et compteurs neutrons), il est difficile de s'assurer qu'il ne se forme pas de depots: bien que l'experience ait montre qu'ils n'etaient pas tellement a craindre, le fait bien connu d'un bilan matieres deficitaire reste un souci en matiere de criticite. Dans cette partie, la gestion des matieres, encore imparfaitement realisee, est de premiere importance pour la securite. La deuxieme partie traite des solutions concentrees et des precipites humides. C'est le domaine de la geometrie sure. La gestion des matieres l'interesse moins directement mais reste un facteur de securite important (en cas d'intervention, de nettoyage des appareils, etc.). Un controle par la masse s'impose dans la troisieme partie qui traite des produits secs. La gestion ne presente pas de difficulte particuliere. A ce schema se superpose une partie moins spectaculaire mais qui sur le plan surete est de

  13. Problems to be Expected in Disposing of Fission Products from a Possible Nuclear Power Programme; Problemes Eventuels d'Elimination des Produits de Fission dans les Futures Centrales Nucleaires; 0412 0415 0420 041e 042f 0414 ; Problemas que Puede Plantear la Evacuacion de Productos de Fision Resultantes de la Ejecucion de un Programa de Produccion de Energia de Origen Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, G. K. [Cenral Technical Services, Engineering and Development Group, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley (United Kingdom)

    1960-07-01

    typical British nuclear power programme covering the next few decades is examined. The types of reactor to be erected and the types of fuel to be initially used in them are well appreciated but of course the author's conclusions will necessarily become less certain with the passage of time. The chemical processes which must be applied to irradiated fuels will depend on the type of fuel, its burn-up etc., and so will change during the period under review. Consideration is therefore given to the quantities of fission products and heavy isotopes which may be produced, the forms in which they may leave the chemical processing streams and the methods available for handling them safely, either by storage or by disposal. (author) [French] L'auteur examine un programme d'energie nucleaire caracteristique pour la Grande-Bretagne et s'etendant sur les prochaines decennies. Il donne une evaluation fort judicieuse des types de reacteurs dont la construction est envisagee et des genres de combustibles qu'il est question d'y utiliser pendant la periode initiale; toutefois, ses conclusions auront avec le temps de moins en moins de valeur. En effet, le traitement chimique auquel on devra soumettre le combustible irradie depend du genre de ce dernier, de son taux de combustion, etc.; il subira inevitablement des modifications au cours de la periode consideree. L'auteur tient donc compte des quantites de produits fissiles et d'isotopes lourds qu'il sera possible de produire, des formes sous lesquelles ils pourront se presenter a la fin du traitement chimique et des methodes existantes permettant d'assurer leur manipulation sans danger en vue de leur stockage ou de leur elimination. (author) [Spanish] Esta memoria estudia un programa britanico caracteristico de produccion de energia nuclear que cubre las proximas decadas. Se sabe con bastante certeza que tipos de reactores se construiran y el tipo de combustible que se empleara en ellos en un principio, pero estos conocimientos son

  14. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Recoil in Organic Halide Systems: A New Theoretical Treatment and Experimental Verification of the Theory; Effets Chimiques du Recul Nucleaire dans des Systemes Organiques Halogenes: Nouveau Traitement Theorique et Verification Experimentale de la Theorie; Khimicheskie vozdejstviya yadernoj otdachi v organicheskikh galoidnykh sistemakh: novoe teoreticheskoe tolkovanie i ehksperimental'noe podtverzhdenie teorii; Efectos Quimicos del Retroceso Nuclear en Sistemas de Haluros Organicos: Nuevo Tratamiento Teorico y Verificacion Experimental de la Teoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontis, S. S.; Sanitwongs, P.; Weston, M. [Londonderry Laboratory for Radiochemistry, University of Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)

    1965-04-15

    mecanisme de la 'boule de billard' pour le marquage par l'atome chaud, auquel Libby a donne son nom, et les retentions sont exprimees en fonction de deux types de parametres, savoir: 1. la probabilite que le choc entre un atome chaud de radiohalogene et une molecule donnee determine la retention de l'atome chaud dans cette molecule; 2. les limites superieure et inferieure des energies pour lesquelles un atome de brome est dit chaud. Les auteurs montrent comment le premier type de parametre peut etre derive d'experiences sur des melanges binaires d'un halogenure organique et de l'halogene libre correspondant; le second type de parametre doit etre deduit des constantes nucleaires et chimiques. Des etudes sur les systemes C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} et C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2} ont permis de faire l'essai de ces methodes. Les valeurs de retention calculees (en Utilisant des parametres derives d'etudes des systemes C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}, CCl{sub 4}/Br{sub 2} et C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Br/Br{sub 2}) concordent avec celles qui sont determinees experimentalement dans des melanges ou la fraction molaire de brome est superieure a 0,1 environ. Par consequent, les auteurs considerent que le mecanisme Libby permet d'expliquer les retentions organiques observees dans ces melanges. Lorsque la fraction molaire de brome devient inferieure a 0,1, les retentions observees augmentent progressivement par rapport aux valeurs calculees, ce qui est sans doute du au fait que d'autres modes de marquage par l'atome chaud interviennent lorsque la concentration en brome n'est pas assez elevee pour assurer un bon 'balayage' des radicaux. (author) [Spanish] Los autores elaboraron metodos para calcular la probable retencion organica de los halogenos radiactivos despues de activar con neutrones mezclas de dos haluros organicos y el correspondiente halogeno libre; Los metodos se basan en la teoria del proceso de ' bolas de billar ' de Hbby para la marcacion con atomos

  15. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d'importance tres inegale. Ils meritent qu'on les examine

  16. Nuclear developments at the international inter govern mental level (1961); Developpements nucleaires sur le plan international intergouvernemental (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waynbaum, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The United Nations organisation and nuclear energy rose simultaneously, in 1945, to occupy an important place in the public eye. The spiritual succession of the League of Nations which had foundered during the war was taken up by the new organisation which sought to implant its political ideal in a more tangible reality, so that it might thereby be inspired by concrete and substantial objectives. This is one of the reasons for the existence of the dozen specialized agencies created by the family of the United Nations and dealing with Health, Culture, Agriculture, Finance, etc. Nuclear energy is one of these techniques. Becoming suddenly an important power factor and exploiting for itself the prestige of Science, it became the favorite domain for the growth of this new spirit, as much in its universal form in 1945 as in its more regional form which it was later to adopt. The achievements are numerous and of varying importance; they deserve te be studied carefully. (author) [French] L'organisation des Nations Unies et le nucleaire ont ete places simultanement, en 1945, au premier plan de la scene mondiale. La Societe des Nations ayant sombre pendant la guerre, son heritage spirituel fut recueilli par la nouvelle organisation qui chercha a enraciner son ideal politique dans une realite plus materielle, de facon a y puiser une nourriture concrete et substantielle. C'est une des raisons d'existence de la douzaine d'institutions specialisees gravitant dans la famille des Nations Unies et s'occupant de Sante, de Culture, d'Agriculture, de Finances, etc. Le nucleaire est l'une de ces techniques. Devenu soudainement un facteur primordial de puissance, Cristallisant a son benefice le prestige de la Science, c'etait un terrain de predilection pour le developpement du nouvel esprit, aussi bien sous la forme universelle de 1945, que sous les formes regionales qui ont vu le jour ensuite. Les travaux realises que nombreux, d

  17. The pulsed neutron method applied to the determination of the nuclear constants of graphite (1961); La methode des neutrons pulses appliquee a la determination des constantes nucleaires du graphite (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalande, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A method for determining the nuclear constants {sigma}{sub a} and {lambda}{sub t} of a moderator is described. The disappearance of a burst of neutrons introduced into a finite medium is studied as a function of time. This decrease in the thermal neutron density is the product of two exponentials; one representing the absorption, the other the leakage. By varying one or other of these factors, the constants of the factor left unvaried can be determined, and from this the nuclear constant values are deduced. (author) [French] On decrit une methode permettant de determiner les constantes nucleaires {sigma}{sub a} et {lambda}{sub t} d'un moderateur. On etudie la decroissance dans le temps d'une bouffee de neutrons introduite dans un milieu fini. Cette decroissance de la densite en neutrons thermiques est le produit de deux exponentielles; l'une represente l'absorption, l'autre les fuites. Par variation de l'un ou l'autre de ces facteurs, on determine les constantes du facteur laisse invariant dont on deduit les valeurs des constantes nucleaires. (auteur)

  18. General problems arising from the analogical resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors (1961); Problemes generaux poses par la resolution analogique des equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillet, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The author reviews precisely the analogical techniques used for the resolution of the kinetic equations of nuclear reactors. Prior to this, he recalls the reasons which oblige physicians and engineers, even today, to use electronic machines in this domain. The author then considers the technological problems posed by the range of values which the various nuclear parameters adopt. In each case, he shows that a compromise is possible allowing an optimum precision. He compares the results to those obtained by arithmetic calculation and uses the examples chosen in a critical analysis of the present possibilities of the two methods of calculation. (author) [French] L'auteur cherche a faire un point aussi exact que possible des techniques analogiques utilisees pour resoudre les equations cinetiques des reacteurs nucleaires. Il rappelle auparavant les raisons pour lesquelles physiciens et ingenieurs sont obliges, encore aujourd'hui, de faire appel aux machines electroniques dans ce domaine. Puis il etudie les problemes technologiques que souleve le champ des valeurs prises par les differents parametres nucleaires. Dans chacun des cas, il montre l'existence d'un compromis qui permet d'atteindre une precision optimum. Il compare les resultats obtenus a ceux provenant de calculateurs arithmetiques et profite des exemples choisis pour faire une analyse critique des possibilites actuelles offertes par les deux modes de calcul. (auteur)

  19. General phenomenology of underground nuclear explosions; Phenomenologie generale des explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S; Supiot, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An essentially qualitatively description is given of the phenomena related to underground nuclear explosions (explosion of a single unit, of several units in line, and simultaneous explosions). In the first chapter are described the phenomena which are common to contained explosions and to explosions forming craters (formation and propagation of a shock-wave causing the vaporization, the fusion and the fracturing of the medium). The second chapter describes the phenomena related to contained explosions (formation of a cavity with a chimney). The third chapter is devoted to the phenomenology of test explosions which form a crater; it describes in particular the mechanism of formation and the different types of craters as a function of the depth of the explosion and of the nature of the ground. The aerial phenomena connected with explosions which form a crater: shock wave in the air and focussing at a large distance, and dust clouds, are also dealt with. (authors) [French] On donne une description essentiellement qualitative des phenomenes lies aux explosions nucleaires souterraines (explosion d'un seul engin, d'engins en ligne et explosions simultanees). Dans un premier chapitre sont decrits les phenomenes communs aux explosions contenues et aux explosions formant un cratere (formation et propagation d'une onde de choc provoquant la vaporisation, la fusion et la fracturation du milieu). Le deuxieme chapitre decrit les phenomenes lies aux tirs contenus (formation d'une cavite et d'une cheminee). Le troisieme chapitre est consacre a la phenomenologie des tirs formant un cratere et decrit notamment le mecanisme de formation et les differents types de crateres en fonction de la profondeur d'explosion et de la nature du terrain. Les phenomenes aeriens lies aux explosions formant un cratere: onde de pression aerienne et focalisation a grande distance, nuages de poussieres, sont egalement abordes. (auteurs)

  20. Technical Cooperation Report for 2007. Report by the Director General; Rapport sur la Cooperation Technique pour 2007. Rapport du Directeur General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    . En 2007, le programme a permis de fournir un appui a 122 pays et territoires ; 3 546 missions d'experts et de conferenciers ont ete menees, 4 149 participants ont assiste a des reunions, 2 287 personnes ont participe a des cours et 1 661 ont beneficie de bourses et de voyages d'etude. Diverses activites ont ete menees en 2007 pour ameliorer l'efficacite du programme de cooperation technique (CT). Des progres ont encore ete accomplis dans la mise en place de la methode de gestion basee sur les resultats adoptee par le programme de CT. Des criteres de qualite normalises ont ete etablis pour la selection et la conception de projets et de nouvelles ameliorations ont ete apportees a l'application TI du cadre de gestion du cycle de programme (CGCP). Les facteurs ayant une influence sur l'execution des projets, y compris l'appui requis des Etats Membres pour une mise en oeuvre dans les delais impartis, ont ete examines et evalues en vue d'autres ameliorations. Le renforcement des capacites des Etats Membres etant un objectif cle de la cooperation technique, plusieurs mesures ont ete prises en 2007 pour l'atteindre. Selon une evaluation independante du programme de bourses pour 2003-2004 menee par le Bureau des services de supervision interne de l'Agence, le programme est utile et produit des resultats tangibles. La cooperation technique entre pays en developpement s'est poursuivie en 2007, s'appuyant sur le developpement des connaissances et des capacites des Etats Membres pour favoriser l'autonomie et la durabilite. La gestion des connaissances, composante essentielle de la creation de capacites a long terme et a tous les niveaux, a ete egalement prise en compte. En Europe, un projet regional visant a etablir des politiques et strategies pour preserver les connaissances nucleaires encourage l'elaboration de methodes communes de gestion des connaissances sur les technologies nucleaires, et l'appui de l'AIEA a l'Universite nucleaire mondiale (UNM) a permis a 21 participants

  1. Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at Argonne National Laboratory; Dosimetrie dans les Cas d'Accidents Nucleaires au Laboratoire National d'Argonne; 0421 041b 0423 0416 0411 0410 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear en el Laboratorio Nacional de Argonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L. L.; Duffy, T. L.; Sedlet, J.; O' Neil, D. P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1965-06-15

    storage stability are discussed. Plans have been formulated to determine phosphorus-32 in biological materials in order to obtain a fast- neutron dose, to analyse environmental materials for neutron activation products, and to determine the total number of fissions. Administrative control of dose determination will be facilitated with a manual which lists dosimeter locations and handling and counting procedures as well as formulae for dose calculations. (author) [French] La communication resume les mesures actuellement prevues au Laboratoire national d'Argonne pour evaluer les doses recues a la suite d'un accident de criticite. L'etude porte essentiellement sur deux types d'ensembles dosimetres en vente dans le commerce et donne les resultats d'operations de calibrage effectuees independamment au Laboratoire. Le reseau primaire de dosimetrie est constitue par des detecteurs a seuil mis au point au Laboratoire national d'Oak Ridge pour la mesure des spectres de neutrons. On a determine experimentalement, d'apres la decroissance d'activite de feuilles a fission, des courbes d'etalonnage pour les appareils de comptage a scintillation couramment utilises a Argonne. Ce materiel a egalement ete etalonne pour la mesure de l'activite du sodium-24 dans le sang. Des ensembles dosimetres du type mis au point au Laboratoire de Savannah River constituent le reseau secondaire. Les donnees fournies par les cellules de ces appareils qui detectent les neutrons par activation permettront de proceder a des corrections du spectre neutronique pour les energies intermediaires et pour les energies thermiques. L'activation epicadmique d'une feuille de cuivre, pour une fluence donnee des neutrons d'energie intermediaire, se revele relativement insensible aux variations du spectre neutronique dans la region consideree et on a pu determiner une moyenne significative pour la section efficace dans le cuivre. Le memoire donne les facteurs d'etalonnage des compteurs, calcules a Argonne pour les

  2. Trace Analysis of Boron in Nuclear Graphite by Means of Gas Chromatography; Analyse de traces de bore dans le graphite nucleaire au moyen de la chromatographie gazeuse; Analiz metodom gazovoj khromatografii sledov bora v yadernom grafite; Analisis de vestigios de boro en el grafito nuclear por cromatografia de gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zado, F. [Rudjer Boskovlc Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1963-11-15

    No literature is available about the application of gas chromatography in trace analysis of boron in graphite. The following methods of transformation of boron into its volatile compounds are discussed: (a) Ignition of graphite in a stream of oxygen and subsequent transformation of boron oxide into volatile methyl borate which is then analysed on a Dilkens Aerograph H Model 96 gas chromatograph with silicone column and hydrogen as carrier (concentration method). (b) Extraction of boron from the graphite by means of sodium fluoride at 2800{sup o}C with simultaneous chlorination and trapping of boron trichloride, which is then analysed (direct method). A home-made gas chromatograph with a thermal conductivity detector and nitrogen as a carrier was used. The column was made of glass with a 20% (wt./wt.) fluorocarbon oil on kieselguhr. Special precautions were taken on account of the sensitivity of boron trichloride to moisture. (author) [French] Rien n'a ete publie sur l'application de la chromatographie gazeuse a l'analyse de traces de bore dans le graphite. L'auteur examine les methodes suivantes de transformation du bore en composes volatils: a) Brulage du graphite dans un courant d'oxygene, puis transformation de l'oxyde de bore en borate de methyle volatil, que l'on analyse ensuite a l'aide d'un appareil a chromatographie gazeuse Dilkens Aerograph H, Modele 96, utilisant une colonne de silicium et de rhydrogene comme entrafheur (methode de concentration). b) Extraction du bore contenu dans le graphite par chauffage avec du fluorure de sodium a 2800{sup o}C, avec chloruration simultanee et captage du trichlorure de bore qui est ensuite analyse (methode directe). On s' est servi d'un appareil a chromatographie gazeuse construit sur place, dote d'un detecteur a conductibilite thermique et utilisant l'azote comme entrafheur. La colonne etait faite de verre contenant 20% en poids de fluorocarbure huileux sur du kieselguhr. Des precautions particulieres ont ete prises

  3. Nuclear purity and the production of uranium (1962); La purete nucleaire et la fabrication de l'uranium (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verte, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre du Bouchet, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    When the production of 'nuclear grade' uranium is dealt with, it is difficult, the author of this study points out, to separate its chemical, technical, and economical bearings. While recalling the evolution of chemical processes in various countries and describing the technic of uranium manufacture in the plant of the French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' at Le Bouchet, the author outlines the effect of economical contingencies on the problems the chemists and engineer are faced with. The question of cost price is also considered here with particular attention. (author) [French] Lorsqu'il s'agit de la production d'uranium de 'qualite nucleaire', il est difficile, souligne l'auteur de cette etude, de separer les aspects chimique, technique et economique. Aussi, en retracant l'evolution des procedes chimiques dans divers pays et decrivant les techniques de fabrication de l'uranium a l'usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, l'auteur ne manque-t-il pas de rappeler les incidences de la conjoncture economique sur les problemes posees au chimiste et a l'ingenieur. La question du prix de revient, egalement, est traitee ici avec une attention particuliere. (auteur)

  4. PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI KOPERASI DAN UMKM BERBASIS TECHNOPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dony Waluya Firdaus

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The design of Accounting Information System of Cooperatives and UMKM based on Technopreneur can assist Cooperative and UMKM in presenting Financial Statement and produce accountable financial statements Accounting system development method using Rapid Application Development (RAD adjust the pace Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC in design using DFD and flowchart. UMKM and Cooperative accounting information system using Enterprise Resource Planning. Keywords: Design; Accounting information system; Cooperative; UMKM; ERP Abstrak. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Koperasi dan UMKM berbasis technopreneur dapat membantu Koperasi dan UMKM dalam menyajikan Laporan Keuangan dan menghasilkan laporan keuangan yang akuntabel. Metode pengembangan sistem informasi akuntansi menggunakan Rapid Application Development (RAD menyesuaikan pase Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC dalam perancangan menggunakan DFD dan flowchart. Sistem informasi akuntansi UMKM dan Koperasi menggunakan Enterprise Resources Planning. Keywords: Perancangan; Sistem Informasi Akuntansi; Koperasi; UMKM; ERP

  5. Nuclear raw materials; Matieres premieres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, J. [Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-01-15

    It is clear that in the next decades there will be a substantial and increasing demand for uranium to fuel nuclear power stations. In a developing country, the discovery and development of uranium resources can be of importance either for the development of national nuclear power or for the commercial export of uranium. As the time taken between the start of a uranium exploration program and the uranium production stage.may be of the order of 6 - 10 years, it is now opportune to start new exploration so that advantage of the increased demand in the mid-1970s may be achieved. Thorium will also be of interest, but in the more distant future when the thorium cycle for advanced converters and breeder reactors is fully developed [French] Il est certain qu' au cours des prochaines décennies la demande d'uranium pour les centrales nucléaires sera importante et ne cessera de croître. Dans un pays en voie de développement, la découverte et la mise en valeur de ressources d'uranium peut avoir une grande importance, soit en vue de produire de l'énergie nucléoélectrique, soit en vue d'exporter l'uranium. Etant donné que les délais entre le démarrage d'un programme de prospection de l'uranium et le début de la production peuvent être de l'ordre de six ans, il est actuellement opportun de commencer les opérations d'exploration pour pouvoir profiter de la demande accrue qui s' affirmera vers le milieu de la prochaine décennie. Le thorium présentera aussi un certain intérêt, mais à plus long terme. Il faut pour cela que le cycle du thorium pour convertisseurs avancés et surgénérateurs ait été pleinement développé. (author)

  6. New features of nuclear excitation by {alpha} particles scattering; Nouveaux aspects de l'excitation nucleaire par diffusion de particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saudinos, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy a particles by nuclei is known to excite preferentially levels of collective character. We have studied the scattering of isotopically enriched targets of Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. In part I, we discuss the theoretical features of the interaction. In part II, we describe the experimental procedure. Results are presented and analysed in part III. {alpha} particles scattering by Ca{sup 40} is showed to excite preferentially odd parity levels. In odd nuclei we have observed multiplets due to the coupling of the odd nucleon with the even-even core vibrations. For even-even nuclei, a few levels are excited with lower cross-sections between the well-known first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states. Some could be members of the two phonon quadrupole excitation and involve a double nuclear excitation process. (author) [French] On sait que la diffusion inelastique des particules alpha de moyenne energie excite preferentiellement des niveaux de caractere collectif. Nous avons etudie la diffusion des particules alpha de 44 MeV du cyclotron de Saclay par des isotopes separes de Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn. Dans la premiere partie nous exposons les theories de cette interaction. Dans la seconde nous decrivons le systeme experimental. Les resultats sont donnes dans la troisieme partie. Nous montrons que les niveaux excites preferentiellement pour {sup 40}Ca par diffusion ({alpha},{alpha}') sont de parite negative. Dans les noyaux pair-impair nous avons observe des multiplets dus au couplage du nucleon celibataire avec les vibrations du coeur pair-pair. Pour les noyaux pair-pair nous avons pu etudier entre le premier niveau 2{sup +} et le niveau 3{sup -} deja bien connus certains etats plus faiblement excites. Il semble qu'ils sont dus a une excitation quadrupolaire a deux phonons et impliquent un processus de double excitation nucleaire. (auteur)

  7. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuricini, G. B. [Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author) [French] Dans le memoire, on examine l'organisation du personnel d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucleaires italiennes et les differences existant dans les effectifs, differences dues soit aux caracteristiques des centrales memes, soit aux particularites d'organisation des entreprises. Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examina la organizacion del personal de explotacion y conservacion de las centrales nucleares italianas y las diferencias que existen entre sus efectivos, diferencias que se deben a las caracteristicas de las mismas centrales o a las particularidades de organizacion de las empresas. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. (author) [Russian] Issleduyutsya voprosy organizatsii personala, zanimayushchegosya ehkspluatatsiej ital'yanskikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i ukhodom za nimi, a takkhe razlichiya v sostave personala, vytekayushchie libo iz kharakternykh osobennostej samikh stantsij, libo iz osobennostej organizatsii predpriyatij. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. (author)

  8. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F; Guerrini, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  9. INDUSTRIALISASI DAN TANTANGANNYA PADA SEKTOR PENDIDIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Unwanullah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Industrialisasi dan Tantangannya pada Sektor Pendidikan. Sumbangan pendidikan dalam perubahan dan pembangunan masa lalu telah bergeser dengan kemajuan teknoekonomi dan komunikasi. Perubahan yang terjadi telah menggeser tatanan kehidupan dan pandangan masyarakat. Materialisme, kapitalisme, efisiensi, dan efektivitas telah menjadi tujuan dan semangat hidup. Pergeseran pandangan masyarakat telah mengubah pula pandangan keberhasilan dan mutu pendidikan, di mana pendidikan diukur dari keberhasilan dalam keterserapan lulusan dalam dunia kerja, oleh karenanya pendidikan dianalisis dari karakteristik sebagai investasi (capital-investment. Pergeseran makna dan tanggung jawab pendidikan mendorong dunia pendidikan melakukan pembaruan dengan alternatif: membangun pembaruan penalaran warganya menuju pemerdekaan dan pendewasaan, pendidikan dilaksanakan secara komprehensif dan bekerjasama dengan semua pihak secara kemitraan, dan membangun visi pendidikan secara komprehensif dan simultan dengan semua pihak. Kata kunci: perubahan sosial, materialistik, modernisasi dan kapitalis Abstract: Industrialization and its education Sector challenges. Contribution of education has shifted with the progress of technology, economy, and communication. The changes have shifted the society's views. Materialism, capitalism, efficiency, and effectiveness have become of interest and enthusiasm for life. The shift has changed society's view, i.e. the view of success and quality of education, in which education is measured from a rate of the absorption of graduates into labor market, therefore education is analyzed from the characteristics of an investment (capital-investment. A shift in meaning and responsibility of education encourages the education sector to create reformation through these following alternatives: creating new thoughts towards liberation and maturation, implementing education comprehensively and cooperating with all parties in partnership, and creating

  10. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  11. Health problems raised by the elimination of radioactive wastes and nuclear accidents; Problemes sanitaires poses par l'elimination des dechets radioactifs et par les accidents nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammet, H.; Mechali, D.; Dousset, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The rapid development of nuclear energy demands an urgent solution to the health problems arising from the discharge into the environment of radioactive residues produced by nuclear installations. - To be able to evaluate the risks run by the population and to fix tolerance limits for waste discharge, it is necessary to possess an exact knowledge of the course taken by the radioelements discharged, from their source until they reach man. The incorporation of radioelements in food cycles is the first risk to take into consideration. The factors involved in all stages of this transmission must be foreseen, whether they concern physical or biological media, because of their continuity and their interdependence. Finally, socio-economic and dietetic data must be collected in order that the risks and tolerance levels estimated are based on concrete and experimental rather than theoretical knowledge. The risk of nuclear accidents in the atomic industry, although very improbable, must be taken into consideration because of the seriousness of their consequences. The health problems arise in the field of professional hygiene on the one hand and in that of public hygiene on the other. In the first field the risk is two-fold and involves irradiation and contamination. The public sphere is reduced essentially to the risk of contamination by radioactive substances accidentally released in the surrounding medium. The health studies to be conducted in this field therefore include research not only on irradiation or contamination therapeutics but also on the transfer of radioelements from the accident site to man, mainly through food cycles, in their physical and in their biological components. Studies of this kind form the basis of decisions in the health field which would have to be taken in the case of an accident. (authors) [French] Le developpement rapide de l'energie nucleaire rend urgente la solution des problemes sanitaires poses par le rejet dans le milieu ambiant des

  12. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La diffusion des TIC a des effets majeurs sur la société et sur l’économie. L’effet des nouvelles technologies sur le travail est évident dans les transformations de l’organisation du travail et des pratiques dans les organisations. Le télétravail est un bon exemple de ces nouvelles pratiques. Le présent texte expose les résultats d’un projet de recherche récemment mené sur le télétravail. Contrairement à l’approche qui présente un modèle d’avantages pour les acteurs économiques et sociaux, notre hypothèse est que le schème dialogique est lié aux nouvelles technologies et que la coopération est une dimension importante du télétravail. Dans notre étude, la coopération est observée à la fois dans les relations sociales entre employeurs et employés, et dans l’institutionnalisation de relations entre managers et syndicats. Bien que les deux formes de coopération, appelées ici coopération sociale et coopération institutionnelle, soient souvent considérées comme des prérequis aux « meilleures pratiques » en matière de nouvelles organisations du travail, nos études de cas montrent que la coopération n’est pas toujours au rendez-vous, ce qui rend difficile la mise en place des pratiques de télétravail. Nous discutons des résultats de diverses études de cas dans l’industrie et les services en nous centrant sur les relations de coopération et ce, afin de contribuer au débat sociologique sur le télétravail.The diffusion of ICT has massive effects on society and economy. The impact of the new technologies on work is apparent in new ways of organizing work and in new practices introduced in organizations. Telework is one good example within these. In this paper, we present the results of a recent research project on telework, in which we have been engaged. Differently from the approach referring to a model of benefits for economic and social actors, our hypothesis is that the dialogical

  13. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J.N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    Theoretical study of nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnetic metals shows the near dependence of ferromagnetic properties and unusual feature of this nuclear resonance. This results from a strong interaction between nuclei and magnetic electrons. They excite the nuclei, and, in Bloch walls, submit them to a RF field much stronger than those directly applied. The parameters of the resonance are determined from wall movement and depend consequently of ferromagnetic constants. The theory is enable to provide quantitatively some peculiar effects, specially those of a continuous magnetic field and of temperature. Experimental study was made on cobalt powders, and is in good agreement with theory. However one must take the skin-effect into consideration and accordingly adjust, the theory. This can explain some observed divergences, as well as the influence at particles size and magnetic field over the line shape. Original informations have been obtained about some typical ferromagnetic properties of cobalt, when studying magnetic field effect, and it has been able to apply this method to other ferromagnetic materials. In consideration of the peculiar characteristics of this nuclear resonance, which occurs without external magnetic field and whose line width is large, new models of spectrographs have been realized and have permitted accurate measures of the line shape. The weak intensity of the signals obtained in some cases, has induced the elaboration of an original method of extraction whose theory and practical uses are described here. The whole of this experiment reveals the nuclear resonance as a strong way for the study of ferromagnetism, which is able to detect microscopic phenomenons, not easily accessible by classical methods. (author) [French] L'etude theorique de la resonance magnetique nucleaire dans les metaux ferromagnetiques revele l'etroite liaison entre les proprietes ferromagnetiques et l'aspect inhabituel de cette resonance. Ceci

  14. Relationship between the nuclear resonance of cobalt metal and its ferromagnetic properties; Relations entre la resonance nucleaire du cobalt metallique et ses proprietes ferromagnetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrun, J N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    Theoretical study of nuclear magnetic resonance in ferromagnetic metals shows the near dependence of ferromagnetic properties and unusual feature of this nuclear resonance. This results from a strong interaction between nuclei and magnetic electrons. They excite the nuclei, and, in Bloch walls, submit them to a RF field much stronger than those directly applied. The parameters of the resonance are determined from wall movement and depend consequently of ferromagnetic constants. The theory is enable to provide quantitatively some peculiar effects, specially those of a continuous magnetic field and of temperature. Experimental study was made on cobalt powders, and is in good agreement with theory. However one must take the skin-effect into consideration and accordingly adjust, the theory. This can explain some observed divergences, as well as the influence at particles size and magnetic field over the line shape. Original informations have been obtained about some typical ferromagnetic properties of cobalt, when studying magnetic field effect, and it has been able to apply this method to other ferromagnetic materials. In consideration of the peculiar characteristics of this nuclear resonance, which occurs without external magnetic field and whose line width is large, new models of spectrographs have been realized and have permitted accurate measures of the line shape. The weak intensity of the signals obtained in some cases, has induced the elaboration of an original method of extraction whose theory and practical uses are described here. The whole of this experiment reveals the nuclear resonance as a strong way for the study of ferromagnetism, which is able to detect microscopic phenomenons, not easily accessible by classical methods. (author) [French] L'etude theorique de la resonance magnetique nucleaire dans les metaux ferromagnetiques revele l'etroite liaison entre les proprietes ferromagnetiques et l'aspect inhabituel de cette resonance. Ceci resulte du

  15. Special Nuclear Material Control by the Power Reactor Operator; Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales par l'Exploitant d'une Centrale Nucleaire; Spetsial'nyj kontrol' nalichiya yadernykh materialov operatorom ehnergeticheskogo reaktora; Control de Materiales Nucleares Especiales por Parte de Quienes Operan el Reactor de Potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordin, R. A. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Boston, MA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    insurance programme. (author) [French] L'uranium, combustible relativement nouveau et extremement interessant pour la production d'electricite, doit faire l'objet d'un controle tres strict depuis le moment ou l'exploitant de la centrale en devient financierement responsable jusqu'a celui oti, sous forme de combustible partiellement epuise, la matiere est transferee dans une autre installation et oti l'on recupere ce qui reste de sa valeur initiale. La plupart des exploitants de centrales nucleaires dirigeaient des centrales alimentees par des combustibles fossiles avant l'avenement de l'energie nucleaire et ils ont etabli depuis longtemps un controle etendu et efficace de ces combustibles fossiles. L'exploitant d'une centrale nucleaire doit exercer un controle non moins efficace sur les matieres nucleaires speciales utilisees dans son installation. La technique de l'exploitation des centrales nucleaires n'est pas ancienne et, au cours de, son existence relativement breve, les ingenieurs et hommes de science des Etats-Unis ont constamment ameliore les plans des centrales et les methodes d'exploitation afin de reduire les couts et de permettre aux centrales nucleaires de concurrencer les centrales classiques. La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre aussi moderne et efficace que possible pour assurer que les progres technologiques grace auxquels les prix on pu etre reduits ne soient pas mis en echec par des insuffisances dans la manipulation du combustible nucleaire et la tenue de la comptabilite des stocks. Pour assurer la gestion des matieres nucleaires, il faut que l'exploitant de la centrale etablisse et tienne a jour une comptabilite complete et detaillee, sans etre necessairement complexe pour autant; en fait, la simplicite est extremement souhaitable. Bien que le combustible nucleaire soit nouveau et qu'il n'ait rien de commun avec les combustibles classiques, aucun secret ne doit s'y attacher. Le controle des matieres nucleaires dans le cadre de la gestion des

  16. Decree no. 2005-18 from January 5, 2005, providing publication of the framework-agreement for a multilateral environmental program in the nuclear domain in the Russian Federations, made at Stockholm on May 21, 2003; Decret n. 2005-18 du 5 janvier 2005 portant publication de l'accord-cadre pour un programme multilateral environnemental dans le domaine nucleaire en Federation de Russie, fait a Stockholm le 21 mai 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This decree announces the official participation of France in a multilateral program of environmental cooperation with the Russian Federations for the management of spent fuels and nuclear wastes in Russia. The agreement of cooperation is attached to the decree. It defines the conditions of this cooperation, the creation of an organization committee, the multilateral financing, the specific commitments and legal procedures, the tax exemption of the assistance works, the control of the book-keeping, the intellectual property aspects, the personnel status, the settlement of disputes, the assignment of markets, the changes and amendments to the agreement, its ratification, duration, withdrawal and termination. (J.S.)

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  18. Effets du milieu sur la propagation des neutrinos dans la matiere nucleaire

    CERN Document Server

    Margueron, J

    2001-01-01

    We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proroneutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (skyrme, Gogny, relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed.Then we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G^{tau tau'}_0 (where tau, tau' = proton or neutron)We calculate nthe pure neutron matter response functions with and withoutcharge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches : non-relativistic and relativistic. At the end we calculate neutrino mean free paths for neutral current and charged current reactions.Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density.RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas.

  19. Nuclear disarmament at a standstill; Le desarmement nucleaire dans l`impasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    1998-10-01

    Considering the pace of major global developments since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the next decade should be equally, if not more dramatic. However, the key principles governing international relations will still be structured on power and force. National interests will continue to override international interests. Political, economic and military rivalries will sharpen. Weapons of mass destruction capabilities will remain the essence of military power. A world based on collective security will remain a fairy tale. Disarmament is expected to remain a complex and endless process that the major powered will continue to employ to their advantage to safeguard their status quo interests. This does not mean that the rest of the world should give up on disarmament or allow the major powers to have their way

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  1. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  2. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  3. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies; Le nucleaire dans ses synergies avec les renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carre, F. [CEA Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mermilliod, N. [CEA Grenoble, Dir. de la Recherche Technologique, 38 (France); Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Institut de tecchnico-economie des systemes energetiques I-tese, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Durand, S. [CEA Grenoble, European Institute of Technology -KIC InnoEnergy, 38 (France)

    2011-05-15

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  4. The nuclear debate: ethics versus effectiveness; Morale et efficacite dans le debat nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D

    2009-04-15

    Following some political maneuvering, a new debate on the future of nuclear deterrence is about to resurface. And a first deadline has been set by the need to restore the strategic balance between the United States and Russia before the START Treaty ends on 5 December 2009, as well as by preparation for the next NPT Review Conference. Perception of the main threat has changed, but so have concepts of deterrence. Far from outmoded, deterrence forms part of a broader vision in which realism has the edge over idealism. (author)

  5. Particles identification using nuclear emulsion in OPERA; Identification des particules par les emulsions nucleaires dans OPERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manai, K

    2007-10-15

    The Opera experiment will try to confirm the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillations by the appearance of the {nu}{sub {tau}} in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. Indeed, a neutrino beam almost pure is produced at CERN (CNGS Beam) and sent to the Opera detector. The detector is composed of two muons spectrometers and a target formed by walls of bricks. Each brick is an alternation of lead plates and emulsions. This modular structure allows to reconstruct the kink topology of the {tau} lepton decay with a high spatial resolution. The great challenge of the Opera experiment is to detect the {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions with the less uncertainty. To reduce this uncertainty it is essential to identify with the greatest efficiency any background event not including a tau particle. My work permits to reduce background. My principal contribution concerns the selection development, the reconstruction and the muons identification at low energy. This work is based on the setting of variables related to the deposit energy and the multiple scattering. Previously, only deposit energy was used in the analyses of pion/muon separation. This study allows doubling the muon identification efficiency at low energy. This leads to increase the background events rejection in Opera and to decrease the contamination by 30%. I also studied the nuclear emulsions capacity to identify charged particles through the analysis of a test beam carried out by the Nagoya group. This test contains protons and pions with different energies. My work proves that the European scan system gives comparable results with those obtained by the Japanese scan system. (author)

  6. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  7. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements combustibles, une simplification du systeme de

  8. Some aspects of the nuclear fission process; Quelques aspects du processus de fission nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netter, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In the following report one can find first a short general view on the present situation of our knowledge concerning the nuclear fission process, namely on the nucleus going through the saddle-point. Then there are some aspects connected with the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. The measurements made at Saclay on the fast neutron fission cross-section of U{sup 233}, U{sup 235}, Pu{sup 239}, U{sup 238} are described at the beginning of this work. It appears that for U{sup 233} there is some characteristic shape modulation of the cross-section curve, in relation with the collective excited state of the deformed nucleus at the saddle-point. Good evidence of this is also given by the study of the relative fission rate with emission of long-range particles; it appears also that this ternary fission rate does not change substantially for neutron between thermal energy and 2 MeV, but that is very lower for the compound nucleus U{sup 239} than for even-even compound nuclei. At the end there are some experiments on the strong 4,5 MeV gamma-ray originated by slow neutron absorption in U{sup 235}. Time-of-flight device is used to establish that this 4,5 MeV gamma-ray seems mostly connected with radiative capture. (author) [French] Le present travail debute par un apercu de l'etat actuel de nos connaissances sur le processus de fission nucleaire, notamment sur le passage par le point-seuil. Puis sont evoques des aspects lies au niveau d'energie d'excitation auquel est porte le noyau qui subit la fission. Les mesures de sections efficaces de fission induite dans {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu et {sup 238}U par des neutrons rapides effectuees a Saclay sont decrites en premier lieu; elles font apparaitre pour {sup 233}U une ondulation caracteristique du role des etats collectifs d'excitation du noyau deforme au point-seuil. Des experiences sur la fission avec emission de particules de long parcours confirment cet aspect tout en demontrant que la frequence

  9. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation; Etude de la fluorescence des gaz rares excites par des particules nucleaires. Utilisation pour la detection des rayonnements nucleaires par scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-12-15

    composantes, l'une tres breve due a la desexcitation directe du gaz rare, l'autre relativement plus lente, due au transfert d'energie sur les impuretes. La mesure des durees de vie des etats excites a confirme l'hypothese precedente, la partie breve de l'impulsion est extremement courte: inferieure a 2,25.10{sup -9} s dans le cas du xenon, la partie plus lente a une duree qui depend etroitement de la concentration d'azote, l'azote etant l'impurete dont le role est preponderant dans tous les cas. L'etude des gaz rares soumis a un champ electrique a permis de montrer que la quantite de lumiere produite par une particule {alpha} peut etre multipliee (par 60 dans un champ de 600 V/cm par exemple) ce qui correspond a un rendement de luminescence superieur a celui de INa TI. Dans la deuxieme partie on a etudie les caracteristiques des gaz rares comme scintillateurs, la plus importante est l'absence de saturation de la fluorescence lorsque la densite d'excitation transmise au gaz devient tres grande. Ceci joint au temps de scintillation tres court a permis d'etudier un certain nombre d'applications a la physique nucleaire (mesure d'energie des particules lourdes, etude cinetique des reacteurs nucleaires, spectroscopie des neutrons...). (auteur)

  10. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  11. Contribution to the study of the action of electromagnetic fields on the angular correlations of nuclear radiation (1960); Contribution a l'etude de l'action des champs electromagnetiques sur les correlations angulaires des rayonnements nucleaires (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-01-15

    This work deals with the study of interaction of E.M. fields with nuclear moments of nuclei emitting gamma rays. We describe first experiments on delayed angular correlation showing the role played by statistic quadrupole interaction. We have measured the magnetic moment of the second excited state of {sup 19}F using an external magnetic field. In the case of {sup 19}O, experiments of angular distributions and angular correlations of gamma -rays taking into account the possibility of perturbations, allow us to determine the spin and parities of the three first levels. (author) [French] Le present travail concerne l'etude de l'interaction des champs electromagnetiques et des moments nucleaires de noyaux emettant des rayonnements gamma. Nous decrivons des experiences de correlation angulaire differee dont l'interpretation met en coincidence le role joue par les interactions quadrupolaires statiques. Nous avons mesure le moment magnetique de {sup 19}F dans un etat excite en utilisant un champ magnetique exterieur a la source radioactive. Enfin, dans le cas de {sup 19}O, nous montrons l'utilite d'un examen des possibilites de perturbations dans l'interpretation des resultats fournis par des correlations ou des distributions angulaires. (auteur)

  12. Professional Nuclear Materials Management; Gestion Industrielle des Matieres Nucleaires; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami na professional'nom urovne; Administracion Eficiente de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcella, A. A.; O' Leary, W. J. [Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1966-02-15

    . (author) [French] Le memoire expose en quoi consiste la gestion des matieres nucleaires dans une centrale nucleaire type, aux Etats-Unis. Comme le reacteur en question est partiellement finance a l'aide de capitaux prives, l'une des principales obligations de l'exploitant est d'assurer la protection et la rentabilite des investissements. Etant donne que les matieres nucleaires sont d'une valeur intrinseque elevee, il faut constamment proceder a des controles appropries allant au-dela des mesures de securite et de la comptabilite interessant les matieresnucleaires proprement dites afin de reduire les pertes au minimum. Il faut faire preuve de clairvoyance et planifier judicieusement pour prevenir toute perte supplementaire de capital provenant de frais inutiles ou d'un manque a gagner dans divers secteurs de l'exploitation. C'est ainsi que le gestionnaire de matieres nucleaires doit prendre des dispositions pour garantir la bonne marche des operations et assurer le respect des plans d'execution par une liaison et un controle constants, dans les domaines suivants? a) acquisition du combustible et des elements combustibles, b) utilisation des elements combustibles dans le reacteur et c) recuperation, dans le combustible irradie, des produits et matieres presentant de l'interet. Pendant la periode qui precede l'utilisation du reacteur, il faut faire une place importante dans la planification et les travaux preparatoires aux considerations d'economie dans la conception des elements combustibles, en ce qui concerne leur fabrication, leur manutention, leur transport et leur remplacement. Les differentes etapes de la fabrication doivent etre planifiees de facon a reduire au minimum le manque a gagner du a des periodes improductives d'entreposage de matieres tres couteuses. Pendant la marche du reacteur, il faut assurer une combustion maximale de la matiere fissile par des redistributions appropriees du combustible dans le coeur du reacteur. Parallelement, les temps morts dus a

  13. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  14. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  15. Nuclear program of Iran. Towards de-escalation of a nuclear crisis. Advisory letter; Nucleair programma van Iran. Naar de-escalatie van een nucleaire crisis. Briefadvies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    The Dutch government, partly at the request of the House of Representatives (Second Chamber), the AIV asked to give an opinion about the position of Iran in the region and the role of the nuclear program of Iran in the geopolitical relations, in view of the most recent developments [Dutch] De Nederlandse regering heeft, mede op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, de AIV gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de positie van Iran in de regio en de rol van het nucleaire programma van Iran in de geopolitieke verhoudingen hierin, mede gelet op de meest recente ontwikkelingen.

  16. The atomic energy course of the 'Institut National des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires' at the centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay; L'enseignement de genie atomique de l'Institut national des Sciences et Techniques nucleaires au Centre d'Etudes nucleaires de Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baissas, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    foreign students. 8- Annexe: list of courses, practical work, pile projects drawn up by the 1957 students. (author)Fren. [French] 1- Les raisons de sa creation. L'electricite de France et l'industrie interessee par le developpement de l'Energie atomique ont demande au Commissariat a l'Energie atomique de former des ingenieurs capables d'etudier des projets de piles et de diriger leur construction. 2- Recrutement et Droits d'inscription. Les demandes d'inscription ont toujours depasse les possibilites. Cette annee, les cours sont suivis par 74 eleves permanents, dont 20 etrangers, et une centaine d'auditeurs libres. Tous les elevont deja ingenieurs ou nantis de grades universitaires eleves. Droit d'inscription: 250 000 F pour les eleves, 125 000 F pour les auditeurs. 3- Organisation de l'Enseignement. II comprend deux options: physique et chimie et dans chaque option: une centaine de conferences, une trentaine de travaux pratiques, des stages dans les services, l'etude d'un projet de reacteur par un groupe de 4 ou 5 eleves. L'ensemble occupe l'annee universitaire du 1 novembre au 14 juillet. 4- Sanction. Un examen final combinant les notes de deux epreuves theoriques, des travaux pratiques, du stage, et du projet conduit a un diplome d'ingenieur en genie atomique. Il n'est pas cree en realite de nouveaux ingenieurs; une mention nouvelle est seulement ajoutee a un diplome deja acquis. Les resultats ont toujours ete excellents. Le pourcentage des echecs est tres faible. 5- Placement des Diplomes. Ils reviennent tous dans leurs industries d'origine qui ont paye leurs salaires et les droits d'inscription en se privant de leurs services pendant les neuf mois de duree des cours. 6- Creations analogues. Un cours analogue a ete cree au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. Tandis que celui de SACLAY s'adresse plus specialement aux ingenieurs deja en fonctions, celui de Grenoble est, en principe, destine aux jeunes ingenieurs sortant des ecoles. 7- Conclusion. L

  17. The structure of nuclear matter; La structure de la matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Report on the most recent developments in the theory of systems of interacting fermions. After having given the general form of the ground state energy in perturbation theory, one indicates the terms whose summation tends to the Brueckner approximation. The numerical results obtained with this theory are briefly mentioned. A discussion is given about the difficulty occurring in the case of potentials which are attractive near the Fermi surface due to the existence of the Cooper bound states. The main ideas of the proof of the Van Hove Hugenholtz theorem on the Fermi energy are indicated and its implications for the Brueckner theory are given. The extension of the methods described here to statistical mechanics are briefly mentioned. In the discussion, Professor Brueckner reports on the most recent results concerning the application of his theory to finite nuclei. Professor Migdal reviews the results which he has obtained with the method of Green's functions on the superconducting properties of finite nuclei. Professor Weisskopf gives a qualitative explanation of the success of the Brueckner theory. (author) [French] Rapport sur les recents travaux portant sur la theorie des systemes de fermions en interaction. Apres avoir donne la forme generale du developpement de l'energie de l'etat fondamental dans la theorie des perturbations, on indique les termes dont la sommation conduit a l'approximation de Brueckner. Les resultats numeriques obtenus a l'aide de cette theorie sont brievement mentionnes. Une discussion est donnee de la difficulte survenant dans le cas des potentiels attractifs au voisinage de la surface de Fermi par suite de l'existence des etats lies de Cooper. Les idees essentielles de la demonstration du theoreme de Van Hove et Hugenholtz sur l'energie de Fermi sont indiquees ainsi que ses consequences pour la theorie de Brueckner. L'extension des methodes decrites a la Mecanique Statistique est brievement mentionnee. Dans la discussion, le professeur

  18. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H; Bonnet, A; Cohen, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui empeche toute observation. (M.B.)

  19. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F.; Menoux, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    ou les moyens technologiques de protection sont multiples et complexes. Les etudes de surete des sites permettent de preciser les parametres de diffusion ou de reconcentration dans les divers milieux naturels de facon a permettre de prevoir le sort des effluents radioactifs depuis les installations qui en sont la source jusqu'a l'homme qui peut y etre expose. L'organisation de la surveillance de la radioactivite sur les sites nucleaires est liee tres etroitement aux etudes de surete. Parmi les nombreuses etudes a mener, on insistera plus particulierement sur les experiences de diffusion atmospherique dont le but est de preciser la valeur des parametres introduits par la theorie tout en permettant de tenir compte de facteurs complementaires. - les etudes hydrologiques, hydrogeologiques et oceanographiques, qui permettent de preciser le sort des ions radioactifs dans l'hydrosphere. - les experiences et etudes liees aux possibilites de rejet ou de stockage des dechets dans le sol. L'ensemble de ces travaux constitue un moyen complementaire, la radioprotection, qui etablit une liaison necessaire entre la surete nucleaire proprement dite laquelle concerne le fonctionnement meme des installations nucleaires, et la surveillance medicale laquelle concerne directement la sante de l'individu et de la population. En meme temps,la radioprotection donne a chacune de ces disciplines une independance qui accroit leur efficacite sur le plan de la securite. (auteurs)

  20. Health physics problems in the context of the development of industrial uses of nuclear energy; Les problemes de radioprotection devant le developpement de l'utilisation industrielle de l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhamel, F; Menoux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    surete des sites permettent de preciser les parametres de diffusion ou de reconcentration dans les divers milieux naturels de facon a permettre de prevoir le sort des effluents radioactifs depuis les installations qui en sont la source jusqu'a l'homme qui peut y etre expose. L'organisation de la surveillance de la radioactivite sur les sites nucleaires est liee tres etroitement aux etudes de surete. Parmi les nombreuses etudes a mener, on insistera plus particulierement sur les experiences de diffusion atmospherique dont le but est de preciser la valeur des parametres introduits par la theorie tout en permettant de tenir compte de facteurs complementaires. - les etudes hydrologiques, hydrogeologiques et oceanographiques, qui permettent de preciser le sort des ions radioactifs dans l'hydrosphere. - les experiences et etudes liees aux possibilites de rejet ou de stockage des dechets dans le sol. L'ensemble de ces travaux constitue un moyen complementaire, la radioprotection, qui etablit une liaison necessaire entre la surete nucleaire proprement dite laquelle concerne le fonctionnement meme des installations nucleaires, et la surveillance medicale laquelle concerne directement la sante de l'individu et de la population. En meme temps,la radioprotection donne a chacune de ces disciplines une independance qui accroit leur efficacite sur le plan de la securite. (auteurs)

  1. The Use of the Moessbauer Effect in Investigating the Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transmutations in Oxygenous Compounds of Manganese and Tin; Utilisation de l'Effet Moessbauer pour l'Etude des Effets Chimiques des Transformations Nucleaires dans les Composes de Manganese et d'Etain; 0418 0421 0421 041b 0415 0414 ; Empleo del Efecto Moessbauer para Investigar las Transformaciones Nucleares de Compuestos Oxigenados de Estano y de Manganeso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesmejanov, An. N.; Babeshkin, A. M.; Kosev, N. P.; Bekker, A. A.; Lebedev, V. A. [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Universitet Im. M.V. Lomonosova, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-04-15

    auteurs ont etudie les formes de stabilisation des atomes de recul de 56 Mn des solutions et des echantillons solides irradies de permanganate, ainsi que celles des atomes de recul de {sup 119m}Sn dans l'oxyde et le bioxyde d'etain. Les echantillons de permanganate ont ete irradies dans un bloc de paraffine a l'aide d'une source au polonium-beryllium donnant un flux de neutrons de 10{sup 7} a 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} * s. Les atomes chauds de {sup 56}Mn qui se forment peuvent avoir les valences +7, +4 et inferieures. Les echantillons (SnO et SnO{sub 2}), exposes dans un reacteur a un flux de 2,2 * 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2} * s pendant 1800 h, ont ete directement utilises pour la preparation de sources destinees a l'etude de l'absorption par resonance des phonons dans une installation fonctionnant a vitesse constante. Des composes d'etain correspondants ont ete employes comme absorbeurs. On n'a constate la presence d'atomes {sup 119m}Sn de recul qu'a l'etat tetravalent. Sur la base des donnees obtenues, les auteurs examinent le mecanisme de stabilisation des atomes de recul. (author) [Spanish] Los metodos utilizados corrientemente para estudiar el estado quimico de los atomos de retroceso, esto es, aquellos asociados a los cambios de fase (analisis quimico, cromatografia, electroforesis), lo mismo que el recocido, solo permiten conocer indirectamente el mecanismo de estabilizacion de los atomos calientes. Cuando el analisis se efectua por el metodo de absorcion por resonancia de los cuantos gamma sin retroceso, no se introduce en la muestra ninguna modificacion capaz de influir en las formas de estabilizacion, incluso si la estabilidad no es muy grande. Los autores investigaron las formas de estabilizacion de los atomos de retroceso del {sup 56}Mn en soluciones y muestras solidas de permanganato irradiadas, y las de los atomos de retroceso del {sup 119m}Sn en oxido estannico y estannoso. Las muestras del permanganato se irradiaron en un bloque de parafina con un flujo de 10{sup

  2. DAMPAK PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM P3KUM TERHADAP KINERJA DAN KELAYAKAN USAHA KOPERASI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maya Nihayah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During this time the cooperative performance measurement is done by conventional financial terms based on financial statements, profitability, liquidity and solvency (RLS as well as the implementation of the budget. This study aims to determine the performance and feasibility of KSP / USP- Cooperative as a recipient of a revolving fund P3KUM and want to know the impact of the implementation of the cooperative program P3KUM dealer. The aspect that is evaluated in terms of organizations and institutions that include; (1 The vision and mission, (2 Legality of business entities, (3 The cooperative structure, (4 Management organization (5 Human Resources Development (HRD, (6 Finance, (7 Infrastructures. The method used is the Cooperative Capacity Assessment (CCA. Respondents in this study is a cooperative that had received funds P3KUM, already incorporated and has implemented the Annual Member Meeting in 2010 and has a complete cooperative (management and members of the cooperative. From the results of this study concluded that of the 25 cooperative respondents, 20% co-operatives have a good performance appraisal at all and 80% are good .. The better the performance of which is owned by a cooperative, the more worthy of him as a funding channel P3KUM program. Feasibility is very important to ensure the success of the program P3KUM. However, the necessary guidance and supervision of the relevant authorities, so that the existence of the program run effectively and efficiently.Selama ini pengukuran kinerja koperasi dilakukan dengan cara konvensional yaitu dari segi keuangan berdasarkan laporan keuangan, rentabilitas, likuiditas dan solvabilitas (RLS serta pelaksanaan anggaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kinerja dan kelayakan usaha KSP/ USP- Koperasi sebagai penerima dana bergulir P3KUM dan ingin mengetahui dampak pelaksanaan program P3KUM terhadap koperasi penyalur. Adapun aspek yang dievaluasi adalah dari sisi organisasi dan kelembagaan

  3. Strategi Pembelajaran Biologi Berbasis Kompetensi dan Konservasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Ridlo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPembelajaran melibatkan interaksi dosen, mahasiswa, dan sumber belajar. Interaksi antara ketiganya membutuhkan strategi pembelajaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan strategi pembelajaran biologi di Jurusan Biologi Unnes yang telah berkomitmen mengaplikasikan kurikulum berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan ciri pendekatan jelajah alam sekitar (JAS. Metodologi penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Informannya dosen dan mahasiswa yang mengajar dan belajar biologi umum, mikrobiologi, dan taksonomi hewan. Data yang diperoleh berupa deskripsi kegiatan belajar mengajar dan lesson study.  Data-data dianalisis kemudian dinarasikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembelajaran biologi dengan pendekatan berpusat pada siswa yang dikhususkan pada kegiatan penjelajahan alam sekitar dapat dilakukan menggunakan strategi yang berbasis pada cara belajar siswa aktif dan kooperatif. Strategi-strategi tersebut adalah pembelajaran kontekstual, pembelajaran partisipatif, dan pembelajaran inkuiri. AbstractLearning involves the interaction of lecturer, students, and learning resources. The interaction between them requires a learning strategy. This research aims to generate learning strategies of biology in the Department of Biology Unnes which has committed to apply the competence- and conservation-based curriculum of features the environmental exploration (JAS approach. The research methodology uses a qualitative approach. The informants are the faculty members and the students who, respectively, teach and learn biology, microbiology, and animal taxonomy subjects. The data obtained were in the form of description of learning activities and lesson studies. The data were then analyzed narratively. The results showed that the student-centered learning of environmental exploration may be conducted using active- and cooperative-based strategies. Examples of these strategies are contextual learning, participatory learning, and inquiry learning.

  4. SCPRI Emergency Kit for Use in the Event of a Nuclear Accident; Le Dispositif d'Intervention Rapide du SCPRI en Cas d'Accident Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervet, P.; Moroni, J. P.; Pellerin, P. [Service Central de Protection Contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, Ministere des Affaires Sociales, Le Vesinet (France)

    1969-10-15

    In the event of a nuclear accident necessitating implementation of the ORSEC radiation protection plan, the Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants (Central Service for Protection against Ionizing Radiations), in conjunction with the Service national de la protection civile (National Civil Defence Service), has adopted the necessary measures for rapid evaluation of possible contamination as promptly as possible. With this aim in mind the Service has prepared emergency kits, which are permanently stored at airfields in the Paris region; these can be carried by aircraft together with two engineers from the Service, thereby enabling them to reach the site of the incident with the specialized equipment in a few hours at most. This paper describes the monitoring and sampling equipment as well as the conditions under which the kit is carried and used (it operates independently by having a built-in generating unit). It is basically designed to permit an initial assessment of the situation, to furnish local authorities with data on which to base decisions for the safety of the population, and to determine any additional measures that need to be adopted. (author) [French] Dans le cas d'un accident nucleaire impliquant la mise en application du plan ORSEC radiologique, en liaison avec le Service national de la protection civile, le Service central de protection contre les rayonnements ionisants a pris les dispositions necessaires pour faire une evaluation rapide, aussi preooce que possible, des contaminations eventuelles. Dans ce but, il a realise des cantines d'intervention qui sont deposees en permanence sur les aerodromes de la region parisienne, et peuvent etre embarquees par avion avec deux ingenieurs du service qui peuvent etre ainsi sur les lieux de l'incident, avec un materiel specialise, dans un delai qui n'excede pas quelques heures. Le memoire decrit le materiel de mesure et de prelevement, ainsi que les conditions de transport et d

  5. Interorganizational Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Administrative Services Officer , Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs, Office of the Chief Financial Officer , Office of the Chief ...Nations. • Clarifies the role of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives and its relationship...Centralize interorganizational cooperation within the command group. Under this model, the chief of staff or a special staff officer within the command

  6. Review of Development Status of Nuclear Superheat; Expose sur l'etat actuel des travaux concernant la surchauffe nucleaire; Obzor razrabotki voprosa o yadernykh peregrevatelyakh; Estudio de los progresos realizados en niateria de sobrecalentamiento nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, D. H.; Pennington, R. T. [General Electric Company, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1963-10-15

    fuel irradiation performance, in-pile and out-of-pile uniform and localized corrosion evaluations, results from thermal superheat critical experiments, results from experimental heat-transfer testing and a brief appraisal of the economic incentives of the separate superheat reactor, integral superheat reactor, and mixed-spectrum superheat reactor design studies. (b) A brief description is given of the USAEC-Sponsored ESADA-VESR nuclear superheat fuel development programme. The development tasks, the initial core superheat fuel-element design, the range of experimental variables, and the expected results for the three-year fuel development programme are discussed. (author [French] Depuis 1959, la Societe General Electric s'occupe activement de mettre au point la surchauffe nucleaire dans les reacteurs ralentis a l'eau ordinaire. A cette epoque, le ''Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (SADE), finance par la societe, a permis d'obtenir, pour la premiere fois aux Etats-Unis, de la vapeur surchauffee par un dispositif nucleaire. Les auteurs du memoire font le point de la situation actuelle concernant la surchauffe nucleaire. Ils decrivent, dans une premiere partie, les trois principales installations de surchauffe nucleaire utilisees par la General Electric et, dans la seconde, les deux principaux programmes de recherches sur la surchauffe ainsi que les resultats les plus importants obtenus jusqu'ici dans ce domaine. 1. Principales installations pour les experiences de surchauffe: a) Breve description du SADE utilise dans le reacteur a eau bouillante de Vallecitos (VBWR), avec tableaux des conditions dans lesquelles se deroulent les experiences, et des elements combustibles irradies pendant la periode comprise entre mai 1959 et juin 1962; puis examen critique des resultats les plus importants ainsi obtenus. b) Breve description de l' ''Expanded Superheat Advance Demonstration Experiment'' (E-SADE) installe dans le reacteur de Vallecitos, avec tableaux des

  7. Meet EPA's Dan Nelson

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Dan Nelson is the Director of the Human Research Protocol Office at the National Health and Environmental Effect Research Laboratory, Dan works to protect the rights and welfare of EPA’s research participants.

  8. Bahasa, Simbol, dan Religi

    OpenAIRE

    Supriyadi, Supriyadi

    1999-01-01

    Manusia sering disebut sebagai makhluk sosial, makhluk berakal, makhluk berseni, dan sebagainya. Tulisan ini secara tidak langsung membicarakan manusia sebagai makhluk berbahasa, bersimbol, dan bereligi . Meskipun demikian, titik tolaknya bukan pada manusia itu sendiri, tetapi pada bahasa, simbol, dan religinya, terutama pada hubungan di antara ketiganya . Hubungan antara bahasa dan simbol tidak diragukan lagi karena bahasa merupakan jenis simbol . Demikian juga hubungan antara simbol dengan ...

  9. The design and construction of a nuclear free-precession magnetometer; Etude et realisation d'un magnetometre a precession libre nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baconnier, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-10-15

    After presenting the advantages of nuclear magnetic resonance with respect to electromagnetic processes, as far as the measurement of the earths' magnetic field is concerned, we deal with the macroscopic theory for the Bloch model and analyse Packard and Varions' experiment. The development of a particular absolute free-precession magnetometer is studied, and the conditions are determined for obtaining a maximum amplitude signal as a function of the geometrical form of the detector coil, of the method of cut-off, and of the coupling between various parts of the system. After having described in detail the technology of amplifiers, we consider the problem of the measurement of the frequency of precession for which an original solution, of analogy form, is proposed and discussed. Complete plans of the equipment are given in an appendix. (author) [French] Apres avoir presente les avantages de la resonance magnetique nucleaire relativement aux procedes electromagnetiques, en ce qui concerne la mesure du champ magnetique terrestre, on traite de la theorie macroscopique dans le modele de Bloch et analyse l'experience de Packard et Varian. On etudie une realisation particuliere d'un magnetometre absolu a precession libre et determine les conditions d'obtention d'un signal d'amplitude maximale en fonction de la forme geometrique du bobinage detecteur, de la methode de coupure, et du couplage entre les differents elements du montage. Apres avoir decrit en detail la technologie des amplificateurs, on aborde le probleme de la mesure de la frequence de precession, pour laquelle une solution originale, sous forme analogique, est proposee et discutee. En annexe est joint un dossier complet des plans de la realisation. (auteur)

  10. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  11. Contribution to the study of solid helium-3 by nuclear magnetic resonance; Contribution a l'etude de l'helium trois solide par resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landesman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Due to the unusually large zero point motion of helium three atoms in the solid, the overlap of the atomic wave functions is very important. As a consequence, there are exchange interactions, the theoretical calculation and the experimental measurement of which are discussed. Nuclear magnetic resonance is especially well suited for the latter.A detailed theory is given for both exchange narrowing and Zeeman-exchange cross relaxation, which phenomena are used to measure the exchange interaction as a function of molar volume. The alignment temperature is thus known; it goes down when the pressure goes up and is never higher than three milli degrees. An influence of helium four impurities on the exchange interactions between helium three atoms which are neighbours of the substitutional He is shown. (author) [French] Par suite de l'amplitude exceptionnelle des mouvements de point zero dans l'helium trois solide, le recouvrement des fonctions d'onde atomiques est tres important. Il en resulte des interactions d' echange dont on discute l'evaluation theorique et la mise en evidence experimentale. Cette derniere peut se faire par resonance magnetique; on etudie theoriquement les phenomenes de retrecissement par echange et de relaxation Zeeman-echange que l'on met a profit pour determiner les interactions d'echange en fonction du volume molaire. On en deduit que la temperature d'alignement nucleaire diminue quand on comprime le solide et est au plus de 3x10{sup -3} K. L'influence des impuretes d'helium quatre sur les interactions d'echange entre atomes {sup 3}He voisins de {sup 4}He est mise en evidence. (auteur)

  12. Liability for the nuclear risk; Aansprakelijkheid voor het nucleaire risico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M. [ed.] [Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Spriet, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Strafrecht; Heldeweg, M.; Hertogs, M.; Van Maanen, G.; De Roos, T.; Seerden, R. [Maastrichts Europees Instituut voor Transnationaal Rechtswetenschappelijk Onderzoek METRO, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1993-12-31

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs.

  13. French Senate debate on nuclear deterrence; Dissuasion nucleaire francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincon, S. [UMP Cher (France); Bentegeat, H. [Cema, 75 - Paris (France); Verwaerde, D. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France); Quinlan, M. [IISS, Londre (United Kingdom); Tertrais, B. [Fondation pour la Recherche Strategique (FRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-15

    The Senate committee on foreign affairs, defence and the Armed Forces met at a round table session on 14 June 2006 to discuss French nuclear deterrence. Serge Vincon presided the discussion, which covered three aspects of the subject: first, an analysis of the current and medium-term future strategic contexts and their consequences for the role of deterrence, and thus whether or not current doctrine is matched to current and future threats; second, the assets dedicated to deterrence, how well they reflect doctrine and how they fit in with other defence priorities; and finally an examination of Britain position within NATO along with future possibilities arising from closer European defence cooperation. (author)

  14. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiesse, J.

    1958-01-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  15. Associative memories in nuclear physics; Les memoires associatives en physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca, E; Carriere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire necessitent l'emploi de 'memoires' de grandes dimensions. Apres avoir montre les inconvenients que presente l'utilisation de telles memoires, les auteurs exposent les principes des diverses methodes de programmation qui permettent d'assurer un fonctionnement des memoires sur le mode associatif donc une reduction de leurs dimensions et un meilleur usage. Ils tentent d'evaluer le format d'une memoire associative cablee qui, contrairement a celles qui existent actuellement, serait prevue specialement pour l'experimentation nucleaire. (auteurs)

  16. Analytic index for nuclear physicians uses; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Bretonneau, P.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Joffre, H.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lesueur, C.; Leveque, A.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Studinowski, FJ.; Netter, F.; Raievski, V.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of new publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this facts that we tried, in the service of Nuclear Physics of the CEA, to give to the documentation a character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between first January 1950 and first July 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le premier Janvier 1950 et le premier Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  17. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  18. Enjeux de la médiatisation du travail coopératif distribué dans les équipes de projets de conception Stakes of Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design Project Teams Desafíos que presenta la mediatización del trabajo cooperativo distribuido en los equipos de proyectos de diseño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Vacherand-Revel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations organisationnelles que connaissent de nombreuses entreprises globalisées encouragent le développement de nouvelles pratiques collectives de travail pour s’affranchir de l’espace et du temps et mettre en synergie des compétences dispersées géographiquement. L’objet de cet article est d’examiner les spécificités du travail coopératif distribué au sein d’équipes qui réalisent des projets de conception d’envergure. Une forte coopération entre les coéquipiers et la gestion de multiples activités coopératives distribuées nécessitent une utilisation massive des technologies de l’information et de la communication pour interagir régulièrement et travailler ensemble dans des espaces virtuels partagés. Avec de telles conditions de travail, les enjeux sont nombreux et les risques pour la santé des coéquipiers ne doivent pas être négligés. Dans cette perspective, nous examinons les risques liés à la fragmentation du travail, à sa dispersion et les différentes tensions et surcharges qui pèsent sur le travailleur intellectuel et peuvent présenter des effets délétères sur la santé.The organizational changes that many global companies are undergoing are fostering the development of new collective work practices freeing workers from the constraints of space and time and marshalling geographically dispersed skills. The object of this article is to examine the specificities of distributed cooperative work within teams that carry out large-scale design projects. Close cooperation between the team members and the management of multiple distributed cooperative activities require a massive use of information and communication technologies so that they can interact regularly and work together in shared virtual spaces. With such working conditions, there are many issues, and the health risks must not be overlooked. From this perspective, we examine the risks of fragmented work, its dispersion, and various

  19. Biological Aspects of Disposal of Radioactive Wastes in Marine Environments; Aspects Biologiques de l'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs dans le Milieu Marin; 0411 0418 041e 041b 041e 0413 0418 0427 0414 ; Aspectos Biologicos de la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos en Medios Marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chipman, Walter A. [United States Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (United States)

    1960-07-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes in marine waters allows for an accumulation of radioactivity by marine life. Such an accumulation by seafood organisms might affect their utilization or availability. Laboratory studies of accumulation of important radionuclides present in different wastes by marine plankton, benthic invertebrates and various species of marine fish and of the biological effects of accumulated radioactivity on these forms are being conducted at Beaufort, North Carolina, as a co-operative activity of the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. These investigations help provide essential information for the formulation of waste disposal practices and the safe operation of nuclear-powered ships in coastal waters. They are useful also in the development of monitoring programmes designed to detect and evaluate hazards from accidental pollution of inshore waters. (author) [French] L'elimination des dechets radioactifs dans la mer fait la part d'une accumulation d'activite dans les organismes vivant dans ce milieu. Cette accumulation dans les produits comestibles de la mer peut nuire a leur utilisation ou a leur abondance. A Beaufort (Caroline du Nord), les laboratoires du Bureau des pecheries commerciales des Etats-Unis font, en collaboration avec la Commission de l'energie atomique des Etats-Unis, des etudes sur l'accumulation de radionuclides importants provenant de differents dechets, dans le plancton marin, les invertebres benthiques et les differentes especes de poissons, ainsi que sur les effets biologiques de la radioactivite ainsi accumulee. Ces recherches permettent d'obtenir des donnees de base pour l'elaboration de methodes d'elimination des dechets et l'exploitation en toute securite des navires a propulsion nucleaire dans les eaux cotieres. Ces etudes sont egalemeut utiles pour l'etablissement de programmes de controle ayant pour objet la detection et l'evaluation des dangers que presente la pollution accidentelle

  20. Analisis Kebijakan dan Efektivitas Organisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syarifudin Kiwang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penerapan Peraturan Gubernur Nusa Tenggara Timur Nomor 8 Tahun 2011 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kerja Unit Pelaksana Teknis Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi dan Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur adalah dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan efektivitas kerja organisasi pada UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk melihat dampak kebijakan organisasi terhadap efektivitas organisasi dengan menggunakan enam elemen variabel dari kebijakan dan praktik manajemen. Keenam elemen tersebut adalah penetapan tujuan strategis, pencarian dan pemanfaatan sumber daya, lingkungan prestasi, proses komunikasi, kepemimpinan dan pengambilan keputusan, serta adaptasi dan inovasi organisasi. Penelitian kualitatif ini menggunakan pendekatan studi kasus. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis data model Miles dan Huberman, yang terdiri atas reduksi data, display/penyajian data, dan kesimpulan/verifikasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa efektivitas organisasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM belum berjalan secara baik, hal ini dapat dilihat dari beberapa hal antara lain, belum adanya tenaga spesialisasi pengelola diklat dan tenaga khusus (sarjana di bidang perkoperasian dan kondisi lingkungan kerja (lingkungan prestasi pada UPT Diklat koperasi dan UMKM yang belum efektif. Penempatan pegawai juga belum tepat, mutasi ke UPT Diklat Koperasi dan UMKM tidak memperhatikan latar belakang pendidikan dan spesialisasi/keahlian pegawai sehingga membutuhkan waktu dalam proses penyesuaian serta menurunkan jumlah pelaksanaan diklat dikarenakan keterbatasan alokasi dana.

  1. Gamma radiation in space and in the atmosphere; Rayonnement gamma dans l'espace et dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchia, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    We have shown that the {gamma} radiation existing in the atmosphere is caused mainly by the Bremsstrahlung of the electrons of the electromagnetic cascades ({approx} 50 per cent of the measured radiation), by the 511 keV radiation produced by the annihilation of positrons created in cascades (8 per cent of the measured intensity) and by the Compton {gamma} degradation of this line (30 per cent of the measured intensity). The rest, slightly over 10 per cent, must be attributed to secondary causes such as the nuclear de-excitation {gamma} to the internal Bremsstrahlung of charged particles created in nuclear stars, and to charged particles crossing our detector, since the latter was not fitted with a device for rejecting these particles. Experiments carried out in rockets at Colomb-Bechar confirm these results and have made it possible to detect and measure a primary {gamma} radiation having an intensity of {approx} 2 {gamma} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} above 100 keV. The primary spectrum obeys an approximate E{sup -2} law. (author) [French] Nous avons montre que le rayonnement {gamma} existant dans l'atmosphere est provoque principalement por le bremsstrohlung des electrons des cascades electromagnetiques ({approx} 50 pour cent du rayonnement mesure), au rayonnement 511 keV provoque par l'annihilation des positrons crees dans les cascades (8 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree) et aux {gamma} de degradation Compton de cette raie (30 pour cent de l'intensite mesuree). Le reste, soit un peu plus de 10 pour cent, doit etre attribue a des causes secondaires telles que les {gamma} de desexcitation nucleaire, le bremsstrahlung interne des particules chargees creees dans les etoiles nucleaires, et aux particules chargees traversant notre detecteur car celui-ci ne comportait pas de dispositif de rejet de ces particules. Les experiences faites en fusees a Colomb-Bechar ont confirme ces resultats et permis de detecter et mesurer un rayonnement {gamma} primaire dont l

  2. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors; Contribution a l etude de la radio toxicite des plantes aromatiques et medicinales au moyen des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortassim, A; Misdaq, M A; Naaman, A

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in {sup f}ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [French] Les concentrations en uranium (238U), thorium (232Th), radon (222Rn), et thoron (220Rn) ont ete mesurees dans vingt plantes aromatiques et medicinales en utilsant une nouvelle methode basee sur l utilisation des detecteurs solides de traces nucleaires de types CR-39 et LR-115. Il en sort de cette etude que la verveine et la salvia presentent des teneurs en uranium (radon) superieurs a celle des autres plantes alors que les feuilles d olivier et la saturja presentent des concentrations en thorium (thoron) plus elevee que celles des autres plantes par consequent la radio toxicite de ces plantes est superieure a celles des autres et peuvent presenter un risque radiologique si les masses incorporees par les consommateurs sont elevees.

  3. Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Urban Cooperation on Water Management in the Context of Climate Change in Burkina Faso. Cities greatly depend on rural areas for agricultural ... Coopération entre milieux ruraux et urbains dans la gestion de l'eau face aux changements climatiques au Burkina Faso. Les villes dépendent fortement des milieux ...

  4. Economic Criteria Applied to Nuclear Materials Management; Criteres Economiques Applicables a la Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires; Ehkonomicheskie kriterii, primenyaemye pri kontrole i uchete yadernykh materialov; Criterios Economicos Aplicados a la Administracion de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelley, W. J.; Kuehn, M. N. [Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Charles, MS (United States)

    1966-02-15

    placed upon such personnel to accept, understand and perform the work. Such personnel selected must be thoroughly and minutely trained in the importance of their activity. Those responsible for the management of nuclear materials must be continually alert to the smallest kind of aberration in the quality and performance of the personnel, the process, the systems, procedures and techniques. Only through such alertness and willingness to revise, so as to secure improvement, does one secure the optimum balance of costs and needs. (author) [French] La gestion des matieres nucleaires doit etre subordonnee aux objectifs principaux du traitement de ces matieres, c'est-a-dire la production d'energie ou la fabrication de produits finis. Les responsables de la gestion des matieres nucleaires doivent donc tenir constamment compte des besoins de la production principale et adapter les methodes de gestion aux operations de facon a pouvoir assurer cette gestion avec un minimum de depenses. Le systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires doit soigneusement tenir compte des divers facteurs qui influent sur son prix de revient. Il vient en complement des operations et doit entrainer le minimum de frais de personnel et d'analyse et provoquer le moins d'interruptions possible dans les operations. U doit etre integre a ces dernieres, de facon que les renseignements d'ordre quantitatif qu'il permet d'obtenir puissent etre communiques rapidement aux responsables du controle des operations. Le systeme d'enregistrement et de preparation des rapports doit fournir une quantite maximale de donnees subsidiaires. Il doit etre compatible avec les systemes utilises par les fournisseurs et les consommateurs et assurer la diffusion, partout ou cela est possible, de renseignements supplementaires concernant les lots de matieres nucleaires. Les donnees a fournir pour le controle des matieres nucleaires doivent se limiter a celles qui sont necessaires pour s'assurer qu'il n'y a pas de pertes importantes, de

  5. TANGKI SEPTIK DAN MASALAHNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Manusia yang sehat tiap hari membuang tinja yang harus ditampung dan/atau diolah secara saniter. Meskipun Indonesia telah 55 tahun merdeka dan telah memiliki banyak ahli sanitasi/teknik penyehatan baik lulusan dalam maupun luar negeri, namun cara pengelolaan tinja yang ada kebanyakan masih belum memenuhi syarat kesehatan. Tangki septik dianggap sebagai cara penampungan tinja yang terbaik, padahal sebenarnya masih terjadi pencemaran tanah dan air melalui saluran perembesan.Tangki septik (septic tank merupakan salah satu macam sarana pengolahan tinja manusia yang pada garis besarnya terdiri dari sebuah tangki pembusukan lumpur (sludge digester dan saluran perembesan efluen. Tangki pembusukan harus memenuhi syarat mengenai perbandingan panjang dan lebar serta syarat kedalaman maksimum dan minimum, agar pembusukan lumpur dari tinja manusia dapat berjalan sempurna malahan tidak berbau busuk lagi.

  6. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachkar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  7. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachkar, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  8. DEPRESI DAN GANGGUAN TIDUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Eko Radityo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Depresi merupakan gangguan mood berupa kesedihan yang intens, berlangsung dalamwaktu lama, dan mengganggu kehidupan normal yang insidennya semakin meningkatseiring dengan meningkatnya tekanan hidup. Tahun 2020, depresi diperkirakanmenempati urutan kedua penyakit di dunia. Gejala-gejala depresi terdiri dari gangguanemosi, gangguan kognitif, keluhan somatik, gangguan psikomotor, dan gangguanvegetatif. Salah satu gejala depresi yang muncul adalah gangguan tidur yang bisaberupa insomnia, bangun secara tiba-tiba, dan hipersomnia. Hal ini disebabkan olehgangguan neurotransmiter dan regulasi hormon. Selain sebagai gejala depresi, gangguantidur juga bisa merupakan penyebab depresi. Beberapa penelitian memberikanhubungan gangguan tidur dapat meningkatkan risiko depresi di kemudian hari.

  9. Nuclear Materials Management and its Relationship to Nuclear Safety and Criticality Control; La Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires et ses Rapports avec la Securite Nucleaire et le Controle de la Criticite; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami i ego svyaz' s yadernoj bezopasnost'yu i kontrolem nad kritichnost'yu; La Administracion de Materiales Nucleares y sus Relaciones con la Seguridad Nuclear y el Control de la Criticidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1966-02-15

    dictated by the technical considerations and familiar with the operational limitations. The administrative problems are solved through procedural restrictions placed by the supervisor. The NMM office can be most valuable in further support to the supervisor in these activities. The primary responsibility of this office is to alert responsible supervision to potentially hazardous situations as indicated either from information made available through the routine processing of accountability data or from material balance calculations. Any information pertaining to criticality studies as requested from the NMM office must be accurate and precise. A vigorous inventory management policy must be pursued to lessen the problems presented by accumulation of fissile materials. Internal audit by the NMM staff of inventory holdings can also serve to verify adherence to safeguard procedures. A vigorous orientation programme can be implemented by the NMM staff in its dealing with those individuals handling nuclear materials to make them more aware of the hazards involved. The integration of the NMM group into the general criticality safeguard problems at the NRT and has provided an effective system for assisting the line supervision in discharging this very important responsibility. (author) [French] Il est essentiel pour tous ceux qui travaillent dans l'industrie nucleaire de savoir comment eviter que des matieres nucleaires ne se trouvent rassemblees en quantites, selon une geometrie ou dans un milieu tels qu'elles puissent donner lieu a une reaction neutronique en chaine. Ceci interesse tout particulierement ceux qui, dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions, sont responsables de la manipulation, du transfert et de l'entreposage des matieres fissiles. Ces memes personnes participent au systeme de gestion des matieres nucleaires. Elles ont au premier chef la responsabilite de fournir et de recevoir les donnees comptables par l'intermediaire du service de gestion des matieres nucleaires

  10. Propagation of neutrinos in nuclear matter; Effets du milieu sur la propagation des neutrinos dans la matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margueron, J

    2001-07-01

    We study the elementary interactions between neutrinos and dense matter in a proto-neutron star. Equations of state obtained with different nuclear effective interactions (Skyrme, Gogny, Relativistic Lagrangians) are first discussed. Then, we characterize their stability in spin and isospin. We derive magnetic susceptibilities for all isospin asymmetry values as a function of Landau parameters G{sup {pi}}{sup {pi}}{sup '}{sub 0} (where {pi}, {pi}' = proton or neutron). From this work, we select a parametrization for each of the 3 effective forces: Sly230b,D1P,NL3. We calculate the pure neutron matter and asymmetric nuclear matter response functions with and without charge exchange, describing nuclear correlations in both approaches: non-relativistic (Hartree-Fock with Skyrme forces, then complete RPA) and relativistic (in the Hartree approximation). At the end, we calculate neutrino mean free paths neutral current and charged current reactions. Comparisons between relativistic and non-relativistic approaches allow us to identify relativistic effects in nuclear matter at densities as low as twice the saturation density. RPA correlations make the medium more transparent to neutrinos compared to free Fermi gas. The importance of the effective mass in mean free path calculations is also shown. (author)

  11. The nuclear energy use in Space; Utilisation de l'energie nucleaire dans l'espace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raepsaet, X. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Pempie, P. [Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 91 - Evry (France)

    2002-07-01

    Two ways of the nuclear energy use are possible in spatial applications. The first one is the electric power production to supply satellites, space vehicles or electric propulsion. The second one, less obvious, is the thermal-nuclear propulsion where the nuclear reactor is a thermal exchanger for a gas. These two applications are presented in this paper, with two examples of projects realized in collaboration of the CNES and the CEA: ERATO as an electrical generator and MAPS as the nucleo-thermal propulsion. (A.L.B.)

  12. Quality approach in hygiene in a nuclear medicine service; Demarche qualite en hygiene dans un service de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogin, J

    1998-10-29

    The activities of nuclear medicine, by their constraints of radiation protection, present difficulties for rules of hygiene protocols. Considering the particular risks of certain techniques, the approach brings to the fore the compromise between radiation protection and hygiene and to adapt the recommendations to local specificities. (N.C.)

  13. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament: France in a corner; Dissuasion et desarmement nucleaire: la France dans un corner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautier, L. [Lyon-3 Univ., 69 (France)

    2010-07-15

    The author comments the implications and consequences of the recent Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference which drew a line between emerging actors and non-aligned countries on one side, and nuclear states on the other. As the United States got some benefits from this review conference, France, because of its involvement on the Iranian issue and of its clumsy reaction to the Brazil's and Turkey's initiative, found itself in an uncomfortable position. The author stresses that nuclear weapon proliferation is presently the biggest threat against peace, and that negotiations on nuclear disarmament must be resumed. He describes France's position and orientations on this issue: to restore the NPT authority, to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), to implement the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). He also discusses the importance of talks about nuclear deterrence in Europe, and more particularly about the role and the future of US tactical nuclear weapons and missiles present on the European soil

  14. Modelling of heterogenous neutron leakages in a nuclear reactor; Modelisation des fuites heterogenes de neutrons dans un reacteur nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohleber, X

    1997-11-17

    The TIBERE Model is a neutron leakage method based on B{sub 1} heterogeneous transport equation resolution. In this work, we have studied the influence of the reflection mode at the boundary of the assembly. In particular the White boundary condition has been implemented in the APOLLO2 neutron transport code. We have compared the two TIBERE kinds of boundary conditions (specular and white) with the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method in the modelling of some reactors. We have remarked the better capability of the TIBERE Model to compute voided assemblies. The white boundary condition is also able to compute a completely voided assembly and, besides, wins a factor 10 in CPU time in comparison with the specular boundary condition. These two heterogenous leakage formalisms have been tested on a partially voided experiment and have shown that the TIBERE Model can compute this kind of situation with a greater precision than the classical B{sub 1} homogeneous leakage method, and with a shorter computational time. (author)

  15. Semi-classical theory of fluctuations in nuclear matter; Theorie semi-classique des fluctuations dans la matiere nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhassine, B. [Nantes Univ., 44 (France)

    1994-01-14

    At intermediate energies the heavy ion collisions can be studied within the framework of a semi-classical approach based on the Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (VUU) equation. Such an approach reduces the N-body problem to its description in terms of the one-body distribution function and constitutes the basis of several successful simulation models. Our aim in this work is to extend these average approaches to treat fluctuations. Within the framework of a linear approximation, we derived a Fokker-Planck transport equation in the one-body phase space. When it is reduced to its first moments, one recovers the VUU equation for the average dynamics together with the time evolution equation for the correlations. The collective transport coefficients are then obtained by projection on the one-body collective space. Independently, using a projection method introduced by Van Kampen, based on the constants of motion, we deduce the stationary expressions for the covariance matrix in phase space. We extract then, the equilibrium dispersions of one-body observables in a homogeneous case and in a spherical symmetric one. These results are compared with two types of simulation models in a relaxation time approximation. In the first one which is of Lagrangian type, the collective transport coefficients are directly extracted from the simulation and consequently the numerical fluctuations are washed out. The second model, due to its Eulerian character, allows us to make a microscopical comparison. (author) 58 refs.

  16. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  17. Excitations in superfluid systems: contributions of the nuclear structure; Excitations dans les systemes superfluides: contributions de la structure nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, E

    2005-12-15

    The author presents successively the theoretical aspect, the experimental aspect and the applied aspect of excitations in nuclear structures. The quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) tool is first described. Recent approaches on QRPA are based on the theory of the density function where the ground state and excited states are described from the same nucleon-nucleon interaction. 2 methods for measuring the collective excitations are then presented: the proton scattering that has the potentiality to investigate the evolution of magicity, the second method is in fact a new method for measuring the giant mono-polar resonance (GMP) in exotic nuclei. Nuclear reactions are considered as a compulsory step on the way from observables like cross-sections to nuclear structure. The author highlights the assets of the convolution model that can generate the optical potential from the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and from proton and neutron densities of the nuclei involved. R-processes in nucleosynthesis and neutron stars are reviewed as applications of collective excitations in the field of nuclear astrophysics. (A.C.)

  18. The myeloid splenomegaly in a service of nuclear medicine; La splenomegalie myeloide dans un service de Medecine Nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rain, J-D.; Najean, Y.; Billoty, C. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital Saint-Louis, Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    The existence in a Nuclear Medicine service of several in-vivo (scintigraphy and kinetic) and in-vitro (dosages) sections can contribute into a better knowledge of diseases due to the complementarity of the provided information. Exploration, since 1990, of 183 primary and secondary myeloid splenomegalies (MS) is a good example. These 183 patients have had a medullary scintigraphy with Technetium colloids and Indium Transferrin, 98, a measurement of the sanguine mass, 60, a kinetic study of Iron-Chromium erythropoiesis and 180, a dosage of pro-collagen III. These four examinations allowed confirming the MS diagnosis and orienting the prognostic. The medullary scintigraphy is able to show the poverty of marrow-sustaining tissues and allows measuring the splenomegaly. It helps evaluating the wealth of myelopoietic tissue and its extensions and confirming the spleenic erythropoiesis. The measure of sanguine mass specifies the existence and importance of true anaemia and hemodilution due to the splenomegaly. The kinetic study by Iron-Chromium indicates the medullary spleenic production, degree of dys-erythropoiesis, the presence of hemolysis and its location. It brings about important prognostic arguments and is a precious aid in making the difficult decision of indication of splenectomy. The pro-collagen III dosage is of a certain prognostic interest. The patients with less than 0.70 U/ml have a slow evolutivity of their disease, those with values within 0.70 to 1 U/ml have a more severe evolution, while for those having values higher than 1 U/ml the prognostic is bad on short terms. In conclusion, the diagnosis and prognostic of these examinations in MS justify maintenance of a plurality of in-vivo and in-vitro techniques in our services

  19. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  20. Overview of the Russian nuclear industry; Le panorama nucleaire russe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    In 2004, President Poutine decided to replace the atomic energy ministry (Minatom) by the federal atomic energy agency (Rosatom). Several projects were launched during the next two years which aimed at bringing back Russia to the fore front of the world leaders of nuclear energy use and nuclear technology export. In 2007, Rosatom agency was changed to a public holding company and a new company, named Atomenergoprom, was created which gathers all civil nuclear companies (AtomEnergoMash for the exploitation of power plants, Technabsexport (Tenex) specialized in enrichment or Atomstryexport in charge of export activities). Thus, Rosatom is at the head of all civilian and military nuclear companies, of all research centers, and of all nuclear and radiological safety facilities. In 2006, Russian nuclear power plants supplied 15.8% of the whole power consumption. Russia wishes to develop its nuclear program with the construction of new reactors in order to reach a nuclear electricity share of 25% from now to 2020. This paper presents first the 2007 institutional reform of the Russian atomic sector, and the three sectorial federal programmes: 1 - development of the nuclear energy industrial complex for the 2007-2010 era and up to 2015 (future power plants, nuclear fuel centers and reactor prototypes), 2 - nuclear safety and radioprotection for the 2008-2015 era (waste management, remedial actions, radiation protection), 3 - military program (confidential). Then, the paper presents: the international actions (export of Russian technology, cooperation agreements, non-proliferation), the situation of the existing nuclear park (reactors in operation, stopped, under construction and in project), the fuel cycle activities (production of natural uranium, enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, waste management), the nuclear R and D in Russia, and the nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  1. The 1989 annual report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire-Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activity report of the Institut de Physique Nucleaire (Orsay-France) from 1 Sep 1988 to 1 Aug 1989 is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out in the following fields: light and medium exotic nuclei, on line spectroscopy, discrete high spin states, new radioactivities, thermal fission, detection systems, giant resonances, high excitation energy structure, reaction mechanisms at energies below 10 MeV/u and at 200 MeV/u and their evolution between 10 and 100 MeV/u, meson production, transfer reactions, spin modes in nuclei, dibaryonic resonances, inelastic scattering of polarized protons. Research programs in the field of radiochemistry and relating to inter-disciplinary fields are included. The activities involving teaching, the lists of publications conferences, seminars and theses are presented [fr

  2. Micro manometer and pitot tube for measuring the velocity distribution in a natural convection water stream between two vertical parallel plates (1961); Micromano metre et tube de pitot destines a l'exploration du profil de vitesse dans un ecoulement d'eau de convection naturelle entre deux plaques verticales paralleles (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santon, L; Vernier, Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    For heat transfer studies in certain cases of cooling in swimming-pool type nuclear reactors, a knowledge of the distribution of the velocities between two heating elements is of prime importance. A Pitot tube and a micro-manometer have been developed for making these measurements on an experimental model. (authors) [French] Pour l'etude du transfert de chaleur dans certains cas de refroidissement des reacteurs nucleaires du type piscine, la connaissance de la repartition des vitesses entre deux elements chauffants est primordiale. On a mis au point un tube de Pitot et un micromanometre pour effectuer ces mesures sur une maquette experimentale. (auteurs)

  3. Study methods for the drillings around the underground nuclear explosions in the Sahara. Part 1. study of rock samples; Methodes d'etude des forages realises autour des explosions nucleaires souterraines au Sahara. Premiere partie: etude des echantillons de roche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyers-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    An examination of the mechanical effects produced on rocks by an underground nuclear explosion calls for the use of particular means of exploration which are described in this report, special attention being paid to the equipment used in connection with the French nuclear tests in the Sahara. The drilling methods used (rotary and turbo-drilling) are adapted to the particular conditions of the sampling programme, to the radioactivity and to the temperature in the region of the explosion. A study of the samples makes it possible to obtain the new characteristics of the rock and to assess the chemical and mechanical transformations which it has undergone. An examination of the core obtained from the drilling, together with a knowledge of the drilling parameters (depth of the probe, sample recovery, etc...), makes it possible to study the extent and the characteristics of the zones which have been damaged to different degrees according to their distance from the zero point: cavity, strongly powdered zone, fractured zone, chimney, zones containing high stresses leading to a particular type of fracture of the cores. The problems connected with the interpretation of the results are also presented. (author) [French] L'examen des effets mecaniques provoques par une explosion nucleaire souterraine sur la roche necessite la mise en oeuvre de moyens d'exploration particuliers dont l'expose fait l'objet de ce rapport, essentiellement pour les moyens utilises autour des essais nucleaires francais au Sahara. Les methodes de forage (rotary et turboforage) sont adaptees aux conditions particulieres dues au programme d'echantillonnage, a la radioactivite et a la temperature regnant a proximite du point de tir. L'etude des echantillons permet la determination des nouveaux caracteres de la roche et de ses transformations chimique et mecanique. L'examen des carottes et l'utilisation des parametres de forage (cotes sondeurs, recuperation des echantillons, etc...) permettent d'etudier l

  4. Irradiation and development of the nuclear emulsions exposed to intense fluxes of thermal neutrons with {gamma} rays; Irradiation et developpement des emulsions nucleaires exposees a des flux intenses de neutrons thermiques, accompagnes de rayons {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraggi, H.; Bonnet, A.; Cohen, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. du Fort de Chatillon, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1952-07-01

    The thermal neutron fluxes provided by nuclear reactors permit the survey of relatively rare phenomenons, and dosage of very weak quantities of some elements. One of the most favorable detection technique are constituted by the use of the nuclear emulsions. one can mention: - the dosage of uranium by counting in the emulsion the number of traces due to fission fragments after irradiation. - The dosage of the lithium and the boron as trace amounts with the help of nuclear reactions (n, {alpha}) and thermal neutrons. - The research of reactions (n, {alpha}) or (n, p) of very weak cross section for middle or heavy elements. These different applications require however important neutrons fluxes. It had therefore obliged us to search for the most favorable irradiation and development of the emulsions conditions, to get the best visibility of the trajectories and decrease the phenomena of fog on the emulsion, which prevents any observation. (M.B.) [French] Les flux de neutrons thermiques fournis par les reacteurs nucleaires permettent l'etude de phenomenes relativement rares, et le dosage de tres faibles quantites de certains elements. Un des moyens de detection les plus favorables est constitue par l'utilisation des emulsions nucleaires. on peut citer: - le dosage de l'uranium par comptage dans l'emulsion du nombre de traces dues aux fragments de fission apres irradiation. - Le dosage du lithium et du bore a l'etat de traces a l'aide des reactions (n, {alpha}) sous l'action des neutrons thermiques. - La recherche de reactions (n,{alpha}) ou (n,p) de tres faible section efficace pour des elements moyens ou lourds. Ces differentes applications necessite cependant des flux de neutrons important. On a donc ete amene a rechercher les conditions les plus favorables d'irradiation et de developpement des emulsions, de maniere a obtenir la meilleure visibilite des trajectoires et diminuer les phenomenes de voile de l'emulsion, qui

  5. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah pada Dinas Koperasi Kota Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardainis Mardainis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSesuai dengan tugas dan fungsinya dinas koperasi perlu mendata seluruh bentuk-bentuk usaha yang muncul dengan melakukan pendataan  terhadap usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah tadi. Tugas dinas koperasi memberikan bimbingan, pelatihan dan arahan serta pengawasan kepada setiap usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah. Meningkatnya usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah di Pekanbaru, maka secara langsung akan mempengaruhi peningkatan ekonomi kota Pekanbaru. Begitu banyaknya usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah ini yang perlu didata muncul kesulitan bagi dinas koperasi untuk membuat laporan yang mungkin dibutuhkan setiap saat. Seperti laporan perjenis usaha, laporan usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah perkecamatan dan laporan usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah perkluster. Kesulitan muncul karena usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah selalu bertambah sementara laporan baru diselesaikan, sehingga laporan yang dibuat tidak update lagi. Untuk mengatasi hal tersebut dirasa perlu sistem komputer dan database untuk membantu pendataannya. Hasil penelitian menghasilkan program sistem informasi usaha mikro kecil dan menengah pada dinas koperasi kota Pekanbaru. Sistem ini mudah untuk dioperasikan dan dapat memberikan informasi data usaha mikro, kecil dan menengah perjenis usaha, perdaerah serta perkelompok usaha. Kata kunci: Mikro, Sistem AbstractIn accordance with the duties and functions of cooperative agencies need to record the entire business forms that appear to do a survey on micro, small and medium earlier. Duty service cooperatives providing guidance, training and guidance and supervision to any micro, small and medium enterprises. Increased micro, small and medium enterprises in Pekanbaru, it will directly affect the economic improvement of the city of Pekanbaru. So many micro, small and medium enterprises that need to be recorded this appears difficult for the department of cooperatives to create reports that may be required at any time. As with any type of business reports

  6. Keragaman dan Peran Biologi Arthrophoda pada Sawah Irigasi dan Tegalan

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarno, Suwarno

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman arthropoda dan peran biologinya pada tanah sawah irigasi dan tegalan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di daerah persawahan di daerah Sragen pada bulan Maret – Mei 2016. Metode Penelitian dengan menggunakan pitfall trap atau perangkap jebakan yang diletakkan area persawahan dan tegalan. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan menggunakan purposive sampling. Sampel arthropoda yang diperoleh diidentifikasi dan dianalisis di Laboratorium pendidikan Biologi. ...

  7. ANALISIS PSAK NO. 27 TENTANG AKUNTANSI PERKOPERASIAN DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KESEHATAN USAHA PADA KPRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khafid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis kepatuhan penerapan PSAK 27 (Cooperative Accounting, dan untuk menganalisa dampak  kepatuhan penerapan PSAK 27 (Cooperative Accounting  pada pengoperasian kinerja KPRI di kota Semarang. Populasinya adalah 62 KPRI di kota Semarang, dan sempel yang digunakan adalah 29 KPRI. Metode pengumpulan datanya adalah dokumentasi dan kuesioner. Metode analisis data adalah analisis deskriptif  dan statistik inferensial. Hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa KPRI di kotamadya Semarang dikategorikan cukup dan terbukti bahwa hipotesis menyatakan bahwa tingkat kepatuhan penerapan PSAK 27 berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan usaha. Abstract The purposes of this research are to analyze the implementation compliance of PSAK 27 (Cooperative Accounting, and to analyze the effects of implementation compliance of PSAK 27 (Cooperative Accounting on KPRI performance  in Semarang Municipality. The population are 62 KPRIs in Semarang.However, there are only twenty nine KPRIs become the samples. The methods for collecting the data are documentation and questionairre. Then, for analyzing the data, it requires descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results of study shows that KPRIs in Semarang Municipality are categorized as fair and hypothesis states that the level of implementation compliance of PSAK 27 is influencial to the business has successfully proven.Keywords:  cooperative accounting; compliance

  8. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi dan Teknologi Pengolahan pada Gabah dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  9. Evaluasi Sifat Morpologi Dan Teknologi Pengolahan Pada Gabah Dan Beras

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Susilo

    1982-01-01

    Penelitian evaluasi dan beras terhadap mutu dan jumlah hasil ditekankan pada lr36 , lr38 dan Cisadane. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Karawang. Hasil studi menunjukkan diantara ketiga varitas, Cisadane mempunyai ukuran dimensi butiran yang lebih besar daripada Ir36 dan Ir38. Di antara ketiga varitas, persen kulit sekam yang tertinggi didapat 23,57 % pada lr38 diikuti 22,32% pada Ir36 dan 19,5% pada Cisadane. Persen beras pecah kulit tertinggi diperoleh pa...

  10. A study of filtering problems of background noise in nuclear spectrometry, improvement of signal-to-noise ratio, and of pulse characteristics produced by the optimum predictor device; Etude de problemes de filtrage de bruit de fond en spectrometrie nucleaire, amelioration du rapport signal sur bruit et des caracteristiques de l'impulsion mise en forme par le dispositif du predicteur optimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benda, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-01

    The purpose of nuclear spectrometry is the precise measurement of particles energy. The resolving power of a spectrometer design is an important factor. Two main phenomena are involved in the limitation of this resolving power: The statistical fluctuations of the detector itself, and the background noise. For a given noise, the theory of filters enables the calculation of networks specially designed for the improvement of signal to noise ratio. The proposed system should lead to an improvement of 10.5 per cent of this ratio. Experiments have confirmed this theoretical estimation. The predictor device also makes possible the obtaining of shortened pulses. (author) [French] Les mesures en spectrometrie nucleaire ont pour but la determination precise de l'energie des particules. Le pouvoir de resolution d'une chaine de spectrometrie est une caracteristique importante. Deux phenomenes principaux concourent a limiter ce pouvoir de resolution: les fluctuations statistiques du detecteur et le bruit de fond. Pour un bruit de fond donne, la theorie des filtres permet de calculer des reseaux susceptibles de modifier le rapport signal sur bruit. Le systeme propose permet d'ameliorer de 10.5 pour cent ce rapport lorsqu'on se place dans les conditions optimales. Les resultats experimentaux confirment les previsions. Le dispositif predicteur permet aussi un raccourcissement de l'impulsion dans le temps. (auteur)

  11. Dosage of boron traces in graphite, uranium and beryllium oxide; Dosage de traces de bore dans le graphite, l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursier, J [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles, 75 - Paris (France); Hure, J; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The problem of the dosage of the boron in the materials serving to the construction of nuclear reactors arises of the following way: to determine to about 0,1 ppm close to the quantities of boron of the order of tenth ppm. We have chosen the colorimetric analysis with curcumin as method of dosage. To reach the indicated contents, it is necessary to do a previous separation of the boron and the materials of basis, either by extraction of tetraphenylarsonium fluoborate in the case of the boron dosage in uranium and the beryllium oxide, either by the use of a cations exchanger resin of in the case of graphite. (M.B.) [French] Le probleme du dosage du bore dans les materiaux servant a la construction de reacteurs nucleaires se pose de la facon suivante: determiner a environ 0,1 ppm pres des quantites de bore de l'ordre de quelques dixiemes de ppm. Nous avons choisit la colorimetrie a la curcumine comme methode de dosage. Pour atteindre les teneurs indiquees, il est necessaire d'effectuer une separation prealable du bore et des materiaux de base, soit par extraction du fluoborate de tetraphenylarsonium dans le cas du dosage de bore dans l'uranium et l'oxyde de beryllium, soit par l'utilisation d'une resine echangeuse de cations dans le cas du graphite. (M.B.)

  12. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part the are reviewed: Co-operation with IAEA; Participation of the Slovakia on the 41 st session of the General Conference; The comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization; Co-operation with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; co-operation with the European Commission; Fulfillment of obligations resulting from the international contracting documents

  13. Study, with the help of nuclear indicators (HTO, Urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na), of the renewal of water, urea and sodium in different parts of the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis and of the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in oliguria; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires (HTO, UREE {sup 14}C et {sup 24}Na), du renouvellement de l'eau, de l'uree et du sodium dans les differentes regions du rein de rat en diurese aqueuse et de merion en diurese osmotique ou en oligurie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechene, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    In the kidney of the gerbil in oliguria there exists a cortico-papillary gradient in the concentration of the sodium and of the urea; this gradient disappears in the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis; in these three states of diuresis there is no significant difference in the potassium concentration between the surface and interior regions of the kidneys. Kinetic studies using tritiated water, urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na show that water and urea in the interior regions of the kidney are only renewed very slowly (1 h) whereas the sodium is rapidly changed (1 mn). These results can be explained using WIRZ's theory concerning the mechanism of the counter-current concentration of urine. Furthermore, the evolution of the specific radioactivity of urea {sup 14}C is favorable for a cortical synthesis of urea. (author) [French] II existe dans le rein de Merions en oligurie un gradient cortico papillaire de la concentration du sodium et de l'uree; ce gradient est aboli dans le rein de Merions en diurese osmotique ou de rats en diurese aqueuse; dans ces 3 etats de diurese il n'y a pas de difference significative de la concentration du potassium entre les regions superficielles et profondes des reins. Des etudes cinetiques a l'aide d'eau tritiee, d'uree {sup 14}C et de {sup 24}Na montrent que l'eau et l'uree des regions profondes des reins ne sont renouveles que tres lentement (1 h), alors que le sodium est tres vite renouvele (1 mn). Ces resultats s'expliquent par la theorie de WIRZ sur le mecanisme de la concentration de l'urine par contre-courant. En outre, l'evolution renale de la radioactivite specifique de l'uree {sup 14}C est en faveur d'une synthese corticale de l'uree. (auteur)

  14. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...... can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort....

  15. Problems bound to the tritium in materials for the nuclear - some illustrations; Problematiques liees au tritium dans les materiaux dans le domaine nucleaire - quelques illustrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, O. [CEA Cadarache (DTN/STPA/LPC), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2007-07-01

    The tritium control takes more and more importance in the nuclear industry because of the release more and more limited, in the environment. After a presentation on the tritium sources in the environment, the author presents the different ways of its production. Then for each reactor channel, the main problems are presented (fission and fusion). The last part deals with the behavior of the tritium in materials: the tritium inventory control in a fusion system, the tritium management after the reactor exploitation. (A.L.B.)

  16. ISLAMIC VALUE-DRIVEN COOPERATION IN SKILLS ACQUISITION AND MOBILITY FOR EMPOWERING MARGINAL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Saim Mohammad Shahabuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Islam exhorts for cooperation in righteous and God conscious acts. This exhortation has individual and institutional implications for efforts geared towards promoting the welfare of less privileged marginal segment of society. Conceiving an institutional form of cooperation, this paper proposes and explains a program which will target at empowering this segment. The program is for developing non-professional skills which have to be founded on and inspired by the Islamic principles of cooperation and self-reliance. As non-professional skills are mostly learned informally and on-the-job, business houses will be the cooperator who will provide platforms for training. Members of a marginal segment of society will be the beneficiaries who will receive training for acquiring job skills and mobility towards achieving their self-reliance. Government organ will be a facilitating party that shall provide support for the collaborative venture to occur and sustain. Apart from Islamic principles of cooperation and self-reliance, this paper will draw upon the theory of social learning, theory of conforming to group norms and doctrine of market supervision (al-Hisbah in Islamic civilization to expound the role of the triad—the cooperator, the beneficiaries, and the facilitator—in achieving the major outcomes of the program. =========================================== Islam mendorong kerjasama dalam kebaikan dan bertindak semata-mata karena Allah. Dorongan ini memiliki implikasi individual dan institusional dalam upaya mensejahterakan masyarakat marjinal yang kurang beruntung. Dalam suatu bentuk upaya kerjasama secara institusional, artikel ini menawarkan dan menjelaskan suatu program yang akan menargetkan dalam memberdayakan segmen ini. Program ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan keterampilan non-professional yang dibentuk dan didorong oleh prinsip-prinsip Islam dalam kerjasama dan kemandirian. Keterampilan non-professional sebagian besar dipelajari secara

  17. Determination of radioactive risks connected with the working of a nuclear plant; Evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavie, J M; Doury, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Numerous problems which are posed by the evaluation of the radioactive risks linked to the working of a nuclear plant are new problems which have not yet been satisfactorily solved. In these conditions this study must be considered only as a preliminary approach whose essential aims are the following: - development and synthesis of the existing data; - rapid determination of conservative and usable orders of greatness for the security factors, both for normal working and in the case of an accident. The most probable typical accidents are reviewed together with the nature of the resulting risks and the principal factors on which these risks depend. Among these factors, one of the most important is atmospheric diffusion which is studied in some detail using the analytic model due to Sutton. A logical graphical presentation increasing the flexibility in the use of the results and presents the responsible authorities with a flexible, practical and rapid means of evaluating the risks involved starting from a sufficiently general system of initial and simultaneously valid conditions (types of accident, atmospheric conditions). (author) [French] De nombreux problemes souleves par l'evaluation des risques radioactifs lies au fonctionnement d'une installation nucleaire sont des problemes nouveaux qui n'ont pas encore recu de solution satisfaisante. Dans ces conditions cette etude ne doit etre consideree que comme une premiere approche dont les objectifs essentiels sont les suivants: - mise au point et synthese de donnees existantes; - determination rapide d'ordres de grandeur conservatifs et utilisables de valeurs de securite, tant en fonctionnement normal qu'en cas d'accident. Les accidents types les plus probables sont passes en revue ainsi que la nature des risques qui en decoulent et les principaux facteurs dont dependent ces risques. Parmi ces facteurs, l'un des plus importants est la diffusion atmospherique qui fait l'objet d'une etude particuliere a l'aide du modele

  18. PENGARUH PELAYANAN, KINERJA PENGURUS KOPERASI, DAN MOTIVASI BERKOPERASI TERHADAP PARTISIPASI ANGGOTA KOPERASI PEGAWAI REPUBLIK INDONESIA (KPRI EKA KARYA KABUPATEN KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yuni Sulistyowati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelayanan, kinerja pengurus koperasi, dan motivasi berkoperasi terhadap partisipasi anggota Koperasi Pegawai Republik Indonesia (KPRI Eka Karya Kabupaten Kendal. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif, dengan populasi berjumlah 496 anggota dengan sampel 83 anggota. Metode pengambilan data yang digunakan adalah kuesioner dan dokumentasi. Metode analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif, regresi linier berganda dan uji asumsi klasik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara simultan terdapat pengaruh pelayanan, kinerja pengurus koperasi, dan motivasi berkoperasi terhadap partisipasi anggota sebesar 58,2%. Secara parsial pelayanan berpengaruh sebesar 7,1%, kinerja pengurus koperasi berpengaruh sebesar 3,3% dan motivasi berkoperasi berpengaruh sebesar 27%. Dengan pelayanan, kinerja pengurus koperasi, dan motivasi berkoperasi yang baik maka akan meningkatkan partisipasi anggota. The results showed the service, the performance of cooperative management and cooperative motivation affect the participation of members simultaneously by 58.2% while the rest is influenced by other variables not examined. Furthermore, the effect of partial services to the participation of members was 7.1%, the effect of partial performance of the cooperative board member participation was 3.3% and the effect of partial motivation for the participation of members of cooperatives was 27%. Suggestions for KPRI Eka Karya Kendal is to be improving as more responsive services tehadap complaints, better hygiene as well as expanding the cooperative store stores that optimal participation of more members.

  19. Working in Cooperatives and Social Economy: Effects on Job Satisfaction and the Meaning of Work Travailler en coopérative et dans l’économie sociale, effets sur la satisfaction et le sens du travail Trabajar en cooperativa y en la economía social, efectos sobre la satisfacción y el sentido del trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Castel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of social economics on job satisfaction. According to the hypothesis, the adoption of social economics’ goals and modes of work organization is a source of job satisfaction: reduction in the separation between conception and execution, increase in work’s interest and perceived usefulness, and better cohesion and coordination among workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the workers in two consulting firms in sustainable development in France, one a cooperative and the other a private company. The results of the content analysis corroborate the hypothesis. The fact that social economy’s principles have positive impacts on job satisfaction in both companies also shows that social economy’s positive influence on well-being at work depends less on formal work organization than on the meaning given to work.Nous étudions les effets de l’économie sociale sur la satisfaction au travail. Selon l’hypothèse, l’adoption des finalités et des modes d’organisation du travail de l’économie sociale est source de satisfaction au travail : réduction de la séparation entre conception et exécution, augmentation de l’intérêt et de l’utilité perçue du travail, meilleure cohésion et coordination entre les travailleurs. Les résultats de l’analyse de contenu des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès des salariés de deux entreprises exerçant dans le secteur du conseil en développement durable en France, l’une société coopérative (SCOP et l’autre entreprise privée, confirment cette hypothèse. Le fait que les principes d’économie sociale ont des conséquences positives sur la satisfaction au travail dans les deux entreprises montre par ailleurs que l’influence positive de l’économie sociale sur le bien-être au travail dépend moins des modes de structuration formels que du sens donné au travail.Este artículo estudia los efectos de la economía social sobre la

  20. Travailler en coopérative et dans l’économie sociale, effets sur la satisfaction et le sens du travail Working in a cooperative and social economics: Effects on job satisfaction and the meaning of work Trabajar en cooperativa y en la economía social, efectos sobre la satisfacción y el sentido del trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Durand-Delvigne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous étudions les effets de l’économie sociale sur la satisfaction au travail. Selon l’hypothèse, l’adoption des finalités et des modes d’organisation du travail de l’économie sociale est source de satisfaction au travail : réduction de la séparation entre conception et exécution, augmentation de l’intérêt et de l’utilité perçue du travail, meilleure cohésion et coordination entre les travailleurs. Les résultats de l’analyse de contenu des entretiens semi-directifs menés auprès des salariés de deux entreprises exerçant dans le secteur du conseil en développement durable en France, l’une société coopérative (SCOP et l’autre entreprise privée, confirment cette hypothèse. Le fait que les principes d’économie sociale ont des conséquences positives sur la satisfaction au travail dans les deux entreprises montre par ailleurs que l’influence positive de l’économie sociale sur le bien-être au travail dépend moins des modes de structuration formels que du sens donné au travail.This study investigates the impact of social economics on job satisfaction. According to the hypothesis, the adoption of social economics’ goals and modes of work organization is a source of job satisfaction: reduction in the separation between conception and execution, increase in work’s interest and perceived usefulness, and better cohesion and coordination among workers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the workers in two consulting firms in sustainable development in France, one a cooperative and the other a private company. The results of the content analysis corroborate the hypothesis. The fact that social economy’s principles have positive impacts on job satisfaction in both companies also shows that social economy’s positive influence on well-being at work depends less on formal work organization than on the meaning given to work.Este artículo estudia los efectos de la economía social sobre la

  1. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...

  2. Prospects for the Use of Plutonium in Reactors; Prospective d'Utilisation du Plutonium dans les Reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossoul, E.; Haubert, P. [BELGONUCLEAIRE (Belgium); Hirschberg, D.; Morlet, E. [International Business Machines of Belgium, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1967-09-15

    The introduction, at an increasing rate, of power reactors using slightly enriched uranium will inevitably lead to the production of considerable quantities of plutonium over the next decade. Fast reactors will not be capable of absorbing this material before 1980. The question thus arises of whether one should store the plutonium far future use in fast reactors, recycle it in existing thermal reactors, or try to sell it. The problem has been studied for an electric power generating system that does not foresee selling the plutonium produced by its reactors and does not buy plutonium outside, which enables a good approximation to be made and eliminates the major unknown quantity represented by the future market price of plutonium. Assuming within this system a programme that provides for the construction of power reactors of a given type and capacity at specific dates, the utilization of the plutonium produced can be optimized by linear programming techniques so as to minimize the discounted total cost of the power generated over a given period. A later stage consists in optimizing, by various techniques, not only the utilization but also the production of plutonium by appropriate selection of the power reactor types to be constructed. (author) [French] L'implantation, a un rythme croissant, de centrales nucleaires a uranium legerement enrichi entrainera la production ineluctable d'une quantite importante de plutonium au cours de la prochaine decennie. Les reacteurs a neutrons rapides ne seront capables d'absorber cette production qu'apres 1980. La question se pose donc de savoir s'il est preferable de stocker le plutonium en vue de son utilisation ulterieure dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides plutot que de le recycler dans les reacteurs actuels a neutrons thermiques ou d'essayer de le vendre. Ce probleme a ete etudie dans le cadre d'un systeme de production d'energie electrique qui ne prevoirait pas la vente du plutonium produit par ses reacteurs nucleaires ni

  3. Liever kraanwater dan bronwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Een test in het Restaurant van de Toekomst van de invloed van CO2-labels op het aankoopgedrag van consumenten, heeft nog geen duidelijk beeld opgeleverd. Wel pakten mensen vaker kraanwater dan bronwater.

  4. Dan Performer Mei Lanfang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The convention of performing female characters (dan characters) in Beijing opera, as practised by its most prominent male performer of female characters Mei Lanfang, and its and his cultural context and aesthetic aim...

  5. Pengaruh Sumber Daya Perusahaan dan Orientasi Wirausaha Terhadap Kinerja Usaha Kecil dan Menengah [Effect of Corporate Resources and Entrepreneur Orientation on Small and Medium Business Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jein Sriana Toyib

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The intense competition between economic operators including those in Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs is a challenge that must be encountered in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community. The development of SMEs needs to be concerned since it is a potential sector to boost economic growth, employment and also directly drive the local economy. The study aims to analyze the influence of company resources and entrepreneurial orientation on the performance of SMEs in Manokwari. This was a quantitative research, with associative research method. The research population was all SMEs listed in Department of Cooperatives and SMEs Manokwari District. 100 samples of SMEs were chosen using accidental sampling technique. Data were obtained by giving questionnaires and interviews to SMEs in Manokwari. Multiple regression analysis was applied for data analysis.  Results of the study shows that both company resources and entrepreneurial orientation have significant affect on the performance of SMEs in Manokwari. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Persaingan yang ketat antara pelaku ekonomi termaksud pelaku usaha kecil dan menengah merupakan tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam era Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN. Perhatian terhadap perkembangan usaha kecil dan menengah perlu terus dilakukan karena usaha kecil dan menengah adalah sektor yang potensial mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi, menyerap tenaga kerja dan secara langsung mengerakan ekonomi masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menguji pengaruh sumber daya perusahaan dan orientasi wirausaha terhadap kinerja usaha kecil dan menengah di kabupaten Manokwari. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif, dengan metode penelitian asosiatif. Populasi penelitian adalah seluruh usaha kecil menengah yang tercatat di Dinas Koperasi dan UKM kabupaten Manokwari. Sampel penelitian berjumlah 100 UKM yang diambil dengan mengunakan teknik accidental sampling. Data dikumpulkan melalui  penyebaran kuesioner dan wawancara langsung

  6. Comparative Studies of Chemical Effects following Nuclear Reactions and Transformations on Metal Organic Phenyl Compounds; Etudes Comparatives des Effets Chimiques Induits par les Reactions et les Transformations Nucleaires sur des Composes Phenylmetalliques; 0421 0420 0410 0414 ; Estudios Comparativos de los Efectos Quimicos de las Reacciones y Transformaciones Nucleares en Compuestos Fenil-Organometalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, E.; Riedel, H. J. [Kernforschungsanlage, Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    molecule by the nuclear recoil and the resulting excitation. The hypothesis is put forward that the kind and quantity of certain new radioactive species produced in connection with nuclear events is less a function of the nature and concentration of primary recoil fragments than are the ions, radicals and lattice defects imparted to the irradiated materials by secondary recoil effects (elastic and inelastic interactions) , including the peculiar influence of oxygen. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les effets chimiques provoques par les atomes chaud de recul resultant des reactions nucleaires dans les solides et dans les liquides en se fondant sur une vaste comparaison des produits des processus (n,{gamma}) et (n,2n) dans les composes phenyles du germanium, de l'etain, du plomb, de l'arsenic et de l'antimoine. En outre, ils ont compare les produits de recul radioactifs formes apres capture K dans le tetraphenyl- germanium-{sup 68}Ge avec les resultats du processus (n,{gamma}) dans le triphenylgalliumet du processus (n,p) sur le tetraphenylgermanium. Enfin, ils ont etudie la transition {beta}{sup -} dans laquelle {sup 77}Ge est remplace par {sup 77}As dans le compose. En appliquant differentes methodes de separation, par exemple la chromatographie d'adsorption sur alumine, l'echange d'ions et l'electrophorese, ils ont separe les divers produits de recul radioactifs et determine les rendements individuels. Ils ont constate que, dans les reactions nucleaires, les composes des metaux cites ayant des coordinats identiques forment pratiquement les memes classes.de produits de recul. Toutefois, pour la distribution des rendements, il y a des differences caracteristiques entre la reaction (n,{gamma}) et la reaction (n,2n). L'influence sur les rendements est a peine perceptible lorsque les irradiations ont lieu dans des liquides ou des solutions. Mais les differences trouvees pour les nouveaux composes formes par des transformations nucleaires sont frappantes, en ce qui

  7. Cooperative Learning i læreruddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Tobias; Palmvang, Kirsten

    På Læreruddannelsen Blaagaard/KDAS blev der i undervisningsåret 2009/2010 fokuseret på udviklingsarbejde under overskrifterne ’Uddannelsesudviklere’ og ’Varierede undervisningsformer’. Projektet ’Cooperative Learning i læreruddannelsen’ er stablet på benene inden for temaet ’Varierede...... undervisningsformer’ og har til hensigt at undersøge, eksperimentere og indsamle erfaringer med undervisningsmetoderne fra ’Cooperative Learning’ sådan som de fremgår af bogen af samme navn (Kagan & Stenlev, 2006). I denne sammenhæng bygger anvendelsen af CL således specifikt på Spencer Kagans strukturelle tilgang...

  8. Study, with the help of nuclear indicators (HTO, Urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na), of the renewal of water, urea and sodium in different parts of the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis and of the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in oliguria; Etude, a l'aide d'indicateurs nucleaires (HTO, UREE {sup 14}C et {sup 24}Na), du renouvellement de l'eau, de l'uree et du sodium dans les differentes regions du rein de rat en diurese aqueuse et de merion en diurese osmotique ou en oligurie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechene, C.P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    In the kidney of the gerbil in oliguria there exists a cortico-papillary gradient in the concentration of the sodium and of the urea; this gradient disappears in the gerbil kidney in osmotic diuresis or in the rat kidney in aqueous diuresis; in these three states of diuresis there is no significant difference in the potassium concentration between the surface and interior regions of the kidneys. Kinetic studies using tritiated water, urea {sup 14}C and {sup 24}Na show that water and urea in the interior regions of the kidney are only renewed very slowly (1 h) whereas the sodium is rapidly changed (1 mn). These results can be explained using WIRZ's theory concerning the mechanism of the counter-current concentration of urine. Furthermore, the evolution of the specific radioactivity of urea {sup 14}C is favorable for a cortical synthesis of urea. (author) [French] II existe dans le rein de Merions en oligurie un gradient cortico papillaire de la concentration du sodium et de l'uree; ce gradient est aboli dans le rein de Merions en diurese osmotique ou de rats en diurese aqueuse; dans ces 3 etats de diurese il n'y a pas de difference significative de la concentration du potassium entre les regions superficielles et profondes des reins. Des etudes cinetiques a l'aide d'eau tritiee, d'uree {sup 14}C et de {sup 24}Na montrent que l'eau et l'uree des regions profondes des reins ne sont renouveles que tres lentement (1 h), alors que le sodium est tres vite renouvele (1 mn). Ces resultats s'expliquent par la theorie de WIRZ sur le mecanisme de la concentration de l'urine par contre-courant. En outre, l'evolution renale de la radioactivite specifique de l'uree {sup 14}C est en faveur d'une synthese corticale de l'uree. (auteur)

  9. The Text of the Agreement between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons; Texte de l'Accord entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique Federale d' Allemagne, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute Europeenne de l'En-Ergie Atomique et L'Agence En Application Du Traite Sur La Non-Proliferation Des Armes Nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-09-14

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency in implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (reproduced in document INFCIRC/140) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [French] Le texte de l'Accord, ainsi que celui du Protocole qui y est joint, entre la Belgique, le Danemark, la Republique fdrale d'Allemae, l'Irlande, l'Italie, le Luxembourg, les Pays-Bas, la Communaute europenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence condu en application des paragraphes 1 et 4 de l'article III du Traite sur la non proliferation des armes nucleaires sont reproduits dans le present document pour l'information de tous les Membres.

  10. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  11. Cooperation, trust and confidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, T.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Urze, P.C.G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental complexity may strain cooperative relationships, both within and beyond organizations, for two reasons. First, when complexity implies uncertainty the predictability of change disappears. Secondly, change may and often will entail different estimates of the cooperating partners on the

  12. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  13. Criteria for Special Nuclear Materials Inventory and Control Procedures; Criteres a Suivre Pour Proceder a l'Inventaire des Matieres Nucleaires Speciales et aux Mesures de Controle; Kriterii dlya inventarizatsii spetsial'nykh yadernykh materialov i metody ucheta; Criterios a Que Deben Ajustarse los Procedimientos de Inventario y Control de los Materiales Nucleares Especiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinderman, E. M.; Tarrice, R. R. [Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1966-02-15

    and the total inventory of these special nuclear materials. A matrix of solutions to the management and inventory control of special nuclear materials will be presented. The multiplicity and relative effectiveness of varied techniques at key stages of the materials supply, utilization and recovery are assessed. (author) [French] L'un des plus importants problemes qui, dans le domaine nucleaire et notamment dans l'exploitation commerciale de l'energie d'origine nucleaire, se posera aux societes d'investissement, aux directeursetaux exploitants est celui du controle efficace de l'inventaire des matieres nucleaires dont la valeur depassera, d'ici 1980, 5 milliards de dollars des Etats-Unis. Comparativement a la plupart des matieres utilisees commercialement, les matieres nucleaires speciales sont couteuses; aux Etats-Unis par exemple, l'uranium enrichi a 90%, l'uranium enrichi a 3% sous forme d'hexa- fluorure et l'eau lourde coutent respectivement 10808 dollars, 254 dollars et 61,60 dollars le kilo. En outre, ces matieres sont frequemment soumises, pour des raisons de protection sanitaire et de securite, a des controles gouvernementaux speciaux sans rapport direct avec leur valeur monetaire. En depit de leur prix eleve, ces matieres sont destinees a etre utilisees en grandes quantites; par exemple, on utilisera de 50 a 75 t de combustible enrichi a 3{sup o}{r_brace}o dans un reacteur de 500 MW modere a l'eau ordinaire et 200 a 300 reacteurs de cette puissance fonctionneront vraisemblablement dans le monde en 1980. L'experience acquise a permis la mise au point et l'application de methodes speciales pour le controle commercial de grandes quantites de matieres de faible valeur comme le charbon ou le minerai de fer ou de petites quantites de matieres de grande valeur comme les metaux precieux. Tout en ayant des prix comparables a ces derniers, les matieres nucleaires speciales sont de nature differente et seront utilisees en quantites beaucoup plus importantes que les

  14. PREFERENSI PEMBIAYAAN USAHA MIKRO DAN KECIL : PERSPEKTIF GENDER DAN ENTREPRENEURABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaira Amalia Fachrudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Preferensi pembiayaan dalam perusahaan besar lebih didasarkan pada karakteristik perusahaan tersebut.  Namun dalam usaha mikro dan kecil hal ini mungkin berbeda dan bergantung pada karakteristik pemiliknya seperti gender dan entrepreneurability.   Perbedaan gender mungkin juga membedakan entrepreneurability dan dukungan yang diterima.  Penelitian ini akan menguji apakah terdapat perbedaan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender, entrepreneurability berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan preferensi pembiayaan, serta perbedaan dukungan berdasarkan gender.  Sampel dari usaha mikro dan kecil yang bergerak dalam bidang kuliner  diuji dengan uji beda Independent Sample t Test dan kemudian dengan Crosstabulation untuk lebih memperinci hasilnya.  Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan preferensi pembiayaan berdasarkan gender dan berdasarkan  entrepreneurability, namun entrepreneurability berbeda signifikan berdasarkan gender dan juga ditemukan bahwa dukungan moral, tenaga, dan modal yang diterima pemilik usaha pria dan wanita tidak berbeda signifikan (p value lebih kecil dari 0.05.   Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat kesetaraan gender dalam pembiayaan usaha dan entrepreneurability lebih tinggi pada pria.  Pria pemilik usaha juga mendapatkan dukungan tenaga kerja yang lebih banyak daripada wanita.  Dukungan tenaga ini adalah salah satu bentuk  financial bootstrapping karena dapat mengurangi pembiayaan usaha

  15. Cooperatives as Entrants

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Sexton; Terri A. Sexton

    1987-01-01

    A potential shortcoming of game-theoretic models in industrial organization is their failure to consider consumers as players. We introduce a customer coalition --- a cooperative -- as a potential entrant and compare the cooperative entry threat with that posed by the usual for-profit entrant. We identify four fundamental distinctions between cooperative and for-profit entrants and demonstrate that the strategic interplay between a cooperative and an incumbent firm may differ markedly from th...

  16. Choosing the cooperative option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, G. (National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  17. Inertia in Cooperative Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker

    1997-01-01

    Which organization model is appropriate for a cooperative enterprise depends on the prerequisites in its business environment. When conditions are changing, the firm must adapt itself. The entry of Sweden, Finland, and Austria into the European Union led to radical changes for agricultural cooperation, especially for Swedish cooperatives since agricultural policy was not allowed a transitional period. After two years, Swedish cooperatives have still not adapted their organization model despit...

  18. Production of nuclear graphite in France; Production de graphite nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P; Mondet, L [Societe Pechiney, 74 - Chedde (France); Arragon, Ph; Cornuault, P; Gueron, J; Hering, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The graphite intended for the construction of the reactors is obtained by the usual process: confection of a cake from coke of oil and tar, cooked (in a electric oven) then the product of cook is graphitized, also by electric heating. The use of the air transportation and the control of conditions cooking and graphitization have permitted to increase the nuclear graphite production as well as to better control their physical and mechanical properties and to reduce to the minimum the unwanted stains. (M.B.) [French] Le graphite destine a la construction des reacteurs est obtenu par le procede usuel: confection d'une pate a partir de coke de petrole et de brai, cuisson de cette pate (au four electrique) puis graphitation du produit cuit, egalement par chauffage electrique. L'usage du transport pneumatique et le controle des conditions cuisson et de graphitation ont permit d'augmenter la production de graphite nucleaire ainsi que de mieux controler ses proprietes physiques et mecaniques et de reduire au minimum les souillures accidentelles. (M.B.)

  19. Preparation and study of the properties of lead telluride and cadmium telluride diodes for use in nuclear spectrometry; Preparation et etude des proprietes de diodes au tellurure de plomb et au tellurure de cadmium en vue d'une utilisation en spectrometrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancon, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    resistivite de notre materiau nous empeche de l'utiliser en detection de rayonnements nucleaires. Differents types de structures a base de CdTe ont ete etudiees. L'une des diodes realisees a permis la detection de particules alpha. Les performances limitees de ce detecteur sont expliquees par la presence dans CdTe de defauts de reseau jouant le role de centres de recombinaison des porteurs de charge. L'analyse des proprietes de diodes realisees par diffusion d'or dans CdTe a permis d'identifier ce defaut, la lacune de cadmium, dont la presence est due a un ecart a la stoechiometrie lors de la preparation du materiau. (auteur)

  20. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  1. THE ADAPTATION AND COOPERATION OF MINORITY MUSLIMS IN RUSSIAN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachrizal A. Halim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present essay examines the common approach in reading the relationship between Muslims and Russian society as if they were bound by perpetual conflict. Following this angle, historians argue that the Russians underwent long term conflict with Muslims and claim that the Russians have suffered more than any other people in facing the hostile world of Islam. Some also argue that Muslims were completely subdued by the Russians due to Islam’s incompatibility with the secular and atheist Soviet regime.  A careful survey of literature on the history of Muslims in Russia, however, does not always lead to the conclusion that the two sides were in continuous conflict. In fact, aside from conflict and subjugation, both Russians and the Muslims enjoyed a considerable level of peace and shared a similar attitude of flexibility in mutual cooperation.  Given the extent of flexibility of Muslims in their encounter with the Russians throughout the Czar and the Soviet regimes, I argue that contemporary scholars have scaled down the dynamic of both Russian and Muslims intellectual articulations in relation to modern politics as well as to the internal relationship between the two sides, and that the relationship between them can be written as other than perpetual conflict.[Artikel ini mengulas hubungan Islam dan Rusia yang kerap dijelaskan dalam konteks relasi saling bertentangan. Dari cara pandang demikian, ahli sejarah kerap berpendapat bahwa konflik antara keduanya sudah terjadi lama dan orang Rusia adalah korban paling parah yang diakibatkan kebrutalan Islam. Semantara itu, ahli sejarah lainnya berpendapat bahwa orang Islam jatuh ke tangan kekuasaan Rusia karena Islam tidak mengakui rejim sekuler dan ateis Soviet. Jika literatur mengenai sejarah Islam di Rusia, maka relasi konfliktual antara keduanya tidak sepenuhnya benar. Faktanya, terlepas dari konflik dan penaklukan, baik orang Rusia dan umat Islam dapat hidup secara damai dan fleksibel dalam

  2. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Darmadi Darmadi; Riska Habriel Ruslie

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS) dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. K...

  3. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  4. CERN, an adventure in international scientific cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Bannier, J H

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the history of the Conseil European pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) from its origins in 1951-53 and its establishment on a site on the Swiss-French border near Geneva. Describes the structure of the organisation and discusses the more important policy decisions of the 1960s and 1970s. Concludes by considering future prospects. (0 refs).

  5. Contribution to the study of nuclear fuel materials with a metallic uranium base; Contribution a l'etude des materiaux combustibles nucleaires a base d'uranium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englander, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-11-15

    In a power reactor destined to supply industrially recoverable thermal energy, the most economical source of heat still consists of natural metallic uranium. However, the nuclear fuel material, most often employed in the form of rods of 20 to 40 mm diameter, is subjected to a series of stresses which lead to irreversible distortions usually incompatible with the substructure of the reactor. As a result the fuel material must possess at the outset a certain number of qualities which must be determined. Investigations have therefore been carried out, first on the technological characters peculiar to each of the three allotropic phases of pure uranium metal, and on their interactions on the stabilisation of the material which consists of either cast uranium or uranium pile-treated in the {gamma} phase. (author) [French] Dans un reacteur de puissance destine a fournir de l'energie thermique industriellement recuperable, la source de chaleur la plus economique reste constituee par de l'uranium metallique naturel. Or, le materiau combustible nucleaire, employe le plus souvent sous forme de barreaux de 20 a 40 mm de diametre, se trouve soumis a un ensemble de contraintes qui provoque des deformations irreversibles, le plus souvent incompatibles avec l'infrastructure du reacteur. Par consequent, le materiau combustible doit presenter a l'origine un certain nombre de qualites qu'il est necessaire de determiner. Aussi a-t-on d'abord etudie les caracteres technologiques propres a chacune des trois phases allotropiques de l'uranium-metal pur et leurs interactions sur la stabilisation du materiau constitue soit par de l'uranium coule, soit par de l'uranium traite en pile en phase {gamma}. (auteur)

  6. INOVASI DAN STRATEGI PENCAPAIANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Ferryanto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is the way of life of any institution to profitably sustain its life. It starts with empathy, the ability to reach outside of ourselves and walk in someone else’s shoes, and optimal implementation of the newly advanced technology. Innovation shows its results through continuously hard working efforts known as "10 Thousand Hours Rule". As world uncertainty creates complexity we, instead of predicting, should therefore anticipate the future by creating and managing real options on contingent projects or elements of alternative optimal strategies. This should reflect into our portfolio strategy. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Inovasi merupakan darah bagi suatu institusi untuk bisa hidup berkelanjutan serta menguntungkan. Inovasi berupa penemuan baru secara sistematis yang berawal dari empati, kemampuan untuk melihat dunia melalui mata orang lain, dan pemanfaatan secara optimal kemajuan teknologi yang ada. Inovasi baru menghasilkan buahnya melalui kerja keras, yaitu dengan mengikuti “Aturan 10 Ribu Jam” secara berkesinambungan. Ketidakpastian, interaksi, keterbatasan dan degradasi menciptakan kompleksitas tentang kebutuhan dan solusi di masa depan. Oleh sebab itu daripada meramalkan risiko yang bakal terjadi, kita sebaiknya memasang strategi berupa skenario untuk mereduksi akibat dari risiko masa depan yang tidak kita mengerti. Skenario ini dapat diperoleh lewat penciptaan dan penanganan beberapa pilihan nyata atas semua proyek antisipatif yang ada. Kata kunci: Inovasi, ketidakpastian dan kompleksitas, aturan 10 ribu jam, paradoks strategi, peta jalan, empati, kerja berkesinambungan.

  7. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  8. Orbit Geostasioner (GSO dalam Hukum Internasional dan Kepentingan Nasional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Pramono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Space Treaty 1967 merupakan landasan Hukum Internasional (Ruang Angkasa atas pemanfaatan dan eksploitasi ruang angkasa termasuk bulan dan benda-benda angkasa lainnya. Pemanfaatan dan eksploitasi ruang angkasa tersebut dalam kenyataannya hanya mungkin dilakukan secara optimal oleh negara-negara maju yang memiliki sumber daya dan kemampuan teknologi maju. GSO merupakan salah satu sumber daya alam terbatas yang merupakan tempat strategis untuk penempatan satelit komunikasi. Satelit komunikasi pada dasarnya menjadi wahana utama dan sangat penting dalam mendukung berbagai kegiatan masyarakat dunia umumnya dan kepentingan nasional Indonesia pada khususnya meliputi aspek ekonomi, politik, sosial budaya maupun pertahanan keamanan. Dengan dilandasi semangat kerjasama internasional dalam memanfaatkan GSO untuk tujuan bersama bagi kemanusian dan perdamaian, disepakati prinsip kesetaraan akses di antara negara-negara. Perjuangan Indonesia bersama negara-negara katulistiwa lainnya melalui berbagai fora internasional terus dilanjutkan agar bisa mencapai pengaturan internasional atas pemanfaatan GSO lebih mencerminkan keadilan mengingat letak GSO berada pada posisi di atas ruang angkasa negara-negara katulistiwa. Space treaty 1967 is the international law of space based in utilizing and exploiting of the space including Moon and other space objects. The utilization and exploitation of the space is only conducted by the developed countries, which has the resources and developed technology. Geostasioner is one of the limited natural resources as a strategic place for communication satellite orbite. The communication satellite is the major vehicle to endorse many kind of the world people activities, and especially for the national interest such as economics, politics, social and culture, and also defence. The equal principle among states is based on the international cooperation in utilizing GSO for the human peace. Indonesia with other equatorial countries

  9. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  10. Konsistensi Strategi Instruksional Pendidikan Jasmani, Olahraga dan Kesehatan (PJOK dalam Mengontrol Disiplin Peserta Didik [Instructional Strategies for Health, Sport, and Physical Education to Control Student Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleman Wouw

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research examines instructional strategies for health, sport, and physical education as a means to control student discipline. The research method used is a descriptive qualitative procedure: choosing a topic, determining the focus of the inquiry, conducting a preliminary survey, doing a literature review, developing sub-categories, and developing the instrument. The results of the research are as follows: a to train and shape the attitudes of learners in learning readiness, b to train and establish cooperation between learners, c to form independent attitudes and do not give up easily, d to evaluate the process.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Berdasarkan pengamatan peneliti pada kelas III B ada keunikan dari kelas ini, yakni kekompakan, kerjasama dan saling menghargai. Kekompakan ditunjukkan dengan datang ke kelas tepat waktu dan menaati peraturan serta prosedur yang ditetapkan. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena strategi instruksional dan peran pendidik dalam menciptakan lingkungan belajar yang kondusif. Oleh karena itu tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah : a Menjelaskan konsistensi strategi instruksional pendidikan jasmani, olahraga dan kesehatan dalam mengontrol disiplin peserta didik. b Menjelaskan manfaat pelaksanaan strategi instruksional pendidikan jasmani, olahraga dan kesehatan dalam mengontrol disiplin peserta didik. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian deskriptif kualitatif dengan lima kali pengambilan data. Subjek penelitian adalah peserta didik kelas III yang terdiri dari 12 peserta didik. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada 21 Oktober 2015 sampai 13 November 2015. Data dikumpulkan melalui instrument penelitian, lembar angket strategi dan disiplin peserta didik, lembar observasi (ceklist strategi pembelajaran dan penerapan disiplin oleh pendidik, lembar wawancara strategi pembelajaran dan penerapan disiplin oleh pendidik dan dokumentasi strategi pembelajaran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah

  11. Determination of local boiling in light water reactors by correlation of the neutron noise; Determination de l'ebullition locale dans les reacteurs a eau legere par correlation du bruit neutronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwingelstein, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)

  12. The use radioactive tracers in the study of solid transport in water streams; Emploi de traceurs radioactifs pour l'etude du transport solide dans les cours d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P; Heuzel, M [Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique de Chatou, 78 (France)

    1960-07-01

    riviere, la premiere a ete consacree a l'etude du charriage des galets dans le Rhone, l'autre a l'etude des transports de sables dans le Niger. Cette derniere experience a ete doublee d'experiences identiques, effectuees sur le modele reduit du fleuve Niger exploite par le Laboratoire de Chatou: dans ces experiences, on utilise le rayonnement du {sup 56}Mn et du {sup 24}Na obtenu par activation directe du noyau d'abricot concasse representant sur le modele reduit le sediment naturel du lit du Niger. Les efforts conjugues du Laboratoire de Chatou et du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay portent actuellement sur l'application des traceurs radioactifs aux etudes sur modeles reduits, dans le double but: a) de disposer d'un meme moyen d'investigation en nature et sur modele reduit pour controler la fidelite du modele, dans la phase des essais d'etalonnage; b) de profiter des facilites d'observation et mesures directes offertes par les modeles reduits pour etudier les possibilites d'amelioration de la methode des traceurs, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'obtention de renseignements quantitatifs. (auteur)

  13. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R.; Barloutaud, R.; Bernas, R.; Chaminade, R.; Cohen, R.; Conjeaud, M.; Cotton, E.; Faraggi, H.; Grjebine, T.; Laboulaye, H. de; Lehmann, P.; Leveque, A.; Levi, C.; Moreau, J.; Naggiar, V.; Olkowsky, J.; Papineau, L.; Papineau, L.; Prugne, P.; Schuhl, C.; Szteinsznaider, D.; Tzara, C.; Valladas, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N.; Renard, G. [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  14. Analytic catalog for the use of the nuclear physicists; Repertoire analytique a l'usage des physiciens nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R; Barloutaud, R; Bernas, R; Chaminade, R; Cohen, R; Conjeaud, M; Cotton, E; Faraggi, H; Grjebine, T; Laboulaye, H de; Lehmann, P; Leveque, A; Levi, C; Moreau, J; Naggiar, V; Olkowsky, J; Papineau, L; Papineau, L; Prugne, P; Schuhl, C; Szteinsznaider, D; Tzara, C; Valladas, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Marty, N; Renard, G [College de France, Lab. de Chimie Nucleaire (France)

    1952-07-01

    The problem of the documentation in nuclear physics becomes constantly more complex. Every week brings its share of publications, always more numerous and more varied. To remedy to this problem, we tried, at the Nuclear Physics Services of the CEA, to give to the documentation the character of a collective and systematized work. The present report covers the literature appeared between January 1, 1950 and July 1, 1951. (Volume 1: CEA report number 120; Volume 2: CEA report number 184). (M.B.) [French] Le probleme de la documentation en physique nucleaire devient sans cesse plus complexe. Chaque semaine apporte son lot de publications, toujours plus nombreuses et plus diversifiees. C'est pour essayer de porter remede a cet etat de choses que nous avons essaye, au service de Physique Nucleaire du C.E.A., de donner a la documentation le caractere d'un travail collectif systematise. Le present rapport couvre la litterature parue entre le 1 Janvier 1950 et le 1 Juillet 1951. (Tome 1: Rapport CEA numero 120; Tome 2: Rapport CEA numero 184). (M.B.)

  15. Kinerja Dan Efisiensi Bank Pemerintah (Bumn) Dan Busn Yang Go Publik Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Sugeng

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia. Sample penelitian ini mengambil tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI) dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin) dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di...

  16. Kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Prawira, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Perbedaan pola makan antara vegetarian dan non vegetarian dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi oral higiene dan karies gigi pada umat vegetarian dan non vegetarian di Maha Vihara Maitreya Medan. Jenis penelitian adalah survei deskriptif. Sampel terdiri atas 74 vegetarian dan 65 non vegetarian. Pemeriksaan oral higiene dan karies gigi masing-masing menggunakan indeks OHIS Greene dan Vermillion dan indeks DMFT Klein, se...

  17. IDE DAN DESAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilia Yunita Wijaya

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have seen many desain all around our everyday living. Design exist in the form of brochures%2C posters%2C banners%2C signages%2C book covers%2C and etcetera. Some are nice and easy to understand%2C some are ok%2C and some look like they are not fully develop and thought. A word that run across our mind whrn we enjoying a design is idea . A good design almost always associated with a good idea%2C is it tru? This paper is going to discuss about desain and its relationship to idea. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Banyak desain yang diamati dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari. Desain hadir dalam bentuk brosur%2C poster%2C spanduk%2C tanda-tanda%2C sampul buku%2C dan lain sebagainya. Ada beberapa yang bagus dan mudah untuk dimengerti%2C beberapa yang biasa%2C dan beberapa yang tampak asal dibuat. Sebuah kata yang terlintas dalam pemikiran kita dalam menikmati sebuah desain adalah ide . Sebuah desain yang baik selalu di identikan dengan ide yang baik%2C benarkah hal ini? Apakah desain dan apa hubungannya dengan ide akan dibahas pada tulisan ini.

  18. Cooperative Trust Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    the more widely recognized competitive (non-cooperative) game theory. Cooperative game theory focuses on what groups of self-interested agents can...provides immediate justification for using non-cooperative game theory as the basis for modeling the purely competitive agents. 2.4. Superadditive...the competitive and altruistic contributions of the subset team. Definition: Given a payoff function ( ) in a subset team game , the total marginal

  19. PENGARUH JUMLAH ANGGOTA, VOLUME USAHA DAN LIKUIDITAS KOPERASI TERHADAP PERMINTAAN JASA AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Sri Utaminingsih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan akan laporan keuangan yang bisa dipercaya sangatlah penting untuk mengambil keputusan. Permasalahan dari penelitian ini adalah apakah jumlah anggota, volume bisnis dan likuiditas secara parsial dan simultan mempengaruhi permintaan jasa audit. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah 765 koperasi dan sampelnya berjumlah 89 koperasi. Data yang digunakan adalah laporan keuangan koperasi pada tahun fiscal 2008. Data analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, multikolnearitas and logistic regression. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah variabel jumlah anggota dan likuiditas mempengaruhi permintaan jasa audit secara parsial sedangkan volume bisnis tidak mempengaruhi permintaan jasa audit. Secara simultan 3 variabel mempengaruhi permintaan jasa audit. The need for reliable financial statements, and can be trusted is necessary in making a decision. The problem in this study is whether which the number of members, the business volume and liquidity partially and simultaneously affect the demand for audit services. The population in this study were 765 cooperatives and the research sample is 89 cooperatives. The dependent variables in this study are demand audit services. While the independent variables are the number of members, the business vo-lume and liquidity of cooperatives. The data used in the form of cooperative financial reports, fiscal year 2008  with using descriptive analysis, multicolonearitas and logistic regression. The conclusion of this research is variable number of members, and liquidity, the partial affect on demand for audit services, while business volume is partially not influence the audit services. Simultaneously, the three indepen-dent variables influenced the demand for audit services.

  20. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  1. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  2. Overhauser effect in metallic lithium; Effet Overhauser dans le lithium metallique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueron, J.; Ryter, Ch. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    The Overhauser effect has been observed: a) at ordinary temperatures, by measuring the increase in the nuclear resonance signal of Li{sup 7}; b) at the temperature of liquid helium, by observing the electron resonance shift due to the secular part of the electron-nucleus coupling. The metallic lithium particles are produced by irradiating lithium hydride with thermal neutrons. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 3, no. 7, 1959, p. 338-340 [French] L'effet Overhauser est mis en evidence: a) a la temperature ordinaire, en mesurant l'augmentation du signal de resonance nucleaire du Li{sup 7}; b) a la temperature de l'helium liquide, en observant le deplacement de la raie de resonance electronique du a la partie seculaire du couplage electron-noyau. Les particules de lithium metallique sont produites par irradiations aux neutrons thermiques de l'hydrure de lithium Li{sup 7}. Reproduction d'un article publie dans Physical Review Letters, vol. 3, no. 7, 1959, p. 338-340.

  3. Fluctuations in a system depending on several random parameters. Application to reactors (1962); Fluctuations d'un systeme dependant de plusieurs parametres aleatoires. Application aux reacteurs nucleaires (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaquiere, A [Faculte des Sciences de Paris, 75 (France); Pachowska, R [Universite Technique de Varsovie (Poland)

    1962-07-01

    We have previously developed a method for studying neutronic fluctuations in nuclear reactors using the analogy between the behaviour of a reactor and that of certain common radioelectric circuits. The fluctuations may then be calculated by introducing into the circuit a suitable noise source. By this method we have been able to consider the overall fluctuations in a particularly simple form and we have provided a physical significance for certain results obtained more laboriously by other methods. The object of the present report is to generalise this method and in particular to extend it to the case of a reactor having a cellular structure and to apply it to fluctuations within a cell. It is thus shown that the fluctuations in a cell are the resultant of two terms: - a rapidly evolving Poissonian noise, not related to the overall fluctuations; - a slowly evolving noise, when the reactor is not too far from criticality, which is related to the overall fluctuations. The first term arises from a rapid 'ordering' of the system, during which time the cells come mutually into equilibrium. The second term is due to the coordinated evolution of all the cells, after the end of the first transitory phase. The conclusions reached show that it would be useful to complete the study with an analysis of non-linear phenomena which can considerably influence the transitory behaviour of the cells during the initial pre-equilibrium phase. This report also Stresses the relationship of the new method to the old methods. It tends also to place pile fluctuation theory in a more general framework, that of the fluctuations of a system depending on several random parameters; from this point of view, the method could easily be transposed and adapted to the study of other physical problems of this type. (authors) [French] Nous avons precedemment developpe une methode d'etude des fluctuations neutroniques des reacteurs nucleaires mettant a profit l'analogie entre le comportement d

  4. Synthesis and purification of some alkyl phenanthrenes and presentation of their infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra; Synthese et purification de quelques alcoylphenanthrenes et presentation ds leurs spectres d'absorption infrarouge, ultraviolette, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, K. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    We have carried out the synthesis of: - phenanthrene - its five monomethyl derivatives - three dimethyl derivatives - two trimethyl derivatives. We have then purified these products as well as a certain number of others obtained from various sources. We have been able to obtain in the majority of cases, a purity of 99.5 per cent or over, these figures being obtained by low voltage mass spectrometry. Finally we have recorded the infrared, ultraviolet, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra of these products for which an atlas has been drawn up. (author) [French] Nous avons realise la synthese: - du phenanthrene - de ses cinq derives monomethyles - de trois de ses derives dimethyles - de deux de ses derives trimethyles. Nous avons ensuite purifie ces produits ainsi qu'un certain nombre d'autres que nous avons obtenus de sources differentes. Nous avons pu atteindre, dans la plupart des cas, une purete egale ou superieure a 99,5 pour cent, chiffres determines par la spectrometrie de masse a basse tension. Enfin, nous avons enregistre les spectres infrarouges, ultraviolets, de resonance magnetique nucleaire et de masse de ces produits dont nous avons fait un atlas. (auteur)

  5. Case Study in Internal Audit of Nuclear Material; Etude d'un Systeme de Verification Comptable Interne des Matieres Nucleaires; Izuchenie primera organizatsii vnutrennego ucheta yadernykh materialov na predpriyatii; Estudio de la Fiscalizacion Interna de los Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kops, S. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    sont generalement les principaux facteurs a considerer lorsque l'on veut determiner s'il y a lieu d'etablir un systeme classique de verification comptable interne. L'auteur analyse les besoins et les caracteristiques d'un systeme de verification comptable interne dans le cas particulier d'une organisation qui manipule des matieres brutes ou des produits fissiles speciaux (matieres nucleaires), en les confrontant a ceux d'un systeme de verification classique. Il montre comment, etant donne le prix eleve et la valeur strategique des matieres, il est necessaire d'etablir un systeme special de verification comptable. Le memoire etudie en detail l'organisation du systeme de verification comptable interne dans une installation produisant des matieres nucleaires; il indique notamment comment fixer la date des controles et comment proceder a la verification des livres et inventaires. Il indique egalement la competence et les qualifications professionnelles que doit avoir le personnel charge de la verification comptable, ainsi que les considerations d'ordre statistique a appliquer pour determiner les donnees qui devront faire l'objet d'une verification. Le memoire decrit de facon detaillee la maniere dont ces dispositions sont appliquees dans la pratique de la verification comptable interne. Il indique les modifications qui peuvent etre apportees aux normes etablies ainsi que les differentes manieres d'envisager le probleme de la verification des comptes et montre que, s'il est possible dans le cas d'autres fabrications de proceder simplement a une verification comptable des stocks, il est necessaire dans l'industrie nucleaire de proceder effectivement a l'inventaire materiel du stock. Le memoire presente les divers moyens utilises pour communiquer les resultats de la verification interne. La presentation du rapport comptable et sa teneur sont determinees en fonction des besoins des differents services. Le memoire indique les diverses manieres dont le rapport comptable peut

  6. MENINGKATKAN KEAKTIFAN DAN HASIL BELAJAR MATEMATIKA SISWA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN STAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Patiung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe STAD cooperative learning model improves the students activeness and mathematics achievements. This study use action research approach. The subject of this study is researcher selft and 37 eight-th grade student of SMPN 2 Malinau as participants. Framework of this study consist of plan, do, observation, and reflection. Collecting data method use observation, test, and interviews method. Analysing data use description analysis. Based on the result, it is concluded that STAD that improve student activiness and mathematics achievements include: (1 using power point to serve information, (2 setting heterogent group, (3 advice and guiding students while discussion, (4 using PPT for group presentation, (5 giving quiz in last section, (6 explaining miss understanding problem, and (7 giving awards.  Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe STAD yang dapat meningkatkan keaktifan dan hasil belajar matematika siswa SMP. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas dengan subjek siswa kelas VIII-1 SMPN 2 Malinau Kota sebanyak 37 siswa. Rancangan dalam penelitian meliputi perencanaan, pelaksanaan, observasi, dan refleksi. Metode pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah metode observasi, tes, dan wawancara. Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskripsi. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa STAD yang dapat meningkatkan keaktifan dan hasil belajar siswa meliputi: (1 menyajikan informasi dengan menggunakan bantuan power point, (2 pembentukan kelompok secara heterogen, (3 bimbingan dan arahan selama diskusi kelompok dilaksanakan, (4 presentasi kelompok menggunakan media power point, (5 pemberian kuis disetiap akhir pembelajaran, (6 pembahasan soal-soal yang masih kurang dipahami siswa, dan (7 pemberian penghargaan.

  7. URGENSI DAN PROSPEK PENGATURAN (IUS CONSTITUENDUM UU TENTANG CONTEMPT OF COURT UNTUK MENEGAKKAN MARTABAT DAN WIBAWA PERADILAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mulyadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available UU Contempt of Court merupakan kebutuhan yang bersifat urgent, segera dan mendesak, sehingga perlu dilakukan kajian dan penelitian secara kritis, akademis dan bersifat komprehensif untuk menjaga keluhuran dan menegakkan martabat dan wibawa peradilan.

  8. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  9. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...

  10. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own

  11. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  12. Helping Children Cooperate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2011-01-01

    There are occasions in life when the competitive process is appropriate. But when people consider the relationships in their lives--with friends, family members, coworkers, and the larger community--they realize the value of cooperation. When adults give children the chance to cooperate, to work together toward a solution or a common goal like…

  13. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    transitions qu'ils subissent, lorsqu'elles donnent naissance a des especes nucleaires mieux connues: parmi ces transitions figurent les transitions isomeriques. Le but de ce travail est l'etude des transitions isomeriques a partir d'etats metastables de periode courte, comprise dans le domaine de la microseconde a quelques millisecondes. La methode des coincidences differees a ete mise au point et appliquee dans ce but en utilisant les avantages des selecteurs a plusieurs canaux, sous deux aspects principaux ou l'appareil a plusieurs canaux etait soit un selecteur de temps, soit un selecteur d'amplitudes. Cette methode a servi a etudier le fonctionnement de compteurs Geiger-Muller et a mesurer avec precision la periode de {sup 181}Ta{sup *} dans des conditions experimentales variees. La valeur adoptee est 17,2 {+-} 0,2 {mu}s. Ce travail a aussi trouve une application pratique immediate a la mise en evidence de quantites tres faibles de hafnium dans le zirconium, dont il constitue une impurete tenace et difficile a analyser par les moyens ordinaires. (M.B.)

  14. PEMBELAJARAN THINK-PAIR-SHARE, KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF, DAN HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Amnah S.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Think-Pair-Share Learning, Meta-cognitive Skills and Cognitive Learning Outcomes. The study investigates the effects of meta-cognitive skills based Think-Pair-Share cooperative learning on meta-cognitive skills and cognitive learning outcomes of 11th grade students of Senior High Schools in Pekanbaru. The sample consists of 11th grade students of SMA 9 as an experiment group and 11th grade students SMA 10 as a control group. Based on analyzing the data using ANCOVA, the results show that there is a signifi­cant difference in meta-cognitive skills and cognitive learning outcomes of the students in the experimental and the control groups, and there is no significant difference between students who have high and low academic levels in their meta-cognitive skills and cognitive learning outcomes. Abstrak: Pembelajaran Think-Pair-Share, Keterampilan Metakognitif, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa SMA. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengukur pengaruh pembela­jaran koperatif Think-Pair-Share terha­dap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa SMA. Sampel dipilih secara acak dari popu­lasi 13 SMA di Pekanbaru. Dengan menggunakan ANAKOVA, hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa terdapat per­bedaan yang nyata keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa di kelompok eksperimental dan kelompok control, dan tidak ada perbedaan yang nyata antara siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan akademik rendah pada keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitifnya.

  15. Epistemologi dan Keterbatasan Teori Gravitasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  16. EPISTEMOLOGI DAN KETERBATASAN TEORI GRAVITASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Erwin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Peristiwa tentang kecenderungan jatuhnya benda-benda menuju pusat bumi dan keteraturan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lainnya dalam tata surya dahulu dianggap dua fenomena yang berbeda. Mekanika benda langit dan mekanika bumi yang sebelumnya merupakan dua pengetahuan yang terpisah, dianggap satu kesatuan oleh Sir Isaac Newton. Newton mengemukakan hukum gravitasi umum yaitu gaya tarik menarik antara dua benda besarnya sebanding dengan massa masing-masing benda dan berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak antara kedua benda. Hukum gravitasi ini sukses menjalaskan bagaimana benda cendrung jatuh menuju pusat bumi dan peredaran planet dan benda-benda langit lain mengelilingi matahari dalam sistem tata surya. Namun hukum gravitasi Newton ternyata tidak sepenuhnya tepat, beberapa hal dapat dijelaskan dengan hukum relativitas Einstein, namun demikian hukum relativitas Einstein juga dicurigai masih perlu diamandemen agar dapat menjelaskan fenomena alam dengan tepat.

  17. ISLAM DAN RADIKALISME: Upaya Antisipasi dan Penanggulangannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Ruslan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sejak tragedi pemboman WTC tanggal 11 September 2001 yang disusul dengan rangkaian peledakan bom di sejumlah negara, banyak orang non Muslim yang berasumsi bahwa ajaran Islam identik dengan radikalisme. Walaupun assumsi yang berkembang itu dapat dimaklumi, namun keyakinan tersebut tentu saja tidak sepenuhnya benar. Karena meskipun terdapat sekelompok orang Islam yang berbuat radikal, akan tetapi mayoritas Muslim justru bertentangan dengan mereka. Lagi pula, jika dicermati secara mendalam, sesungguhnya Islam sama sekali tidak mentolerir tindakan radikal. Ia adalah agama kasih sayang yang sangat mendodrong penganutnya untuk berbuat baik terhadap orang lain, termasuk kepada orang-orang non-Muslim. Artikel ini menawarkan beberapa upaya strategis dalam mengantisipasi dan menanggulangi bahaya radikalisme-terorisme.

  18. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  19. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  20. DAKWAH DAN PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurmahyati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Da’wah is an attempt to persuade and influence others in realizing the teachings of Islam, to achieve worldly prosperity and welfare of the hereafter. The success was fueled by propaganda aspects are interrelated, anatara preachers, propaganda material, propaganda strategy, mad’u (target da’wah. The number of women in this country nearly half of people (49.36. therefore, it is important to empower women in da’wah to build their own people in consciousness and religious activities that provide the basics of life prosperous world and hereafter.   Dakwah merupakan suatu upaya untuk mengajak dan mempengaruhi orang lain dalam merealisasikan ajaran Islam, untuk mencapai tujuan kesejahteraan duniawi maupun kesejahteraan ukhrawi. Keberhasilan tersebut pun dipicu oleh berbagai aspek dakwah yang saling terkait, antara juru dakwah, materi dakwah, strategi dakwah, mad’u (sasaran dakwah. Jumlah kaum perempuan di negara ini hampir mencapai separuh dari jumlah masyarakatnya (49,36. Oleh karena itu, sangat penting sekali pemberdayaan perempuan dalam dakwah untuk membangun kaumnya sendiri dalam kesadaran dan aktivitas-aktivitas keagamaan yang memberikan dasar kehidupan sejahtera duniawi dan ukhrawi.

  1. ASIMETRI INFORMASI DAN UNDERPRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tety Anggita Safitri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh asimetri informasi terhadap underpricing. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel 63 perusahaan yang melakukan penawaran umum perdana di Bursa Efek Indonesia dalam kurun waktu 2005-2010. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linier berganda, yaitu menguji proksi asimetri informasi yang terdiri atas ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan, proporsi saham yang ditawarkan kepada masyarakat, reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor terhadap underpricing. Hasil penelitian ini mengindikasikan bahwa reputasi underwriter dan reputasi auditor berpengaruh terhadap underpricing. Ukuran perusahaan, umur perusahaan dan proporsi saham yang ditawarkan tidak berpengaruh terhadap underpricing.The aim of this research is to examine the effect of assymetric information on underpricing. This research used a sample of 63 companies that make initial public offering on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the period of 2005-2010. The data analysis is using multiple linear regression, which is testing the proxy of asymmetric information which consists of the firm size, the firm age, the proportion of shares offered to the public, underwriter reputation and auditor reputation on underpricing. This research indicates that underwriter reputation and auditor reputation have a significant effect on underpricing. The firm size, the firm age and the proportion of shares offered to the public have no significant effect on underpricing.

  2. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  3. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    ,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

  4. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  5. Dosimeter calibration facilities and methods at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory of the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H. de; Herbaut, Y.; Haddad, A.; Giroux, J.; Rouillon, J.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    At the Centre d'etudes nucleaires, Grenoble, the Radiation Measurement Laboratory, which forms part of the Environmental Protection and Research Department, serves the entire Centre for purposes of dosimetry and the calibration of dose meters. The needs of radiation protection are such that one must have facilities for checking periodically the calibration of radiation-monitoring instruments and developing special dosimetry techniques. It was thought a good idea to arrange for the dosimetry and radiation protection team to assist other groups working at the Centre - in particular, the staff of the biology and radiobiology laboratories - and also bodies outside the framework of the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique. Thus, technical collaboration has been established with, for example, Grenoble's Centre hospitalier universitaire (university clinic), which makes use of the facilities and skills available at the Radiation Measurement Laboratory for solving special dosimetry problems. With the Laboratory's facilities it is possible to calibrate dose meters for gamma, beta and neutron measurements

  6. Use of 14 MeV neutrons in activation analysis. Experiments carried out at the Grenoble nuclear research Centre (1963); Utilisation de neutrons de 14 MeV en analyse par activation. Experience realisee au Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Grenoble (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auboin, G; Guazzoni, P; Laverlochere, J [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The use of 14 MeV neutron irradiation makes it possible to extend the field of application of activation analysis to elements which cannot be activated in nuclear reactors (oxygen, boron, for example) or else to consider the possibility of 'portable' measurement units for routine analyses. With this aim, tests have been carried out for studying the sensitivity and interferences in the case of the dosing of oxygen in eleven different matrices using 150 and 300 kV SAMES accelerators producing 14 MeV neutrons by the reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. The sensitivity of the dosage methods for six writer elements has also been studied. The results obtained show that, for a neutron flux of 10{sup 10} n/4{pi}, the sensitivities vary from 100 {mu}g and 1 mg for oxygen in nine matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) and that it is possible to dose the six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al with sensitivities of between 1 an 1000 micrograms. (authors) [French] L'irradiation au moyen de neutrons de 14 MeV permet d'etendre le domaine d'application de l'analyse par activation a des elements non activables en reacteur nucleaire (oxygene, bore, par exemple) ou encore d'envisager des unites de dosage ''portables'' pour des analyses de routine. Dans ce but, des essais ont ete effectues pour etudier les sensibilites et les interferences dans le cas du dosage de l'oxygene dans onze matrices differentes, au moyen d'accelerateurs SAMES 150 et 300 kV. produisant les neutrons de 14 MeV par la reaction {sup 3}H (d, n) {sup 4}He. Des sensibilites de dosage ont egalement ete etudiees pour six autres elements. Les resultats obtenus montrent que, pour un flux de neutrons de 10{sup 10} n /4{pi}, les sensibilites varient entre 100 {mu}g et 1 mg, pour l'oxygene dans neuf matrices (Be, Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Fe, Al, Sb, Si) et qu'il est possible de doser les six elements F, B, Y, Si, N, Al avec des sensibilites se situant entre 1 et 1000 microgrammes. (auteurs)

  7. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  8. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    Brundtland Commission Report, and climate change became a common concern. Energy technology cooperation was an integral part of Nordic energy policy cooperation from the very beginning. The Nordic Energy Research Programme was established with funding from each of the Nordic countries, and was earmarked...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  9. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  10. Modal Sosial dan Partisipasi Masyarakat dalam Penemuan Penderita Tuberkulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviono Reviono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberkulosis merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang utama di tingkat global, regional, nasional, maupun lokal. World Health Organization menggulirkan strategi directly observed treatment short course (DOTS dan strategi stop tuberculosis partnership bertujuan untuk menjangkau semua penderita tuberkulosis. Kedua strategi tersebut masih belum mampu mencapai target case detection rate (CDR secara konsisten. Penelitian ini bertujuan merumuskan model modal sosial dan partisipasi masyarakat dalam crude death rate. Sasaran penelitian adalah petugas tuberkulosis dan kader di 30 desa di Kabupaten Karanganyar, Jawa Tengah. Metode yang digunakan adalah survei dan studi kasus. Hasil penelitian survei menunjukkan, desa dengan modal sosial yang tinggi mempunyai kemungkinan untuk melampaui target CDR ≥ 70%, 9 kali lebih besar daripada desa dengan modal sosial rendah. Desa dengan partisipasi masyarakat tinggi mempunyai kemungkinan 7,5 kali lebih besar daripada desa dengan partisipasi masyarakat rendah. Hasil penelitian studi kasus menunjukkan, faktor-faktor modal sosial yang berhubungan dengan CDR terdiri dari dimensi kognitif meliputi kepercayaan dan merasa mempunyai program tuberkulosis. Dimensi relasional meliputi norma sosial, penanaman jasa pribadi, kerja sama, dan komunikasi. Dimensi struktural meliputi jejaring dan persatuan. Faktor-faktor partisipasi yang berhubungan dengan CDR meliputi identifikasi kebutuhan, menggerakan sumber daya program, dan kepemimpinan. Tuberculosis is an important public health problem of global, regional, national, and local levels. World health organization launched directly observed treatment short course (DOTS and stop tuberculosis partnership strategies aiming to reach all tuberculosis patients. Both strategies have not been able to reach the case detection rate (CDR target consistently. This research aimed to formulate a social capital and participation model in crude death rate. The target of research was the

  11. DAMPAK NEGATIF PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMATIKA DAN KOMUNIKASI DAN CARA ANTISIFASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Ratnaya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sampai saat ini perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan telah menghantarkan masyarakat menuju babak baru yaitu babak yang memanfaatkan peralatan-peralatan yang merupakan hasil dari teknologi. Penggunaan tenaga manusia yang semakin hari semakin kecil volumenya sering kali menyebabkan orang kehilangan pekerjaannya karena tugasnya telah tergantikan oleh peralatan atau mesin. Sebagai sarana penyampaian informasi dan komunikasi, komputer bisa dipakai sebagai sarana berinternetan. Lewat internet orang bisa mencari bermacam-macam informasi dan berkomunikasi. Peran yang dapat diberikan oleh aplikasi teknologi informasi ini adalah mendapatkan informasi untuk kehidupan pribadi seperti informasi tentang kesehatan, hobi, rekreasi, dan rohani. Selain memberikan keuntungan, ternyata peralatan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi juga memberikan dampak negatif bagi penggunanya. Dampak negatif tersebut muncul sebagai akibat dari penggunaan yang salah atau tidak bertanggung jawab dari yang menggunakan. Beberapa dampak negatif tersebut adalah 1. Anak lebih banyak menghabiskan waktu menonton TV ketimbang melakukan hal lainnya (seperti belajar dan olah raga, 2. Anak kehilangan kemampuan berbaur dengan masyarakat dan cenderung nyaman dengan kehidupan online, 3 Adanya pelanggaran hak cipta, 4.  Kejahatan di internet, 5. Penyebaran virus komputer, dan 6. Pornografi, perjudian, penipuan, tayangan kekerasan. Adapun cara mengatasi dampak-dampak negatif tersebut adalah : 1. Gunakan teknologi untuk menjalin hubungan dengan orang yang sudah dikenal, 2. Cari komunitas positif  yang sering melakukan pertemuan didunia nyata, 3. Perlunya penegakkan hukum yang berlaku dengan dibentuknya polisi internet, 4. Menghindari pemakaian telepon seluler yang berfitur canggih oleh anak-anak dibawah umur dan lebih mengawasi penggunaan telepon seluler, 5. Perbanyak membaca buku-buku yang bersifat edukatif dan bersifat keimanan serta aplikasi komputer yang bersifat mendidik, dan 6. Perlunya pengaturan

  12. Results of concentration measurements of artificial radioactive aerosols in the lower atmosphere; Resultats des mesures de concentration, dans la basse atmosphere, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, B; Jehanno, C; Labeyrie, J; Lambert, G; Tanaevsky, O; Vassy, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report gives the results of the measurements of artificial gross-{beta}-radioactivity in aerosols in the lower atmosphere; these measurements have been made by the Electronic Physics Service of the Electronic Department, and by the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory of the Paris Science Faculty. The measurements were begun in September 1956 and were continued in an increasing number of stations both in France and in the rest of the world. The present report deals with the period up to the end of august 1961, that is up to the end of the nuclear moratorium. After recalling the constitution and the properties of radioactive aerosols present in the atmosphere, the authors describe the measurement methods, estimate their accuracy and discuss various aspects of the results. (authors) [French] Ce rapport contient les resultats des mesures de radioactivite {beta} globale d'origine artificielle des aerosols dans la basse atmosphere, effectuees conjointement par le Service d'Electronique Physique du Departement d'Electronique et le Laboratoire de Physique de l'Atmosphere de la Faculte des Sciences de Paris. Les mesures ont commence en septembre 1956 et ont ete poursuivies dans un nombre croissant de stations, tant en France que dans le reste du monde. Le present rapport s'arrete a la fin aout 1961, c'est-a-dire au moment de la reprise des essais nucleaires. Apres avoir rappele la constitution et les proprietes des aerosols radioactifs presents dans l'atmosphere, les auteurs indiquent les methodes de mesure utilisees, evaluent leur precision et discutent les differents aspects des resultats de leurs mesures. (auteurs)

  13. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  14. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  15. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  16. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  17. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  18. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  19. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  20. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  1. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  2. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  3. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  4. KETERGANTUNGAN ONLINE GAME DAN PENANGANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Syahran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses pengumpulan data digunakan teknik observasi dan wawancara, dimana setelah data diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif.Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, bahwa subyek (RZ dan (MT, kedua subyek penelitian menjadi ketergantungan atau kecanduan untuk bermain online game yang dikarenakan tersedianya beberapa fasilitas pendukung untuk bermain game di rumah, adanya faktor sosial dari pertemanan dengan teman bermain dan keingintahuan yang sangat besar terhadap suatu jenis game. Penanganan ketergantungan game online dengan bantuan dari berbagai pihak terutama pihak sekolah memberikan kepercayaan kepada konselor sekolah atau guru BK untuk mengadakan seminar kepada orang tua siswa tentang game online dan masalah yang akan ditimbulkan, mengatur waktu belajar dan bermain anak, memasukkan materi tentang game online dan dampaknya kepada siswa serta memberikan penyaluran yang baik dalam memilih game yang edukatif serta Menjalin komunikasi interpersonal agar anak dapat terbuka dengan orang tua.

  5. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  6. PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI SIMPANAN MUDHARABAH DAN PINJAMAN QARDHUL HASAN BERBASIS WEB PADA KOPERASI SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaedi Abdillah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research project was conducted on Sharia Polytechnic Cooperative of LPKIA Bandung, aimed at designing Web-Based Accounting Information System to handle mandatory savings transaction, mudharabah saving and qardhul hasan loan and processing all transaction data into mudharabah deposit book, qardhul hasan loan book and deposit report mudaraba and qardhul hasan loans quickly. The main focus of this system is to assist in improving the managerial performance of cooperative managers in the savings and loan business unit so that more flexible and can advance the cooperative's business. Design of Accounting Information System Mudharabah Deposit Account and Loan qardhul hasan web-based is using the method of development System Development Life Cycle (SDLC by applying the stages of object-based waterfall model. The information to be issued by this application is in the form of mudharabah deposit book, qardhul hasan loan book, mudharabah deposit report and qardhul hasan loan. Keywords: Application of Mudharabah Deposit Account; Qardhul Hasan Loan; Mudharabah Saving Report and Book; Qardhul Hasan Loan Book. Abstrak. Proyek penelitian dilakukan pada Koperasi Syariah Politeknik LPKIA Bandung, bertujuan merancang Sistem Informasi Akuntansi berbasis web untuk menangani transaksi simpanan wajib, simpanan mudharabah dan pinjaman qardhul hasan serta memproses seluruh data transaksi-transaksi tersebut ke dalam buku simpanan mudharabah, buku pinjaman qardhul hasan serta laporan simpanan mudharabah dan pinjaman qardhul hasan secara cepat. Fokus utama dari sistem ini adalah untuk membantu dalam meningkatkan kinerja manajerial pengelola koperasi pada unit usaha simpan pinjam sehingga lebih fleksibel dan dapat memajukan usaha koperasi tersebut.  Perancangan Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Simpanan mudharabah dan Pinjaman qardhul hasan berbasis web ini menggunakan metode pengerjaan System Development Life Cycle (SDLC dengan menerapkan tahapan-tahapan model

  7. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model Script and Think-Pair-Share to Critical Thinking Skills, Social Attitude and Learning Outcomes Cognitive Biology of multiethnic High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didimus Tanah Boleng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Script dan Think-Pair-Share terhadap Keterampilan Berpikir Kritis, Sikap Sosial, dan Hasil Belajar Kognitif Biologi Siswa SMA Multietnis   Abstract: Biological learning process with multiethnic students requires a learning models which allow students to work independently, to work together in small groups, and to share with other groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of learning models, ethnicity, and the interaction of learning model and ethnic on critical thinking skills, social attitudes, and cognitive achievement. This quasi experimental study was conducted in 11th grade of Natural Science Class Highschool students with six ethnicaly and Junior Highschool National score groups consisted of 132 samples. The results of Covarian Analysis showed that the learning models significantly affected the social attitudes and increased the critical thinking skills and cognitive achievement. Ethnicity significantly affected the social attitudes and cognitive achievement. Interaction of learning models and ethnicity significantly affected students social attitudes. Key Words: cooperative script, think-pair-share, critical thinking skills, social attitudes, biology cognitive achievement, multiethnic students Abstrak: Pengelolaan proses pembelajaran biologi pada siswa multietnis memerlukan model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa bekerja mandiri, bekerja sama dalam kelompok kecil, dan berbagi dengan kelompok lain. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran, etnis, serta interaksi model pembelajaran dan etnis terhadap keterampilan berpikir kritis, sikap sosial, dan hasil belajar kognitif biologi siswa. Penelitian eksperimen semu ini dilakukan di kelas XI IPA SMA dengan sampel sebanyak 132 orang siswa terbagi dalam enam kelas yang homogen berdasarkan etnis dan nilai ujian nasional SMP siswa. Hasil analisis data dengan menggunakan Analisis Kovarian menunjukkan bahwa model

  8. Sample Preparations Used in Biomedical Research and Training at the Special Training Division of the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies; Methodes de Preparation d'Echantillons Employees dans la Recherche et la Formation Biologiques et Medicales a la Division de Formation Speciale de l'Institut d'Etudes Nucleaires d'Oak Ridge; Prigotovlenie obraztsov dlya biomeditsinskikh issledovanij i dlya uchebnykh tselej v otdele spetsial'noj podgotovki okridzhskogo instituta yadernykh issledovanii; Metodos de Preparacion de Muestras Aplicados en las Investigaciones Biomedicas y en la Capacitacion Profesional de la Division de Formacion Especial del Instituto de Estudios Nucleares de Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, L. K. [Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1965-10-15

    's reasearch' and teaching programmes. These range from simple source holders such as metal, cardboard and plastic source mounts, to precipitation devices using stainless steel and fibreglass mounts, and special source holders for liquid counting of samples. In addition to these techniques, a number of procedures of special interest in biomedical problems have been developed. One of the most important of these is the use of a catalytic synthesis of benzene which has been developed to the point to which an over-all yield of better than 90% is obtained. This synthesis can be used for carbon-containing compounds of interest in low-level tracing experiments and age dating problems. Since the synthesis involves the production of carbon dioxide at one step and the hydration of metallic carbide in another, it can be used either for the measurement of {sup 14}C or {sup 3}H or both in double labelling experiments. Considerable work is done on activation analysis of biological materials, particularly in the Division's radioecological programmes. Special techniques for the preparation of these materials for activation analysis and other radiochemical procedures are described. Since the problem of resolution in alpha-ray spectroscopy remains a very difficult one, considerable work is carried out by the oceanography and environmental studies group in the development of very thin samples which are capable of permitting higher resolution of alpha-ray spectra. These employ electrodeposition procedures from mixed solvents. Measurements are made with a special bank of Fairstein-Frisch grid counters associated with a 512-channel analyser for simultaneous recording of more than one spectrum. Solid-state detectors are also used and comparative results of gridded and solid-state detectors are shown. la preparation d'echantillons tres minces permettant d'obtenir une resolution plus poussee dans les spectres alpha. A cet effet, on utilise des procedes de separation electrolytique a partir de solvants

  9. KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH HUKUM GERAK NEWTON MAHASISWA MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN COOPERATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Nurcahyo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the increase in problem-solving abilities Newton's laws of motion and students' perceptions of cooperative problem solving (CPS learning. Analysis of the data is based on the student's written answers to the five problems, the results of questionnaires and interviews. This study concluded that: (1 learning CPS make a strong impact (d-effect size = 1.81 to increase problem-solving ability of students Newton's laws of motion, (2 cooperation in the learning group CPS makes the problem easier to solve and misconceptions can be corrected. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton, kesulitan yang dialami, dan persepsi mahasiswa terhadap pembelajaran cooperative problem solving (CPS. Analisa data didasarkan pada jawaban tertulis mahasiswa terhadap lima permasalahan, hasil angket dan wawancara. Penelitian ini berkesimpulan bahwa (1 pembelajaran CPS memberikan dampak yang kuat (d-effect size=1,81 terhadap peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah hukum gerak Newton mahasiswa dan (2 kerjasama kelompok dalam pembelajaran CPS membuat permasalahan lebih mudah dipecahkan dan miskonsepsi dapat diperbaiki.

  10. KEEFEKTIVAN PENERAPAN PENDEKATAN PEMBELAJARAN AKTIF, KREATIF, EFEKTIF, DAN MENYENANGKAN (PAKEM DENGAN MEDIA COMPACT DISK (CD INTERAKTIF DALAM MATA DIKLAT IPS EKONOMI POKOK BAHASAN PERMINTAAN DAN PENAWARAN PADA SISWA KELAS XI SMK YP 17 MAGELANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Saifuddin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Koperasi sekolah di SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan kurang mendapatkan perhatian dan ini mengakibatkan koperasi sekolah kurang bisa berkembang. Permasalahan dalam penelitian ini adalah apa yang menyebabkan koperasi sekolah kurang bisa berkembang, serta bagaimana strategi yang sesuai untuk melakukan revitalisasi koperasi sekolah di SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan. Analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan alat analisis SWOT. Kesimpulan adalah penyebab koperasi sekolah di SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan tidak bisa berkembang dengan baik, karena masih memiliki kelemahan berupa pola manajemen yang kurang tepat dan kurangnya modal. Strategi yang digunakan yaitu memanfaatkan kekuatan yang dimiliki untuk mendapatkan peluang, dan meminimalisir kelemahan koperasi untuk mengantisipasi ancaman. . Cooperative School in SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan received less attention and this make less developed cooperative school. So the issue is what is causing the lack of school cooperatives can grow, and how appropriate strategies to revitalize the cooperative school in SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan. The analysis in this study using a SWOT analysis. In conclusion the cause of school cooperatives in SMP Negeri 2 Pandaan not been able to thrive, as it still has drawbacks such as the lack of proper management pattern and capital. The strategy used is utilizing the strength to get opportunities, and minimize the weaknesses of cooperatives to anticipate threats

  11. DIVERSIFIKASI KOMPETENSI LULUSAN PENDIDIKAN DAN LATIHAN VOKASI UNTUK LEBIH KOMPETITIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dardiri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversification of graduate’s competencies of vocational education and training to enhancing her/his competitiveness. The weakness absorbtion of graduate’s employment, the lack relevancies of the graduate’s competencies by industrial need, and the outnumber of graduate’s job availabilities were the problems of vocational education and training (VET especially in the Building Technology Education Program. In order to solve these problems, VET’s institutional must carry out: (1 di­versification of graduate’s competencies, (2 enhancing inovations teaching learning process with Total Quality Management (TQM Based Learning, (3 enhancing coope­ration with industries for learning process, (4 improving curriculum, and      (5 work’s quality culturalism. The implications for educational practice for the head of department are: (1 encourage teachers to innovate TQM-based learning, (2 have to do the diversification of graduates through improved curricula fit the needs of industry, and (3 expanding and strengthening cooperation with business/industry and the Vocational School for internship programs or other innovative programs. Lemahnya daya serap lulusan, kurang relevannya kompetensi lulusan dengan kebutuhan industri, dan terbatasnya lapangan pekerjaan merupakah persoalan yang dihadapi lembaga pendidikan vokasi khususnya di bidang pendidikan teknik bangunan.  Untuk memecahkan persoalan tersebut diperlukan langkah-langkah (1 diversifikasi kompetensi lulusan, (2 inovasi penerapan model pembelajaran berbasis Total Quality Management (TQM, (3 penguatan kerjasama  pembelajaran dengan dunia industri,  (4 restrukturisasi kurikulum, dan (5 rekulturisasi dari budaya tradisonal ke budaya mutu. Implikasinya bagi praktik pendidikan adalah ketua jurusan (1 mendorong dosen melakukan inovasi pembelajaran berbasis TQM; (2 melakukan diversivikasi kompe­tensi lulusan melalui perbaikan kurikulum sesuai kebutuhan industri; dan (3 mem­perluas dan

  12. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  13. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition) than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown), the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions) and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection). However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants) also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  14. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  15. Economic Aspects of Air and Gas Cleaning for Nuclear Energy Processes; Aspects Economiques de l'Epuration de l'Air et des Gaz au Cours des Operations Nucleaires; 042d 041a 041e 041d 041e 0414 0; Aspectos Economicos de la Depuracion del Aire y de los Gases en los Procesos de Obtencion de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Leslie [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    1960-07-01

    In this paper the basic requirements for control of gaseous and particulate effluents are given as applied to problems of feed material production, isotope separation, fuel element fabrication, fuel recovery and reactor operation. There are also instances where non-radioactive nuclear materials with toxic or nuisance effluents such as from beryllium and zirconium production are of concern and these too must be controlled at reasonable costs. The factors involved in capital and operating costs of gas cleaning equipment and the types of applications in the United States are described in some detail. Gaseous effluent problems have, of course, been attacked and controlled by several types of device but their performance has been measured on a comparable basis. It is thus possible to judge operating characteristics on an economic basis as related to power consumption, adsorbent costs, space charges, corrosion problems and other operational factors. The United States Atomic Energy Commission through its contract with the Harvard University Air Cleaning Laboratory has initiated an evaluation program with cooperation, from the various facilities and contractors to the Commission. In this study the basic factors necessary to obtain quantitative cost delineation and evaluation have been outlined and some preliminary findings will be presented. The paper also presents a review of other economic studies made in the United States on particular process or facility applications. (author) [French] Le memoire definit les regles fondamentales auxquelles doit obeir le controle des effluents gazeux et particulaires dans les domaines suivants : production des matieres destinees a alimenter les reacteurs, separation des isotopes, fabrication des cartouches de combustible, recuperation du combustible et fonctionnement des reacteurs. De plus - et c'est notamment ce qui se passe avec la production de beryllium et de zirconium -- il y a des cas ou des matieres nucleaires non radioactives

  16. GAMBARAN JENIS DAN JUMLAH KONSUMSI FAST FOOD DAN SOFT DRINK PADA MAHASISWA OBESITAS DI UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanti, Rut; Jafar, Nurhaedar; Syam, Aminuddin

    2013-01-01

    Konsumsi fast food dan soft drink dapat menyebabkan kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran jenis dan jumlah zat gizi makro dari konsumsi fast food dan soft drink pada mahasiswa yang obesitas.Jenis penelitian adalah deskriptif, dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2013 di Universitas Hasanuddin dengan jumlah responden 60 orang. Instrument penelitian adalah kuesioner identitas diri dan food frekuensiSemiQuantitatif fast food dan soft drink, food pictur...

  17. PERSEPSI DAN TRANSFORMASI VISI DAN MISI PADA CIVITAS AKADEMIKA STAIN PEKALONGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Khanafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengukur tingkat persepsi visi dan misi civitas akademika STAIN Pekalongan, dan mengukur juga tingkat implementasi sebagai transformasi visi misi tersebut serta menemukan hubungan antara persepsi dengan implementasinya. Kajian ini memiliki signifikan yang strategis dalam konteks manajemen dan pengembangan Pendidikan di STAIN Pekalongan dan lembaga pendidikan lainnya. Hal ini karena posisi visi dan misi sebagai kerangka acuan (frame of reference yang mengarahkan dan menjelaskan kepada keseluruh unsur civitas akademika dalam setiap program kerjanya.

  18. Cooperatives and the State: The Case of Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Laforest

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 2000s, the cooperative movement in Ontario came together in order to lobby its provincial government for active cooperative development support programs. Momentum was building for these types of programs. Already, many provincial governments had implemented active support programs in their jurisdiction. Despite having one of the largest cooperative sectors in Canada, Ontario was lagging behind. This article assesses the progress of the efforts of the Ontario cooperative movement to date. It details how the Ontario cooperative movement developed a sectoral identity for itself and framed its objectives in an effort to strengthen its relationship with the Ontario government. / Le mouvement coopératif en Ontario s'est rassemblé au début des années 2000 afin de faire pression sur le gouvernement provincial pour qu'il développe des programmes de soutient actif pour coopératives. Déjà plusieurs gouvernements provinciaux avaient mis en place de telles politiques. L'Ontario tardait malgré le fait qu'il avait un des plus grands secteurs coopératifs au Canada. Cet article examine le progrès qu'a connu le mouvement coopératif en Ontario dans ses efforts. Il décrit comment le mouvement coopératif a construit une identité sectorielle autour de laquelle il a pu ancrer ses demandes auprès du gouvernement ontarien.

  19. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed the communic......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process....... The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management....

  20. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN BUDAYA SEKOLAH BERPRESTASI: STUDI TENTANG PENANAMAN NILAI DAN ETOS BERPRESTASI DI SMA KARANGTURI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yuliono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan bentuk budaya sekolah berprestasi, proses penanaman nilai dan etos berprestasi kepada peserta didik dan mengetahui implikasi dari pengembangan budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kualitatif. Pengumpulan data menggunakan teknik observasi, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bentuk budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi mencakup empat poin yaitu: keseimbangan antara pembinaan akademik dan nonakademik, penanaman karakter melalui pelajaran, budaya mencintai almamater dan pentingnya nilai kerokhanian. Penanaman nilai dan etos berprestasi pada peserta didik dilakukan melalui kegiatan orientasi sekolah, proses pembelajaran, evaluasi belajar, ekstrakurikuler, penghargaan prestasi, kecintaan terhadap almamater, keteladanan guru, kerjasama dengan orangtua peserta didik dan seragam patriot sebagai media penanaman budaya berprestasi. Implikasi penanaman pengembangan budaya sekolah berprestasi di SMA Karangturi terdapat dalam input (penerimaan siswa baru dan pencarian siswa berpotensi, proses (pengembangan program sekolah serta pengembangan kerjasama dan output (prestasi akademik dan nonakademik serta jumlah alumni yang melanjutkan ke perguruan tinggi. The objective of this study is to describe a model of school achievement culture, the cultivation of values ​​and ethos of achievement to students and know the implications of the development of school culture on students’ achievement in Karangturi high school. This study used a qualitative descriptive approach. Techniques of collecting data were observation, interviews and documentation. This study uses sources and methods triangulation for data validation. The results show that the  school achievement culture in Karangturi high school contains four pillars, namely: a balance between academic and non-academic achievement, building character

  2. DAYA SAING DAN STRATEGI PENGEMBANGAN MINYAK SAWIT DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera Nayantakaningtyas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian Crude palm oil CPO products in the international market and to analyze the strategy to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO. The analysis methods used this research were descriptive qualitative methods. The tools used to analyze the competitiveness of palm oil is Revealed Comparative Advantages and Porter Diamond Theory, while the development of the strategy used to determine the SWOT method. Based on the analysis of Porter's Diamond System and revealed comparative advantages, this study concluded that the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO was pretty strong, but it still needed a strategy to strengthen its competitiveness especially on derivative products. Some of the routine strategies that need to be done every year, are the development of the CPO industry human resources through training and innovation activities, paying attention to national and international issues by improving government policies, downstream industrial development and palm oil value-added increase, enhance cooperation with manufacturers from other countries through promotions.Keywords: crude palm oil, competitiveness, strategy, analysis of porter's diamondABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing produk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Indonesia di pasar internasional dan menganalisis strategi peningkatan daya saing CPO Indonesia. Metode pengolahan dan analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif. Alat  yang digunakan untuk menganalisis daya saing minyak sawit  adalah Revealed Comparative Advantages dan Teori Berlian Porter, sedangkan untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan digunakan metode SWOT. Hasil analisis Sistem Berlian Porter dan revealed comparative advantages disimpulkan bahwa daya saing CPO Indonesia cukup kuat, namun masih diperlukan adanya strategi untuk memperkuat terutama pada produk turunan CPO. Strategi rutin yang harus

  3. Cooper Pairs in Insulators?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years elapsed between the discovery of superconductivity and the emergence of the microscopic theory describing this zero resistance state. The explanation required a novel phase of matter in which conduction electrons joined in weakly bound pairs and condensed with other pairs into a single quantum state. Surprisingly, this Cooper pair formation has also been invoked to account for recently uncovered high-resistance or insulating phases of matter. To address this possibility, we have used nanotechnology to create an insulating system that we can probe directly for Cooper pairs. I will present the evidence that Cooper pairs exist and dominate the electrical transport in these insulators and I will discuss how these findings provide new insight into superconductor to insulator quantum phase transitions.

  4. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  5. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  6. PENGARUH SALING KETERGANTUNGAN KEPERCAYAAN dan KESELERASAN TUJUAN TERHADAP KOOPERASI dan KINERJA PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR pada HUBUNGAN KONTRAKTUAL dengan PEMASOKNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsono Laksmana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is to analize the effect and implication of some behavioral characteristics toward companies performance in a relational contracting between manufacturing companies and their suppliers. This study is developed from the relational contracting model. Independent variables in this study are some behavioral characteristics that consist of interdependency, trust, and goal congruence. The effect of these variables is tested against companies performance through cooperation variable. Based on the theoritical model that is proposed in this research, the statistical techniques used in this study are multivariate correlation, regression analysis, and path analysis. These statistical techniques are used to analyze the data and test the hypothesis. The population are manufacturing companies that have contractual agreement with their suppliers simultaneously for at least one year and the material purchased must have dominant effect on the production process. The sample of 51 manufacturing companies in Jawa and Kalimantan are selected purposively. This research uses questionnaire with modified Likert scale into six scales of measurement. The results of statistical testing of four hypothesis show that three null hypothesis are rejected and, there for, performance hypothesis is accepted. There are significant and positive relationship between interdependency and cooperation, between trust and cooperation, and between cooperation and companies performance. One null hypothesis is not rejected, that is, goal congruence. The interdependency and companies performance which is not defined as a hypothesis before, results in the significant positive relationship. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi ini menganalisis pengaruh dan implikasi beberapa karakteristik perilaku terhadap kinerja perusahaan dalam hubungan kontraktual antara perusahaan manufaktur dan pemasok. Penelitian ini dikembangkan dari kerangka hubungan kontraktual (relational contracting

  7. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  8. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texte des Accords de Cooperation Conclus entre L'Agence et des Organisations Intergouvernementales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Le present document reproduit le texte des accords de cooperation que l'Agence a conclus avec les organisations intergouvernementales regionales enumerees ci-apres, ainsi que celui des protocoles validant lesdits accords. Le texte de ces instruments, classes dans l'ordre chronologique de leur entree en vigueur, est communique, pour information, a tous les Membres de l'Agence.

  9. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  10. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  11. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  12. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  13. Some equipment for graphite research in swimming pool reactors; Quelques dispositifs d'etude du graphite dans les piles piscines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, M; Arragon, Ph; Dupont, G; Gentil, J; Tanis, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The irradiation devices described are used for research concerning reactors of the natural uranium type, moderated by graphite and cooled by carbon dioxide. The devices are generally designed for use in swimming pool reactors. The following points have been particularly studied: - maximum use of the irradiation volume, - use of the simplest technological solutions, - standardization of certain constituent parts. This standardization calls for precision machining and careful assembling; these requirements are also true when a relatively low irradiation temperature is required and the nuclear heating is pronounced. Finally, the design of these devices is suitable for the irradiation of other fissile or non-fissile materials. (authors) [French] Les dispositifs d'irradiation decrits servent aux etudes relatives a la filiere des reacteurs a uranium naturel, moderes au graphite et refroidis par le gaz carbonique. Ils sont generalement concus pour etre utilises dans des piles piscines. L'accent a ete mis sur: - l'utilisation au maximum du volume d'irradiation, - le recours aux solutions technologiques les plus simples, - la standardisation de certaines parties constitutives. Cette standardisation impose un usinage precis et un montage soigne, lesquels sont egalement necessaires lorsqu'on doit obtenir une temperature d'irradiation relativement basse alors que l'echauffement nucleaire est important. Enfin, la conception de ces dispositifs est valable pour irradier d'autres materiaux non fissiles ou fissiles. (auteurs)

  14. PENGEMBANGAN STRATEGIC BUSINESS UNIT PERHUTANI UNIT III JAWA BARAT DAN BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rurin Wahyu Listriana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to 1 analyze the innovation and competitiveness ability of Strategic Business Unit (SBU in the KBM (independent business unit industri and 2 formulate alternative policies that can enhance company innovation and competitiveness. The study was conducted at KBM Industri and SBU within the KBM industri. The information and data was obtained through interviews and distributing questionnaires to 10 respondents. Respondents were chosen based on their expertise and or experience. Data processing techniques used the SWOT analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of this study shows that KBM Industri Unit III have the power and the opportunity to expand, increase growth, and achieve maximum progress by improving the quality, developing new products, improving processes and increasing access to wider market. The potential innovation can also be seen from the process-product innovation, knowledge-skills innovation and method-system innovation. In the KBM Industri Unit III, those potential covers the raw materials, process equipment and products. The improvement of company's innovation was influenced by the main factor organization with the value 0,436 and the most influential factors of marketing with a value 0,398, while the ultimate goal is the improvement of the process with the value 0,756. The improvement of the company's innovation strategy is through strategy priority, namely cooperation with other /external parties weighted by 0,703 and optimizing own capabilities of the research or conducting institutions development research weighted by 0,297.Keywords: SBU, KBM Industri, Innovation, AHP, SWOTABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan 1 menganalisis kemampuan inovasi dan daya saing Strategic Business Unit (SBU di Kesatuan Bisnis Mandiri (KBM Industri dan 2 merumuskan kebijakan alternatif yang dapat meningkatkan inovasi dan daya saing perusahaan. Penelitian  dilakukan pada KBM Industri  dan SBU yang ada didalam  KBM

  15. The Use of Research Reactors and Short-Lived Isotopes in the Study of Nuclear-Reactor Fuel Materials; Emploi de Reacteurs de Recherche et de Radioisotopes de Courte Periode dans l'Etude des Combustibles pour Reacteurs Nucleaires; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИХ РЕАКТОРОВ И КОРОТКОЖИВУЩИХ ИЗОТОПОВ ПРИ ИЗУЧЕНИИ ТОПЛИВНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ДЛЯ ЯДЕРННХ РЕАКТОРОВ; Empleo de Reactores de Investigacion y de Isotopos de Periodo Corto en el Estudio de Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elleman, T. S.; Townley, C. W.; Sunderman, D. N. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1963-03-15

    can often exhibit preferential release of particular elements, rapid fission- product release during temperature changes, and fission-gas release after reactor shutdown. The use of this technique allows fundamental information to be obtained on the performance of prototype fuel materials without the necessity for large testing reactors or high-level cave facilities for handling irradiated specimens. (author) [French] On peut employer avec profit un reacteur de recherche pour etudier la mobilite des produits de fission dans les prototypes de combustibles nucleaires en creant un milieu analogue a celui dans lequel le combustible est appele a fonctionner normalement, et en controlant rigoureusement les conditions de l'experience, tout en prevoyant une certaine souplesse dans le dispositif d'experimentation. Si l'on fait varier les conditions d'irradiation et que l'on procede a une analyse quantitative des produits de fission de courte periode liberes par l'echantillon, on pourra determiner les mecanismes de la liberation des produits de fission et leurs rapports avec les proprietes physiques et chimiques tant du combustible servant d'echantillon que des produits de fission eux-memes. On pourra en outre obtenir des donnees de technogenie utiles sur la valeur brute de la radioactivite liberee et la duree de vie probable du combustible. En regle generale, on irradie les echantillons dans des capsules a double paroi qu'on chauffe et introduit dans la piscine ou dans les canaux d'irradiation du reacteur, les produits de fission volatils liberes etant elimines de la capsule par un gaz de balayage. Etant donne .que le rapport entre la vitesse de degagement et la periode du radioisotope constitue un indice important du mecanisme, on recueille et analyse les gaz de fission- krypton et xenon - dont la periode va de 1,7 s jusqu'a 5,3 d. On determine les gaz rares de courte periode (krypton-89, krypton-91, krypton-92, xenon-137, xenon-138, xenon-139, xenon-140 et xenon-141) en

  16. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  17. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  18. Pengaruh Perebusan, Penggaraman Dan Penjemuran Pada Udang Dan Cumi Terhadap Pembentukan 7 Ketokolesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Riyanto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian pengaruh perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran pada udang dan cumi terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol telah dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini, udang dan cumi masing ­masing dibagi dalam dua kelompok. Pada kelompok pertama diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air, dan pada kelompok kedua diberikan perlakuan perebusan dalam air garam (3% air garam untuk udang dan 20% air garam untuk cumi. Setelah perebusan, dilakukan pengeringan di bawah matahari (udang dikupas dahulu sebelum dijemur. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan saat kondisi segar, setelah direbus dan setelah dijemur. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kandungan 7‑ketokolesterol, kolesterol, nilai TBA, dan kadar air. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perebusan, penggaraman dan penjemuran berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan 7‑ketokolesterol sampai konsentrasi 20,82 ppm pada udang dan 15,05 ppm pada cumi sebagai konsentrasi tertinggi produk hasil oksidasi kolesterol yang terbentuk. Penelitian ini dapat dijadikan bukti bahwa pemanasan (perebusan dan penjemuran, serta penggaraman berpengaruh dalam proses oksidasi kolesterol pada udang dan cumi.

  19. CORPORATE IDENTITY SEJARAH DAN APLIKASINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Suharto Cenadi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent globalization era%2C and the developed market%2C many companies compete to attract consumers to buy their products. One of the keys to compete and survive in this developing market is by creating an image and graphic identity. This paper will discuss about corporate identity%2C image%2C its purpose and applications. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Dalam era globalisasi dewasa ini%2C dan dengan berkembangnya pasar (market%2C banyak perusahaan bersaing untuk menarik perhatian konsumen untuk membeli produknya. Salah satu cara untuk bersaing dan dapat bertahan di dalam pasar yang terus berkembang ini adalah dengan menciptakan suatu image dan identitas graphic. Tulisan ini akan membahas tentang corporate identity%2C image%2C fungsi dan aplikasinya

  20. Profil Sensori dan Nilai Gizi Beberapa Jenis Ikan Patin dan Hibrid Nasutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Dwi Suryaningrum

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai profil sensori dan nilai gizi filet patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus, Jambal (Pangasius djambal Bleeker, Pasupati, Nasutus serta hasil silangan Siam dan Nasutus (hibrid Nasutus telah dilakukan. Analisis sensori dilakukan dengan uji pembeda menyeluruh, uji pembeda atribut, uji kesukaan, dan uji rangking. Pengamatan lainnya dilakukan terhadap edible portion dan nilai gizi (proksimat dan profil asam amino. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filet patin hibrid Nasutus lebih memiliki kesamaan warna dengan filet patin Nasutus daripada filet patin Siam. W arna daging filet patin hibrid Nasutus berbeda nyata dengan induknya yaitu patin Nasutus dan patin Siam. Panelis lebih menyukai warna filet patin hibrid Nasutus dibandingkan dengan patin Pasupati. Patin hibrid Nasutus mempunyai tekstur yang berbeda nyata dengan Nasutus dan Jambal yang kompak dan padat, tetapi mempunyai kesamaan dengan patin Siam dan Pasupati yang agak kompak dan agak padat. Berdasarkan intensitas warna, hasil uji pembeda atribut dan uji kesukaan, maka secara berturut-turut panelis menyukai filet patin Jambal, Nasutus, hibrid Nasutus, Pasupati, dan Siam. Hibrid Nasutus mempunyai edible portionpaling tinggi (49% dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya tetapi mempunyai kadar air, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein yang lebih rendah dan berbeda nyata dengan induknya (patin Siam dan Nasutus. Patin Siam mengandung asam amino esensial paling tinggi di antara berbagai jenis patin yang diteliti. Profil asam amino patin hibrid Nasutus, Jambal, Pasupati, dan Nasutus hampir sama, kecuali pada patin Siam yang mengandung glisin, leusin, isoleusin, histidin, serin, treonin, dan prolin yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya

  1. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  2. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  3. Systematic, Cooperative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Paula M.

    Evaluation procedures based on a systematic evaluation methodology, decision-maker validity, new measurement and design techniques, low cost, and a high level of cooperation on the part of the school staff were used in the assessment of a public school mathematics program for grades 3-8. The mathematics curriculum was organized into Spirals which…

  4. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  5. Cooperative Technolgy Deployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, E.; Velt, R. in 't

    2011-01-01

    After the successful demonstrations of cooperative technology by the CVIS and Safespot projects the question remains how this technology can be successfully deployed. This question is explored by the Field Operational Test project FREILOT, which aims to provide fuel economy applications that must be

  6. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  7. Cooperative courseware authoring support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicheva, D.; Aroyo, L.M.; Cristea, A.I.

    2003-01-01

    We refined our knowledge classification and indexing approach applied in our previously developed system AIMS (Agentbased Information Management System) by introducing ontology-oriented support for cooperative courseware authoring. In order to provide a basis for formal semantics and reasoning in

  8. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  9. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  10. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  11. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  12. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  13. Discover new cooperation forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the good forecasts concerning the supply and demand, the gas market is full of uncertainties because of the competition and the industrial reorganizing. Producers and operators try to define new forms of cooperation allowing the attainments protection and at the same time allowing to take advantage of the market opportunities with a shared risk. (A.L.B.)

  14. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities in international co-operation carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. Professionality of the Bohunice NPPs staff was highly appreciated by inviting them to be the OSART team members

  15. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  16. MENGENALI GEJALA TINITUS DAN PENATALAKSANAANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Purwita Agustini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Telinga berdenging atau dikenal dalam bahasa medis sebagai tinitus, banyak dikeluhkan sebagai suatu bising atau bunyi yang muncul di kepala tanpa adanya rangsangan dari luar. Adapun keluhan yang dialami ini seperti bunyi mendengung, mendesis, menderu, atau berbagai variasi bunyi yang lain. Tinitus bukanlah penyakit atau sindroma, tapi hanya merupakan gejala yang mungkin berasal dari satu atau sejumlah kelainan. Sebetulnya suara yang terdengar oleh telinga tersebut belum tentu bersifat kelainan atau patologis. Jika orang sehat yang terbukti telinganya normal, berada dalam ruang kedap (anehoic chamber, maka ia akan dapat mendengar berbagai macam suara yang berasal dari berbagai organ tubuhnya sendiri yang memang bekerja setiap saat, contohnya: pernapasan, kontraksi jantung, dan aliran darah. Kenyataannya, dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, suasana yang memungkinkan suara fisiologis atau normal tersebut terdengar oleh seseorang sangat jarang tercipta dan bahkan dalam kamar yang sunyi di malam hari sekalipun. Hal ini dikarenakan, bunyi masking dari lingkungan dengan berintensitas bunyi sekitar 25 – 30 dB. Tinitus baru menjadi gejala jika suara organ tubuh intensitasnya melebihi bunyi masking lingkungan tadi. Tinitus kerap diderita terutama orang pada kelompok usia pertengahan dan usia tua. Menurut data statistic dari pusat kesehatan di Amerika, sekitar 32% orang dewasa pernah mengalami tinitus pada suatu saat tertentu dalam hidupnya, dan 6 % nya sangat menganggu dan cukup sulit disembuhkan. Di Inggris, 17% populasi juga memiliki masalah tinitus. Sayangnya di Indonesia belum ada data statistic yang memadai, namun berdasarkan pengalaman empiris, penderita tinitus cukup banyak dan sering ditemui di tempat praktek, klinik, maupun rumah sakit. Meski tinitus bukanlah keadaan yang membahayakan, munculnya gejala ini pada hampir kebanyakan orang sangat mengganggu dan sering mempengaruhi kualitas hidup dan pekerjaannya. Kata Kunci: Tinitus, berdenging, telinga

  17. Le CRDI dans les Philippines

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI appuie la recherche dans les. Philippines depuis 1972. Le travail qu'y ont accompli des universités et des instituts de recherche vigoureux et la participation active de la société civile ont entraîné d'importantes améliorations dans les domaines de l'agriculture, du suivi de la pauvreté et de la gestion des forêts.

  18. XML specifications DanRIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now......XML specifications for DanRIS (Danish Registration- og InformationsSystem), where the the aim is: Improved exchange of data Improved data processing Ensuring future access to all gathered data from the year 1999 until now...

  19. Ketergantungan Online Game Dan Penanganannya

    OpenAIRE

    Syahran, Ridwan

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui perilaku yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermaian online game pada siswa SMP Negeri 1 Palu yang meliputi faktor-faktor penyebab kecanduan, keadaan psikologis yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game dan dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan dari kecanduan bermain online game.Pendekatan penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus dengan berdasarkan responden dan informan sebagai bahan sumber data. Dalam proses ...

  20. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  1. ENERGI DAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energi dapat berubah dari satu bentuk ke bentuk yang  lainnya, perubahannya sering mempengaruhi lingkungan dan udara yang kita hirup dengan berbagai cara. Energy kimia dalam bahan bakar fosil diubah menjadi energy panas, mekanik, atau listrik melalui pembakaran dan  ini sebagai penghasil polutan terbesar. Dan dengan demikian pembangkit listrik, kendaraan bermotor, dan kompor adalah penyebab utama terjadinya polusi udara.  Polutan yang dikeluarkan biasanya dikelompokan menjadi  hidrokarbon (HC, nitrogen oksida (NOx, dan  karbon monoksida (CO. Polutan yang dihasilkan pada pembakaran fosil merupakan faktor terbesar terjadinya asap, hujan asam,  pemanasan global dan perubahan iklim.   The conversion of energy from one form to another often affects the environment and the air we breath in many ways. Pollutants are emitted as the chemical energy in fossil fuels is converten to thermal, mechanical, or electrical energy via combustion, and thus power plants, motor vehicles, and even stoves take the blame for air pollution, and  the pollutants released by the vehicles are usually grouped as hydrocarbons (HC, nitrogen oxides (NOx, and carbon monoxide (CO. Pollutans emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and global warming and climate change.

  2. Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Ralstonia syzygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanuar Danaatmadja

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia syzygii is one of important pathogens of cloves. This study was aimed at obtaining pure culture of R. syzygi from diseased plant tissue samples. The acterium was isolated from infected clove plantations in Ungaran, Central Java. It had the ability to make clove seedlings show symptoms and then die 41 days after inoculation. The reisolated bacterium also showed its ability to kill clove seedlings after 17 days. The bacterium is gram negative, able to ultilize glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannitol, sorbitol, dulcitol, and glycerol, able to hydrolyze starch, grow well at 27oC, able to catalyze and release water and oxygen from hydrogen peroxyde (H2O2 and aerobically.   Ralstonia syzygii merupakan salah satu patogen penting pada tanaman cengkeh. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mendapakan isolat murni R syzygii dari jaringan tanaman terinfeksi. Bakteri diisolasi dari pertanaman cengkeh sakit yang berasal dari daerah Ungaran, Jawa Tengah. Bakteri menunjukkan kemampuan untuk menyebabkan bibit tanaman cangkeh sakit dan kemudian mati 41 hsi. Bakteri hasil reisolasi juga menunjukkan kemampuannya menyebabkan sakit dan kematian pada bibit tanaman cengkeh setelah 17 hsi. Bakteri yang diperoleh bersifat gram negatif, mampu memanfaatkan glukosa, sukrosa, maltosa, manitol, sorbitol, dulsitol, dan gliserol, mampu menghidrolisis pati, tumbuh baik pada suhu 27o C, mampu mengkatalisis dan melepaskan air dan oksigen dari hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 dan bersifat aerob.

  3. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  4. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Fan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including "what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?" and "what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?" Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  5. Detection of burst cans in the reactors cooled by gaseous phase; Detection des ruptures de gaine dans les reacteurs refroidis par phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J; Roguin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In a nuclear reactor including the bars or plates cooled by a gaseous fluid, burst risks to occur in the sheath assuring the tightness separation between the cooling gas and the fissile materials. It is necessary to be able to detect the formation of these cracks as possible in order to avoid all risk of fission products release or any reaction of uranium to the contact of the refrigerating gas. It is however the increase of the radioactivity in the cooling gas due to the scattering of the fission products that permits to signal the apparition of a crack or to follow its evolution. It is possible to detect cracks of the order of the square millimeter. In this report, we will detail the principle and the realization of a device used for the surveillance of a natural uranium reactor cooled by air circulation. (M.B.) [French] Dans un reacteur nucleaire comportant des barres ou des plaques refroidies par un fluide gazeux des fissures risquent de se produire dans les gaines assurant la separation etanche entre le gaz de refroidissement et les materiaux fissiles. II est necessaire de pouvoir detecter la formation de ces fissures des que possible afin d'eviter tout risque de liberation de produits de fission ou de reaction de l'uranium au contact du gaz refrigerant. C'est cependant l'augmentation de la radioactivite du gaz de refroidissement due a la dispersion des produits de fission qui permet de signaler l'apparition d'une fissure ou de suivre son evolution. On peut ainsi detecter des fissures de l'ordre du millimetre carre. Dans ce rapport, nous detaillerons le principe et la realisation d'un appareil utilise pour la surveillance d'un reacteur a uranium naturel refroidi par circulation d'air. (M.B.)

  6. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  7. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  8. PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN PERISTIWA ALAM DENGAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE INSIDE OUTSIDE CIRCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Sunarsih

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPA dengan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe inside outside circle untuk dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir kognitif dan menumbuhkan kemampuan komunikasi ilmiah siswa yang valid materi peristiwa alam. Uji coba skala terbatas dilakukan di SDN 02 Ambowetan. Uji coba skala luas kelas eksperimen SDN 01 Ambowetan VA, sedangkan kelas kontrol SDN 01 Ambowetan VB. Desain uji coba penelitian ini nonequivalent control group design. Prosedur pengembangan dan penelitian dikembangkan mengacu model pengembangan Dick dan Carry terdiri 4 tahap yaitu define, design, develop, dan disseminate. Hasil penelitian diperoleh pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran menerapkan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe inside outside circle berupa silabus, RPP, bahan ajar, lembar tes formatif, lembar observasi kemampuan komunikasi ilmiah, dan angket respon siswa valid, efektif, dan praktis diterapkan dalam pembelajaran IPA kelas V sekolah dasar materi peristiwa alam. Perangkat pembelajaran valid dengan nilai skor validitas akhir 3,43. Perangkat pembelajaran efektif terlihat peningkatan hasil uji N-gain menunjukkan hasil 0,50 pada klasifikasi tingkat sedang dan prosentase kemampuan ilmiah kelas eksperimen hasil sebesar 82%. Kriteria praktis dari nilai angket menunjukkan respon siswa kelas eksperimen lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelas kontrol (73% > 67 %.Purpose of this study is produce device the learning cooperative learning type inside outside circle to improve cognitive ability students and foster communication skills scientific a valid on material natural events. Trials limited scale in the SDN 02 Ambowetan. Trials wide scale for experimental class in the SDN 01 Ambowetan 5A, while the control class SDN 01 Ambowetan 5B. Design wide scale nonequivalent control group design. Procedures the development and developed research Dick and Carry consisting of 4 stage define, design, develop, and disseminate

  9. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    high-power reactors. (author) [French] Les chambres d'ionisation sont actuellement les detecteurs les mieux adaptes au controle des reacteurs nucleaires par des mesures neutroniques. Nous avons cru bon de rappeler quelques generalites concernant la dynamique des reacteurs, les differents procedes de detection des neutrons, le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation et les methodes de mesure utilisees. Notre contribution aux techniques de controle des reacteurs consiste d'une part en une tentative de synthese des facteurs intervenant dans le fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation, l'etude de ces facteurs, et d'autre part l'elaboration de chambres d'ionisation a fission et a bore permettant de suivre la marche d'un reacteur du demarrage jusqu'a la puissance maximale. Dans le domaine des chambres a fission, nous avons en particulier ameliore les techniques de depot d'oxyde d'uranium sur l'aluminium et realise la mise au point de depots par electrolyse sur d'autres metaux: acier inoxydable, cuivre, molybdene, nickel, tantale, titane, kovar, tungstene et beryllium. Nous avons elabore plusieurs types de chambres a fission servant au demarrage des reacteurs: un type de performances moyennes actuellement utilise dans les piles francaises un type a haute sensibilite un type a haute temperature qui a fonctionne jusqu'a 600 deg. C. En ce qui concerne les chambres a bore, nous avons etudie les perturbations apportees dans les mesures par l'exposition des chambres a d'importants flux de neutrons et a un rayonnement {gamma} intense. Cette exposition produit une modification des proprietes des materiaux constitutifs et la production dans les chambres d'un bruit de fond qui peut gener considerablement les mesures neutroniques. Nous avons montre que la technique de compensation permettait de limiter l'importance de ce bruit de fond et d'augmenter ainsi la plage de fonctionnement des chambres d'ionisation classiques destinees aux mesures de puissance. Enfin, nous avons realise deux

  10. Theme day: corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Proceedings; Journee Thematique: Corrosion et Traitements de surface dans les Installations Nucleaires. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the theme day organized by the Bourgogne Nuclear Pole on the topic of corrosion and surface treatments in nuclear facilities. Eleven presentations (slides) are compiled in this document: 1 - Introduction - PNB centre of competitiveness and R and D activities (A. Mantovan, PNB); 2 - Corrosion damage (M. Foucault, Areva NP - Centre Technique Le Creusot); 3 - Corrosion mechanisms (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 4 - Examples of expertise management (C. Duret-Thual, Institut de la corrosion/Corrosion Institute); 5 - General framework of surface treatments (C. Nouveau, ENSAM Cluny Paris Tech); 6 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part A (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 7 - Surfaces et interfaces characterisation - Part B (C. Langlade, Y. Gachon, UTBM and HEF); 8 - Ion beam surface treatment (Y. Le Guellec, Quertech Ingenierie); 9 - Impact surface treatment (G. Saout, Sonats); 10 - Metal oxides Characterisation by US laser (R. Oltra, UB-ICB); 11 - Detection and Characterisation of intergranular corrosion (Y. Kernin, Stephane Bourgois, Areva Intercontrole)

  11. Measurement of neutrinos released in nuclear reactors through the Borexino experiment; Mesure des neutrinos de reacteurs nucleaires dans l'experience Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoun, O

    2003-06-01

    The main goal of the Borexino experiment is to measure in real time the solar neutrino flux from the beryllium (Be{sup 7}) line at 862 keV. Beyond this pioneer low energy neutrino detection, Borexino will be able to measure solar neutrinos above the MeV, (B{sup 8} neutrinos and pep neutrinos), nuclear reactor neutrinos (with an average energy of 3 MeV) and the supernova neutrinos (their spectrum goes up to some ten MeV). In this work I mainly focus on the study of the nuclear reactors neutrinos. This field has recently been enriched by the results of the KamLAND experiment, which have greatly improved the determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters. In order to measure these events which are above the MeV, the Borexino collaboration entrusted the PCC group at College de France, with the tasks of developing a fast digit system running at 400 MHz: the FADC cards. The PCC group designed the FADC cards and completed them at the beginning of 2002. The first cards which were introduced in the main electronic acquisition unit allowed us to control their functioning and that of the acquisition software. FADC cards were also installed in the Borexino prototype, CTF. The data are analysed in order to determine a limit to the expected background noise of Borexino in measuring the nuclear reactor neutrinos. (author)

  12. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey; Le plutonium: mise en suspension d'aerosols dans les installations nucleaires: synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph; Monfort, M; Armand, P [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Service Radioanalyse Chimie Environnement, 91 (France); Alloul-Marmor, L [Societe APTUS, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  13. Safe management of actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle: Role of mineralogy; La gestion des actinides dans le cycle du combustible nucleaire: le role de la mineralogie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Department of Geological Sciences, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1005 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    During the past 60 years, more than 1800 metric tonnes of Pu, and substantial quantities of the 'minor' actinides, such as Np, Am and Cm, have been generated in nuclear reactors. Some of these transuranium elements can be a source of energy in fission reactions (e.g., {sup 239}Pu), a source of fissile material for nuclear weapons (e.g., {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np), and of environmental concern because of their long-half lives and radiotoxicity (e.g., {sup 239}Pu and {sup 237}Np). There are two basic strategies for the disposition of these heavy elements: (1) to 'burn' or transmute the actinides using nuclear reactors or accelerators; (2) to 'sequester' the actinides in chemically durable, radiation-resistant materials that are suitable for geologic disposal. There has been substantial interest in the use of actinide-bearing minerals, especially isometric pyrochlore, A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} (A rare earths; B = Ti, Zr, Sn, Hf), for the immobilization of actinides, particularly plutonium, both as inert matrix fuels and nuclear waste forms. Systematic studies of rare-earth pyrochlores have led to the discovery that certain compositions (B = Zr, Hf) are stable to very high doses of alpha-decay event damage. Recent developments in our understanding of the properties of heavy element solids have opened up new possibilities for the design of advanced nuclear fuels and waste forms. (author)

  14. Energy of ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions; Parcours - energie des ions 3{<=}Z{<=}10 dans les emulsions nucleaires ilford C2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papineau, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The relationship between the path and energy of ions with 3{<=}Z{<=}10 in Ilford C2 nuclear emulsions is studied. It determined the average state of charge of ions in each velocity intervals. Results are given in a table for {sub 2}He, {sub 3}Li, {sub 4}Be, {sub 5}B, {sub 6}C, {sub 7}N, {sub 8}O and {sub 10}Ne. For each velocity interval, it is possible to apply the Blackett relation which links, for the same velocity, the path {delta}R of a particle with M (mass) and Z (charge) to the path {delta}R' of a particle with M' and Z'. Results are given in tables and graphics representing the particles energy with the particles path. (M.P.)

  15. Energy security, sustainable development, which place for the Nuclear in the world?; Securite energetique, developpement durable, quelle place pour le nucleaire dans le monde?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Facing the increase of the energy consumption and the necessity of the greenhouse gases emission decrease, the authors define the role of the nuclear energy in a policy of a sustainable development. They recall the leadership part of the France in the nuclear research and development and the channel of the nuclear production. The second part of the paper proposes sheets of countries energy policy and nuclear program situation: USA, Europe, Russian, China and India. (A.L.B.)

  16. Platinoids and molybdenum in nuclear waste containment glasses: a structural study; Les platinoides et le molybdene dans des verres d'interet nucleaires: etude structurale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, M. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)]|[Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the structure of borosilicate nuclear glasses and with some relationships between structure and macroscopic properties. Two types of elements which may disturb the industrial process - platinoids (Ru and Pd) and molybdenum - are central to this work. Platinoids induce weak modifications on the structure of the glass, causing a depolymerization of the glassy network, an increase of the {sup [3]}B/{sup [4]}B ratio and a modification of the medium range order around Si between 3.3 and 4.5 angstrom. The modifications of viscosity and density induced by platinoids in the glass are not due to the structural effect of the platinoids. The increase of viscosity is attributed to needle shaped RuO{sub 2}. It can be moderated by imposing reducing conditions during the elaboration of the glass. The slight difference between experimental and calculated densities is due to the increase of the volume percentage of bubbles in the glass with increasing platinoid content. Mo is either present in the glass as molybdic groupings, or mobilized in chemically complex molybdic crystalline phases. The chemical composition and mineralogy of these phases has been obtained using electronic microprobe data and XRD with Rietveld analysis. The distribution of the different elements between the crystalline phases and the glass is strongly influenced by the structural role of the various cations in the glass. The Mo present in the glass appears as MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, independent of the borosilicate network. The formation of the crystalline phases can be explained by the existence of a precursor in which the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra are concentrated in rich alkali and earth-alkali bearing areas of the glass. (author)

  17. Plutonium: resuspension of aerosols in nuclear installations: bibliographic survey; Le plutonium: mise en suspension d'aerosols dans les installations nucleaires: synthese bibliographique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Monfort, M.; Armand, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. Analyse Surveillance Environnement, Service Radioanalyse Chimie Environnement, 91 (France); Alloul-Marmor, L. [Societe APTUS, 78 - Versailles (France)

    2006-07-01

    This document presents an analysis and a bibliographical synthesis of the studies on resuspension factors for plutonium. It aims at helping the engineers of safety to specify the scenarios of accidents which relate to their activities and to bring elements justified for the definition of their term-source 'installation' in the safety reports of the installations. (authors)

  18. Strategy for nuclear wastes incineration in hybrid reactors; Strategies pour l'incineration de dechets nucleaires dans des reacteurs hybrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, F

    1998-12-11

    The transmutation of nuclear wastes in accelerator-driven nuclear reactorsoffers undeniable advantages. But before going into the detailed study of a particular project, we should (i) examine the possible applications of such systems and (ii) compare the different configurations, in order to guide technological decisions. We propose an approach, answering both concerns, based on the complete description of hybrid reactors. It is possible, with only the transmutation objective and a few technological constraints chosen a posteriori, to determine precisely the essential parameters of such reactors: number of reactors, beam current, size of the core, sub-criticality... The approach also clearly pinpoints the strategic decisions, for which the scientist or engineer is not competent. This global scheme is applied to three distinct nuclear cycles: incineration of solid fuel without recycling, incineration of liquid fuel without recycling and incineration of liquid fuel with on-line recycling; and for two spectra, either thermal or fast. We show that the radiotoxicity reduction with a solid fuel is significant only with a fast spectrum, but the incineration times range from 20 to 30 years. The liquid fuel is appropriate only with on-line recycling, at equilibrium. The gain on the radiotoxicity can be considerable and we describe a number of such systems. The potential of ADS for the transmutation of nuclear wastes is confirmed, but we should continue the description of specific systems obtained through this approach. (author)

  19. Solubility of actinides and surrogates in nuclear glasses; Solubilite des actinides et de leurs simulants dans les verres nucleaires. Limites d'incorporation et comprehension des mecanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ch

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear wastes are currently incorporated in borosilicate glass matrices. The resulting glass must be perfectly homogeneous. The work discussed here is a study of actinide (thorium and plutonium) solubility in borosilicate glass, undertaken to assess the extent of actinide solubility in the glass and to understand the mechanisms controlling actinide solubilization. Glass specimens containing; actinide surrogates were used to prepare and optimize the fabrication of radioactive glass samples. These preliminary studies revealed that actinide Surrogates solubility in the glass was enhanced by controlling the processing temperature, the dissolution kinetic of the surrogate precursors, the glass composition and the oxidizing versus reducing conditions. The actinide solubility was investigated in the borosilicate glass. The evolution of thorium solubility in borosilicate glass was determined for temperatures ranging from 1200 deg C to 1400 deg C.Borosilicate glass specimens containing plutonium were fabricated. The experimental result showed that the plutonium solubility limit ranged from 1 to 2.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} at 1200 deg C. A structural approach based on the determination of the local structure around actinides and their surrogates by EXAFS spectroscopy was used to determine their structural role in the glass and the nature of their bonding with the vitreous network. This approach revealed a correlation between the length of these bonds and the solubility of the actinides and their surrogates. (author)

  20. Platinoids and molybdenum in nuclear waste containment glasses: a structural study; Les platinoides et le molybdene dans des verres d'interet nucleaires: etude structurale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, M [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France); [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France)

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the structure of borosilicate nuclear glasses and with some relationships between structure and macroscopic properties. Two types of elements which may disturb the industrial process - platinoids (Ru and Pd) and molybdenum - are central to this work. Platinoids induce weak modifications on the structure of the glass, causing a depolymerization of the glassy network, an increase of the {sup [3]}B/{sup [4]}B ratio and a modification of the medium range order around Si between 3.3 and 4.5 angstrom. The modifications of viscosity and density induced by platinoids in the glass are not due to the structural effect of the platinoids. The increase of viscosity is attributed to needle shaped RuO{sub 2}. It can be moderated by imposing reducing conditions during the elaboration of the glass. The slight difference between experimental and calculated densities is due to the increase of the volume percentage of bubbles in the glass with increasing platinoid content. Mo is either present in the glass as molybdic groupings, or mobilized in chemically complex molybdic crystalline phases. The chemical composition and mineralogy of these phases has been obtained using electronic microprobe data and XRD with Rietveld analysis. The distribution of the different elements between the crystalline phases and the glass is strongly influenced by the structural role of the various cations in the glass. The Mo present in the glass appears as MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra, independent of the borosilicate network. The formation of the crystalline phases can be explained by the existence of a precursor in which the MoO{sub 4} tetrahedra are concentrated in rich alkali and earth-alkali bearing areas of the glass. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy fur civilian uses given the prospects of a changing climate; L'energie nucleaire civile dans le cadre temporel des changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautray, R. [Academy des Aciences, 75 - Paris (France); Turpin, M. [ERAP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    The worrisome issues resulting from the civilian use of nuclear energy are subjected to a scientific analysis in R. Dautray's report. They include: the risks of accidents and radiation, the question of nuclear wastes (in particular, plutonium and actinides), and the dangers of atomic weapons proliferating or nuclear plants being menaced by terrorists. The nuclear industry will not be able to go on unless it comes up with solutions acceptable to citizens. Even if the decision were made to put an end to nuclear power plants, a solution would have to be found for putting an end to the aftereffects. According to this report, it is indispensable to have a base of knowledge accepted by all if we are to weigh various proposals and make decisions. It contends that the program under way in France since the 1991 Bataille Act should, for the 2006 deadline, set as its main objective to define 'a general criterion of protection and confidence of the concerned workers and populations, a criterion worked out by their elected representatives, thus by public authorities'. The report's author has proposed points for drawing up such a criterion. (author)

  2. Contribution to the study of thermal-hydraulic problems in nuclear reactors; Contribution a l`etude de problemes de thermohydraulique dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G

    1998-07-07

    In nuclear reactors, whatever the type considered, Pressurized Water Water Reactors (PWRs), Fast Breeder reactors (FBRs)..., thermal-hydraulics, the science of fluid mechanics and thermal behaviour, plays an essential role, both in nominal operating and accidental conditions. Fluid can either be the primary fluid (liquid or gas) or a very specific fluid called corium, which, in case of severe accident, could result from core and environning structure melting. The work reported here represents a 20-year contribution to thermal-hydraulic issues which could occur in FBRs and PWRs. Working on these two types of reactors, both in nominal and severe accident situations, has allowed me to compare the problems and to realize the importance of communication between research teams. The evolution in the complexity of studied problems, unavoidable in order to reduce costs and significantly improve safety, has led me from numerical modelling of single-phase flow turbulence to high temperature real melt experiments. The difficulties encountered in understanding the observed phenomena and in increasing experimental databases for computer code qualification have often entailed my participation in specific measurement device developments or adaptations, in particular non-intrusive devices generally based on optical techniques. Being concerned about the end-use of this research work, I actively participated in `in-situ` thermalhydraulic experiments in the FBRs: Phenix and Super-Phenix, of which I appreciated their undeniable scientific contribution. In my opinion, the thermal-hydraulic questions related to severe accidents are the most complex as they are at the cross-roads of several scientific specialities. Consequently, they require a multi-disciplinary approach and a continuous see-saw motion between experimentalists and modelling teams. After a brief description of the various problems encountered, the main ones are reported. Finally, the importance for research teams to participate in large international concerted actions is highlighted. (author) 64 refs.

  3. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar nuclei in solids; Resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution des noyaux quadrupolaires dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpentier, Th

    1998-10-23

    After a brief review of existing methods in high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, the manipulation of multi-quantum coherencies by radiofrequency pulses is studied. Results are then applied to the determination of optimal conditions for performing the recently introduced multiple-quantum magic-angle experiment (MQMAS). The principles of this new method, the different pulse sequences and the data processing are described in detail. Applications on aluminum hydrates and cement pastes show the improvements of this new technique over the previous ones. In a second part, after an investigation of the Floquet theory, a new formalism has been devised for studying the behavior of a spin submitted to a strong quadrupolar interaction and radiofrequency field in a rotating sample. This formalism is then applied to a quantitative study of the phenomenon of rotational induced adiabatic transfer of coherencies (RIACT). The extension of our theoretical approach to two-dimensional experiments provides a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of MQMAS spectra. Agreement between experimental data and simulations demonstrates the reliability of our approach. Preliminary results concerning the application of MQMAS spectroscopy, using our simulation programs, to structural study of amorphous materials are presented. The third and last part presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of dipolar order in a rotating sample. Two theoretical models are described, the first for the slow spinning speed regime where an adiabatic approximation can be made, and the second for the fast spinning speed regime. (author)

  4. Resolution Improvement in Multidimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins; Amelioration de la resolution dans la resonance magnetique nucleaire multidimensionnelle des proteines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duma, L

    2004-07-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with both liquid-state and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Most of this work is devoted to the investigation by solid-state NMR of C{sup 13}-enriched compounds with the principal aim of presenting techniques devised for further improving the spectral resolution in multidimensional NMR of microcrystalline proteins. In fully C{sup 13}-labelled compounds, the J-coupling induces a broadening of the carbon lineshapes. We show that spin-state-selective technique called IPAP can be successfully combined with standard polarisation transfer schemes in order to remove the J-broadening in multidimensional solid-state NMR correlation experiments of fully C{sup 13}-enriched proteins. We present subsequently two techniques tailored for liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The carbon directly detected techniques provide chemical shift information for all backbone hetero-nuclei. They are very attracting for the study of large bio-molecular systems or for the investigation of paramagnetic proteins. In the last part of this thesis, we study the spin-echo J-modulation for homonuclear two-spin 1/2 systems. Under magic-angle spinning, the theory of J-induced spin-echo modulation allows to derive a set of modulation regimes which give a spin-echo modulation exactly equal to the J-coupling. We show that the chemical-shift anisotropy and the dipolar interaction tend to stabilize the spin-echo J-modulation. The theoretical conclusions are supported by numerical simulations and experimental results obtained for three representative samples containing C{sup 13} spin pairs. (author)

  5. Fuzzy logic and modeling of ventilation networks in the nuclear industry; Logique floue et modelisation des reseaux de ventilation dans l'industrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floquet, P.; Lhoste, J.C.; Domenech, S.; Pibouleau, L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Chimiques et Technologiques, Lab. de Genie Chimique, LGC, UMR CNRS/INP/UPS 5503, 31 - Toulouse (France); Laborde, J.C. [CEA Saclay, Institut de la Protection et de la Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article presents the implementation of fuzzy logic in the modeling of ducts, filters and pressures of the ventilation networks of the nuclear industry, taking into account the uncertainties of the aeraulic parameters. (J.S.)

  6. Place of the nuclear medicine in the clinical development of the gene therapy; Place de la medecine nucleaire dans le developpement clinique de la therapie genique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crochet, T. [Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France); Vis, J. de [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Saint Eloi, Institut de Recherche en Biotherapie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Vincent, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nimes, Service de Medecine Interne, Hopital Caremeau, 30 - Nimes (France); Zanca, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Guy de Chauliac, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2006-10-15

    Although gene therapy has been proposed first for genetic diseases, its concept has been extended to many acquired diseases, owing to a better understanding of pathology at a molecular level. Overall, very few trials have shown to be efficient, and safety concerns have emerged, as a result of several patients deaths. There is a need for new techniques able to improve both the knowledge of the therapeutic gene fate once administered and the early detection of events likely to lead to serious adverse events. In vivo imaging of a reporter gene associated with the therapeutic one is certainly the most promising technique for these goals. Among available imaging modalities, nuclear imaging is the most likely to be applied to patients. This review begins with a summary of current knowledge about the steps that a therapeutic gene has to cross from vector delivery to appropriate expression in target cells. We show how gene imaging could allow to investigate many pitfalls of trials by providing a better understanding of these steps in patients. The reporter genes available for nuclear imaging are presented in the second section, through animal studies. Then, relevant examples of clinical trials are presented. These include cancer (suicide gene therapy and adoptive immunotherapy), ischemic heart diseases and cystic fibrosis. The results are commented with emphasis on the role of nuclear imaging to address the questions raised by these studies, and imaging studies carried out on animals or patients for the corresponding diseases or organs are presented. The results obtained in animal studies warrant the introduction of gene imaging in clinical trials. (authors)

  7. Penskalaan Butir Format Respons Pilihan dan Respons Bebas Berdasarkan Model Rasch dan Partial Credit

    OpenAIRE

    Eko Hariadi

    2007-01-01

    Penelitian melihat pengaruh jumlah parameter butir, kategori respons bebas (RB), pengaruh sampel terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter kemampuan untuk menghasilkan estimasi yang stabil dan pengaruh pembobotan butir RP dan butir RB terhadap kesalahan baku. Penelitian dalam dua tahap, simulasi menggunakan 30 kondisi dengan replikasi 50 dengan variabel panjang tes, jumlah kategori, dan jumlah parameter butir, dan analisis deskriptif, dilanjutkan penerapan penskalaan gabungan butir tipe res...

  8. Metode Sederhana dan Efektif untuk Penghitungan dan Visualisasi Tiga Dimensi (3D) Biofilm Vibriio Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Andi; Fadjar, Mohamad; Sukoso, Sukoso; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin

    2015-01-01

    Mikroorganisme yang mampu menghasilkan biofim menimbulkan masalah yang serius dalam bidang kesehatan dan pangan. Penelitian biofim bagi sebagian peneliti sangat identik dengan kerumitan proses penghitungan dan visualisasi penutupan permukaan substrat penempelan bakteri. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mengetahui efiiensi metode alternatif untuk menghitung dan memvisualisasikan biofimVibrio cholera. Pada penelitian ini beberapa faktor lingkungan seperti pH, suhu, dan kondisi kultur diujicobakan...

  9. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  10. Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia; Contribution a l'etude des solutions de sodium dans l'ammoniac liquide par resonance magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author) [French] Les solutions diluees de sodium dans l'ammoniac sont etudiees au moyen des techniques de la polarisation dynamique, sur la base du modele de Becker Lindquist et Aider. Les deplacements paramagnetiques des raies de resonance nucleaire des differents noyaux sont analyses en faisant appel a la notion de ''densite moyenne de spin'' introduite par l'auteur; et les differentes contributions nucleaires au deplacement d'Overhauser sont calculees en fonction de cette meme grandeur. Une etude theorique de la relaxation de chaque systeme de spin permet d'evaluer l'importance relative des differents mecanismes mis en jeu. Les experiences de polarisation dynamique effectuees au cours de ce travail consistent en mesures classiques de l'effet Overhauser sur l'azote, d'une part, et en la mise en oeuvre de techniques originales pour mesurer le deplacement de Knight de l'azote et les

  11. La coopération internationale et régional concertant la protection de l'environnement et l'apport du droit nucleaire. L'exemple de la Mer Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore POP

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents several short components regarding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, the role played by nuclear energy law, and of complementary institutions and programmes in connection to environmental protection. Additionally, this material discusses not only fundamental principles of cooperation directed towards sustainable development but also general principles of international law, within a framework of institutional intergovernmental and/or non governmental cooperation towards environmental protection, based upon global, regional, national or „No State” context. Dans ce bref article, nous voulons présenter quelques éléments ou repères préliminaires de l’utilisation pacifique de l’énergie nucléaire, le rôle du droit nucléaire, des institutions et programmes adjacents par rapport à la protection de l’environnement, les principes fondamentaux de la coopération pour un développement durable sur le plan régional, ainsi que les principes généraux de droit international susceptibles d’orienter la coopération intergouvernementale ou non-gouvernementale, sur la base des initiatives globales, régionales ou d’intérêt national, ou dans le cadre de la coopération “sans Etat”.

  12. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  13. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newstead, C.M.; Lee, D.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  14. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  15. Public debate about the EPR nuclear power plant at Flamanville; Debat public sur la centrale nucleaire EPR a Flamanville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of building of he EPR reactor at Flamanville (Manche, France) has been submitted to the public debate. This document includes a presentation of the project and of the rules of the public debate, a synthesis of the file made by the prime contractor (EDF), a synthesis of the collective book of national actors concerned by the project (a group of associations for environment protection, Areva company, the ministries of economy and ecology, Global Chance, association of pro-nuclear ecologists (AEPN), 'Sortir du Nucleaire' (out-of nuclear) network, group of scientists for the information about nuclear (GSIEN), association for the promotion of the Flamanville site (Proflam), French nuclear energy society (SFEN) in association with 'Sauvons le Climat' (let's save climate), regional collective association 'EPR non merci, ni ailleurs, ni ici' (EPR, no thanks, neither elsewhere, nor here), NegaWatt), and 5 detailed books of actors: ACRO (association for the control of radioactivity in Western France), CFDT and CGT syndicates, the economic and social council of Basse Normandie region, and Proflam. (J.S.)

  16. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  17. Conditional cooperation on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocher, M.G.; Cherry, T.; Kroll, S.; Netzer, R.; Sutter, M.

    2007-01-01

    We show in a public goods experiment on three continents that conditional cooperation is a universal behavioral regularity. Yet, the number of conditional cooperators and the extent of conditional cooperation are much higher in the U.S.A. than anywhere else.

  18. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  19. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  20. Forestry cooperatives: past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Forest landowner cooperatives are not a new phenomenon, but past efforts to create and sustain these businesses have been largely unsuccessful in the U.S. Before and just after World War II saw significant investment in cooperative development that failed to create durable business. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly describe the history of forestry cooperatives...

  1. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour......In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...

  2. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  3. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  4. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  5. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  6. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation......For decades the US has had a hegemonic position in the Middle East. A key country in this respect has been Egypt. However, in recent decades the EU has made itself increasingly felt in the region. Due to enlargements the EU came geographically much closer, and the Internal Market has generated...... to see the US and EU as rivals. Their roles are rather complementary. The article explores developments in a long-term perspective. Internal and structural developments have had a heavy impact, but at important junctions ideas and strategies for gaining political legitimacy were powerful factors too...

  7. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  8. Problems of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noramli, M.

    1987-01-01

    The main principles of the IAEA technical co-operation program, which intends to answer the requirements of the member states as regards technical assistance, are presented. IAEA offers its assistance in the supervision and financial support of the projects, which promise direct and quick profit to the member states. Projects related to the satisfaction of the main demands of humanity, industrial use, energy generation, radiation protection and other fields, which can promote the contribution of nuclear power generation to the course of peace, protection of health and thriving of states, are among them. 35 million dollars (USA) was allocated for the IAEA technical assistance and realization of the co-operation program in 1987

  9. The Technical Training Programme for Nuclear Power Station Personnel; Programme de formation technique du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Programma tekhnicheskoj podgotovki personala yadernoj ehlektrostantsii; El programa de formacion tecnica del personal de una central nucleoelectrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howey, G. R. [Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1963-10-15

    .), responsible for maintenance of all mechanical equipment; and (5) Service maintainers: responsible for a wide variety of less skilled tasks requiring lower qualifications. In addition to these general categories a few specialists are required, such as chemists and radiation protection officers. Organization of the NPD staff and training for future nuclear-power needs will be discussed. (author) [French] La centrale nucleaire de demonstration canadienne (NPD), creee par un organisme federal, l'Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, est exploitee par une compagnie provinciale de distribution d'electricite, la Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, qui pourvoit aussi aux besoins en personnel. Le recrutement et la formation du personnel de la centrale ont ete difficiles du fait que, recemment encore, la plupart des besoins en electricite de l'Ontario pouvaient etre satisfaits par les abondantes ressources hydro-electriques de cette province. La multiplication des centrales thermiques, depuis 1950, a cree une enorme demande de personnel. Pour faire face a cette situation, on a organise la formation de personnel pour les centrales nucleaires de la maniere suivante: a) un groupe initial d'ingenieurs a ete selectionne parmi des specialistes ayant une vaste experience des travaux dans le domaine nucleaire de l 'exploitation des centrales thermiques et de la production d'electricite; b) on a selectionne un autre groupe d'operateurs et d'agents des services d'entretien hautement qualifies; c) ces groupes ont recu une formation systematique comprenant l'exploitation de centrales nucleaires et de centrales thermiques a charbon, un enseignement theorique et pratique et des instructions donnees par les specialistes qui ont concu les plans de NPD ; d) un centre de formation nucleaire a ete cree et charge de la selection et de la formation du personnel supplementaire ainsi que de l 'organisation des examens officiels; il doit s'assurer, d'une maniere generale, de la competence du personnel

  10. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  11. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  12. Diversity and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruner, Justin Pearce

    2014-01-01

    The present dissertation is an exploration of the effect of diversity on social contract formation and the evolution of cooperation. This work stems from the pioneering efforts of economist Arthur Robson, who first explored the role of costless pre-game communication in strategic interactions. When communication is permitted, individuals playing a game can condition their behavior on the signal received from their counterpart. For my purposes, I interpret these signals as racial markers or cu...

  13. Notes on the Start-Up of the Latina Power Station; Notes concernant le demarrage de la centrale nucleaire de Latina; Zapusk ehlektrostantsii Latina; Notas sobre la puesta en marcha de la central electrica de Latina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, G.; Gualtieri, G. [AGIP Nucleare, Milano (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    Information is given on the start-up of the first Italian nuclear power plant, the Latin Power Station, designed for an electrical output of 200 MW, incorporating a natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the station, details are given on die performance of the final tests of the plant, on the fuel loading and on the sequence of commissioning operations, measurements and controls subsequent to the criticality attained. The operations for the start-up and connection of the station to the electrical network are treated. The organization problems relevant to the station operation including personnel preparation and qualification, safety measures, are also illustrated. (author) [French] Le memoire donne des renseignements sur le demarrage de la premiere centrale nucleaire italienne, la centrale de Latina, dont la puissance electrique est de 200 MW et qui fonctionne avec un reacteur du type uranium naturel-gaz-graphite. Apres une breve description des caracteristiques essentielles de la centrale, des explications detaillees sont donnees sur les resultats des derniers essais auxquels elle a ete soumise, sur le chargement du combustible et sur la serie des operations de mise en service, des mesures et des verifications auxquelles il a ete procede lorsque l'etat critique a ete atteint. Les operations de demarrage et de raccordement de la centrale au reseau electrique sont etudiees dans le memoire, ainsi que les problemes d'organisation que pose l 'exploitation de la centrale, notamment en ce qui concerne la formation du personnel et les mesures de securite. (author) [Spanish] Se comunican datos sobre la puesta en marcha de la primera central nucleoelectrica italiana, en Latina, proyectada para desarrollar una potencia de 200 MW (e), que se basa en un reactor de uranio natural moderado por grafito u refrigerado por gas. Despues de describir brevemente las caracteristicas de la central, se dan detalles sobre el

  14. Purwarupa Sistem Integrasi Quadcopter dan Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmawan, Andi; Lusiarta Putera, Christian Antonia

    2012-01-01

    AbstrakQuadcopter, juga dikenal sebagai quadrotor, adalah helikopter dengan empat motor yang dilengkapi dengan  empat buah propeller pada masing-masing motornya yang digunakan untuk terbang dan bermanuver. Pada quadcopter terdapat 3 variabel sudut yang menjadi element utama dalam pengendaliannya yaitu roll, pitch, dan yaw yang diperoleh dari penggabungan sensor accelerometer, gyroscope dan magnetometer dengan metode Direction Cosine Matrix. Pada sistem integrasi mobile robot dan quadcopter, d...

  15. Review Dendrimer : Definisi, Sintesis, Aplikasi Dan Prospektif

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi, Dwinna

    2013-01-01

    Dendrimer merupakan makrostruktur monodisperse dengan banyak cabang yang homogen dan degree of branching (DB) 100%. Dua cara sintesis dendrimer yaitu convergent dan divergent dilakukan. Convergent dilakukan dengan reaksi kovalen antara dua dan lebih monomer. Divergent dimulai dengan pembentukan inti dilanjutkan dengan pembentukan cabang yang merupakan group fungsional yang aktif. Sejauh ini dendrimer sudah banyak diterapkan pada bidang farmasi yaitu drug delivery dan non farmasi pada proses i...

  16. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Enkripsi dan Dekripsi Email Dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Advanced Encryption Standard Dan Knapsack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy John Pattiasina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Encryption Standard (AES dan Knapsack adalah dua algoritma enkripsi simetris dan asimetris yang paling sering digunakan. Penelitian ini menganalisa kedua algoritma AES dan algoritma Knapsack. Prototipe aplikasi enkripsi email ini dirancang dengan menggabungkan karateristik algoritma AES dan Knapsack untuk memecahkan masalah keamanan email. Algoritma AES digunakan untuk mengenkripsi dan deskripsi email berupa teks atau file, sedangkan Algoritma Knapsack di gunakan untuk mengenkripsi kunci AES. Enkripsi hybrid yang diterapkan pada aplikasi bertujuan untuk menambah keamanan informasi dalam sebuah jaringan.

  17. KORELASI ANTARA ISLAM DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Zainal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CORELATION BETWEEN ISLAM AND ECONOMY. This paper aims to identifies about the correlation between economic and Islam. Islam is the perfect religion that governs all things in life, including the economy. This is evident with the concept of  well-being which is described in the al-Quran and Sunnah. Basically the goal of every human life is to prosper, although humans make sense of  well- being with a different perspective. Most understand economics assume that welfare is the welfare of  earthly material. But to make sense of well-being with the term al-Falah, is meaning holistic wellbeing and balance between material and spiritual dimensions. al-Quran and Sunnah have taught that the human being will be achieved if  living in balance between material and spiritual. This is because human life does not just stop in the life of this world, but there is still a second life that will be faced by humanity in the hereafter, and well-being will be achieved with the truth is that people can balance the needs of the world and the hereafter, and that is what is taught in Islamic economics. Keywords: Islam, Economy, Prosperity. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelasakn tentang korelasi antara ekonomi  dan  Islam.  Islam  adalah  agama  yang  sempurna  yang mengatur segala hal dalam kehidupan ini, termasuk juga ekonomi. Hal ini terbukti dengan konsep kesejahteraan yang dipaparkan dalam al-Quran dan Sunnah. Pada dasarnya tujuan hidup setiap manusia adalah untuk mencapai kesejahteraan, meskipun manusia memaknai kesejahteraan dengan perspektif  yang berbeda-beda. Sebagian besar paham ekonomi menganggap bahwa kesejahteraan adalah kesejahteraan material duniawi. Namun Islam memaknai kesejahteraan dengan istilah  Falah  yang  berarti  kesejahteraan  holistik  dan  seimbang antara dimensi material dan spiritual. Al-Quran dan Sunnah telah mengajarkan bahwa kesejahteraan akan tercapai jika manusia menjalani hidup secara seimbang antara material dan

  18. Karakteristik Dan Spektrum Manajemen Pendidikan Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Jannah, Siti Raudhatul

    2013-01-01

    Artikel ini mendiskusikan mengenai manajemen pendidikan Islam, karakteristik, dan spektrumnya. Karakteristik manajemen pendidikan Islam harus didasarkan pada al-Qur'an dan Hadits serta pemikiran rasional yang telah diuji validitasnya. Spektrum manajemen pendidikan Islam meliputi lingkup manajemen personalia pendidikan Islam, manajemen peserta didik pendidikan Islam, maanjemen kurikulum pendidikan Islam, manajemen keuangan pendidikan Islam, manajemen sarana dan prasarana pendidikan Islam, mana...

  19. PRODUKSI NANOFIBER DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnandika, Vania Elita

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Kebutuhan air meningkat seiring meningkatnya jumlah penduduk dan taraf kehidupan masyarakat. Pembangunan yang dilakukan secara terus-menerus dan sangat cepat di Indonesia mengakibatkan penurunan kualitas air permukaan. Teknologi membran merupakan salah satu teknologi pengolahan air yang menghasilkan produk dengan kualitas tinggi. Membran berstruktur nano, khususnya nanofiber, saat ini menjadi perhatian karena menjawab kebutuhan teknologi filtrasi yang efektif dan hemat biaya. Pr...

  20. Study of the behaviour of some heavy elements in solvents containing hydrogen fluoride; Etude du comportement de quelques elements lourds dans des solvants a base d'acide fluorhydrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnero, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    The anhydrous liquid mixtures: dinitrogen tetroxide-hydrogen fluoride and antimony pentafluoride-hydrogen fluoride were studied as solvents for heavy elements interesting nuclear energy: uranium, thorium, zirconium and for some of their compounds. For N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures, electric conductivity measurements and liquid phase infrared spectra were also obtained. Uranium and zirconium tetrafluoride are much more soluble in N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF mixtures than in pure hydrogen fluoride. Uranium dissolved in these mixtures is pentavalent. In SbF{sub 5}-HF mixtures, uranium dissolves with hydrogen evolution and becomes trivalent. The solid compound resulting from the dissolution is a fluoro-antimonate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (author) [French] On a etudie les melanges liquides anhydres: peroxyde d'azote-acide fluorhydrique et pentafluorure d'antimoine-acide fluorhydrique comme solvants d'elements lourds interessant l'energie nucleaire: uranium, thorium, zirconium et de quelques uns de leurs composes. Pour les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF on a egalement effectue des mesures de conductivite electrique, ainsi que des spectres d'absorption infrarouge en phase liquide. Le tetrafluorure d'uranium et le tetrafluorure de zirconium sont beaucoup plus solubles dans les melanges N{sub 2}O{sub 4}-HF que dans l'acide fluorhydrique. L'uranium dissous dans ces melanges est a l'etat pentavalent. Dans les melanges SbF{sub 5}-HF l'uranium se dissout avec degagement d'hydrogene et passe a l'etat trivalent. Le compose solide resultant de la dissolution est un fluoantimoniate: U(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3}. (auteur)

  1. DETEKSI DAN MANAJEMEN REFEEDING SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi Darmadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakRefeeding syndrome (RFS dideskripsikan sebagai perubahan biokimiawi, manifestasi klinis dan komplikasi sebagai konsekuensi pemberian nutrisi pada pasien kurang gizi. Refeeding syndrome ini menyebabkan dampak buruk dan kematian. Sindroma ini lebih sering terjadi pada kelompok risiko. Refeeding syndrome merupakan suatu sindroma yang sering tak terdiagnosis oleh karena itu perlu peningkatan pengetahuan dan kesadaran dari tenaga medis untuk mengurangi morbiditas dan mortalitas dari RFS. Karena alasan tersebut ditulis tinjauan pustaka ini yang akan membahas mengenai patofisiologi, faktor risiko, manifestasi klinis, dan manajemennya.Kata kunci : refeeding syndrome, kurang gizi, hipofosfatemia, dukungan nutrisiAbstractRefeeding syndrome (RFS describel as biochemical changes, clinical manifestations, and complications that can occur as a consequence of feeding a malnourished individual. RFS can result in serious harm and death. RFS more commonly occurs in at-risk populations. Increased awareness amongst healthcare professionals is likely to reduce morbidity and mortality. This review examines the pathophysiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of RFS.Key word : refeeding syndrome, malnourished, hypophosphatemia, nutritional support

  2. Islam, Media, dan Politik : Sebuah Perdebatan dan Kontempelasi Nilai Berdemokrasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idil Akbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infact, press or media is one of pilar democracy. Media in democracy is a public sphere to communi-cation and makes relation, and a same time as public arena to gain information. But, media also could not release from streotypes and tendency that usually bring of interest, either the owner or ideology. It is meaning media can not released from perspective distorsion, values bias and take a side. Media also effective to become propaganda instrument for a political interest and an ideology. It is seen like how media in US, for example, stereotype of Islam in discourses contradiction and glob-al interest opposition. Then, Islam dominantly identified as doctrine teaches radicalism, fundamen-talism and terorism. Thus, it is often be justification for US to operate the military mission in the name of democracy. Tak dipungkiri pers atau media menjadi salah satu pilar bagi demokrasi. Media dalam demokrasi adalah sebagai ruang bagi publik berkomunikasi dan berinteraksi, sekaligus sarana publik mem-peroleh informasi tentang banyak hal. Namun, media juga tak bisa dilepaskan dari stereotip dan kecenderungan-kecenderungan, yang biasanya membawa kepentingan, baik pemilik maupun ide-ologi. Media karenanya tak lepas dari distorsi perspektif, bias nilai dan berpihak. Media juga efektif menjadi alat propaganda bagi sebuah kepentingan politik dan ideologi, seperti bagaimana media di negara Amerika, misalnya, menstereotipkan Islam dalam analisis pertentangan wacana dan kepent-ingan global. Sehingga, dominan Islam diidentikkan dengan sematan sebagai ajaran yang mengajarkan radikalisme, fundamentalisme dan terorisme. Karenanya pula seringkali menjadi alasan pembenar bagi Amerika untuk menjalankan misi militer atas nama demokrasi.

  3. Musisi Sekuler dan Gerejawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Cristovel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Menjadi seorang musisi tidak sekedar bermain musik atau menyanyi saja. Ada jenjang-jenjang yang akan dilewatidalam dunia musik, yang pada akhirnya setiap musisi dihadapkan kepada tanggung jawab dalam dunia tersebut. Di jaman ini, jika jenjang seorang musisi sudah tahap profesional, maka musik dan bisnis merupakan hal yang tidak terpisahkan. Jadi tidak heran jika ada banyak orang yang memimpikan untuk berkarier dalam bidang musik, bahkan telah men1adicita-cita sejak kecil.Jadi penting bagi musisi gerejawi benar-benar "mengkotakkan dirinya" terhadap persepsi yang dianut oleh musisi sekuler, bukan mencampurkannya. Hal ini sangat esensial, karena musisi gerejawi bukan melayani manusia melainkan oleh anugerah Tuhan dipercayakan pekerjaan ini. Dengan demikian pelayanan sebagai musisi gerejawi tidak tercemar oleh persepsi dari dunia musik sekuler. Selain itu musisi gerejawi dapat merefleksikan Tuhan yang disembahnya kepada dunia sekuler, karena tujuan dari semua yang dilakukannya adalah untuk kemuliaan nama Tuhan.

  4. Optimalisasi Pengelolaan dan Pemanfaatan Aset Tanah dan Bangunan Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (PTN yang Melaksanakan Pengelolaan Keuangan Badan Layanan Umum (PK BLU0 dalam Rangka Meningkatkan Pelayanan Pendidikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Kania Sugiharti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Perguruan Tinggi Negeri Pengelolaan Keuangan Badan Layanan Umum (PTN-PK BLU merupakan instansi pemerintah yang diberi kewenangan untuk melakukan pengelolaan keuangan badan layanan umum, dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan pelayanan bidang pendidikan kepada masyarakat dalam rangka mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa. Fleksibilitas dalam pengelolaan keuangan PTNPKBLU berdasarkan prinsip ekonomi dan produktivitas, serta penerapan praktik bisnis yang sehat. Berdasarkan PP Nomor 23 Tahun 2005 dan PP Nomor 6 Tahun 2006 sebagaimana telah diubah dengan PP Nomor 38 Tahun 2008, fleksibilitas tersebut hanya berlaku dalam pengelolaan keuangan. Tanah dan bangunan yang berada dalam penguasaan PTNPKBLU, wajib dipergunakan sesuai dengan tugas pokok dan fungsi PTNPKBLU tersebut. Secara normatif, tidak ada ketentuan yang memberikan wewenang kepada kuasa pengguna barang untuk memanfaatkannya untuk tujuan lain. Aturan memberi peluang untuk mendayagunakan barang milik negara yang tidak dipergunakan sesuai dengan tugas pokok dan fungsi, yaitu dalam bentuk sewa, pinjam pakai, kerja sama pemanfaatan, dan bangun serah guna/bangun guna serah dengan tidak mengubah status kepemilikan, namun pemanfaatan tersebut hanya dapat dilakukan oleh pengelola barang, bukan oleh kuasa pengguna barang. Dalam hal ini, kuasa pengguna barang milik negara hanya berwenang dan bertanggung jawab untuk menyerahkan tanah dan/atau bangunan yang tidak dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan penyelenggaraan tugas pokok dan fungsi kantor yang dipimpinnya tersebut, kepada pengguna barang. Abstract State University implementing PK BLU is a government agency with the right to use Pengelolaan Keuangan Badan Layanan Umum (PK BLU to better increase educational service in order to improve the intellectual life of the people of Indonesia. Flexibility in a State University implementing PK BLU has to be based on economic principles, productivity, and fairness. Based on Government Regulation 23/2005 and Government

  5. PENDEKATAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING DENGAN STRATEGI GAMES COMPETITION SEBAGAI UPAYA MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka jaya puta utama

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Masalah dalam penelitian ini adalah bagaimana penggunaan pendekatan Cooperative Learning dengan Strategi  Games Competition dapat meningkatkan aktivitas belajar siswa pada Mata Pelajaran IPS Terpadu Materi Sejarah kelas VIII SMP Negeri 2 Sungai Raya?. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian tindakan kelas.  Subyek dalam Penelitian Tindakan Kelas ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 2 Sungai Raya tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Alat pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah angket, panduan observasi, panduan wawancara, dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data dalam penellitian ini adalah Analisis hasil penelitian digambarkan dengan cara menggunakan triangulasi data. Indikator keberhasilan didasarkan dari kisi-kisi pengamatan aktivitas siswa yang meliputi :1 semangat siswa untuk mengikuti pembelajaran, 2 keaktifan dalam  menyelesaikan tugas  membuat pertanyaan dan jawaban, 3 keaktifan dalam menjawab pertanyaan, 4 keaktifan dalam menanggapi atas pertanyaan dari kelompok lain, 5 kerjasama dalam kelompok dalam menyelesaikan tugas berkompetisi dengan kelompok lain.Kesimpulan penelitian bahwa Pembelajaran IPS menggunakan pendekatan cooperative learning dengan strategi Games Competition dapat meningkatkan aktivitas belajar siswa kela VIII SMP Negeri 2 Sungai Raya, yaitu peningkatan aktifitas belajar siswa secara klasikal yaitu pada siklus I sebesar 65 % dan pada Siklus II sebesar 85 %, hal ini berarti ada peningkatan sebesar 20%. Pembelajaran dengan menggunakan pendekatan cooperative learning dengan strategi Games Competition dapat memberikan kesempatan kepada siswa untuk aktif dalam mengungkapkan pendapat, menghargai pendapat orang lain,berani bertanya, menanggapi, belajar berkompetisi secara jujur, serta mampu menumbuhkan rasa solidaritas siswa.

  6. ANALISIS KINERJA PKPRI PADA ASPEK KERJASAMA ANTAR KPRI DAN PADA ASPEK KEPEDULIAN TERHADAP KOMUNITAS KPRI DI KABUPATEN PEMALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandha Norendra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisis kinerja pada� PKPRI masih menggunakan cara lama yaitu hanya menggunakan penilaian keuangan dengan menggunakan analisis rasio keuangan rentabilitas, likuiditas, dan solvabilitas. Bukannya dengan menggunakan pedoman dari kepmen no 129 tahun 2002 yang dikeluarkan oleh menteri koperasi dan UKM. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan mendeskripsikan kinerja pada PKPRI pada aspek kerjasama antar KPRI dan pada aspek kepedulian terhadap komunitas KPRI di Kabupaten Pemalang. Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus pada PKPRI dan KPRI di Kabupaten Pemalang. Pendekatan penelitian yang akan� digunakan dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah metode penelitian deskriptif� kuantitatif yaitu apabila datanya telah terkumpul,� kemudian diklasifikasikan menjadi dua kelompok data, yaitu data kuantitatif yang berbentuk angka-angka dan data kualitatif yang menyatakan dalam kata-kata atau simbol-simbol (Suharsimi, 2006: 239. Hasil dalam penelitian ini adalah kerjasama antar KPRI dikategorikan baik, kepedulian terhadap komunitas KPRI juga dikategorikan baik. � Analysis of the performance of the PKPRI still use the old way is just using financial valuation using financial ratio analysis of profitability, liquidity and solvency. Instead of using the guidelines of the Decree No. 129 of 2002 issued by the minister of cooperatives and SMEs. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the performance of the PKPRI KPRI aspects of cooperation and concern for the community aspect KPRI in Pemalang. This research is a case study on PKPRI and KPRI in Pemalang. The research approach will be used in writing this thesis is descriptive quantitative research method is if the data has been collected and then classified into two groups of data, the quantitative data in the form of figures and qualitative data are expressed in words or symbols (Suharsimi , 2006: 239. The results of this study are categorized KPRI good cooperation, concern for the

  7. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core; Recuperation de l'energie degagee dans G 1 pile a graphite refroidie a l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambadal, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Pascal, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [French] Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)

  8. Systematic study of the use of electrical fields for improving heat exchange in boiling liquids; Etude systematique de l'utilisation de champs electriques pour l'amelioration des echanges thermiques dans des liquides bouillants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochirol, L; Bonjour, E; Lagnier, R; Verdier, J; Weil, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    We have studied, at the boiling point, for liquids with various electrical properties (hexane, benzene, trichloroethylene, demineralized water, acetone, methyl-ethyl-ketone, etc...) the effect of the application of electric fields on the exchange coefficients and on the maximum dissipative powers before calefaction. We have given the mechanism of the significant improvements obtained (multiplication by a factor of 2 to 10): - in the natural convection zone by showing the role played by the dielectric properties of the liquids under study; - in the zone of nuclear boiling by analysis of the forces acting on the boiling nuclei. Finally we give some experimental results concerning measurements made under pressure until local boiling occurred: they show the possibility of some interesting applications of the method. (author) [French] On a etudie, a l'ebullition, sur des liquides de caracteristiques electriques diverses (hexane, benzene, trichlorethylene, eau demineralisee, acetone, methylethylcetone, etc...) les effets de l'application de champs electriques sur les coefficients d'echanges et les puissances maximales dissipables avant calefaction. On a precise le mecanisme des ameliorations importantes obtenues (multiplication par un facteur 2 a 10): - dans la zone de convection naturelle en mettant en evidence le role des caracteristiques dielectriques des liquides etudies; - dans la zone d'ebullition nucleaire par analyse des forces mises en jeu sur les noyaux d'ebullition. On donne enfin des resultats experimentaux sur des mesures effectuees sous pression jusqu'a l'ebullition locale: ils illustrent des possibilites d'applications interessantes du procede. (auteur)

  9. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  10. PENGELOLAAN ZAKAT OLEH NEGARA DAN SWASTA Studi Efektifitas dan Efisiensi Pengelolaan Zakat Oleh BAZ Dan LAZ Kota Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik Abidah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstraks: Keberadaan lembaga zakat di Indonesia yang diakui oleh perundang-undangan ada dua, yaitu Badan Amil Zakat (BAZ dan Lembaga Amil Zakat (LAZ. BAZ adalah lembaga zakat yang dikelola oleh pemerintah, sedangkan LAZ adalah lembaga yang dikelola oleh masyarakat. Artikel ini merupakan merupakan hasil penelitian lapangan dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Data digali langsung dari BAZ Kota Madiun dan LAZ dalam hal ini ada 2 lembaga, yaitu Lembaga Manajemen Infaq (LMI dan Baitul Maal Hidayatullah (BMH. Hasil penelitian BAZ lebih efektif dibanding LAZ, karena BAZ di bawah naungan Pemerintah Kota Madiun dan didukung dengan kebijakan dalam menjalankan progam kerjanya. Sedangkan pada LAZ (LMI dan BMH karena sifatnya mandiri, maka segala sesuatunya akan efektif jika mereka bekerja keras, dan itulah yang selama ini dilakukan oleh LMI dan BMH, sehingga sampai saat ini mereka masih eksis.

  11. INTERAKSI DAN HARMONI UMAT BERAGAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Tri Haryanto

    2012-05-01

    Masyarakat Singkawang adalah masyarakat yang terdiri atas berbagai kelompok suku bangsa dan agama. Secara historis, masyarakat Singkawang mampu mem­pertahankan harmoni antar agama. Model interaksi sosial yang bersifat asosiatif tampaknya potensial untuk mendukung harmoni di dalam masyarakat. Ber­dasarkan paradigma fungsional-struktural, masyarakat diasumsikan sebagai sistem organik yang memiliki huungan antar bagiannya untuk mempertahankan masyarakat. Interaksi sosial di dalam masyarakat Singkawang dikembangkan melalui interaksi di dalam lingkup keluarga, lingkungan sekitar, aktifitas ekonomi, para pimpinan agama, dan hubungan di dalam lingkup budaya dan tradisi. Meskipun demikian, hubungan antar unsur masyarakat masih kosmopolitan, yang di dalamnya anggota masyarakat kurang aktif dalam mengembangkan harmoni masyarakat.

  12. AKULTURASI BUDAYA ISLAM DAN JAWA: Ruang Komunal pada Budaya Nyadran Dukuh Krajan, Desa Kromengan, Kabupaten Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Javanese and Islamic acculturations adhere to the people living at Dukuh Krajan. Javanese social and cultural aspects affect the spirit of Islamic activities. This is obvious by the use of Javanese/Islamic calendar system in every ritual. Yet, the high value of togetherness and communality is decreasing. This change will result in abandoning culture and growing social problem. It also influences the change of common space in the neighborhood. Therefore, it needs exploration on communal space established through Nyadran ritual. The purpose is to maintain the existence of the communal space as well as to develop togetherness and communality for the next generation. The study employs qualitative design with rationalistic approach. The data were collected through observation and interview. The communal space is formed by the activity, the physical area, the doers and the ritual time. The use of communal space in Nyadran ritual reflects togetherness and mutual cooperation value established as the result of the sense of care and the social awareness to share spaces for public interest.Akulturasi budaya Islam dan Jawa masih melekat pada kehidupan masyarakat Dukuh Krajan. Kegiatan Islam suasananya dipengaruhi oleh aspek budaya dan sosial Jawa. Tergambar jelas pada pemakaian kalender Jawa/Islam pada setiap kegiatan budaya. Namun, nilai-nilai kebersamaan dan kegotongroyangan dalam kegiatan sosial budaya saat ini semakin berkurang. Perubahan ini akan berpengaruh terhadap beberapa budaya setempat yang tersisihkan, dan masalah-masalah sosial yang mulai berkembang. Dampaknya akan berpengaruh juga terhadap perubahan ruang-ruang komunal di lingkungan pedesaan. Untuk itu perlu diteliti lebih detail tentang ruang komunal yang terbentuk, khususnya pada runtutan kegiatan budaya nyadran. Tujuannya agar ruang komunal yang terbentuk pada tradisi nyadran eksistensinya tetap ada dan terjaga dengan baik serta dapat bermanfaat dalam menumbuhkan dan mengembangkan rasa

  13. Pengaruh Pendekatan Cooperative Learning Tipe (TPS Think, Pair, and Share Terhadap Hasil Belajar PKn di Sekolah Dasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Puteri Ramadhani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share terhadap hasil belajar PKn pada siswa kelas V sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di SDN Kebon Baru 10 Pagi dengan sampel penelitian siswa kelas V pada semester II tahun pelajaran 2016-2017. Sampel penelitian menggunakan teknik Simple Random Sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen. Adapun teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan lembar tes yang dilakukan setelah materi pembelajaran diberikan lembar tes untuk mengetahui hasil belajar PKn siswa, yang sebelumnya telah dilakukan pengujian validitas dan reliabilitas dengan justifikasi ahli dan dianalisis dengan uji normalitas dan uji homogenitas baik kelas kontrol maupun kelas eksperimen. Hasil pengujian normalitas menunjukan bahwa kedua kelas berdistribusi normal. Hasil pengujian homogenitas menunjukan bahwa kedua kelas tersebut homogen. Setelah dilakukan uji persyaratan analisis, maka dilakukan uji hipotesis dengan perhitungan uji-t. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan uji-t maka hipotesis nol (Ho ditolak dan hipotesis kerja (H1 diterima. Dari perhitungan tersebut maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share berpengaruh signifikan terhadap hasil belajar PKn pada siswa kelas V sekolah dasar. Implikasi hasil penelitian ini adalah penggunaan pendekatan cooperative learning tipe think, pair, and share pada pembelajaran PKn dapat  diterapkan guru agar dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa.

  14. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  15. ETIKA BISNIS AL-GHAZALI DAN ADAM SMITH DALAM PERSPEKTIF ILMU BISNIS DAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM. M. Hafidz MS.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeksplorasi: (1 pembangunan etika bisnis yang telah dirumuskan oleh al-Ghazali dan Adam Smith, (2 persamaan dan perbedaan antara dua etika bisnis pria, dan (3 relevansi bisnis mereka etika bisnis modern dunia dan ekonomi. Bisnis etika dibangun oleh al-Ghazali dan Smith di dataran praksis tidak jauh berbeda. Etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh al-Ghazali didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip seperti orientasi itikad baik tentang dunia dan akhirat, kejujuran, kepentingan pribadi dan social keseimbangan, dan perilaku / perbuatan yang tepat. Di sisi lain, etika bisnis konstruksi dibangun oleh Smith, berdasarkan keadilan, altruisme, keadilan dan liberal (kebebasan ekonomi. Baik etika bisnis yang diperkenalkan oleh kedua sangat relevan untuk menjadi digunakan sebagai bahan pokok acuan dalam etika bisnis modern.

  16. Pengembangan Sistem Otomatisasi AC dan Lampu Menggunakan Fuzzy dan Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Ariyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Otomatisasi AC dan lampu dilakukan untuk menghemat energi yang digunakan pada kehidupan sehari-hari. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu perlu menerapkan sebuah perangkat yang memiliki fungsi maksimal dengan harga yang minimal. Raspberry Pi merupakan perangkat atau modul dengan harga rendah yang mampu melakukan komunikasi wireless tanpa bantuan modul lain. Dalam pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu juga diperlukan sebuah metode yang mampu melakukan kontrol terhadap nyala AC dan lampu. Penerapan metode fuzzy dapat dilakukan untuk menghimpun informasi keadaan ruang yang didapat dari sensor untuk menentukan nyala AC dan lampu secara otomatis. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini mengusulkan pengembangan otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi dan Fuzzy. Otomatisasi AC dan lampu menggunakan Raspberry Pi yang menerapkan metode Fuzzy dapat menghemat energi hingga 59,87% dalam hal lama waktu nyala AC dan 57,47% untuk lumenasi lampu

  17. Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway di Petshop "PetZone"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Fadhilah Wati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dewasa ini teknologi informasi sangat membantu dalam dunia bisnis. Kemudahan yang ditawarkan akan menjaring lebih banyak konsumen. Namun, perusahan tingkat menengah seperti PetZone saat ini masih jarang yang menawarkan kemudahan berbelanja atau pemesanan layanan secara online. Oleh karena itu diperlukan sebuah sistem berbasis web di perusahaan PetZone yang dapat memudahkan pemilik dan karyawan dalam apenjualan, pelayanan, dan pemasaran, serta memudahkan pelanggan dalam jual-beli barang dan jasa. Atas dasar masalah tersebut dibangun Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway untuk menunjang proses bisnis yang ada. Sistem informasi dibangun menggunakan bahasa pemrograman PHP framework Codeigniter, javascript untuk tampilan yang dinamis, dan database MySQL. Proses pembuatan dan pengembangan Sistem Informasi Penjualan ini menggunakan metode air terjun. Metode air terjun meliputi kebutuhan pengguna, analisis, rancangan, implementasi dan pengujian. Pemodelan Sistem Informasi yang dibangun menggunakan metode berorientasi objek UML (Unified Modeling Language yang terdiri dari Use case  diagram, Class diagram dan Sequence diagram. Hasil pengujian Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway menunjukkan bahwa semua fitur yang terdapat baik dalam sistem informasi maupun SMS gateway dapat bekerja dengan baikdengan ratusan sample data, dan server SMS gateway dapat memproses lebih dari satu SMS secara bersamaan. Dalam perkembangan ke depannya nanti, Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Layanan Berbasis Web dan SMS Gateway masih dapat dikembangkan lagi dengan menambah fitur-fitur pada SMS gateway sehingga lebih memudahkan konsumen.

  18. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHERS WITH LIBRARIAN SERVICE OF IN HIKMAH TELADAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selly Setiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Perpustakaan merupakan bagian integral dilingkungan sekolah, oleh karena itu perlu adanya kerjasama dalam memaksimalkan potensi layanan perpustakaan sekolah. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menemukan jawaban dari rumusan kerjasama antara guru dengan pustakawan dalam layanan perpustakaan sekolah di Perpustakaan SD Hikmah Teladan. Selain dari itu untuk mengetahui bentuk kerjasama dalam layanan perpustakaan sekolah dan untuk mengetahui kriteria layanan perpustakaan sekolah. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan metode deskriptif. Teknik yang digunakan untuk pengambilan sampel yaitu teknik purposive sampling. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara, observasi dan studi dokumentasi. Teknik pengolahan data dilakukan dengan cara reduksi data, analisis data dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa terdapat kerjasama antara guru dengan pustakawan dalam layanan perpustakaan sekolah. kerjasama penting untuk dilakukan guna mengoptimalkan potensi layanan perpustakaan sekolah. kerjasama yang dilakukan yaitu dalam bentuk pelaksanaan program kegiatan perpustakaan, pembinaan minat baca, promosi perpustakaan dan pembinaan koleksi. Perpustakaan SD Hikmah Teladan sebagai perpustakaan sekolah perlu melakukan kerjasama dengan berbagai pihak secara terus menerus dalam layanan perpustakaan sekolah. Kata kunci: kerjasama guru dengan pustakawan, layanan perpustakaan, pustakawan sekolah Abstract. The library is an integral part of the school environment, therefore the need for cooperation in maximizing the potential of school library services. This research is done to find the answer from the formula of cooperation between teachers and librarians in the school library services in elementary school libraries Hikmah Teladan. Aside from that to determine the form of cooperation in the school library services and to determine the criteria for school library services, theoretically and practically expected results of

  19. Efikasi Kendiri: Perbandingan Antara Islam dan Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noornajihan, J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Terminologi efikasi kendiri (EK merupakan terminologi yang diperkenalkan dalam ilmu psikologi sekitar tahun 70-an. Namun, istilah ini masih kurang difahami oleh kebanyakan individu terutama mereka yang bukan berlatar belakangkan bidang psikologi. Oleh itu, satu keperluan hasil penulisan ini diketengahkan, memandangkan konsep ini penting dalam diri setiap individu bagi memacu kecemerlangan diri. Justeru, kertas kerja ini akan mengupas serba ringkas mengenai konsep EK dari perspektif Islam dan Barat, dengan melihat kepada beberapa titik persamaan dan perbezaan antara kedua-dua pandangan. Islam dan Barat bersetuju bahawa individu yang memiliki EK yang tinggi merupakan individu yang berfikiran positif, berani mengambil risiko dan tidak mudah berputus. Namun pandangan Islam terhadap konsep ini lebih luas, kerana Islam mengaitkan konsep ini dengan konsep tauhid uluhiyyah dan konsep manusia sebagai ahsan al-taqwim. Oleh demikian, EK dari perspektif Islam lebih bersifat kekal dan umum, di samping individu yang berefikasi tinggi menurut Islam ialah individu yang memiliki sifat sabar, syukur, redha dan redha.

  20. PERANCANGAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN PROTOTYPE SISTEM PARKIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Ayu Septriyaningrum

    2016-10-01

    Abstrak  Sistem parkir manual pada pelayanan parkir mall memerlukan pengelolaan dan pengembangan sistem yang lebih rumit dan jauh dari kata efisien. Informasi yang didapatkan pengelola parkir terkait kondisi parkir di lapangan setiap harinya masih kurang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah merancang dan mengembangkan prototype sistem parkir. Metode pengembangan dan perancangan sistem pada penelitian ini adalah metode Waterfall. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah sistem ini dapat mendeteksi keberadaan mobil pada slot parkir yang tersedia dengan bantuan Intel Galileo Board Gen 2 sebagai kontroler, sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor dan sensor ultrasonik (PING sebagai alat bantu pendeteksi keberadaan mobil. Sistem dapat menampilkan aktifitas parkir pada aplikasi web seperti kondisi lahan parkir kosong, lahan terisi, waktu masuk, waktu keluar, lama parkir dan kapasitas parkir yang tersedia serta grafik pemakaian lahan parkir. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa perancangan dan pengembangan sistem berhasil diimplementasikan. Kata Kunci : Sistem parkir, waterfall, Intel Galileo Board Gen 2,sensor LDR (Light Dependent Resistor, sensor ultrasonik

  1. Financial problems and cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, J.

    1994-12-31

    For a Bank, an usual way to attract new clients is by offering better interest rates depending on the amount of money that the client deposits in an account: {open_quotes}The more money you have the higher interest rate you get{close_quotes}. For a company is also a common practice to offer their clients discounts connected with the number of units of the product they order: {open_quotes}The more you order, the lower price per unit you pay{close_quotes}. From these situations arises the possibility to take profit if the clients cooperate and join their money or their orders. Hence, we define a new class of cooperative games called Financial Games. We study basic properties and necessary conditions for a game to belong to this class of games and we define the concept of duality for Financial games. The core is always non-empty and, moreover, Financial games are always totally balanced. We look at some special amputations lying in the Core and we study the reduced game on the j{sup th} player at {rvec x} where x{sub j} = b{sub j} = v(N) {minus} v(N {minus} j).

  2. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  3. Optimal sizes and siting of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants; Tailles et localisations optimales des usines de retraitement des combustibles nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiriet, L; Deledicq, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Siege (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The expansion of a nuclear economy entails the development of fuel process and reprocessing plant programmes. The model proposed makes it possible to select the size, the site and the start-up schedule of the plants in such a way as to minimize the total freight and reprocessing costs. As an illustration, we have approached the problem of burnt natural uranium processing plants related to natural uranium-graphite as nuclear power stations. The sites and annual output of the reactors, the possible plant sites and cost functions (freight and reprocessing) are supposed to be known. The method consists in first approaching the process plant problem as a Dynamic Programming problem, increasing programme slices (total reactor output) being explored sequentially. When the quantities of burnt natural uranium to be reprocessed are fixed, the minimization of the transport cost is then also carried out as a dynamic programming problem. The neighbourhood of the optimum process cost is explored in order to find the minimum summation of a suboptimal processing cost and corresponding optimal transport cost. As the reprocessing problem can be represented on a sequential graph, in order to compute the sub-optima, we developed and used a 'reflexion algorithm'. The method can be interpreted as a general mechanism for determining the optimum when to a sequential dynamic problem (for example an equipment programme) is added a complementary problem (transport, for instance). It also makes it possible to estimate the economic losses which result from the choice of a non optimal policy for other than economic reasons. (author) [French] L'expansion de l'economie nucleaire se traduit par un developpement des programmes d'usines d'elaboration et de retraitement des combustibles. Le modele propose permet de choisir la taille, la localisation et la cadence de mise en service des usines de maniere a minimiser le total des frais de transport et de retraitement. A titre d'exemple nous avons

  4. Use of Neutron Irradiations in the Brookhaven Mutations Programme; Irradiation Neutronique dans le Cadre du Programme de Mutations Radioinduites de Brookhaven; Primenenie nejtronnogo izlucheniya v brukkhejvenskoj programme po ispol'zovaniyu mutatsij; La Irradiacion Neutronica en el Marco del Programa de Mutaciones Radioinducidas de Brookhaven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miksche, J. P.; Shapiro, S. [Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1964-03-15

    The Co-operative Radiation-Mutations Programme was established at Brookhaven National Laboratory approximately ten years ago to enable plant breeders and agriculturalists to make use of irradiation techniques in plant improvement programmes. The radiation facilities used in the programme are the thermal neutron column at the BGRR reactor, the 250-kVp X-ray machine in the Biology Department, the kilocurie gamma-sources in the Nuclear Engineering Department, a 12 c Co{sup 60} gamma-source in the greenhouse, and a 4000 c Co{sup 60} source located in a 13-acre field. The development of facilities, techniques, and theory represent Brookhaven's role in this cooperative project whereas the plant material and seed are provided by agricultural experts who are responsible for growing the irradiated material and screening for mutations. More than 150 scientists in 45 states and Puerto Rico are availing themselves of the programme's facilities. Projects have also initiated with Australia, Belgium, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, Formosa, Greece, Guatemala, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, the Netherlands, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Romania, South Africa.Thailand, Venezuela, West Germany and Yugoslavia. A review of the above cc-operative projects is presented with emphasis on the use of neutrons in mutation induction. (author) [French] Le programme commun de mutations radioinduites a ete mis en oeuvre, il y a une dizaine d'annees, au Laboratoire national de Brookhaven pour permettre aux phytogeneticiens et aux agronomes d'ameliorer les cultures a l 'aide des rayonnements. Les installations utilisees dans le cadre de ce programme sont les suivantes: colonne thermique du reacteur BGRR, appareil a rayons X de 250 kV-crete du Departement de biologie, sources de rayons gamma de 1000 c du Departement du genie nucleaire, source au {sup 60}Co de 12 c dans la serre et source au {sup 60}Co de 4000 c dans un champ experimental de 5 ha. Le role du Laboratoire de

  5. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  6. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  7. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  8. Efektivitas Weblog dan Facebook Terintegrasi untuk Pembelajaran Virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak: Saat ini, banyak mahasiswa menghabiskan waktu mereka di internet. Mereka melakukan kegiatan seperti membuat blog, mengunduh, mengunggah, chatting, dan berinteraksi melalui facebook. Mahasiswa sekarang ini hidup dengan teknologi. Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa weblog dan facebook berpotensi mendukung belajar dan mengajar. Guru dan pendidik menggunakan kegiatan tersebut untuk meningkatkan kualitas belajar. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas weblog dan facebook ketika d...

  9. The Why and How of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry; Dosimetrie en cas d'Accident Nucleaire: Raison d'Etre et Modalites; 041e 0411 041e 0421 041d 041e 0412 0414 ; Dosimetria en Casos de Accidente Nuclear: Justificacion y Modalidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E. J.; Wasson, H. R. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1965-06-15

    The objective of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme is to ensure that a means is provided for estimating the gamma neutron dose from a nuclear accident. In this connection, the limitation of the film badge is discussed, in addition to certain accident experiences which demonstrate the need for an effective accident dosimetry programme at facilities having a potential for nuclear accidents. Certain basic parameters should be considered in the development of an effective nuclear accident dosimetry programme. These are (a) a method for screening personnel involved in nuclear accidents, (b) a fixed system (primary unit) capable of determining first collision dose within some established degree of accuracy at its point of location, (c) the need for ''secondary units'', and (d) the need for a device worn by personnel which would afford spectrum and flux information to assist in dose extrapolation from the fixed unit to the location of man. The neutron component of the system should permit flux and spectral information in order to arrive at appropriate quality factors in the dose estimation. Accuracies should be established based upon the current state of the art. The gamma -ray component of the system should permit measuring gamma radiation within the biological area of interest, i. e. from 10 to 10{sup 3}r. Consideration for the number, placement and ease of recovery of accident units are indeed an integral part of an effective system of accident dosimetry. These considerations should enable reasonable data collection across the entire fission spectrum. (author) [French] L'objet d'un programme efficace de dosimetrie en cas d'accident nucleaire est d'evaluer la dose de rayons gamma et de neutrons emise lors d'un acccident nucleaire. Le memoire examine les limitations des dosimetres a film et expose les circonstances accompagnant certains accidents, lesquelles demontrent la necessite de prevoir un programme efficace de dosimetrie dans les installations ou

  10. Spectral content of seismic movements produced by underground nuclear explosions; Contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albaret, A; Duclaux, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    After a summary of available data, both theoretical and experimental, concerning the spectral content of seismic movements, a description is given of the experiments carried out during the French nuclear explosions in the Sahara, and of the results obtained on the volume waves. A comparison is then made with certain American results. A new method is described for studying the amplitude spectra; it has made it possible to show that the amount of low frequencies in the spectrum increases with the power of the explosion, and decreases with the distance to the zero point and with the filtering effect of the weathered zone. A calculation is then made of the low cut-off ground filter, this giving a better representation of the initial seismic phenomenon. (authors) [French] Apres avoir resume les connaissances disponibles, aussi bien theoriques qu'experimentales, sur le contenu spectral des mouvements seismiques, on decrit les experiences effectuees a l'occasion des explosions nucleaires francaises du Sahara et les resultats obtenus sur les ondes de volume. Puis on les compare avec certains resultats americains. On decrit une nouvelle methode d'etude des spectres d'amplitudes qui montre que le spectre est d'autant plus riche en basses frequences que la puissance de l'explosion est grande, que la distance au point zero est faible et qu'il est moins filtre par la zone alteree superficielle. Puis on calcule le filtre terrain coupe-bas qui permet de donner une representation plus fidele du phenomene seismique initial. (auteurs)

  11. The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant; La centrais nucleaire Enrico Fermi; Atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya im Ehnriko Fermi.; La central nucleoelectrica Enrico Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, R. W. [Power Reactor Development Company, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1963-10-15

    sodium-water reaction took place in the No. 1 steam generator. The rupture disc, which was installed for such an eventuality, operated correctly. The cause and effect of this failure is currently being investigated. Completion of pre-operational testing. Anticipating the issuance of a low power licence, the final assembly and test programme is being completed in March. (author) [French] La construction de la centrale nucleaire Enrico Fermi, equipee d'un reacteur surgenerateur a neutrons rapides de 100 MWe, a ete virtuellement terminee en decembre 1961. Au cours des derniers 18 mois, on a minutieusement verifie les circuits et les parties constitutives. Ce programme de verifications avant la mise en service a ete tres utile pour verifier les plans et determiner les modifications a y apporter. Tous les problemes ont pu etre resolus. Voici la liste des principales modifications: Bouclier de graphite. En decembre 1960, on a rempli le circuit primaire de sodium liquide et on a procede a des essais tres pousses. Lorsqu'on a rouvert l'enceinte de protection primaire, apres les essais a 540{sup o}C, on a constate que la plus grande partie des blocs de graphite entourant le reacteur s'etait deterioree. Ces blocs, destines a supporter de hautes temperatures, etaient impregnes de bore; ils s'etaient dilates et avaient perdu leur resistance. Une analyse approfondie a montre que le liant du graphite avait cede. On a decide de remplacer tout le graphite, d'utiliser du carbure de bore a la place du bore, d'assujettir les blocs par des dispositifs mecaniques et de maintenir l'humidite a la valeur minimum. Modifications a l'interieur du caisson du reacteur. On a procede a des reparations et modifications pour supprimer la cause du collage des barreaux et les dommages qui en resultaient, et pour prevenir d'autres defaillances du mecanisme de manutention des cartouches. Pour ce faire, on a du retirer le mecanisme de manutention et vider le caisson contenant le sodium. Des specialistes

  12. Radiopharmaceutical projects of CNESTEN (Centre National de l'Energie, des Sciences et des Techniques Nucleaires)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear medicine, the prescriptions of isotopic investigations are increasing because they can provide early information about morphological anomalies and permit,so to avoid long and onerous treatments. Until now, Morocco imports the radiopharmaceuticals in spite of the difficulties related to administrative procedures. To facilitate these procedures CNESTEN has launched a project which involves the following activities: - Import and distribution of needed radiopharmaceuticals; - development and production of new radiopharmaceutical kits in cooperation with scientific partners. Priority is given to the most prescribed radiopharmaceuticals. Many kits have been produced with manufacturing protocol modifications aiming to improve and optimize the production processes. The quality of the obtained products is tested and their biodistribution kinetics are studied. (F.M.)

  13. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  14. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  15. Lõuka tuuliku restaureerimine / Dan Lukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lukas, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Hiiumaal Pühalepa vallas Vahtrepa külas Lõuka talu maadel asuva pukktuuliku ajaloost, restaureerimise käigust. Teostus: Dan Lukas. Muinsuskaitseline järelevalve: Tõnu Sepp, tema kommentaar. Ill.:pukktuuliku lõiked ja korruste plaanid, 7 värv. fotot

  16. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  17. Asuransi Takaful: Prospek Dan Tantangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Sobirin, Achmad; Muhtar, Muchsin

    1994-01-01

    Dewasa ini perhatian terhadap nilai-nilai syariah Islam terhadap muamalah khususnya di bidang ekonomi menjadi besar. Lembaga perekonomian yang terjalin dengan pranata keagamaan makin menggejala dimana-mana dan kini sedang tumbuh mencari bentuk untuk dapat diterima di tengah-tengah masyarakat.

  18. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  19. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  20. KETENTUAN TENTANG STANDAR PELAYANAN MINIMAL BIDANG KELUARGA BERENCANA DAN KELUARGA SEJAHTERA BERDASARKAN ASAS PERIKEMANUSIAAN DAN HAK ASASI MANUSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Riyanti

    2017-01-01

    Hasil penelitian, ketentuan tentang standar pelayanan minimal bidang keluarga berencana, keluarga sejahtera dan asas perikemanusiaan dengan hak asasi manusia sangat berhubungan keterbatasan lingkup pelayanan dan standar pelaksanaan Komunikasi Informasi dan Edukasi yang tidak jelasberdampak pada tidak dipenuhinya hak asasi manusia untuk mendapatkan kesetaraan dan kebebasan dalam pelayanan keluarga berencana dan keluarga sejahtera.

  1. KINERJA DAN EFISIENSI BANK PEMERINTAH (BUMN DAN BUSN YANG GO PUBLIK DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Haryanto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menganalisis kinerja dan tingkat efisiensi bank-bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go Publik di Bursa Efek Indonesia.  Sample penelitian ini mengambil  tiga bank BUMN Bank BNI 46, Bank Mandiri dan Bank BRI  dan tiga bank BUSN (Bank BCA, Bank Niaga dan Bank Panin dengan periode analisis tahun 2005-2011. Varibael yang digunakan meliputi ROA, ROE, LAR. LDR, NPL dan BOPO. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melihat dan menganalisis perbedaan kinerja antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN yang go public di Bursa Efek Indonesia tahun 2005-2011.  Pendekatan pengukuran kinerja yang digunakan adalah Return on Asset (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE dan Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR, Loan to Asset Ratio (LAR,  dan efisiensi bank. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 1 Bank-bank nasional, baik itu bank BUMN maupun BUSN menunjukkan kinerja yang semakin baik, 2 tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara kinerja bank BUMN dan BUSN untuk variabel ROA, ROE, LAR, LDR, dan BOPO sedangkan variabel NPL yang merupakan indikator risiko kredit menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara Bank BUMN dan BUSN

  2. PEMBINAAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN USAHA KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Harman Glendoh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Small business as an economic activity of society on a small scale, has a central role in the economy of Indonesia. Although the economic crisis has created a great disturbance in the live of large and middle-size business, apparently small business continues to function well in the lower levels of the economy. The main role of small business is: 1 use excess labor; 2 as a producer of goods and services at reachable prices for the lower economic levels of society; 3 as a potential producer of foreign exchange because of the success of this type of industry in producing non-oil commodities for export. Remembering that the role of small business is large and has great influence on the lower economic levels of society, it is quite necessary to pay attention to the development of this sector. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Usaha kecil sebagai kegiatan ekonomi rakyat berskala kecil memiliki peran sentral dalam perekonomian Indonesia. Walaupun krisis ekonomi telah memporakporandakan kehidupan bidang usaha besar dan menengah, ternyata usaha kecil tetap tegar dan berjalan marak dikawasan kehidupan ekonomi tingkat bawah. Peran pokok usaha kecil ini adalah: (1 sebagai penyerap tenaga kerja, (2 sebagai penghasil barang dan jasa pada tingkat harga yang terjangkau bagi kebutuhan rakyat banyak yang berpenghasilan rendah, (3 sebagai penghasil devisa negara yang potensial kerena keberhasilannya dalam meproduksi komoditi ekspor non migas. Mengingat peran usaha kecil tersebut sangat besar andilnya bagi negara dan masyarakat kecil dilapisan bawah, maka pembinaan dan pengembangannya sangat perlu diperhatikan. Kata kunci: pembinaan, pengembangan, usaha kecil.

  3. Re-enrichment of depleted uranium by passage through a gaseous diffusion installation; Reenrichissement de l'uranium appauvri par passage dans une installation de diffusion gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, P; Billous, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The reader will find in this paper an economic study of the re-utilization of depleted uranium from nuclear reactors, whether its content be above or under natural proportions. Re-utilization is possible either through bringing the depleted product up to its initial content of {sup 235}U by mixture with a richer concentrate, or else by passing it through a gaseous diffusion plant. The economic area of such re-utilization depends on a number of considerations. We give a general study of it, with reference to some typical gaseous diffusion facilities. (author)Fren. [French] Ce rapport examine au point de vue economique la reutilisation de l'uranium appauvri provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, qu'il soit indifferemment en dessus ou en dessous de la teneur naturelle. Cette reutilisation peut se faire soit en ramenant le produit a sa teneur initiale en isotope 235 par un melange convenable avec un concentre plus riche, soit en le faisant passer dans une usine de Diffusion Gazeuse. La zone de rentabilite de cette reutilisation depend de diverses conditions economiques. Elle est etudiee ci-dessous d'une maniere generale, puis en se referant a des installations-type de diffusion gazeuse. (auteur)

  4. Engineering co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryniszak, W

    1981-06-01

    A purposeful employment policy for human energy is basic to solving the energy dilemma, but a lack of understanding about human behavior has allowed man's exploitive characteristics to dominate during the Inductrial Revolution. England is dependent on trade to survive, but the importance of size in world competition is seen in the trend toward multinational and partnership enterprises. Reflecting this increasing competition, the engineering industries see a need for government policies that acknowledge the importance of technology and the effects of those policies on productivity. Engineering progress requires the creativity of optimistic idealism and the realism of implementing new ideas. The training and nurturing of human resources should begin by broadening the education of engineers to emphasize the concepts of quality and cooperation between government and industry. Engineers and scientists, who work within society, need to understand national demands and to operate in accordance with the highest moral standards. (DCK)

  5. AGROFORESTRI UNTUK ADAPTASI DAN MITIGASI PERUBAHAN IKLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigor Butarbutar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilangnya tutupan lahan hutan karena konversi hutan untuk pemukiman, perkebunan, pertanian dan kebutuhan untuk pembangunan di sektor lain, telah menyebabkan perubahan pola cuaca/iklim di berbagai tempat. Perubahan iklim dapat diantisipasi dengan mitigasi dan adaptasi. Mitigasi berarti usahausaha pencegahan yang perlu dilakukan, sedangkan adaptasi merupakan kegiatan-kegiatan penyesuaian yang perlu dilakukan untuk dapat hidup dan bertahan dan meningkatkan ketahanan, kelenturan dan mengarahkemigrasikarenakondisiiklimyangberbeda.Agroforestridapatmemitigasidanmengadaptasi perubahaniklim dengan alasan-alasansebagaiberikut: aPencampuranjenis pohonpenghasilkayu,buah dan lain-lain, karena campuran jenis lebih baik dari tanaman murni; b Pencampuran jenis yang didasarkan pada sifat toleransi ( dan , sehingga akan memanfaatkan seluruh cahaya untuk fotosintesis; c Pencampuran perbedaan umur; d Pencampuran berdasarkan perbedaan waktu pemanenan; e Penggabungan nilai ekonomi, sosial dan budaya sehingga perubahan vegetasi dapat berjalan seiring dengan perubahan sosial dan budaya secara berangsur yang dapat disesuaikan dengan perubahan iklim; dan f Dapat digunakan sebagai model untuk memfasilitasi perubahan kelompok vegetasi menjadi kelompok yang baru (adaptasi, seperti teori perubahan vegetasi melalui perladangan berpindah-pindahyangteratur.

  6. Desain dan Uji Kinerja Fungsional Sistem Penggerak dan Kendali ROVERGARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Fikri Pomalingo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high population rate has an impact on increasing of land function change from agricultural land become housing and commercial building. As a result, it is difficult to get land for planting in the urban area. Therefore, this research is aimed to design equipment that can be used for planting in the narrow land using vertical gardening. This paper will report about design and functional testing of drive and control system on ROVERGARD. Drive system is based on water pump with additional gear train and chainsprocket mechanism. Control system use was on open loop type based on timer. The performance test of drive system was focused on electrical energy consumption and rotational speed of the system that was measured by multifunctional mini ammeter and tachometer. The control system was tested during 4 days, to evaluate their performances between set point and actual timing while filling water tank and rotate the system at maximal load condition. Electrical power consumption was 208 W at average rotational speed 2703 rpm. Increasing load caused an increase of energy consumption but made the drive rotation decline. The position control performance had on position error around 50 cm. Consequently, setting time on timer must be adjusted. Abstrak Laju pertumbuhan penduduk yang tinggi, mengakibatkan tingginya alih fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi bangunan perumahan dan komersial. Masalah ini mengakibatkan sulitnya mencari lahan pertanian di daerah padat penduduk khususnya perkotaan. Oleh karena itu perlu dirancang sebuah alat yang dapat digunakan untuk bercocok tanam di lahan sempit. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendesain dan menguji sistem penggerak dan kendali pada ROVERGARD. Sistem penggerak berasal dari pompa air yang dimodifikasi. Sedangkan sistem kendali menggunakan tipe open loop berbasis waktu dimana timer sebagai komponen utamanya. Pengujian kinerja penggerak difokuskan pada konsumsi listrik dan rpm yang diukur menggunakan

  7. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,602] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From... January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of...

  8. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS TERPADU KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMPYPI 1 BANDAR MATARAM LAMPUNG TENGAH T.P 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Fatmawati Maryatun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metode cooperative learning tipe group investigation merupakan model pembelajaran kooperatif yang dapat melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam kegiatan pembelajaran mulai dari merencanakan topik-topik yang akan dipelajari, bagaimana melaksanakan investigasinya, hingga melakukan presentasi kelompok dan evaluasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Hipotesis yang penulis ajukan adalah “Ada pengaruh yang positif pada model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yaitu berjumlah 48 orang siswa dan diantaranya terdiri dari 2 kelas. Dan yang menjadi sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah kelas VIIIa dan VIIIb. Kelas VIIIa sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VIIIb sebagai kelas control, sampel diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling, Eksperimen dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas VIIIa Semester Genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yang berjumlah 24 peserta didik. Data penelitian ini dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan  metode observasi, wawancara, dokumentasi, dan tes. Sedangkan untuk mengetahui tingkat validitas dan reliabilitas penulis menggunakan rumus K-R 20. Kemudian untuk menguji/membuktikan hipotesis digunakan rumus Regresi Linier Sederhana yaitu  Ŷ = a + bx. Nilai Ŷ = 73,33+ 0,5 X yang dilanjutkan dengan rumus thitung > ttabel.pada daftar signifikan 5% yaitu 4 > 1,72  dan pada taraf signifikan 1% yaitu 4 > 2,52. Dengan demikian hipotesisnya diterima karena ada pengaruh yang positif

  9. Fission Data and Nuclear Technology; Constantes de Fission et Technologie NucleAire; 0414 0410 041d 041d 042b 0415 . 041e 0414 0415 041b 0415 041d 0418 0418 0418 042f 0414 0415 0420 041d 0410 042f 0422 0415 0425 041d 041e 041b 041e 0413 0418 042f ; Datos Sobre la Fision y Tecnologia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, G. C. [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1965-07-15

    Accurate nuclear data for fissile nuclei are required not only by reactor designers, but also by reactor physicists for the interpretation of integral experiments, e.g. studies of the change of reactivity with irradiation. Some of the requests that have been made for such fission data, and the reasons behind them, are discussed, along with the progress that has been made towards their fulfilment. An attempt is made to outline those areas where better data are required. (author) [French] On a besoin de valeurs exactes des constantes nucleaires concernant les noyaux fissiles, non seulement pour les etudes de reacteurs, mais egalement pour la physique des reacteurs lorsqu'on veut interpreter les experiences integrales, c'est-a-dire dans les etudes sur les modifications de la reactivite avec l'irradiation. L'auteur discute certaines des demandes de renseignements sur les constantes de fission, les raisons pour lesquelles elles ont ete faites et la mesure dans laquelle elles ont pu etre satisfaites. Il s'efforce egalement de delimiter les domaines dans lesquels on aurait besoin de valeurs plus precises. (author) [Spanish] No solo quienes trabajan.en el proyecto de reactores requieren datos nucleares exactos sobre los nucleos fisionables, sino que tambien los fisicos de reactores los necesitan para interpretar los resultados de experimentos integrales, como por ejemplo, en los estudios sobre la variacion de la reactividad en funcion de la irradiacion. El autor describe algunas de las peticiories de datos de esa clase que se han formulado, asi como los adelantos realizados con objeto de satisfacerlas. Tambien indica, en lineas generales, aiquellas esferas en las que se necesitan datos mas amplios y exactos. (author) [Russian] Tochnye jadernye dannye o rasshhepljajushhihsja jadrah neobhodimy ne tol'ko konstruktoram reaktorov, no takzhe i fizikam-reak- torshhikam dlja interpretacii integral'nyh jeksperimentov, to est' dlja izuchenija izmenenija reaktivnosti po mere

  10. KONTEKS DAN KONSTRUKSI SOSIAL MENGENAI KEMATIAN ELEKTIF ( EUTHANASIA ∗

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helly Prajitno Soetjipto

    2015-09-01

    konteks sosial dan konstruksi sosial kematian. Euthanasia didiskusikan di dalam suatu kerangka pikir yang mencoba memberi perhatian kepada hal-hal yang kontekstual dan interpretatif fenomena sosial suatu proses kematian dan kejadian kematian

  11. Limits to the Recognizability of Flaws in Non-Destructive Testing Steam-Generator Tubes for Nuclear-Power Plants; Limitations de l'Efficacite de la Detection des Defauts par Essais Non Destructifs de Tubes de Bouilleurs pour Centrales Nucleaires; Predely ehffektivnosti nedestruktivnoj defektoskopii trub parogeneratorov yadernykh ehlektrostantsij; Limites para Distinguir los Defectos en el Ensayo No Destructivo de Tubo para Generadores de Vapor Destinados a Centrales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, A.; Adamsky, F. -J. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Reinland e.V., Cologne (Germany)

    1965-10-15

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are nuclear reactors under construction with steam generators inside the reactor pressure-vessel. As a result design repairs of steam- generator tubes are very difficult and cause large shut-down times of the nuclear-power plant. It is known that numerous troubles in operating conventional power plants are results of steam-generator tube damages. Because of the high total costs of these reactors it. is necessary to construct the steam generators especially in such a manner that the load factor of the power plant is as high as possible. The Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland was charged to supervise and to test fabrication and construction of the steam generators to see that this part of the plant was as free of defects as possible. The experience gained during this work is of interest for manufacture and construction of steam generators for nuclear-power plants in general. This paper deals with the efficiency limits of non-destructive testing steam-generator tubes. The following tests performed will be discussed in detail: (a) Automatic ultrasonic testing of the straight tubes in the production facility; (b) Combined ultrasonic and radiographic testing of the bent tubes and tube weldings; (c) Other non-destructive tests. (author) [French] En Allemagne, on construit actuellement des generatrices nucleaires dans lesquelles les bouilleurs sont installes a l'interieur du caisson etanche du reacteur. Il s'ensuit que les reparations des tubes des bouilleurs sont tres difficiles et provoquent de longs arrets des centrales nucleaires. On sait que de nombreuses perturbations du fonctionnement des centrales classiques sont dues a des dommages dans les tubes des bouilleurs. C'est en grande partie en raison du prix de revient eleve de ces reacteurs qu'il est necessaire de construire les bouilleurs notamment de sorte que le facteur d'utilisation de la centrale soit aussi eleve que possible. C'est le ' Technischer Ueberwachungs

  12. DIAGNOSIS DAN PENATALAKSANAAru LIMFOMA ORtsITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardizal Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Limfoma orbita merujuk pada limfoma yang terjadi di konjungtiva, kelenjar lakrimal, palpebradan otot-otot ekstraokular. Limfoma primer non-Hodgkin (NHL dari orbita dapat ditemukanpada hanya 1o/o dari semua limforna non-Hodgkin. Anaiisis mutasi somatik pada regiovariabel (V dari immunoglobulin (ig dan segmen gen rantai berat (H telah menunjukkanperan dari stimulasi antigen kronik pada patogenesis limfoma /nucosa-associated lymphoidflssue (MALT. Patogen mikroba seperti Helicobacter pylaridan Chlamydia pneumonia dapaimendasari proses inflamasi dan pada akhirnya memicu akuisisi MALT juga memainkanperan penting dalam tranformasi maligna dan ekspansi klonal lanjutan limfoma. Penentuanstadium kanker sangat penting karena akan menentukan terapi apa yang akan diberikan dankemungkinan remisi dan prognosisnya. Berdasarkan sistem stadium Ann-Arbor, limfoma yangterbatas di orbita disebut sebagai stadium l, keterlibatan struktur sekitar (sinus paranasal,tonsil, dan hidung menjadikannya stadium ll. Stadium lll adalah penyakit nodal abdominaldibawah diafragma dan stadium lV merujuk pada keterlibatan yang tersebar dari satu ataulebih lokasi ekstranodal (hepar, sum-sum tulang atau sistem saraf pusat. Mayoritas pasiendatang dengan keluhan massa konjungtiva berwarna pink (91%, diikuti hiperemis konjungtiva(32%, propiosis (27%, massa palpebra atau orbita (19"fi, penurunan visus dan ptosis (6%,dan diplopia(2%. Bilateralitas terjadi pada 10% hingga 15% kasus dimana 80 % terjadisecarasimultan sedangkan 20% merupakan kondisi yang berurutan. Penilaian lanjut untuk stagingyang akurat dan perencanaan terapitermasuk anamnesis yang lengkap dan pemeriksaan fisik,pemeriksaan laboratorium rutin, elektroforesis protein sei-um, LDH serum, Fr-mikroglobulin,rontgen thoraks, CT scan thoraks, abdornen, dan pelvis, dan biopsisum-sum tulang. Diagnosapositif harus berdasarkan pada perneriksaan histologik dari sampeltumor yang memadai yangdiperoleh dengan biopsiorbita. Beberapa kriteria

  13. Cooperative newsvendor games : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montrucchio, L.; Norde, H.; Ozen, U.; Scarsini, M.; Slikker, M.; Choi, T.-M.

    2012-01-01

    In this survey, we review some of the main contributions to the cooperative approach of newsvendor situations. We show how newsvendor situations with several retailers can be modeled as a transferable-utility cooperative game and we concentrate on one solution concept: the core. First, we examine

  14. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    In this article we compare cooperation among Colombian and Swedish children aged 9-12. We illustrate the dynamics of the prisoner’s dilemma in a new task that is easily understood by children and performed during a physical education class. We find no robust evidence of a difference in cooperation...

  15. Monitoring emotions and cooperative behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation among people in teams that are bound to perform a common goal is one of the main factors determining success of these teams. Cooperation becomes even more important for small teams performing long-term missions in isolation. Examples of such missions include missions performed on the

  16. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more

  17. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  19. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  20. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  1. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  2. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  3. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  4. TRANSFORMASI ORGANISASIONAL DAN MSDM: HAMBATAN DAN IMPLIKASINYA PADA REKRUTMEN DAN SELEKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licen Indahwati Darsono

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid change of environment is an external force that causes the organization to transform. Fundamentally, the main purpose of the transformation is to change the organizational structure to be more flexible and competitive with fewer hierarchial levels, managers, and employees. The transformation needs to be radical, causing resistance from the organization's members. Their resistance can cause the transformation to fail, therefore organization must find ways to lessen this resistance. First, organization must learn about the diversity of its members' cultures and values. Second, organization must build its own organizational culture which can support the success of the transformation, by communicating it with the members of the organization. To support organizational culture building efforts, it needs changes in human resources practices, especially recruitment and selection. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perubahan yang cepat dalam lingkungan merupakan kekuatan eksternal yang mengakibatkan transformasi dalam sebuah organisasi. Pada dasarnya, tujuan utama dari transformasi tersebut adalah merubah struktur organisasi agar menjadi lebih fleksibel dan mampu bersaing, dengan tingkat structural yang sedikit, serta jumlah manajer dan karyawan yang lebih kecil. Transformasi tersebut harus menyeluruh, dan hal ini dapat menyebabkan resistensi dari para anggota organisasi yang memperhambat perubahan tersebut. Resistensi itu bisa menyebabkan perubahan tersebut batal, oleh karena itu organisasi harus mencari jalan untuk mengurangi hambatan-hambatan tersebut. Pertama, organisasi harus belajar keanekaragaman dari budaya dan nilai anggotanya. Kedua, organisasi harus mengembangkan budaya organisasi sendiri melalui komunikasi yang baik dengan anggotanya. Untuk mendukung usaha mengembangkan budaya organisasi, harus ada perubaban pada kebijakan sumber daya manusia, terutama dalam rekrutmen dan seleksi karyawan. Kata kunci: transformasi, resistensi, budaya

  5. Perbandingan Akurasi Pengukuran Suhu Dan Kelembaban Antara Sensor DHT11 Dan DHT22

    OpenAIRE

    Saptadi, Arief Hendra

    2014-01-01

    Suhu dan kelembaban merupakan dua objek pengukuran yang acapkali terdapat di dalam sistem akuisisi data. Terdapat banyak piranti sensor yang berfungsi untuk mengukur dua objek tersebut dan akurasi merupakan salah satu parameter yang dapat digunakan untuk memilihnya. DHT11 dan DHT22 adalah sensor seri DHT dari Aosong Electronics yang dapat melakukan pengukuran suhu dan kelembaban secara serempak dengan keluaran digital. Informasi tentang akurasi terdapat di dalam lembar data keduanya. Kendati ...

  6. Pertumbuhan dan Mutu Fisik Bibit Jabon (Anthocephalus Cadamba Miq.) di Polibag dan Politub

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Informasi pertumbuhan dan mutu fisik bibit jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) di wadah bibit dengan volume yang berbeda diperlukan sebagai bagian yang akan diperhitungkan dalam pemilihan wadah bibit yang akan digunakan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pertumbuhan dan mutu fisik bibit jabon yang disapih pada wadah bibit polibag (volume 300 cm3) dan politub (volume 60 cm3). Tahapan penelitian meliputi : pembibitan serta pengamatan pertumbuhan dan pe