WorldWideScience

Sample records for cooperating organizations japan

  1. Green Cooperation Underway between China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun

    2011-01-01

    @@ The China-Japan Green Expo 2011, held in early June, marks the first large-scale cooperation between the two countries, after Japan's devastating earthquake and tsunami. Companies based in China and Japan, Chinese government ministries and other organizations attended the expo to exhibit products and technologies that promote environmental conservation.In addition, experts from industry, government and academia hosted seminars to introduce environment-related technologies.

  2. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  3. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  4. Us-Japan cooperation on safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddingfield, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hori, Masato [JAEA; Kawakubo, Yoko [JAEA; Mcclelland - Kerr, J [NNSA

    2009-01-01

    There is a long history of collaborative safeguards development between the United States and Japan. Japan has built, and continues to expand, the largest civil nuclear fuel cycle under full-scope IAEA safeguards in world. This development has posed unique challenges to the international safeguards system. Safeguards developments made through the US-Japan cooperation to address these unique challenges have significantly impacted the technologies deployed for international safeguards applications around the world.

  5. Enhancing US-Japan cooperation to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbin, C Sachi

    2014-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) is aimed at preventing, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. To move toward these goals, the United States has committed to partner with at least 30 countries around the world. One of the objectives of the GHSA includes "[p]reventing the emergence and spread of antimicrobial drug resistant organisms." Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a growing global health security problem, with inappropriate use of antimicrobial medications in humans and animals and a lack of new antimicrobial medications contributing to this problem. While AMR is a growing global concern, working on it regionally can make this multifaceted problem more manageable. The United States and Japan, both world leaders in the life sciences, are close allies that have established cooperative programs in medical research and global health that can be used to work on combating AMR and advance the GHSA. Although the United States and Japan have cooperated on health issues in the past, their cooperation on the growing problem of AMR has been limited. Their existing networks, cooperative programs, and close relationships can and should be used to work on combating this expanding problem.

  6. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at halden reactor. Achievement of cooperative researches between JAERI and several organizations in the period from 1997 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with several Japanese agencies and companies by means of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summaries the objectives, contents and the outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 1997 January to 1999 December. During the period, nine cooperative researches had been carried out. Two of them had been completed and other seven researches has been continued to the next three years period. Most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding in order to prepare the higher burnup utilization and introduction of LWR fuel and MOX fuel in LWRs of Japan. The researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time for preparing test and irradiation, then three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, seven tests have been continued to the next three year period. In this report, the achievements of the continued researches to the next period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  7. Information Update Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Research Fellowship for International Young Scientists NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Danish National Research Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects with DFG News in Brief: NSFC set up Department of Medical Sciences NSFC Announced Approved Cooperative Projects With France and Germany NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research Projects With Academy of Finland NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects with K. T. Li Foundation NSFC Announced Results of Preliminary Evaluation of Bilateral Cooperative Research projects With Japan Science and Technology Agency NSFC Announced Application Guide for Cooperative Research Projects With Royal Society of Edinburgh for 2010 NSFC Announced a List of proved Cooperative Projects With Three International Organizations

  8. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  9. Japan`s international cooperation programs on seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanada, Akira [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    MITI is promoting many international cooperation programs on nuclear safety area. The seismic safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is a one of most important cooperation areas. Experts from MITI and related organization join the multilateral cooperation programs carried out by international organization such as IAEA, OECD/NEA etc. MITI is also promoting bilateral cooperation programs such as information exchange meetings, training programs and seminars on nuclear safety with several countries. Concerning to the cooperation programs on seismic safety of NPPs such as information exchange and training, MITI shall continue and expand these programs. (J.P.N.)

  10. Status and issue of coal mine safety technology development in Japan and international co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakmura, K. [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan). Mine Safety Division, Environmental Protection and Industrial Location Bureau

    2001-03-01

    Recent trends in coal mine accidents in Japan are reviewed and the incident of mine fire at the Ikeshima coal mine in Nagasaki Prefecture in February 2000 reported. An overview is given of safety projects underway in Japan or jointly with Australia. Cooperative projects to prevent spontaneous combustion to develop underground monitoring techniques, and to transfer safety technologies from Japan abroad are outlined. Other projects carried out by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) are listed. Japan's long-term policy for safety technology development is outlined. 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Forum on China-Japan Agricultural Exchange And Cooperation Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lei

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Forum on China- Japan Agricultural Exchange and Cooperation was held in Beijing on September 10.It was jointly sponsored by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC),the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA),Keidanren(Japan Business Federation)and the Keizai Koho Center(KKC)to promote friendly exchanges and practical cooperation in agriculture on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the signing of the bilateral Treaty of Peace

  12. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization to the American Soybean Association, which conducts foreign market development activities on behalf... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  13. First optical education center in Japan established by cooperation between academia and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2014-07-01

    At the present of the 21st century, optical technology became what must be in our life. If there is no optical technology, we cannot use optical equipments such as the camera, microscopes, DVD, LEDs and laser diodes (LDs). Optics is also the leading part in the most advanced scientific field. It is clear that the organization which does education and research is required in such a very important area. Unfortunately, there was no such organization in Japan. The education and research of light have been individually done in various faculties of universities, various research institutes, and many companies. However, our country is now placed in severer surroundings, such as the globalization of our living, the accelerated competition in research and development. This is one of the reasons why Utsunomiya University has established Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE) in 2007. To contribute to optical technology and further development of optical industry, "Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University" promotes education and research in the field of the optical science and technology cooperatively with industry, academia and the government. Currently, 6 full professors, 21 cooperative professors, 2 visiting professors and 7 post-doctoral researchers and about 40 students are joined with CORE. Many research projects with industries, the local government of Tochigi as well as Japanese government. Optical Innovation Center has established in CORE by supporting of Japan Science and Technology Agency in 2011 to develop advanced optical technologies for local companies.

  14. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    Japan is composed of 4 main islands and more than 3900 smaller islands and has 317.7 persons/square kilometer. This makes it one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Religion is an important force in the life of the Japanese and most consider themselves Buddhists. Schooling is free through junior high but 90% of Japanese students complete high school. In fact, Japan enjoys one of the highest literacy rates in the world. There are over 178 newspapers and 3500 magazines published in Japan and the number of new book titles issued each year is greater than that in the US. Since WW1, Japan expanded its influence in Asia and its holdings in the Pacific. However, as a direct result of WW2, Japan lost all of its overseas possessions and was able to retain only its own islands. Since 1952, Japan has been ruled by conservative governments which cooperate closely with the West. Great economic growth has come since the post-treaty period. Japan as a constitutional monarchy operates within the framework of a constitution which became effective in May 1947. Executive power is vested in a cabinet which includes the prime minister and the ministers of state. Japan is one of the most politically stable of the postwar democracies and the Liberal Democratic Party is representative of Japanese moderate conservatism. The economy of Japan is strong and growing. With few resources, there is only 19% of Japanese land suitable for cultivation. Its exports earn only about 19% of the country's gross national product. More than 59 million workers comprise Japan's labor force, 40% of whom are women. Japan and the US are strongly linked trading partners and after Canada, Japan is the largest trading partner of the US. Foreign policy since 1952 has fostered close cooperation with the West and Japan is vitally interested in good relations with its neighbors. Relations with the Soviet Union are not close although Japan is attempting to improve the situation. US policy is based on

  15. Current status and future perspectives of research and development cooperation between utilities, research institutions and universities in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Yasuji [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the research and development activity in the field of electric power production, transmission and distribution in Japan. Organizations participating in the research and development are described with emphasis on theirs roles and cooperation between them. Next described are the R and D subjects and projects carried out by respective organizations. The needs and motivations of respective R and D programs are reviewed briefly together with the financial and human resources put into implementation. The R and D activities in the electric power industry are compared with those in other industrial sectors such as automobile, steel, telecommunication, etc. Mainly in terms of R and D fund. A similar comparison is made with the electric power industry in countries other than Japan. Importance of the international cooperation in stressed for further development of electric power industry and economic progress worldwide. (author) 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years.

  17. Cooperating internationally. US/Japan Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Civil Industrial Technologies (CIT) Arrangement was signed in July 1994 between governments of the US and Japan. Areas of research range from scientific and technical databases and bioprocessing to precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials and ceramics. Papers presented in this symposium include studies on thin polymer films generated by vapor deposition polymerization, development of manufacturing technique of fusing 3D C/C composite materials, measurement and analysis for high performance computing systems, low-cost fabrication of ceramic components, bioprocessing, data exchange for mass spectral databases, development of high performance aluminum nitride ceramics, precompetitive processing of functionally-gradient materials, purity determination of organic reference materials, definitive methods traceable to SI unit, development of biocompatible artificial hard tissue materials, development of photoassisted catalysis technologies, surface analysis for catalysts by electron spectroscopy, development of ultra-solid lubricant with cluster diamond, precise determination of impurities in high-purity rare-earth metals, and highly accurate acceleration measurement system. 22 refs., 86 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Competition and Cooperation in Neural Nets : U.S.-Japan Joint Seminar

    CERN Document Server

    Arbib, Michael

    1982-01-01

    The human brain, wi th its hundred billion or more neurons, is both one of the most complex systems known to man and one of the most important. The last decade has seen an explosion of experimental research on the brain, but little theory of neural networks beyond the study of electrical properties of membranes and small neural circuits. Nonetheless, a number of workers in Japan, the United States and elsewhere have begun to contribute to a theory which provides techniques of mathematical analysis and computer simulation to explore properties of neural systems containing immense numbers of neurons. Recently, it has been gradually recognized that rather independent studies of the dynamics of pattern recognition, pattern format::ion, motor control, self-organization, etc. , in neural systems do in fact make use of common methods. We find that a "competition and cooperation" type of interaction plays a fundamental role in parallel information processing in the brain. The present volume brings together 23 papers ...

  19. Characteristics of Gravity Waves over the Tibetan Plateau during the PRC-Japan Cooperative JICA Project in 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LIN, Yonghui; ZHANG, Lingjie

    2012-01-01

    ... (PRC)-Japan cooperative JICA project in 2008, the characteristics of gravity waves such as vertical energy propagation directions, intrinsic frequencies, vertical wave-lengths, and horizontal propagation...

  20. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  1. PREFACE: India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi; Malhotra, Bansi D.

    2012-04-01

    Organic Functional Materials We would like to express our sincere thanks to the organizing committee members of this workshop and the many organizations such as the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan, the Department of Science & Technology (DST), India, the Society of Organic Nanometric Interfacial Controlled Electronic (NICE) Devices, the Japan Society of Applied Physics, Himeji City, Himeji Convention & Visitors Bureau, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India and the University of Hyogo for their financial support. Thanks are also given to The Japan Society of Applied Physics, Division of Molecular Electronics and Bioelectronics, The Japan Society of Applied Physics (M & BE), the Technical Committee on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation Materials of the Institute of Electrical Engineering in Japan (IEEJ), the Technical Group on Organic Molecular Electronics, Electronics Society of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE), and the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Japan Chapter, for their cooperation. Finally, we hope that the many young and active researchers who are participating will enjoy stimulating discussions and exchange ideas with each other at IJWBME 2011, Himeji, Japan. 7 April 2011 IJWBME 2011 Chairs Mitsuyoshi Onoda Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Japan Bansi D Malhotra Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India Conference photograph Participants of the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics & Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation 2011, December 7-10 2011, EGRET Himeji, Japan The PDF also contains a list of sponsors.

  2. Strategic Options for International Participation in Space Exploration: Lessons from U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, John J.; Chinworth, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    The President's Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy suggests that after NASA establishes the Space Exploration vision architecture, it should pursue international partnerships. Two possible approaches were suggested: multiple independently operated missions and an integrated mission with carefully selected international components. The U.S.-Japan defense sectors have learned key lessons from experience with both of these approaches. U.S.-Japan defense cooperation has evolved over forty years from simple military assistance programs to more complex joint development efforts. With the evolution of the political-military alliance and the complexity of defense programs, these cooperative efforts have engaged increasingly industrial resources and capabilities as well as more sophisticated forms of planning, technology transfers and program management. Some periods of this evolution have been marked by significant frictions. The U.S.Japan FS-X program, for example, provides a poor example for management of international cooperation. In November 1988, the United States and Japan signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to co-develop an aircraft, named FS-X and later renamed F -2, as a replacement to the aging Japan support fighter F-l. The program was marked by numerous political disputes. After over a decade of joint development and testing, F -2 production deliveries finally began in 1999. The production run was curtailed due to much higher than anticipated costs and less than desired aircraft performance. One universally agreed "lesson" from the FSX/F-2 case was that it did not represent the ideal approach to bilateral cooperation. More recent cooperative programs have involved targeted joint research and development, including component development for ballistic missile defense systems. These programs could lay the basis for more ambitious cooperative efforts. This study examines both less-than-stellar international cooperation

  3. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Imada, Mihoko

    2013-09-22

    The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects' contributions to health system strengthening. The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas.

  4. US/Japan Cooperation in High Energy Physics. Review of activities, 1988--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-16

    The objective of the Implementing Arrangement was to further the energy programs of both countries by establishing a framework for cooperation in the field of high energy physics, including research, accelerator and detector instrumentation research and development, the fabrication and subsequent use of new experimental devices and facilities, and related joint efforts as may be mutually agreed. Over the years, this cooperation has been very effective and has strengthened the overall collaborative efforts and the understanding between our nations and their citizens. It has demonstrated to the world our ability to work together to attack difficult problems. High Energy Physics goes across national borders; the bond is clearly intellectual and common ground is shared for the benefit of all in a most effective manner. This review covers the activities conducted under the aegis of the US/Japan Committee for Cooperation in High Energy Physics during the past five years (1988--1993). This was the second such US review of the US/Japan cooperative activities; the first was held in 1987.

  5. 22 CFR 203.12 - Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). 203.12 Section 203.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT REGISTRATION OF PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS (PVOs) § 203.12 Cooperative Development Organizations (CDOs). CDOs are not PVOs for...

  6. Emergence of cooperation with self-organized criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Hyeong-Chai

    2010-01-01

    Cooperation and self-organized criticality are two main keywords in current studies of evolution. We propose a generalized Bak-Sneppen model and provide a natural mechanism which accounts for both phenomena simultaneously. We use the prisoner's dilemma games to mimic the interactions among the species. Each species is identified by its cooperation probability and its fitness is given by the payoffs from the neighbors. The species with the least payoff is replaced by a new species with a random cooperation probability. When the neighbors of the least fit one are also replaced with a non-zero probability, a strong cooperation emerges. Bak-Sneppen process builds a self-organized structure so that the cooperation can emerge even in the parameter region where a uniform or random population decreases the number of cooperators. The emergence of cooperation is due to the same dynamical correlation which leads to self-organized criticality in replacement activities.

  7. Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008: The need of Asian pharmaceutical researchers' cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tang, W

    2008-10-01

    The Japan-China Joint Medical Workshop on Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics 2008 (JCMWDDT 2008) was held from September 29 to October 1, 2008 at The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. JCMWDDT is an international workshop that is mainly organized by Asian editorial members of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics (http://www.ddtjournal.com/home) for the purpose of promoting research exchanges in the field of drug discovery and therapeutic. This year's JCMWDDT is the second workshop and focused particularly on novel development and technological innovation of anti-influenza agents. The workshop began with an announcement by the Japanese Co-chairperson, Dr. Sekimizu (Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editorin- Chief of Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics, DDT) followed by a speech by the Chinese Co-chairperson, Dr. Wenfang Xu (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Editor in China Office of DDT), with additional speeches by Dr. Norio Matsuki (The University of Tokyo, Japan; Editor of DDT) and Dr. Guanhua Du (Chinese Academy of Medical Science, China; Editor of DDT). Fifty-nine titles were presented in 6 specialized sessions (Research Advances in Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, Drug Synthesis/Clinical Therapeutics, Medicinal Chemistry/Natural Products, Anti-influenza Drugs, Anti-infection/antiviral Drugs, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology /Pharmacology) and a poster session (Drug Discov Ther 2008; 2, Suppl; available at http://www.ddtjournal.com/Announce/index.htm). An annual outbreak of avian influenza in Asian countries including China and Japan has sparked fears that the virus will mutate and then cause an epidemic in humans. Therefore, Asian researchers need to work together to control this infection. This year's JCMWDDT helped provide an opportunity to reiterate the crucial role of medicinal chemistry in conquering influenza and created an environment for cooperative

  8. Discussion on Diversified Development of Forestry Cooperation Organizations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the survey results in several places of Fujian Province, the paper summed up the main types of forestry cooperation organizations in China’s collective forest regions, and analyzed their characteristics in terms of basic nature, property arrangement, distribution methods and closeness of cooperation. The essential trend of diversified development of forestry cooperation organizations was discussed, with the analysis on how the diversification get reflected from the aspects of organizational structu...

  9. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  10. Organic photovoltaic energy in Japan; Le photovoltaique organique au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Japan finances research programs on photovoltaic conversion since 1974. Research in this domain is one of the 11 priorities of NEDO, the agency of means of the ministry of economy, trade and industry of Japan. The search for an abatement of production costs and of an increase of cells efficiency is mentioned in NEDO's programs as soon as the beginning of the 1990's. A road map has been defined which foresees photovoltaic energy production costs equivalent to the ones of thermal conversion by 2030, i.e. 7 yen/kWh (4.4 cents of euro/kWh). The use of new materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) or organic solar cells, and of new structures (multi-junctions) is explored to reach this objective. The organic photovoltaic technology is more particularly considered for small generation units in mobile or domestic technologies. Japan is particularly in advance in the improvement of DSSC cells efficiency, in particular in the domain of the research on solid electrolytes. Europe seems more in advance in the domain of the new generation of organic solar cells. Therefore, a complementarity may be found between Japan and French teams in the domain of organic solar cells improvement through collaboration programs. (J.S.)

  11. Fragility and cooperativity concepts in hydrogen-bonded organic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delpouve, N., E-mail: delpouve.nicolas@gmail.com [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Vuillequez, A.; Saiter, A.; Youssef, B.; Saiter, J.M. [AMME-LECAP EA 4528 International Laboratory, University of Rouen, Avenue de l' Universite BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France)

    2012-09-01

    Molecular dynamics at the glass transition of three lactose/oil glassy systems have been investigated according to the cooperativity and fragility approaches. From Donth's approach, the cooperativity length is estimated by modulated temperature calorimetric measurements. Results reveal that modification of the disaccharide by oil leads to increase the disorder degree in the lactose, the size of the cooperative domains and the fragility index. These particular hydrogen-bonded organic glasses follow the general tendency observed on organic and inorganic polymers: the higher the cooperativity length, the higher the value of the fragility index at T{sub g}.

  12. Directory of Library Networks and Cooperative Library Organizations, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This directory lists cooperating library organizations and networks in the United States which engage in cooperative, interinstitutional activities beyond the scope of traditional interlibrary loan services and reciprocal borrowing. Criteria for inclusion, survey methodology, and entry format are explained. Entries identify the address, phone…

  13. Spatial self-organization favors heterotypic cooperation over cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Babak; Waite, Adam James; Shou, Wenying

    2013-11-12

    Heterotypic cooperation-two populations exchanging distinct benefits that are costly to produce-is widespread. Cheaters, exploiting benefits while evading contribution, can undermine cooperation. Two mechanisms can stabilize heterotypic cooperation. In 'partner choice', cooperators recognize and choose cooperating over cheating partners; in 'partner fidelity feedback', fitness-feedback from repeated interactions ensures that aiding your partner helps yourself. How might a spatial environment, which facilitates repeated interactions, promote fitness-feedback? We examined this process through mathematical models and engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains incapable of recognition. Here, cooperators and their heterotypic cooperative partners (partners) exchanged distinct essential metabolites. Cheaters exploited partner-produced metabolites without reciprocating, and were competitively superior to cooperators. Despite initially random spatial distributions, cooperators gained more partner neighbors than cheaters did. The less a cheater contributed, the more it was excluded and disfavored. This self-organization, driven by asymmetric fitness effects of cooperators and cheaters on partners during cell growth into open space, achieves assortment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00960.001.

  14. Inter-organizational cooperation in community health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Mário; Haase, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various aspects related to inter-organizational cooperation and how this phenomenon can be applied to healthcare institutions. To fulfil the aim, a qualitative investigation was adopted, focussing on the relationship between public hospital and a higher education institution in Portugal. The study supports health managers and higher education leaders, and other stakeholders involved inter-organizational cooperation drawing up strategies and understanding inter-organizational cooperation's impact at the regional level. One contribution is to help fill a gap regarding the empirical research surrounding cooperation between organizations, especially in the health sector, where scientific studies are scarce. It also provides new insights by applying competence-based theory to analyze different approaches to hospital cooperation, which has received scant attention in the health sector.

  15. Organic recycling. II. The country experiences: China and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1982-12-01

    China is a nation that utilizes wastes meticulously. China in 1977 had over 7 million biogas plants, making optimum use of the biomasses. Also they use large tracts of land for green manuring crops. The extensive use of organic manures in China has only been possible because of their having mobilized the masses. They form special Production Brigades to operate their system. Fertilizer collection and composting collection are done by a team. There is mass movement-psychosis of getting the maximum wealth and energy from all their wastes. Japan also accords top-priority to soil fertility and for ages has been using organic matter like wild grasses, weeds, human and animal wastes. Compost and stable manure are used on several crops: Vermi-culture or growing earthworms for agricultural uses and also as high quality protein feed for the animals is being widely practiced in Japan, Canada, USA, and in the Philippines. Converting biodegradable material of urban wastes into compost in the form of castings through the aid of earthworms is a very promising prospect. Vermiculture is a rich source of organic fertilizers. Organic recycling offers the right prescription of Appropriate Energy Technology that could catalyze development in the Third World countries at costs which they could easily afford. 1 table. (DP)

  16. Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization of Farmers: Problems and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangzhiKong; QiaoGuanghua

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the problems of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers in their development process. These problems are: excessive interference by local governments; low service capacity at the operating level; administrative and management confusion resulting from the lack of status as a legal entity, with rules and regulations. It is suggested that the relevant laws and regulations concerning these organizations be established as soon as possible, giving them a legal identification; that the regulations and organizational structure be perfected; that support be increased and the financial situation of the specialized cooperative economic organizations of farmers be improved.

  17. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  18. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Japan consists of 3900 islands and lies off the east coast of Asia. Even though Japan is one of the most densely populated nations in the world, its growth rate has stabilized at .5%. 94% of all children go to senior high school and almost 90% finish. Responsibility for the sick, aged, and infirmed is changing from the family and private sector to government. Japan was founded in 600 BC and its 1st capital was in Nara (710-1867). The Portuguese, the 1st Westerners to make contact with Japan in 1542, opened trade which lasted until the mid 17th century. US Navy Commodore Matthew Perry forced Japan to reopen in 1854. Following wars with China and Russia in the late 1800s and early 1900s respectively, Japan took part in World Wars I and II. In between these wars Japan invaded Manchuria and China. The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Japanese surrendered in September, 1945 ending World War II (WWII). Following, WWII, the Allied Powers guided Japan's establishment as a nonthreatening nation and a democratic parliamentary government (a constitutional monarchy) with a limited defense force. Japan remains one of the most politically stable of all postwar democracies. The Liberal Democratic Party's Noboru Takeshita became prime minister in 1987. Japan has limited natural resources and only 19% of the land is arable. Japanese ingenuity and skill combine to produce one of the highest per hectare crop yields in the world. Japan is a major economic power, and its and the US economies are becoming more interdependent. Its exports, making up only 13% of the gross national product, mainly go to Canada and the US. Many in the US are concerned, however, with the trade deficit with Japan and are seeking ways to make trade more equitable. Japan wishes to maintain good relations with its Asian neighbors and other nations. The US and Japan enjoy a strong, productive relationship.

  19. China-Japan enhance joint research cooperation for drug discoveries and development: News from CJMWDDT 2007 in Jinan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Y; Qu, X J; Tang, W

    2007-08-01

    Viral hepatitis is currently a major global cause of morbidity and mortality. In some Asian countries like China and Japan, Hepatitis B and C in particular are the most common extremely infectious diseases and are likely to develop into liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, statistics indicate that patients with liver cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis B and C have an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Scientists have worked tirelessly to find curative therapeutic strategies to control chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, accompanied by improvements in public health and living conditions. China's Shandong University and the University of Tokyo in Japan previously established a longterm cooperative relationship. Cooperative programs include co-training of postgraduates, exchanges of visiting scholars, academic symposia, and a bilateral international joint research program. Some substantive progress has been made as a result of bilateral endeavors. For instance, the Shandong University China-Japan Cooperation Center for Drug Discovery & Screening (SDU-DDSC) has enhanced to serve as an important platform for further close cooperation. At the same time, the International Advancement Center for Medicine & Health Research (IACMHR) - "Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics" and International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement (IRCA-BSSA) - "BioScience Trends" were established (Visit http://www.ddtjournal.com and http://www.biosciencetrends.com ). The first China-Japan conference on new drug discoveries and therapeutics (CJMWDDT 2007) was recently held in Jinan, China May 27-29, 2007, which provided opportunities for further communication and cooperation and increased knowledge of new drug research and clinical cures for hepatitis. Financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), the conference covered a wide range of topics in

  20. The direction of evolution: the rise of cooperative organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John E

    2014-09-01

    Two great trends are evident in the evolution of life on Earth: towards increasing diversification and towards increasing integration. Diversification has spread living processes across the planet, progressively increasing the range of environments and free energy sources exploited by life. Integration has proceeded through a stepwise process in which living entities at one level are integrated into cooperative groups that become larger-scale entities at the next level, and so on, producing cooperative organizations of increasing scale (for example, cooperative groups of simple cells gave rise to the more complex eukaryote cells, groups of these gave rise to multi-cellular organisms, and cooperative groups of these organisms produced animal societies). The trend towards increasing integration has continued during human evolution with the progressive increase in the scale of human groups and societies. The trends towards increasing diversification and integration are both driven by selection. An understanding of the trajectory and causal drivers of the trends suggests that they are likely to culminate in the emergence of a global entity. This entity would emerge from the integration of the living processes, matter, energy and technology of the planet into a global cooperative organization. Such an integration of the results of previous diversifications would enable the global entity to exploit the widest possible range of resources across the varied circumstances of the planet. This paper demonstrates that it's case for directionality meets the tests and criticisms that have proven fatal to previous claims for directionality in evolution.

  1. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, John N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the intergroup relations in Japanese society and Japan's educational system. Challenges the view that Japan is a homogeneous society by presenting the various forms of discrimination against Koreans, Ainu, and the burakumin. Suggests that despite ostracism and isolation, groups can affect public policy and achieve social advancement. (SA)

  2. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  3. Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2013-01-01

    I 1500- og 1600-tallet dannedes tidligt moderne stater i Europa, men samtidig eksisterede der ligeså avancerede statsdannelser uden for Europa, bl.a. i Kina, Indien og Japan. I det følgende ser vi nærmere på dannelsen af den moderne stat i Japan. Hvorfor blev Japan aldrig en europæisk koloni......? Hvordan havde japanske magthavere igennem 300 år forberedt Japan og de mennesker, der boede på de japanske øer, til at kunne udvikle en nation, der skulle blive den stærkeste og rigeste i Asien i mere end 100 år? Hvem bestemte i Japan? Kejseren eller shogunen?...

  4. Evolutionarily Cooperative Stable of Science & Technology Alliance Under Self-organized Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    The cooperative evolutionary stability under self-organised organization is discussed in this paper.The differences between the objects studied by cooperative game theory and the ones studied by cooperative game in science & technology alliance are analyzed.The mutant probability of agent's utility under endogenous technical factor condition is analyzed.By clarifying the connotation of Pareto-dominate institution in cooperative game,the efficient and feasible managerial definition of Pareto-dominate Institution in science & technology alliance is presented.The evolutionarily cooperative game for the agent in Pareto-dominate institution is explained.And then the necessary condition of cooperative evolutionary stabilization based on multi-agent utility's dynamic equilibrium is put forward.Finally,the model of alliance's utility's dynamic equilibrium under self-organization is established.

  5. The Comparisons of the Police-citizen Cooperation in America, Japan and China%美日中三国警民合作之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏猛

    2012-01-01

    “警力有限,民力无穷”,在强调公共治理的年代,治安秩序的维护,需要警民相互协作,治安才能得以敌善。通过三国警民合作之比较探析,可见美、日两国做法对我国警民合作有以下启发与参考:加强公安机关对警民合作的认识;加强群总参与警务合作的沟通;公安机关适当放权;社区资源的整合,加大宣传教育力度。%"The police force is limited, but the people's capacity is infinite." In the era of emphasizing the public governance, the maintenance of security and order both needs the police-citizen cooperation, through which the public security can be improved. By the comparative analysis of police-citizen cooperation in America, Japan and China, we can get inspiration and reference as the following: heightening the police awareness of police-citizen cooperation; strengthening the communication between the mass participation and the police cooperation; appropriately decentralizing authority of the public security organizations; integrating the community resources and increasing publicity and education efforts.

  6. Cooperation between International Organizations in Complex Emergencies in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John; LeRiche, Matthew

    This report addresses the challenges of cooperation between international organizations in complex emergencies in fragile states of East Africa. An expert seminar was conducted on the basis of a paper on the subject to discuss problems, challenges, and possible solutions. Denmark and the rest...... of the international community often face the problem of poor coordination, lack of cooperation, and de-confliction of assistance in such situations. Countries and organizations are aware of these problems and have undertaken efforts to resolve them, but it remains insufficient. Attempts to better coordinate have been...... made at various levels—between governments, between organizations, and between local actors. Some improvements in effectiveness are being observed. Since 2005, Danish development policy has tried to take these efforts into account, as do policies that are still under development. The necessity...

  7. Cooperation between International Organizations in Complex Emergencies in Eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John; LeRiche, Matthew

    This report addresses the challenges of cooperation between international organizations in complex emergencies in fragile states of East Africa. An expert seminar was conducted on the basis of a paper on the subject to discuss problems, challenges, and possible solutions. Denmark and the rest...... of the international community often face the problem of poor coordination, lack of cooperation, and de-confliction of assistance in such situations. Countries and organizations are aware of these problems and have undertaken efforts to resolve them, but it remains insufficient. Attempts to better coordinate have been...... made at various levels—between governments, between organizations, and between local actors. Some improvements in effectiveness are being observed. Since 2005, Danish development policy has tried to take these efforts into account, as do policies that are still under development. The necessity...

  8. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazujo Suzuki

    2000-01-01

    This contribution aims to introduce the situation of qualitative research in social science in Japan, with an emphasis on qualitative research in psychology. At first, the history of psychology in Japan is briefly discussed and qualitative research in the history of the Japanese psychology is described. Then trends and problems of qualitative research in present-day psychology are mentioned. Finally, qualitative research in the other social sciences are briefly touched on. URN: urn:nbn:de:...

  9. 11 CFR 114.7 - Membership organizations, cooperatives, or corporations without capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... organizational structure. (j) A membership organization, including a trade association, cooperative, or... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership organizations, cooperatives, or... CORPORATE AND LABOR ORGANIZATION ACTIVITY § 114.7 Membership organizations, cooperatives, or...

  10. A Study on Cooperation between Japan and ASEAN in Science and Technology%日本与东盟科技合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕世鸿

    2005-01-01

    Japan has been for long seeking opportunities to explore the South - East Asian market and continuously to enhance its cooperation with ASEAN countries in science and technology. Currently, Japan has become the most important resource of capital and technology for ASEAN countries, which plays a significant role in boosting economic development in those countries. In future, Japan will continue such close cooperation as well as providing them with corresponding aid so as to strengthen its influence on regional affairs in South - East Asia and its further expansion in ASEAN economy.

  11. Strategic Implications of the Evolving Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    precedent for this kind of activity in the form of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa ( BRICS ) financial cooperation, which, of course, also...involves both China and Russia; one key difference, however, is the considerable economic power wielded by each of the individual BRICS members in... BRICS , and the Eurasian Union. Russia gains political support from these suprana- tional organizations to rally for Russian interests. Fo- rum

  12. The Self-Organized Archive: SPASE, PDS and Archive Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Hughes, J. S.; Roberts, D. A.; Walker, R. J.; Joy, S. P.

    2005-05-01

    Information systems with high quality metadata enable uses and services which often go beyond the original purpose. There are two types of metadata: annotations which are items that comment on or describe the content of a resource and identification attributes which describe the external properties of the resource itself. For example, annotations may indicate which columns are present in a table of data, whereas an identification attribute would indicate source of the table, such as the observatory, instrument, organization, and data type. When the identification attributes are collected and used as the basis of a search engine, a user can constrain on an attribute, the archive can then self-organize around the constraint, presenting the user with a particular view of the archive. In an archive cooperative where each participating data system or archive may have its own metadata standards, providing a multi-system search engine requires that individual archive metadata be mapped to a broad based standard. To explore how cooperative archives can form a larger self-organized archive we will show how the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) data model will allow different systems to create a cooperative and will use Planetary Data System (PDS) plus existing space physics activities as a demonstration.

  13. Cooperation and Conflict: a Law and Economics Analysis of Meta-Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kerk (Maximilian)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOver the second part of the twentieth century inter-firm cooperations have become an increasingly popular phenomenon. These inter-firm cooperations often play out in the form of meta-organizations, which are organizations that are composed of the cooperating organizations. This

  14. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Japan. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2017 is the 14th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing bus...

  15. Cooperation versus confrontation: a comparison of approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, V.T.; Kawamura, K.; Boroush, M.; Ikeda, S.; Lynes, P.F.; Minor, M.S.

    1988-06-01

    This paper compares approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the US. The paper includes a historical examination of two case studies of environmental risk management: synthetic detergents and lead in gasoline. In addition, the paper discusses several important differences between Japan and the US, including (a) different attitudes toward separating environmental risk management from environmental risk assessment, and (b) different approaches toward environmental risk management. Specifically, the Japanese approach is based largely on a cooperative model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on negotiation and consensus-building, while the US approach is based largely on a confrontational model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on rigorous scientific analysis and open adversarial processes.

  16. Russia and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Some Elements of Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Konarovsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new geopolitical reality that resulted from the dissolution of the USSR created the conditions for the establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO in 2001. The successful settlement of border issues between Russia and Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan and Tajikistan as well as with China also facilitated the process. With Uzbekistan joining the “Shanghai Five,” a new regional organization emerged. The SCO’s priorities were in the security sphere and the fight against the proliferation of drugs, illegal migration and organized crime, given the requirements of the times and the specific regional situation (including that in Afghanistan. As one of the active founders, Russia has always taken a leading role in the SCO’s organizational, political and legal formation, including setting specific trends and forms of cooperation, taking common measures, and holding events. During its presidency in 2008–2009 and 2014–2015, Moscow made additional efforts to strengthen cooperation among the SCO members in meeting new regional security challenges and to agree on coordinated positions on the key issues on the international and regional agenda. To increase the SCO’s credibility and political significance, Moscow emphasized its expansion, particularly with regard to the Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt. With global political and economic development growing more complicated, in order to revitalize Russia’s role in the SCO it is necessary to strengthen cooperation with China. The strategic character of bilateral relations reaffirmed at the Russian-Chinese summit in the summer of 2016 set a solid foundation.

  17. Government-promoted collective research and development in Japan: Analyses of the organization through case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hane, G.J.

    1990-06-01

    A study was commissioned by the Energy Conservation and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to better understand the strategies used for cooperative and joint-venture research and development (R D) overseas. The study evaluates the organization and management of several different types of cooperative R D programs in Japan that are sponsored under the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) Program, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) Program, and the Key Technology Center (KTC) Program. The ERATO Program grew out of a concern over revising the government's approach to supporting research and technology development. The program was initiated to address what was regarded as a lack of creativity in areas at the forefront of science. The program recruits young researchers and allows them flexibility to explore multi-disciplinary areas at the forefront of science. It has been organized to allow for individual creativity but at the same time to benefit from the combined knowledge of an assembly of researchers. Because the plan is such a radical departure from conventional Japanese philosophy, it has met with certain bureaucratic obstacles. Visits to four ERATO projects are described. The third program, the KTC Program, focuses on getting private firms to venture into risky areas of advanced technology to pave the way for future industries. Its goal is to encourage a shift of resources in the private sector toward areas that are considered essential for the competitive development of future industries. The principal philosophy behind the KTC is that the private sector is in the best position to identify promising technical challenges and to weigh their commercial potential against research uncertainties. Three KTC research joint ventures are briefly described. 13 refs., 9 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Kazujo

    2000-01-01

    Mit diesem Beitrag wird das Ziel verfolgt, einen ersten Überblick über die Lage der qualitativen Forschung in den Sozialwissenschaften in Japan zu geben. Dabei werden u.a. folgende Themenbereiche fokussiert: Qualitativ-psychologische Forschung (auch unter einer historischen Perspektive), das japanische Verständnis von Sozialwissenschaften, verwendete qualitative Verfahren, sowie die aktuelle Situation der qualitativen Forschung in der Psychologie und in anderen Sozial- und Humanwissenschaften...

  19. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  20. [Current status of "hospital-clinic" and "hospital-pharmacy" cooperation for inhalation therapy -based on hospital surveys throughout Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Chie; Momose, Yasuyuki; Horie, Takeo; Komase, Yuko; Niimi, Akio; Dobashi, Kunio; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Tohda, Yuuji; Ohta, Ken; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2014-02-01

    The "zero death from asthma strategy" in the medical treatment for bronchial asthma has been promoted by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare from 2006, and it indicates that medical and non-medical specialists, as well as pharmacists, should cooperate, and strives to build cooperation which is suited the actual conditions of an area. It is also important for COPD. Although hospitals in some areas cooperate with clinics and pharmacies, the overall concept of cooperation appears to be absent in most Japanese hospitals. A questionnaire was administered in early March, 2012 to 477 allergology institutions, and was authorized by an educational establishment. Among 246 replies from the institutions, cooperation between hospitals and clinics was carried out by 98 institutions (39.8%) specializing in bronchial asthma, and in 64 institutions (37.2%) specializing in COPD. However, cooperation tools were used in only 37 of these institutions (15.0%). The ability to fill prescriptions outside the hospital was available in 209 institutions (85.0%). One-hundred and seventeen institutions (47.6%) replied that they have no tools for hospital-pharmacy cooperation. Direct indications were written in prescriptions by 82 institutions (33.3). In order to build inter-regional association and to equalize medical treatment, we suggest that developing tools and organization for cooperation between health professionals who treat patients with bronchial asthma and COPD is necessary.

  1. The China Factor in Regional Security Cooperation: The ASEAN Regional Forum and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Gerstl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that regional security cooperation in South-East Asia, mainly promoted by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN, is a response to China´s economic rise. Although China is not regarded as a military challenge, Beijing’s ascension threatens to undermine the regional balance of power. The emerging insecurities threaten the stability of the regimes whose power is based on output legitimacy. Cooperation, the thesis states, can reduce these uncertainties. Yet, whereas collaboration in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF offers Beijing incentives for the strengthening of its “enlightened” multilateralism, regional cooperation in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO will not change China’s behaviour. The reason is that this cooperation is based on Realpolitik motives. Offensive Realism seems therefore well suited to analyse the Central Asian power relations. Even though the dimension of cooperation has not been included in John Mearsheimer’s approach, this article demonstrates that it can conceptually be integrated into offensive Realism without contradicting its core theses. For this, however, its adherents must accept two assumptions: First, that the domestic political logic – in case of Beijing the output legitimacy of the Communist Party – must be integrated. Second, that there exists no automatism in international politics. Otherwise one would have to speak of the tragic of offensive Realism: Policies, based on this perception, does not offer China sufficient incentives to further pursue multilateralism. ----- In diesem Aufsatz wird argumentiert, dass die regionale sicherheitspolitische Integration in SüdostundNordostasien, primär von der südostasiatischen Staatengemeinschaft ASEAN vorangetrieben, eine Reaktion auf Chinas wirtschaftlichen Aufstieg verkörpert. Dieser droht das regionale Kräftegleichgewicht zu untergraben, wodurch er Unsicherheiten weckt und damit eine Gefahr für die auf Stabilit

  2. The Function,Future and Support Elements of Farmer Cooperative Economy Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Peng; XIE

    2014-01-01

    The nature of farmer cooperative economy organization( known as FCEO) determines the fact that the economic effects of farmer cooperative economy organization are as important as its social effects. Many experts,however,now would only focus on its economic function, and either neglect or weaken its social influence. Therefore,this paper introduces the theoretical foundation of the farmer cooperative economy organization,and studies the nature of cooperative economics. Based on those typical cases,the future of cooperative organization and four supporting elements were put forward in this paper.

  3. Japan (country/area statements).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Japan, a country generally successful in solving population problems, now faces the problem of an aging population. It must provide welfare for its aged population and give them a role in society. Recognizing the vital importance to economic and social development of population problems in developing countries, Japan has cooperated through bilateral and multilateral channels in assisting various projects of developing countries concerned about population problems. As for bilateral aid, Japan extends technical cooperation to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region countries by providing them with experts, by conducting surveys, by giving equipment, and by organizing training courses, particularly in the field of family planning. Japan also cooperates with some of the developing countries of the ESCAP region by providing them with financial assistance in the form of multilateral cooperation. Japan makes a cash contribution the the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) as the biggest donor country. In fiscal year 1984, the Japanese contribution to UNFPA totaled $US 40.1 million; the contribution will amount of $US 42.9 million in 1985. Aware of the importance of human resource development in the field of population, Japan has organized annual group training courses for the developing countries, namely: the Seminar on Family Planning Administration for Senior Officers; the Seminar on Community-Based Family Planning Strategy; and the Seminar on Health Aspects of Family Planning. Japan generally supports the work of ESCAP with regard to training in the field of population.

  4. China-Japan-Korean Summit:New Barometer for East Asian Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xiaosheng

    2009-01-01

    @@ On December 13, 2008, China Japan-Korean Summit was held in Fukuoka, Japan. The summit, which was greatly different from the previously eight summits held in the framework of ASEAN plus China,Japan and South Korean, that is 10+3, was confined to only these three countries and it's the first time for them to do so. It happened to be China's first foreign activity after the opening of the Central Economic Working Conference in the same month and explained its new economic policy and measures in 2009. In addition, it's the first time for three main economic entities to meet after the breakout of the global financial crisis. Thus financial and economic affairs were the core issues of the summit.

  5. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>To further exchanges and cooperation between the people of China and Japan and enhance ties between the CPAFFC and Japanese non-governmental friendly organizations, President Chen Haosu visited Japan at the head of a CPAFFC delegation from February 7 to 12.

  6. Cooperative organization of bacterial colonies: from genotype to morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Gutnick, D L

    1998-01-01

    In nature, bacteria must often cope with difficult environmental conditions. To do so they have developed sophisticated cooperative behavior and intricate communication pathways. Utilizing these elements, motile microbial colonies frequently develop complex patterns in response to adverse growth conditions on hard surfaces under conditions of energy limitation. We employ the term morphotype to refer to specific properties of colonial development. The morphologies we discuss include a tip-splitting (T) morphotype, chiral (C) morphotype, and vortex (V) morphotype. A generic modeling approach was developed by combining a detailed study of the cellular behavior and dynamics during colonial development and invoking concepts derived from the study of pattern formation in nonliving systems. Analysis of patterning behavior of the models suggests bacterial processes whereby communication leads to self-organization by using cooperative cellular interactions. New features emerging from the model include various models of cell-cell signaling, such as long-range chemorepulsion, short-range chemoattraction, and, in the case of the V morphotype, rotational chemotaxis. In this regard, pattern formation in microorganisms can be viewed as the result of the exchange of information between the micro-level (the individual cells) and the macro-level (the colony).

  7. Profits and Costs of the Development of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the economic profits of rural cooperative economic organizations,the following conclusions are obtained.The rural cooperative economic organizations can get the economic profits which are in accordance with the demands of market-oriented economy.The rural cooperative economic organizations can benefit from sharing the knight service provided by the government;from reducing and avoiding various kinds of risks in operation and from applying the agricultural technology and standardization production.Besides,the organizations can share the profits bought along by the standardized production of agricultural production and their members can enjoy the profits bought by socialized service system.In addition,the rural cooperative economic organizations can enjoy the profits produced by the agricultural management integration strategy.What’ more,they can increase profits by reducing the transaction costs;enlarging scale and enjoying the brand advantages.The analyses of the costs of the development of rural cooperative economic organizations mainly include the organizing costs,operation costs,restriction costs and cooperation costs.We think that the slow development of rural cooperative economic organizations is caused by their high operation cost and the impediment of external environment.In the end,the countermeasures on strengthening the research on the theory,promotion,education and training of rural economic cooperative organizations and intensifying the supports on the policies of rural economic cooperative organizations are put forward.

  8. The Architecture of Co-operation: A Project for organizing collective creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borra, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Architecture of Co-operation investigates the relationship between the collective subject and urban form through co-operation as means of production. The point is how individuals can organize co-operation today for the city as a project and what could be the role of architects into this process.

  9. The U.S.-Japan Alliance: Review of the Guidelines for Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    During debates over legislation to implement the revised guidelines, members of the Diet at- tempted to define the geographic extent of “situations in...administration. In 1999, Japan’s Diet adopted the Act Concerning Measures for Peace and Safety in Areas Surrounding Japan and moved to put in place the necessary...November 2004, a Chinese submarine traveled submerged through Japan’s territorial waters off Okinawa ; in response, Tokyo issued a Maritime Security

  10. Beyond 'Asian Values': Rationales For Australian-Japan Cooperation In Asian Regionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Go Ito

    2010-01-01

    In the past, the experience of the ‘East Asian Miracle’ and the sufferings from the ‘East Asian Meltdown’ were the impetus to generate and develop East Asian regional identity. The situation, however, is changing drastically. The future of East Asia regionalism has become amorphous because of complicated new trends. Japan, one of the important actors that constitute triangular relationships in East Asia, has been encouraging development of East Asian regionalism in the economic arena. Austral...

  11. Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Future Perspective in Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem EREN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the end of the Cold War, as a result of the disintegration of the USSR, many new states has gained their independence in Turkistan, Central Asia and the South Caucasus and multipolar global system has ended and following that the new order emerged building USA as a global power. However, this led to instability in many regions. Firstly, with the emergence of the Independent States Community headed by the Russian Federation, and then a growing giant of China the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was established against the unilateral order of the United States. In Turkey's foreign policy, the organization has been seen as an alternative to the EU which has been on the verge of membership for many years, and which was applied for the application for membership in 2007. However, Turkey needs to be analyzed multidimensionally with positive and negative aspects of membership process; it seems that Turkey can build a long-term relationship with Russia and China based on mutual trust and benefit.

  12. Effect of group organization on the performance of cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving competence at group level is influenced by the structure of the social networks and so it may shed light on the organization patterns of gregarious animals. Here we use an agent-based model to investigate whether the ubiquity of hierarchical networks in nature could be explained as the result of a selection pressure favoring problem-solving efficiency. The task of the agents is to find the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes and the agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to the group. This information is then used to imitate, with a certain probability, the fittest agent in their influence networks. For rugged landscapes, we find that the modular organization of the hierarchical network with its high degree of clustering eases the escape from the local maxima, resulting in a superior performance as compared with the scale-free and the random networks. The optimal performance in a rugged landscape is achieved by letting the main hub to be only slightly more prop...

  13. Meeting Prof. Shin-ichi Kurokawa: "Accelerator" of Scientific Cooperation between Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By XIN Ling (Staff Reporter)

    2012-01-01

    Grey hair, stringed glasses, warm smile and typical Japanese modesty: Prof. Shin-ichi Kurokawa is a distinguished expert in accelerator science, laureate of Rolf Wider6e Prize -- the highest award in his field, and winner of the Award for International Scientific Cooperation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences for 2011. Since the 1980s, he has visited China for

  14. NATIONAL ENERGY SECURITY AND SINO-RUSSIAN-KAZAKH-JAPAN ENERGY COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lifan, Li

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade, the oil demand on the Chinese market has been growing at a vigorous rate, and oil imports have continued to rise on an annual basis. In 2003, with its oil imports exceeding those of Japan, China emerged as the world's second largest oil-importing country behind the United States. Today, imports make up 35% of the total amount of oil consumed in China. In the current composition of China's oil imports, the Middle East accounts for about 50%, Africa for 25%, the Asia-Pacif...

  15. 34 CFR 361.31 - Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration § 361.31 Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. The State plan must describe... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. 361.31 Section 361.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of...

  16. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  17. Bird diversity and abundance in organic and conventional apple orchards in northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the benefits of agri-environmental schemes, such as organic farming, on biodiversity conservation in annual systems, but their effectiveness in perennial systems is less well understood, particularly in bird communities in temperate regions of Asia. This study examined the effects of organic farming practices on species richness and abundance of breeding birds in apple orchards in northern Japan. Bird counts were conducted in six pairs of organic and conventional orchards during the breeding season in April and May 2015. The total species richness of birds, estimated by sample- and coverage-based rarefaction and extrapolation curves, was greater in organic orchards than in conventional orchards. Among the three dietary guilds (insectivore, granivore, and omnivore), only insectivorous species were more abundant in organic orchards than in conventional ones. This study offers the first quantitative evidence that organic farming can be beneficial for enhancing the diversity of birds, particularly of insectivores, in fruit orchards in Japan. PMID:27677408

  18. Construction and Evaluation of the Theoretical Model of Citrus Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the general overview of cooperative economic organizations of citrus industry at home and abroad,theoretical model of the modernization,industrialization and marketization of Citrus Cooperative Organization is established.After selecting the indices,such as the scale of production,the scale of management,the rate of encouraged farmers,and the market competitiveness,quantitative evaluation index system for modernization,industrialization and marketization is established.Then,Citrus Cooperative Organization is divided into three stages,such as primary stage,intermediate stage and senior stage.After evaluating the modernization,industrialization and marketization of citrus industry in the United States,Spain and South Africa,it is pointed out that the Citrus Cooperative Organization in China at present is at the primary stage.Finally,policy direction of the development of Citrus Cooperative Organization in China is pointed out.

  19. The necessity of strengthening the cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations at national, regional, and international levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2013-12-01

    The donation of tissues and organs increases significantly when tissue banks and organ transplant organizations work together in the procurement of organs and tissues at donor sources (hospitals, coroners system, organ procurement agencies, and funeral homes, among others). To achieve this important goal, national competent health authorities should considered the establishment of a mechanism that promote the widest possible cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations with hospitals, research medical institutions, universities, and other medical institutions and facilities. One of the issues that can facilitate this cooperation is the establishment of a coding and traceability system that could identify all tissues and organs used in transplant activities carried out in any country. The promotion of national, regional, and international cooperation between tissue banks and organ transplant organizations would enable the sharing of relevant information that could be important for medical practice and scientific studies carried out by many countries, particularly for those countries with a weak health care system.

  20. The organization and practice of East Asian medicine in Japan: continuity and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, M

    1980-11-01

    The historical development, structure, and organization of traditional East Asian medicine are summarized as background for a discussion of the popular revival of traditional medicine in Japan. Despite evolution and development of traditional medical practice, continuity in attitudes toward medical theory, the concept of holism, and the demonstration of empathy is noted. The main changes have occurred in theories of disease causation and terminology. Revival of interest in East Asian medical systems is explained by a surge of nationalism following rapid social change in Japan, a new emphasis on ecological and cybernetic models, changes in the epidemiology of disease with chronic diseases assuming a more important role, and desire to avoid toxic drugs. Factionalism, competitition and innovation are encouraged by the structure of traditional medicine in Japan. Incorporation of traditional medicine into the organization of cosmopolitan medicine and application of the standards of science to it would probably result in the loss of its special features which are of value to patients.

  1. International Cooperation With Japan in the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/GGS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    The origin of the Geotail Program and the collaboration with Japan traces back to the Origin of Plasmas in the Earth's Neighborhood (OPEN) Program, a fleet of four spacecraft studied at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the early 1980s to conduct multipoint, coordinated measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. The OPEN program was the natural evolution of the early discovery missions, which although finding many new regions and plasmaphysical phenomena in the magnetosphere had problems separating cause-and effect relationships and resolving space-time ambiguities. The primary scientific objective was the coordinated study of the flow of energy, mass, and momentum from the Sun through the interplanetary medium and its eventual deposition in the Earth's atmosphere. This objective was to be achieved in a quantitative manner and to that extent theory, models, and ground-based observations were incorporated for the first time as an integral part of the project baseline. An ambitious ground system, capable of processing and visualizing the vast amounts of data generated by these spacecraft, was also conceived and incorporated in the OPEN concept.

  2. Construction of the Government Support and Evaluation Index System of Farmers’ Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the necessity of evaluation index system of farmers’ cooperative economic organization,the three first level indexes including organization development index,member development index and social development index and 13 second level indexes including aggregate capital of cooperative organization,annual profit share of cooperative organization,annual total income of cooperative organization,etc.,are established according to the principles of Systematics and the methods of Statistics and Quantitative economics.By using the analytical hierarchy process,the weight of each index is tested and the operation result and evaluation mode is established,as well as the index standard value and comprehensive value.As for the result of the evaluation,it is suggested that the government should support the farmers’ cooperative organizations in hierarchy and targeted way according to local conditions.Though the construction of index system and comprehensive score,the government should establish the entry and exit mechanism of farmers’ cooperative organizations to reasonably guild the rapid development of cooperators.

  3. A business process model as a starting point for tight cooperation among organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mysliveček

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing and other kinds of tight cooperation among organizations are more and more necessary for success on all markets (markets of high technology products are particularly influenced. Thus it is important for companies to be able to effectively set up all kinds of cooperation. A business process model (BPM is a suitable starting point for this future cooperation. In this paper the process of setting up such cooperation is outlined, as well as why it is important for business success. 

  4. Background, introduction and activity of the Japan Primary Registries Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Tomonori

    2009-02-01

    Regarding registration and publication of clinical trials, there are now three registry organizations in Japan; the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN), the Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center (JAPIC) and the Japan Medical Association - Center for Clinical Trials (JMACCT). In addition, a portal site which supports searching for information on clinical trials in all three registries has been operated by the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH). After we established a cooperative system, we became a WHO Primary Registry on October 16, 2008 and announced this in Japan on the next day. This cooperation system is called the Japan Primary Registries Network (JPRN). In order to show that this type of network works well as a Primary Registry, we are cooperating with global activities of World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) to promote clinical trials and propose appropriate idea to the world.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Hunan Province Based on Structural Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naman; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Using the method of structural equation and balanced scorecard,this paper establishes the evaluation indicators and evaluation model for the performance of 21 rural cooperative economic organizations in X City of Hunan Province,and analyzes the relationship between indicators and dimensions of performance evaluation indicators,in order to find the influencing factors,obstacles and successful experience concerning the development of rural cooperative economic organizations. According to model analysis and conclusions,this paper sets forth the recommendations for promoting the development of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province,in order to provide a scientific basis for the institutional design and mechanism innovation of rural cooperative economic organizations in Hunan Province.

  6. EPA's Role with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) brings together the governments of countries committed to democracy and the market economy from around the world to support sustainable economic growth.

  7. Alienation of Rural Cooperative Finance and the Innovation of Financial Organization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the elaboration of the content and status of rural cooperative finance, rural cooperative finance--the alienation of rural credit cooperative is introduced from three aspects of the concept and objective of management, the organizational form and management mode, and the service object and business scope. Causes of alienation are analyzed. Firstly, change in the economic foundation of cooperative finance is the fundamental reasons for the alienation. Secondly, mandatory system change led by the government is an important reason for alienation. Thirdly, property and administration structure of rural credit cooperative are the internal reasons for alienation of agricultural support. To achieve the innovation of rural cooperative financial organization, the following aspects should be done: cultivating the basis for rural cooperative economy, further promoting the reform of rural credit cooperatives (innovating a variety of property rights modes; making clear definition of ownership; implementing the internal governance structure), introducing competition in the field of rural cooperative finance, and homing function of government and rural cooperative finance.

  8. The Organization of Islamic Cooperation in contemporary international society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Luis Gutiérrez Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC is an international organisation consisting of 57 member States of Muslim confession, also Palestina. This organisation is "the collective voice of the Muslim world" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony". In 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM in Astana (Kazakhstan the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference to its current name.The OIC also changed its logo at this time.The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC has a permanent delegation of the United Nations and it’s the second largest international organisation outside the United Nations. In recent years it has been increasing its importance in the international society and it has played an important role in regional conflicts

  9. Another Life: social cooperation and a-organic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Terranova

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author draws attention to some key concepts of the political economy of digital culture asking whether new theories of social production and sympathetic cooperation, in the work of authors such as Yochai Benkler and Maurizio Lazzarato, can offer an alternative to the neoliberal logic of market-based competition as the basis for the production of new forms of life.

  10. Case Study on the Development of Forestry Cooperative Organization after the Collective Forest Reform in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the problems of forestry cooperative organization after the collective forest reform in China, this study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization in Jiashang village of Shaowu City, which is an important part of the northwest green industry zone in Fujian Province. Chinese farmers have their own use right of forest land after China’s collective forest reform. Cooperation requirement of forest production is increasing after the clarification of the use right. Paper by collecting the second-hand data, training the farmers in participatory interview and discussing with staff members of forestry bureau, many problems have been founded. This study investigated different stakeholders of the cooperative organization. According to the study, the main problems of the cooperative development are lack of motivations, requirement, operating capability, proper environment for legal operation and policy guarantee. Based on these problems, this study gives some suggestions such as Providing Fundamental Legal System Guarantee, Policy Guidance, Providing Sound Developing Conditions and Gradual Guiding the sound Development of Cooperatives to improve the development of forest cooperatives in collective forest area.

  11. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  12. Rural Cooperative Economic Organized United Association: A Case Study of Baoding City of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Yi-xiang; ZHANG Hong-jie

    2012-01-01

    Taking its development in Baoding City as an example, we introduced service fields of rural cooperative economic organized united association. It mainly includes setting up service platform and providing scientific and technological services; organizing economic and trade negotiation and exchange, and promoting farmer-supermarket partnership; providing financial services and solving fund-raising problems. In line with these fields, we analyzed existing problems: (i) regional development is unbalanced and organization lacks internal connection; (ii) the development in some counties (cities) is to be improved, and the promotion effect is not significant; (iii) there is shortage of talent and the innovation strength is not enough; and (iv) it lacks system and management lacks restriction mechanism. Finally, we put forward countermeasures and recommendations: strengthen propaganda and cultivate farmers’ cooperative awareness; incorporate rural cooperative economic organized united association into formal system arrangement, and absorb professional talents; innovate upon organization system of rural cooperative economic organized united association and improve service methods; improve internal operating mechanism and innovate upon working contents of rural cooperative economic organized united association at new development background.

  13. Seeking Common Development While Reserving Differences——Speech at the rally by friendly people's organizations from China and Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Chengren; Wang; Xiaoyi(Translated)

    2005-01-01

    Today, friendly people's organizations from China and Japan are gathering here in Tokyo. First of all,please allow me to express our warm congratulations to the successful holding of this rally and heartfelt thanks to Japanese friendly organizations, including Japan-China Friendship Association and JapanChina Association, for their thoughtful arrangements and warm hospitality extended to us.

  14. 48 CFR 225.871 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) cooperative projects. 225.871 Section 225.871 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Other International Agreements and Coordination 225.871 North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  15. Cooperative Learning and the Organization of Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar, Hanna; Sharan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    Describes the interrelationship between school organization and classroom instructional style. Characterizes the bureaucratic and the open systems models of school organization in terms of three major dimensions of school life: administrator, teacher, and student behaviors; work design and tasks; and space-time allocations. The bureaucratic…

  16. Wind and seismic effects. Proceedings of the 24th Joint Meeting of the US-Japan Cooperative Program in Natural Resources Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raufaste, Noel J.

    1992-09-01

    The publication is the proceeding of the 24th Joint Meeting of the U.S.-Japan Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects. The meeting was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland during May 19-22, 1992. The proceedings include the program, list of members, panel resolutions, task committee reports, and 45 technical papers. The papers were presented under five themes: (1) Wind Engineering, (2) Storm Surge and Tsunamis, (3) Joint Cooperative Research Program, (4) Earthquake Engineering, and (5) Summaries of Task Committee Workshop Reports (oral presentations only).

  17. IT Knowledge Requirements Identification in Organizational Networks: Cooperation Between Industrial Organizations and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzajs, Peteris; Kirikova, Marite

    ICT professionals face rapid technology development, changes in design paradigms, methodologies, approaches, and cooperation patterns. These changes impact relationships between universities that teach ICT disciplines and industrial organizations that develop and use ICT-based products. The required knowledge and skills of university graduates depend mainly on the current industrial situation; therefore the university graduates have to meet industry requirements which are stated at the time point of their graduation, not at the start of their studies. Continuous cooperation between universities and industrial organizations is needed to identify a time and situation-dependent set of knowledge requirements, which lead to situation aware, industry acknowledged, balanced and productive ICT study programs. This chapter proposes information systems solutions supporting cooperation between the university and the industrial organizations with respect to curriculum development in ICT area.

  18. Spatial Distribution and Temporal Trend of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds Derived from the 2011 East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Hirai, Yasuko; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Endo, Satoshi; Okuda, Keiji; Takada, Hideshige; Murakami-Sugihara, Naoko; Shirai, Kotaro; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 disturbed coastal environments in the eastern Tohoku region in Japan. Numerous terrestrial materials, including anthropogenic organic compounds, were deposited in the coastal zone. To evaluate the impacts of the disaster, we analyzed PCBs, LABs, PAHs, and hopanes in mussels collected from 12 locations in the east of Tohoku during 2011-2015 (series A) by GC-ECD or GC-MS and compared them with results from mussels collected from 22 locations around Japan during 2001-2004 (series B). Early LAB concentrations in series A at some locations were higher than the maximum concentrations in series B but decreased during the 5 years. Because LABs are molecular markers for sewage, these decreases are consistent with the recovery of sewage treatment plants in these areas. Early PAH concentrations at several locations were higher than the maximum concentrations in series B but also decreased. These high concentrations would have been derived from oil spills. The decreases of both LABs and PAHs indicate that these locations were affected by the tsunami but recovered. In contrast, later high concentrations of target compounds were detected sporadically at several locations. This pattern suggests that environmental pollution was caused by human activities, such as reconstruction. To understand the long-term trend of environmental pollution induced by the disaster, continuous monitoring along the Tohoku coast is required.

  19. Development of New Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations from the Perspective of Institutional Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua; BAI

    2015-01-01

    Appearance of new rural cooperative economic organizations is the result of institutional change and also important institutional arrangement and innovation promoting rural development of China. At present,development of rural cooperative economic organizations is faced with problems of unsmooth operation and management mechanism,lack of supervision mechanism,internal system defect and imperfect law,weak policy support,and imperfect financial system. In this situation,government should take due responsibility from improving legal system,strengthening policy support,deepening rural market reform,and improving rural financial system.

  20. From agape to organs: religious difference between Japan and America in judging the ethics of transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, William R

    2002-09-01

    This essay argues that Japan's resistance to the practice of transplanting organs from persons deemed "brain dead" may not be the result, as some claim, of that society's religions being not yet sufficiently expressive of love and altruism. The violence to the body necessary for the excision of transplantable organs seems to have been made acceptable to American Christians at a unique historical "window of opportunity" for acceptance of that new form of medical technology. Traditional reserve about corpse mutilation had weakened and, especially as presented by the theologian Joseph Fletcher, organ donation was touted as both expressive of agape and a way of "updating" Christianity via the ethics of Utilitarianism. Many Japanese, largely Buddhist and Confucian in their orientation, view these changed valorizations as neither necessary nor patently more ethical than those of their own traditions.

  1. New Sunshine Project for fiscal 1997 on the international cooperation project. Cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other countries; 1997 nendo new sunshine keikaku kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. Nichigo nado taiyo energy gijutsu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the state of progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country, the memorandum concluded for the new project, and the activity report on the NEDO/MUERI project. The progress in the cooperation in solar energy technologies among Japan, Australia and other country is divided into that of the new project and that of the continued project. The former relates to the start of the long-term endurance test project for photovoltaic solar modules in Oman. The location of the endurance test is the Sultan Qaboos University in the suburb of Muscat. Modules subjected to the endurance test consist of ten modules of five types. The test will be performed on air temperature, humidity, wind directions, insolation on horizontal surface, insolation on slanted surface, ultraviolet ray intensity, module temperatures, and electric characteristics of the modules. The continued project is an outdoor endurance test for the photovoltaic solar modules begun in fiscal 1996, which is executed by the Murdock University Energy Research Institute (MUERI). The endurance test locations were selected at Darwin, Alice Springs and Perth. This paper reports the photovoltaic solar module endurance test and investigation, as well as the periodical consultations as the activity report of the NEDO/MUERI project. (NEDO)

  2. MEMBER PRIVILEGES——Each of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization members finds its own national interests served within the regional organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIDOROV; OLEG

    2006-01-01

    Facing common security threats, leaders of six countries-Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-established the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in June 2001 to maintain regional stability and security, fight terrorism and extremism, prevent conflicts and enhance economic cooperation. The SCO's primary goals are economic cooperation and fighting terrorism.

  3. Effect of self-organized interdependence between populations on the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, based on interdependent networks, the effect of self-organized interdependence on the evolution of cooperation is studied. Different from the previous works, the interdependent strength, which can effectively improve the fitness of players, is taken as a kind of limited resources and co-evolves with players' strategy. We show that the self-organization of interdependent strength would spontaneously lead to power law distribution at the stationary state, where the level of cooperation in system can be significantly promoted. Furthermore, when intermediate quantity of interdependence resources existing in system, the power law distribution is most evident with the power β ≈ 1.72, meanwhile the level of cooperation also reaches the maximum value. We discuss the related microscopic system properties which are responsible for the observed results and also demonstrate that the power law distribution of interdependence resources is an elementary property which is robust against the governing repeated games and the initial resources allocation patterns.

  4. Car indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds and aldehydes in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Tatsu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five organic substances including volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aldehydes present in indoor air were measured from 24 car cabins in Japan. A screening-level risk assessment was also performed. Acetaldehyde (3.81–36.0 μg/m3, formaldehyde (3.26–26.7 μg/m3, n-tetradecane (below the method quantification limit (organic compounds originated from the car interior materials. Total volatile organic compound (TVOC concentrations in 14 car cabins (58% of all car cabins exceeded the advisable values established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (400 μg/m3. The highest TVOC concentration (1136 μg/m3 was found in a new car (only one month since its purchase date. Nevertheless, TVOC concentrations exceeded the advisable value even for cars purchased over 10 years ago. Hazard quotients (HQs for formaldehyde obtained using measured median and highest concentrations in both exposure scenarios for occupational use (residential time in a car cabin was assumed to be 8 h were higher than that expected, a threshold indicative of potential adverse effects. Under the same exposure scenarios, HQ values for all other organic compounds remained below this threshold.

  5. Major Action of Chinese Petroleum Industry on Cooperation with Foreign Companies Petroleum cooperation contract signed in Beijing by Sino- US-Japan companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhongqiu; Cheng Xiao

    1994-01-01

    @@ The Petroleum Cooperation Contract on the Third Block of the southeast part of Tarim Basin was signed on Dec.20, 1993 in Beijing by and between China National Petroleum Corporation, and Esso China Ltd., Sumitomo Corporation, Indonesia Petroleum Ltd. It is the first contract with the foreign companies in terms of petroleum exploration and development in Tarim Basin and also the first contract by public bidding for onshore petroleum cooperation.Therefore, the signature of this contract not only marks the cooperation in Tarim Basin has enter into a new stage for petroleum exploration and development by introducing foreign funds and technology; but also marks Chinese petroleum industry has entered into a new stage of full opening to the outside world.

  6. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchical self-organization and the specific structures we obtain possess the two, perhaps most important features of complex systems: a simultaneous presence of adaptability and stability. In addition, the performance (success score of the emerging networks is significantly higher than the average expected score of the individuals without letting them copy the decisions of the others. The results of our calculations are in agreement with a related experiment and can be useful from the point of designing the optimal conditions for constructing a given complex social structure as well as understanding the hierarchical organization of such biological structures of major importance as the regulatory pathways or the dynamics of neural networks.

  7. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  8. Competing Through Cooperation: The Organization of Standard Setting in Wireless Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Elina Leiponen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines cooperative standard setting in wireless telecommunications. Focusing on the competition among firms to influence formal standardization, the roles of standard-setting committees, private alliances, and industry consortia are highlighted. The empirical context is Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an international standards-development organization in the wireless telecommunication industry. Panel data analyses exploiting natural experiments caused by a consortiu...

  9. Significant anaerobic production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the deep East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) was examined by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Humic-like FDOM (FDOMH) increased with depth and was significantly correlated with Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), indicating that FDOMH in the deep water is mainly produced by oxidation of organic matter. In addition, a surprisingly large excess of FDOMH relative to that expected from the observed AOU was found from 1000 m to the bottom (up to 3500 m). Based on the high-resolution geographical distribution and characteristics of FDOM in the East Sea, we conclude that this excess likely originates from anaerobic FDOMH production in subsurface bottom sediments. This FDOMH flux accounts for 8-15% of the total FDOM production in the water column. Our results suggest that anaerobic activities in subsurface sediments are an important hidden source of FDOM in the ocean.

  10. Hierarchical self-organization of non-cooperating individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Nepusz, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchy is one of the most conspicuous features of numerous natural, technological and social systems. The underlying structures are typically complex and their most relevant organizational principle is the ordering of the ties among the units they are made of according to a network displaying hierarchical features. In spite of the abundant presence of hierarchy no quantitative theoretical interpretation of the origins of a multi-level, knowledge-based social network exists. Here we introduce an approach which is capable of reproducing the emergence of a multi-levelled network structure based on the plausible assumption that the individuals (representing the nodes of the network) can make the right estimate about the state of their changing environment to a varying degree. Our model accounts for a fundamental feature of knowledge-based organizations: the less capable individuals tend to follow those who are better at solving the problems they all face. We find that relatively simple rules lead to hierarchic...

  11. Formation of organic iodine supplied as iodide in a soil-water system in Chiba, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Yoko S; Takahashi, Yoshio; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-03-15

    Speciation of iodine in a soil-water system was investigated to understand the mechanism of iodine mobility in surface environments. Iodine speciation in soil and pore water was determined by K-edge XANES and HPLC-ICP-MS, respectively, for samples collected at a depth of 0-12 cm in the Yoro area, Chiba, Japan. Pore water collected at a 0-6 cm depth contained 50%-60% of organic iodine bound to dissolved organic matter, with the other portion being I(-). At a 9-12 cm depth, 98% of iodine was in the form of dissolved I(-). In contrast, XANES analysis revealed that iodine in soil exists as organic iodine at all depths. Iodine mapping of soil grains was obtained using micro-XRF analysis, which also indicated that iodine is bound to organic matter. The activity of laccase, which has the ability to oxidize I(-) to I(2), was high at the surface of the soil-water layer, suggesting that iodide oxidizing enzymes can promote iodine organification. The distribution coefficient of organic iodine in the soil-water system was more than 10-fold greater than that of iodide. Transformation of inorganic iodine to organic iodine plays an important role in iodine immobilization, especially in a surface soil-water system.

  12. Japan-Australia Co-operative Program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes: phase II (1990-1995)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hart, K.P. [eds.

    1996-05-01

    The major activities associated with Japan-Australia Co-operative Program were the preparation, characterization and subsequent testing of both Cm-doped Synroc containing PW-4b simulated waste and Cm-doped single-phase zirconolite and perovskite, and the initiation of studies on naturally-occurring zirconolites to study the long-term durability of this mineral phase over geological time. The preparation of the Cm-doped samples was carried out in JAERI`s WASTEF facility at Tokai, with technical information and assistance provided by ANSTO where necessary. The experiments were designed to induce accelerated radiation damage in Synroc samples that would correspond to periods of Synroc storage of up to 100,000 years. The results are of considerable importance in evaluating the potential of the Synroc process as a means of dealing with HLW waste streams and represent a significant contribution to the understanding of the ability of Synroc to immobilize HLW elements. Overall the Phase II Co-operative Program has continued the excellent co-operative working relationship between the staff at the two institutions, and provided a better understanding of the potential advantages and limitations of Synroc as a second generation waste form. The work has shown the need for additional studies to be carried out on the effect of the levels of Cm-doping on the Cm leach rate, extension of natural analogue studies to define the geological conditions under which zirconolite is stable and development of models to provide long-term predictions of releases of HLW elements from Synroc under a range of repository conditions. It is strongly recommended that the program carried out in Phase II of the Co-operative Agreement be extended for a further three years to allow additional information on the above areas to be collected and reported in a document providing an overview of the Co-operative Program and recommendations on HLW management strategies. (J.P.N.).

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the feasibility survey of Japan`s cooperation into energy/environment related fields in Asian countries; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Asia shokoku ni okeru energy kankyo kanren bun`ya eno kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A survey was made to study possibilities of Japan`s cooperation in tackling energy/environment problems in Asian countries. In 1995 the GNP growth rate was 2.6% in the world, while it was 7.9% in Asia showing a rapid growth. With the accelerating industrialization and urbanization, energy demand is now over three times as much as that in the 1980s. This means increases in waste and environmental pollution. Especially, the use of firewood in non-electrified areas is a serious problem the same as the slash-and-burn farming and deforestation. Also relating to the production of electric power, it is inevitable to choose hydroelectric power and renewable energy in addition to fossil fuels. Therefore, the necessity is heightening of various technologies for it and environmental protection technologies such as coal cleaning. Local areas, where the population density is extremely low and the electrification cost is high, became victims of elecrification. There the power system should be shifted from the central supply system to the local distributed one. For it, it is necessary to recognize an importance of the distributed type renewable energy which is friendly to the environment. The paper outlined the state of each country and energy by policy and environment. 10 figs., 83 tabs.

  14. COOPERATING,WITH COMPLICATIONS——The Shanghai Cooperation Organization still has a long way to go before it can operate effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUFRIN; GENNADY

    2006-01-01

    On June 15,2001, the Declaration on the Establishment of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was signed, marking the formal launch of the regional organization. Its history can be traced back to 19% when Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan formed the Shanghai Five, later renamed the Shanghai Forum. After Uzbekistan joined, the forum changed into

  15. The current status and future perspectives of organ donation in Japan: learning from the systems in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Akihiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-04-01

    The revised Organ Transplant Law came into effect in Japan in July 2010. The law allows for organ procurement from brain-dead individuals, including children, with family consent from subjects who had not previously rejected organ donation. Nevertheless, the number of cadaveric organ donations has not increased as expected. The Spanish Model is widely known as the most successful system in the field of organ donation. The system includes an earlier referral of possible donors to the transplant coordination teams, a new family-based approach and care methods, and the development of additional training courses aimed at specific groups of professionals, which are supported by their corresponding societies. South Korea, a country which neighbors Japan, has recently succeeded in increasing the rates of organ donation by introducing several systems, such as incentive programs, an organ procurement organization, a donor registry, and a system to facilitate potential donor referral. In this review, we present the current status of organ donation in Japan and also explore various factors that may help to improve the country's low donation rate based on the experiences of other developed countries.

  16. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  17. Global cooperation among diverse organizations to reduce illegal fishing in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterblom, Henrik; Bodin, Orjan

    2012-08-01

    Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is prevalent globally and has detrimental effects on commercial fish stocks and nontarget species. Effective monitoring and enforcement aimed at reducing the level of IUU fishing in extensive, remote ocean fisheries requires international collaboration. Changes in trade and vessel activities further complicate enforcement. We used a web-based survey of governmental and nongovernmental organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean to collect information on interorganizational collaborations. We used social-network analyses to examine the nature of collaborations among the identified 117 organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing. International collaboration improved the ability to control and manage harvest of commercially important toothfish (Dissostichus spp.) stocks and reduced bycatch of albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in longlines of IUU fishing vessels. The diverse group of surveyed organizations cooperated frequently, thereby making a wide range of resources available for improved detection of suspected IUU vessels and trade flows, cooperation aimed at prosecuting suspected offenders or developing new policy measures. Our results suggest the importance of a central agency for coordination and for maintaining commonly agreed-upon protocols for communication that facilities collaboration. Despite their differences, the surveyed organizations have developed common perceptions about key problems associated with IUU fishing. This has likely contributed to a sustained willingness to invest in collaborations. Our results show that successful international environmental governance can be accomplished through interorganizational collaborations. Such cooperation requires trust, continuous funding, and incentives for actors to participate.

  18. Work support for working age persons who have experienced a stroke in Japan: cooperation between hospitals and work support agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoko; Mineo, Mai; Yaeda, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The number of Japanese working age persons who have experienced a stroke is significantly increasing. In such cases work support is an urgent issue. Although an active cooperation between medical institutions and work support agencies is critical, it has been insufficient, due to an absence of key coordinators with sufficient knowledge in both occupational therapy and work support or vocational rehabilitation. The present paper introduced two case studies to illustrate the importance of the cooperation between medical institutions and work support agencies and discussed reasons why medical institutions have difficulties in supporting persons who have experienced a stroke in their return to work.

  19. Research on Benefit Distribution Mechanism of Farmers’ Specialized Cooperative Economic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of conducting survey in Jiaonan City,the thesis analyzes benefit distribution mechanism of farmers’ specialized cooperative economic organizations:firstly,the benefit correlation is mainly the contract correlation;secondly,the profit distribution is mainly the dividend;thirdly,patronage refund has many connotations;fourthly,the public accumulation has not yet been quantified to individual;fifthly,the government support capital is ill-defined.Based on these,the measures are put forward in order to improve benefit distribution pattern of farmers’ specialized cooperative economic organizations:firstly,reform structure of property rights and realize farmers’ ownership;secondly,change mode of decision-making,and realize farmers’ control;thirdly,increase turnover rebate and realize farmers’ benefiting;fourthly,quantify public accumulation and government support fund.

  20. Service allocation based on QoS evaluation in military organization cloud cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Zhang; Haiyang Sun; Yanxia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The problem of cloud cooperation of military service providers (MSPs) is addressed for alocating limited resources to military service users (MSUs) that are geographicaly dis-tributed. The MSPs, also caled military organization clouds, are virtualized and encapsulated by the services they can offer and each of them contains different kinds of resources that MSU needs. The MSPs are also geographicaly dis-persed. They are required to alocate their resources to the MSU complying with the corresponding quality of service (QoS), so that each MSU gathers the services it needs to guarantee its task to be implemented. The outline of military organization cloud cooperation is discussed and the method of service optimal selection is proposed based on QoS evaluation. The QoS evaluation method based on exponential approximation is put forward to include the users’ will. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in Western Japan: An Observed Limitation of the f44 Oxidation Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Takao; Arakaki, Tekemitsu; Sato, Kei; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Bandow, Hiroshi; Hatakeyama, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    To obtain evidence for secondary organic aerosol formation during the long range transport of air masses over the East China Sea, we conducted field measurements in March 2012 at the Fukue atmospheric monitoring station, Nagasaki, in western Japan. The relative abundance of m/z 44 in fine organic aerosol mass spectra (f44) was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor. The stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) of low volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) in the daily filter samples of total suspended particulate matter was also analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Additionally, in situ measurements of NOx and NOy were performed using NOx and NOy analyzers. The measurements showed that, unlike the systematic trends observed in a previous field study, a scatter plot for d13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 indicated a random variation. Comparison of f44 with the photochemical age estimated by the NOx to NOy ratio revealed that the f44 values distri...

  2. Japan-Australia co-operative program on research and development of technology for the management of high level radioactive wastes. Final report 1985 to 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.; Vance, E.; Lumpkin, G. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Mitamura, H.; Banba, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The overall aim of the Co-operative Program has been to promote the exchange of information on technology for the management of High-Level Wastes (HLW) and to encourage research and development relevant to such technology. During the 13 years that the Program has been carried out, HLW management strategies have matured and developed internationally, and Japan has commenced construction of a domestic reprocessing and vitrification facility for HLW. The HLW management strategy preferred is a national decision. Many countries are using vitrification, direct disposal of spent fuel or a combination of both to handle their existing wastes whereas others have deferred the decision. The work carried out in the Co-operative Program provides strong scientific evidence that the durability of ceramic waste forms is not significantly affected by radiation damage and that high loadings of actinide elements can be incorporated into specially designed ceramic waste forms. Moreover, natural minerals have been shown to remain as closed systems for U and Th for up to 2.5 b y. All of these results give confidence in the ability of second generation waste forms, such as Synroc, to handle future waste arisings that may not be suitable for vitrification 87 refs., 15 tabs., 22 figs.

  3. [Approaches for suicide prevention in Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center: the importance of multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with other organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a very common problem in psychiatric practice today. Therefore, almost all staff of psychiatric hospitals have encountered the suicide of one or more of their patients. Our hospital, Osaka Psychiatric Medical Center, is a public psychiatric hospital in Japan. We provide treatment and support for patients from the acute to chronic phases of psychiatric disorders, and patients range from children to the elderly. Because we accept many patients with severe mental illness from other hospitals, many of our staff are routinely confronted with patients' violence or suicidal attempts. If a patient commits suicide, the relevant staff immediately have a conference to implement measures for preventing a recurrence. At the same time, information about the incident is conveyed to the medical safety management office and made known to all staff in our hospital. This office was established in 2007. Currently, all information about incidents and accidents in our hospital (e.g., suicide, problems between patients, problems with hospital facilities) is aggregated in the office and distributed to all staff members through the hospital intranet. This system makes it possible for staff to consider countermeasures against similar incidents and accidents, even if not involved in the incident. Additionally, we make an effort to develop cooperative relationships with organizations including the police, public health centers, and the fire department. The social welfare council in Hirakata City, where our hospital is located, provides some services to prevent suicide (e.g., telephone counseling, meetings with bereaved family members). Our hospital cooperates with these services by providing lecturers. The partnerships with these organizations help regarding the mental crises of patients in our hospital and fulfill a role to prevent suicide. Multi-disciplinary cooperation and partnerships with community organizations are not special approaches to suicide prevention, but ordinary

  4. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Government of People's Republic of Bangladesh concerning Education, Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics

  5. Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation Agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and The Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High Energy Physics

  6. Organic geochemical evidence for climate changes over the lateglacial-Holocene in Lake Suigetsu, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E. J.; Nakagawa, T.; Tyler, J.; Juggins, S.; Bronk-Ramsey, C.; Bryant, C.; Staff, R.; Brock, F.; Lamb, H.; Brauer, A.; Marshall, M.; Schlolaut, G.; Yokoyama, Y.; Tarasov, P.; Payne, R. L.; Haraguchi, T.; Yonenobu, H.; Tada, R.; Gotanda, K.; Kossler, A.; Demske, D.; Takemura, K.; Ikehara, M.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Suigetsu is a small lake in central Japan under strong influence from both summer and winter monsoonal systems. In 2006 a ~73m continuous sediment record was collected from the lake, spanning the last ~150ka, and with annually laminated (varved) sediments back to ~70ka. The site was recently named a parastratotype of the Holocene onset [1] following pollen-derived evidence of abrupt warming at the start of the Holocene [2]. Here we examine organic geochemical evidence for climate change at the Holocene onset and 8.2ka. Changes in the total organic content (TOC) of the sediment is determined at ~decadal resolution via a site specific TOC calibration using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Lipid biomarker analysis enables the examination of both autochthonous (within-lake) and catchment responses to climate change and compound specific isotope ratios (D/H) are used as a proxy for precipitation/evaporation variations independent of the evidence derived from pollen. We investigate potential lead/lag between proxies which will be of importance when trying to understand the nature of responses of different proxies to climate change as well as the nature and timing of abrupt climate changes. References: [1] Walker, M. et al. 2009. Journal of Quaternary Science, 24, 3-17 [2] Nakagawa, T. et al. 2003. Science, 299, 688-691.

  7. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co(III) (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-10-24

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-Co(III) (porphyrin) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent Co(III) (porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-Co(III) (porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated Co(III) (porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 75 FR 61503 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization for a Plan to Develop a Global...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Organization (WHO), Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses, to develop a plan for a global integrated food... for awarding a cooperative agreement to the WHO, Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses to develop...

  9. National Institute of Informatics completes international expansion of Japan's first 10 Gbps academic research network "SuperSINET"

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "SuperSINET is Japan's first 10 Gbps Optical high-speed research network built to drive the academic research activities in Japan by establishing the strong cooperation between major high-tech research institutes, universities or other academic organizations across the world" (1/2 page).

  10. Radiocesium distribution on sea sediment and in benthic organisms in the north-east Japan coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Tsuneo; Ambe, Daisuke; Kaeriyama, Hideki; Shigenobu, Yuya; Fujimoto, Ken; Saito, Hajime; Miki, Shiduho; Setou, Takashi; Morita, Takami; Watanabe, Tomowo [National Research Institute of Fisheries Sciences, Fisheries Research Agency, 2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawaward, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 236-8648 (Japan); Sawada, Hideki [National Resarch Institute of Fisheries Engineering, Fisheries Research Agency, 7620-7, Hasaki, Kamisu-shi, Ibaraki, 314-0408 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radioactive materials, especially radiocesium, were discharged into the western North Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. Although radiocesium concentrations in sea water had quickly diminished via water mixing processes, significant amount still existed on sea floors near Fukushima Prefecture. To assess present distributions and/or spatio-temporal variations of sea sediment radiocesium and its potential affection to benthic ecosystems, we had conducted 5'x5' 2-D observation of sea sediment radiocesium concentrations repeatedly from Feb. 2012 to Jul. 2013. Off Fukushima Prefecture, the higher concentration area of radioactive cesium was often observed in the south area from the FDNPP and a north-south high value band was tended to be along the isobaths around 100 m where the concentration values up to thousands Bq/kg-dry order were observed. The concentrations generally decreased eastward from the high concentration band. At many surveyed positions, the vertical profiles of the radiocesium concentrations in sea sediment showed an exponentially decreasing in deeper layer. The influence of the FDNPP was suggested to generally reach up to 10 cm depth from sediment-surface. A negative correlation was found between the radiocesium concentration and median grain size of the sediment, suggesting that the adsorption capability of sediment for cesium associated with grain size possibly has a large contribution to the formation process of the spatial distribution pattern of the radiocesium concentration. In contrast to the land sediment, Chemical reaching experiment results showed that the radiocesium concentration in the organic component of bottom sediment has higher value than that of bulk sediment, suggesting that non-exchangeable adsorption cite of mineral component of marine sediments had already occupied by stable cesium (~2 nM in

  11. The Catalytic Factor of the Sino-Japanese Security Dilemma: The New 1997 Defense Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    79 Francis Fukuyama and Kongdan Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1993...8. 80 Fukuyama and Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War, 12. 81 Japan Defense Agency, Defense of Japan 1992, 51. 30...security strategy. 82 Fukuyama and Oh, The U.S.-Japan Security Relationship after the Cold War, 13

  12. Survey report for fiscal 1998 on research and development and its staff training. Towards cooperation among Japan, Australia and developing nations in Asia; Kenkyu kaihatsu to sono jinzai ikusei 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nippon, Australia oyobi Asia no hatten tojokoku no kyodo wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the characteristics of R and D concerning Australia, one of the core nations in the cooperation, on the basis of the idea that 'establishment of new comparative superiority through cooperation' can be realized by joint work among Japan, Australia and Asian nations. In Australia, it was found that R and D was often promoted through a new idea obtained by recruiting heterogeneous persons and communicating mutually internally. It was also found that in Australia an affinity exists to such persons of different nature. Accordingly, Australia was presumably quite suitable for the place to bring up the persons of developing nations. On the basis of these analytical results, proposal was made to promote three programs; namely, preparation of a data base for R and D organizations and the staff, commencement of a partnership program, and opening of a needs searching conference. (NEDO)

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) from Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Kensaku; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Tsukue, Naomi; Yoshino, Tomoo; Matsumoto, Fumio; Nakano, Takeshi; Tang, Ning; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Toriba, Akira

    2017-09-01

    The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from eastern Hokkaido is classified as a Special Natural Monument in Japan. In this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs) (36ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (16ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (4.4ng/g lipid weight), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (1.8ng/g lipid weight), and finally, Mirex (1.5ng/g lipid weight). Additionally, a positive correlation was found among POP concentrations. No sex differences beyond body parameters were observed. Additionally, red-crowned cranes exhibited a high enantiomeric excess of (+)-alpha-HCH, with enantiomer fractions varying from 0.51 to 0.87 (average: 0.69). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilizing an ANP framework for prioritizing effective criteria on performance management in cooperative organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Akhavan Alavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance management plays an essential role on increasing efficiency of business units. It helps find important barriers against a business unit helping us setup better strategies for handling troubles. In this paper, we present an empirical study to find important factors influencing performance management in cooperative organizations. The proposed study uses analytical hierarchy process to rank important factors in three groups of team level, individual and organization levels. The survey is based on receiving feedbacks from decision makers and making a pairwise comparison on measuring the relative importance of each criterion influencing performance management. The results of our survey indicate that setting appropriate standards for performance management is the most important item followed by relationship between organization structure and performance management, performance management based on future events. The other three factors including continuous improvement and updating systems, encouraging employee for change culture and relationship between future outlook and performance management are other important factors.

  15. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10–100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems. PMID:28262696

  16. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  17. Computational method validation: An OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) working group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from eleven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries participated in an exercise to validate computer calculations to evaluate the criticality safety for several fissile material transport and handling situations. A procedure evolved from this work which has been shown to demonstrate whether a given computation method produces ''valid'' results. This procedure is expected to provide a basis for acceptance of computational results on an international basis by regulatory authorities through the comparison of methods used by the various countries. This work will also provide the framework for validating computational methods for other applications such as heat transfer and neutron/gamma shielding.

  18. Prophylaxis of acute viral hepatitis by immune serum globulin, hepatitis B vaccine, and health education: a sixteen year study of Japan overseas cooperation volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, H; Ebisawa, I; Naruto, H

    1997-01-01

    From 1978 to 1993 a study of acute viral hepatitis contracted by the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) during their assignments in tropical and subtropical countries was conducted. Of 10,509 subjects in this study, 240 cases of acute viral hepatitis were confirmed (hepatitis A = 139, hepatitis B = 72, and non-A, non-B hepatitis = 29). The annual morbidity was 5.1% in 1978 and 4.9% in 1979, with hepatitis A accounting for 80% of the cases. However, it decreased significantly after the prophylactic inoculation with immune serum globulin (ISG) was started in 1980. A significant decrease of hepatitis B from 1.2% in 1980 to 0.1% in 1990 was also seen after vaccination was introduced for all volunteers in 1988. Health education concerning food and water sanitation, and providing general information on viral hepatitis, was also conducted throughout this period. These results indicate that acute viral hepatitis could be successfully prevented in the JOCV with a combination of ISG, hepatitis B vaccination, and health education.

  19. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  20. THE COOPERATION AND AGROINDUSTRIAL INTEGRATION AS THE IMPORTANT FORMATION DIRECTION OF THE ORGANIZED AGRIFOOD MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Paramonov P. F.; Khalyavka I. E.

    2016-01-01

    The cooperation and agroindustrial integration development are important directions of agrofood market growth. The article deals with the economic benefits of cooperation and agroindustrial integration, the cooperation system and forms in agroindustrial complex, the creation principles and economic efficiency of cooperatives

  1. 日本大学的竞技体育组织%University competitive sports organizations in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振

    2015-01-01

    University competitive sports are an important constituent part of Japanese competitive sports. Basing his research subject on university competitive sport organizations in Japan, the author expatiated on the structure of university sports organizations in Japan, and analyzed national, regional and scholastic university competitive sports organizations at different levels in Japan by taking National University Sports Federation, Nationwide University Baseball League and Competitive Sports Organization of Waseda University for example. The author concluded that university competitive sports organizations in Japan had the following characteristics:independent, flexible, auto-nomic, differential, historical and inherited. Japan’s experience related to university competitive sports as an impor-tant force for boosting the development of competitive sports in Japan is significant for university competitive sports in China today to learn from in terms of reinforcing speech right and cultivating high performance athletes.%大学竞技体育是日本竞技体育的重要组成部分,以日本的大学竞技体育组织为研究对象,阐述日本大学竞技体育组织结构,选取全国大学体育联合会、全日本大学棒球联盟,以及早稻田大学的竞技体育组织机构为例,分析日本全国性、地区性和学校不同层次的大学竞技体育组织。研究认为日本大学竞技体育组织机构有以下特征:独立性、松散性、自治性、差异性、历史性和传承性。大学作为推动日本竞技体育发展的重要力量,相关经验对我国当前大学竞技体育在增强话语权和培养高水平运动员方面具有借鉴意义。

  2. The Motive,Influence and Prospect of the Japan-India Nuclear Cooperation%日本与印度核能合作的动因、影响及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军

    2016-01-01

    美印核能协议的签署,结束了印度民用核计划30多年的国际孤立。印度迅即与国际上拥有先进核能技术和丰富核燃料储存的国家开展双边合作,其中与日本的核能合作最受瞩目。日印启动核能协议谈判,是双边战略关系内涵不断深化、美日印三边战略互动、地缘政治因素和经济利益考量等多重因素叠加的结果。日印核能合作损害了国际防扩散机制的权威性和有效性,促使美日印三边战略互动更为密切,使日本在全球核能技术中的领先地位更为稳固。日本在巨大经济利益与不向非 NPT 国家出售核能技术的道义原则之间难以取舍,是导致日印核能合作步履缓慢的主要原因。日本国内也存在反对与印度进行核能合作的民意压力,但民众的包容性在逐渐增强。印度核能市场日趋激烈的竞争,一定程度上强化了日本参与印度核能合作的紧迫性。%The U.S.-India Civilian Nuclear Agreement marks the end of India's nuclear isolation for more than 30 years,India developed rapidly bilateral cooperation with the advanced nuclear technology and nu-clear-fuel-rich countries in the world.Its nuclear cooperation with Japan is the most impressive.Japan and India initiated nuclear negotiations,which is the result of multiple-factors coupling,including the enriching of connotation of bilateral strategic relations,the interaction of U.S.-Japan-India trilateral strategic rela-tions,the geopolitical factors and the economic interests.The nuclear cooperation will be harmful to the au-thority of international non-proliferation regime and its effectiveness,which causes the trilateral strategic in-teractions more closely,and the Japanese leadership in the field of global nuclear energy technology more stable.Japan faces a hard decision to make choice between large economic interests and not selling nuclear technology to non-NPT countries,which is the main reason

  3. Analysis on the Rural Cooperative Organization Established by Returning Migrant Workers——A Case of the Cooperative Organization of Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening in Gonghe County,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening Cooperative Organization in Gonghe County of Qinghai Province as an example,the geographic situation,establishment process and operation situation of the cooperative organization are expounded.And then the social effect of returning migrant workers who start their own business is analyzed.In the first place,starting their own business has promoted the rapid development of economy at county level;in the second place,it has promoted the adjustment of agricultural structure;in the third place,it is conducive to reallocating resources.The problems in the development of Han’s Cattle and Lamb Fattening Cooperative Organization are analyzed from four aspects covering weakening of village’ cadres,multiple ethnic groups,difficulties in expanding scale cooperation and inadequate funds.Three countermeasures which are conducive to creating favorable external environment for migrant workers to start their own businesses,takes the ethnic factors into consideration and implements scale operation,so as to solve the new problems in the process of developing rural farmers’ cooperative organization and provide the evidence for formulating relevant policies.

  4. Cooperative TPA enhancement via through-space interactions in organic nanodots built from dipolar chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Anne-Claire; Parthasarathy, Venkatakrishnan; Pla-Quintana, Anna; Mongin, Olivier; Terenziani, Francesca; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2010-08-01

    Whereas structure-properties relationships have been widely investigated at the molecular level, supramolecular structure-property relationships have been somewhat overlooked. In many cases, interchromophoric interactions are found to be detrimental (in particular in second-order NLO) and a lot of efforts have been devoted to circumvent and control these effects to achieve efficient NLO materials for electrooptics. At opposite, we have implemented a countermainstream route based on the confinement of push-pull chromophores in close proximity within organic nanodots where both their number and relative position/distance are controlled by covalent attachment onto appropriate organic scaffolds. In such multichromophoric organic superstructures (namely covalent nanoclusters), dipole-dipole interactions can be tuned by playing on the internal architecture (topology, number of chromophoric subunits, length of the covalent linkers) and on the nature and properties (polarity, polarizability) of the chromophoric subunits. Following this strategy, we present the investigation of two series of such organic nanoclusters built from push-pull chromophores where through-space interactions are shown to modify both one-photon (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of each chromophoric subunits leading to cooperative enhancement of TPA properties and improved transparency.

  5. Cooperative Chemisorption-Induced Physisorption of CO2 Molecules by Metal-Organic Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Petek, Hrvoje; Shi, Yongliang; Sun, Hao; Zhao, Jin; Calaza, Florencia; Sterrer, Martin; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2015-12-22

    Effective CO2 capture and reduction can be achieved through a molecular scale understanding of interaction of CO2 molecules with chemically active sites and the cooperative effects they induce in functional materials. Self-assembled arrays of parallel chains composed of Au adatoms connected by 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI) linkers decorating Au surfaces exhibit self-catalyzed CO2 capture leading to large scale surface restructuring at 77 K (ACS Nano 2014, 8, 8644-8652). We explore the cooperative interactions among CO2 molecules, Au-PDI chains and Au substrates that are responsible for the self-catalyzed capture by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT). Decorating Au surfaces with Au-PDI chains gives the interfacial metal-organic polymer characteristics of both a homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst. Au-PDI chains activate the normally inert Au surfaces by promoting CO2 chemisorption at the Au adatom sites even at surface supported Au-PDI chains provide a platform for investigating the physical and chemical interactions involved in CO2 capture and reduction.

  6. Developing Digital Dashboard Management for Learning System Dynamic Cooperative Simulation Behavior of Indonesia. (Study on Cooperative Information Organization in the Ministry of Cooperatives and SME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eni, Yuli; Aryanto, Rudy

    2014-03-01

    There are problems being experienced by the Ministry of cooperatives and SME (Small and Medium Enterprise) including the length of time in the decision by the Government to establish a policy that should be taken for local cooperatives across the province of Indonesia. The decision-making process is still analyzed manually, so that sometimes the decisions taken are also less appropriate, effective and efficient. The second problem is the lack of monitoring data cooperative process province that is too much, making it difficult for the analysis of dynamic information to be useful. Therefore the authors want to fix the system that runs by using digital dashboard management system supported by the modeling of system dynamics. In addition, the author also did the design of a system that can support the system. Design of this system is aimed to ease the experts, head, and the government to decide (DSS - Decision Support System) accurately effectively and efficiently, because in the system are raised alternative simulation in a description of the decision to be taken and the result from the decision. The system is expected to be designed dan simulated can ease and expedite the decision making. The design of dynamic digital dashboard management conducted by method of OOAD (Objects Oriented Analysis and Design) complete with UML notation.

  7. ON COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR IN DISTRIBUTED TEAMS: THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANIZATION DESIGN, MEDIA RICHNESS, SOCIAL INTERACTION, AND INTERACTION ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Doejbak Haakonsson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-interest vs. cooperation is a fundamental dilemma in animal behavior as well as in human and organizational behavior. In organizations, how to get people to cooperate despite or in conjunction with their self-interest is fundamental to the achievement of a common goal.While both organizational designs and social interactions have been found to further cooperation in organizations, some of the literatures have received contradictory support, just as very little research, if any, has examined their joint effects in distributed organizations, where communication is usually achieved via different communication media. This paper reviews the extant literature, and offers a set of hypothesis to integrate current theories and explanations. Further, it discusses how future research should examine the joint effects of media, incentives, and social interactions.

  8. Cooperation and conflict in host manipulation: interactions among macro-parasites and micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézilly, Frank; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Rigaud, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Several parasite species are known to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts in ways that enhance their own transmission. Co-occurrence of manipulative parasites, belonging to the same species or to more than one species, in a single host has been regularly observed. Little is known, however, on interactions between co-occurring manipulative parasites with same or different transmission routes. Several models addressing this problem have provided predictions on how cooperation and conflict between parasites could emerge from multiple infections. Here, we review the empirical evidence in favor of the existence of synergistic or antagonistic interactions between co-occurring parasites, and highlight the neglected role of micro-organisms. We particularly discuss the actual importance of selective forces shaping the evolution of interactions between manipulative parasites in relation to parasite prevalence in natural populations, efficiency in manipulation, and type of transmission (i.e., horizontal versus vertical), and we emphasize the potential for future research.

  9. Spatially self-organized resilient networks by a distributed cooperative mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2016-09-01

    The robustness of connectivity and the efficiency of paths are incompatible in many real networks. We propose a self-organization mechanism for incrementally generating onion-like networks with positive degree-degree correlations whose robustness is nearly optimal. As a spatial extension of the generation model based on cooperative copying and adding shortcut, we show that the growing networks become more robust and efficient through enhancing the onion-like topological structure on a space. The reasonable constraint for locating nodes on the perimeter in typical surface growth as a self-propagation does not affect these properties of the tolerance and the path length. Moreover, the robustness can be recovered in the random growth damaged by insistent sequential attacks even without any remedial measures.

  10. Spatially self-organized resilient networks by a distributed cooperative mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The robustness of connectivity and the efficiency of paths are incompatible in many real networks. We propose a self-organization mechanism for incrementally generating onion-like networks with positive degree-degree correlations whose robustness is nearly optimal. As a spatial extension of the generation model based on cooperative copying and adding shortcut, we show that the growing networks become more robust and efficient through enhancing the onion-like topological structure on a space. The reasonable constraint for locating nodes on the perimeter in typical surface growth as a self-propagation does not affect these properties of the tolerance and the path length. Moreover, the robustness can be recovered in the random growth damaged by insistent sequential attacks even without any remedial measures.

  11. Visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    Photo 01: L.to r. Prof. Galileo Violini, Head, UNESCO Office, Teheran; Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration; H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran (signing the Guest Book); Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations and Dr Behzad Alipour Tehrany Photo 02: Mr Jan van der Boon, CERN Director of Administration (left) and Dr John Ellis, CERN Adviser for Non-Member State Relations (right) on the occasion of the visit of H.E. Dr Abdolrahim Gavahi, Secretary General, Economic Cooperation Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran.

  12. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  13. Community-based home support agencies: comparing the quality of care of cooperative and non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviten-Reid, Catherine; Hoyt, Ann

    2009-06-01

    In the province of Québec, services focusing on the instrumental activities of daily living are delivered to seniors by a combination of non-profit organizations and cooperatives. But do these organizations perform differently? This study asks whether home support cooperatives deliver higher-quality care than non-profit home support agencies. The specific effects of consumer and worker participation on the board of directors are also tested. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 831 individuals receiving home support services from nine cooperatives and nine non-profits. Two consumer-centered measures of quality were used: a summated, 39-point satisfaction score and a 4-point overall quality score. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that although organizational type was not a predictor of the two quality outcomes, worker involvement in governance was positively associated with the satisfaction score, while consumer involvement was positively associated with the overall quality score.

  14. Work organization and job quality of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    サトウ, ヨシオ

    1995-01-01

    During the last three decades of economic growth in Japan, gaps existing between large and small firms in terms of wages, benefits, etc. have grown smaller and less significant. The amount and quality of human resources available will become more limited after the size of the Japanese population peaks somewhere around the year 2010. Satisfaction expressed by both employers and employees at Japanese SMEs is now better than it was in the past, being accentuated by growing popularity of new mana...

  15. Think tank (2) Its development and the current situation of the key organizations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Michio

    There were some think tank businesses in Japan before the war. South Manchuria Railway Company established its Research Department for the purpose of getting power to control Manchuria as a colony, and got the good results. Think tank business was flourishing three times after the war. This business attracts much attention when the social and economic paradigm is going to change. Among the key large-scale think tanks in Japan, Nomura Research Institute, Ltd. (NRI) was the first to enhance the system functions by the merger, and posted think tank function up in the SI business. Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. (MRI) intends to be an orthodox think tank, and established an advanced research institute and the laboratory for R&D. Daiwa Institute of Research, Ltd. (DIR) focuses on economic forecast by using system. Fuji Research Institute. Corp. (FUJI RIC) focuses on survey and policy proposing in macro-economics, and analyzing technology. The Japan Research Institute, Ltd. (JRI) focuses on regional development, and R&D in advanced technology.

  16. 77 FR 9225 - Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Organization of PJM States, Inc., et al. v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on... required by section 18.17.4 of the Amended and Restated Operating Agreement of PJM Interconnection,...

  17. 76 FR 54235 - Supplement to the FY2010 Single-Source Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... Organization (WHO) AGENCY: Biomedical Advanced Research Development Authority (BARDA), Office of the Assistant...: Notice. SUMMARY: In FY 2011, HHS/ASPR/BARDA plans to supplement the FY2010 ``Single-Source Cooperative... Production Capacity in Under Resourced Nations''. BARDA currently funds the development of...

  18. Features of distribution and quality of organic matter in the bottom sediments of the Great Peter Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Victoria; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The nature and distribution of organic carbon in marine waters depends on: 1) biological productivity and revenue of the autochthonous organic matter to the bottom; 2) sediment grain-size composition and conditions of dumping, which in turn depends of hydrothermic regime, topography, speed River mist and received major erosion products; 3) living conditions of the benthos (the quantity consumed of OM, gas regime of habitats, physiological capacity of heterotrophs). Autochthonous OM of phytoplankton plays a dominant role in the processes of formation of humus in aquatic conditions. Bottom sediments at different distance from the shoreline to depths from 0.5 up to 480 m of the Sea of Japan, which are formed in various conditions of facies, were selected as the objects of study. There is no clear relationships to the amount of organic matter in bottom sediments on the characteristics of the distribution and nature of living matter in the oceans and seas. This is because the process of sedimentation and fossilization of organic matter on the seabed and the ocean floor depends on many factors (currents, depth). Humus of studied bottom sediments in composition can be attributed mainly to the humic type. Nonhydrolyzing rest is 70-90%. This is characteristic of bottom sediments formed in facial types of small bays, internal coastal shelf bights and the underwater slope. At a fraction of the carbon of humic acids in organic matter, ranging from 4 to 80% of the amount of humic and fulvic acids. Fulvic acids content is much less. This is due to more favourable conservation situation of humic acids in precipitation with high content of organic matter, whereas fulvic acids in aquatic environments are more labile and almost not dumped. Despite the fact humic acids are not the most stable component (s), however, with increased content of humic acids, the mobility of organic matter and removing it from the bottom sediments are reduced. Internal shelf facies of the Great Peter Bay

  19. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob De Vreese

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry.

  20. International cooperation and non-profit organizations: re-reading the institutional role in combating neglected diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the juridical role of patent rights and the importance of international cooperation concerning the health system, especially those held between the countries of the South, as well as not-for-profit organizations for the prevention and combating neglected diseases. From the theoretical perspective of law as identity, and the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, some cases of cooperation between states and public and private institutions were collected and analyzed in order to develop new drugs to combat neglected diseases and ensure equity of access to these drugs.

  1. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Summary The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry. PMID:22509208

  2. Organic nanoclusters for nonlinear optics: from model systems to cooperative nanoassemblies with enhanced NLO responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenziani, Francesca; Parthasarathy, Venkatakrishnan; Ghosh, Sampa; Pandey, Ravindra; Das, Puspendu K.; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille

    2009-08-01

    While structure-properties relationships are quite actively and successfully investigated at the molecular level of engineering of optical nonlinear responses, supramolecular structure-property relationships are an appealing field. The realization that interchromophoric interactions between strongly polar/polarizable NLO chromophores can significantly affect the NLO response of each chromophoric unit as well as promote associations has opened new dimensions for molecular design. Several elegant routes have been implemented to hinder or counterbalance dipole-dipole interactions between dipolar NLO chromophores for the elaboration of second-order materials (for SHG or electro-optical modulation). At opposite, we have implemented a reverse strategy by confining discrete numbers of NLO push-pull chromophores in close proximity within covalent organic nanoclusters with the aim to exploit interchromophoric interactions in order to achieve enhanced NLO responses. As a proof of concept, we present here the investigation of two-series of multichromophoric covalent assemblies built from NLO push-pull chromophores showing that cooperative enhancement can be achieved both for second-order optical responses (first hyperpolarizabilities) or third-order responses (two-photon absorption cross-sections).

  3. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M.; Mason, Jarad A.; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D.; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L.; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K.; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-03-01

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as `phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg2+ within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  4. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Mason, Jarad A; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O; Drisdell, Walter S; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-19

    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  5. 关日中三国警民合作之比较研究%Comparative Study of the Cooperation between Police and People among the United States, Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏猛

    2012-01-01

    "The police force is limited, but the people force is infinite. " In the age of public governance which is emphasized, only cooperating with people, the public order can be maintained and improved. This article researches and compares the cooperation between police and people among the United States, Japan and China, to obtain the revelation.%“警力有限,民力无穷”,在强调公共治理的年代,治安秩序的维护需要警民相互协作,治安才能得以改善。文章通过美日两国和我国警民合作的研究和比较,以期获得对我国警民合作的启示。

  6. Design and Control of Cooperativity in Spin-Crossover in Metal–Organic Complexes: A Theoretical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrishit Banerjee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic complexes consisting of transition metal centers linked by organic ligands, may show bistability which enables the system to be observed in two different electronic states depending on external condition. One of the spectacular examples of molecular bistability is the spin-crossover phenomena. Spin-Crossover (SCO describes the phenomena in which the transition metal ion in the complex under the influence of external stimuli may show a crossover between a low-spin and high-spin state. For applications in memory devices, it is desirable to make the SCO phenomena cooperative, which may happen with associated hysteresis effect. In this respect, compounds with extended solid state structures containing metal ions connected by organic spacer linkers like linear polymers, coordination network solids are preferred candidates over isolated molecules or molecular assemblies. The microscopic understanding, design and control of mechanism driving cooperativity, however, are challenging. In this review we discuss the recent theoretical progress in this direction.

  7. Greed and Fear in Network Reciprocity: Implications for Cooperation among Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, James A.; Leal, Diego F.; Felps, Will; Jones, Thomas M.; Berman, Shawn L.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive interdisciplinary literatures have built on the seminal spatial dilemmas model, which depicts the evolution of cooperation on regular lattices, with strategies propagating locally by relative fitness. In this model agents may cooperate with neighbors, paying an individual cost to enhance their collective welfare, or they may exploit cooperative neighbors and diminish collective welfare. Recent research has extended the model in numerous ways, incorporating behavioral noise, implementing other network topologies or adaptive networks, and employing alternative dynamics of replication. Although the underlying dilemma arises from two distinct dimensions—the gains for exploiting cooperative partners (Greed) and the cost of cooperating with exploitative partners (Fear)–most work following from the spatial dilemmas model has argued or assumed that the dilemma can be represented with a single parameter: This research has typically examined Greed or Fear in isolation, or a composite such as the K-index of Cooperation or the ratio of the benefit to cost of cooperation. We challenge this claim on theoretical grounds—showing that embedding interaction in networks generally leads Greed and Fear to have divergent, interactive, and highly nonlinear effects on cooperation at the macro level, even when individuals respond identically to Greed and Fear. Using computational experiments, we characterize both dynamic local behavior and long run outcomes across regions of this space. We also simulate interventions to investigate changes of Greed and Fear over time, showing how model behavior changes asymmetrically as boundaries in payoff space are crossed, leading some interventions to have irreversible effects on cooperation. We then replicate our experiments on inter-organizational network data derived from links through shared directors among 2,400 large US corporations, thus demonstrating our findings for Greed and Fear on a naturally-occurring network. In closing

  8. The society for gastrointestinal intervention. Are we, as an organization of disparate disciplines, cooperative or competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarek, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    cure. Cooperative, not competitive. The potential for competition between disciplines comes in mundane situations and clinical settings that have historically been "owned" by a single discipline. On the one hand, placement of PEGS and PEJs, initially done endoscopically, can be done with equal facility and occasional failure, by endoscopists and interventional radiologists, reserving failed attempts for minimally invasive surgery. What resources are utilized with these three methods? Are there advantages to defining the mucosa of the gut lumen in all, or even a subset of patients? By way of contrast, acute cholecystectomy tubes in high surgical risk patients have usually been the domain of the radiologist, although I described transcystic duct gallbladder decompression endoscopically 2½ decades ago. With the advent of new devices delivered under EUS control, the gallbladder will now be readily accessible endoscopically. What does this mean both for the acutely ill patient without a window to approach their gallbladder radiologically? Will this play a bit part and a cooperative technique to expand our therapeutic armamentarium or will it become competitive therapeutically not only for IR but for minimally invasive surgeons? The same may be said for EUS's ability to inject genes, caustics, or chemo-therapeutic agents into organs adjacent to the lumen. What is the role of TNFerade injection into unresectable pancreatic cancers and the role of absolute alcohol or Taxitol to treat cystic neoplasms of the pancreas? The real issue of competition or cooperation between the disciplines comes when treating patients with unresectable and obstructing GI neoplasms, from my perspective. The latter may occur almost anywhere in the GI tract but, of course, are more commonly noted proximally (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and distally (left colon) as well as proximal and distal biliary obstructions. Recognizing that the occasional mid-small bowel and many proximal colon lesions are

  9. INTERNATIONAL RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS (UN AND THE REGIONAL SHANGHAI COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (SCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui ZOU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the world politics and economy occur after the end of the "cold war". After the 2008 international financial crisis, the need for reforming of the world order is becoming increasingly apparent. However, the economically well-developed countries traditionally firmly hold the old world order, insist that all democratic rules has adopted by the western countries, are must comply with all the countries. Russia and China as permanent members of the UN Security Council do a lot within the organization in order to strengthen international peace and international security. UN Member States should, by means of the broad and democratic consultations, taking into consideration the interests and concerns of all sides to look forward for finding a "comprehensive" version of the solution to achieve a consensus as much as possible. China is ready to maintain contacts with all sides to apply common efforts to promote the development of the Security Council reforming process in a direction that would have favored the preservation of the common interests of the United States and the cohesion of its members. China and Russia support rational and necessary reforms of the UN Security Council that are aimed at enhancing its authority and efficiency, as well as a more strict implementation of its obligations under the peace and security on the planet. As important members (SCO, China and Russia are the leading force for promoting a multipolar world and democratization of international relationships, with broad common interests in promoting the reform of the global financial system to increase the representativeness of fast developing countries. China supports Russia in the fight against terrorism and separatism, while Russia supports China in the questions, which are connected with Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang. The sides apply the joint efforts for the facilitating the political resolution of the crises.doi 10.17748/2075-9908-2016-8-2/1-13-25. [ru; en

  10. Mercury and selenium concentrations in the internal organs of toothed whales and dolphins marketed for human consumption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi; Sakata, Masakatsu

    2002-12-02

    Small cetaceans (toothed whales odontoceti and dolphins delphinidae) have been traditionally hunted along the coast of Japan and fresh red meat and blubber, as well as boiled internal organs such as liver, kidney, lung and small intestine, are still being sold for human consumption. We surveyed mercury contamination in boiled liver, kidney and lung products marketed in Japan between 1999-2001. The average +/- S.D. of total mercury (T-Hg) was 370 +/- 525 (range: 7.60 approximately 1980, n = 26) microg/g in liver, 40.5 +/- 48.5 (7.30-95.1, n = 15) microg/g in kidney and 42.8 +/- 43.8 (2.10-79.6, n = 23) microg/g in lung. A high correlation was observed between T-Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in these organs, supporting the formation of a Hg-Se complex. The formation of a Hg-Se complex probably contribute to the detoxification of Hg for cetaceans and allows a very large accumulation of Hg in livers. The provisional permitted level of T-Hg in marine foods set by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare is 0.4 microg/ g, and the provisional permitted weekly intake (PTWI) set by WHO is 5 microg/kg bw/week. The maximal T-Hg detected in boiled liver (1,980 microg/g) exceeds the permitted level by approximately 5,000 times and the consumption of only 0.15 g of liver exceeds the PTWI of 60 kg of body weight of the consumer, suggesting the possibility of an acute intoxication by T-Hg even after a single consumption of the product.

  11. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  12. Organization for security and co-operation in Europe mission to Georgia / Joe McDonagh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    McDonagh, Joe

    2003-01-01

    22.-23. septembrini 2003 Vilniuses toimunud seminaril "South Caucasus: making the best use of external assistance for stability building and for co-operation with NATO" esitatud ettekanne OSCE missiooni tegevusest Gruusias

  13. Implementation of a cooperative methodology to develop organic chemical engineering skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, J. F.; Díaz Blanco, M. J.; Toscano Fuentes, C.; Martín Alfonso, J. E.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate how most of the competences required by engineering students may be developed through an active methodology based on cooperative learning/evaluation. Cooperative learning was employed by the University of Huelva's third-year engineering students. The teaching methodology pretends to create some of the most relevant engineering skills required nowadays such as the ability to cooperate finding appropriate information; the ability to solve problems through critical and creative thinking; and the ability to make decisions and to communicate effectively. The statistical study carried out supports the hypothesis that comprehensive and well-defined protocols in the development of the subject, the rubric and cooperative evaluation allow students to acquire a successful learning.

  14. Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, K.

    2012-11-15

    Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)

  15. Spatial variation in organic matter utilization by benthic communities from Yura River-Estuary to offshore of Tango Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Emily S.; Kasai, Akihide; Ueno, Masahiro; Won, Nam-il; Ishihi, Yuka; Yokoyama, Hisashi; Yamashita, Yoh

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of δ 13C and δ 15N of organic matter among benthic communities from the upper estuary of Yura River to offshore of Tango Sea, Japan, to determine spatial variation in utilization of organic matter by benthic communities. The δ 13C values of benthic animals ranged from -27 to -15‰ in the upper estuary, -21 to -15‰ in the lower estuary, -20 to -16‰ in the shallow coast (5-10 m depths), -18 to -16‰ in the deep coast (30-60 m depths) and -19 to -15‰ in offshore (100-150 m depths) stations. Adapting the dual isotope values to mixing models, we estimated the relative contributions of potential food sources to the benthos diet. Phytoplankton and macroalgae that intruded the estuary in summer were utilized as alternative food aside from the terrestrial-origin organic matter assimilated by the estuarine benthic consumers. Resuspended benthic microalgae were important source of energy in the shallow coastal stations, while abundant supply of phytodetritus fueled the deep coastal and offshore benthic food webs. Spatial difference in the diet of benthic communities depends largely on the shifts in the primary carbon source. Thus, benthic communities are important link of autochthonous/allochthonous production and secondary production in the continuous river-estuary-marine system.

  16. Carbon Sequestration and Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil Cooperated with Organic Composts and Bio-char During Corn (Zea mays) Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joung-Du; Lee, Sun-Ill; Park, Wu-Gyun; Choi, Yong-Su; Hong, Seong-Gil; Park, Sang-Won

    2014-05-01

    Objectives of this study were to estimate the carbon sequestration and to evaluate nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in soils cooperated with organic composts and bio-char during corn cultivation. For the experiment, the soil used in this study was clay loam types, and application rates of chemical fertilizer and bio-char were recommended amount after soil test and 2 % to soil weight, respectively. The soil samples were periodically taken at every 15 day intervals during the experimental periods. The treatments were consisted of non-application, cow manure compost, pig manure compost, swine digestate from aerobic digestion system, their bio-char cooperation. For the experimental results, residual amount of inorganic carbon was ranged from 51 to 208kg 10a-1 in soil only cooperated with different organic composts. However it was estimated to be highest at 208kg 10a-1 in the application plot of pig manure compost. In addition to bio-char application, it was ranged from 187.8 to 286kg 10a-1, but was greatest accumulated at 160.3kg 10a-1 in the application plot of cow manure compost. For nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates, it was shown that there were generally low in the soil cooperated with bio-char compared to the only application plots of different organic composts except for 71 days after sowing. Also, they were observed to be highest in the application plot of swine digestate from aerobic digestion system. For the loss of total inorganic carbon (TIC) by run-off water, it was ranged from 0.18 to 0.36 kg 10a-1 in the different treatment plots. Also, with application of bio-char, total nitrogen was estimated to be reduced at 0.42(15.1%) and 0.38(11.8%) kg 10a-1 in application plots of the pig manure compost and aerobic digestate, respectively.

  17. Activities of the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, A.; Miyazaki, H.

    2012-07-01

    This reports a history and future prospects of the activities by the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan. For growths of academic fields, active communications among students and young scientists are indispensable. Several academic communities in geoinformation fields are established by youths and play important roles of building networks over schools and institutes. The networks are expected to be innovative cooperation after the youths achieve their professions. Although academic communities are getting fixed growth particularly in Japan, youths had gotten little opportunities to make contacts with youths themselves. To promote gotten youth activities among geoinformation fields, in 1998, we started a series of programs that named the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan involving students and young scientists within the annual conferences, Geoinformation Forum Japan. The programs have provided opportunities to do presentation their studies by posters, some events, and motivations to create networks among students and young scientists. From 2009, some members of our activities set additional conference in west area of Japan. Thus our activities are spread within Japan. As a result of these achievements, the number of youth dedicating to the programs keeps growing. From 2009, it's getting international gradually, however, almost all the participants are still Japanese. To keep and expand the network, we are planning to make some nodes with some Asian youth organizations in the field of geoinformation. This paper is concluded with proposals and future prospects on the Student Forum of the Geoinformation Forum Japan.

  18. Accumulation properties of inorganic mercury and organic mercury in the red-crowned crane Grus japonensis in east Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Okamoto, Erika; Kudo, Moe; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Endo, Tetsuya; Kitazawa, Takio; Hiraga, Takeo

    2015-12-01

    The red-crowned (Japanese) crane Grus japonensis is native to east Hokkaido, Japan, in contrast to the East Asia mainland. Previously, we reported that red-crowned cranes in Hokkaido were highly contaminated with mercury in the 1990s and that the contamination rapidly decreased to a moderate level in the 2000s. In the present study, we determined levels of organic mercury (O-Hg) in the liver and kidney of cranes in east Hokkaido in comparison with levels of total mercury (T-Hg). T-Hg levels in the kidneys were higher than those in the livers in adults but not in subadults and juveniles; however, the reverse was the case for O-Hg even for adults. The ratio of O-Hg to T-Hg in both the liver and kidney decreased as T-Hg increased in the three developmental stages. While the ratios of O-Hg to T-Hg in the liver and kidney of adults were significantly lower than those of juveniles, the ratios were similar for adults and juveniles in a lower range of T-Hg. The ratio of selenium (Se) to T-Hg decreased as T-Hg increased in both the liver and kidney, irrespective of stages. Mercury burdens in feathers were about 59% and 67% of the total body burdens for juveniles and adults, respectively. Furthermore, ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes to T-Hg varied greatly, with no relation to mercury level in the liver. The results suggest slow accumulation of inorganic mercury in the kidney of red-crowned cranes in east Hokkaido, Japan.

  19. [Engineering education reform plan created by Prof. Dr. Shimizu and establishment of Nagoya Municipal Science Museum--regarding cooperative education between universities and industries in Japan after the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Koichi

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an account of Prof. Dr. Kinji Shimizu, the first president of Nagoya Institute of Technology, and his establishment of Nagoya Municipal Science Museum. After graduating from the Electrical Engineering Department of Kyoto Imperial University in 1923, Shimizu was impressed by the German Museum in Munich during his stay there as a student in 1932. It's the first time that he learned the education in cooperation with industries. Just after the Second World War, he became director general of the Ministry of Education. However, new education system given by the United States focused not on developing practical ability but on gaining the basic knowledge, which is contrary to what he expected. Then, he contributed to the establishment of the Japanese Society for Engineering Education, besides working as the president of Nagoya Institute of Technology in the earlier 1950s. His idea was supported by industries for the economic growth. Throughout his career, Prof. Dr. Shimizu was convinced that practical engineering education would benefit Japan, and wanted to introduce cooperative education between universities and industries, along the lines of the same system in Germany and the United States. With this vision he founded Nagoya Municipal Science Museum in cooperation with local industries and local government as his final achievement. The museum was completed in 1964.

  20. Japan 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørstrup, Finn Rude; Hvass, Sven

    2003-01-01

    Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10......Kompendium udarbejdet til en studierejse til Japan  2003 Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole, Studieafdeling 10...

  1. Hygroscopicity and CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol particles and their relation to organics: Characteristics of urban aerosols in Nagoya, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Mochida, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    The size-resolved distributions of hygroscopic growth factor g and the ratios of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to condensation nuclei of atmospheric aerosols were investigated in Nagoya, Japan. The average of the distributions of g at 85% relative humidity was bimodal. The size-resolved mean κ derived from g showed an increasing trend with diameter: 0.17-0.33 at 24-359 nm. The κ values calculated from CCN activation curves were 37% higher than those derived from g. Only 9% of the 37% difference is explained by the difference in the κ of inorganics under subsaturated and supersaturated conditions, suggesting a contribution of organics to the remaining 28% difference. The size-averaged κ of organics (κorg) was calculated as 0.14 and 0.19 by two different methods. The number fractions of CCN predicted from the hygroscopicity data over the range of 24-359 nm are loosely consistent with those observed if the size- and time-averaged g is applied to all particles (differences: -30% to +10%). This consistency improves if size- and time-resolved g and g distribution are used (differences: -19% to -3%). Whereas the number fractions of CCN predicted from the composition data are greatly underestimated if organics are assumed to be insoluble (differences: -64% to -45%), they are more consistent if κorg of 0.14 or 0.19 is applied (differences: -10% to +14%). The results demonstrate the importance of the dependence of the g of particles on time and particle size and the hygroscopicity of organics for CCN number concentrations in the urban atmosphere.

  2. Evidence of formation of submicrometer water-soluble organic aerosols at a deciduous forest site in northern Japan in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yuzo; Jung, Jinsang; Fu, Pingqing; Mizoguchi, Yasuko; Yamanoi, Katsumi; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2012-10-01

    Semicontinuous measurements of submicrometer water-soluble organic aerosols and particle size distributions were conducted at a deciduous forest site in northern Japan in August 2010. Increases in particle number concentration were frequently observed in daytime, accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). We found that daily averaged WSOC concentrations positively correlated with gross primary production of CO2 by the forest ecosystem (r2 = 0.63) and ambient temperature during daytime. These relations suggest that the formation of WSOC is closely linked to photosynthetic activity by the forest ecosystem, which depends on both temperature and solar radiation. Off-line chemical analysis of samples of particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm collected during a 2 day event of elevated WSOC levels suggests that photochemical aging of both α- andβ-pinene and isoprene oxidation products contributes to the particle growth and the WSOC mass. Organic tracers of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) showed distinct diurnal variations with a maximum around noontime, also indicating that higher temperature and light intensity induce emissions of PBAPs. However, their contribution to the submicrometer WSOC mass was likely insignificant. During the day, the concentrations of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA) showed a strong dependence on temperature, and the ratios of WSOC to particle volume concentration increased with an increase in the concentration ratios of 3-MBTCA to pinonic acid (PA). This result supports a previous proposal that the 3-MBTCA/PA ratios in submicrometer particles can be a useful tracer for chemical aging of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from forest vegetation.

  3. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  4. Indonesia’s Relations with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    against terrorism by creating a counterbalance to extremism in Indonesia and strengthening the democratic system since Indonesian officers are naturally...ASEAN defense cooperation and interoperability.40 Beyond that mentioned above, the strong Indonesian democratic system could have a major impact on

  5. Accomodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Oijen, A.

    2013-01-01

    While most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers. Ho

  6. Accomodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Oijen, A.

    2013-01-01

    While most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers.

  7. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; D. Tjosvold

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views. Howev

  8. Organizations(2): "Social Capitalism" and Adult Education: The Migros Co-Operative in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Journal of Adult Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Half of all adult education programs in Switzerland are conducted through Migros, the country's largest cooperative and largest private company. Migros' educational network principle specializes in teaching languages but also offers 174 subject areas as well as other activities and services. Some Migros adult education innovations are described.…

  9. Operation Risk of Rural Cooperative Economic Organization Based on Principal Component Analysis——A Case of Sichuan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the previous research,a total of 10 risk indices are selected according to the specific situation in Sichuan Province,such as natural risk,resource constraint risk,internal management risk,capital risk,technical input and output risk,market risk,contract credit risk,property risk and policy support risk.According to the questionnaire survey by cooperative economic organization of Sichuan Province,principal component analysis is used to analyze the importance and influence degree of the operation risk of rural cooperative economic organization.Result shows that in the operation of cooperative economic organization,management risk has greater influence degree and importance degree,which should be paid special attention to.Capital,property,price fluctuation,and quality of members have great degree of risk and are paid little attention to.The technical input and output risk and the contract credit risk have relatively low impact on the operation risk of cooperative economic organization and their importance is relatively low.Therefore,we should continue to maintain its advantages.Nature,resource constraint and policy support have relatively high risk awareness and low influence degree,belonging to the factors with priority attention which are controlled to some extent.Finally,suggestions are put forward,such as enhancing the management level of cooperative economic organizations,strengthening the farmer’s risk awareness,and improving the risk aversion ability of cooperative economic organization.

  10. Urologic cancer in Japan: role of Japan at the frontier of issues in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of urological cancer in Japan can be summarized in the following points. (i) As the onset of this type of cancer is typically seen in elderly patients, it is becoming a major social issue in Japan that has already become an aging society. (ii) Many diverse treatment methods are available and a response is required that prioritizes quality of life. (iii) Although vigorous research and development efforts into new drugs are being carried out on a global level, resulting in beneficial medical agents becoming more readily available, unless concepts relating to cost vs. effectiveness are further developed and there is a real risk that medical systems and structures in their current form will become unsustainable. (iv) Although at the current point there are no original large-scale clinical trials being conducted in Asia, Japan has a wealth of experience of participating in many international joint clinical trials and it is therefore an urgent and pressing challenge to organize joint clinical trials in Asia and amass a body of knowledge that is unique to Asia. In view of this current situation and given Japan's position at the frontier of issues, it is important for Japan to take the initiative in Asia in cooperating with other Asian nations in efforts to resolve and overcome various challenges.

  11. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  12. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Urban Air of Fukuoka, Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Hara, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies providing quantitative information regarding secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the least understood subject in atmospheric chemistry, are important to evaluating secondary transboundary pollution. To obtain quantitative information of long-range transported SOA in the air of Fukuoka, we conducted simultaneous field studies during December 2010 and March 2012 at a rural site in northern Kyushu and at an urban site in Fukuoka City. During the studies, we collected airborne particulate matter (PM) on filters and extracted the low-volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) component, which is possibly dominated by SOA, from the filter samples and analyzed it to determine the carbon concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio. Under the assumption that the LV-WSOC at Fukuoka had both transboundary and local origins, we then applied end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to the stable carbon isotope ratio data from both sites to estimate the fraction of LV-WSOCs from these origins in the Fukuoka air. Indep...

  13. Enhancing Trilateral Disaster Preparedness and Relief Cooperation between Japan, U.S. and Australia: Approaches from Various Civil-Military Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    exercises in areas such as Okinawa , in 2010, and the South China Sea, in 2011. The three countries are also currently working together on the U.S... Diet . The failure to show its presence in the UN-endorsed international operation against Iraq gave the Japanese elites the so-called “Gulf...apart from the PKO Act, there was no opposition to this amendment in the Diet deliberations (not even from the members of the Japan Communist

  14. An assessment of exposure and effects of persistent organic pollutants in an urban Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Jason M; Green, David J; Maisonneuve, France; Elliott, John E

    2017-01-01

    Among the stressors confronting urban wildlife, chemical contaminants pose a particular problem for high trophic feeding species. Previous data from fortuitous carcass collections revealed surprisingly high levels of persistent organic pollutants in raptor species, including the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), from urbanized areas of southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Thus, in 2012 and 2013, we followed up on that finding by measuring POPs in blood samples from 21 adult and 15 nestling Cooper's hawks in Vancouver, a large urban area in southwestern Canada. Reproductive success and circulating thyroid hormones were measured to assess possible toxicological effects. Model comparisons showed concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs) were positively influenced by the level of urbanization. Total thyroxin (TT4) was negatively associated with increases in ΣPCBs. Total triiodothyronine (TT3) was negatively associated with ΣPCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (ΣPBDEs). The legacy insecticide, dieldrin, appeared to have some negative influence on reproductive success. There is some evidence of biochemical perturbation by PBDEs and lingering impact of legacy POPs which have not been used for at least 40 years, but overall Cooper's hawks have successfully populated this urban environment.

  15. Bacterial contribution to dissolved organic matter in eutrophic Lake Kasumigaura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Kohzu, Ayato; Tomioka, Noriko; Shinohara, Ryuichiro; Satou, Takayuki; Watanabe, Fumiko Nara; Tada, Yuya; Hamasaki, Koji; Kushairi, M R M; Imai, Akio

    2013-12-01

    Incubation experiments using filtered waters from Lake Kasumigaura were conducted to examine bacterial contribution to a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool. Bacterial abundance, bacterial production, concentrations of DOC, total dissolved amino acids (TDAA), and total dissolved neutral sugars (TDNS) were monitored during the experiments. Bacterial production during the first few days was very high (20 to 35 μg C liter(-1) day(-1)), accounting for 40 to 70% of primary production. The total bacterial production accounted for 34 to 55% of the DOC loss during the experiment, indicating high bacterial activities in Lake Kasumigaura. The DOC degradation was only 12 to 15%, whereas the degradation of TDAA and TDNS ranged from 30 to 50%, suggesting the preferential usage of TDAA and TDNS. The contribution of bacterially derived carbon to a DOC pool in Lake Kasumigaura was estimated using d-amino acids as bacterial biomarkers and accounted for 30 to 50% of the lake DOC. These values were much higher than those estimated for the open ocean (20 to 30%). The ratio of bacterially derived carbon to bulk carbon increased slightly with time, suggesting that the bacterially derived carbon is more resistant to microbial degradation than bulk carbon. This is the first study to estimate the bacterial contribution to a DOC pool in freshwater environments. These results indicate that bacteria play even more important roles in carbon cycles in freshwater environments than in open oceans and also suggests that recent increases in recalcitrant DOC in various lakes could be attributed to bacterially derived carbon. The potential differences in bacterial contributions to dissolved organic matter (DOM) between freshwater and marine environments are discussed.

  16. The tea ceremony room in traditional Japan: a stylized organization of space and time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Decreux

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has the purpose to present the organization of the tea room in the Japanese traditional tea ceremony and its interactions with Japanese imaginary. It suggests mainly that this space is organized in such a way that it eventually appears to become a stylized living place, taking into account two requirements. The first one is clearly to provide a place where both host and guests can have an harmonious exchange around a bowl of tea. The second is to provide a place in harmony with an idealized cosmos expressing both the presence of an ecumene and of time, as it is perceived in the Japanese traditional spirit. The paper thus investigates the presence of diverse Japanese crafts: tatami, calligraphy and poetry, pottery, flowers, metalwork, Japanese pastry, sometimes clothes etc., but also the relationship with outer gardens, outside weather, and the rules of behavior between people. All of these elements are not only considered in relation to one another, but also in relation to the season, to the guests or to other elements of the situation. We emphasize the valorization of different places at some moments, the role of frontiers of some tatami borders or of the fan of each participant. The mutual respect between people playing different roles is also highlighted, as well as the respect towards the chosen objects. Finally, the coordination of the movements and places during the meeting creates a specific and often really appreciated atmosphere. These rules contribute to building a living socialized and idealized place in accordance with two of the well-known watchwords of the tea ceremony: wa kei sei jaku – harmony, respect, purity, tranquility and ichiko ichie one time, one meeting.

  17. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Beggiatoa spp. from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hisaya; Fukui, Manabu

    2003-07-01

    Nitrate-accumulating filamentous bacteria from organic rich sediment of Tokyo Bay, morphologically similar to Beggiatoa species, were phylogenetically analyzed. From several sites in Tokyo Bay, Beggiatoa-like bacteria were collected. Each sample contained narrower or wider type (10 and 30 microns, respectively) of trichomes. With the nested PCR using specific primers for Beggiatoa, fragments of 16S rRNA gene were amplified and then subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Sequencing and the following phylogenetic analysis indicated that they are related to large Beggiatoa species. The wider type was related to uncultured Beggiatoa clones of other geographical localities and distinct from the narrower type in Tokyo Bay. Among the narrower types, a sample from a tidal flat was genetically distinct from the sample from sites of 10 and 20 m water depth. These narrower types form a new branch in Beggiatoa/Thioploca cluster. The result of phylogenetic analysis was in accordance with the previous studies that indicate possession of nitrate-accumulation capability is congruent with phylogeny based on 16S rRNA sequences.

  19. Sessile Organisms on PVC Panels in the Waters around a Coral Reef of Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, Immediately after the Catastrophic Coral Bleaching in 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Takada, Yoshitake; Shibuno, Takuro

    1999-01-01

    Sessile organisms on PVC panels suspended inside and outside coral reef at Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, was monitored for 20 days just after the wide-spread incident of coral bleaching in September, 1998. The settlement of a total of 16 species of algae and invertebrates was recorded. Generally, Enteromorpha sp. (Chlorophyceae) dominated the panels. The percentage area cover, number of species, biomass and algal growth were significantly greater in waters outside the reef.

  20. Sessile Organisms on PVC Panels in the Waters around a Coral Reef of Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, Immediately after the Catastrophic Coral Bleaching in 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, Kanavillil; Takada, Yoshitake; Shibuno, Takuro

    1999-01-01

    Sessile organisms on PVC panels suspended inside and outside coral reef at Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, Japan, was monitored for 20 days just after the wide-spread incident of coral bleaching in September, 1998. The settlement of a total of 16 species of algae and invertebrates was recorded. Generally, Enteromorpha sp. (Chlorophyceae) dominated the panels. The percentage area cover, number of species, biomass and algal growth were significantly greater in waters outside the reef.

  1. US Japan Alliance Confronts the Anti Access and Area Denial Challenge: Toward Building Capacity, Cooperation and Information Sharing in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    U.S. allies in the Pacific to bolster their side. Aaron Friedberg , a proponent of ASB, writes that frontline states in the Asia-Pacific such as Japan...Taiwan and the Philippines may not be reassured by a distant blockade. Friedberg argues that, “if China conquered Taiwan, or seized disputed islands... Friedberg , Beyond Air-Sea Battle: The Debate over US Military Strategy in Asia. April 2014 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2014), pp.15-21. iii Mark A. Stokes

  2. Cooperative Cluster Metalation and Ligand Migration in Zirconium Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Ying-Pin; Qin, Junsheng; Lu, Weigang; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang; Bosch, Mathieu; Liu, Tian-Fu; Lian, Xizhen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-10-23

    Cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration were performed on a Zr-MOF, leading to the isolation of unique bimetallic MOFs based on decanuclear Zr6M4 (M=Ni, Co) clusters. The M2+ reacts with the μ3-OH and terminal H2O ligands on an 8-connected [Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4] cluster to form a bimetallic [Zr6M4O8(OH)8(H2O)8] cluster. Along with the metalation of Zr6 cluster, ligand migration is observed in which a Zr–carboxylate bond dissociates to form a M–carboxylate bond. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that snapshots for cooperative cluster metalation and ligand migration processes are captured by successive single-crystal X-ray structures. In3+ was metalated into the same Zr-MOF which showed excellent catalytic activity in the acetaldehyde cyclotrimerization reaction. This work not only provides a powerful tool to functionalize Zr-MOFs with other metals, but also structurally elucidates the formation mechanism of the resulting heterometallic MOFs.

  3. 我国农民合作经济组织产权制度研究%Study of Chinese Property Right System of Farmer Cooperating Economic Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉媛; 蒋崧韬

    2014-01-01

    The farmer cooperating economic organization is organized to enhance the capacity of risk resist-ance and increase the income.According to analysis of the defect of the property right system about the farmer cooperating economic organization,propose the advice to improve the property right system,inclu-ding redefining the legal liability of the farmer cooperating economic organization,expanding the rang of the cooperation,and perfecting the consequence as farmer put the contractual right of land into the farmer coop-erating economic organization.%农民合作经济组织是农民增强自身抗风险能力和提高收益的经济联合体,通过分析它在当下发展中遇到的瓶颈,提出了相关产权制度的建议:包括合理规制农民合作经济组织的法律责任、扩大农民合作经济组织的合作范围以及完善土地承包经营权出资的法律后果。

  4. Trend and risk factors of diverticulosis in Japan: age, gender, and lifestyle/metabolic-related factors may cooperatively affect on the colorectal diverticula formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Yamamichi

    Full Text Available Despite the marked increase of diverticulosis, its risk factors have not been adequately elucidated. We therefore aim to identify significantly associated factors with diverticulosis. We also aim to investigate the present state of diverticulosis in Japan.We reviewed the medical records from 1990 to 2010 that included the data of consecutive 62,503 asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population in Japan. Most recent 3,327 examinees were analyzed with 16 background factors.Among the 62,503 subjects (47,325 men and 15,178 women; 52.1 ± 9.2 years old, diverticulosis was detected in 11,771 subjects (18.8%; 10,023 men and 1,748 women. The incidences of diverticulosis in 1990-2000 and 2001-2010 were respectively 13.0% (3,771 of 29,071 and 23.9% (8,000 of 33,432: the latter was much higher than the former in all age groups and for both genders. Considering the anatomical locations of colorectal diverticula, left-sided ones have markedly increased with age but not significantly changed with times. Univariate analyses of the 3,327 subjects showed significant association of diverticulosis with four basic factors (age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, three life style-related factor (smoking, drinking, severe weight increase in adulthood, and two blood test values (triglyceride, HbA1c. The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β and odds ratio (OR demonstrated that age (β = 0.217-0.674, OR = 1.24-1.96, male gender (β = 0.185, OR = 1.20, smoking (β = 0.142-0.200, OR = 1.15-1.22, severe weight increase in adulthood (β = 0.153, OR = 1.17, HbA1c (β = 0.136, OR = 1.15, drinking (β = 0.109, OR = 1.11, and serum triglyceride (β = 0.098, OR = 1.10 showed significantly positive association with diverticulosis whereas body mass index and blood pressure did not.The large-scale data of asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population from 1990 to 2010 indicated that the prevalence of

  5. Trend and risk factors of diverticulosis in Japan: age, gender, and lifestyle/metabolic-related factors may cooperatively affect on the colorectal diverticula formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Kakimoto, Hikaru; Matsuda, Rie; Kataoka, Yosuke; Saito, Itaru; Tsuji, Yosuke; Yakabi, Seiichi; Takeuchi, Chihiro; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Niimi, Keiko; Asada-Hirayama, Itsuko; Nakayama, Chiemi; Ono, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Yamaji, Yutaka; Wada, Ryoichi; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Despite the marked increase of diverticulosis, its risk factors have not been adequately elucidated. We therefore aim to identify significantly associated factors with diverticulosis. We also aim to investigate the present state of diverticulosis in Japan. We reviewed the medical records from 1990 to 2010 that included the data of consecutive 62,503 asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population in Japan. Most recent 3,327 examinees were analyzed with 16 background factors. Among the 62,503 subjects (47,325 men and 15,178 women; 52.1 ± 9.2 years old), diverticulosis was detected in 11,771 subjects (18.8%; 10,023 men and 1,748 women). The incidences of diverticulosis in 1990-2000 and 2001-2010 were respectively 13.0% (3,771 of 29,071) and 23.9% (8,000 of 33,432): the latter was much higher than the former in all age groups and for both genders. Considering the anatomical locations of colorectal diverticula, left-sided ones have markedly increased with age but not significantly changed with times. Univariate analyses of the 3,327 subjects showed significant association of diverticulosis with four basic factors (age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure), three life style-related factor (smoking, drinking, severe weight increase in adulthood), and two blood test values (triglyceride, HbA1c). The multiple logistic analysis calculating standardized coefficients (β) and odds ratio (OR) demonstrated that age (β = 0.217-0.674, OR = 1.24-1.96), male gender (β = 0.185, OR = 1.20), smoking (β = 0.142-0.200, OR = 1.15-1.22), severe weight increase in adulthood (β = 0.153, OR = 1.17), HbA1c (β = 0.136, OR = 1.15), drinking (β = 0.109, OR = 1.11), and serum triglyceride (β = 0.098, OR = 1.10) showed significantly positive association with diverticulosis whereas body mass index and blood pressure did not. The large-scale data of asymptomatic colonoscopy examinees from the general population from 1990 to 2010 indicated that the prevalence of diverticulosis

  6. [International cooperation and affirmative action policies: the role of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Marcos Chor; Pires-Alves, Fernando A; Paiva, Carlos Henrique Assunção; Silva Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da

    2010-07-01

    The article analyzes the formulation, legitimation, and implementation of a policy with an ethnic/race approach by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). The study includes the emergence of the theme within this international organization, the institutional dynamics related to it, and the proposals focused on the Black population in Latin America. These issues are discussed on the basis of interaction between PAHO and a range of intergovernmental agencies and private organizations working in the international health domain. Participation by PAHO in the ethnic/racial theme provides elements for understanding the dual role played by intergovernmental organizations in the new global scenario, as both social actors and arenas. As an important social actor in the international health field, PAHO has produced and disseminated values and guidelines related to the ethnic/racial theme. As an arena, the organization has proven open to various interests, seeking to work harmoniously with them through its internal administration.

  7. Proceedings of International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This proceedings are for the International Symposium on Energy Co-operation in North-East Asia, organized by Korea Energy Economics Institute, Institute of Energy Economics, Japan, and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, held on June 2001 at Sheraton Walker Hill Hotel in Seoul, Korea. The major themes discussed are following: 1.Energy Profile, Outlook and Perspectives on Regional Co-operation in Northeast Asia 2.Future Challenges in the Energy Sector in Northeast Asia 3.Perspectives of Energy Co-operation in Northeast Asia.

  8. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tase, Norio [Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Groundwater contamination in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tase, Norio

    1992-07-01

    Problems on groundwater contamination in Japan are briefly summarized in this paper. Although normal physical conditions in Japan restrict the possibilities of groundwater contamination, human activities are threatening groundwater resources. A survey by the Environment Agency of Japan showed nationwide spreading of organic substances, such as trichloroethylene as well as nitrogen compounds. Synthetic detergents have also been detected even in rural areas and in deep confined aquifers, although their concentrations are not as high. Public awareness of agrichemical or pesticides abuse, especially from golf courses, is apparent. Other problems such as nitrate-nitrogen, leachate from landfills, and the leaking of underground storage tanks are also discussed.

  10. Cooperative control for self-organizing microgrids and game strategies for optimal dispatch of distributed renewable generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maknouninejad, Ali; Lin, Wei; Harno, Hendra G.; Qu, Zhihua; Simaan, Marwan A. [University of Central Florida, Department of EECS, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The small size, extensively dispersed and decentralized, and high penetration level of renewable energy sources in the future smart grids make the application of conventional optimal power flow (OPF) neither practical nor economical. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to realize high penetration of distributed generators (DGs) by organizing them in some groups within a microgrid and dispatching the generated power aggregately. Each group may have virtual leaders which define the power policy of the group, and all other DGs cooperatively follow that policy. A fair utilization ratio is defined and will be introduced to the group by the virtual leaders. The utilization ratio indicates what percentage of the available power each DG has to feed to the grid, and this ratio will also be propagated within the group using cooperative control. As such, a smartgrid may treat microgrids as individually dispatchable loads or generators. Meanwhile, the interaction between each microgrid and the main grid can be formulated as a Stackelberg game. The main grid as the leader, by offering proper energy price to the micro grid, minimizes its cost and secures the power supply that the microgrid, as the follower, is willing to dispatch. It is shown that this game theoretic approach not only guarantees profit optimization, but also provides a convenient technique to optimize power flow from microgrids to the main grid. Numerical and simulation results for a case of study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. (orig.)

  11. 26 CFR 1.501(e)-1 - Cooperative hospital service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anticipated needs of the organization. See, § 1.537-1(b). Whether there is an improper accumulation of funds... and operated by the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, or a possession of the...

  12. Towards an Integrated Vision across Inter-cooperative Grid Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ye; Bessis, Nik; Brocco, Amos; Sotiriadis, Stelios; Courant, Michele; Kuonen, Pierre; Hisbrunner, Beat

    Much work has been done to exploit the benefit brought by allowing job execution on distributed computational resources. Nodes are typically able to share jobs only within the same virtual organization, which is inherently bounded by various reasons such as the adopted information system or other agreed constraints. The problem raised by such limitation is thus related to finding a way to enable interoperation between nodes from different virtual organizations.

  13. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Should the U.S. be Concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    characterize the SCO, the organization has largely remained an enigma . SCO characterizations have ranged from a simple security group to a regional economic...Who’s Socializing Whom? Regional Organizations and Contested Norms in Central Asia”, Europe-Asia Studies online, Vol. 64, No.7 (July 30, 2012...article/2380723 (accessed December 3, 2012). 32 Lewis, “Who’s Socializing Whom?”, 1225. 33 Mulyono, Indonesia’s Relations with the Shanghai

  14. War Games of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the Collective Security Treaty Organization : Drills on the Move!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de M.

    2016-01-01

    The SCO is a political, economic, and security organization that started its security policy in arms control and subsequently developed war games. Conversely, the CSTO is a military alliance with collective armed forces. The military exercises of the CSTO are focused on conventional warfare, peaceke

  15. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  16. Binary birth-death dynamics and the expansion of cooperation by means of self-organized growth

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Tomassini, Marco; Perc, Matjaz

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors the more successful individuals. This is the elementary premise that pervades common models of evolution. Under extreme conditions, however, the process may no longer be probabilistic. Those that meet certain conditions survive and may reproduce while others perish. By introducing the corresponding binary birth-death dynamics to spatial evolutionary games, we observe solutions that are fundamentally different from those reported previously based on imitation dynamics. Social dilemmas transform to collective enterprises, where the availability of free expansion ranges and limited exploitation possibilities dictates self-organized growth. Strategies that dominate are those that are collectively most apt in meeting the survival threshold, rather than those who succeed in exploiting others for unfair benefits. Revisiting Darwinian principles with the focus on survival rather than imitation thus reveals the most counterintuitive ways of reconciling cooperation with competition.

  17. Effect of Organic Materials on Speciation of Cooper in Soil Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGUO; CHENJIANBIN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of two soils,a red soil derived from granodiorte and a fluvo-aquic soil from alluvial deposit,with rice straw,Chinese milk vetch and pig manure under submerged condition were conducted to study the species of Cu in soil solutions as affected by the organic materials.The organic materials increased total soluble Cu by raising dissolved organic carbon(DOC) in soil solution when the solution pH values were below the range in which Cu deposited quickly.When the solution pH rose to this rage,the increase of DOC did not raise total soluble Cu.Total soluble Cu in all the treatments dropped with incubation time.After adding organic materials labile Cu dropped with incubation time and decreased sharply in the pH range of Cu precipitation.Addition of organic materials enhanced slowly labile Cu but depressed the ratio of labile Cu to total soluble Cu.Slowly labile Cu decreased with incubation time.Sepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that total soluble Cu was positively correlated with Eh and DOC(P=0.0025),labile Cu was negatively correlated with pH(P=0.0118),and slowly labile Cu was positively correlated with Eh and DOC(P=0.0022).Both the labile and slowly labile Cu were correlated with total soluble Cu at extremely significant levels.

  18. Mobility Model for Self-Organizing and Cooperative MSN and MANET Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Sikora

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization mechanisms are used for building scalable systems consisting of a huge number of subsystems. In computer networks, self-organizing is especially important in ad hoc networking. A self-organizing ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices that collaborate with each other to form a network system that adapts to achieve a goal or goals. Such network is often built from mobile devices that may spontaneously create a network and dynamically adapted to changes in an unknown environment. Mobility pattern is a critical element that influences the performance characteristics of mobile sensor networks (MSN and mobile ad hoc networks (MANET. In this paper, we survey main directions to mobility modeling. We describe a novel algorithm for calculating mobility patterns for mobile devices that is based on a cluster formation and an artificial potential function. Finally, we present the simulation results of its application to a rescue mission planning.

  19. 对农民专业合作组织发展的思考%Thinking About Development of the Peasant Professional Cooperative Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑寿庆

    2011-01-01

    概述当前农民专业合作组织的特点,分析存在的问题,并提出具体的建议和对策,以期促进其持续健康发展,促进农村经济发展和农民增收。%The characteristic of the peasant professional cooperative organization was expounded in this paper.The problems were analyzed,the specific suggestions and countermeasures were put forward,in orde to keep the sustainable development of the peasant professional cooperative organization,promote the agricultural economic development and peasants′ income increase.

  20. Self-organized control in cooperative robots using a pattern formation principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Jens; Ellsaesser, Carmen; Fukuda, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Self-organized modular approaches proved in nature to be robust and optimal and are a promising strategy to control future concepts of flexible and modular manufacturing processes. We show how this can be applied to a model of flexible manufacturing based on time-dependent robot-target assignment...... problems where robot teams have to serve manufacturing targets such that an objective function is optimized. Feasibility of the self-organized solutions can be guaranteed even for unpredictable situations like sudden changes in the demands or breakdowns of robots. As example an uncrewed space mission...

  1. Conference of National Organizations for Co-operation in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David

    1974-01-01

    An overview of the conference proceedings, the report looks at structures, functions, memberships, definitions, relationships, pressures, and the international dimension of adult education. Thirty-two countries were represented. A key issue was the relationship between national adult education organizations, government policy, and governmental…

  2. CHROME: An Approach to Teaching the Concept of Inter-Functional Cooperation in Services Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lester W.

    2010-01-01

    When teaching a services course (e.g., Services Marketing) it is essential that students understand that marketing/management, operations and human resource management within the service organization be fully coordinated. One useful acronym used to remind students of this need is "CHROME", standing for Communications, Human Resources,…

  3. [Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis: laboratory-based surveillance in cooperation with 12 clinical laboratories in the Kinki Region of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Masaru; Shimakawa, Kouichi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Nishio, Hisaaki; Wada, Yasunao; Orita, Tamaki; Kofuku, Tomomi; Sakamoto, Masako; Okamoto, Kiyotaka; Akagi, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Shohiro

    2006-05-01

    We studied 247 strains of Proteus mirabilis collected during the 6 months from November 2003 to April 2004 from 12 clinical laboratories in the Kinki region of Japan for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Eighteen strains (7.3%) showed MICs for cefpodoxime of > or = 2 microg/mL and 13 strains (5.2%) were positive for the double-disk synergy test. Susceptibility depended on genotype. MICs for cefepime, cefozopran, and cefpirome were high (> or = 8 microg/mL), and that for ceftazidime was low (0.12-0.5 microg/mL). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC (ESBL genotype by the polymerase chain reaction showed that 12 of 13 strains were CTX-M2 types. CTX-M9 was detected in a single laboratory. The clinical background showed 5 strains in urine samples. Twelve of 13 strains were detected in patients with minimal devices use. No symptoms were found in most cases of established syndrome. Analysis of PCR fingerprint profiles of random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns showed that 6 of 7 strains from hospital 1 showed the same pattern, and 5 of 5 strains from hospital 13 showed the same pattern, suggesting the nosocomial spread of P. mirabilis in each hospital.

  4. Knowledge and Innovation: A Comparative Study of the USA, the UK and Japan. Routledge Studies in Innovation, Organizations and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This new book presents case studies from the US, the UK and Japan. Packed full of vignettes from cases studies and subscribing to a socio-cultural approach rather than the often tacit assumption that knowledge and "technology transfer" is a logistical problem, this excellent volume illuminates the often misunderstood process of knowledge transfer.…

  5. Two Cases of Tsunami Dust Pneumonia: Organizing Pneumonia Caused by the Inhalation of Dried Tsunami Sludge after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanda, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Sato, Hikari; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Toru; Yanai, Masaru

    We report two cases of organizing pneumonia (OP) secondary to the inhalation of the dried tsunami sludge which formed during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent tsunami. After the disaster, both of these patients had been engaged in the restoration work. About half a month later, they developed shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. These patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Their biopsy specimens revealed multifocal peribronchiolitis and OP. An electron probe microanalysis of these specimens demonstrated the presence of elements from the earth's crust in the inflammatory lesions. These two cases indicate that exposure to dried tsunami sludge can cause OP.

  6. 河北省加强与国际金融组织合作研究%Research on Strengthening Cooperation with International Financial Organizations in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金霞; 课题组成员李建英、王琳、徐卫、张亮、赵桂英、王雅楠、王凤飞

    2015-01-01

    新形势下河北省与国际金融组织具有拓展合作的空间,如知识合作、民营经济发展,新的资金合作渠道等。为此,深化与国际金融组织合作的路径主要为:注重合作,提升服务水平;加强管理,提高项目质量;立足实际,创新资金合作模式;与时俱进,争取世行新的贷款品种;提升素质,打造涉外队伍。%The loans, which are used by Hebei province from international financial organizations, play role of inviting investment, talent, and technology, and it shows characteristic of continual scale expansion and industry distribution tends to centralization, at the same time, we face more problems, for example, the binding force for total loans and direction of international financial organizations is increasing, relevant departments' understanding and the supervision of funds still need to strengthen. In the new situation, there have space to expand cooperation between Hebei province and the international financial organizations, such as the development of the private economy, knowledge cooperation, new channels of funding cooperation, and so on. Therefore, deepening the paths of cooperation with international financial organizations mainly are:focus on cooperation, improve service levels; strengthen management, improve project quality; based on reality, innovative fund cooperation model; keep pace with the times, strive for the World Bank's new loan varieties; improve the quality to create a foreign team.

  7. Faszination Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Árokay, Judit

    2014-01-01

    Japan ist ein Ausnahmeland. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg stieg Japan rasand schnell zu einer Wirtschaftsmacht auf, heute ist es das westlichste Land im Fernen Osten. Über das Leben im modernen Japan sowie über Einschätzungen und Fehleinschätzungen dieses faszinierenden Landes in Deutschland sprach der Campus-Reporter Nils Birschmann mit der Professorin für Japanologie an der Universität Heidelberg, Frau Prof. Dr. Judit Árokay. Der Beitrag "Faszination Japan" erschien in der Sendereihe "Camp...

  8. The Regional Self-organizing Potential in Sustainable Agriculture: An Analysis of Co-operative Agreements on Pollution in Bavaria by Means of Rough Set Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Oltmer, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the achievements of cooperative agreements in sustainable agriculture policy. After an economic analysis of multi-actor choice situations, it focuses the attention on the self-organizing potential of regional market parties in order to comply with environmental policy objectives

  9. Assessing the social licence to operate of the work of humanitarian and development cooperation organizations : A case study of Mercy Corps in Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijelava, David; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We examine the applicability of the concept of Social Licence to Operate (SLO) for international humanitarian and development cooperation organizations. We review the relevant literature on SLO and derive criteria that can be applicable to the work of development agencies. We also examine the case

  10. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  11. Influence of contemporary carbon originating from the 2003 Siberian forest fire on organic carbon in PM2.5 in Nagoya, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemori, Fumikazu; Honjyo, Koji; Yamagami, Makiko; Nakamura, Toshio

    2015-10-15

    In May 2003, high concentrations of organic carbon (OC) in PM2.5 were measured in Nagoya, a representative metropolitan area in Japan. To investigate the influence of possible forest fires on PM2.5 in Japan via long-range aerosol transport, the radiocarbon ((14)C) concentrations of PM2.5 samples from April 2003 to March 2004 were measured. (14)C concentrations in total carbon (TC) from May to early June showed higher values than those in other periods. The OC/elemental carbon (EC) ratios from May to early June were also significantly higher than the ones in other periods. In addition, OC concentrations from May to early June were typically high. These results indicate that the abundant OC fraction from May to early June in Nagoya consisted predominantly of contemporary carbon. Furthermore, simulations of diffusion and transport of organic matter (OM) in East Asia showed that abundant OM originating from East Siberia spread over East Asia and Japan in May and early June. Backward air mass trajectories from this time frame indicate that the air mass in Nagoya likely first passed through East Siberia where fire events were prevalent. However, the backward trajectories showed that the air mass after early June did not originate mainly from Siberia, and correspondingly, the (14)C and OC concentrations showed lower values than those from May to early June. Therefore, the authors conclude that contemporary carbon originating from the forest fire in East Siberia was transported to Nagoya, where it significantly contributed to the high observed concentrations of both OC and (14)C.

  12. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  13. Liquid Organic Battery Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-540

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEV) have the potential to significantly reduce consumption of gasoline and emission of greenhouse gases. However, the commercial success of mass-market, long-range BEVs requires battery technology with a challenging combination of technical metrics -- specific energy, safety, fast recharge capability, cycle life, and cost. The NREL team proposes a robust, liquid-phase battery design utilizing a high-energy organic redox couple capable of decoupling these metrics via electrode exchange to provide the necessary combination of performance characteristics. The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate a functioning prototype and determine its ability to meet RANGE performance targets in large-scale production. Three main tasks described below will work towards this goal with the individual objectives of (1) identifying a robust, high-performance redox couple-solvent-additive combination, (2) designing and demonstrating a functional cell, and (3) analyzing the concept's potential performance and cost in future mass-production scenarios.

  14. Trans-boundary secondary organic aerosol in western Japan indicated by stable carbon isotope ratio of low volatile water-soluble organic carbon and signal at m/z 44 in organic aerosol mass spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hara, Keiichiro; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Sato, Kei; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Hatakeyama, Shiro; Hikida, Toshihide; Shimono, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in the winter of 2010 at two rural sites and an urban site in western Japan, and filter samples of total suspended particulate matter were collected every 24-h and analyzed for concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) of low volatile water-soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC). Concentration of major chemical species in fine aerosol (<1.0 micron) was also measured in real time by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers. Oxidation state of organic aerosol was evaluated using the proportion of signal at m/z 44 (fragment ions of carboxyl group) to the sum of all m/z signals of organic mass spectra (f44). Analyses show a high correlation between LV-WSOC and m/z 44 concentrations, suggesting that the LV-WSOC is substantially composed of water soluble carboxylic acids in the fine aerosol. Plots of delta13C of LV-WSOC versus f44 exhibit systematic trends at the rural sites and random variation at the urban site. The systematic trends qualitatively agree with a simple binary mix...

  15. Update Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Aaron

    This book is a guide intended for persons planning on relocating to Japan. Following a chapter on background information, 13 additional chapters lead the reader step-by-step through the relocation process. These chapters include: before leaving, on arrival, language, culture, doing business in Japan, household pointers and everyday life, schools…

  16. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  17. Investing in Japan? Statistics Speak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liqin

    2009-01-01

    @@ Is investing in Japan a good choice for ambitious Chinese enterprises? Xiong Lin, partner at the Beijing DaDi Law firm, reminded potential investors that understanding Sino-Japan cultural differences, local policies and the procedures concerning investment, as well as protecting intellectual property and prompt communication with local con-sulting finns are the keys to good prepa-ration. She gave this advice at the "2009 Investment in Japan Seminar" on March 5, a seminar co-hosted by CCPIT (China Council for the promotion of International Trade) and JETRO (Japan External Trade Organization) as the follow-up to a session held in 2007.

  18. Influence of contemporary carbon originating from the 2003 Siberian forest fire on organic carbon in PM{sub 2.5} in Nagoya, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikemori, Fumikazu, E-mail: ikemori@nagoyakankaken.net [Nagoya City Institute for Environmental Sciences, 5-16-8, Toyoda, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-0841 (Japan); Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8601 (Japan); Honjyo, Koji [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8601 (Japan); Yamagami, Makiko [Nagoya City Institute for Environmental Sciences, 5-16-8, Toyoda, Minami-ku, Nagoya 457-0841 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshio [Centre for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    In May 2003, high concentrations of organic carbon (OC) in PM{sub 2.5} were measured in Nagoya, a representative metropolitan area in Japan. To investigate the influence of possible forest fires on PM{sub 2.5} in Japan via long-range aerosol transport, the radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) concentrations of PM{sub 2.5} samples from April 2003 to March 2004 were measured. {sup 14}C concentrations in total carbon (TC) from May to early June showed higher values than those in other periods. The OC/elemental carbon (EC) ratios from May to early June were also significantly higher than the ones in other periods. In addition, OC concentrations from May to early June were typically high. These results indicate that the abundant OC fraction from May to early June in Nagoya consisted predominantly of contemporary carbon. Furthermore, simulations of diffusion and transport of organic matter (OM) in East Asia showed that abundant OM originating from East Siberia spread over East Asia and Japan in May and early June. Backward air mass trajectories from this time frame indicate that the air mass in Nagoya likely first passed through East Siberia where fire events were prevalent. However, the backward trajectories showed that the air mass after early June did not originate mainly from Siberia, and correspondingly, the {sup 14}C and OC concentrations showed lower values than those from May to early June. Therefore, the authors conclude that contemporary carbon originating from the forest fire in East Siberia was transported to Nagoya, where it significantly contributed to the high observed concentrations of both OC and {sup 14}C. - Highlights: • We analyzed the radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) concentration of TC in PM{sub 2.5} from Nagoya, Japan. • {sup 14}C concentrations from May to early June in 2003 were elevated. • The air mass at this time in Nagoya likely first passed through East Siberia. • Fire location data from MODIS indicate that fire events were prevalent in East Siberia.

  19. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hyoe; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. (90)Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. (90)Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater-sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater-sediment distribution coefficients, Kd (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment-water partitioning experiments. (85)Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined Kd values (Kd-ex) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in Kd-ex was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. Kd-ex values were used, along with the measured concentrations of (88)Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3-15.7% of the total (88)Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate Kd values for anthropogenic (90)Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment.

  20. The Afghan Issue and Shanghai Cooperation Organization%阿富汗问题与上海合作组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建华

    2012-01-01

    The Afghan issue has been a focus of the Eurasian international strategies and the pattern of regional security since the 1979 Soviet invasion of Af- anistan. It is also an unavoidable major practical problem of the Shanghai Cooper- on Organization (SCO) . With the situation in Afghanistan and its impact on the security situation in Central Asia, SCO must keep pace with the times by launching new Afghanistan strategy. The policy orientation of SCO is mainly to improve the se- curity environment, to promote political reconciliation, participation in economic and social reconstruction, and to strengthen international cooperation. The deeds of SCO should be properly positioned, well grasped and proceeded step by step.%阿富汗问题是影响欧亚大陆国际战略以及地区安全格局的一个焦点问题,也始终是上海合作组织客观上难以回避的一个重大现实问题。近年来,美国奥巴马政府的阿富汗战略展开重大调整,但阿富汗局势及其对中亚安全形势的影响再趋严峻,上海合作组织对阿富汗问题的政策和作为也日益凸显出其重要性和迫切性。上海合作组织必须推出与时俱进的阿富汗问题新战略。上海合作组织在阿富汗问题上的政策取向主要从改善安全环境、推进政治和解、参与经济和社会重建、加强国际合作四方面入手。在阿富汗问题上上海合作组织可以有所作为,但要恰当定位,把握好度,循序渐进。

  1. Rearming Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    roughly ~’ Ibid., pp. 14-16, 27-30. 12 3.5 percent of their GDP towards defense while Japan spends slightly over 1 percent. Yet, when compared with...runs up huge trade surpluses in its commerce with the United States and Western Europe. Conversely, Japan spends just slightly over one percent of...its GNP on defense indicating to many in the U.S. and Western Europe that Japan is enjoying a free ride and waxing rich under American military

  2. Links between internal and external cooperation in product development : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    2004-01-01

    While there is an overwhelming amount of publications on cooperation in product development projects, they mainly,focus on cooperation between business functions within an organization (internal cooperation) or on cooperation between organizations (external cooperation). Yet the relationship between

  3. Fiscal 1996 research cooperation promotion project. Report on the Japan/Mexico international cooperation research on recovery of valuable elements in brine; 1996 nendo kenkyu kyoryoku suishin jigyo. Kansuichu no yuka shigen kaishu gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku follow up hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    In the research cooperation promotion projects having been carried out, the R and D of an overall recovery system have been conducted which recovers effectively and systematically valuable resources such as magnesium, bromine and boron including in brine made after the salt manufacturing in the coastal region in Mexico. In this project, as the research on the distilling process needed for commercialization of the system to recover valuable resources from the brine, Japan has been collecting information on various distilling processes and solar pond systems and studying a distilling process appropriate to the site jointly with Mexico. As a result, a seawater desalination process which combined the solar pond using solar energy and the evaporation method was recommended as a low-priced distilling method. Moreover, it was indicated that the solar still method for condensing/recovering the evaporated water of the Guerrero Negro salt pan is also less influential in the salt manufacturing process and is viable as a most economical distilling process by studying the structural design and operational method of more efficient solar stills

  4. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Human Resource Development was the first and remains an important pillar in Japanese foreign aid. I will argue that Japan has access to a global network of alumni who will co-define Japanese foreign aid in the future, because Japan has encouraged alumni societies and networking since 1965. A total...... of more than a million people in more than 100 countries have attended courses in Japan funded fully or partly by Japanese ODA since the inception of the technical assistance programs in 1954 through the Colombo Plan and since 1959 through the Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS from 2009...... HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...

  5. Divorce in contemporary Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukurai, H; Alston, J

    1990-10-01

    Data from the 1985-86 Japanese census are analysed to explore the determinants of the divorce rates in Japan's forty-seven prefectures, using two theoretical models: (a) the social integration model, which is shown to have a greater utility in predicting Japanese divorce levels than (b), the human capital model. Female emigration patterns play a significant role in affecting the divorce rate. Population increase and net household income are also important predictors of the Japanese divorce rate and urbanization has a great influence in modern Japan. Demographic and aggregate variables such as migration, urbanization, and socioeconomic factors are useful when organized under a social integration model.

  6. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  7. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  8. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. {sup 90}Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. {sup 90}Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater–sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater–sediment distribution coefficients, K{sub d} (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment–water partitioning experiments. {sup 85}Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined K{sub d} values (K{sub d-ex}) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in K{sub d-ex} was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. K{sub d-ex} values were used, along with the measured concentrations of {sup 88}Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3–15.7% of the total {sup 88}Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate K{sub d} values for anthropogenic {sup 90}Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: • K{sub d} for Sr were determined in Japanese coastal regions.

  9. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  10. Current trends in health insurance systems: OECD countries vs. Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Okada, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients' visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing.

  11. Current Trends in Health Insurance Systems: OECD Countries vs. Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    SASAKI, Toshiyuki; IZAWA, Masahiro; OKADA, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the longest extension in life expectancy in the world has been observed in Japan. However, the sophistication of medical care and the expansion of the aging society, leads to continuous increase in health-care costs. Medical expenses as a part of gross domestic product (GDP) in Japan are exceeding the current Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, challenging the universally, equally provided low cost health care existing in the past. A universal health insurance system is becoming a common system currently in developed countries, currently a similar system is being introduced in the United States. Medical care in Japan is under a social insurance system, but the injection of public funds for medical costs becomes very expensive for the Japanese society. In spite of some urgently decided measures to cover the high cost of advanced medical treatment, declining birthrate and aging population and the tendency to reduce hospital and outpatients’ visits numbers and shorten hospital stays, medical expenses of Japan continue to be increasing. PMID:25797778

  12. 1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    1 November 2012 - Signature of the Co-operation Agreement between the Administrative Department of Science, Technology and Innovation (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning Scientific and Technical Co-operation in High-Energy Physics and related technologies by CERN Director-General R. Heuer, witnessed by Ambassador of Colombia to Switzerland C. Turbay Quintero.

  13. [Accession to the PIC/S and pharmaceutical quality system in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katori, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    In March, 2012, Japan made the application for membership of the Pharmaceutical Inspection convention and Pharmaceutical Inspection Co-operation scheme (PIC/S) which is an international body of a GMP inspection. The globalization of pharmaceutical manufacturing and sales has been a driving force behind the decision to become a PIC/S member. For the application for membership, Japan's GMP inspectorate needs to fulfill PIC/S requirements, for example, the inspection organization has to have a quality system as a global standard. One of the other requirements is that the GMP inspectorate can access Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCL) having high analytical skills and also have a quality system based on ISO 17025. I would like to describe the process to make up a quality system in the National Institute of Health Sciences and also the circumstances around the PIC/S application in Japan.

  14. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  15. Wound care in primary health care: district nurses' needs for co-operation and well-functioning organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Most patients with leg- and foot ulcers are managed within non-institutional care. The aim of this study was to investigate the district nurses' wound management, including wound appearance, assignment of responsibility, guidelines for wound treatment and co-operation with other professional groups. The study has a descriptive quantitative approach. Data was collected using a wound registration form and a questionnaire. The selection of participants was made by random sampling. District nurses (n = 26) in five health-care centers situated in central Stockholm and two of its suburbs, participated in the study. The results show that the wound appearance is dominated by traumatic wounds. Approximately 40% of the wounds were not medically diagnosed. The area of responsibility of different professional groups was not defined and guidelines for wound treatment were mostly lacking. The decision about wound management was generally made by the district nurse. Co-operation with the general practitioner was lacking and when a consultation with dermatologist was required, the routines concerning referral were undefined. Co-operation with the assistant nurses consisted of redressing the wounds in home care. Interprofessional co-operation was regarded as important for wound healing. The paper provides insights into the district nurses' wound management and co-operation in wound care.

  16. Growth-dependent and species-specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tidal flat organisms collected from the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Sakai, Y; Miyawaki, T

    2002-02-01

    The growth-related as well as species-specific accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied for tidal flat organisms collected from the Ariake Sea, western Japan. Elevated concentrations of PCBs were found in omnivore fishes, followed in decreasing order by crabs, herbivore fishes, and mussels. This revealed that trophic levels play an important role in PCB accumulation in these organisms. Age- and body length-dependent accumulations of PCBs were observed in herbivorous mudskippers, although a large range of concentrations was found in similar growth stage of fishes. High correlations have been found between concentrations and body length rather than age, which may indicate that the growth rate, which is strongly influenced by the feeding rate of diets, seems to be the predominant factor in determining PCB accumulation. Besides, based on PCB levels in eggs and the whole body in herbivore fishes, the transfer rate of PCBs was estimated to be approximately 10% of female body burdens. Comparison of PCB compositions between eggs and whole body suggests the selective transfer of lower-chlorinated congeners to eggs, which may be due to their instantaneous periods to achieve steady state between egg and whole body lipids. The relationship between BSAFs (biota-sediment accumulation factors) in organisms and log Kow revealed that omnivore mudskipper significantly accumulated PCBs in their body, which might be due to their greater feeding rate and/or higher trophic status in the tidal flat environment.

  17. The Imminent Healthcare and Emergency Care Crisis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Japan has a universal healthcare system, and this paper describes the reality of the healthcare services provided, as well as current issues with the system.Methods: Academic, government, and press reports on Japanese healthcare systems and healthcare guidelines were reviewed.Results: The universal healthcare system of Japan is considered internationally to be both low-cost and effective because the Japanese population enjoys good health status with a long life expectancy, while healthcare spending in Japan is below the average given by the Organization for Economic Corporation and Development (OECD. However, in many regions of Japan the existing healthcare resources are seriously inadequate, especially with regard to the number of physicians and other health professionals. Because healthcare is traditionally viewed as “sacred” work in Japan, healthcare professionals are expected to make large personal sacrifices. Also, public attitudes toward medical malpractice have changed in recent decades, and medical professionals are facing legal issues without experienced support of the government or legal professionals. Administrative response to the lack of resources and collaboration among communities are beginning, and more efficient control and management of the healthcare system is under consideration.Conclusion: The Japanese healthcare system needs to adopt an efficient medical control organization to ease the strain on existing healthcare professionals and to increase the number of physicians and other healthcare resources. Rather than continuing to depend on healthcare professionals being able and willing to make personal sacrifices, the government, the public and medical societies must cooperate and support changes in the healthcare system.

  18. Musterland Japan?

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Im Gegensatz zu Japan ist in den westeuro­päischen Ländern die Umweltpolitik erst seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre in heftige Bewe­gung geraten. Den Anstoß hierzu gaben wie in Japan in den sechziger Jahren vor allem Umweltschadensfälle größeren Ausmaßes, wodurch Regierungen, Verwaltungen und umweltbelastende Betriebe unter starken Handlungsdruck gesetzt wurden. Seitdem gehören Umweltfragen in nahezu allen Indu­strieländern zu den zentralen politischen Themen. Trotz teilweise beeindrucken...

  19. LA CULTURA COMO MECANISMO DE GOBIERNO Y CONTROL EN LAS ORGANIZACIONES COOPERATIVAS/THE CULTURE LIKE MECHANISM OF GOVERNMENT AND CONTROL IN THE COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús HERNÁNDEZ ÓRTIZ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo identifica la cultura como una de las piezas básicas del comportamiento organizativo en una cooperativa pues integra el conjunto de normas sociales, valores, principios y conductas comunes a los individuos que conforman la organización. El objetivo que perseguimos es estudiar el papel de la cultura en la sociedad cooperativa, como proyecto de personas que aspiran a crear riqueza social sobre una base democrática. Nos planteamos como cuestiones clave si realmente podemos referirnos a una cultura cooperativa como elemento diferenciador de este tipo de organizaciones, si realmente existen rasgos culturales propios y distintos a otras formas empresariales, así como conocer qué función desempeña esta cultura en el ámbito del gobierno de las organizaciones cooperativas./In this paper we try to define the culture as a Basic piece in the organizational behavior in a cooperative. This culture includes a group of social norms, values, principles and common behaviors of people which define the organization. The objective of this paper is to study the role of the culture in the cooperative, as a people project who try to create social wealth in a democratic group of people. We try to explain questions such as the culture as a different element of these organizations, the existence of different and specific cultural characteristic and the function of this culture in the cooperative government.

  20. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  1. Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Crespo Solana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The collected essays comprised in this work are the result of the first years of research by the scientists who make up the DynCoopNet work team. In the framework of the EUROCORES Programme as part of the TECT call – The Evolution of Cooperation and Trading – of the European Science Foundation, this was one of five projects approved by this ambitious, interdisciplinary scientific programme. The aim of this programme has been the study of the emergence of and evolutionary processes of exchange and cooperation that occur in nature, including human societies. This programme was based on a series of common ideas. The phenomenon of cooperation essentially has, at various organisational levels, the same roots and raison d’être in all evolutionary processes whether genetic or historic-cultural. Scientists know that these processes emerge in various social contexts or ecosystems, where bacteria or human societies in multinational alliances have been elements involved. However, in most cases, Science is still unable to determine and define cooperation and why it takes place. Despite a relative lack of research, the study of cooperation has had numerous, convergent developments in various fields, such as Economics, Biology and Sociology. It can be said, in practice, that there is a common theory which explains biological and cultural evolution. This theory highlights features of interactions between agents or entities, which have developed even more in relation to economic behaviour than Social and Human Sciences. In this case, our project has been greatly enriched by an excellent bibliographical base. Generally speaking, theories relating to the emergence of cooperation mechanisms have been applied in various fields, from Neuroscience (especially with regards to Cognitive Theory to Economic History (Game Theory.Within this broad research framework, “Dynamic Cooperation Networks” is an interdisciplinary project with historians, mathematicians

  2. "Djunta-mon": o processo de construção de organizações cooperativas "Djunta Mon": the process of creating cooperative organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Sato

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo discute a construção de cooperativas a partir da concepção de organização como processo social dinamizado por negociações. Para tanto, consideramos o conflito e a harmonia de interesses nucleares para a compreensão desse processo, os quais explicam movimentos de cooperação e de confrontação.This article discusses the creation of cooperatives taking into account the concept of organization as a social process mediated by negotiations. For this purpose, we consider the conflict and the harmony of nuclear interests to understand this process, which explains movements of cooperation and confrontation.

  3. Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ichiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public satisfaction with policy process influences the legitimacy and acceptance of policies, and conditions the future political process, especially when contending ethical value judgments are involved. On the other hand, public involvement is required if effective policy is to be developed and accepted. Methods Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy. Results A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3% remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8% indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex. Conclusions Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable.

  4. Consideration of Regional Informatization Practices in Japan: A Case Study on a Civic Organization Operating Community Media

    OpenAIRE

    Togo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Kosei

    2011-01-01

    [Abstract] The aim of this article is to investigate Japanese regional informatization from the viewpoint of practices with use of a progressive case study. This article focuses attention on a civic organization that has been taking the lead in promoting regional informatization in city A, and elucidates how the civic organization of a community media operator reconsidered its own practices, and then transformed both its own organizational structure and practices. This article starts with a ...

  5. Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Co-operation agreement between the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the Hachemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME)

  6. Measurement of volatile organic compounds in the urban atmosphere of Yokohama, Japan, by an automated gas chromatographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriko; Okayasu, Hideki; Murayama, Satoru; Mori, Sachiko; Hunahashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Koji

    Urban air concentrations of six selected volatile aromatic and five selected volatile chlorinated compounds were measured at Hiyoshi in Yokohama, Japan, from November 1994 to October 1997 using an automated gas chromatographic (GC) system. Continuous measurements were made with 1 h cycles over a 1- or 2-day period. The data from these studies were analyzed and interpreted with respect to variabilities in the urban air concentrations and the diurnal changes in relation to prevailing sources. The mean concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were in the range of 0.38-1.13 ppb benzene, 1.23-8.95 ppb toluene, 0.12-0.88 ppb ethylbenzene, 0.03-0.18 ppb m-, p-xylene, 0.23-0.46 ppb o-xylene and 0.24-0.38 ppb 1.2.4-trimethylbenzene. Although variations exist in the measurements, the mean distributions in the aromatic hydrocarbons were 10.4% benzene, 69.7% toluene, 7.7% ethylbenzene, 5.4% m-, p-xylene, 1.6% o-xylene and 5.3% 2.4-trimethybenzene. Diurnal variations in the aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be very similar to each other and positively correlated with traffic activities. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 0.08-0.86, 0.08-0.93, 0.24-0.79, 0.03-0.24 and 0.07-0.42 ppb, respectively. The concentrations of these chlorinated hydrocarbons were always lower and less variable than those of the aromatic hydrocarbons.

  7. Commencement of Geoparks, Geology day and International Earth Science Olympiad, IYPE in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Eikichi; Kodama, Kisaburo; Miyazaki, Teruki

    2010-05-01

    commemorates the first publication of the geological map of Japan on 10th of May in 1878. A total of fifty-nine geology-related organizations including natural museums and academic societies have joined the eighty nine events for Geology Day all over Japan in 2009. After the great success of 1st Iinternational Earth Science Olympiad(IESO) in Korea (2007), 2nd Philippines (2008) and 3rd Taiwan (2009), 6th IESO was decided to be held in Japan (2012). We also expect great success of 4th IESO in Indonesia and 5th IESO in Italy. Earth science communities in Japan including Societies, Universities, and Research Institutes take present-day environmental crisis seriously and throw strong messages to young people for saving the earth. Under such circumstances, IESO provides wonderful chances to think of the earth, to make friendships among worldwide participants and to understand each other. We, earth science communities in Japan, promise strongly to support 6th IESO in Tsukuba, Japan (2012) and then to organize this event efficiently. Through the triennial activity of IYPE we all learned the importance of international cooperation and public outreach.

  8. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  9. Japan 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Finn

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014 a group of teachers and students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, School of Architecture, Study Dept. 3 went on a study trip to Japan. This publication collects observations and reflections that the participants of the trip...

  10. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  11. Succession of Pelagic Organisms in the Size Range 0·5-200 μm During a Diatom Bloom in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Atsushi; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Takahashi, Koji; Furuya, Ken

    1994-08-01

    The succession of pelagic organisms in the approximate size range 0·5-200 μm was investigated during a spring diatom bloom in Otsuchi Bay on the Pacific coast of northern Japan. The diatom bloom lasted 3 weeks in the middle of the period examined. The study period was divided into three phases: pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom. Mesodinium rubrum, an autotrophic ciliate, was abundant in the pre-bloom phase, when vertical mixing was intense. During the bloom phase, the biomass of organisms other than diatoms themselves and bacteria was depressed. A bacterial peak was observed 4 days after the diatom peak and peaks of nano-autotrophs and -heterotrophs occurred after 14 days. Phototrophic picoplankton showed a biomass peak at the same time as nanoplankton. Grazing on diatoms by the copepod population was shown by the occurrences of faecal pellets and copepod nauplii during and after the bloom phase. These results suggest that production of copepods and bacteria depended only on the diatom bloom directly, and that heterotrophic micro-protista depended on the production of pico- and nano-autotrophs in the post-bloom phase.

  12. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  13. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  14. Post-synthetic modification of porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic materials by cooperative addition of inorganic salts to enhance CO 2/CH 4 selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2012-08-21

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4\\',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO 3) 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal-organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M +Cl -) in a stoichiometric fashion. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 农村合作经济组织推动农业保险发展研究%Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬; 李茂松

    2011-01-01

    分析了合作经济组织作为农业保险发展有效载体的有利条件:合作经济组织推动了规模化经营,破解了小户分散经营难题;合作经济组织可以解决农民组织化程度低的问题;合作经济组织可以大大缩减农业保险运营成本;合作组织能在一定程度上降低道德风险和逆向选择;合作组织在一定程度上降低了农业生产风险,提高了农业风险的可保性.同时,指出了农业合作经济组织作为农业保险经营载体的局限性:合作经济组织的覆盖范围小,组织规模小,不利于农业风险的分散;合作经济组织资金缺乏,本身发展还不够规范,不利于载体功能的发挥;专业合作组织成员文化素质低,不利于农业保险的推行.提出了推进农业保险发展的农民合作经济组织模式,如农业保险合作社(相互会社)模式、“龙头企业(公司)+专业合作组织(种养大户)+保险”的模式、专业合作社代理农业保险模式.最后,简要说明了农业保险对农业合作经济组织的促进作用.%The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organizations promote quantitative management and solve the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systemization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance management are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative

  16. Assessment of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Conventional Practices under Organic and Inorganic Management in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tejendra CHAPAGAIN; Andrew RISEMAN; Eiii YAMAJI

    2011-01-01

    The system of rice intensification (SRI) is a production system that involves the adoption of certain changes in management practices for rice cultivation that create a better growing environment for the crop.This system was compared with conventional practices and assessed under organic and inorganic management.SRI practices showed significant response in root number,number of effective tillers per hill,days to flowering and harvest index.In addition,SRI was found effective in minimizing pest and disease incidence,shortening the crop cycle,and improving plant stand.Grain yield was not different from conventional method.Except for harvest index and plant lodging percentage,there were no significant effects from management treatments.Synergistic responses were noted when SRI practices were combined with organic management for plant height,number of effective tillers per hill,days to flowering and to maturity.The improved panicle characteristics,lower plant lodging percentage and higher harvest index that ultimately led to comparable grain yields.Net returns increased approximately 1.5 times for SRI-organic management regardless of the added labor requirements for weed control.However,comparatively higher grain yield from conventional-inorganic methods underscore the need for further investigations in defining what constitutes an optimum set of practices for an SRIorganic system specifically addressing grain yield and weed management.

  17. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  18. 75 FR 79024 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993..., 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S..., JAPAN, has been added as a party to this venture. No other changes have been made in either...

  19. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-09

    its warers unless Japan withdraws its objections to the IWC by April i. Abe pointed to the strong American influence on world-wide support of a...squadron of five SH-3 Sea King antisubmarine helicopters which it carries for a squadron of six model H [helicopters] equipped with radar for monitoring ...which appeared in the American newspaper The CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR on 3 May 1983, introduced a statement by Commander (Holcomb) to the effect that

  20. Japan Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    said Monday. In return, Japan has obtained the right to extend its air service beyond Kuala Lumpur to any further point of its choosing, the...System (MAS) and Northwest Orient Airlines will be dropped, the sources said. JAL and MAS will be allowed to begin new services via Kuala Lumpur and...secondary wood manufacturing and tourism , the leader of a state investment mission said Monday. James M. Root, leader of the 19-member mission, said

  1. Japan Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Japan Socialist Party General Secretary Tsuruo Yamaguchi: "The Deceptiveness of Breaking Through the Defense - Spending Limit of 1 Percent of GNP...Agency Budget Proposal 22 Defense Facilities Administration Agency Budget Proposal 41 Breaking of Defense - Spending Limit Criticized (Tsuruo...such as the high yen and decline in the price of oil. (1) Total Amount Fiscal 1987 defense related expenditures are 3,517.4 billion yen, an

  2. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others.

  3. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Technologies to Organic Wastewater and Organic Wastes Treatment in Japan%厌氧消化技术在日本有机废水和废弃物处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池勇志; 习钰兰; 薛彩红; 小林拓朗; 李玉友

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, anaerobic sewage sludge digestion began in 1932, and is now used in over 300 sewage treatment plants with a total digester volume of 210 × 104 m3. Over 300 upflow anaerobic sludge bed ( UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) full-scale plants are now in operation for the treatment of industrial wastewaters with high concentration from beer, soft drink, liquor, food and chemicals production. The applications and parameters of anaerobic digestion technologies in Japan for organic wastewater and organic wastes treatment are summarized. Recent developments of anaerobic digestion technologies including anaerobic membrane bioreactor, hydrogen-methane fermentation and biological desulfurization of biogas are introduced.%日本污泥厌氧消化始于1932年,目前污泥厌氧消化工程已超过300个,消化池总容积达210×10m.目前,全日本共有300多座升流式厌氧污泥床反应器(upflow anaerobic sludgebed,UASB)和膨胀颗粒污泥床(expanded granular sludge bed,EGSB)处理厂,主要用于包括啤酒废水、软饮料废水、酿酒废水、食品加工废水和化工废水在内的高浓度有机工业废水的处理.总结了厌氧消化技术在日本有机废水和有机废弃物处理中的应用状况,以及运行参数.此外,对日本厌氧消化技术在厌氧膜生物反应器、产氢产甲烷两段发酵和沼气生物脱硫等方面的新进展也进行了介绍.

  4. Northeast Asia acid rain problem and environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, E.S. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Total emission amounts of sulfur dioxide in the twenty-three (23) territories of Northeast Asia was 14.7 million tons in 1990. The Northeastern area of China accounted for 81%, Korea 12%, Japan 5%, and North Korea 2%. In the basic scenario, the emission amount of sulfur dioxide in Northeast Asia is estimated to reach 40.5 million tons by the year 2020. Long distance, cross-border air pollutants originating in China, move to the Korean Peninsula and Japan, and esp. acid rain is greatly influenced by the emission of sulfur dioxide in China. Acid rain severely damages not only the natural ecosystem and agricultural products, but also human health, too. Therefore, in order to reduce the future damage from acid rain, emission of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide material should be lessened both domestically and in nearby countries. It would be difficult for those countries in Northeast Asia to sign the multilateral agreement for environmental cooperation within a short period of time because they are in different stages of economic development and set different priorities in their discussion of environmental cooperation. Therefore, it is desirable to make them observe improved environmental standards through existing regional cooperative organizations such as ESCAP, APEC or multilateral external financial institutions such as IBRD, ADB, ODA, and to carry out cooperative businesses for regional environmental improvements. At the same time, environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia related to acid rain should start step by step from obtaining objective and reliable information through scientific studies and should be carried out multi-dimensionally and comprehensively by not only the central government but the local government and NGO in various fields, such as Politics, Economics, Science, Diplomacy, etc. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  6. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  7. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Final] report, June 1991--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  8. The arabidopsis IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16 cooperatively regulate lateral organ morphogenesis and gravitropism by promoting auxin biosynthesis and transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Cui

    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays a critical role in regulating various aspects of plant growth and development, and the spatial accumulation of auxin within organs, which is primarily attributable to local auxin biosynthesis and polar transport, is largely responsible for lateral organ morphogenesis and the establishment of plant architecture. Here, we show that three Arabidopsis INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD transcription factors, IDD14, IDD15, and IDD16, cooperatively regulate auxin biosynthesis and transport and thus aerial organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses. Gain-of-function of each IDD gene in Arabidopsis results in small and transversally down-curled leaves, whereas loss-of-function of these IDD genes causes pleiotropic phenotypes in aerial organs and defects in gravitropic responses, including altered leaf shape, flower development, fertility, and plant architecture. Further analyses indicate that these IDD genes regulate spatial auxin accumulation by directly targeting YUCCA5 (YUC5, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE of ARABIDOPSIS1 (TAA1, and PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1 to promote auxin biosynthesis and transport. Moreover, mutation or ectopic expression of YUC suppresses the organ morphogenic phenotype and partially restores the gravitropic responses in gain- or loss-of-function idd mutants, respectively. Taken together, our results reveal that a subfamily of IDD transcription factors plays a critical role in the regulation of spatial auxin accumulation, thereby controlling organ morphogenesis and gravitropic responses in plants.

  9. Elemental carbon, organic carbon, and dust concentrations in snow measured with thermal optical and gravimetric methods: Variations during the 2007-2013 winters at Sapporo, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchiki, Katsuyuki; Aoki, Teruo; Niwano, Masashi; Matoba, Sumito; Kodama, Yuji; Adachi, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    mass concentrations of light-absorbing snow impurities at Sapporo, Japan, were measured during six winters from 2007 to 2013. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were measured with the thermal optical method, and dust concentration was determined by filter gravimetric measurement. The measurement results using the different filters were compared to assess the filtration efficiency. Adding NH4H2PO4 coagulant to melted snow samples improved the collection efficiency for EC particles by a factor of 1.45. The mass concentrations of EC, OC, and dust in the top 2 cm layer ranged in 0.007-2.8, 0.01-13, and 0.14-260 ppmw, respectively, during the six winters. The mass concentrations and their short-term variations were larger in the surface than in the subsurface. The snow impurity concentrations varied seasonally; that is, they remained relatively low during the accumulation season and gradually increased during the melting season. Although the surface snow impurities showed no discernible trend over the six winters, they varied from year to year, with a negative correlation between the snow impurity concentrations and the amount of snowfall. The surface snow impurities generally increased with the number of days elapsed since snowfall and showed a different rate for EC (1.44), OC (9.96), and dust (6.81). The possible processes causing an increase in surface snow impurities were dry deposition of atmospheric aerosols, melting of surface snow, and sublimation/evaporation of surface snow.

  10. Report on the present status of scientific and engineering accelerators in Japan (I)

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose to know the present status of possible joint researches in use of accelerators in Japan, the Specialist Committee of Quantum Beam conducted a questionnaire to 69 organizations, of which 54 answered. The organizations have 97 accelerator facilities, which had 108 machines for research and educational purpose, and 7 for medical use. Of 97 facilities, 86 are found open for joint and cooperative researches. Based on the questionnaire results, following discussions are made: Definition and classification of quantum beam; Positioning of accelerators for research purpose among all machines in Japan (Increase of accelerator usage, economical scale and social contribution); Usage form of accelerators for research purpose (sort of accelerators, sort of secondary ions like neutron, synchrotron radiation, positron, radioisotope beam, muon and neutrino, high current accelerator for fusion, measurement and analyses, new elements, PET and gamma-ray); and The questionnaire results of the accelerators for rese...

  11. Learning from the Co-operative Institutional Model: How to Enhance Organizational Robustness of Third Sector Organizations with More Pluralistic Forms of Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Taylor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Third sector organizations are oftentimes seen as contributing to a robust civil society. Yet the dominant modes of third sector organizational governance often adhere to a unitary orientation. The over-reliance on unitary modes of governance introduces two challenges: first, organizational stakeholders are kept from utilizing participatory mechanisms that would enable them to act as societal intermediaries, and; second, these organizations may underperform due to the artificial separation of stakeholders from participating in governance. This paper addresses calls to widen our knowledge by translating theory into practice through a discussion about the efficacy of pluralistic governance. The co-operative enterprise in introduced to focus analyses on pluralist modes of stakeholder governance. A specific co-operative’s governance structure and practice is introduced—Choctaw Electric Co-operative—through an archival analyses of secondary media accounts of a stakeholder-led reform initiative in rural Oklahoma. The Ostrom Design Principles—a diagnostic used to assess institutional robustness—are applied to demonstrate the shortsightedness of unitary governance, and highlight the potential benefits of pluralistic stakeholder engagement. Knowledge is widened in two ways: first, empirical analyses of co-operative enterprise may provide for significant insights and innovations in third sector governance, and; second proper systems of pluralistic governance exhibit enormous capacity to better orient the firm toward better serving the stakeholder base, improving performance and institutional robustness, while empowering stakeholders as societal intermediaries.

  12. The present status of international training and education in nuclear field held in Japan for Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This report summarizes the training and educational courses for Asian countries carried out in Japan by the related institutions. The 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on 27 and 28 of November 2000, based on FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) organized by the Nuclear Energy Commission, and then the following day ''The Present Status of the International Training and Education in Japan for Asian Countries'' was reported for Asian participants on 29, November. This report is the Japanese edition of the handout distributed at the meeting. I believe it can be helpful for the related institutions in Japan to support the human resources development in the nuclear field efficiently and effectively in future. (author)

  13. The power of games. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Pacheco, Vasconcelos and Santos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2014-12-01

    Cooperators are those who contribute to a common pool while Defectors just exploit the formers' investments. If we follow the most rational individual choice then no one should contribute hence there would be nothing to exploit. This dilemma is at the heart of every conflict which is summarized as the problem of cooperation and provides the natural setting for the occurrence of the tragedy of the commons. It emerges in a wild variety of fields and systems ranging from the smallest, such as viruses and bacteria, to the largest ones which are formed by countries with partly conflicting interests [1]. The present study [2] focuses on the latter end of this spectrum by considering the global warming problem, which importance cannot be exaggerated. Traditionally, Game Theory is supposed to describe the mathematical framework of conflicts. These problems could be especially challenging when we analyze the competition of several participants whose collective behavior elevates the difficulty to a higher level. This complexity, however, provides an attractive hunting field for scientists with a statistical physics background: concepts familiar to them, such as phase transitions, pattern formation, scaling and universal behaviors have allowed this field to flourish in the last two decades. The present work is a beautiful example of this research avenue.

  14. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  15. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Money laundering in the convention on combating bribery of foreign public officials in international business transactions of the organization for cooperation and development (OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notari Bonini Notari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how they are being addressed this issue under the Convention on Combating Public Officials Corruption Foreigners in Transactions Organization of International Trade for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for Combating Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian State. The Money Laundering is a species of corrupting practices, so that this type of illicit undertakes the realization of fundamental rights, social rights, economic criminal law, the democratic rule of law affecting, directly, public policy tax as a result of the commission of unlawful acts and offenses linked to issues of an economic nature, such as bribery, fraud, tax evasion, bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, arms linked indirectly, to organized crime. Whereas the article is a bibliographic nature, it will be used as the method of approach to be adopted in its deductive development, with general assumption arguments (major premise for particular arguments (minor premise; while the procedure is analytical. Key words: Public Policy Tax, Money Laundering, Corruption of Foreign Public Officials, economic, illegalities. Money Laundering CRIME UNDER THE CONVENTION ON THE FIGHT AGAINST CORRUPTION OF FOREIGN public employee in the business operations of the International Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD This article AIMS to analyze the phenomenon of corruption and money laundering and how it is addressing this issue under the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development (OECD and the formulation of public policies for the Fight against Corruption and Money Laundering, by the Brazilian government. Money laundering is a kind of corrupt practices, so this type of crime committed with the

  17. Wind Energy Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan.

  18. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.

    2014-08-01

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type semiconducting polymer. High efficiency photovoltaics (PVs) based on inorganic semiconductors have good efficiencies (up to 30%) but are extremely expensive to manufacture. Organic PV technology has the potential to overcome this problem through the use of high-throughput production methods like reel-to-reel printing on flexible substrates. Unfortunately, today's best organic PVs have only a few percent efficiency, a number that is insufficient for virtually all commercial applications. The limited choice of stable n-type (acceptor) organic semiconductor materials is one of the key factors that prevent the further improvement of organic PVs. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) previously developed a new class of electron-deficient (n-type) conjugated polymers for use in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). During this project TDA in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will incorporate these electron-deficient polymers into organic photovoltaics and investigate their performance. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) is developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. Materials being developed at TDA include spin coated transparent conductors, charge injection layers, fullerene derivatives, electron-deficient polymers, and three-phase (fullerene/polythiophene/dye) active layer inks.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters and sediments from the Yatsushiro Sea, Japan: comparison of potential risks among PAHs, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in benthic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Uehara, Kiriko; Goto, Yuta; Fukumura, Miki; Shimasaki, Hideyuki; Takikawa, Kiyoshi; Miyawaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in oysters collected from 18 stations in the Yatsushiro Sea, western Japan. PAHs were detected in all samples analyzed, and the highest concentration (mean 230 ng/g wet weight) was found in oysters from Tanoura Bay. The high molecular weight PAHs to low molecular weight PAHs ratios in oysters from Tanoura Bay were higher than at other stations. Sediment samples collected from 42 stations in Tanoura Bay were analyzed for PAHs to understand their concentrations and distribution. Higher concentrations were found in sediment samples at two stations in the southern inner bay (mean 30,200 ng/g dry weight), which were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than at a reference site. These observations strongly suggest severe contamination and significant sources of PAHs in Tanoura Bay. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCDFs, and non- and mono-ortho coplanar PCBs) were analyzed in sediments from eight stations in Tanoura Bay. The concentrations were comparable to, or lower than, at the reference sites, suggesting that there are no specific sources of these compounds in this bay. PAH, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds DR-CALUX relative potencies (REP) were applied to the sediment concentrations to evaluate the potential for toxicological effects on benthic organisms. PAHs made the highest contribution to the total REP concentration, supplying 99% of the total REP, followed by PCDDs (0.18%), PCDFs (0.04%), and PCBs (<0.001%). In this area, PAHs appear to be the most important Ah receptor binding chemicals for potential toxicity to benthic species. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Features of the organization of separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of the dwelling-construction cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ildusovna Khairullina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to reveal the need for separate accounting of income and expenses from business and statutory activities of dwellingconstruction cooperative. Methods in this work the abstractlogical method of research has been applied. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal documents regulating the activities of dwellingconstruction cooperatives the business activities of cooperatives were determined the income and expenses received by the cooperative from business activity were reviewed. Scientific novelty the technique is proposed of separate accounting of expenditures from business and statutory activities in dwellingconstruction cooperative. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions can be used in dwellingconstruction cooperatives as well as in research and teaching activity. nbsp

  1. Japan's long road back to a nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, Lubomir [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    Nuclear can still have a key role to play in Japan's energy policy, but the restart process for offline reactors is strict and time-consuming. Japan Atomic Industrial Forum's president Takuya Hattori spoke to NucNet about the current developments related to the restart of nuclear power plants and further developments in this field in Japan. Takuya Hattori is president of the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (Jaif) and president of the Jaif International Cooperation Centre.

  2. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  3. First China-Japan Governors Forum Held in Tokyo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The First China-Japan Governors Forum jointly initiated and organized by the CPAFFC, the China-Japan Friendship Association and the Japan National Governors’ Association was held in Tokyo on April 18. Over 100 delegates took part. Key members of the Chinese Delegation

  4. 农业产业化中的农村非正式组织与农民合作研究%Study on the Rural Informal Organizations and Peasants Cooperation in Agricultural Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    从非正式组织的产生背景出发,借助管理学对农村非正式组织的产生及其与农民合作的关系进行了分析,对如何促进农业产业化中的农民合作进行了讨论.%The formation of rural informal organizations and its relationship with peasants cooperation were analyzed by the principles of management from the formation background of informal organizations, and then the ways to promote peasants cooperation in agricultural industrialization were discussed.

  5. The Relationships among Servant Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Person-Organization Fit and Organizational Identification in Fars Quality Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rahgozar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes that there is a relationship between servant leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB and that person-organization fit and organizational identification moderate that relationship. Eighty participants completed a cross-sectional self-report survey. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that servant leadership behavior partially predicts organizational citizenship behaviors and that person-organization fit and organizational identification partially moderate the relationship between servant leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. One implication is that leaders who want to encourage citizenship behaviors among employees would do well to model those same behaviors toward others.

  6. 日本终身学习社会民间组织发展研究%Research on the Development of Non-governmental Organizations of Lifelong Learning Society in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁红玲; 石睿超

    2015-01-01

    Currently ,the construction of lifelong learning society has become the common trend of all countries in the world .Japan ,as one of the world's earliest countries that began to cultivate and develop national lifelong learning ,has committed to the promotion and evolution of lifelong learning society for a long time .Especially since the 1980s ,Japan has been promoting the cultiva-tion and development of the non-governmental organizations so hard that the non-governmental or-ganizations in Japan have been flourishing in recent years .NPO ,juridical person and volunteer or-ganization are important carriers of the non-governmental organizations in Japan ,and a complete legal system provides a favorable policy environment for the growth of the non-governmental organ-izations in Japan .Moreover ,the private management with the national funding is the operational mode of the non-governmental organizations in Japan ,and the service of Japanese non-governmen-tal organizations are characteristic of diversity .Through the research on the development of the construction of lifelong learning society in the non-governmental organizations ,this paper aims to provide certain reference and inspiration for the construction of lifelong learning society in China .%当今时代,建设终身学习社会已经成世界各国的共同发展趋势。日本作为世界上较早掀起终身学习浪潮的国家之一,长期以来一直致力于终身学习社会化的推进。尤其是20世纪80年代以来,日本大力推进民间组织的培育与发展,日本民间组织近年来蓬勃发展。NPO 、财团法人和志愿者组织是日本民间组织的重要载体,完备的法律制度为日本民间组织生长提供良好的政策环境,公办民营是日本民间组织的运行模式,日本民间组织的服务内容具有多元化的特点。通过对日本终身学习社会建设中的民间组织的发展情况进行研究,以期对我国终身学习社会建设

  7. Japan and America: Culture Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Barry D.

    1989-01-01

    Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…

  8. Impressions of Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Fangyuan

    2013-01-01

    <正>The eight-day visit to Japan seemed to be a beautiful dream that ended before I woke up. However, in the dream I saw the future of China-Japan friendship. On March 4, flying to Japan, I thought all the way: "What kind of a country is Japan? Is it really as orderly and

  9. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist other organizations in conducting marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research...

  10. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  11. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  12. A Rearmed Japan: Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    Japan started its initial rearmament effort. Japan’s defense expenditures have fluctuated from near 3% of GNP to as low...Klein, Donald W. " Japan 1979: The Second Oil Crisis’ Asian Survey, January 1980. Lee, William T. "Soviet Defense Expenditures in an Era of SALT." United...relationship to the options Japan can take. In very general terms, Japan has two options: to solely rely on the D.S.-Japanese Mutual Defense Treaty for

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  15. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    OpenAIRE

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacue...

  16. US-Japan energy policy dialogue. [Contains a list of attendees, agenda, report summaries, and a financial report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guertin, Donald L.; Davis, W. Kenneth; Ikuta, Toyoaki

    1993-03-16

    The Atlantic Council has cooperated in an ongoing dialogue on energy policy issues with key Japanese organizations for the past twelve years. These Japanese organizations are the Committee for Energy Policy Promotion (CEPP) and the Institute of Energy Economics (IEE). The members of CEPP are major energy supplier and user companies. The IEE conducts sophisticated research and prepares policy papers on a range of international and Japanese energy issues. This energy dialogue is the only long-term US-Japan dialogue which engages CEPP/IEE members. Over the past twelve years the US-Japan energy dialogue has met seventeen times, with alternating meetings held in Tokyo, Hawaii, and Washington, DC. While the dialogue is a private sector activity, US and Japanese government officials are kept informed on the program and are invited to participate in the meetings in Washington and Tokyo. Major benefits of this activity have included: Establishment of close working relationships among Japanese and US private sector energy institutions and experts; exchange of papers on energy issues among participants and on a selected basis to others in the private and governmental sectors; facilitation of separate US-Japanese work on policy issues - for example a joint US-Japan cooperative policy paper on global climate change published in 1991, some government representatives participated in a May 1991 meeting on this subject. Encouragement of Japanese participation in separate Atlantic Council programs on US energy policy imperatives (1990); technology cooperation with developing countries in the field of energy supply and use for sustainable development (1992); creation of a World Energy Efficiency Association (1993); and a US-Japan-Newly Independent States project on NIS energy policy (1992--1994).

  17. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  18. Agent组织中的政策导向型协作模型%A Policy-Oriented Cooperation Model in Agent Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡军; 李志昂

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agent cooperation model emphasizes the high degree of autonomy of agent, and its spontaneous collaborative process is completely out of internal "selfish" motivation. No macro guidance, free from external control, it is difficult to meet the reliability requirements of current software system. The computational complexity of the formal theory and no effective mechanism for conflict resolution are also obstacles for agent technology to be applied in the real software systems. In this paper, using organization and policy metaphor, we build an organized and policy-oriented agent collaborative model. Through the organization and policies, macro-guidance and external control are given to the agents to enhance system dependability. While using extended defeasible logical framework, we establish a formal theory for this collaborative process which has non-monotonic reasoning ability and linear time computational complexity. The built-in priority manner of this logical framework provides an effective mechanism for conflict resolution. Based on this model, a policy-oriented cooperation process in agent organization is formally described with four cooperation stages including organizational state updating, organizational goals creating, agent obligation distributing and agent action executing. And then we analyze computational complexity and prove the consistency of the model, as well as some other simple and interesting nature. Finally, the main characteristics of this model are verified by an example.%传统Agent协作模型强调Agent的高度自主性,其自发协作过程完全出于内部的“自私性”动机,难以在模型中表达宏观层面上的引导及系统外部的约束,在应用于开放复杂软件系统时,将面临可信度不能满足要求、计算复杂度高及没有有效的冲突消解机制这3方面的问题,这阻碍了Agent技术在现实软件系统建模中的应用.采用组织与政策隐喻,提出Agent组织中的政策导

  19. Profiting from Education. Japan-United States International Educational Ventures in the 1980s. IIE Research Report Number Twenty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Gail S.; Cummings, William K.

    The Institute of International Education outlines the forces behind the new wave of international cooperative ventures in higher education and the challenges they pose through a systematic focus on the Japan-United States transactions. Focus is placed on two prototypes: (1) U.S. accredited institutions setting up a cooperative venture in Japan to…

  20. The short coiled-coil domain-containing protein UNC-69 cooperates with UNC-76 to regulate axonal outgrowth and normal presynaptic organization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung Nancy

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used extensively to identify the genetic requirements for proper nervous system development and function. Key to this process is the direction of vesicles to the growing axons and dendrites, which is required for growth-cone extension and synapse formation in the developing neurons. The contribution and mechanism of membrane traffic in neuronal development are not fully understood, however. Results We show that the C. elegans gene unc-69 is required for axon outgrowth, guidance, fasciculation and normal presynaptic organization. We identify UNC-69 as an evolutionarily conserved 108-amino-acid protein with a short coiled-coil domain. UNC-69 interacts physically with UNC-76, mutations in which produce similar defects to loss of unc-69 function. In addition, a weak reduction-of-function allele, unc-69(ju69, preferentially causes mislocalization of the synaptic vesicle marker synaptobrevin. UNC-69 and UNC-76 colocalize as puncta in neuronal processes and cooperate to regulate axon extension and synapse formation. The chicken UNC-69 homolog is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system, and its inactivation by RNA interference leads to axon guidance defects. Conclusion We have identified a novel protein complex, composed of UNC-69 and UNC-76, which promotes axonal growth and normal presynaptic organization in C. elegans. As both proteins are conserved through evolution, we suggest that the mammalian homologs of UNC-69 and UNC-76 (SCOCO and FEZ, respectively may function similarly.

  1. Cr(VI) reduction by gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide, the reaction products of fungal glucose oxidase: Cooperative interaction with organic acids in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Rodríguez, Pamela; Acevedo-Aguilar, Francisco Javier; Lopez-Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna; Gutiérrez-Corona, J Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(VI) reducing capability of growing cells of the environmental A. tubingensis Ed8 strain is remarkably efficient compared to reference strains A. niger FGSC322 and A. tubingensis NRRL593. Extracellular glucose oxidase (GOX) activity levels were clearly higher in colonies developed in solid medium and in concentrated extracts of the spent medium of liquid cultures of the Ed8 strain in comparison with the reference strains. In addition, concentrated extracts of the spent medium of A. tubingensis Ed8, but not those of the reference strains, exhibited the ability to reduce Cr(VI). In line with this observation, it was found that A. niger purified GOX is capable of mediating the conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a reaction dependent on the presence of glucose that is stimulated by organic acids. Furthermore, it was found that a decrease in Cr(VI) may occur in the absence of the GOX enzyme, as long as the reaction products gluconolactone and hydrogen peroxide are present; this conversion of Cr(VI) is stimulated by organic acids in a reaction that generates hydroxyl radicals, which may involve the formation of an intermediate peroxichromate(V) complex. These findings indicated that fungal glucose oxidase acts an indirect chromate reductase through the formation of Cr(VI) reducing molecules, which interact cooperatively with other fungal metabolites in the biotransformation of Cr(VI).

  2. 德国农业合作经济组织的发展研究及对我国的启示%Development of German Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations and the Inspiration for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡媛媛; 万红先

    2011-01-01

    As the representative of European countries,Germany successfully solved the agriculture issue and enabled farmers to become the main competition in agricultural markets by the way of agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Germany has leading level in developed countries because of the large scale,strong strength and tight organization of German agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Germany as a highly developed industrialized countries,also maintains a strong agricultural development,and it is inseparable from the credit of agricultural cooperative economic organizations.Studying German agricultural cooperative economic organizations has a real and long-term significance on the development of agricultural cooperative economic organizations and cultivating the main market competition entities of agricultural product in China.%以德国为代表的欧洲国家,通过农业合作经济组织的方式,不但成功解决了"三农"问题,而且使农民成为农业市场的竞争主体.德国农业合作经济组织的规模之大、实力之强、组织之严密,在发达国家中居于领先水平.像德国这样高度发达的工业化国家,还能保持农业的强势,离不开农业合作经济组织的功劳.研究和借鉴德国农业合作经济组织的发展,对我国发展农业合作经济组织、培育农产品市场竞争主体有着现实和长远的意义.

  3. Paying Close Attention to the Japan-US MarineStrategy, to Ensure the Basic Environment of Cross-Strait Cooperation in Ocean%密切关注日美海洋战略,确保两岸海洋合作的基本环境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王键

    2015-01-01

    The mainland and Taiwan belong to one China's ocean space, currently the two sides are both facing thehostile infringement of the South China Sea and East China Sea.They have held consistent positionson the issues which are related to boththe South China Sea and the East Chinasea,the two sideshave also had the history of jointly safeguarding the sovereignty. In recent years,America and Japan vigorously strengthen the military cooperation with Vietnam,the Philippines and other military cooperation in the South China Sea,and continuouslyconduct maritime strategic deterrence, thus the situation of China three seas (the Taiwan Strait and the East China Sea, the South China Sea) is grim. US-Japan maritime tort policy towards China has become more specific and more powerful.Especially in Japan,together with US, the two countries have moved the strategic center of gravity eastward, trying to win the Taiwan independence forces to encircle China's East Asian Seas coalition.China proposed the "construction of marine power" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" strategy initiative, it‟s not only a major strategic conceptof the abutment betweenits own development strategies and regional cooperation, but also the positive steps for safeguarding China's maritime rights and interests.In short, strategic vision is required in order to give an effective response to the sea crisis, and it‟simminent tovigorously promote the implementation of the cross-strait maritime cooperation, safeguard the interests of Chinese territorial waters of the sea and create a favorable environment for the settlement of maritime disputes and Maritime Silk Road construction.%大陆与台湾同属一个中国的海洋空间,当下,两岸共同面临着外敌对南海和东海的侵权。两岸无论在南海还是东海问题上都持有基本一致的立场,也曾有过共同维护主权的历史。近年来,美日大力加强与越、菲等南海声索国的军事合作,持续对中国进

  4. Japan and Georgia: Economic Partners. For Students in Grade Eight. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Jane; Morgan, Nancy

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  5. Using a Problem Solving-Cooperative Learning Approach to Improve Students' Skills for Interpreting [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectra of Unknown Compounds in an Organic Spectroscopy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angawi, Rihab F.

    2014-01-01

    To address third- and fourth-year chemistry students' difficulties with the challenge of interpreting [superscript 1]H NMR spectra, a problem solving-cooperative learning technique was incorporated in a Spectra of Organic Compounds course. Using this approach helped students deepen their understanding of the basics of [superscript 1]H NMR…

  6. The Innovation of Organization and Mode of Multiagent Cooperative Governance%多元主体合作共治的组织与模式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄增如; 樊瑛

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of information and network society, the ecology for social governance has the feature of complexity. So the innovations of social governance from thinking paradigm to management mode and mechanism are needed. In this paper, from the perspective of cooperative governance of multi-agents, the key problems and possible research paths on different levels are discussed respectively, including the design and transformation of macro-system, the behavior and interaction of multi-agents on the micro-level, as well as the organization and patterns of multiagent cooperative governance in community management. The deep understanding of the behavior of multi-agents should be got from the analysis of big data. It is the basis to construct the new organization and mode for social governance. On the macroscopic level, positive feedback to promote social organization is the key to creating the new mode and system. Meanwhile, on the community level, negative feedback is needed for the stabalization and adaptive operation of the new social governance system. The information communication and interaction among the agents should be addressed. The mechanism for interaction, cooperation and decision-making should be constructed based on the information and networks techonology and meta-synthesis methodology.%当前的信息时代和网络社会背景下,社会治理生态具有“复杂性”,需要从思维范式、管理模式和体制机制方面创新社会治理。本文基于多元主体合作共治的视角,分别从宏观制度设计及转型途径、多主体行为及其相互影响的微观层次、基层社区管理中多元主体合作共治的组织与模式三个方面,分析了各自层面关注的问题及可能的研究途径,以期探讨多元主体合作共治的治理框架与结构体系。在大数据技术基础上加深对多元主体行为的认识是建立新型社会治理组织与模式的基础;在宏观层面,建立促进社

  7. Dvigateli regional'nogo stroitel'stva. Vlijanie regional'nyh politicheskih organizacij na sotrudnichestvo universitetov v regione Baltijskogo morja [Motors for regional development: impact on regional political organizations on the university cooperation in the Baltic Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewert Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational co-operation is one of the main aspects of the regional political agenda in the Baltic Sea Region. The article analyzes the political impact of the organizations, as perceived by the universities in the region and political decision-makers on national and regional levels. Based on the success of the OECD in becoming an influential actor in educational policies, this article discusses different strategies for the regional political organizations to enhance their influence.

  8. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  9. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  10. 基于利益需求角度的农民专业合作社动力研究%Research on Motivation in Development of Farmers' Specialized Cooperative Organization from Angle of Interest Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦普

    2012-01-01

    介绍了农民专业合作社各利益主体的需求,分析了农民专业合作社的动力,其中作为合作社主体地位的普通农户的需求是合作社持久发展的内部动力源,各利益主体的利益平衡是合作社持久发展的动力保障,政府扶持是合作社发展不可或缺的外部驱力.最后提出推动农民专业合作社持久健康发展,应实行品牌化经营,提升市场竞争力,完善运行机制,同时加大政府在教育培训、农超对接、电子商务平台建设、财政金融扶持方面的力度和对核心成员的精神激励.%The demands of different interest subjects in farmers' specialized cooperative organization were introduced, the motive of farmers' specialized cooperative organization was analyzed. Among which, the interest of common farmer as the main body station is the internal motive, the balance of different interest subjects provide guarantee of motivation, and the government support is the essential external motive in the development of farmers' specialized cooperative organizations. Finally, several countermeasures for promoting sustainable and healthy development of farmers' specialized cooperative organization were put forward, which include carrying out brand strategy to improve the market competitiveness and perfect its operation mechanism, strengthening government' s support in education training, farming-supermarket docking, e-commerce platform construction, financial and monetary support and spiritual stimulation to farmers' specialized cooperative organizations.

  11. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at OECD Halden Reactor Project. Achievement of joint researches between JAERI and other organizations in the period from 1994 to 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Jinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kinoshita, Motoyasu [and others

    1998-01-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with many Japanese agencies and companies by means of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These cooperative researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summaries the objectives, contents and the outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 1994 January to 1996 December. During the period, ten cooperative researches had been carried out, and two of them had finished during the period and other eight researches has been continued to the next three year period. There are many research items, and most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding concerned with the high burnup utilization of LWR fuel or MOX fuel irradiation researches to prepare for the introduction of Plutonium utilization in LWRs. The researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time because of the characteristics of these kind of research work, and three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, eight tests have been continued after the three year period. In this report, the achievements of the continued researches to the next three year period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  12. Multi-agent robotic cooperative assembly system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents a multi-robot cooperative assembly systen (MRCAS) which is composed of an organizer computer, three industrial robots, PUMA 562 mounted on an onni-directional vehicle, PUMA 760 and Adept I and organized in to a hierarchical structure with the cooperation organization on the top and the coordination motion at the bottom to solve the main problem of coordination and cooperation among robots, and concludes with experimental results that MRCAS is reconfigurable and adaptable as the mission changes.

  13. “Kazakhstani” Identity, Eurasian Regionalism and Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Biopolitics of Forced Migration, Modernity and Multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Sartbayeva Peleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a case of forced migration and its effects on the formation of national identity and the consolidation of state agencies, industries, and other formal organizations. A composite of several theories, namely “survival migration” and “biopolitical control” will be used to account for the case that features significant social transformation, conflict and even trauma. In the 1940s the population of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic underwent unprecedented migration of evacuees from the European parts of the USSR due to World War II. However in the same period the Soviet government conducted a “forced migration” policy for particular “ethnic groups” deemed politically unreliable in the context of World War II. In the 1950s-1960s, populations located in the European parts of the USSR were officially induced by the Soviet government to contribute to a massive industrialization initiative by relocating to industrializing regions in the Asian parts of the USSR. At around the same period, population dislocations in the People’s Republic of China caused a diaspora of Uighurs moving to the Soviet Union. The life activities of these migrants would be the basis for a new collective “Kazakhstani” identity that continues to the present day. However, this identity is distinct from, and in some cases opposed to, the historic primordial “Kazakh” identity held by the Turko-Mongol ethno-linguistic societies that inhabited Kazakhstan prior to the Soviet migrations. The government of the present-day Kazakhstan recognizes the significance of the Soviet migrations, and modulates the shift of political power towards ethnic Kazakhs. Checking the newly assertive Kazakh nationalist movement and the unresolved Uighur nationalism in Eurasia through regionalist-technocratic means may increase the viability of the more inclusive and socially constructed multicultural “Kazakhstani” and regional “Eurasian” identities and may

  14. Practice on Organic Tea Certification of Specialized Farmers Cooperatives in China%农民专业合作社开展有机茶认证的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒爱民; 龚淑英

    2012-01-01

    In China, there are the organization institute as smallholder group. Supported by the of Specialized Farmers Cooperatives (SFC) a similar Common Fund for Commodities (CFC), OTRDC conducted organic tea certification of specialized farmers cooperatives in Yunnan Shuangjiang County Haigong Village Tea Specialized Farmers Cooperative. The key of organic tea production to success for SFC is to keep strict accordance with Internal Control System (ICS), to build up a benign win-win cooperative relationship with a business company who has responsibility and strong marketing ability.%国际上称之的小农户组织,在国内则是农民专业合作社。中国农业科学院茶叶研究所有机茶研究与发展中心(OTRDC)在国际商品共同基金的资助下,对云南省双江县亥公村农民专业合作社持续开展了有机茶认证。农民专业合作社获得有机认证的关键因素是:有效的内部控制系统;与具有市场开拓能力和社会责任感的企业建立双赢合作关系;认证机构按照标准要求实施认证。

  15. 从国际组织法角度浅析上海合作组织%On the Shanghai cooperation organization from the perspective of international organization law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵菡麟; 窦安旎

    2015-01-01

    As a regional international organization, the internal organization of the Shanghai cooperation organization is divided into the following several: the first, the decision-making agencies, specific performance for the summit of heads of state and government. The second, executive agencies, the main performance of the foreign ministers' meeting, the national coordinator board meeting, the leaders of the department. In addition, there are a number of ancillary agencies to provide various services.%作为区域性国际组织而言的上海合作组织之内部机构主要分为如下几个:第一,决策机关,具体表现为国家元首会议和政府首脑会议。第二,执行机构,主要表现为外长会议国家协调员理事会会议,各部门领导人会议。此外,还有一些提供完美服务的辅助机构。

  16. World Network of Friends: Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    exchange invitations to training courses and partnerships for the development of human resources. The structure of and focus on human resource development is inspired by experiences of ODA financed courses in Japan and, thereby, fits Shimomura and Wang’s argument that ‘the notable difference between...... in future world orders. Partners first introduced as participants and alumni of private sector training courses in Japan founded WNF in 1997. The members are alumni and alumni organizations in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and South America, but also from the Former Eastern Europe. WNF members...... traditional and emerging donors is their experience of receiving aid.” Much literature on the ‘emerging donors’ focuses on the challenge they pose to the ‘DAC regime’ of conditionalities. However, this chapter will explore how the Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation...

  17. Together with the farmers: social and rural medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, H K

    1978-01-01

    Japan emerged from feudalism a century ago. Farmers comprise 20 percent of the population of 110 million. The agricultural cooperative movement sponsors 118 hospitals in rural areas. Of these, the Saku Central Hospital is the largest, and provides leadership to a vigorous rural health movement. Its unique outreach program and its contributions to rural health are described, together with remarks about Japan's health situation generally. There may be lessons here for America.

  18. On Regional Tourism Cooperation System Based on Self-organization Theory%基于自组织理论的区域旅游合作系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段圣奎

    2012-01-01

    Based on the self-organization theory,the paper,taking regional tourism cooperation as a system,analyzes the development of regional tourism cooperation system,studies the traits of self-organization,and explores the self-organization mechanism from three aspects of space natural growth,enterprise symbiosis collaboration and industrial cluster development.%以自组织理论为基础,将区域旅游合作作为一个整体系统,分析区域旅游合作系统发展过程,审视其所具有的自组织特性,从空间自然生长、企业共生协同、产业集群发展等三个方面深入探讨了区域旅游合作系统自组织机制。

  19. Japanese space policy during the 1980s: A balance between autonomy and international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirotaka

    2011-04-01

    In the mid-1980s, Japan decided not only to invest in a totally domestic rocket, "H-II," to acquire its independent access to space, but also to participate in the U.S. Space Station program to promote international space cooperation. Not until then did Japan try to achieve simultaneously both autonomy and international cooperation. This paper reexamines how Japan achieved a balance between autonomy and international cooperation in its space activities during the 1980s, from the perspective of Japan-U.S. diplomatic history. Against the background of the Japan-U.S. relations of those days, the similarities and differences between the two big space programs made it possible for Japan to decide them at the same time of the mid-1980s.

  20. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  1. Academic Libraries in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Rowena; Nagata, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries in Japan are well resourced by international standards, and support Japan's internationally recognized research capability well, but there are also ways in which they reflect Japan's strong bureaucratic culture. Recent changes to the status of national university libraries have seen a new interest in customer service, and…

  2. Get Oriented: Study Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parramore, Barbara M.

    1981-01-01

    Recommends that students in social studies classes be exposed to a study of Japan because of the wide array of contrasts possible between Japan and the United States. Information is presented on Japan's modernization, global status, language, decision-making processes, and ancient traditions. (DB)

  3. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  4. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开红

    2012-01-01

    基于对三峡库区100家农业合作经济组织的问卷调查结果,以结构方程模型为分析工具,对农业合作经济组织的治理结构与绩效进行了实证分析.结果表明,股权结构对于合作组织的绩效有着最关键的影响,系数高达0.92;监督机制和理事套结构对于合作组织来说重要程度相当,影响系数分别为0.87和0.86,仅次于股权结构;成员的退出能力大小对于组织的绩效也有相当重要的影响,系数为0.74.由此指出了当前三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构中存在的影响其组织绩效的问题,并提出了相应的解决对策.%On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area .this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organisations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations.and the impact coefficient is 0. 87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members' quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations, with impact coefficient of 0. 74. Thus, the problems influencing the performance of organizations, in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Are, are pointed out. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Thus pointed out that the current governance structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of agricultural cooperative economic organizations affect the organizational performance issues and .

  5. Analysis of socio-economic and environmental barriers for the development of rural economic cooperative organization%农村合作经济组织发展过程中的环境障碍分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭怀亮; 魏鑫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The present paper is an attempt to analyze the presence of main socio-economic and environ-mental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [ Method ] The methods of qualitative analysis combined with documentary analysis were used to analyzed the presence of main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization. [Result] The main socio-economic and environmental barriers in the process of development of rural economic cooperative organization include low level of educational background of farmers, lack of enthusiasm to participate in rural economic cooperative organization, deficiency in knowledge of their own role playing in the development of rural economic cooperative organization for government, shortage of systematic study on the theory of rural economic cooperative organization,too many management subjects, absence of relevant laws and regulations,etc. [Suggestion] Based on the analysis results,some countermeasures have been put forward which include coordination of relationship between government and rural economic cooperative organization, enhancement of theoretical research,advertisement, and training for rural individuals,formulation of preferential policies for rural economic cooperative organization,etc., in order to get a comfortable operation of rural economic cooperative organization.%[目的]掌握了解农村合作经济组织发展过程中的主要环境障碍,为政府制定促进农业合作经济组织发展的外部环境政策提供依据.[方法]采用定性分析和文献分析相结合的方法对农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍进行分析.[结果]农村合作经济组织发展主要环境障碍包括:农民文化素质较低、积极性不高,政府在发展农村合作经济组织过程中队自身作用认识不足,对农村合作经济组织的理论研究较为薄弱,管理主体较多,相关的体

  6. Cross Cultural Educational Exchanges between Indonesia and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Rohayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Japan has become a country which has a big influence especially in South East Asia. They actively build bilateral and multilateral cooperation with other countries like establishing the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA in August 1974. The cooperation has involved many sectors such as technology, politics, economy, social affairs and culture.On the ASEAN stage, Japan is actively promoting its culture to ASEAN countries, including Indonesia. One major program is “Pesantren Leaders’ Visit to Japan”. The program is a cooperation between the Japanese Embassy and the Center for the Study of Islam and Society (PPIM, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, which has run from 2004 until now.In the program, the Japanese Government every year invites several religious education leaders in Indonesia to observe the social and culture dynamics of the Japanese. Not only that, they are also invited to visit some schools, government offices, small and medium enterprises in Japan to see the latest productivity developments, including the problems and challanges they have in many sectors. As a result of its ongoing work, this bilateral program has produced a cross-cultural network and inter-faith dialogue among Islamic schools in Indonesia and Japan

  7. Cooperative Change and the Myth of Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Rokholt, Per Ove; Borgen, Svein Ole

    2000-01-01

    Much of the current research on agricultural cooperatives is biased towards weaknesses of the cooperative organization form. The literature says very little about the strengths and advantages of the cooperative form and what is necessary to develop the form's uniqueness into a sustainable competitive advantage. We argue that for cooperatives to remain viable and competitive, the advantages of the form must be clearly manifested. There is now a lack of systematic theorizing in this field. Typi...

  8. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  9. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan.

  10. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybañez, Adrian Patalinghug; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause clinical signs in a dog and in humans. This review documents the studies and reports about Anaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:27956767

  11. Anaplasma species of veterinary importance in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez; Hisashi Inokuma

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma species of the family Anaplasmataceae, order Rickettsiales are tick-borne organisms that can cause disease in animals and humans. In Japan, all recognized species of Anaplasma (except for Anaplasma ovis) and a potentially novel Anaplasma sp. closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum have been reported. Most of these detected tick-borne pathogens are believed to be lowly pathogenic in animals in Japan although the zoonotic A. phagocytophilum has recently been reported to cause cli...

  12. Japan Data Exchange Network JDXnet and Cloud-type Data Relay Server for Earthquake Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, K.; Urabe, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Nakagawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    In Japan, high-sensitive seismic observation and broad-band seismic observation are carried out by several organization such as Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) , National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED), nine National Universities, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) , etc. The total number of the observation station is about 1400 points. The total volume of the seismic waveform data collected from all these observation station is about 1MByte for 1 second (about 8 to 10Mbps) by using the WIN system(Urabe 1991). JDXnet is the Japan Data eXchange network for earthquake observation data. JDXnet was started from 2007 by cooperation of the researchers of each organization. All the seismic waveform data are available at the all organizations in real-time. The core of JDXnet is the broadcast type real-time data exchange by using the nationwide L2-VPN service offered in JGN-X of NICT and SINET4 of NII. Before the Tohoku earthquake, the nine national universities had collected seismic data to each data center and then exchanged with other universities and institutions by JDXnet. However, in this case, if the center of the university was stopped, all data of the university could not use even though there are some alive observation stations. Because of this problem, we have prepared the data relay server in the data center of SINET4 ie the cloud center. This data relay server collects data directly from the observation stations of the universities and delivers data to all universities and institutions by JDXnet. By using the relay server on cloud center, even if some universities are affected by a large disaster, it is eliminated that the data of the living station is lost. If the researchers set up seismometers and send data to the relay server, then data are available to all researchers. This mechanism promotes the joint use of the seismometers and joint research activities in nationwide researchers.

  13. International Symposium on Disarmament Education: A Report. Proceedings from a World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession and Japan Teachers Union Symposium (Hiroshima, Japan, October 25-29, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japan Teachers Union, Tokyo.

    Proceedings from an international symposium devoted to the cause of disarmament education are presented. Representatives from international and national teacher organizations together with scholars and researchers from 35 countries and all continents attended. The symposium focused on the idea that teachers have a special responsibility to work…

  14. Climatological attribution of wind power ramp events in East Japan and their probabilistic forecast based on multi-model ensembles downscaled by analog ensemble using self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Masamichi; Nohara, Daisuke; Kadokura, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    Severe storms or other extreme weather events can interrupt the spin of wind turbines in large scale that cause unexpected "wind ramp events". In this study, we present an application of self-organizing maps (SOMs) for climatological attribution of the wind ramp events and their probabilistic prediction. The SOM is an automatic data-mining clustering technique, which allows us to summarize a high-dimensional data space in terms of a set of reference vectors. The SOM is applied to analyze and connect the relationship between atmospheric patterns over Japan and wind power generation. SOM is employed on sea level pressure derived from the JRA55 reanalysis over the target area (Tohoku region in Japan), whereby a two-dimensional lattice of weather patterns (WPs) classified during the 1977-2013 period is obtained. To compare with the atmospheric data, the long-term wind power generation is reconstructed by using a high-resolution surface observation network AMeDAS (Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System) in Japan. Our analysis extracts seven typical WPs, which are linked to frequent occurrences of wind ramp events. Probabilistic forecasts to wind power generation and ramps are conducted by using the obtained SOM. The probability are derived from the multiple SOM lattices based on the matching of output from TIGGE multi-model global forecast to the WPs on the lattices. Since this method effectively takes care of the empirical uncertainties from the historical data, wind power generation and ramp is probabilistically forecasted from the forecasts of global models. The predictability skill of the forecasts for the wind power generation and ramp events show the relatively good skill score under the downscaling technique. It is expected that the results of this study provides better guidance to the user community and contribute to future development of system operation model for the transmission grid operator.

  15. Population support a priority for Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    The Japanese government has approved an increase in both financial and technical assistance for family planning in developing countries for FY1991. Japan's contribution to the United National Population FUnd (UNFPA) will total US$56.8 million, a 1.83% increase from the previous year, and it will be the largest donation by any country. Japanese support of UNFPA has skyrocketed from an initial contribution of US$1.5 million to today's level. Besides its multilateral assistance through UNFPA, the country will also provide bilateral technical assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Increasing by 7.8% from 1990, technical assistance will total US$8.54 million, and it will go to the following countries: Colombia, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Turkey. Japan will provide the equipment and supplies needed for transferring technical expertise from Japanese experts to personnel from the recipient countries. Japan will also host an international family planning seminar for developing countries. Japan's pledge of assistance reflects the country's desire to improve the social conditions and quality of life for people living in developing countries, and it indicated the growing awareness of the Japanese public concerning population and family planning issues.

  16. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  17. Tissue procurement system in Japan: the role of a tissue bank in medical center for translational research, Osaka University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkawara, H; Fukushima, N; Kitagawa, T; Ito, T; Masutani, Y; Sawa, Y

    2010-01-01

    Although organ procurement has been regulated by The Organ Transplantation Law (brain-dead donors since 1997, donors after cardiac death since 1979), there has been no law or governmental procurement network (except for cornea) in Japan. Since the late 1980s, some university hospitals have developed original banks. Finally, in 2001 guidelines for tissue procurement were established by The Japanese Society of Tissue Transplantation and Japan Tissue Transplant Network (JTTN) to coordinate tissue harvesting. Five tissue banks were joined to the tissue transplant network (skin in one, heart valves in two, and bone in two). As the number of tissue banks is small, each bank cooperates on procurement, but cannot cover the entire country. With regard to skin transplantation, only one skin bank-The Japan Skin Bank Network (JSBN), which is located in Tokyo-has organized skin procurement. Therefore, it has been difficult to procure skin in areas distant from Tokyo, especially around Osaka. In order to improve such a situation, a tissue bank collaborating with the JSBN was established at The Medical Center for Translational Research (MTR), Osaka University Hospital in April 2008. The bank has played a role in skin procurement center in western Japan and supported procurement and preservation at the time of the skin procurement. Between April 2008 and September 2009, the bank participated in eight tissue procurements in the western area. In the future, the bank is planning to procure and preserve pancreatic islets and bones. Moreover, there is a plan to set up an induced pluripotent stem cells center and stem cell bank in MTR. This tissue bank may play a role to increase tissue procurement in Japan, especially in the western area.

  18. Development of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations: A New Review under New Classical Frameworks%农业合作经济组织发展:新兴古典框架下的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉凯; 张柏杨

    2011-01-01

    在新兴古典框架下,刻画农业合作经济组织的专业化分工经济模型,运用超边际分析方法,探讨了农业合作经济组织的内在演化机制.以湖北宜昌柑橘业合作经济组织实际发展为例,运用数据进行了相关检验.数理分析结果表明:农业合作经济组织所在区域的交易条件、生产专业化程度、交易效率与农民收入程度成正相关,着手改善经济环境,才能为合作经济组的继续发展提供动力.%Under new classical frameworks, the text has portrayed the division of economy originating in specialization of cooperative organization, and inframarginal analysis method was used to discuss the internal evolution mechanism of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. Taking the case of the actual development of Yichang citriculture cooperative economic organization, correlation test was carried out by using data. Mathematical analysis results indicated that the trading conditions, the specialization of production and trading efficiency are in positive correlation with farmers' income. Therefore, the improvement of the economic environment can provide powder for the further development of cooperative economic organization.

  19. The relationship between internal and external cooperation : literature review and propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    2003-01-01

    Over time, the management literature has paid much attention to the topic of cooperation. The literature on cooperation can be divided into two broad parts, with one part focusing on cooperation within organizations (internal cooperation) and another addressing cooperation between organizations (ext

  20. The relationship between internal and external cooperation : literature review and propositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, B; Biemans, WG

    Over time, the management literature has paid much attention to the topic of cooperation. The literature on cooperation can be divided into two broad parts, with one part focusing on cooperation within organizations (internal cooperation) and another addressing cooperation between organizations

  1. Deepen Practical Cooperation And Uphold Peace and Stability Address at the 10th Meeting of the Council of Heads of member States of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization%深化务实合作维护和平稳定在上海合作组织成员国元首理事会第十次会议上讲话

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡锦涛

    2010-01-01

    @@ Your Excellency President Karimov, Dear colleagues, It gives me great pleasure to meet you all in Tashkent, a city with a history of several thousand years. Since assuming the chairmanship of the Shanghai Co-operation Organization (SCO), Uzbekistan has done a large amount of effective work for the development of this organization. China highly appreciates its efforts.I wish to express heartfelt thanks to President Karimov and the government of Uz-bekistan for the thoughtful reparations and arrangements for this meeting.

  2. 9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2008-01-01

    9 May 2008 - Signature of the Protocol to the co-operation agreement dated 21 January 2006 between King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) on behalf of the Government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, represented by M. I. Al-Suwaiyel and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), represented by R. Aymar, concerning the further development of scientific and technical co-operation in high-energy physics

  3. National healthcare spending in the U.S. and Japan: national economic policy and implications for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, James R

    2005-01-01

    Growth of national healthcare spending is a problem confronting national governments of all industrially advanced countries. Healthcare spending in the U.S. reached 13.9% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2003, compared to only 8% in Japan. In the U.S., health insurance is voluntary, with 15% of the population uninsured. In Japan, health insurance is mandatory and virtually universal, with growth in national health costs about half the rate of growth in the U.S. U.S. healthcare costs are projected to reach 18.4% of GDP 2013. The predicted growth in health care costs is expected to cause strain on the federal budget and a growing inability of employers and employees to pay for private insurance. Different national policies are the reason for different national health care costs in the U.S. and Japan. The U.S. has higher healthcare prices for salaries, equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals as compared to Japan. Higher prices, higher service intensity and volume during hospitalization create higher total cost in the U.S. Price controls in Japan kept medical inflation low at 0.46%/yr from 1980-2000. Market-pricing mechanisms in the U.S. have proven ineffective in controlling national healthcare costs, while Japan's national fee and price control policies have kept national costs among the lowest within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. To guide insurance coverage policy, neurosurgery and other highly technical specialties should better define the comparative health benefit of high price technical services by prospective outcome studies.

  4. Regulatory organizations for physicians' status and administrative sanctions on physicians: - examining the framework of government administrative systems for physicians in Japan based on a questionnaire survey conducted on 13 national medical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Norio; Kuroyanagi, Tatsuo; Nudeshima, Jiro

    2014-05-01

    Society bestows professional privilege on physicians. At the same time, it expects physicians to strive constantly to improve their ethics and quality in medical expertise. In every nation, some level of government is responsible for certifying or licensing physicians and imposes strict management, including revoking licenses from inappropriate physicians or providing severe sanctions for misconduct or conduct unbecoming of a physician. In reality, however, it is difficult to reduce the number of inappropriate or indiscreet physicians, and each nation faces its own challenges. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 13 national medical associations, including some major Western countries, regarding the licensing of physicians, the organizations managing their medical practice status, and the data and grounds for administrative sanctioning of physicians. We then examined the circumstances in Japan based on the survey results and pointed out the domestic issues.

  5. Cancer registries in Japan: National Clinical Database and site-specific cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazawa, Takayuki; Miyata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Mitsukazu

    2015-02-01

    The cancer registry is an essential part of any rational program of evidence-based cancer control. The cancer control program is required to strategize in a systematic and impartial manner and efficiently utilize limited resources. In Japan, the National Clinical Database (NCD) was launched in 2010. It is a nationwide prospective registry linked to various types of board certification systems regarding surgery. The NCD is a nationally validated database using web-based data collection software; it is risk adjusted and outcome based to improve the quality of surgical care. The NCD generalizes site-specific cancer registries by taking advantage of their excellent organizing ability. Some site-specific cancer registries, including pancreatic, breast, and liver cancer registries have already been combined with the NCD. Cooperation between the NCD and site-specific cancer registries can establish a valuable platform to develop a cancer care plan in Japan. Furthermore, the prognosis information of cancer patients arranged using population-based and hospital-based cancer registries can help in efficient data accumulation on the NCD. International collaboration between Japan and the USA has recently started and is expected to provide global benchmarking and to allow a valuable comparison of cancer treatment practices between countries using nationwide cancer registries in the future. Clinical research and evidence-based policy recommendation based on accurate data from the nationwide database may positively impact the public.

  6. Development of Database and Genomic Medicine for von Hippel-Lindau Disease in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKAYANAGI, Shunsaku; MUKASA, Akitake; NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; KANNO, Hiroshi; KURATSU, Jun-ichi; NISHIKAWA, Ryo; MISHIMA, Kazuhiko; NATSUME, Atushi; WAKABAYASHI, Toshihiko; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro; TERASAKA, Shunsuke; YAO, Masahiro; SHINOHARA, Nobuo; SHUIN, Taro; SAITO, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary tumor disease in which tumors develop in multiple organs, not only as hemangioblastomas (HBs) in the central nervous system, but also as kidney tumors, pheochromocytomas, and so on. Much about the epidemiology of VHL disease remained unknown until fairly recently in Japan, leading to calls for the establishment of a VHL disease epidemiological database in Japanese. To elucidate its epidemiology in Japan, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare created the VHL Disease Study Group, which was put in charge of carrying out a nationwide epidemiological survey. The survey found close to 400 Japanese VHL disease patients throughout the country. Based on those results, the VHL Disease Study Group created the VHL Disease Treatment Guideline and also a severity classification. It is thought that the prognosis of VHL disease patients can be improved by performing genetic diagnosis and careful follow-up. Accordingly, the University of Tokyo Hospital put in place an in-hospital system for implementing genomic medicine for VHL disease based on genetic diagnosis. For that system, it was especially important to establish (I) accurate genetic diagnostic techniques, (II) genetic counseling capabilities for the patients and their families, and (III) a system of cooperation among multiple departments, including urology departments, and so on. Further elucidation of the epidemiology and the development of genomic medicine are needed to improve the treatment results of VHL disease in Japan. PMID:28070114

  7. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  8. Science and Technology in Japan -- A Brief Analytic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    on fermentation processes to produce such foods and beverages as sake, soy sauce, and soy paste. This is perhaps the major reason the Japanese...Professor M. Gato , built Japan’s first relay computers, and Fujitsu, which cooperated on the ETL project, produced the first commercial relay computer, the

  9. Directory of Library and Related Organizations. Networks, Consortia, and Other Cooperative Library Organizations; National Library and Information-Industry Associations, United States and Canada; State, Provincial, and Regional Library Associations; State and Provincial Library Agencies; State School Library Media Associations; International Library Associations; Foreign Library Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents lists of networks, consortia, and other cooperative library organizations; national library and information-industry associations in the U.S. and Canada; state, provincial, and regional library associations; state and provincial library agencies; state school library media associations; international library associations; and foreign…

  10. Construction of the Government Support and Evaluation Index System of Farmers' Cooperative Economic Organizations%农民专业合作经济组织政府扶持评价指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩杰; 王征兵; 汪蕴慧

    2011-01-01

    在阐述农民专业合作经济组织评价指标体系设计必要性的基础上,按照系统学原理,结合统计学和数量经济学的方法,构建了组织发展指标、社员发展指标和社会发展指标3个1级指标和合作组织的资产总额、合作组织的年分配利润总额、合作组织的年总收入等13个2级指标的指标体系,采用层次分析法计算得到各指标的权重并进行了一致性检验,建立了运行效果评价模型,计算得到指标标准值和综合得分.根据综合评分结果,建议应该因地制宜,对不同发展程度和规范程度的农民专业合作经济组织进行有层次、有针对性的系统扶持.通过指标体系的构建及综合得分,最后提出政府应在扶持农民专业合作社经济组织发展过程中应建立常规的进入与退出机制,合理引导合作者的快速发展.%On the basis of expounding the necessity of the evaluation index system of farmers ' cooperative economic organization, the 3 first level indexes including organization development index,member development index and social development index and 13 second level indexes including aggregate capital of cooperative organization,annual profit share of cooperative organization,annual total income of cooperative organization,etc. are established according to the principles of Systematics and the methods of Statistics and Quantitative economics. By using the analytical hierarchy process,the weight of each index is tested and the operation result and evaluation mode is established,as -well as the index standard value and comprehensive value. As for the result of the evaluation,it is suggested that the government should support the farmers' cooperative organizations in hierarchy and targeted way according to local conditions. Though the construction of index system and comprehensive score,the government should establish the entry and exit mechanism of farmers' cooperative organizations to reasonably guild

  11. 合作稳定性、参与动机与创新生态系统自组织进化%Cooperative Stability, Participation Motivation and Self-organized Evolution of Innovation Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华

    2016-01-01

    studies of innovation ecosystem have suggested that focus firms are the determinant factors affecting system evolution, and neglect the effects of firm cooperative attitudes or participation motivation on system evolution. In fact, firms’ cooperative behavior also shows the resource dependence relationship to carry out cooperative innovation of bodies with equal status. Based on evolutionary game model, this paper analyzes the self-organized evolutionary process of cooperative innovation between focus firms and supporting enterprise communities in innovation ecosystem through resource dependence relationship. Taking participation motivation for cooperative innovation into account, it divides firm behavior into reciprocal cooperation and opportunistic cooperation strategies, and explores the evolutionary mechanism of innovation ecosystem by combining with technology spillover, cooperative contract etc. Through model analysis and numerical simulation, it comes to the conclusions as follows: firstly, cooperative attitude or participation motivation affect the efficiency and trend of system evolution;secondly, when the increase in losses of technology spillover is harmful to the formation of stable cooperative relationship among firms, and firms tend to select the opportunistic cooperation strategy, leading to the system evolution toward low efficiency;thirdly, the rise in penalties for breaches of cooperative contracts or the increase in innovation capital input are beneficial to the promotion of cooperative innovation among firms, and firms tend to select the reciprocal cooperation strategy, leading to the system evolution toward complete cooperation and all-win achievement. This paper introduces the perspective of resource dependence relationship cooperation, gives a preliminary explanation of self-organized evolution mechanism of innovation ecosystem, and thereby provides theoretical support for firm innovation decisions and the governance of innovation ecosystem.

  12. Survey on Distributed Cooperation Incentive Mechanisms in Self-organized P2P Networks%自组织P2P网络分布式合作激励机制研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于坤; 陈晓兵; 朱全银

    2012-01-01

    自组织P2P网络本质上的节点自治及理性特征决定了网络系统目标与节点自身利益的不一致性,合作激励机制能够引导节点采用利他的行为策略,弥合系统与个体之间的利益冲突.以提高自组织网络可用性为目标,探讨了多种有效的、实用的分布式合作机制,总结了自组织P2P网络合作激励机制的设计中存在的问题和研究方向.%The nature of self-organized P2P network is that most nodes are autonomous and rational which leads to the conflict between the top objective of the system and own interest of the node. An cooperation incentive mechanism can introduce altruistic behaviors, decrease the conflict between the system and the individual. In order to improve network availability, the author discusses a few efficient, practical distributed cooperation mechanisms and points out the pending problems and research directions in the design of cooperation mechanisms in self-organized P2P networks.

  13. Lessons From Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YAFEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the mid-to late 1980s, Japan experienced a prolonged bubble economy and entered a decadelong recession after it burst. The economy in China currently has several things in common with Japan's economy before its bubbles burst, such as a large foreign exchange reserve, an international dispute over currency revaluation, excess liquidity, and soaring asset prices.

  14. The development of online cooperative cataloging in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jing; XIE; Qinfang; YU; Shuangshuang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the authors introduce and analyze the history and current situation of the online cooperative cataloging in China from several perspectives,such as organization models,operation models,service models,quality control,and the cooperation among online cooperative cataloging organizations.

  15. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  16. Organ retention and communication of research use following medico-legal autopsy: a pilot survey of university forensic medicine departments in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the circumstances and problems that departments of forensic medicine encounter with bereaved families regarding samples obtained from medico-legal autopsies. A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medico-legal autopsies in Japan, and responses were received from 48 (63.2%). Of the respondents, 12.8% had approached and communicated with bereaved families about collecting samples from the deceased person during an autopsy and the storage of the samples. In addition, 23.4% of these had informed families that samples might be used in research. Eighteen departments had received enquiries and requests from families about the samples, with most requests concerning their return. The response to such requests varied according to the department. Few departments interacted with the bereaved families regarding the procedure for obtaining autopsy samples, and their methods for handling family concerns differed depending on the person within the department authorised to contact the family. Moreover, the procedures for engaging in such communication have long been unclear, and no legal or ethical consensus or agreement with the general public has been established. It is important for researchers to further discuss the correct way for forensic medicine departments to communicate with bereaved families.

  17. Robotics Technology In Japan And Its Impact On Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiko

    1984-08-01

    Japan's capabilities in robotics technology has developed with amazing speed. The nation has gone from an importer of robotics technology to the leading exporter in a little more than fifteen years. How did Japan manage to achieve such a feat? Are workers happy with this new technology? In order to answer these and other questions, the author spent several weeks in Japan in the summer of 1983 visiting many organizations and interviewing individuals. This paper summarizes the author's findings on the current status of Japan's robotization and its implications to workers.

  18. Stockpiles and food availability in feeding facilities after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozue, Miho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Sako, Kazuko; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo

    2014-01-01

    Food stockpiles and methods of ensuring food availability after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011 have been studied. Questionnaires were sent to 1911 registered dietitians and general dietitians who were members of the Japan Dietetic Association in August 2012. Four hundred thirty-five dietitians (22.8%) completed the questionnaire about work involved in feeding facilities, types and administration of meals, and food stockpiles. Methods of ensuring food availability, preparation, and accommodating food for special dietary uses were recorded for the three-day period immediately following the earthquake, and the period from 4 days to one month after the earthquake. Three days after the earthquake, differences in administration of meals at feeding facilities providing three meals daily, food stockpiles, organization, contactable facilities, and how to contact them for food items were assessed. Sixty-nine percent of all feeding facilities in this study had stockpiles of food before the Great East Japan Earthquake. Administration of meals in feeding facilities and the possibility of contact with cooperative feeding facilities were found to correlate positively with ensuring the availability of food groups. Food scores were higher in facilities providing three meals daily by direct administration of meals and with accessible public administrators, cooperative facilities and suppliers, and facilities that were contactable by landline telephone, mobile phone, fax or email. The necessity for natural disaster-readiness through continuous stockpiling food at feeding facilities is confirmed. Each prospective feeding facility must be required to plan its stockpiles, their turnover and replaceability to maximise food security in the face of disaster.

  19. Does intermunicipal cooperation create inefficiency? A comparison of interest rates paid by intermunicipal organizations, amalgamated municipalities and not recently amalgamated municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten; van Ommeren, Bernard; Geertsema, Bieuwe

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, local governments operating on a small scale face a choice between amalgamation and cooperation. This paper applies a novel methodology to investigate the implications of this choice for operating efficiency. Using a unique micro-level dataset of over 11,000 loans made to both mun

  20. Government and Politics in Japan. For Students in Grades Nine through Twelve. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ray W.; Reeves, William; Settles, Lois; Sheehan, Valerie Henderson; Spellman, Steve

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  1. Japan: The Land and Its People. For Students in Grades Six and Seven. Instructional Materials about Japan (IMAJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Glen; Edwards, Barbara; Hutchenson, Gwen; Moffitt, Louisa; Ratliff, Penny

    This manual provides suggestions and materials for teaching about Japan. Designed as a supplement to typical textbook treatments, the lessons provide a range of readings, visuals, and activities to enrich and deepen student learning about Japan. Organized around topics dealing with history, geography, government, economics, and culture, the…

  2. Role of Japan's oil industry and emergence of Japan as a world leader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taeb, S.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of three powerful economic centers, Japan, Europe, America, collapse of Soviet political empire, and emergence of a new global nationalism are evident of a transitional period in the history of world leadership. Experiences of the previous world hegemon have taught us that extraordinary economic performance of an industrial country has been the necessary step in the process of becoming the world hegemon. Given its powerful industrial productivity and its economic expansionism, Japan has been considered by some scholars and journalists as a potential candidate for the new world hegemon. Japan's lack of influence on natural resource supply, particuarly energy supply, and its unfit political structure for world leadership are two interrelated problems that this study investigates. A careful investigation of Japan's industrial and political structures suggests that Japan has to resolve a series of complicated and time consuming obstacles in order to achieve world hegemon status. Historically, domination of the world economy has been tied with having an influential role in international energy industry. In this respect and the fact that over 50 percent of the internationally traded petroleum is under the control of American and European entities, it is essential for Japan to gain some tangible control and influence over the international oil industry in order to achieve world leadership status. This success has to be at the expense of American and European oil companies rather than the OPEC countries. This study suggests that Japan has to anticipate more cooperation with these oil-producing countries if it desires to become a world leader. Furthermore, there is a positive relation between the current global political power transition and the present power transition in the international oil industry. Japanese political institutions have not developed to a degree that enable its government to act as a world superpower.

  3. The cooperative game theory of networks and hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Gilles, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    This book details standard concepts in cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social networks and hierarchical authority organizations. It covers the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, and the cooperative potential.

  4. JPRS Report Science & Technology Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-25

    Ernaehrungsphysiologie Max-Planck-Institut fuer Biochemie Institut fuer Biochemie, Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Instituto di Chimica, Facolt’ di Medicina ...properly promote and manage the HFSP as an interna - tional program through cooperation among many coun- tries. To this end, the Organization must be...established and managed on the basis of the following premises: (1) The implementation scheme should be open interna - tionally. a. All activities

  5. Advances in food composition tables in Japan-Standard Tables Of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Kawai, Ryoko

    2018-01-01

    The latest version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015- comprises the main food composition table (Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan-2015-[Seventh revised Edition)) and three supplementary books. The supplementary books are Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Amino Acids -, Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Fatty Acids - and Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan - 2015 - (Seventh Revised Edition) - Available Carbohydrates, Polyols and Organic Acids-. We believe understanding these food composition tables can give greater insight into Japan's gastronomic culture and changes in eating habits. We expect them to play important roles as part of the East Asia food composition tables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. NOT A MILITARY ALLIANCE——The SCO should continue to implement its founding principles,based on security and economic cooperation,rather than expanding its membership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In reinventing itself, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization should stick to being a regional cooperative organization guided by a new concept and prioritizing security and economic cooperation. Meanwhile, brash expansion of the organization will cause a lot of problems.

  7. Japan, Indonesia to investigate condom plant feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    The Japanese government has begun investigations on the possibility of constructing a condom manufacturing plant in Indonesia in response to a request by the Indonesian government. Indonesia, which hopes to reduce its birthrate as of 1971 by 1/2 by 1990, asked for Japanese assistance in building a condom plant based on the expectation that demand for this contraceptive method, although quite low at present, will increase rapidly in the near future with stepped-up motivation campaigns. As a 1st step in the investigation, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sent a study team of family planning experts headed by Family Planning Federation of Japan Chairman Dr. Hidebumi Kubo and including JOICFP International Division Director MR. Tameyoshi Katagiri to Indonesia from March 15-24. During its visit, the JICA team held discussions with representatives of BKKBN (the National Family Planning Coordinating Board) including its Chairman and Minister of Health Dr. Suwardjono and reached agreement on the scope and schedule of work toward determining the feasibility of building and operating a condom plant in Indonesia. In defining the scope of work and the schedule, the JICA team and the BKKBN representatives decided on specific issues to be investigated in the feasibility study to be carried out by JICA and scheduled to be completed by the end of October of this year. To be included in the feasibility study are: estimation of future domestic demand for condoms, examination of the domestic supply of latex capacity, chemicals and packaging materials, and collection of information on infrastructure relating to water, energy, transportation, etc. Actual data collection for the study is expected to begin in late May or early June. Dr. Kubo and Mr. Katagiri, upon returning to Japan, reported great enthusiasm for the project in Indonesia and expressed the hope that the plant construction will be feasible so that the country's family planning program can be given a boost

  8. Analysis of Trends in Cooperative Network Patterns for KAERI Researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Choon; Lee, Hyun Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    There has been a trend toward faster results of research and accelerating inter-disciplinary convergence, under constraints in available resources. Under such reality, national and international cooperation with inter-sectoral research on science-technology-industry is becoming inevitable as a strategic approach for enhancing competitive edge on global dimension. This study gives an analysis on the cooperative network in nuclear research which bears multi-disciplinary technical feature. The study aims to visualize the cooperative network of KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) researchers, as the hub of the network, including academics and industry, with a view to provide insight on strengthening the cooperative network in nuclear research. This study accounted for the paper entries in SCI(E) in 2013 (538 papers) and 2015 (551 papers) with a view to identify cooperative research activities centered for KAERI. On international cooperation, the analysis showed a trend toward, first of all, diversification of partner countries. There were 118 entries of co-authorship with 22 countries in 2013 (41 with USA, 12 with Japan, 9 with India), which evolved to 121 entries in 2015 (34 for USA, 11 with China, 10 each with Japan and India). Secondly, there was a trend toward more number of countries evenly spread in 2015 compared to 2013, except a few major countries like USA, Japan, and India.

  9. Comparison of Soil Fauna (Oribatids and Enchytraeids)Between Conventional and Organic (Tillage and No—Tillage Practices)Farming Crop Fields in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.FUJITA; S.FUJIYAMA

    2001-01-01

    The major soil animal groups,enchyraeid worms and oribatid mites,were compared in the abundance and diversity between conventional fields(CT)and organic farming fields with tillage(OT) or no-tillage(ON)practices,The values of abundance,species richness,diversity and evenness were significantly larger in OT and ON than in CT,indicating that the abundance and diversity in organic farming fields were greater than those in conventional farming,The community structure of enchytraeid genera was different between OT and ON,Enchytraeus was the most abundant in OT ,while Fridericia in ON,The abundance of oribatids in OT was similar th that in ON,while the species richness and diversity in the former were smaller,These results suggeste that no-tilage practice under organic management might comtribute to the improvement in quality of soil mesofauna.

  10. Agricultural cooperative organizations or be able to break the problem of “Who grain”%农机合作组织或能突破“谁种粮”难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Analysis the issues and implications of aging grain farmers, discuss how to resolve the issues of aging grain farmers effects on food security. Proposed to improve incentives and vigorously support the development of cooperatives; strengthen personnel training and enhance self-development;strengthen the organization's guidance and guarantee the stable development of cooperatives. Through the above three as-pects, to support the development and expansion of agricultural cooperatives, build the main grain production, and guarantee the safe devel-opment of food production.%  分析种粮农民老龄化问题及其影响,探讨如何化解种粮农民老龄化影响粮食安全的问题,提出从完善优惠政策,大力扶持合作社发展;加强人才培养,提升自我发展能力;强化组织引导,保障合作社稳定发展三个方面扶持农机合作社发展壮大,打造粮食生产主体,保障粮食生产安全发展。

  11. Tianjin Song and Dance Theatre Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Japanese Min-On Concert Association, a 47-member troupe of Tianjin Song and Dance Theatre organized and sent by the CPAFFC gave 55 performances in 37 cities of Japan from September 12 to November 25, 2005, attracting an audience of nearly 80,000. The grand dance entitled Golden Glory

  12. CRIA Delegation Went to Japan for Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunny Song

    2012-01-01

    From June 26 to July 3, led by the president Fan Rende, a team of 26 people consisting of representatives of production and distribution enterprises engaged in hoses & belts, tires, raw materials, rubber products, auto parts, etc. organized by China Rubber Industry Association (CRIA) went to Japan for investigation. During that period,

  13. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... to other organizations because of the special features of co-operative organizations: use of normative control, democratic decision-making, and decentralized organizational structure. On the other hand, however, there may be strong barriers in co-operatives against creating a sufficient information system....

  14. Sidelights of China-Japan Friendship Cities Junior Middle School Students Table Tennis Friendship Tournament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The China-Japan Friendship Cities Junior Middle School Students Table Tennis Friendship Tournament,jointly organized by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC), the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA), the China Table Tennis Association (CTTA), the Japan-China Friendship Association (JCFA), and the Japan Table Tennis Association(JTTA), was held in Beijing from August 16 to 21 on the occasion of the 40th

  15. Planning Cooperation in Inter-Organizational Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, María Laura; Eck, van Pascal; Riemens, Lourens; Alkhalifa, E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a systematic reasoning framework (called e-Planning) to plan cooperation between organizations in a network. Thorough assessment of opportunities for and obstacles to cooperation is of paramount importance, as setting up electronic networks usually requires

  16. Maritime English for Communication and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Teresa A.

    Because most maritime accidents are caused by human error, notably breakdowns in communication or cooperation, and because English is the international maritime language, instruction in maritime English for communication and cooperation is an important element in maritime education. The International Maritime Organization, a specialized agency of…

  17. Quality control in the health care in Japan--why CQI does not take root in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T

    1997-07-01

    In the above, I have discussed the reasons why the Japanese hospitals failed to systematically improve health care quality from historical and cultural viewpoints with reference to the Japanese health care system. However, young physicians who are also the administrators of their own hospitals have become aware of the importance of the health care quality improvement and of the hospital management assessment by a third party, and they have been making positive efforts to solve the problems in their 30s who work at hospitals are also breaking the past image of conservative and stiff-necked doctor. Though there still remains much to be improved, the idea of informed consent is gradually taking root. The number of patients who insist on "the rights of patient" and "the right to make own decision" is on the increase. The system to have a third party assess the hospital administration is also under way. Under such circumstances, the leadership taken by physician, cooperation between various specialists as a team and the management capability of clerical staff are expected to play important role in the continuous quality improvement activities participated by the whole personnel of hospitals. Japanese industries are famous for their abundant experience and know-how of the management. If the health care industry will seriously tackle with quality improvement through good team work by participation of all the staff without any boundary between the jobs, the Japanese health care level is expected to improve and to satisfy the patients. In the past, boundary between the jobs also existed in Japanese corporations, but this obstacle was removed by taking the customer-oriented stance. It has now become obligatory in the factories to check the product whether it satisfies customers or not in final stage of manufacturing. There is no reason why hospitals cannot learn from these examples. It is now necessary for specialist organizations including hospital associations and Japan

  18. null Kirishima, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The shield volcano consists of more than 20 eruptive centers over a 20 x 30 km area that also includes Japan's first national park. Sixty-nine eruptions have been...

  19. Japan's radiant architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruairí O'Brien

    2014-01-01

    .... If Japanese architecture in the last century could be seen as an expression of fast growth, destruction, rebirth and expansion, today's Japan promises to deliver a new hybrid of high and low tech...

  20. Occupational asthma in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Dobashi, Kunio

    2012-01-01

    Research into occupational asthma (OA) in Japan has been led by the Japanese Society of Occupational and Environmental Allergy. The first report about allergic OA identified konjac asthma. After that, many kinds of OA have been reported. Cases of some types of OA, such as konjac asthma and sea squirt asthma, have been dramatically reduced by the efforts of medical personnel. Recently, with the development of new technologies, chemical antigen-induced asthma has increased in Japan. Due to adva...

  1. Japan; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    Japan has a universal public pension system. Social security spending is a key fiscal policy challenge in Japan. The 2004 pension reforms have increased the ratio of the government subsidy to the basic pension benefit. Three reform measures are necessary to improve pension finances: an increase in pension eligibility age, a reduction in the pension benefit, and an increase in contributions. Eliminating the preferential tax treatments of pension income and collecting pension contributions from...

  2. Human rights in Japan: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Muñoz González

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the improvements and challenges that Japan has been facing between 1983 and 2007. The paper explores the interaction among the different stakeholders –i.e. the Japanese Government, international organizations and civil society- to advance full access to citizenship regarding gender equality, the elimination of social and physical barriers for the inclusion of people with disabilities and elderly persons; ethnic minorities –specifically the situation of the Ainu people and the Buraku community – and the persons considered as “foreigners” living in Japan.

  3. Comparison of Soil Fauna (Oribatids and Enchytraeids){1mm BetweenConventional and Organic (Tillage and No-1mm TillagePractices) Farming Crop Fields in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The major soil animal groups, enchytraeid worms and oribatid mites,were compared in the abundance and diversity between conventionalfields (CT) and organic farming fields with tillage (OT) or no-tillage(ON) practices. The values of abundance, species richness, diversityand evenness were significantly larger in OT and ON than in CT,indicating that the abundance and diversity in organic farming fieldswere greater than those in conventional farming. The communitystructure of enchytraeid genera was different between OT and ON.{ Enchytraeus was the most abundant in OT, whileFridericia in ON. The abundance of oribatids in OT was similarto that in ON, while the species richness and diversity in the formerwere smaller. These results suggested that no-tillage practice underorganic management might contribute to the improvement in quality ofsoil mesofauna.

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  5. Cooperative catalysis designing efficient catalysts for synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, René

    2015-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this is a much-needed overview of the rapidly emerging field of cooperative catalysis. The authors focus on the design and development of novel high-performance catalysts for applications in organic synthesis (particularly asymmetric synthesis), covering a broad range of topics, from the latest progress in Lewis acid / Br?nsted base catalysis to e.g. metal-assisted organocatalysis, cooperative metal/enzyme catalysis, and cooperative catalysis in polymerization reactions and on solid surfaces. The chapters are classified according to the type of cooperating acti

  6. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  7. Promoting Gender Parity in Basic Education: Lessons from a Technical Cooperation Project in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Takako; Mizuno, Keiko; Ogawa, Keiichi; Mihoko, Sakai

    2013-01-01

    Many girls are not sent to school in Yemen, despite basic education being free as well as compulsory for all children aged 6-15. Aiming to improve girls' enrollment by increasing parental and community involvement, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) offered a technical cooperation project in June 2005 called Broadening Regional…

  8. Useful Expressions for Implementing Cooperative Learning in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Machiko; Kanamaru, Ayako; Plaza, Taron; Shiramizu, Chie

    2016-01-01

    With the Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology calling for junior and senior high school English classes in Japan to be more communicative and taught in English, teachers need effective tools to help make their classrooms more interactive. Cooperative learning activities have the potential to increase interaction among students and…

  9. Sunao (Cooperative) Children: How Japanese Teachers Nurture Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the Japanese cultural concept of sunao (perhaps best translated as one's honest, gentle, cooperative nature) in relation to early childhood education in Japan. She explains the cultural belief that during early childhood, children need to learn to connect with one another and build a willingness and capacity to live…

  10. The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 2nd Seminar on Standardization Cooperation in Northeast Asia(2003) was held in Beijing from Oct 30th - Oct 31st, which was the succession of the first one in Korea, 2002, with the participants coming from the standardization circles in China, Japan and Korea.

  11. US/Japan workshop on mitigation and adaptation technologies related to global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernthal, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    It is a great pleasure for me to have the honor of delivering the keynote address for this important gathering, an honor enhanced further because of the many activities and historic relationships represented by this workshop. First of all, it represents the spirit of continuing cooperation and good relations between the United States and Japan. With the aid of the framework provided by the U.S./Japan Science and Technology Agreement, our two nations can come together to address a problem that has no national boundaries {hor_ellipsis} and we can think about solutions of potential benefit to all citizens of the global community. This workshop also symbolizes the spirit of cooperation so characteristic of the conduct of research in science and technology -- cooperation between us as individual scientists and engineers, between the various institutions we represent, and across our diverse disciplines. This workshop is only the second of its kind. The first US/Japan Workshop on global climate change was held last year in Japan. That workshop focused on cooperative scientific research in the United States and Japan. Out of it came a general agreement to continue collaborative work and to extend cooperation into the area of global change-related technologies, in particular those technologies that hold promise for mitigation and adaptation.

  12. Risk Evaluation of Farmer Cooperative Organization Based on Main-Composition Analysis%主成分分析法的农民合作组织运营风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 徐莉莉; 娄昭

    2011-01-01

    在农民合作组织运营风险研究过程中,常常需要用多个变量进行综合评价,如涉及自然风险、经济风险、技术风险、组织风险等的众多个指标。通过建立农民合作组织风险评价指标体系,选取了26个可量化指标,应用主成分分析,将26个评价指标简化为10个更具代表性的指标,在实际分析中具有更强的可操作性。%Comprehensive assessment in risk research of operation of farmer cooperation organization has always needed several variables such as natural risk, economical risk, technological risk, organizational risk, and so on. The thesis erected index system of risk assessment of farmer cooperation organization, selected 26 quantitative indexes, and applied principal component analysis, then simplified the 26 indexes into 10 representative indexes. It has maneuverability in actual analysis.

  13. 新型农村专业合作经济组织发展的影响因素及对策分析%Influencing factors and countermeasures of the new rural cooperative economic organization development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林翰雄

    2014-01-01

    改革开放以来,我国新型农村专业合作经济组织实现了快速发展,但是,整体来说,它还处于发展的初期阶段,还存在许多细节方面的不足。文章结合农村专业合作经济组织发展现状,对制约其发展的影响因素进行了分析,并针对问题提出了相应的应对策略。%since the reform and opening up, the new type of rural specialized cooperative economic organizations in China achieved rapid development, but, overall, it is still in the early stages of development, there are still insufficient many details. According to the development situation of rural specialized cooperative economic organizations, restricting the development of the influence factors are analyzed, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures to solve the problem.

  14. 昭通市农机专业合作组织现状及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Agricultural Specialized Cooperative Organization in Zhaotong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帮文

    2014-01-01

    介绍了昭通市农机专业合作组织发展的现状,分析其中存在的问题,并从组织领导、宣传培训、制度规范、引导扶持、投入机制等方面提出对策,以期为昭通市农业机械健康有序发展提供参考。%The current development situation of agricultural machinery specialized cooperative organization in Zhaotong City were introduced,the existing problems were analyzed. The countermeasures were put forward from the following aspects,such as organization and leadership,advocacy training,system specification,guidance and support,input mechanism,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and orderly development of agricultural machinery in Zhaotong City.

  15. Co-operatives and Normative Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten; Jagd, Søren

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the conditions for applying normative control in co-operatives. For normative control to be effective two conditions are found particularly important: Individuals must be morally involved and the organization must have a system of making it possible to link common norms...... and individual action. If these conditions are not fulfilled, as may be the case in many co-operatives, normative control cannot be expected to work. The problems of normative control in co-operatives may then not be caused by the use of normative control as such, but may instead be a problem of securing...... the conditions necessary for normative control. This is illustrated by a case study of control in a Danish producers co-operative. The analysis of the case study leads to the hypothesis of a paradox of normative control in co-operatives: The need of information tends to be greater in co-operatives comparet...

  16. COOPERATION & INNOVATION FOR A BETTER TOMORROW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 29, Sweden-China Business Cooperation and Innovation Forum, jointly organized by CCPIT, Swedish Trade Council and Sweden-China Trade Council, was held in the city hall of Stockholm in Sweden.

  17. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  18. Assessment on the rates and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-based model and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased rate of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower rate of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower rate of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased rate of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-based accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (base year or base period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-based accounting, defined

  19. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...

  20. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa...

  1. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  2. Japan plans population assistance for Ghana and Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Ghana and Senegal are among the twelve priority countries for assistance under the Japanese government's Global Issues Initiative on Population and AIDS. As such, Japan recently sent an high-level government mission on economic and technical cooperation to the two countries to conduct policy dialogue on economic cooperation for the medium and long term. The 17-member mission, including representatives of seven government ministries, also discussed the future orientation of Japanese cooperation in priority areas. Basic human needs including water supply, education, population and AIDS, and children's health; agriculture; and roads and power generation were agreed upon with Ghana to be priority areas, while basic human needs including water supply, education, primary health care, population, and AIDS; agriculture and fisheries; and the environment, with a particular emphasis upon desertification, were agreed upon for Senegal. Both sides will select projects to form the basis of future cooperation.

  3. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  4. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  5. 从政府间国际组织的联系解读中日两国的全球联系%The Global Connectivity of China and Japan with Respect to International Inter-Governmental Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏念; 薛德升

    2014-01-01

    政府间国际组织作为政治全球化中的一个重要作用者,体现出不同于经济维度的全球化联系。文章运用链锁网络模型计算中日两国政府间国际组织的两两连接度,分析中日两国的全球国际政治联系的图景与差异。研究发现:1)中日两国的政府间国际组织办公室数量接近,但日本的全球联系强于中国;2)在与中日两国联系较为紧密的国家中,日本与它们的联系普遍强于中国;3)中国与亚洲和非洲发展中国家的联系在中国的全球政治联系网络中占据相对重要的地位,而日本的全球政治联系主要发生在欧美发达国家之间。最后从战后国际政治秩序和地缘政治的角度对上述差异进行分析讨论,对中国未来参与联合国框架下的政府间国际事务及如何提高国际政治影响力提出了建议。%s:As one of the most important actors in world affairs, international inter-governmental Organizations (IGOs) provide a new angle for understanding the process of globalization since World War II. Using IGOs’ siting information and a series of interlocking network models, this article calculated China and Japan’s global connectivity, respectively, and analyzed their spatial distribution of connections. As the results show that:1) the total number of IGOs in these two countries is similar, but global connectivity of China is only 70 percent of that of Japan; 2) the top 25 connected countries with the two are mostly located in Asia and Africa, but Japan has tighter connection with them;3) Japan’s connection with European countries, such as Germany, Belgium et al. is very strong, while China’s is weak. It is concluded that Japan has had both wider and deeper interactions with other countries in world political system over the past half centuries. It is suggested that China needs to develop more IGOs, especially headquarter ones in its major cities, such as Shanghai, Guangzhou

  6. The Research of Cooperation Governance Mechanism Between the Government and the Social Organization%政府与社会组织合作治理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田小彪

    2013-01-01

    建设服务型政府是当前公共行政管理研究的一个热点问题。政府与社会组织合作共同提供公共物品在公共行政学理论界已经达成基本共识。文章就此从政府与社会组织之间权力调整及运行、社会组织参与政府公共决策、政府与社会组织的利益协调、政府与社会组织的监督管理四个方面对两者之间的合作治理机制进行探讨。认为构建政府与社会组织的合作治理机制,两者都需要不断提高自身的能力。政府应积极地转变职能,合理界定公权力、制定法律法规、加强沟通,促进信任。社会组织要强化自律,提高社会公信力,回应社会的需求,更好地与政府一起实现对整个国家的治理。%The construction of service-oriented government is a hot issue of the current public administrative management. The government and social organizations to provide public goods together in public administrative science theorists have reached a basic consensus. This article discussed four aspects of the cooperation between governance mechanism,such as the government and social organization power adjustment and operation,between social organizations to participate in the government public decision-making,government and social organization's interest coordination,government and social organization of the supervision and management. In order to build the cooperation governance mechanism between government and social organizations,we need both of them to improve their own ability. The government should actively change the function,reasonably define public power,formulate laws and regulations,strengthen communication,and promote the trust. Social organizations should strengthen self-discipline,improve the social credibility,meet the needs of the society, and better govern the whole country with the government.

  7. CJFA Delegation Led by Song Jian Visits Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Japan-China Friendship Centre,a delegation of the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA) led by its President Song Jian paid a goodwill visit to Japan from December 3 to 10,2006.In Tokyo Song Jian and his party paid an official call on leaders of the Japanese ruling party and parties not in office and a number of important political figures including Prime Minister Shinzo Abe,Speaker of the House of Representatives Yohei Kono,Foreign Minister Taro Aso,head of the New Komeito Party Akihiro Ota,leader of the Democratic Party Ichiro Ozawa,Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Japan Kazuo Shii,and Chairman of the Socialist Party Mizuho Fukushima,and fully exchanged views with the leaders of the seven Japan-China friendship organizations on making great efforts to promote people-to-people friendly exchanges.

  8. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  9. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lasowski, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  10. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where....... It places moral education within the context of globalization and cosmopolitanism and shows, that moral education in Japan is a useful key to understanding how globalization and cosmopolitanism can work within a specific system, in this case Japanese values education. In recent years various changes...... political focus on moral education in Japan, particularly by the two Abe-administrations. Changes include for example increased emphasis on patriotism, on respect for life and the environment, on individual responsibility, on respecting differences and other countries and on a general strengthening of moral...

  11. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  12. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  13. Megaloblastic anemia in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi,Hirokuni

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 1903, 744 cases of megaloblastic anemia have been reported in Japan: 490 cases of pernicious anemia; 95 cases associated with pregnancy; 66 cases after gastrectomy; 22 cases of megaloblastic anemia of infants; 21 cases of folic acid deficiency other than pregnancy and 19 cases of vitamin B12 malabsorption after ileal resection. It is generally agreed among hematologists in Japan that pernicious anemia is relatively rare, as in other Asian countries. The diagnosis of pernicious anemia in Japan is usually made by stained marrow films, radioisotopic assay of serum vitamin B12, Schilling test and good response to vitamin B12 therapy. Serum folate level, intrinsic factor or its antibody, methylmalonic acid excretion, formiminoglutamic acid excretion and deoxyuridine suppression test are performed only at a small number of laboratories. The drugs of choice are hydroxocobalamin, deoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Cyanocobalamin has nearly disappeared from commercial sources in Japan. Vitamin B12 administration is common in patients with neurological disorders. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency is extremely rare in Japan. Low serum folate levels are frequently observed among patients receiving anticonvulsants or in pregnant women, but in such samples megaloblastic anemia is almost never detected. The folic acid content of hospital diets indicates that satisfactory amounts of folate are taken in Japan. The intake of folic acid from rice is well over the minimum daily requirement of folate. Other factors in folic acid deficiency, such as food taboos, severe alcoholism and malabsorption syndrome are not frequently found in Japanese. The inadequate intake of folate was the critical factor in most reported cases.

  14. Tang Jiaxuan Attends Meeting of Leaders of Chinese And Japanese Nongovernmental Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>On February 17, leaders of Chinese and Japanese nongovernmental organizations met in the Great Hall of the People for a meeting which was addressed by Tang Jiaxuan, Honorary Advisor to the China-Japan Friendship Association (CJFA). Tang said it was of great significance that, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations, leaders of the people-to-people friendship organizations of the two countries should gather to exchange views and offer suggestions for boosting friendly cooperation and deepening the strategic relationship of mutual benefit.

  15. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  16. Land Credit Cooperatives Help Construction of New Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨扬

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces the experience of Pingluo County of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, where "land credit cooperatives" have thrived. Based on a survey of the background, function, business scope, structure, supportive policy and the performance of "land credit cooperatives", the author believes that the essence of the cooperative is a "land joint-stock cooperation organization" whose experience may be of particular relevance to the building of a "new socialist countryside".

  17. Optimization of cooperation modern public child-youth organizations and schools in the national-patriotic education by means of physical culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischenko O.O.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the problem of interaction between school and community organizations in the modern conditions of development of civil society. We consider the optimization of content and institutional framework of the interaction of public associations, and schools by means of physical culture, and also provide information about the place the team in the national-patriotic education of teenagers. The experiment involved children from schools in which the present operation of public children's and youth organizations and activities of these organizations was not detected.

  18. The 1999 activities and the 1st seminar on human resources development in the nuclear field as part of Asian regional cooperation (contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In August, 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, organized by the Atomic Energy Commission based on a resolution of the 10th International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia, held in March, 1999. The resolution was adopted as a recognition that 'human resources development' was an important area that should be added to the existing fields of cooperation. The Project was organized by the Atomic Energy Bureau of the Science and Technology Agency (STA) and is administrated by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center (NuTEC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities: in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities, as the time of the workshops themselves is too short to achieve the objectives. As In-workshop activities, 1st Seminar on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 25 and 26, 1999, at the Tokyo International Forum. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, with Australia submitting a study report only. This report consists of presentation papers at the Seminar as in-workshop activities, and a letter of proposal from the project leader of Japan to the project leaders of participating countries after the Seminar and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the First Coordinators Meeting on March 7 and 8, 2000 as outside-of-workshop activities. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. 中亚恐怖主义与上海合作组织的创立%On the Historical Basckground, Founding and Impact of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in Its Counter-Terrorism Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献志

    2012-01-01

    冷战结束后,中亚地区的恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义这“三股势力”乘势兴风作浪,对本地区和平、安全与稳定构成严重威胁。上海合作组织组织的创立,顺应国际和地区反恐潮流,创立区域反恐机构和机制,全方位展开多边反恐合作,有效地遏制和打击了中亚地区恐怖主义的蔓延,为中亚乃至世界的和平发展与稳定做出了巨大的贡献。%Since the end of the Cold War,the forces of terrorism,separatism and extremism have stirred up trouble and unrest in Central Asia,posing a grave threat to the peace,security and stability of this region. Following the trend of international and regional anti-terrorism, Shanghai Cooperation Organization is founded. It has established regional anti-terrorism institution and mechanism, launched all-round anti-terrorism cooperation, and effectively suppressed and combated the spread of terrorism in Central Asia, resulting in great contributions to the peaceful development and stability of this region and even the world.

  20. Collapse of cooperation in evolving games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2014-12-09

    Game theory provides a quantitative framework for analyzing the behavior of rational agents. The Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma in particular has become a standard model for studying cooperation and cheating, with cooperation often emerging as a robust outcome in evolving populations. Here we extend evolutionary game theory by allowing players' payoffs as well as their strategies to evolve in response to selection on heritable mutations. In nature, many organisms engage in mutually beneficial interactions and individuals may seek to change the ratio of risk to reward for cooperation by altering the resources they commit to cooperative interactions. To study this, we construct a general framework for the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in arbitrary iterated games. We show that, when there is a tradeoff between the benefits and costs of cooperation, coevolution often leads to a dramatic loss of cooperation in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. The collapse of cooperation is so extreme that the average payoff in a population can decline even as the potential reward for mutual cooperation increases. Depending upon the form of tradeoffs, evolution may even move away from the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game altogether. Our work offers a new perspective on the Prisoner's Dilemma and its predictions for cooperation in natural populations; and it provides a general framework to understand the coevolution of strategies and payoffs in iterated interactions.

  1. Clinical trial network for the promotion of clinical research for rare diseases in Japan: muscular dystrophy clinical trial network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Reiko; Ogata, Katsuhisa; Tamaura, Akemi; Kimura, En; Ohata, Maki; Takeshita, Eri; Nakamura, Harumasa; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Komaki, Hirofumi

    2016-07-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most commonly inherited neuromuscular disease. Therapeutic agents for the treatment of rare disease, namely "orphan drugs", have recently drawn the attention of researchers and pharmaceutical companies. To ensure the successful conduction of clinical trials to evaluate novel treatments for patients with rare diseases, an appropriate infrastructure is needed. One of the effective solutions for the lack of infrastructure is to establish a network of rare diseases. To accomplish the conduction of clinical trials in Japan, the Muscular dystrophy clinical trial network (MDCTN) was established by the clinical research group for muscular dystrophy, including the National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, as well as national and university hospitals, all which have a long-standing history of research cooperation. Thirty-one medical institutions (17 national hospital organizations, 10 university hospitals, 1 national center, 2 public hospitals, and 1 private hospital) belong to this network and collaborate to facilitate clinical trials. The Care and Treatment Site Registry (CTSR) calculates and reports the proportion of patients with neuromuscular diseases in the cooperating sites. In total, there are 5,589 patients with neuromuscular diseases in Japan and the proportion of patients with each disease is as follows: DMD, 29 %; myotonic dystrophy type 1, 23 %; limb girdle muscular dystrophy, 11 %; Becker muscular dystrophy, 10 %. We work jointly to share updated health care information and standardized evaluations of clinical outcomes as well. The collaboration with the patient registry (CTSR), allows the MDCTN to recruit DMD participants with specific mutations and conditions, in a remarkably short period of time. Counting with a network that operates at a national level is important to address the corresponding national issues. Thus, our network will be able to contribute with international research activity, which can lead to

  2. Japan: Asian Peacekeeper of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    what if every nation acted that way? There will be no more international order. [Ref. 189] MP Nakasone states that by clinging stubbornly to its egoism ... case . In fact, they have a bureaucratically guided conomy, one where industry cooperates closely with government, but few Japanese realize this. [i...Japan’s defense, ASDF aircraft and MSDF ships could engage those enemy aircraft. This was an actual test case put before the government in 1983. [Ref. 241

  3. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  4. Globalization and Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, Kentaro; Shibata, Masako

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors contend that globalization in Japan is the gradual process in which Japan's positioning of "self" within international relations, which had formerly been dominated by the West, has changed. Accordingly, Japan's relationships with the West and the rest of the world, for example, Asia, have also been reviewed and…

  5. Situation of nuclear industry in Japan; La situation du nucleaire au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This document presents the situation of nuclear industry in Japan: cooperation with France in the domain of the fuel cycle (in particular the back-end) and of for the industrial R and D about fast reactors and nuclear safety; present day situation characterized by a series of incidents in the domain of nuclear safety and by an administrative reorganization of the research and safety organizations; power of local representatives, results of April 2003 elections, liberalization of the electric power sector, impact of the TEPCO affair (falsification of safety reports) on the nuclear credibility, re-start up of the Monju reactor delayed by judicial procedures, stopping of the program of MOX fuel loading in Tepco's reactors, discovery of weld defects in the newly built Rokkasho-mura reprocessing plant, an ambitious program of reactors construction, the opportunity of Russian weapons dismantling for the re-launching of sodium-cooled fast reactors; the competition between France and Japan for the setting up of ITER reactor and its impact of the French/Japanese partnership. (J.S.)

  6. A 20-Year High-Resolution Wave Resource Assessment of Japan with Wave-Current Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Waseda, T.; Kiyomatsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Energy harvested from surface ocean waves and tidal currents has the potential to be a significant source of green energy, particularly for countries with extensive coastlines such as Japan. As part of a larger marine renewable energy project*, The University of Tokyo (in cooperation with JAMSTEC) has conducted a state-of-the-art wave resource assessment (with uncertainty estimates) to assist with wave generator site identification and construction in Japan. This assessment will be publicly available and is based on a large-scale NOAA WAVEWATCH III (version 4.18) simulation using NCEP and JAMSTEC forcings. It includes several key components to improve model skill: a 20-year simulation to reduce aleatory uncertainty, a four-nested-layer approach to resolve a 1 km shoreline, and finite-depth and current effects included in all wave power density calculations. This latter component is particularly important for regions near strong currents such as the Kuroshio. Here, we will analyze the different wave power density equations, discuss the model setup, and present results from the 20-year assessment (with a focus on the role of wave-current interactions). Time permitting, a comparison will also be made with simulations using JMA MSM 5 km winds. *New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO): "Research on the Framework and Infrastructure of Marine Renewable Energy; an Energy Potential Assessment"

  7. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available La diffusion des TIC a des effets majeurs sur la société et sur l’économie. L’effet des nouvelles technologies sur le travail est évident dans les transformations de l’organisation du travail et des pratiques dans les organisations. Le télétravail est un bon exemple de ces nouvelles pratiques. Le présent texte expose les résultats d’un projet de recherche récemment mené sur le télétravail. Contrairement à l’approche qui présente un modèle d’avantages pour les acteurs économiques et sociaux, notre hypothèse est que le schème dialogique est lié aux nouvelles technologies et que la coopération est une dimension importante du télétravail. Dans notre étude, la coopération est observée à la fois dans les relations sociales entre employeurs et employés, et dans l’institutionnalisation de relations entre managers et syndicats. Bien que les deux formes de coopération, appelées ici coopération sociale et coopération institutionnelle, soient souvent considérées comme des prérequis aux « meilleures pratiques » en matière de nouvelles organisations du travail, nos études de cas montrent que la coopération n’est pas toujours au rendez-vous, ce qui rend difficile la mise en place des pratiques de télétravail. Nous discutons des résultats de diverses études de cas dans l’industrie et les services en nous centrant sur les relations de coopération et ce, afin de contribuer au débat sociologique sur le télétravail.The diffusion of ICT has massive effects on society and economy. The impact of the new technologies on work is apparent in new ways of organizing work and in new practices introduced in organizations. Telework is one good example within these. In this paper, we present the results of a recent research project on telework, in which we have been engaged. Differently from the approach referring to a model of benefits for economic and social actors, our hypothesis is that the dialogical

  8. The 2000 activities and the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field as part of Asian regional cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In 1999, the Project for Human Resources Development (HRD) was initiated as defined in the framework of the Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia (FNCA), organized by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan. The objective of the HRD Project is to solidify the foundation of technologies for nuclear development and utilization in Asia by promoting human resources development in Asian countries. In the Project there are two kind of activities; in-workshop activities and outside-of-workshop activities. As in-workshop activities, the 2nd Workshop on Human Resources Development in the Nuclear Field was held on November 27 and 28, 2000, at the Tokai Research Institute of JAERI. As outside-of-workshop activities. 'The presentation of the present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan' was held on November 29, 2000 after the workshop. Participating countries were China, Indonesia, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The secretariat for the Human Resources Development Projects is provided by the Nuclear Technology and Education Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This report consists of presentation papers and materials at the Workshop, presentation documents of 'The present state of international training and education in the nuclear field in Japan', a letter of proposal from the Project Leader of Japan to the project leaders of the participating countries after the Workshop and a presentation paper on Human Resources Development at the 3rd Coordinators Meeting of FNCA at Tokyo on March 14-16, 2001. (author)

  9. Project of the basic survey of cooperation for the heightening of energy efficiency in developing countries. Project for inviting engineers from developing countries to Japan (Malaysia); Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kyoryoku kiso chosa nado jigyo. Hatten tojokoku gijutsusha shohei jigyo (Malaysia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of plannably and effectively spreading the results of demonstrative researches on energy conservation and environmental technology in developing countries which were jointly made with Japan and Japan`s advanced energy conservation and environment technology, etc., the project invited engineers of developing countries to Japan, gave the intensive research instruction, made the required information exchange, and attempted improving R and D ability of the engineers and smoothening transfer/spread of the technology concerned. Malaysia has been advancing strongly the economic growth along `the 6th Malaysia Plan,` and aims, as a national target, at completing industrialization by 2020 and reaching the level of developed countries. However, the environment problem in Malaysia is worsening. In this invitation project, two-week training was given to 15 trainees, paying attention to the following three items: (1) introduction of technologies of energy conservation and environment in Japan, (2) actual field training at research institutes and corporations which have high-technology on energy conservation and environment, and (3) information exchanges with executive officials, scientists, and researchers in Japan. 6 figs.

  10. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters. PMID:17370528

  11. Globalization in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence on Japan......Abstract for Nichibunken Copenhagen Symposium August 2012 Globalization in Japan – the case of moral education. 日本とグローバル化 - 道徳教育の件 Marie H. Roesgaard, Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. This paper attempts to trace the history of global influence...... adjusting to those of the global currents that cannot be ignored. Further, I would suggest that global, or at least Western, influence is not a new thing in regard to moral education in Japan. The paper will provide an historical overview of the development of moral education since Meiji times and focus...

  12. 1993 Hokkaido, Japan Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On July 12, 1993, a magnitude 7.6 Ms (7.7 Mw) (HRV) earthquake at 13:17 UT in the Sea of Japan near Hokkaido caused a back-arc tsunami that caused damage in all of...

  13. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  14. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  15. [[Interregional marriage in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T

    1990-07-01

    Patterns in interregional marriage in Japan are examined by prefecture. Data are from the 1977, 1982, and 1987 National Fertility Surveys and are presented for distance between marriage site and birthplace, including the effects of arranged marriage and wife's labor force participation; prior living arrangements; and educational status of the couple. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. Moral Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Luhmer

    1990-01-01

    Explores how religion is a pervasive influence in moral education in both the home and school in Japan, despite an official secular policy. Points out that after 1945 nationalism was replaced by secular social studies. Finds western thought included with Buddhism and Confucianism in government decrees on the curriculum. Places newly reemerging…

  17. Teacher Education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimahara, Nobuo

    A discussion is presented on the education of Japanese teachers, their roles in the schools, and proposed reforms in their education. In describing the pre-World War II background of teacher education in Japan, three ideological forces are discussed: Western thought that impacted upon early Meiji reforms, Confucianism, and nationalism. Western…

  18. Japan Hadron Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    1999-01-01

    Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) is a high-intensity proton accelerator complex consisting of a 200 MeV linac, a 3 GeV booster and a 50 GeV main ring. Its status and future possibilities of realizing a versatile antiproton facility at JHF are presented.

  19. Technical Communication in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiraku Amemiya

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Characteristics of Japanese Technical Communication(TC) The visual orientation of information characterizes Japanese technical communication.Manuals that have won Japan Manual Awards in the past have employed various designs with graphical presentations that evoke the style of popular magazines.

  20. Sapovirus in Water, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hansman, Grant S.; Sano, Daisuke; Ueki, You; Imai, Takahiro; Oka, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Naokazu; Omura, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Sapoviruses are etiologic agents of human gastroenteritis. We detected sapovirus in untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, and a river in Japan. A total of 7 of 69 water samples were positive by reverse transcription–PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral capsid gene grouped these strains into 4 genetic clusters.

  1. Political Corruption in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  2. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  3. Current status and perspectives of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases reported in 2005 have been updated. In addition, the current status of Taenia asiatica infections successively occurring in Japan since 2010 is also discussed.

  4. Cooperation in changing environments: Irreversibility in the transition to cooperation in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia-Lázaro, C; Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Moreno, Y

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner's Dilemma game on complex networks, we investigate the possibility that the average level of cooperation shows hysteresis under quasi-static variations of a model parameter (the "temptation to defect"). Under the "discrete replicator" strategy updating rule, for both Erd\\"os -R\\'enyi and Barab\\'asi-Albert graphs we observe cooperation hysteresis cycles provided one reaches tipping point values of the parameter; otherwise, perfect reversibility is obtained. The selective fixation of cooperation at certain nodes and its organization in cooperator clusters, that are surrounded by fluctuating strategists, allows the rationalization of the "lagging behind" behavior observed.

  5. Application of EB in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunaga, Hiromi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2003-02-01

    Radiation processing using electron beam (EB) facilities other than gamma-ray facilities in Japan is introduced. After briefly presented the features of EB compared with gamma ray, present status of EB application is described. Polymerized materials for use of wire, cable, radial tire, heat shrinkable tube, foam polyethylene, PTFE, battery separator, and adsorbent material are known to be resulting from cross-linking, decomposition, and graft polymerization reactions. Environmental preservation includes electron flue gas treatment in the coal- or oil-fired power plants, research for volatile organic compounds (VOC) and dioxins, as well as wastewater and sludge treatment. Finally activity of JAERI in the related fields is overviewed with the authors prospects for utilization of low energy EB with low cost for surface treatment and functional materials. (S. Ohno)

  6. 跨界合作理念下高职师资队伍建设研究%The Study on the Organization of Teachers' Team in Higher Vocational Schools under the Conception of Cross-border Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书润

    2012-01-01

    通过对近十多年来高职师资队伍建设实践的研究发现,“跨界合作”已经成为引领和指导高职师资队伍建设新理念,提出“跨界合作”理念是在我国社会经济发展方式转型升级、高职教育事业自身不断发展和对高职教育规律深刻认识的背景下逐渐明晰起来的观点,梳理了在“跨界合作”理念的引领和指导下,高职师资队伍建设经历的从“双师型”到“双师素质”再到“双师结构”的各具特色的三个不同发展阶段。%Over a decade, the studies on the practice of the organization of teachers' team in higher vocational schools show that "cross-border cooperation" has become a new conception leading and guiding the organization of teachers' team. The conception of "cross-border cooperation" gradually surfaced with the transformation and upgrade of China's social and economic developing model when higher vocational schools had been developing and the laws of education had been fully learned. This paper elaborates the three different phases of the organiza- tion of teachers' team in higher vocational schools, under the leadership and guidance of "cross-border coopera- tion", from "double qualification" to "the quality of double qualification" and then to "the construction of double qualification".

  7. Development Mode and Risk Analysis of Farmers’Capital Mutual Cooperation Organizations in Anhui Province%安徽农民资金互助合作组织的发展模式及风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何频

    2015-01-01

    近年来,各地发展的各种类型的农民资金互助合作组织在一定程度上缓和了农村金融资源供需不平衡的状况,为农村的发展提供了支持。但是由于资金互助是个新的金融模式,在发展过程中,无章可循,缺乏监督管理,潜藏着诸多风险和社会不安定因素,包括信用风险、流动性风险、法律风险、运营风险、操作风险和异化风险等。必须规范互助金融行为,降低金融风险,保护农民资金互助合作组织及社员的合法权益。%In recent years,the development of various types of farmers’capital mutual cooperation organizations,to a cer⁃tain extent,has eased the imbalance between supply and demand of rural financial resources,and provided support to the ag⁃ricultural development. But the capital mutual cooperation has many hidden risks and social unrests because it is a new finan⁃cial mode and lacks of regulations and supervision in the process of development,including credit risk,liquidity risk,legal risk,operational risk,handling risk and alienation risk,etc. Therefore,it is necessary to standardize mutual financial co⁃operation behavior,reduce financial risk and protect the legitimate rights and interests of farmers’ capital mutual coopera⁃tion organizations and their members.

  8. US-Japan workshops in medical mycology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, D M

    2001-01-01

    The Extramural Mycology Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has organized and implemented a five workshop series in medical mycology during a critical period in the evolution of contemporary medical mycology (1992 to 2000; http://www.niaid.nih.gov/research/dmid.htm). The goals of the workshop series were to: initiate interactions; build collaborations; identify research needs; turn needs into opportunities; stimulate molecular research in medical mycology; and summarize recommendations emerging from the workshop proceedings. A recurring recommendation in the series was to foster communications within and beyond the field of medical mycology. US-Japan interactions were noted as one specific example of potential information exchange for mutual benefit. The first formal action directed at this recommendation was the workshop Emergence and Recognition of Fungal Diseases convened under the auspices of the US-Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program (USJCMSP; http://www.niaid. nih.gov/dmid/us%5Fjapan/default.htm) in Bethesda, Maryland USA on 30 June 1999 (D.M. Dixon & T. Matsumoto, co-chairs). A major goal of the workshop was to present contemporary medical mycology to the Joint Committee of the USJCMSP through representative research presentations in order to make the Committee aware of current status in the field, and the potential for scientific interactions. The second formal action is the workshop, under the auspices of the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology Medical Perspectives of Fungal Genome Studies scheduled for 28 November 2000 in Tokyo, Japan (T. Matsumoto & D.M. Dixon, co-chairs). The NIAID Mycology Workshop series recommended interactions between the following groups: academic and pharmaceutical; medical and molecular (model systems); medical and plant pathogens; basic and clinical; mycologists and immunologists. The first two US-Japan workshops can be viewed as consistent

  9. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperato...

  10. International cooperation in water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.R.; Beall, R.M.; Giusti, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    Advancements in hydrology proceeded slowly until the late 1800's when new ventures created a surge of interest and accomplishment. Progress waned again until the middle 20th century when an International Hydrological Decade was conceived, eventually receiving wide multinational support from governmental agencies and nongovernmental institutions. Organized by UNESCO, the Decade program was launched January 1, 1965. Participation included 107 nations, six United Nations agencies, and more than a dozen international scientific organizations. The initial program emphasized scientific research, and international cooperation; the second half of the Decade, emphasized technical assistance and technology transfer, largerly through education, training and demonstration. The success of the Decade led to the establishment of the International Hydrological Program, again under the aegis of UNESCO, to continue the work of the Decade indefinitely. The five major program activities, now involving about 90 countries and several international organizations, include: the scientific program, the promotion of education and training, the enhancement of information exchange, support of technical assistance, and the enlargement of regional cooperation. A significant amount of activity related to hydrological data networks and forecasting is carried on in an Operational Hydrology Programme by the WMO, chiefly through its Commission for Hydrology. Other international governmental organizations with a strong interest in water include the UN, the UN Development Programme, the FAO, the WHO, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the UN Environment Programme, the International Standardization Organization, and developmental institutions such as the World Bank. The specialized interests of researchers outside of the governmental structure, are met through association in various scientific and technical organizations which are world wide in scope and membership. Notwithstanding a sometimes

  11. Current Status and Perspectives of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review describes recent epidemiological trends in cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan. Some of the topics discussed herein were presented at the first symposium on "Current perspectives of Taenia asiatica researches", that was held in Osong in Chungbuk Province, South Korea, in October 2011 and organized by Prof. K. S. Eom, Chungbuk National University School of Medicine. To better understand the trends in the occurrence of cysticercosis and taeniasis in Japan, clinical cases repor...

  12. Analog integrated circuit for micro-gyro interface realized by multi-chip service in Japan; Multi chip service ni yoru micro gyro interface shuseki kairo no sekkei to shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maenaka, K.; Fujita, T.; Okamoto, K.; Maeda, M. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Hyogo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with an analog integrated circuit for micro-machined gyroscopes with capacitive output. The Integrated circuit was fabricated as a part of the first project from the `Micromachining Multi-Chip Service Cooperative Re-search Committee` organized by The Institute of Electrical Engineers Japan. This multi-chip service project offers a master slice chip with an equivalent of 9 blocks of operational amplifier circuits. Our integrated circuit includes a modulator, demodulator and synchronous rectifier for detecting small changes in the capacitance of a silicon gyroscope. In the paper, the experimental results of fabricated samples will be described. 13 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Global Stability Through Security Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    operations via piracy , smuggling of weapons, narcotics, human trafficking, conducting terrorist operations, and if possible terrorist operations with...sovereign state and region. This collaboration, coordination, and cooperation require a unity of purpose and reading from the “same sheet of music .” The...requirement for three distinct organizations to operate together and be on the same “sheet of music ” must demand a strategic, comprehensive assessment

  14. Kumano Geopark Project: Community Regeneration by Interconnecting Tourism Study with Geoscience in Wakayama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakushi, T.; Hisatomi, K.; Takasu, H.; Konomatsu, M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our community-regeneration project in Wakayama, Japan. Wakayama Prefecture is the southwestern part of the Kii Peninsula. The Kumano region is the southern part of Wakayama. The Kii Peninsula has a UNESCO World Heritage (cultural heritage), registered in 2004 July as Sacred Sites and Pilgrimage Routes in the Kii Mountain Range. The Heritage has been widely utilized to attract tourists to the region. However, the Kii Peninsula has not only the cultural heritage but many geoscientifically important natural heritages such as the volcano-plutonic complex including well exposed ring dyke in the Kumano region. A Geopark can be described as a region which has a system to apply the Earth's heritages so that people can enjoy and scientifically understand Earth. Authorization by the Global Geoparks Network (GGN) enables a region to claim as Global Geopark. Similarly, Japan Geoparks Network enables it domestically in Japan. To be authorized, there are some important factors, for example; the importance and conservation of the Earth's heritage (geophysical, geological, etc.); devices to communicate mechanism, structure, origin, and history of Earth plainly and interestingly with visitors; sustainable and cooperative systems linking the administrative organizations, residents, researchers, tourism bureaus, and so on. Our goal is to be officially authorized the Kii Peninsula as Kumano Geopark by JGN (and furthermore, by GGN if possible). We also try to discuss this issue in the light of tourism management. The authorization by JGN (or GGN) may work as regional branding. By raising the value of the Kumano regional brand (or the ``brand equity'' of Kumano), we may contribute the community regeneration.

  15. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  16. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  17. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  18. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  19. Can German wine cooperatives compete on quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schamel Guenter H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes how German cooperative wineries compete with private (i.e. non-cooperative wineries regarding reputation, quality categorization and varietal selection. Among the reasons why German cooperatives lag behind in terms of reputation for quality wine are organization principles of cooperatives and the difficulty to manage growers supplying grapes of different qualities. Cooperatives turn their supply of grapes into wine often classified as quality wine without much distinction. Conversely, privately owned wineries growing their own grapes may have more control over quality along their production chain and are able to produce more distinctive wines. In turn, they gain more reputation with final consumers with respect to quality. We analyze data for private and cooperative wineries from Germany. Our objective is to identify key differences in terms of reputation for quality wine production. Specifically, we look at interaction effects based on organizational form (cooperative vs. private and the German wine quality categorization (i.e. basic quality wine vs. Kabinett, Spätlese, or Auslese as well as varietal effects. We employ a hedonic pricing model to test the hypothesis that wines produced by private producers receive a reputation premium relative to cooperatives. Moreover, we hypothesize that private wineries receive a price premium relative to coopera- tives for other than basic quality wines and distinct varieties such as Riesling and Pinot Noir. The empirical analysis confirms both hypotheses. The estimated coefficients indicate that cooperatives are unable to gain quality premium for most quality cat- egories and gain price premiums only for non-distinct varieties such as Lemberger and Dornfelder. We can argue that German cooperatives are stuck in the low quality corner of the quality and variety spectrum and are currently not able to compete with private wineries in terms of quality. This result supports the observation

  20. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  1. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  2. Evolution of cooperation in multiplex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Reinares, Irene; Arenas, Alex; Floría, Luis Mario

    2012-01-01

    We study evolutionary game dynamics on structured populations in which individuals take part in several layers of networks of interactions simultaneously. This multiplex of interdependent networks accounts for the different kind of social ties each individual has. By coupling the evolutionary dynamics of a Prisoner's Dilemma game in each of the networks, we show that the resilience of cooperative behaviors for extremely large values of the temptation to defect is enhanced by the multiplex structure. Furthermore, this resilience is intrinsically related to a non-trivial organization of cooperation across the network layers, thus providing a new way out for cooperation to survive in structured populations.

  3. Cooperation and discord in global climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Robert O.; Victor, David G.

    2016-06-01

    Effective mitigation of climate change will require deep international cooperation, which is much more difficult to organize than the shallow coordination observed so far. Assessing the prospects for effective joint action on climate change requires an understanding of both the structure of the climate change problem and national preferences for policy action. Preferences have become clearer in light of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties in December 2015. Although deep cooperation remains elusive, many partial efforts could build confidence and lead to larger cuts in emissions. This strategy of decentralized policy coordination will not solve the climate problem, but it could lead incrementally to deeper cooperation.

  4. DPAL activities in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masamori; Wani, Fumio

    2015-02-01

    Activities on diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) in Japan is reviewed. We have started alkali laser works in 2011, and currently, we are the only players in Japan. Our interests are application oriented, and it is not only defense but also industrial. DPAL is a good candidate as a source of remote laser machining, thanks to its scalability and extremely good beam quality. We are studying on scientific and engineering problems of Cs DPAL with a small-scale apparatus. A commercial diode laser with volume Bragg grating outcoupler is used to pump the gain cell longitudinally. A 6.5 W continuous-wave output with optical to optical efficiency of 56% (based on the absorbed power) has been achieved. Numerical simulation codes are developed to understand the physics of DPAL and to help future developments.

  5. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  6. Statistical physics of human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perc, Matjaž; Jordan, Jillian J.; Rand, David G.; Wang, Zhen; Boccaletti, Stefano; Szolnoki, Attila

    2017-05-01

    Extensive cooperation among unrelated individuals is unique to humans, who often sacrifice personal benefits for the common good and work together to achieve what they are unable to execute alone. The evolutionary success of our species is indeed due, to a large degree, to our unparalleled other-regarding abilities. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of human cooperation remains a formidable challenge. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that it is important to focus on the collective behavior that emerges as the result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and even societies. Non-equilibrium statistical physics, in particular Monte Carlo methods and the theory of collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transition points, has proven to be very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. By treating models of human cooperation as classical spin models, a physicist can draw on familiar settings from statistical physics. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. The complexity of solutions therefore often surpasses that observed in physical systems. Here we review experimental and theoretical research that advances our understanding of human cooperation, focusing on spatial pattern formation, on the spatiotemporal dynamics of observed solutions, and on self-organization that may either promote or hinder socially favorable states.

  7. 77 FR 38831 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Tizen Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Tizen...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act...: Access Co. Ltd., Tokyo, JAPAN; France Telecom S.A. (Orange Personal Communications Services...

  8. 75 FR 65656 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Advanced Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Advanced... 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the..., Tokyo, Japan; and Peter Humphrey, San Francisco, CA, have been added as parties to this venture....

  9. 76 FR 60530 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Council for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Council... 29, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993... Chemical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan; Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC, Greensboro, NC; Valent...

  10. 76 FR 31638 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Global Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Global... National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Global... Motor Corporation, Aichi, Japan, has withdrawn as a party to this venture. The change in its nature...

  11. 78 FR 58558 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. d...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Sematech... 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the..., GA; DISCO Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; and ACM Research, Inc., Fremont, CA, have been added as...

  12. 75 FR 54914 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-LiMo Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--LiMo Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on July 1, 2010, pursuant to section 6(a) of the National Cooperative... Data MSE Corporation, Yokohama, Japan; STEricsson AB, Lund, Sweden, have been added as parties to...

  13. 78 FR 9939 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Sematech, Inc. d...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Sematech... Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq... Corporation, Tokyo, JAPAN; and Cabot Corporation, Boston, MA, have been added as parties to this venture....

  14. Non-cooperative planning theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogetoft, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Planning in a general sense is concerned with the design of communication and decision making mechanisms in organizations where information and choice are decentralized. Non-cooperative planning theory as it is developed in this book treats the incentive aspects hereof. It stresses how strategic behavior and opportunism may impede planning, and how this can be coped with via the organization of communication and decision making, the design of information and control systems, and the development of incentive schemes. In particular, the book contains a thorough investigation of incentive provision in information production.

  15. Designing Cooperative Gamification: Conceptualization and Prototypical Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Morschheuser, Benedikt; Maedche, Alexander; Walter, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Organizations deploy gamification in CSCW systems to enhance motivation and behavioral outcomes of users. However, gamification approaches often cause competition between users, which might be inappropriate for working environments that seek cooperation. Drawing on the social interdependence theory, this paper provides a classification for gamification features and insights about the design of cooperative gamification. Using the example of an innovation community of a German engineering compa...

  16. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The city of Sapporo on the northernmost of the Japanese Home Island of Hokkaido (43.5N, 141.5E), host to the 1986 Winter Olympic Games is situated along the margin of a large valley which extends across the island from the Sea of Japan to the Pacific Ocean. The Valley is largely cultivated (the lighter green of the cultivated land distinguishes it from the gray urban development of Sapporo), but much of the island remains heavily forested.

  17. Japan Report No. 173.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Also, when Mr Nikaido visited China, his statements regarding Japan’s present situation and the Nakasone cabinet were filled with polite sarcasm . In...t— o Ov ON OS UJ o cu O OS Q > X eS UJ o a. O ei a >• X cu D OS UJ O a. J < S in fN OS OS n OS < «r z UJ w Z JL1 -J -J J Ou

  18. Marital Dissolution in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Raymo; Bumpass, Larry L.; Miho Iwasawa

    2004-01-01

    Very little is known about recent trends in divorce in Japan. In this paper, we use Japanese vital statistics and census data to describe trends in the experience of marital dissolution across the life course, and to examine change over time in educational differentials in divorce. Cumulative probabilities of marital dissolution have increased rapidly across successive marriage cohorts over the past twenty years, and synthetic period estimates suggest that roughly one-third of Japanese marria...

  19. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  20. Neuropsychology in Japan: history, current challenges, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Maiko

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this special issue was to describe the cross-cultural differences in neuropsychology throughout the world. The current state of neuropsychology in Japan is discussed in this manuscript. Information on six topics, including (1) the history of Japanese neuropsychology, (2) licensure system, (3) job opportunities, (4) neuropsychological clinical services, (5) neuropsychological tests, and (6) neuropsychological research, was gathered via literature searches, official organization websites, and personal communication with clinical psychologists and other professionals in Japan. Neuropsychology reached Japan from the west in the late 1800s, a period of rapid political and social modernization. Professional associations were founded in the 1960s and 1970s and continued to grow. The need for neuropsychological assessment in Japan is growing; however, credential requirements for neuropsychologists have not yet been established. To practice clinical psychology in Japan, one must obtain a Master's degree and pass a licensure examination that is administered by a private professional foundation. Clinical psychologists often conduct neuropsychological tests; however, they have little training in neuropsychological assessment. While many western neuropsychological tests have been translated into Japanese and are used in clinical settings, the majority of translated tests have not been standardized and their psychometric properties remain poorly understood. Standardization and development of normative data in Japan is warranted. Given that needs for neuropsychological services are increasing, it is essential for clinical psychologists in Japan to improve their skills in neuropsychological evaluations. Japanese graduate schools must work to establish neuropsychology programs to educate and train clinical neuropsychologists.