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Sample records for cooperating disparate manipulators

  1. Control and applications of cooperating disparate robotic manipulators relevant to nuclear waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Jae Young; Book, Wayne J.

    1991-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear waste management requires a robotic system with precise motion as well as a large workspace. The concept of a small arm mounted on the end of a large arm may satisfy such needs. However, the performance of such a serial configuration lacks payload capacity which is a crucial factor for handling a massive object. Also, this configuration induces more flexibility on the structure. To overcome these problems, the topology of bracing the tip of the small arm (not the large arm) and having an end effector in the middle of the chain is proposed in this paper. Also, control of these cooperating disparate manipulators is accomplished in computer simulations. Thus, this robotic system can have the accuracy of the small arm, and at the same time, it can have the payload capacity and large workspace of the large arm.

  2. Redundancy analysis of cooperative dual-arm manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Freddi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the redundancy analysis of two cooperative manipulators, showing how they can be considered as a single redundant manipulator through the use of the relative Jacobian matrix. In this way, the kinematic redundancy can be resolved by applying the principal local optimization techniques used in the single manipulator case. We resolve the redundancy by using the Jacobian null space technique, which permits us to perform several tasks with different execution priority levels at the same time; this is a useful feature, especially when the manipulators are to be mounted on and cooperate with a mobile platform. As an illustrative example, we present a case study consisting of two planar manipulators mounted on a smart wheelchair, whose degrees of redundancy are employed to move an object along a pre-defined path, while avoiding an obstacle in the manipulator’s workspace at the same time.

  3. MANIPULATIVE COOPERATION POLITICS OF MLM COMPANIES IN SURABAYA CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Andriati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on multi-level marketing business from law, management, marketing economic and anthropology perspectives have been focused on its legality which is victims of MLM companies/fake MLM companies. Studies on market phenomenon and entrepreneurship of MLM large industry fromeconomy anthropology perspective are still rare especially in Indonesia. The study is intended to identify the underlying cooperation policy as well as manipulative conduct of MLM business in Surabaya.The study employs qualitative and ethnographic approaches. Qualitative data wereanalyzed using ethnographic approaches. The result of research suggests that MLM businesses have undertaken manipulative cooperation politics by establishing both international level direct selling association (WFDSA and national association (APLI in response to the MLM business controversy. APLI exploits andmanipulates non-member of APLI. Exploiting and manipulating MLM members through ideology doctrine and marketing plan of MLM business/corporate culture

  4. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  5. Human-Multi-Robot Teleoperation for Cooperative Manipulation Tasks using Wearable Haptic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinello, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cooperative multi-robot systems require planning and adaptive capabilities in order to perform cooperative manipulation tasks in dynamic or unstructured environments. Since these capabilities are inherent to humans, it is suitable to consider human-multi-robot teleoperation for cooperative...... manipulation where one human commands a multi-robot system. In this paper, a teleoperated multi-robot system is considered as a redundant system in the task space. A dynamic redundancy resolution control approach is performed in the task space to decouple two subtasks: object manipulation and grasp maintenance...

  6. Dynamic modeling of dual-arm cooperating manipulators based on Udwadia–Kalaba equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dual-arm cooperating manipulators subject to a certain constraint brought about by the desired trajectory and geometric constraint show high nonlinearity and coupling in their dynamic characteristic. Therefore, it is hard to build dynamical equation with traditional Lagrange equation. The Udwadia–Kalaba equation presents a new idea of dynamic modeling of multi-body systems. However, the dynamic modeling of the unconstrained systems still depends on the traditional Lagrange equation and is quite tedious for dual-arm cooperating manipulators. A generalized dynamical equation of multi-link planar manipulators is thus presented and proven to make modeling conveniently. The constraint relationship is established from a new perspective, and the dynamical equation of dual-arm cooperating manipulator subject to the desired trajectory is acquired with the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. The simple approach overcomes the disadvantage of obtaining dynamical equation from traditional Lagrange equation by Lagrange multiplier. The simulation results of varying law of the joint angles and the motion path of the bar prove that the dynamical equation established by this method conforms to reality.

  7. Optimization of potential field method parameters through networks for swarm cooperative manipulation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Furferi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An interesting current research field related to autonomous robots is mobile manipulation performed by cooperating robots (in terrestrial, aerial and underwater environments. Focusing on the underwater scenario, cooperative manipulation of Intervention-Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (I-AUVs is a complex and difficult application compared with the terrestrial or aerial ones because of many technical issues, such as underwater localization and limited communication. A decentralized approach for cooperative mobile manipulation of I-AUVs based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs is proposed in this article. This strategy exploits the potential field method; a multi-layer control structure is developed to manage the coordination of the swarm, the guidance and navigation of I-AUVs and the manipulation task. In the article, this new strategy has been implemented in the simulation environment, simulating the transportation of an object. This object is moved along a desired trajectory in an unknown environment and it is transported by four underwater mobile robots, each one provided with a seven-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm. The simulation results are optimized thanks to the ANNs used for the potentials tuning.

  8. Simultaneous repetitive motion planning of two redundant robot arms for acceleration-level cooperative manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Dongsheng; Yu, Xiaotian; Xiao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    This Letter proposes a novel simultaneous repetitive motion planning (SRMP) scheme of two redundant robot arms for cooperative manipulation. To remedy the joint-angle drift phenomenon, two SRMP subschemes are exploited at the joint-acceleration level. The subschemes are then simultaneously reformulated as two quadratic programs (QPs), which are finally unified into a QP problem solving. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation based on two three-link robot arms both substantiate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed SRMP scheme.

  9. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  10. On position/force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulators using adaptive fuzzy backstepping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigzadehnoe, Barmak; Rahmani, Zahra; Khosravi, Alireza; Rezaie, Behrooz

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the position and force tracking control problem of cooperative robot manipulator system handling a common rigid object with unknown dynamical models and unknown external disturbances is investigated. The universal approximation properties of fuzzy logic systems are employed to estimate the unknown system dynamics. On the other hand, by defining new state variables based on the integral and differential of position and orientation errors of the grasped object, the error system of coordinated robot manipulators is constructed. Subsequently by defining the appropriate change of coordinates and using the backstepping design strategy, an adaptive fuzzy backstepping position tracking control scheme is proposed for multi-robot manipulator systems. By utilizing the properties of internal forces, extra terms are also added to the control signals to consider the force tracking problem. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed adaptive fuzzy backstepping position/force control approach ensures all the signals of the closed loop system uniformly ultimately bounded and tracking errors of both positions and forces can converge to small desired values by proper selection of the design parameters. Finally, the theoretic achievements are tested on the two three-link planar robot manipulators cooperatively handling a common object to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  12. Towards Extending Forward Kinematic Models on Hyper-Redundant Manipulator to Cooperative Bionic Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjeet; Lakhal, Othman; Merzouki, Rochdi

    2017-01-01

    Forward Kinematics is a stepping stone towards finding an inverse solution and subsequently a dynamic model of a robot. Hence a study and comparison of various Forward Kinematic Models (FKMs) is necessary for robot design. This paper deals with comparison of three FKMs on the same hyper-redundant Compact Bionic Handling Assistant (CBHA) manipulator under same conditions. The aim of this study is to project on modeling cooperative bionic manipulators. Two of these methods are quantitative methods, Arc Geometry HTM (Homogeneous Transformation Matrix) Method and Dual Quaternion Method, while the other one is Hybrid Method which uses both quantitative as well as qualitative approach. The methods are compared theoretically and experimental results are discussed to add further insight to the comparison. HTM is the widely used and accepted technique, is taken as reference and trajectory deviation in other techniques are compared with respect to HTM. Which method allows obtaining an accurate kinematic behavior of the CBHA, controlled in the real-time.

  13. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The patent concerns a manipulator, which enables operations to be carried out remotely from the operator. The device is suitable for use in handling of radioactive materials and other hazardous liquids or gases. The specifications are given, and the movements of the manipulator arm described. (U.K.)

  14. Dynamics modelling and Hybrid Suppression Control of space robots performing cooperative object manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarafshan, P.; Moosavian, S. Ali A.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics modelling and control of multi-body space robotic systems composed of rigid and flexible elements is elaborated here. Control of such systems is highly complicated due to severe under-actuated condition caused by flexible elements, and an inherent uneven nonlinear dynamics. Therefore, developing a compact dynamics model with the requirement of limited computations is extremely useful for controller design, also to develop simulation studies in support of design improvement, and finally for practical implementations. In this paper, the Rigid-Flexible Interactive dynamics Modelling (RFIM) approach is introduced as a combination of Lagrange and Newton-Euler methods, in which the motion equations of rigid and flexible members are separately developed in an explicit closed form. These equations are then assembled and solved simultaneously at each time step by considering the mutual interaction and constraint forces. The proposed approach yields a compact model rather than common accumulation approach that leads to a massive set of equations in which the dynamics of flexible elements is united with the dynamics equations of rigid members. To reveal such merits of this new approach, a Hybrid Suppression Control (HSC) for a cooperative object manipulation task will be proposed, and applied to usual space systems. A Wheeled Mobile Robotic (WMR) system with flexible appendages as a typical space rover is considered which contains a rigid main body equipped with two manipulating arms and two flexible solar panels, and next a Space Free Flying Robotic system (SFFR) with flexible members is studied. Modelling verification of these complicated systems is vigorously performed using ANSYS and ADAMS programs, while the limited computations of RFIM approach provides an efficient tool for the proposed controller design. Furthermore, it will be shown that the vibrations of the flexible solar panels results in disturbing forces on the base which may produce undesirable errors

  15. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Y.; Routelous, F.; Spina, G.; Perpina, J.; Suquet, J.; Rossi, M.; Zanca, M.; Billiet, A.; Madec, L.; Lemoine, T.; Gaboriaud, G.; Aubert, B.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Neuenschwander, S.; Brisse, H.; Rehel, J.L.; Rebibo, G.; Bensimon, J.L.; Kulski, A.; Serhal, M.; Nguyen, K.V.; Lescure, R.; Cymbalista, M.

    2005-01-01

    Three articles have for purpose the radiation doses optimization in medical imaging. The first one concerns the radiation protection of manipulators working at a PET scan post, the second one concerns more particularly the optimization of doses delivered in pediatric computerized tomography, the third one is devoted to a comparison between radiation dose and image quality through scanners of adult temporal bone. (N.C.)

  16. Physiological hemostasis based intelligent integrated cooperative controller for precise fault-tolerant control of redundant parallel manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Kuangrong; Guo, Chongbin; Ding, Yongsheng

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on precise fault-tolerant control for actual redundant parallel manipulator. Based on kinematic redundancy, some unnoticed influences such as mechanical clearance have been considered to design a more precise and intelligent fault-tolerant plan for actual plants. According to regulation principles in human hemostasis system, a bio-inspired intelligent integrated cooperative controller (BIICC) is developed including system structure, algorithm and step in parameter tuning. The proposed BIICC optimises partial error signal and improves control performance in each sub-channel. Moreover, the new controller transfers and disposes cooperative control signals among different sub-channels to achieve an intelligent integrated fault-tolerant system. The proposed BIICC is applied to an actual 2-DOF (degrees of freedom) redundant parallel manipulator where the feasibility of the new controller is demonstrated. The BIICC is beneficial to control precision and fault-tolerant capability of redundant plant. The improvements are more obvious in cases where extra actuators of redundant manipulator are broken.

  17. Dataglove-based interface for impedance control of manipulators in cooperative human–robot environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Madrid, L; Gonzalez de Santos, P

    2013-01-01

    A dataglove-based interface is presented for tracking the forces applied by the hand during contact tasks with a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator. The interface uses 11 force sensors carefully placed on the palm-side fabric of a 16 DOF dataglove. The force sensors use piezoresistive technology to measure the individual force components from the hand. Based on the dataglove measurements, these components are transformed and summed to assemble the resultant force vector. Finally, this force vector is translated into the manipulator frame using orientation measurements from an inertial measurement unit placed on the dorsal side of the dataglove. Static tests show that the dataglove-based interface can effectively measure the applied hand force, but there are inaccuracies in orientation and magnitude when compared to the load cell measurements used as the reference for error calculation. Promising results were achieved when controlling the 6 DOF manipulator based on the force readings acquired from the dataglove interface; the decoupled dynamics of the dataglove interface with respect to the robot structure yielded smooth force readings of the human intention that could be effectively used in the impedance control of the manipulator. (paper)

  18. Small scale mining cooperatives in Bolivia: From lifeguard of the poor to machinery of political manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Carrillo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that relations between social movements and organizations and the State are not only developed based on defended objectives and interests in political negotiations, but are also developed within particular situations, of specific cultures and histories. Our investigation about the relationship between mining cooperatives, their national organization, and the Bolivian State demonstrates the crucial importance of considering historical aspects, of collective memory, some regional and others within the organizations themselves. The traditions, memories, and abilities incorporated in the mining organizations and in the political realm will influence the way in which different parts relate to one another, design their strategies, and adapt to changing circumstances. This topic is illustrated firstly through a historical and contemporary account of mining in Bolivia focused in the sector of small scale mining. This is followed by outlining the position that cooperative mining occupies in the country and the strategies and self esteem that they display. Next, our case study is addressed: the ASOBAL cooperative. In the national outline, like in our case study, we connect the positions and strategieswith themes of identity, memory, and place.

  19. Control Algorithm Trajectory Planning for Dual Cooperative Manipulators with Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve cooperation of multi-robots simultaneously, this paper presents an approach of Trajectory planning for two decoupled robots with six degrees of freedom (DOF each to execute packing task. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H representation is used to model robot links and solve the transformation matrices of each joint. The inverse kinematics solution using for a 6- DOF Robotic arm is presented, for given initial and final configurations of the robots, the robots are placed so that their workspaces overlap. An algorithm successfully finds a set of configurations to ensure, collision free transition from start to end configuration. Simulation and experiments based on 6-dof robot are carried out and the results verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  1. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  2. Tubular g-C3 N4 Isotype Heterojunction: Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity through Cooperative Manipulation of Oriented Electron and Hole Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhenwei; Yang, Dong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Nan, Yanhu; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    A tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunction (TCNH) photocatalyst was designed for cooperative manipulation of the oriented transfer of photogenerated electrons and holes to pursue high catalytic performance. The adduct of cyanuric acid and melamine (CA·M) is first hydrothermally treated to assemble into hexagonal prism crystals; then the hybrid precursors of urea and CA·M crystals are calcined to form tubular g-C3 N4 isotype heterojunctions. Upon visible-light irradiation, the photogenerated electrons transfer from g-C3 N4 (CA·M) to g-C3 N4 (urea) driven by the conduction band offset of 0.05 eV, while the photogenerated holes transfer from g-C3 N4 (urea) to g-C3 N4 (CA·M) driven by the valence band offset of 0.18 eV, which renders oriented transfer of the charge carriers across the heterojunction interface. Meanwhile, the tubular structure of TCNH is favorable for oriented electron transfer along the longitudinal dimension, which greatly decreases the chance of charge carrier recombination. Consequently, TCNH exhibits a high hydrogen evolution rate of 63 μmol h(-1) (0.04 g, λ > 420 nm), which is nearly five times of the pristine g-C3 N4 and higher than most of the existing g-C3 N4 photocatalysts. This study demonstrates that isotype heterojunction structure and tubular structure can jointly manipulate the oriented transfer of electrons and holes, thus facilitating the visible-light photocatalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Sentencing Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice stakeholders are strongly concerned with disparities in penalty outcomes. Disparities are problematic when they represent unfounded differences in sentences, an abuse of discretion, and/or potential discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics. The Article presents an original empirical study that explores disparities in sentences at two levels: the individual case level and the regional level. More specifically, the study investigates upward departures in the United States’ federal sentencing system, which constitutes a guidelines-based structure. Upward departures carry unique consequences to individuals and their effects on the system as they lead to lengthier sentences, symbolically represent a dispute with the guidelines advice, and contribute to mass incarceration. Upward departures are discretionary to district courts and thus may lead to disparities in sentencing in which otherwise seemingly like offenders receive dissimilar sentences, in part because of the tendency of their assigned judges to depart upward (or not.

  4. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  5. A combined impedance-PD approach for controlling a dual-arm space manipulator in the capture of a non-cooperative target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolfi, A.; Gasbarri, P.; Sabatini, M.

    2017-10-01

    In the near future robotic systems will be playing an increasingly important role in space applications such as repairing, refueling, re-orbiting spacecraft and cleaning up the increasing amount of space debris. Space Manipulator Systems (SMSs) are robotic systems made of a platform (which has its own actuators such as thrusters and reaction wheels) equipped with one or more deployable arms. The present paper focuses on the issue of maintaining a stable first contact between the arms terminal parts (i.e. the end-effectors) and a target satellite, before the actual grasp is performed. The selected approach is a modified version of the Impedance Control algorithm, in which the end-effector is controlled in order to make it behave like a mass-spring-damper system regardless of the reaction motion of the base, so to absorb the impact energy. The usual approach consists in considering a point mass target and one-dimensional contact dynamics; however, the contact between the chaser and the target could generate a perturbation on the attitude of the target. On account of this, in the present work a more realistic scenario, consisting in a 2D rigid target and a relevant 2D contact dynamics, is considered. A two-arm configuration of the SMS is modelled and its effectiveness analyzed. The performance of the proposed control architecture is evaluated by means of a co-simulation involving the MSC Adams multibody code (for describing the dynamics of the space robot and target) together with Simulink (for the determination of the control actions). The co-simulation is a particularly useful tool to implement robust control applied to detailed dynamic systems. Several numerical results complete the work.

  6. Robot Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  7. Underwater manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-04-20

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer [plus minus]45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer [plus minus]10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion.

  8. Underwater manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrum, P.B.; Cohen, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Self-contained, waterproof, water-submersible, remote-controlled apparatus is described for manipulating a device, such as an ultrasonic transducer for measuring crack propagation on an underwater specimen undergoing shock testing. The subject manipulator includes metal bellows for transmittal of angular motions without the use of rotating shaft seals or O-rings. Inside the manipulator, a first stepper motor controls angular movement. In the preferred embodiment, the bellows permit the first stepper motor to move an ultrasonic transducer ±45 degrees in a first plane and a second bellows permit a second stepper motor to move the transducer ±10 degrees in a second plane orthogonal to the first. In addition, an XY motor-driven table provides XY motion

  9. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  10. Manipulatives Work!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Peggy L.

    2001-01-01

    Fifth graders (n=16) engaged in manipulative activities to improve their grasp of math concepts; one-third were identified as exceptional children. Posttest results after 12 lessons showed the overall class average increased from 49% to 59% and all areas improved compared to pretest scores. Attitude changes were also apparent. (Contains 24…

  11. What is Binocular Disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Lappin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are the geometric primitives of binocular disparity? The Venetian blind effect and other converging lines of evidence indicate that stereo-scopic depth perception derives from disparities of higher-order structure in images of surfaces. Image structure entails spatial variations of in-tensity, texture, and motion, jointly structured by observed surfaces. The spatial structure of bin-ocular disparity corresponds to the spatial struc-ture of surfaces. Independent spatial coordinates are not necessary for stereoscopic vision. Stere-opsis is highly sensitive to structural disparities associated with local surface shape. Disparate positions on retinal anatomy are neither neces-sary nor sufficient for stereopsis.

  12. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  13. Dynamic Coordination Of A Two-Arm Robotic Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1994-01-01

    Report presents study of dynamical and kinematical considerations guiding selection of configuration of self-reconfigurable, two-arm robotic manipulator. Two multiple-link arms cooperate in manipulating single object, reconfiguring their mutual, cooperative structure according to changing task requirements.

  14. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...... tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... that it was possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  15. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  16. Literacy and Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Mooney, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the relationship between literacy and health disparities, focusing on the concept of health literacy. Recommendations are provided for ways to bridge the health literacy gap for learners in adult basic education and family literacy programs.

  17. Dermatologic health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Kesha J.; Stevens, Erica I.; Elmets, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Though significant data exist highlighting the extent of health disparities there is limited data specifically on dermatologic health disparities. Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer outcomes are poorer for ethnic minorities, people of low socioeconomic status, less educated, elderly, and uninsured. Recent reports indicate that atopic dermatitis is more prevalent among ethnic minorities; however it is unclear if morbidity is also increased in these populations. Given the current dermatology workforce shortage, the increased patient load may have an adverse effect on dermatologic care access. Additional concerns include the state of dermatologic training, insufficient research involving ethnic minorities, and a lack of investigations of dermatologic health disparities. As the U.S. demographics shift to become more racially diverse, the need to address and reduce dermatologic health disparities will increase. PMID:22117867

  18. Regional disparities in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Czabán, Vera

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  19. Engendering health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    How is gender implicated in our exploration of health disparities in Canada? Set against the backdrop of federal government policy, this review paper examines the ways in which gender intersects with other health determinants to produce disparate health outcomes. An overview of salient issues including the impact of gender roles, environmental exposures, gender violence, workplace hazards, economic disparities, the costs of poverty, social marginalization and racism, aging, health conditions, interactions with health services, and health behaviours are considered. This review suggests health is detrimentally affected by gender roles and statuses as they intersect with economic disparities, cultural, sexual, physical and historical marginalization as well as the strains of domestic and paid labour. These conditions result in an unfair health burden borne in particular by women whose access to health determinants is--in various degrees--limited. While progress has certainly been made on some fronts, the persistence of health disparities among diverse populations of women and men suggests a postponement of the vision of a just society with health for all that was articulated in the Federal Plan on Gender Equality. Commitment, creativity and collaboration from stakeholders ranging from various levels of government, communities, academics, non-governmental agencies and health professionals will be required to reduce and eliminate health disparities between and among all members of our society.

  20. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  1. Regional disparities of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cismas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The regional issues include a variety of events that reflect the persistence of imbalances/ disparities in the development of a country’s regions (the trend of regional divergence. The major problem faced by all European regions is the high level of long-term unemployment, interregional disparities in this respect being obvious. The many (negative effects that unemployment generates - both for society and for individuals - fully justify the concerns of the world governments regarding both this reality and the continuous concern for finding solutions on employment at the highest level possible. These are the reasons why, this paper analyzes the issue of regional disparities of unemployment, in the EU countries, focusing on Romanian regions, using statistical data relevant for this purpose.

  2. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  3. Design of Precise Control and Dynamic Simulation of Manipulator for Die-casting Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yi; Liu, Chuang; Zhu, Chunlan; Sun, Quanlong

    2018-03-01

    To meet the demand of the enterprise for the die-casting machine, he overall structure of the manipulator and the controller of each joint were designed. Firstly, The solid model of the manipulator is established; and then, the simplified manipulator model was for dynamics simulation; Finally, through a combination of structural dynamics and dynamics control, established the cooperative control system of the manipulator, designed parameters of each joint motion controller and applied to cooperative control system simulation, joint simulation of manipulator is realized. The simulation results show that the manipulator system has good fast response characteristics and trajectory tracking characteristics, and the overall force results are in accordance with the theory.

  4. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P J L Verkoeijen

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more money to a common project when they had to decide quickly (i.e., a decision based on intuition than when they were instructed to reflect and decide slowly. This intuitive-cooperation effect is of high scientific and practical importance because it argues against a central assumption of traditional economic and evolutionary models. The first experiment of present study was set up to examine the generality of the intuitive-cooperation effect and to further validate the experimental task producing the effect. In Experiment 1, we investigated Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT workers' contributions to a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 while we manipulated the knowledge about the other players' contribution to the public goods game (contribution known vs. contribution unknown, the identity of the other players (humans vs. computers randomly generating contributions and the time constraint (time pressure/intuition vs. forced delay/reflection. However, the results of Experiment 1 failed to reveal an intuitive-cooperation effect. Furthermore, four subsequent direct replications attempts with AMT workers (Experiments 2a, 2b, 2c and Experiment 3, which was conducted with naïve/inexperienced participants also failed to demonstrate intuitive-cooperation effects. Taken together, the results of the present study could not corroborate the idea that people are intuitively cooperative, hence suggesting that the theoretical relationship between intuition and cooperation should be further scrutinized.

  5. Evidence for strategic cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chellew, Maxwell N; El Mouden, Claire; West, Stuart A

    2017-06-14

    Humans may cooperate strategically, cooperating at higher levels than expected from their short-term interests, to try and stimulate others to cooperate. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally manipulated the extent an individual's behaviour is known to others, and hence whether or not strategic cooperation is possible. In contrast with many previous studies, we avoided confounding factors by preventing individuals from learning during the game about either pay-offs or about how other individuals behave. We found clear evidence for strategic cooperators-just telling some individuals that their groupmates would be informed about their behaviour led to them tripling their initial level of cooperation, from 17 to 50%. We also found that many individuals play as if they do not understand the game, and their presence obscures the detection of strategic cooperation. Identifying such players allowed us to detect and study strategic motives for cooperation in novel, more powerful, ways. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic, social, psychological ...One aspect of our experimental approach is to test whether therapeutically targeting cholesterol using heart healthy diets and FDA approved, safe and...of the racial differences seen in incidence and mortality. We sought to test this using preclinical models (done by Dr. Solomon for which no data

  7. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  8. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  9. Compliant Aerial Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartelds, T.; Capra, A.; Hamaza, S.

    2016-01-01

    This letter focuses on the problem of handling impacts by means of an aerial manipulator and proposes a solution that combines the control of the aerial manipulator's end-effector position with an innovative design approach of aerial manipulation systems, consisting of both active and passive...... joints. The approach aims at limiting the influence of impacts on the controlled attitude dynamics in order to allow the aerial manipulator to remain stable during and after impact. The developed concept is intended to convert kinetic energy into potential energy, which is permanently stored into elastic...... elements by means of directional locking mechanisms. The proposed approach has been tested on a 2 d.o.f. manipulator mounted on a quadrotor UAV. The manipulation system has one active rotational d.o.f. compensating for pitch movements of the UAV and one passive linear joint which is in charge of absorbing...

  10. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  11. Manipulators in teleoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperated manipulators represent a mature technology which has evolved over nearly 40 years of applications experience. The wide range of manipulator concepts developed thus far reflect differing applications, priorities, and philosophies. The technology of teleoperated manipulators is in a rapid state of change (just as are industrial robotics) fueled by microelectronics and materials advances. Large strides in performance and dexterity are now practical and advantageous. Even though improved controls and sensory feedback will increase functionality, overall costs should be reduced as manipulator fabrication and assembly labor costs are reduced through improved manufacturing technology. As these advances begin to materialize, broader applications in nonnuclear areas should occur

  12. Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Paul; Marshall, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It is over 12 years since "APMC" published Bob Perry and Peter Howard's research on the use of mathematics manipulative materials in primary mathematics classrooms. Since then the availability of virtual manipulatives and associated access to computers and interactive whiteboards have caused educators to rethink the use of mathematics…

  13. Mascot servo-manipulator

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Mascot servo-manipulator on its test rails. In the foreground is the slave unit, which, in normal use, operates in the "hot" area with television observation. In the background the operator is manipulating arms which the slave arms follow, and which also convey back to him the "feel" of what is being handled.

  14. Master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A remote control master-slave manipulator for performing work on the opposite side of a barrier wall, is described. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. (U.K.)

  15. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  16. Manipulator comparative testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.V.; Handel, S.J.; Sundstrom, E.; Herndon, J.N.; Fujita, Y.; Maeda, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Manipulator Comparative Testing Program examined differences among manipulator systems from the United States and Japan. The manipulator systems included the Meidensha BILARM 83A, the Model M-2 of Central Research Laboratories Division of Sargent Industries (CRL), and the GCA Corporation PaR Systems Model 6000. The site of testing was the Remote Operations Maintenance Demonstration (ROMD) facility, operated by the Fuel Recycle Division in the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In all stages of testing, operators using the CRL Model M-2 manipulator had consistently lower times to completion and error rates than they did using other machines. Performance was second best with the Meidensha BILARM 83A in master-slave mode. Performance with the BILARM in switchbox mode and the PaR 6000 manipulator was approximately equivalent in terms of criteria recorded in testing. These data show no impact of force reflection on task performance

  17. Cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, D.J.; Jones, K.G.; Morrison, A.; Burdis, I.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing environmental constraints on the use of oil-based drilling fluids have prompted close cooperation between operators and service companies to maintain the technical performance of drilling fluids while reducing oil discharge. This paper describes how Amerada Hess Ltd. (AHL) and Intl. Drilling Fluids Ltd. (IDF) cooperated by extending laboratory developments into controlled field trials and how feedback from the field has allowed rapid progress toward performance and ecological goals. The authors developed a novel, oil-free, highly inhibitive water-based drilling fluid. The inhibition offered by this fluid approaches that offered by oil-based fluids. Second, the authors developed invert-emulsion and direct-emulsion fluids with low oil/water ratios for low oil-on-cuttings applications. The cooperative process improved the technical performance of these fluids demonstrably and reduced the oil on cuttings

  18. Manipulation, salience, and nudges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noggle, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler recommend helping people make better decisions by employing 'nudges', which they define as noncoercive methods of influencing choice for the better. Not surprisingly, healthcare practitioners and public policy professionals have become interested in whether nudges might be a promising method of improving health-related behaviors without resorting to heavy-handed methods such as coercion, deception, or government regulation. Many nudges seem unobjectionable as they merely improve the quality and quantity available for the decision-maker. However, other nudges influence decision-making in ways that do not involve providing more and better information. Nudges of this sort raise concerns about manipulation. This paper will focus on noninformational nudges that operate by changing the salience of various options. It will survey two approaches to understanding manipulation, one which sees manipulation as a kind of pressure, and one that sees it as a kind of trickery. On the pressure view, salience nudges do not appear to be manipulative. However, on the trickery view (which the author favors), salience nudges will be manipulative if they increase the salience so that it is disproportionate to that fact's true relevance and importance for the decision at hand. By contrast, salience nudges will not be manipulative if they merely highlight some fact that is true and important for the decision at hand. The paper concludes by providing examples of both manipulative and nonmanipulative salience nudges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Manipulators for production and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Ian

    1987-01-01

    The development of caves or cells and master-slave manipulators to handle radioactive materials is discussed. Some of the most recent advances are described. A manipulator arm, a master-slave manipulator and a servomanipulator mounted on a manipulator are illustrated. Future developments are discussed - these include resolved tip control for the manipulator. (UK)

  20. A View of Causation for CSCW: Manipulation and Control in the Material Field of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Rune; Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we attempt to achieve a better understanding of how cooperative work is partly accomplished by virtue of the actors’ manipulation and control of causal relationships central to their material field of work. Previous CSCW studies have not focused extensively on causation in cooper...... in cooperative work (e.g. see Schmidt and Bannon 2013). Consequently, it is a challenge to find a conception of causation appropriate for the study of cooperative work. This chapter addresses this challenge....

  1. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... each other, their dilemmas, and their previous experience. This meant that they had each their perspective on ongoing praxis. Three observations from the collaboration in the control room are presented, one on stabilizing the function of an object, another on standardizing a procedure, and one...

  2. Powered manipulator control arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mouee, Theodore; Vertut, Jean; Marchal, Paul; Germon, J.C.; Petit, Michel

    1975-01-01

    A remote operated control arm for powered manipulators is described. It includes an assembly allowing several movements with position sensors for each movement. The number of possible arm movements equals the number of possible manipulator movements. The control systems may be interrupted as required. One part of the arm is fitted with a system to lock it with respect to another part of the arm without affecting the other movements, so long as the positions of the manipulator and the arm have not been brought into complete coincidence. With this system the locking can be ended when complete concordance is achieved [fr

  3. The direct manipulation shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.E.; Christiansen, M.

    1992-01-01

    Accelerator controls systems provide parameter display pages which allow the operator to monitor and manipulate selected control points in the system. Display pages are generally implemented as either hand-crafted, purpose-built programs; or by using a specialized display page layout tool. These two methods of display page development exhibit the classic trade-off between functionality vs. ease of implementation. In the Direct Manipulation Shell we approach the process of developing a display page in a manifestly object-oriented manner. This is done by providing a general framework for interactively instantiating and manipulating display objects. (author)

  4. Cooperating Internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    A number of college and university consortia have embarked on international educational cooperation ventures, providing valuable experiences and benefits for faculty, students, alumni, and the community. For these programs to be effective, they must have high-level institutional support, equal opportunities to participate, effective marketing and…

  5. Manipulating Strings in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This lesson is a brief introduction to string manipulation techniques in Python. Knowing how to manipulate strings plays a crucial role in most text processing tasks. If you’d like to experiment with the following lessons, you can write and execute short programs as we’ve been doing, or you can open up a Python shell / Terminal to try them out on the command line.

  6. Manipulation of choice behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco; Tyson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the problem of manipulation of choice behavior. In a class of two-stage models of decision making, with the agent's choices determined by three "psychological variables," we imagine that a subset of these variables can be selected by a "manipulator." To what extent does this confer control of the agent's behavior? Within the specified framework, which overlaps with two existing models of choice under cognitive constraints, we provide a complete answer to this question.

  7. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    In the contemporary world, engineers and designers face huge challenges as they shift towards novel organizational concepts such as ‘concurrent engineering’ in order to manage increasing product diversity so as to satisfy customer demands while trying to accelerate the design process to deal...... with the competitive realities of a global market and decreasing product life cycles. In this environment, the coordination and integration of the myriads of interdependent and yet distributed and concurrent design activities becomes enormously complex. It thus seems as if CSCW technologies may be indispensable...... if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...

  8. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  9. Manipulator gaiter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    A manipulator is described which comprises a throughtube and a slave arm which is provided with a retainer ring to retain a gaiter enclosing the slave arm while the manipulator is installed in a through-wall liner in a wall of a hot cell. The manipulator also incorporates a cam and spring-loaded pin arranged to push the toggle of the gaiter ring into its expanded position, clamped to the liner. The cam is operated by bending the slave arm relative to the throughtube. Since the gaiter is fitted over the slave arm before installation of the slave arm in the liner, the gaiter is less likely to be damaged or to be knocked out of the liner during installation. (author)

  10. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2014-01-01

    This book is a step-by step, example-oriented tutorial that will show both intermediate and advanced users how data manipulation is facilitated smoothly using R.This book is aimed at intermediate to advanced level users of R who want to perform data manipulation with R, and those who want to clean and aggregate data effectively. Readers are expected to have at least an introductory knowledge of R and some basic administration work in R, such as installing packages and calling them when required.

  11. ELECTRONIC MASTER SLAVE MANIPULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Thompson, Wm.M.; Olsen, R.A.

    1958-08-01

    A remote control manipulator is described in which the master and slave arms are electrically connected to produce the desired motions. A response signal is provided in the master unit in order that the operator may sense a feel of the object and may not thereby exert such pressures that would ordinarily damage delicate objects. This apparatus will permit the manipulation of objects at a great distance, that may be viewed over a closed TV circuit, thereby permitting a remote operator to carry out operations in an extremely dangerous area with complete safety.

  12. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    New control techniques for self contained, autonomous free flying space robots were developed and tested experimentally. Free flying robots are envisioned as a key element of any successful long term presence in space. These robots must be capable of performing the assembly, maintenance, and inspection, and repair tasks that currently require human extravehicular activity (EVA). A set of research projects were developed and carried out using lab models of satellite robots and a flexible manipulator. The second generation space robot models use air cushion vehicle (ACV) technology to simulate in 2-D the drag free, zero g conditions of space. The current work is divided into 5 major projects: Global Navigation and Control of a Free Floating Robot, Cooperative Manipulation from a Free Flying Robot, Multiple Robot Cooperation, Thrusterless Robotic Locomotion, and Dynamic Payload Manipulation. These projects are examined in detail.

  13. Environmental health disparities in housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David E

    2011-12-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing.

  14. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  15. Data manipulation with R

    CERN Document Server

    Abedin, Jaynal

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all those who wish to learn about data manipulation from scratch and excel at aggregating data effectively. It is expected that you have basic knowledge of R and have previously done some basic administration work with R.

  16. Automated visual attention manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Lambalgen, R. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Treur, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a system for visual attention manipulation is introduced and formally described. This system is part of the design of a software agent that supports naval crew in her task to compile a tactical picture of the situation in the field. A case study is described in hich the system is used

  17. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  18. Microrobots to Manipulate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    At DTU Fotonik we developed and harnessed the new and emerging research area of so-called Light Robotics including the 3D-printed micro-tools coined Wave-guided Optical Waveguides that can be real-time laser-manipulated in a 3D-volume with six-degrees-of-freedom. To be exploring the full potentia...

  19. Transboundary cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauber, D.

    2006-01-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants near national borders requires a close bilateral co-operation to cope with accidents having off-site radiological impacts. For example in 1978 such an agreement was signed by the German and Swiss government. The accident at the Chernobyl NPP changed the international co-operation in the framework of international consequence management. International conventions were agreed to insure a timely notification and international assistance in case of an accident with transboundary effects. In order to fulfill these conventions several procedures were introduced. In addition, bilateral agreements were signed also with countries which are not operating nuclear power plants near national borders. Since then no accident took place that would have required any notification. However, following the experience the expectations to these networks have changed considerably and hence sustainable development is required to cope with new challenges such as long term consequences management, new radiological threats, faster international assistance, media and public concerns, and technical evolution of communications systems. (author)

  20. Door breaching robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Erik; Parrington, Lawrence; von Muehlen, Stephan

    2008-04-01

    As unmanned systems become more commonplace in military, police, and other security forces, they are tasked to perform missions that the original hardware was not designed for. Current military robots are built for rough outdoor conditions and have strong inflexible manipulators designed to handle a wide range of operations. However, these manipulators are not well suited for some essential indoor tasks, including opening doors. This is a complicated kinematic task that places prohibitively difficult control challenges on the robot and the operator. Honeybee and iRobot have designed a modular door-breaching manipulator that mechanically simplifies the demands upon operator and robot. The manipulator connects to the existing robotic arm of the iRobot PackBot EOD. The gripper is optimized for grasping a variety of door knobs, levers, and car-door handles. It works in conjunction with a compliant wrist and magnetic lock-out mechanism that allows the wrist to remain rigid until the gripper has a firm grasp of the handle and then bend with its rotation and the swing of the door. Once the door is unlatched, the operator simply drives the robot through the doorway while the wrist compensates for the complex, multiple degree-of-freedom motion of the door. Once in the doorway the operator releases the handle, the wrist pops back into place, and the robot is ready for the next door. The new manipulator dramatically improves a robot's ability to non-destructively breach doors and perform an inspection of a room's content, a capability that was previously out of reach of unmanned systems.

  1. Robotic System Development for Cooperative Orthopedic Drilling Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabaskar Kasi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robotic bone drilling and screwing system for applications in orthopedic surgery. The goal is to realize two robot manipulators performing cooperative bone drilling. The proposed cooperative bone drilling system can be divided into hardware and software development. The hardware development section consists of two robot manipulator arms, which perform drilling and gripping of the bone, and operates using two joysticks. The software section assists the surgeon in visual and navigation control of those robot manipulators. Controller used in this system can be included in the hardware and software sections. Disturbance observer based position control was used in the robot manipulator maneuver and reposition controller (cooperative control was used in cooperative drilling operation to maintain the alignment of the drill bit during drilling. A mathematical model for the control system was designed and a real environment mimicking simulation for bone drilling was designed. The result of the simulation shows that the cooperative robot system managed to perform cooperative drilling when misalignment occurs during bone drilling. The bone gripping robot managed to restore the drill bit to its ideal alignment in every event of misalignment in the drilling axis. Therefore this cooperative system has potential application in experimental orthopedic surgery.

  2. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 Years in the United States ... Do To Address Disparities Community-wide Initiatives Preventing teen pregnancy: Remarkable progress for many teens, but challenges ...

  3. A universal microscope manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Boyadzhiev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified and improved model of a mechanical manipulator for observation of pinned and mounted insects is described. This device allows movement of the observed object around three perpendicular axes in the field of vision at all magnifications of stereomicroscopes. The main improvement of this new model is positioning of the guiding knobs for rotating around two of the axes next to each other, allowing faster and easier manipulation of the studied object. Thus, one of the main advantages of this device is the possibility to rotate the specimen without the need to refocus. The device enables easily reaching a precession deviation in the intersection point of axes up to 0.5 mm in the process of assembling.

  4. Manipulation of quantum evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan

    1994-01-01

    The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.

  5. Microradiographic microsphere manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, R.M.

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for radiographic characterization of small hollow spherical members (microspheres), constructed of either optically transparent or opaque materials. The apparatus involves a microsphere manipulator which holds a batch of microspheres between two parallel thin plastic films for contact microradiographic characterization or projection microradiography thereof. One plastic film is translated relative to and parallel to the other to roll the microspheres through any desired angle to allow different views of the microspheres.

  6. MANIPULATOR FOR SLAVE ROBOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Grimson, J.H.; Kohut, F.A.

    1961-04-01

    A remote-control manipulator comprising two stationary master units, two slave units on a movable vehicle, and electrical connections between the master and slave units is reported. The slave units are side by side with a minimum over-all width, which is made feasible by an arrangement of transducers producing most movements of each slave unit to one side of the support of said slave unit.

  7. Manipulator type book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Manipulators and similar equipment operated by personnel constitute one of the two major branches of handling technology besides program controlled units (industrial robots and feeding machines). Despite the widespread use of remote handling equipment in nuclear engineering, its growing importance and increasing application also in other areas, a comprehensive treatment of the field has so far been missing. This gap is now filled with the manipulator type book. The bulk of the volume is reserved to remote handling equipment for nuclear purposes available in the international market. However, the survey would be incomplete, also for potential interactions, without manipulators now used also for purposes other than nuclear technology, and without a reference to experimental units and developments which may be assumed to reach practical application one day. This book has been written to help all those who are involved in remote handling technology in one way or the other - plant designers, public authorities and users of such equipment. The text is printed both in German and English for the benefit of foreign readers. A standardized language is proposed to improve communication. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Automatic Guidance for Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Position sensor and mirror guides manipulator toward object. Grasping becomes automatic when sensor begins to receive signal from reflector on object to be manipulated. Light-emitting diodes on manipulator produce light signals for reflector, which is composite of plane and corner reflectors. Proposed scheme especially useful when manipulator arm tends to flex or when object is moving. Sensor and microprocessor designed to compensate for manipulatorarm oscillation.

  9. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-01-01

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D and D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the

  10. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research

  11. Using Manipulatives in Math Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, Eileen S.

    1987-01-01

    Guidelines for teachers to better use manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics to learning disabled learners are offered including a rationale for manipulatives, selection crteria, principles underlying productive use of manipulatives, and making the transition from the concrete to the symbolic. Suggested materials and distributors are listed.…

  12. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisich, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  13. Assessing the manipulative potentials of monkeys, apes and humans from hand proportions: implications for hand evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Hu, Di

    2016-11-30

    The hand structure possesses a greater potential for performing manipulative skills than is typically observed, whether in humans or non-human anthropoids. However, a precise assessment of the potential manipulative skills of hands has been challenging, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of manipulative abilities in anthropoid hands. Here, we establish a functional model to quantitatively infer the manipulative potentials of anthropoid hands based on hand proportions. Our results reveal a large disparity of manipulative potentials among anthropoid hands. From the aspect of hand proportions, the human hand has the best manipulative potential among anthropoids. However, the species with a manipulative potential closer to that of humans are not our nearest relatives, chimpanzees, but rather, are certain monkey species. In combination with the phylogenetically informed morphometric analyses, our results suggest that the morphological changes of non-human anthropoid hands did not coevolve with the brain to facilitate the manipulative ability during the evolutionary process, although the manipulative ability is a survival skill. The changes in non-human anthropoid hands may have more likely evolved under selective pressure for locomotion than manipulation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  15. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  16. Master/slave manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxmoore, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    For detecting a fault in a flexible gaiter enclosing the slave arm of a master/slave manipulator used in the nuclear industry, valve means comprising oppositely acting non-return valves are arranged in the wall of the gaiter. On extension and retraction of the slave arm the valves operate to equalise pressure differences at opposite sides of the gaiter. Failure of the valves to function during extension and retraction of the slave arm can indicate a fault, such as a tear, in the gaiter. (author)

  17. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  18. Manipulating structured light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4579 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10/10/2016 1 Manipulating Structured... The City College of New York, New York, USA 5 July 2016 We are tied together by Structured Light Classical Quantum Resonators TweezingFibres Structured Light 10/10/2016 2 Bright Dark Reference beam Hologram Object Light reflected from object Conventional...

  19. Performance measurement of mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostelman, Roger; Hong, Tsai; Marvel, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a concept for measuring the reproducible performance of mobile manipulators to be used for assembly or other similar tasks. An automatic guided vehicle with an onboard robot arm was programmed to repeatedly move to and stop at a novel, reconfigurable mobile manipulator artifact (RMMA), sense the RMMA, and detect targets on the RMMA. The manipulator moved a laser retroreflective sensor to detect small reflectors that can be reconfigured to measure various manipulator positions and orientations (poses). This paper describes calibration of a multi-camera, motion capture system using a 6 degree-of-freedom metrology bar and then using the camera system as a ground truth measurement device for validation of the reproducible mobile manipulator's experiments and test method. Static performance measurement of a mobile manipulator using the RMMA has proved useful for relatively high tolerance pose estimation and other metrics that support standard test method development for indexed and dynamic mobile manipulator applications.

  20. An analysis of interpersonal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligman, M; Culver, C M

    1992-04-01

    The term 'manipulation' is frequently employed but rarely discussed or defined in psychiatric circles. This paper reviews previous conceptual analyses of the term by philosophers and psychiatrists, and examines its use in ordinary discourse. A series of characteristics which comprise the conceptual core of the term when it is unambiguously applied in interpersonal settings are proposed. Manipulation is contrasted with other behavior control methods such as rational persuasion and coercion, with emphasis on the role played by deception and the communicative context in which the manipulative transaction occurs. It is argued that manipulative behavior is fundamentally intentional, and the usefulness of the concept of 'unconscious manipulation' is questioned. Though the proposal that Manipulative Personality Disorder be formally recognized as a new diagnostic category is rejected, it is urged that the concept of manipulation receive wider attention and discussion within the mental health community.

  1. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  2. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  3. Characteristics of manipulative in mathematics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiandaru, A.; Istihapsari, V.; Prahmana, R. C. I.; Setyawan, F.; Hendroanto, A.

    2017-12-01

    A manipulative is a teaching aid designed such that students could understand mathematical concepts by manipulating it. This article aims to provide an insight to the characteristics of manipulatives produced in the mathematics laboratory of Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Indonesia. A case study was conducted to observe the existing manipulatives produced during the latest three years and classified the manipulatives based on the characteristics found. There are four kinds of manipulatives: constructivism manipulative, virtual manipulative, informative manipulative, and game-based manipulative. Each kinds of manipulative has different characteristics and impact towards the mathematics learning.

  4. Social manipulation in nonhuman primates: Cognitive and motivational determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, C J; Rossano, F; Call, J

    2017-11-01

    Social interactions are the result of individuals' cooperative and competitive tendencies expressed over an extended period of time. Although social manipulation, i.e., using another individual to achieve one's own goals, is a crucial aspect of social interactions, there has been no comprehensive attempt to differentiate its various types and to map its cognitive and motivational determinants. For this purpose, we survey in this article the experimental literature on social interactions in nonhuman primates. We take social manipulation, illustrated by a case study with orangutans (Pongo abelii), as our starting point and move in two directions. First, we will focus on a flexibility/sociality axis that includes technical problem solving, social tool-use and communication. Second, we will focus on a motivational/prosociality axis that includes exploitation, cooperation, and helping. Combined, the two axes offer a way to capture a broad range of social interactions performed by human and nonhuman primates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooperatives, Principles and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaars, Marvin A.

    A teaching aid and information source on activities, principles, and practices of cooperatives is presented. The following topics are included: (1) Basic Interests of People, (2) Legal Organization of Business in the United States, (3) What Is a Cooperative? (4) Procedure for Organizing Cooperatives, (5) How Cooperatives Are Run and Managed, (6)…

  6. Media and manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Braco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the media are huge, both in everyday life and in cultural, spiritual and political life of modern man. Their power in the sense of political shaping of people and shaping of public opinion is very distinctive. In the process of propaganda to influence public opinion, they use various manipulative procedures in order to accomplish certain interests and objectives. Through the media, politics realizes its economic, ideological, political and even military activities. The war in the former Yugoslavia and former Bosnia and Herzegovina was also waged through the media. This media war still is spreading the hate speech, thus still causing conflicts and disintegration processes in the Balkans.

  7. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  8. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  9. Manipulation et information fictionnelle

    OpenAIRE

    Dufiet, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    Le 13 décembre 2006, la Radio Télévision Belge Francophone (RTBF) annonçait, dans un vrai journal télévisé spécial, la fausse nouvelle que la Flandre venait de déclarer son indépendance. Par l’analyse des caractéristiques du journal télévisé, l’auteur décrypte le rapport entre mise en scène linguistique et sémiotique d’une part, et manipulation médiatique d’autre part. On December 13, 2006, Radio Télévision Belge Francophone (RTBF) interrupted its regular programming with a special bulleti...

  10. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    can identify and then work with one another. Changes to parameters that would seem to make cooperation more attractive, such as an increase in the discount factor or the fraction of conditional cooperators, can reduce equilibrium cooperation if they decrease a selfish player's incentive to sort.......This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  11. Cooperative interval games

    OpenAIRE

    Bok, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we study cooperative interval games, a generalized model of cooperative games in which worth of every coalition corresponds with a closed interval representing all possible outcomes of their cooperation. We give a brief introduction into classical cooperative games, interval analysis and finally introduction to cooperative interval games with focus on selections, that is on all possible outcomes of interval game with no additional uncertainty. We introduce new selection-based ...

  12. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  13. The Manipulative Discourse of Gandalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to investigate discursive, cognitive and social aspects of manipulation in regard to the dialogues of the literary fictional character of Gandalf in the trilogy of The Lord of the Rings. Accordingly, the researcher has taken a multidisciplinary approach to an account of discursive manipulation, and focuses on the cognitive dimensions of manipulation. As a result, the researcher demonstrates meticulously how manipulation involves intensifying the power, moral superiority and the credibility of the speaker(s, while abusing the others (recipients, along with an emotional and attractive way of expression, and supplemented by reasonable facts and documents in regard to a specific issue.

  14. Quality of Care and Disparities in Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Growing attention is being paid to obstetric quality of care as patients are pressing the health care system to measure and improve quality. There is also an increasing recognition of persistent racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in obstetric outcomes. Yet few studies have linked obstetric quality of care with racial and ethnic disparities. This article reviews definitions of quality of care, health disparities, and health equity as they relate to obstetric care and outcomes; describes current efforts and challenges in obstetric quality measurement; and proposes 3 steps in an effort to develop, track, and improve quality and reduce disparities in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  16. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  17. Bridging the gap: global disparity processing in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, Benoit R; McKee, Suzanne P; Norcia, Anthony M

    2012-05-01

    The human stereoscopic system is remarkable in its ability to utilize widely separated features as references to support fine depth discrimination. In a search for possible neural substrates of this ability, we recorded high-density EEG and used a distributed inverse technique to estimate population-level disparity responses in five regions of interest (ROIs): V1, V3A, hMT+, V4, and lateral occipital complex (LOC). The stimulus was a central modulating disk surrounded by a correlated "reference" annulus presented in the fixation plane. We varied a gap separating the disk from the annulus parametrically from 0 to 5.5° as a test of long-range disparity integration. In the V1, LOC, and hMT+ ROIs, the responses with gaps >0.5° were equal to those obtained in a control condition where the surround was composed of uncorrelated noise (no reference). By contrast, in the V4 and V3A ROIs, responses with gaps as large as 5.5° were still significantly higher than the control. As a test of the spatial distribution of the disparity reference information, we manipulated the properties of the stimulus by placing noise between the center and the surround or throughout the surround. The V3A ROI was particularly sensitive to disparity noise between the center and annulus regions, suggesting an important contribution of disparity edge detectors in this ROI.

  18. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  19. Disparate subcellular location of putative sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Johann; Shaw, Helen A; Wren, Brendan W; Fairweather, Neil F

    2017-08-23

    Clostridium difficile is a gastrointestinal pathogen but how the bacterium colonises this niche is still little understood. Sortase enzymes covalently attach specific bacterial proteins to the peptidoglycan cell wall and are often involved in colonisation by pathogens. Here we show C. difficile proteins CD2537 and CD3392 are functional substrates of sortase SrtB. Through manipulation of the C-terminal regions of these proteins we show the SPKTG motif is essential for covalent attachment to the cell wall. Two additional putative substrates, CD0183 which contains an SPSTG motif, and CD2768 which contains an SPQTG motif, are not cleaved or anchored to the cell wall by sortase. Finally, using an in vivo asymmetric cleavage assay, we show that despite containing a conserved SPKTG motif, in the absence of SrtB these proteins are localised to disparate cellular compartments.

  20. Tele-Manipulation with Two Asymmetric Slaves: Two Operators Perform Better Than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oosterhout, Jeroen; Heemskerk, Cock J M; de Baar, Marco R; van der Helm, Frans C T; Abbink, David A

    2018-01-01

    Certain tele-manipulation tasks require manipulation by two asymmetric slaves, for example, a crane for hoisting and a dexterous robotic arm for fine manipulation. It is unclear how to best design human-in-the-loop control over two asymmetric slaves. The goal of this paper is to quantitatively compare the standard approach of two co-operating operators that each control a single subtask, to a single operator performing bi-manual control over the two subtasks, and a uni-manual control approach. In a human factors experiment, participants performed a heavy load maneuvering and mounting task using a vertical crane and a robotic arm. We hypothesize that bi-manual control yields worse task performance and control activity compared to co-operation, because of conflicting spatial and temporal constraints. Literature suggests that uni-manual operators should perform better than co-operation, as co-operators critically depend on each other's actions. However, other literature provides evidence that individual operators have limited capabilities in controlling asymmetric axes of two dynamic systems. The results show that the two co-operators perform the maneuvering and mounting task faster than either bi- or uni-manual operators. Compared to co-operators, uni-manual operators required more control activity for the vertical crane and less for the robotic arm. In conclusion, this study suggests that when controlling two asymmetric slaves, a co-operating pair of operators performs better than a single operator.

  1. Smart Hand For Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Paolo

    1987-10-01

    Sensor based, computer controlled end effectors for mechanical arms are receiving more and more attention in the robotics industry, because commonly available grippers are only adequate for simple pick and place tasks. This paper describes the current status of the research at JPL on a smart hand for a Puma 560 robot arm. The hand is a self contained, autonomous system, capable of executing high level commands from a supervisory computer. The mechanism consists of parallel fingers, powered by a DC motor, and controlled by a microprocessor embedded in the hand housing. Special sensors are integrated in the hand for measuring the grasp force of the fingers, and for measuring forces and torques applied between the arm and the surrounding environment. Fingers can be exercised under position, velocity and force control modes. The single-chip microcomputer in the hand executes the tasks of communication, data acquisition and sensor based motor control, with a sample cycle of 2 ms and a transmission rate of 9600 baud. The smart hand described in this paper represents a new development in the area of end effector design because of its multi-functionality and autonomy. It will also be a versatile test bed for experimenting with advanced control schemes for dexterous manipulation.

  2. Stud manipulating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyan, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    A device for inserting and removing studs from bores in a workpiece, for example a nuclear reactor vessel, comprises manipulating devices for operating on individual studs, each capable of tensioning a stud slackening a working nut on the stud, and subsequently removing the stud from the bore. A ring has dogs which can engage working nut recesses to interlock with the nut against relative rotation. Motors coupled to the ring rotate the working nut. A top nut is coupled to the motors to rotate the nut and screw it onto the stud. The top nut with other device parts can be raised and lowered on a tube by a hydraulic actuator. A hydraulic load cell between the top nut and a stool on the workpiece is pressurised to tension the stud by means of the top nut and thus facilitate rotation of the working nut when tightening or slackening. A dog clutch mechanism engages a stud end fitting against relative axial and rotational movement. The mechanism is raised and lowered on a guide member by an actuator. The mechanism has a tubular member and the drive coupling for the motors to the top nut includes a tubular member. Tubular members carry teeth which are engaged when the top nut is raised and the clutch mechanism is lowered, to provide a coupling between the motors and the mechanism for rotating the stud. (U.K.)

  3. Image Manipulation: Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Ronald E.

    The images of photography have been manipulated almost from the moment of their discovery. The blending together in the studio and darkroom of images not found in actual scenes from life has been a regular feature of modern photography in both art and advertising. Techniques of photograph manipulation include retouching; blocking out figures or…

  4. Advanced teleoperators. [remote manipulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced teleoperators are discussed, with emphasis on the remote manipulation system designed to perform such actions as grasping, orienting, moving, placing, and inserting objects. Geometrical performance dimensions are considered, indicating that a manipulator is limited to three-orders-of-magnitude ratio of workspace extension to positioning accuracy. The control system is examined, showing that a manipulative task requires coordination of several joints, with the relationship between the task definers and the joint variables given by complex trigonometrical transformations. Control modes developed in the last 30 years are noted, including program controlled industrial 'robots' which can endlessly repeat a fixed sequence of motions without operator intervention, and the sensor-referenced/computer-controlled mode manipulators. Advanced proximity sensor systems are taken into account, with emphasis on the applications of the force-torque and slip models. The proximity sensor system for the shuttle-size manipulator is described.

  5. Why the WTA - WTP disparity matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Thomas C.; Gregory R.

    1999-01-01

    The disparity between willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) has been demonstrated repeatedly. Because using WTP estimates of value where a WTA estimate is appropriate tends to undervalue environmental assets, this issue is important to environmental managers. We summarize reasons for the disparity and then discuss some of the...

  6. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  7. School Discipline Disparities: Lessons and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    In this brief, recent actions related to school discipline, discipline disparities in schools, the school-to-prison pipeline, and the added costs of suspending students in the U.S. are explored. The recommendations offered focus on how school leaders and policy makers can address disparities and how school cultures can be changed to reduce the…

  8. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection procedure... upon members of a race, sex, or ethnic group where other employees, applicants, or members have not...

  9. Kinematics and control algorithm development and simulation for a redundant two-arm robotic manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael P.; Huang, Paul C.; Bunnell, Charles T.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient approach to cartesian motion and force control of a 7 degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator is presented. It is based on extending the active stiffness controller to the 7 DOF case in general and use of an efficient version of the gradient projection technique for solving the inverse kinematics problem. Cooperative control is achieved through appropriate configuration of individual manipulator controllers. In addition, other aspects of trajectory generation using standard techniques are integrated into the controller. The method is then applied to a specific manipulator of interest (Robotics Research T-710). Simulation of the kinematics, dynamics, and control are provided in the context of several scenarios: one pertaining to a noncontact pick and place operation; one relating to contour following where contact is made between the manipulator and environment; and one pertaining to cooperative control.

  10. Regional economic disparities in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Bonet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances the analysis of regional income convergence inColombia, through the use of the income data recently estimated for the departments,the main subnational political units. The results show a polarization process betweenBogotá and the rest of the departments. The preponderance of Bogotá during the periodanalyzed is also discussed: its per capita income is more than double that of thenational average, and more than eight times the per capita income of the poorest department,Chocó. Persistence in the departmental per capita income ranking is observed:Bogotá is always ahead, while the departments in the periphery are in the last places.The findings lead to the conclusion that it is necessary to design policies to correctthe significant disparities in per capita income between Colombian regions.

  11. Disparity filtering: proximity detection and segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, David; Horswill, Ian; von Kaenel, Peter

    1992-11-01

    Simple stereo disparity filters can provide `proximity detectors' shaped like concave shells in front of the observer. Ideally, these are isodisparity surfaces. In practice, a narrowly tuned filter results in a thin shell. The special case of the zero-disparity surface is called the horopter. A disparity filter can also be useful for distinguishing an object that lies on an isodisparity surface from its surroundings. These filters are much less expensive than stereographic scene interpretation since they are local operations. Similarly, they are also less general. We analyze the expected proximity sensitivity of one simple version of the disparity filter and compare this to its empirical performance. We also present some feature based and correlation based disparity filters and compare their `segmentation' performance on various scenes.

  12. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  13. Organizational cooperation in teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2005-01-01

    Teleradiology requires cooperation between participating parties, but it cannot be assumed that such cooperation will work well. A survey was carried out of 12 radiology departments in Norway which used picture archiving and communication systems in connection with teleradiology. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 26 out of 29 resource persons (response rate 90%). The respondents identified 17 issues of importance for cooperation in teleradiology. None of the problems with cooperation seem large enough to prevent effective teleradiology cooperation in future. For organizations planning teleradiology of a larger volume, the cooperation issue is important. It is recommended that managers lead change processes in their organizations where the different issues of importance to cooperation are treated and the right measures are taken to realize the full potential of teleradiology. For telemedicine, it is important that future research includes investigations on cooperation for the different applications.

  14. Direct Manipulation in Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Reality interfaces offer several advantages for scientific visualization such as the ability to perceive three-dimensional data structures in a natural way. The focus of this chapter is direct manipulation, the ability for a user in virtual reality to control objects in the virtual environment in a direct and natural way, much as objects are manipulated in the real world. Direct manipulation provides many advantages for the exploration of complex, multi-dimensional data sets, by allowing the investigator the ability to intuitively explore the data environment. Because direct manipulation is essentially a control interface, it is better suited for the exploration and analysis of a data set than for the publishing or communication of features found in that data set. Thus direct manipulation is most relevant to the analysis of complex data that fills a volume of three-dimensional space, such as a fluid flow data set. Direct manipulation allows the intuitive exploration of that data, which facilitates the discovery of data features that would be difficult to find using more conventional visualization methods. Using a direct manipulation interface in virtual reality, an investigator can, for example, move a data probe about in space, watching the results and getting a sense of how the data varies within its spatial volume.

  15. Man-machine cooperation in remote handling for fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinemann, K.

    1984-01-01

    Man-machine cooperation in remote handling for fusion plants comprises cooperation for design of equipment and planning of procedures using a CAD system, and cooperation during operation of the equipment with computer aided telemanipulation systems (CAT). This concept is presently being implemented for support of slave positioning, camera tracking, and camera alignment in the KfK manipulator test facility. The pilot implementation will be used to test various man-machine interface layouts, and to establish a set of basic buildings blocks for future implementations of advanced remote handling control systems. (author)

  16. What is a cooperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberly Zeuli

    2006-01-01

    Groups of individuals throughout time have worked together in pursuit of common goals. The earliest forms of hunting and agriculture required a great deal of cooperation among humans. Although the word "cooperative" can be applied to many different types of group activities, in this publication it refers to a formal business model. Cooperative businesses are...

  17. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  18. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  19. Commercialization of JPL Virtual Reality calibration and redundant manipulator control technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won S.; Seraji, Homayoun; Fiorini, Paolo; Brown, Robert; Christensen, Brian; Beale, Chris; Karlen, James; Eismann, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA's recent thrust for industrial collaboration, JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) has recently established two technology cooperation agreements in the robotics area: one on virtual reality (VR) calibration with Deneb Robotics, Inc., and the other on redundant manipulator control with Robotics Research Corporation (RRC). These technology transfer cooperation tasks will enable both Deneb and RRC to commercialize enhanced versions of their products that will greatly benefit both space and terrestrial telerobotic applications.

  20. Analysis of Disparity Error for Stereo Autofocus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Shao-Kang; Shih, Kuang-Tsu; Chen, Homer H

    2018-04-01

    As more and more stereo cameras are installed on electronic devices, we are motivated to investigate how to leverage disparity information for autofocus. The main challenge is that stereo images captured for disparity estimation are subject to defocus blur unless the lenses of the stereo cameras are at the in-focus position. Therefore, it is important to investigate how the presence of defocus blur would affect stereo matching and, in turn, the performance of disparity estimation. In this paper, we give an analytical treatment of this fundamental issue of disparity-based autofocus by examining the relation between image sharpness and disparity error. A statistical approach that treats the disparity estimate as a random variable is developed. Our analysis provides a theoretical backbone for the empirical observation that, regardless of the initial lens position, disparity-based autofocus can bring the lens to the hill zone of the focus profile in one movement. The insight gained from the analysis is useful for the implementation of an autofocus system.

  1. Cooperative strategies European perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Killing, J Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cooperative Strategies: European Perspectives is one of three geographically targeted volumes in which the contributors present the most current research on topics such as advances in theories of cooperative strategies, the formation of cooperative alliances, the dynamics of partner relationships, and the role of information and knowledge in cooperative alliances. Blending conceptual insights with empirical analyses, the contributors highlight commonalities and differences across national, cultural, and trade zones. The chapters in this volume are anchored in a wide set of theoretical approaches, conceptual frameworks, and models, illustrating how rich the area of cooperative strategies is for scholarly inquiry.

  2. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper investiga......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the interdisciplinary research field Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM), with an emphasis on physical implementations and applications. Design/methodology/approach - Following an introduction to AIMM, this paper......; sustainability, configuration, adaptation, autonomy, positioning, manipulation and grasping, robot-robot interaction, human-robot interaction, process quality, dependability, and physical properties. Findings - The concise yet comprehensive review provides both researchers (academia) and practitioners (industry...... Manipulation (AIMM)....

  3. Computational simulator of robotic manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Alexandre S.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Robotic application for industrial plants is discussed and a computational model for a mechanical manipulator of three links is presented. A neural network feed-forward type has been used to model the dynamic control of the manipulator. A graphic interface was developed in C programming language as a virtual world in order to visualize and simulate the arm movements handling radioactive waste environment. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  4. Manipulating scattering features by metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review on manipulations of electromagnetic scattering features by using metamaterials or metasurfaces. Several approaches in controlling the scattered fields of objects are presented, including invisibility cloaks and radar illusions based on transformation optics, carpet cloak using gradient metamaterials, dc cloaks, mantle cloaks based on scattering cancellation, “skin” cloaks using phase compensation, scattering controls with coding/programmable metasurfaces, and scattering reductions by multilayered structures. Finally, the future development of metamaterials on scattering manipulation is predicted.

  5. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... divers theoretical and conceptual frameworks to study collective action with a human ecosystem approach and develop one with a stronger anthropological reference....

  6. Conquering racial disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Earnestine; McManus, Patricia; Magallanes, Norma; Johnson, Sheri; Majnik, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR) is a reference indicator for societal health status. Trend analysis of IMR highlights 2 challenges to overcome in the United States: (1) US IMR is higher than most industrialized countries and (2) there are persistent racial/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes, especially for blacks. Racial/ethnic infant mortality disparities result from the complex interplay of adverse social, economic, and environmental exposures. In this article, racial/ethnic disparities are discussed, highlighting trends, the role of epigenetics in understanding mechanisms, key domains of community action planning, and programs and policies addressing the racial gaps in adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L.

    2004-01-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora. PMID:15101675

  8. Addressing Health Care Disparities Among Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Oranuba, Ebele; Werts, Niya; Edwards, Lorece V

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence of health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual populations. Although the focus of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health research has been human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men, there are health disparities among sexual minority women. Using the minority stress framework, these disparities may in part be caused by individual prejudice, social stigma, and discrimination. To ensure equitable health for all, there is urgent need for targeted culturally sensitive health promotion, cultural sensitivity training for health care providers, and intervention-focused research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic Architecture for a Mobile Manipulator

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Aviles; Mauricio Felipe Mauledoux Monroy; Oscar Rubiano

    2018-01-01

    A mobile manipulator is a robotic system consisting of a mobile platform on which a manipulator arm is mounted, allowing the robotic system to perform locomotion and manipulation tasks simultaneously. A mobile manipulator has several advantages over a robot manipulator which is fixed, the main advantage is a larger workspace. The robots manipulators are oriented to work collaboratively with the human being in tasks that simultaneously require mobility and ability to interact with the environm...

  10. National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Disparities Research Partnership Program: Experience and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S. L. Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To increase access of underserved/health disparities communities to National Cancer Institute (NCI clinical trials, the Radiation Research Program (RRP piloted a unique model - the Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP program. CDRP targeted community hospitals with a limited past NCI funding history and provided funding to establish the infrastructure for their clinical research program.Methods: Initially, 5-year planning phase funding was awarded to six CDRP institutions through a cooperative agreement (U56. Five were subsequently eligible to compete for 5-year implementation phase (U54 funding and three received a second award. Additionally, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities supported their U56 Patient Navigation programs.Results: Community-based hospitals with little or no clinical trials experience required at least a year to develop the infrastructure and establish community outreach/education and Patient Navigation programs before accrual to clinical trials could begin. Once established, CDRP sites increased their yearly patient accrual mainly to NCI-sponsored cooperative group trials (~60% and Principal Investigator (PI/mentor-initiated trials (~30%. The total number of patients accrued on all types of trials was 2,371, while 5,147 patients received navigation services. Conclusions: Despite a historical gap in participation in clinical cancer research, underserved communities are willing/eager to participate. Since a limited number of cooperative group trials address locally advanced diseases seen in health disparities populations, this shortcoming needs to be rectified. Sustainability for these programs remains a challenge. Addressing these gaps through research and public health mechanisms may have an important impact on their health, scientific progress and efforts to increase diversity in NCI clinical trials.

  11. Electronic Architecture for a Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Aviles

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A mobile manipulator is a robotic system consisting of a mobile platform on which a manipulator arm is mounted, allowing the robotic system to perform locomotion and manipulation tasks simultaneously. A mobile manipulator has several advantages over a robot manipulator which is fixed, the main advantage is a larger workspace. The robots manipulators are oriented to work collaboratively with the human being in tasks that simultaneously require mobility and ability to interact with the environment through the manipulation of objects. This article will present the electronic design for a mobile robot manipulator with five degrees of freedom and a 6-wheel traction with four of these directional.

  12. Forming and Dissolving Partnerships in Cooperative Game Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platz, Trine Tornøe; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    A group of players in a cooperative game are partners (e.g., as in the form of a union or a joint ownership) if the prospects for cooperation are restricted such that cooperation with players outside the partnership requires the accept of all the partners. The formation of such partnerships through...... of the grand coalition among players, is called partnership formation-proof if it ensures that it is never jointly profitable for any group of players to form a partnership and partnership dissolution-proof if no group can ever profit from dissolving a partnership. The paper provides results on the existence...... binding agreements may change the game implying that players could have incentives to manipulate a game by forming or dissolving partnerships. The present paper seeks to explore the existence of allocation rules that are immune to this type of manipulation. An allocation rule that distributes the worth...

  13. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Sørensen, Jesper; Nielbo, Kristoffer L; Andersen, Marc; Lienard, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  14. Collective-goal ascription increases cooperation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Mitkidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is necessary in many types of human joint activity and relations. Evidence suggests that cooperation has direct and indirect benefits for the cooperators. Given how beneficial cooperation is overall, it seems relevant to investigate the various ways of enhancing individuals' willingness to invest in cooperative endeavors. We studied whether ascription of a transparent collective goal in a joint action promotes cooperation in a group. METHODS: A total of 48 participants were assigned in teams of 4 individuals to either a "transparent goal-ascription" or an "opaque goal-ascription" condition. After the manipulation, the participants played an anonymous public goods game with another member of their team. We measured the willingness of participants to cooperate and their expectations about the other player's contribution. RESULTS: Between subjects analyses showed that transparent goal ascription impacts participants' likelihood to cooperate with each other in the future, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. Further analysis showed that this could be explained with a change in expectations about the partner's behavior and by an emotional alignment of the participants. CONCLUSION: The study found that a transparent goal ascription is associated with an increase of cooperation. We propose several high-level mechanisms that could explain the observed effect: general affect modulation, trust, expectation and perception of collective efficacy.

  15. How verbal and spatial manipulation networks contribute to calculation: An fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, L.; Petit, L.; Turbelin, M.R.; Anderson, F.; Vigneau, M.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Univ Paris 05, Univ Caen Basse Normandie, CEA, DSV, CNRS, CI NAPSUMR 6232, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The manipulation of numbers required during calculation is known to rely on working memory (WM) resources. Here, we investigated the respective contributions of verbal and/or spatial WM manipulation brain networks during the addition of four numbers performed by adults, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both manipulation and maintenance tasks were proposed with syllables, locations, or two-digit numbers. As compared to their maintenance, numbers manipulation (addition) elicited increased activation within a widespread cortical network including inferior temporal, parietal, and prefrontal regions. Our results demonstrate that mastery of arithmetic calculation requires the cooperation of three WM manipulation systems: an executive manipulation system conjointly recruited by the three manipulation tasks, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the caudate nuclei; a left-lateralized, language-related, inferior fronto-temporal system elicited by numbers and syllables manipulation tasks required for retrieval, selection, and association of symbolic information; and a right superior and posterior fronto-parietal system elicited by numbers and locations manipulation tasks for spatial WM and attentional processes. Our results provide new information that the anterior intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) is involved in tasks requiring a magnitude processing with symbolic (numbers) and non-symbolic (locations) stimuli. Furthermore, the specificity of arithmetic processing is mediated by a left-hemispheric specialization of the anterior and posterior parts of the IPS as compared to a spatial task involving magnitude processing with non-symbolic material. (authors)

  16. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Leichliter, Jami S

    2008-12-01

    Social determinants of health play an important role in sexually transmitted disease (STD) transmission and acquisition; consequently, racial and ethnic disparities among social determinants are influences upon disparities in STD rates. In this narrative review, we outline a general model showing the relationship between social determinants and STD outcomes, mediated by epidemiologic context. We then review 4 specific social determinants relevant to STD disparities: segregation, health care, socioeconomics and correctional experiences, followed by 2 facets of the resultant epidemiologic context: core areas and sexual networks. This review shows that disparities exist among the social determinants and that they are related to each other, as well as to core areas, sexual networks, and STD rates. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for STD prevention and control with particular attention to STD program collaboration and service integration.

  17. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    The Agency for Healthcare Research Quality commissioned the Institute of Medicine establish a committee to provide guidance on the National Healthcare Disparities Report is of access to health care...

  18. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  19. REGIONAL DISPARITIES – HISTORICAL CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the issue of regional disparities has become a highly debated topic, knowledge regarding regional disparities being a matter of political priority as their persistence hinders the appropriate integration process. On the other hand, emphasis was put on integration through the process of EU enlargement, thus highlighting other issues related to the nature and size of disparities. Regional disparities regarding development and the living standards of the population have long been the concern of all Member States. In the case of Romania, recently admitted into the European structures, registering large backlogs to economically developed countries, the intense mobilization of internal and external factors of economic growth in order to reduce and eliminate disparities compared to other countries, represents a clear necessity. The "European Union" (EU project is of an unprecedented complexity and scale because it involves a plurality of states, which are culturally and economically heterogeneous. Moreover, these economic and cultural differences exist even within the states. Hence, there is also the central idea of the Union, regarding unity in diversity. In Romania the local, regional communities have a strong identity, but still evolving. Taking into account Romania's objective of successfully integrating into European structures, and the principles of democratic decision-making requires that regional development should aim at reducing economic and social disparities based on a notable involvement of the local, regional communities. Based on these facts, the paper aims to present the current regional (and intra-regional disparities in Romania with regard to a number of synthetic indicators of capital, of labor and of outcomes. The persistence in time of these economic disparities can be explained by considering the cultural legacies – represented by norms, values, institutions, that impact on how people interact, communicate

  20. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs

  1. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  2. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  3. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  4. Supporting Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Fractions through Co-Designing a Virtual Manipulative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Alice; Mavrikis, Manolis; Geraniou, Eirini

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the impact that co-designing a virtual manipulative, Fractions Lab, had on teachers' professional development. Tapping into an existing community of practice of mathematics specialist teachers, the study identifies how a cooperative enquiry approach utilising workshops and school-based visits challenged 23 competent primary…

  5. Distributed Synchronization Control to Trajectory Tracking of Multiple Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Bouteraa

    2011-01-01

    while tracking a common desired trajectory. Based on the well-known consensus algorithm, the control strategy consists in synchronizing the joint position and the velocity of each robot in the network with respect to neighboring robots' joints and velocities. Modeled by an undirected graph, the cooperative robot network requires just local neighbor-to-neighbor information exchange between manipulators. So, it does not assume the existence of an explicit leader in the team. Based above all on combination of Lyapunov direct method and cross-coupling strategy, the proposed decentralized control law is extended to an adaptive synchronization control taking into account parameter uncertainties. To address the time delay problems in the network communication channels, the suggested synchronization control law robustly synchronizes robots to track a given trajectory. To this end, Krasovskii functional method has been used to deal with the delay-dependent stability problem. A real-time software simulator is developed to visualize the robot manipulators coordination.

  6. Learning Area and Perimeter with Virtual Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily; Flanagan, Sara; Bouck, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Manipulatives are considered a best practice for educating students with disabilities, but little research exists which examines virtual manipulatives as tool for supporting students in mathematics. This project investigated the use of a virtual manipulative through the National Library of Virtual Manipulatives--polynominoes (i.e., tiles)--as a…

  7. Virtual Manipulatives in the K-12 Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Bolyard, Johnna J.; Spikell, Mark A.

    Innovations in technology, along with the growing prevalence of the Internet and its increasing availability in classrooms and homes throughout the world, have created a new class of manipulatives, virtual manipulatives. These "virtual manipulatives" offer a new, enhanced approach for teaching and learning mathematics using manipulatives and…

  8. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  9. Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . The coding algorithm is based on bit-plane coding, disparity prediction via disparity warping and context-based arithmetic coding exploiting predicted disparity data. Experimental results show that the proposed compression scheme achieves average compression factors of about 48:1 for high resolution...... disparity maps for stereo pairs and outperforms different standard solutions for lossless still image compression. Moreover, it provides a progressive representation of disparity data as well as a parallelizable structure....

  10. Implementation of BFA (Backtrack Free Path Planning Algorithm) for 3 Dimensional Work Spaces and its Application to Path Planning of Multi Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Tomonari; Tamura, Shinsuke; Kawai, Masayuki

    BFA (Backtrack Free path planning Algorithm) has been implemented for calculating paths of manipulators behaving in 3-dimensional work spaces. In the implementation, a method to avoid collisions between links also has been proposed. This paper also discusses an approach to extending BFA for path plannings of cooperating multi manipulators. In the approach, multiple manipulators are considered as a single composite one with many links. Simulation results demonstrated that BFA enabled the efficient generation of paths both for single and multi manipulators. The algorithm is backtrack free and resolution complete. Computation volume of the algorithm is proportional to the total number of links and does not change with environments where manipulators behave.

  11. Understanding pharmaceutical research manipulation in the context of accounting manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The problem of the manipulation of data that arises when there is both opportunity and incentive to mislead is better accepted and studied - though by no means solved - in financial accounting than in medicine. This article analyzes pharmaceutical company manipulation of medical research as part of a broader problem of corporate manipulation of data in the creation of accounting profits. The article explores how our understanding of accounting fraud and misinformation helps us understand the risk of similar information manipulation in the medical sciences. This understanding provides a framework for considering how best to improve the quality of medical research and analysis in light of the current system of medical information production. I offer three possible responses: (1) use of the Dodd-Frank whistleblower provisions to encourage reporting of medical research fraud; (2) a two-step academic journal review process for clinical trials; and (3) publicly subsidized trial-failure insurance. These would improve the release of negative information about drugs, thereby increasing the reliability of positive information. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Sharan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the steps needed to create an authentic cooperative classroom.

  13. Study on cooperative active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Nobuyuki

    1996-01-01

    Electrotechnical Laboratory is involved in the development and the improvement of three dimensional geometrical modeling for the work environment including various kinds of robots. Here, the research on the system which allows to materialize an active sensing by the cooperation of robots and the construction of an experimental system for the assessment of such modeling were reviewed. In the second stage of this project, the development of cooperative active sensory system with small size mobile robots as an operation platform was attempted. Thus, studies on the sensing techniques for robot operation and the real-time sensing techniques were started. An electric binocular head was prepared after consideration of size, cost and convenience and attached to the commercially available mobile robot base (Mouse 89, Japan System Design Co., Ltd.). The small mobile robot capable of binocular visual tracing thus obtained was confirmed to be highly efficient by various cooperative control experiments although the head was prepared at the sacrifice of control characteristics. Next, a real-time sensing system which allows to trace a moving object was constructed on the basis of Zero Disparity Filter (ZDF) produced by Kaenel et al. and further improved in the respect of the difficulty in real time processing and an expanded type ZDF was obtained. This system is routinely used as an basic vision unit for a mobile robot in the presence. (M.N.)

  14. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  15. Morphotype disparity in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Reitner, Joachim; Braiser, Martin; Donoghue, Phil; Schirrmeister, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Prokaryotes have dominated life on Earth for over 2 billion years. Throughout the Precambrian, prokaryotes acted as the major biological impetus for both large and small scale environmental changes. Yet, very little is known about the composition, diversity and evolution of ancient microbial communities due to poor preservation during the Precambrian period. Previous studies of fossils that date to this period relied mainly on light microscopy to identify microfossil morphology and abundance, with limited success. Here we present novel analyses of the microbial remains found in Precambrian stromatolites using Synchrotron Radiation x-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Microfossils found in samples of three Precambrian deposits, 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool, Australia, 2.1 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, and 650 Ma Rasthof Cap Carbonate, Namibia, have been reconstructed in 3D. Based on four scans from each sample, we estimated size and abundance of spheroidal microfossils within those deposits. Our findings show that while cell abundance decreased towards the end of the Precambrian, the biovolume of microfossils within the host rock remained relatively constant. Additionally, both size and disparity increase through time. Constant biovolumes and yet different sizes for these three deposits, point towards a negative correlation of large cell size and cell abundance. This negative correlation indicates that the systems in which these prokaryotes lived may have been biolimited. Both, gas exchange and nutrient uptake in prokaryotes function via diffusion. Therefore, one would expect bacteria to evolve towards an increasing surface to volume ratio. Increased cell sizes, and hence decreased overall surface to volume ratio observed in our data, suggest the influence of other selective factors. Decreased abundance and increased cell size could potentially be associated to changes in nutrient availability and the occurrence of predation. As cells increased in size, more nutrients would

  16. Cooperative Wideband OFDM Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, major attention is paid to cooperative diversity as an alternative way to achieve spatial diversity when the multiple antenna structure is not an option. By adopting the cooperative relay nodes to forward information, we can mitigate the fading effects, increase the capacity, lower

  17. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models

  18. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  19. Predisposed to cooperate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Costello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in Toronto and Geneva indicates that asylum seekers and refugees are predisposed to be cooperative with the refugee status determination system and other immigration procedures, and that the design of alternatives to detention can create, foster and support this cooperative predisposition – or can undermine or even demolish it.

  20. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    A common interest in developing a reliable, sustainable and affordable energy system was the main driver for the Nordic energy policy cooperation since the creation of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The diversity of the energy systems in the Nordic countries facilitated this cooperation, not le...

  1. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  2. Manipulations to regenerate aspen ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne D. Shepperd

    2001-01-01

    Vegetative regeneration of aspen can be initiated through manipulations that provide hormonal stimulation, proper growth environment, and sucker protection - the three elements of the aspen regeneration triangle. The correct course of action depends upon a careful evaluation of the size, vigor, age, and successional status of the existing clone. Soils and site...

  3. Indicial tensor manipulation on MACSYMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, R.A.; Pavelle, R.

    1977-01-01

    A new computational tool for physical calculations is described. It is the first computer system capable of performing indicial tensor calculus (as opposed to component tensor calculus). It is now operational on the symbolic manipulation system MACSYMA. The authors outline the capabilities of the system and describe some of the physical problems considered as well as others being examined at this time. (Auth.)

  4. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  5. Wave Manipulation by Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders

    topology optimization can be used to design structures for manipulation of the electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The wave problems considered here fall within three classes. The first class concerns the design of cloaks, which when wrapped around an object will render the object undetectable...

  6. Teaching Integration Applications Using Manipulatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kavita; Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Calculus students' difficulties in understanding integration have been extensively studied. Research shows that the difficulty lies with students understanding of the definition of the definite integral as a limit of a Riemann sum and with the idea of accumulation inherent in integration. We have created a set of manipulatives and activities…

  7. Manipulations of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper takes under considerations controversies surrounding German architecture designed during Nazi period between 1933-45. This architecture is commonly criticized for being out of innovation, taste & elementary sense of beauty. Moreover, it has been consequently wiped out from architectural manuals, probably for its undoubted associations with the totalitarian system considered as the most maleficent in the whole history. But in the meantime the architecture of another totalitarian system which appeared to be not less sinister than Nazi one is not stigmatized with such verve. It is Socrealism architecture, developed especially in East Europe & reportedly containing lots of similarities with Nazi architecture. Socrealism totalitarian architecture was never condemned like Nazi one, probably due to politically manipulated propaganda that influenced postwar public opinion. This observation leads to reflection that maybe in the same propaganda way some values of Nazi architecture are still consciously dissembled in order to hide the fact that some rules used by Nazi German architects have been also consciously used after the war. Those are especially manipulations that allegedly Nazi architecture consisted of. The paper provides some definitions around totalitarian manipulations as well as ideological assumptions for their implementation. Finally, the register of confirmed manipulations is provided with use of photo case study.

  8. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  9. Master/slave manipulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykukal, H. C.; King, R. F.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    System capabilities are equivalent to mobility, dexterity, and strength of human arm. Arrangement of torque motor, harmonic drive, and potentiometer combination allows all power and control leads to pass through center of slave with position-transducer arrangement of master, and "stovepipe joint" is incorporated for manipulator applications.

  10. Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Louis A.; Hagiwara, Nao; Eggly, Susan; Gaertner, Samuel L.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, members of racial/ethnic minority groups typically experience poorer health than members of racial/ethnic majority groups. The core premise of this article is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors related to race and ethnicity play a critical role in healthcare disparities. Social psychological theories of the origins and consequences of these thoughts, feelings, and behaviors offer critical insights into the processes responsible for these disparities and suggest interventions to address them. We present a multilevel model that explains how societal, intrapersonal, and interpersonal factors can influence ethnic/racial health disparities. We focus our literature review, including our own research, and conceptual analysis at the intrapersonal (the race-related thoughts and feelings of minority patients and non-minority physicians) and interpersonal levels (intergroup processes that affect medical interactions between minority patients and non-minority physicians). At both levels of analysis, we use theories of social categorization, social identity, contemporary forms of racial bias, stereotype activation, stigma, and other social psychological processes to identify and understand potential causes and processes of health and healthcare disparities. In the final section, we identify theory-based interventions that might reduce ethnic/racial disparities in health and healthcare. PMID:25197206

  11. Cooperating with machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jacob W; Oudah, Mayada; Tennom; Ishowo-Oloko, Fatimah; Abdallah, Sherief; Bonnefon, Jean-François; Cebrian, Manuel; Shariff, Azim; Goodrich, Michael A; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-16

    Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions. Here, we develop an algorithm that combines a state-of-the-art reinforcement-learning algorithm with mechanisms for signaling. We show that this algorithm can cooperate with people and other algorithms at levels that rival human cooperation in a variety of two-player repeated stochastic games. These results indicate that general human-machine cooperation is achievable using a non-trivial, but ultimately simple, set of algorithmic mechanisms.

  12. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  13. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  14. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  15. Social rank and social cooperation: Impact of social comparison processes on cooperative decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Gong

    Full Text Available Successful navigation of our complex social world requires the capability to recognize and judge the relative status of others. Hence, social comparison processes are of great importance in our interactions, informing us of our relative standing and in turn potentially motivating our behavior. However, so far few studies have examined in detail how social comparison can influence interpersonal decision-making. One aspect of social decision-making that is of particular importance is cooperative behavior, and identifying means of maintaining and promoting cooperation in the provision of public goods is of vital interest to society. Here, we manipulated social comparison by grading performance rankings on a reaction time task, and then measured cooperative decisions via a modified Public Goods Game (PGG. Findings revealed that individuals ranked highest tended to be more cooperative as compared to those who placed in the bottom rank. Interestingly, this effect was regardless of whether the comparison group members were the subsequent players in the PGG or not, and this effect was stronger in those with higher social orientation. In summary, the present research shows how different social comparison processes (assessed via social rankings can operate in our daily interaction with others, demonstrating an important effect on cooperative behavior.

  16. Social Determinants of Racial Disparities in CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jenna M.; Moxey-Mims, Marva M.; Eggers, Paul W.; Narva, Andrew S.; Star, Robert A.; Rodgers, Griffin P.

    2016-01-01

    Significant disparities in CKD rates and outcomes exist between black and white Americans. Health disparities are defined as health differences that adversely affect disadvantaged populations, on the basis of one or more health outcomes. CKD is the complex result of genetic and environmental factors, reflecting the balance of nature and nurture. Social determinants of health have an important role as environmental components, especially for black populations, who are disproportionately disadvantaged. Understanding the social determinants of health and appreciating the underlying differences associated with meaningful clinical outcomes may help nephrologists treat all their patients with CKD in an optimal manner. Altering the social determinants of health, although difficult, may embody important policy and research efforts, with the ultimate goal of improving outcomes for patients with kidney diseases, and minimizing the disparities between groups. PMID:27178804

  17. Mediation Analysis for Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica E M; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2016-08-15

    Social epidemiologists often seek to determine the mechanisms that underlie health disparities. This work is typically based on mediation procedures that may not be justified with exposures of common interest in social epidemiology. In this analysis, we explored the consequences of using standard approaches, referred to as the difference and generalized product methods, when mediator-outcome confounders are associated with the exposure. We compared these with inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models, the structural transformation method, doubly robust g-estimation of a structural nested model, and doubly robust targeted minimum loss-based estimation. We used data on 900,726 births from 2003 to 2007 in the Penn Moms study, conducted in Pennsylvania, to assess the extent to which breastfeeding prior to hospital discharge explained the racial disparity in infant mortality. Overall, for every 1,000 births, 3.36 more infant deaths occurred among non-Hispanic black women relative to all other women (95% confidence interval: 2.78, 3.93). Using the difference and generalized product methods to assess the disparity that would remain if everyone breastfed prior to discharge suggested a complete elimination of the disparity (risk difference = -0.87 per 1,000 births; 95% confidence interval: -1.39, -0.35). In contrast, doubly robust methods suggested a reduction in the disparity to 2.45 (95% confidence interval: 2.20, 2.71) more infant deaths per 1,000 births among non-Hispanic black women. Standard approaches for mediation analysis in health disparities research can yield misleading results. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Juliet Siena; Uribe, Erika Flores; Weingart, Saul

    2017-09-01

    Although there is extensive evidence on disparities in the process and outcomes of health care, data on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety remain inconclusive in the United States. The aims of this study were to (1) explore differences in reporting race/ethnicity in studies on disparities in patient safety; (2) assess adjustment for socioeconomic status, comorbidity, and disease severity; and (3) make recommendations on the inclusion of race/ethnicity for future studies on adverse events. We searched PubMed database (for articles published from 1991 to May 1, 2013) using a predetermined criteria for studies on racial and ethnic disparities in patient safety. Only quantitative studies that used chart review or administrative data for the detection of adverse events were considered for eligibility. Two reviewers independently extracted data on inclusion of race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and in stratification of outcomes. A total of 174 studies were initially obtained from the search. Of these, 24 met inclusion criteria and received full-text review. Meta-analysis was not performed because of the methodological and statistical heterogeneity between studies. Eight studies included race/ethnicity in baseline characteristics and adjusted for confounders. Hospital-level variations such teaching status and percentage of minorities served were infrequently analyzed. To our knowledge, this is the first methodological review of racial/ethnic disparities in patient safety in the United States. The evidence on the existence of disparities in adverse events was mixed. Poor stratification of outcomes by race/ethnicity and consideration of geographic and hospital-level variations explain the inconclusive evidence; variations in the quality of care at hospitals should be considered in studies using national databases.

  19. Race and healthcare disparities: overcoming vulnerablity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John

    2002-01-01

    The paper summarizes recently published data and recommendations about healthcare disparities experienced by African Americans who have Medicare or other healthcare coverage. Against this background the paper addresses the ethics of such disparities and how disadvantages of vulnerable populations like African Americans are typically maintained in decision making about how to respond to such disparities. Considering how to respond to disparities reveals much that vulnerable populations would bring to the policy-making table, if they can also be heard when they get there. The paper argues that vulnerable populations like African Americans need fair representation in bodies deciding what to do about such disparities and that fairness requires proportional representation at all levels of decisions that affect healthcare--a radical change. In this decision setting, how to provide adequate protection of minorities needs much further attention. The most attractive decision-making model is deliberative democracy. The paper shows that in deliberation, fair representation requires not only having a voice in decisions, but a fair hearing of those voices. Achieving a fair hearing requires changes in norms of communication and training of all to give importance to greetings and other measures of civility and trust building, and to be open to diverse forms of expression. Decisions about how to respond to healthcare disparities would include what programs to initiate for whom, how to evaluate the programs, and what to do in response to such evaluations. Conclusions are that achieving such goals will take a sea change in how healthcare institutions and providers do their business, and that social activism at every level will be needed to effect these changes. The discussion highlights many ethical issues that need much greater attention.

  20. Modeling the manipulator and flipper pose effects on tip over stability of a tracked mobile manipulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are used in a number of different applications such as bomb disposal, mining robotics, and search and rescue operations. These mobile manipulators are highly susceptible to tip over due to the motion of the manipulator...

  1. FAMILY INFLUENCE ON FORMATION OF CHILDREN'S MANIPULATIVE ATTITUDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Ivanovna Ryumshina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the issue of children's manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society.According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The members of this family hardly cooperate with each other and others, are focused on self-interests, and try to satisfy them without much effort, and by using the people around them. It is accompanied by the insincerity and lack of attention to the child, and most of all to his needs, feelings and emotional stress. Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  2. Globalization and human cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  3. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  4. Credit Risk and Regional Economic Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vaněk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to bridge the areas of credit risk and regional economic disparities, and investigates the relationship between credit risk and economic indicators in the Czech Republic at the regional (NUTS 3 level. This relationship is consecutively examined using graphical and correlation analysis, regression techniques, and different types of clustering methods. Regions are then clustered into three groups according to their economic similarities and disparities. Subsequently, it is shown on the real data that region-specific information has the potential to be utilizable in credit scoring and possibly other applications.

  5. Disparities and quality improvement: federal policy levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Jung, Minna; Lavizzo-Mourey, Risa

    2005-01-01

    Using a quality improvement framework to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care highlights multiple opportunities for federal and state governments to exert policy leverage, particularly through their roles as purchasers and regulators. Under such a framework, federal and state governments can expand their roles in collecting race/ethnicity data; define universal and meaningful race/ethnicity categories; more broadly disseminate standards for cultural competence; and demand the reduction of disparities through leveraging their status as collectively the largest U.S. health care payer.

  6. Simulation of a Mobile Manipulator on Webots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. Avilés S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A mobile manipulator is a mobile platform with a mounted serial manipulator. A Mobile Manipulator is a system subject to its kinematic restrictions and the degrees of freedom of the manipulator arm mounted on it. These systems combine the advantages of mobile platforms and robotic arms, and reduce their disadvantages. For example, a mobile manipulator has larger working space when it has a mobile platform, as it offers more functionality during operation. For the previously mentioned in this work will be shown the implementation in the robotic simulation software Webots, a mobile manipulator that allows to determine its operation in a virtual environment

  7. Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papet, I.; Lune, P.; Pellerin, O.; Sapoval, M.; Brisse, H.; Clement, J.P.; Ribeiro, A.; Gomes, H.; Marcus, C.; Rehel, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    These two articles bring notions relative to the safety of procedures, specially in term of irradiation, they give information on different methods in order to reduce the radiation doses delivered to the patients, especially when the examinations concern children or young patients. (N.C.)

  8. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  9. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  10. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  11. Virtual manipulatives for learning algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačar, Janja

    2015-01-01

    In the theoretical part of my diploma thesis I define what teaching aids are and classify them. Then I present two research articles about the efficiency of virtual manipulatives in learning mathematics. This is followed by a presentation of Bruner's classification of representations, which is very helpful in teaching new concepts. I also explain various methods of solving linear equations in accordance with the most recent curriculum for mathematics in elementary schools. In the empirical...

  12. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value....... The paper shows why this happens. The resulting estimated MRS can then be manipulated by adapting the target MRS in the experimental design. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Making good cider out of bad apples – Signaling expectations boosts cooperation among would-be free riders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagatsu, Michiru; Larsen, Karen; Karabegovic, Mia

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates how group-cooperation heuristics boost voluntary contributions in a repeated public goods game. We manipulate two separate factors in a two-person public goods game: i) group composition (Selfish Subjects vs. Conditional Cooperators) and ii) common knowledge about...

  14. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-12-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children.

  15. Manipulation of Biofilm Microbial Ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C.; Palmer, R.J., Jr.; Zinn, M.; Smith, C.A.; Burkhalter, R.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Whitaker, K.W.; Kirkegaard, R.D.

    1998-08-15

    The biofilm mode of growth provides such significant advantages to the members of the consortium that most organisms in important habitats are found in biofilms. The study of factors that allow manipulation of biofilm microbes in the biofilm growth state requires that reproducible biofilms be generated. The most effective monitoring of biofilm formation, succession and desaturation is with on-line monitoring of microbial biofilms with flowcell for direct observation. The biofilm growth state incorporates a second important factor, the heterogeneity in distribution in time and space of the component members of the biofilm consortium. This heterogeneity is reflected not only in the cellular distribution but in the metabolic activity within a population of cells. Activity and cellular distribution can be mapped in four dimensions with confocal microscopy, and function can be ascertained by genetically manipulated reporter functions for specific genes or by vital stains. The methodology for understanding the microbial ecology of biofilms is now much more readily available and the capacity to manipulate biofilms is becoming an important feature of biotechnology.

  16. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  17. On Cooper's Nonparametric Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeidler, James

    1978-01-01

    The basic assumption of Cooper's nonparametric test for trend (EJ 125 069) is questioned. It is contended that the proper assumption alters the distribution of the statistic and reduces its usefulness. (JKS)

  18. From cooperation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to success. In recent years joint international associations, licensing, co-production agreements, joint research programs, exploration of consortia and other cooperative relationships between two or more corporations with potential have increased. We notice a cooperation tendency among small-sized companies, especially among those from the developing countries.

  19. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  20. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  1. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  2. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  3. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  4. Manipulation and mobilisation for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, A. R.; Hoving, J. L.; Haines, T. A.; Goldsmith, C. H.; Kay, T.; Aker, P.; Bronfort, G.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck disorders are common, disabling, and costly. The effectiveness of manipulation and mobilisation remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether manipulation and mobilisation, either alone or in combination with other treatments, relieve pain or improve function/disability, patient

  5. Physics Based Vision Systems for Robotic Manipulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the increase of robotic manipulation tasks (TA4.3), specifically dexterous manipulation tasks (TA4.3.2), more advanced computer vision algorithms will be...

  6. From cooperation to globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela UNGUREANU

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is seen as a consequence of cross-border business. This complex and irreversible process can be seen as an extension of capitalist relations of production or increased interdependence in the economic system. Globalization has given rise to more and more fields of activity worldwide. To meet the challenges of business globalization, many companies form strategic alliances, cooperate or merge with other companies. Cooperation is seen by many companies as an alternative path to suc...

  7. Can War Foster Cooperation?

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, Christopher J.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, Joseph; Miguel, Edward; Mitts, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, nearly 20 studies have found a strong, persistent pattern in surveys and behavioral experiments from over 40 countries: individual exposure to war violence tends to increase social cooperation at the local level, including community participation and prosocial behavior. Thus while war has many negative legacies for individuals and societies, it appears to leave a positive legacy in terms of local cooperation and civic engagement. We discuss, synthesize and reanalyze the em...

  8. Attraction and cooperative behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Donja Darai; Silvia Grätz

    2012-01-01

    Being good-looking seems to generate substantial benefits in many social interactions, making the "beauty premium" a not to be underrated economic factor. This paper investigates how physical attractiveness enables people to generate these benefits in the case of cooperation, using field data from a modified one-shot prisoner's dilemma played in a high-stakes television game show. While attractive contestants are not more or less cooperative than less attractive ones, facial attractiveness pr...

  9. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  10. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  11. Gender disparity in hopelessness among unemployed graduates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking recourse to the traditional gender-role expectation which views males as the family breadwinner and head, it is assumed that the psychological consequences of unemployment may not be the same for both male and female unemployed. In view of this, this study examined gender disparities in hopelessness in a ...

  12. Differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA was extracted from microscopic positive stool samples and used to amplify a part of the genus Entamoeba small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA), using ... between E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii because it obviates unnecessary chemotherapy with possible costs, side effects and drug resistance.

  13. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  14. Guidance for the national healthcare disparities report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swift, Elaine K

    2002-01-01

    ... on Guidance for Designing A National Healthcare Disparities Report INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other th...

  15. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  16. Geographic disparity in kidney transplantation under KAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Massie, Allan B; Luo, Xun; Ruck, Jessica M; Chow, Eric K H; Bowring, Mary G; Bae, Sunjae; Segev, Dorry L; Gentry, Sommer E

    2017-12-12

    The Kidney Allocation System fundamentally altered kidney allocation, causing a substantial increase in regional and national sharing that we hypothesized might impact geographic disparities. We measured geographic disparity in deceased donor kidney transplant (DDKT) rate under KAS (6/1/2015-12/1/2016), and compared that with pre-KAS (6/1/2013-12/3/2014). We modeled DSA-level DDKT rates with multilevel Poisson regression, adjusting for allocation factors under KAS. Using the model we calculated a novel, improved metric of geographic disparity: the median incidence rate ratio (MIRR) of transplant rate, a measure of DSA-level variation that accounts for patient casemix and is robust to outlier values. Under KAS, MIRR was 1.75 1.81 1.86 for adults, meaning that similar candidates across different DSAs have a median 1.81-fold difference in DDKT rate. The impact of geography was greater than the impact of factors emphasized by KAS: having an EPTS score ≤20% was associated with a 1.40-fold increase (IRR =  1.35 1.40 1.45 , P geographic disparities with KAS (P = .3). Despite extensive changes to kidney allocation under KAS, geography remains a primary determinant of access to DDKT. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  17. Health Disparities | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We plan to expand the inquiry into the mechanisms in behavior and biology that lead to disparities as well as integrate the environmental, social, and cultural factors that affect these disparities. NIMHD ...

  18. Health Disparities Calculator (HD*Calc) - SEER Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statistical software that generates summary measures to evaluate and monitor health disparities. Users can import SEER data or other population-based health data to calculate 11 disparity measurements.

  19. Using Manipulatives to Teach Elementary Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggan, Matthew; Harper, Sallie; Whitmire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance and benefits of math manipulatives. For decades, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has encouraged school districts nationwide to use manipulatives in mathematical instruction. The value of manipulatives has been recognized for many years, but some teachers are reluctant to use…

  20. Kinematic Analysis 6dof Delta Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid PIETRALA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the solid and kinematic model of delta type parallel manipulator with six degrees of freedom is proposed. Method of determining the manipulator kinematics equations using the notation of Denavitt – Hartenberg is presented. For given movements of manipulator platform the trajectory of drives are illustrated. Also working space for various platform orientations are showed.

  1. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Heiser, Aron T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a system supporting remote collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. To be accepted by users, the shared nanoManipulator application had to have the same high...

  2. Manipulative therapy (Feldenkrais, massage, chiropractic manipulation) for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastaras, Christopher; Schran, Seth; Kim, Natasha; Darr, Deborah; Chen, Mary Susan

    2013-07-01

    Neck pain is an extremely common symptom with many possible etiologies. A substantial number of patients are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Low-quality evidence supports the beneficial effects of CAM. Feldenkrais, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation are discussed in detail. Complications are generally benign and self-limited, although occasional catastrophic consequences have been documented. Despite the favorable opinion many rheumatologists have of some CAM therapy, many patients are not disclosing CAM use to their medical providers. By expressing interest, asking questions, and taking a shared-decision-making approach, providers can encourage disclosure and provide valuable input.

  3. Enrollment Trends and Disparity Among Patients With Lung Cancer in National Clinical Trials, 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wong, Melisa L; Cheng, Perry; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Sargent, Daniel J; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Chen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Redman, Mary W; Manola, Judith B; Schilsky, Richard L; Cohen, Harvey J; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Adjei, Alex A; Gandara, David; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Vokes, Everett E

    2016-11-20

    Purpose Under-representation of elderly, women, and racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer in clinical trials is of national concern. The goal of this study was to characterize enrollment trends and disparities by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in lung cancer trials. Methods We analyzed data for 23,006 National Cancer Institute cooperative group lung cancer trial participants and 578,476 patients with lung cancer from the SEER registry from 1990 to 2012. The enrollment disparity difference (EDD) and enrollment disparity ratio (EDR) were calculated on the basis of the proportion of each subgroup in the trial population and the US lung cancer population. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in the subgroup proportions in each population were compared over time. Results Enrollment disparity for patients ≥ 70 years of age with non-small-cell lung cancer improved from 1990 to 2012 (test of parallelism, P = .020), with a remaining EDD of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.25) and EDR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.51 to 1.82) in 2010 to 2012. No improvement was seen for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), with an APC of 0.20 ( P = .714) among trial participants, despite a rising proportion of elderly patients with SCLC in the US population (APC, 0.32; P = .020). Enrollment disparity for women with lung cancer improved overall, with the gap closing by 2012 (EDD, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00 to 0.06]; EDR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16]). Enrollment disparities persisted without significant improvement for elderly women, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Conclusion Under-representation in lung cancer trials improved significantly from 1990 to 2012 for elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and for women, but ongoing efforts to improve the enrollment of elderly patients with SCLC and minorities are needed. Our study highlights the importance of addressing enrollment disparities by demographic and disease subgroups to better target under-represented groups of patients

  4. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs

  5. Research and development at ORNL/CESAR towards cooperating robotic systems for hazardous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.C.; Fujimura, K.; Unseren, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    One of the frontiers in intelligent machine research is the understanding of how constructive cooperation among multiple autonomous agents can be effected. The effort at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR)at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) focuses on two problem areas: (1) cooperation by multiple mobile robots in dynamic, incompletely known environments; and (2) cooperating robotic manipulators. Particular emphasis is placed on experimental evaluation of research and developments using the CESAR robot system testbeds, including three mobile robots, and a seven-axis, kinematically redundant mobile manipulator. This paper summarizes initial results of research addressing the decoupling of position and force control for two manipulators holding a common object, and the path planning for multiple robots in a common workspace. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Breast cancer disparities: Frontline strategies, proceedings of the 7 th annual texas conference on health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyne Kpetemey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are striking disparities in health status, access to health care, and risk factors among racial and ethnic minorities and the general population in Texas. The disparities are multifactorial comprising genetic, sociocultural, and environmental variables. The Texas Center for Health Disparities (TCHD, a NIMHD Center of Excellence (COE, aims to prevent, reduce, and eliminate health disparities in the communities through research, education, and community-based programs. As part of the center′s outreach activities, an annual conference is organized to build awareness and knowledge on health disparities. The overall theme for the 2012 conference was "Battling Breast Cancer Disparities: Frontline Strategies". The scientific program consisted of three sessions: "Breakthroughs in Breast Cancer", "Triple Negative Breast Cancer," and "Hormone Resistant Breast Cancer" featuring different aspects of bench-research from molecular biology, proteomics, and genetics to the clinical aspects such as detection, diagnosis, and finally to community-based approaches. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting providing salient strategies and best practices presented by the speakers.

  7. Gynecologic cancer disparities: a report from the Health Disparities Taskforce of the Society of Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Yvonne; Holcomb, Kevin; Chapman-Davis, Eloise; Khabele, Dineo; Farley, John H

    2014-05-01

    To review the extent of health disparities in gynecologic cancer care and outcomes and to propose recommendations to help counteract the disparities. We searched the electronic databases PubMed and the Cochrane Library. We included studies demonstrating quantifiable differences by race and ethnicity in the incidence, treatment, and survival of gynecologic cancers in the United States (US). Most studies relied on retrospective data. We focused on differences between Black and White women, because of the limited number of studies on non-Black women. White women have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer compared to Black women. However, the all-cause ovarian cancer mortality in Black women is 1.3 times higher than that of White women. Endometrial and cervical cancer mortality in Black women is twice that of White women. The etiology of these disparities is multifaceted. However, much of the evidence suggests that equal care leads to equal outcomes for Black women diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. Underlying molecular factors may play an additional role in aggressive tumor biology and endometrial cancer disparities. Gynecologic cancer disparities exist between Black and White women. The literature is limited by the lack of large prospective trials and adequate numbers of non-Black racial and ethnic groups. We conclude with recommendations for continued research and a multifaceted approach to eliminate gynecologic cancer disparities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stigma and Racial/Ethnic HIV Disparities: Moving toward Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Bogart, Laura M.; Dovidio, John F.; Williams, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that stigma plays a role in racial/ethnic health disparities. However, there is limited understanding about the mechanisms by which stigma contributes to HIV-related disparities in risk, incidence and screening, treatment, and survival and what can be done to reduce the impact of stigma on these disparities. We introduce…

  9. Cooperative games and network structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis covers various research topics involving cooperative game theory, a mathematical tool to analyze the cooperative behavior within a group of players. The focus is mainly on interrelations between operations research and cooperative game theory by analyzing specific types of cooperative

  10. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ciprian ANDRUSEAC; Iulian HERTUG

    2016-01-01

    Economic cooperation, the engine of relations of international economic cooperation, is an insufficiently defined, dynamic concept. The transformations of the international environment, globalization and the intensification of economic interdependencies render economic cooperation a must, and not just an option within international relations. Similar to the international environment, economic cooperation undergoes a process of redefinition, of adjustment to the new realities. This article aim...

  11. Parameter Identification and Adaptive Control of Cooperating Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute, Vol. 327, No. 5, 1990, pp. 785-804. Garg, D., and Young, R .: Coordinated Control of Cooperating Robotic Manipulators... Shanidze Z., and Rondeli, E.: Global Stability of Solutions of Nonlinear Control Systems, International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 20, No. 10...October 1989, pp. 1909-1924. Garg, D., Shanidze , Z. and Rondeli, E.: On the Global Stability of the Solutions of Nonlinear Control Systems, Proceedings of

  12. Language constructs for image manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, G.; Levialdi, S.; Tortora, G.

    1984-01-01

    An image manipulation language, within the framework of an international project for the design of an image processing system, has progressed toward the definition, implementation and the testing of a number of useful constructs specially designed to give the user maximum machine independency. From the very general COMPL (compute locally) to the very specialized MASK data structure, a number of different constructs like a control structure (ITERATE ON / ITEREND), a collection of data structures (windows, masks, image sets and images) have been formally defined. In a first stage of this work a precompiler has been partially completed. Motivations for the choices made and sample programs are included in this presentation

  13. The story of technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Taek

    1989-09-01

    This book gives descriptions of technical cooperation, which is about why does technology transfer?, process of technology transfer with model, decisive cause and cooperation of technology transfer, cost and effect of technology transfer, historical experience of technology transfer, cases of technology transfer by field such as rubber tire, medicine and computer industry and automobile industry, technology transfer process and present condition of technical cooperation, and strategy for rising of technical cooperation : selection of technology for object of cooperation and development of human resources.

  14. The locating ways of laying pipe manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Li, Bin; Lei, DongLiang

    2010-01-01

    The laying pipe manipulator is a new equipment to lay concrete pipe. This kind of manipulator makes the work of laying pipes mechanized and automated. We report here a new laying pipe manipulator. The manipulator has 5 free degrees, and is driven by the hydraulic system. In the paper, one critical question of manipulator is studied: the locating ways of the manipulator to lay concrete pipe. During the process of laying concrete pipe, how to locate the manipulator is realized by the locating system of manipulator. The locating system consists of photoelectric target, laser producer, and computer. According to different construction condition, one or two or three photoelectric targets can be used. During the process of laying concrete pipe, if the interface of pipes are jointed together, and the other segment of pipe deviates from the pipe way, one target can be used, if the angle that the manipulator rotates around the holding pipe's axes is 0°, two targets can be used, three targets can be used at any site. In the paper, according to each locating way, the theory analysis is done. And the mathematical models of the manipulator moving from original position to goal position are obtained by different locating way. And the locating experiment was done. According to the experiment result, the work principle and mathematical models of different locating way was turned out to be well adopted for requirement, the mathematical model of different locating way supplies the basic control theory for the manipulator to lay and joint concrete pipe automatically.

  15. Algorithm For Control Of Underactuated Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Rodriguez, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    Algorithm for improved control of underactuated multiple-link robotic manipulators developed via spatial-algebra-operator approach. Aspects of this approach described in several previous articles in NASA Tech Briefs-most recently "Robot Control Based on Spatial-Operator Algebra" (NPO-17918). Underactuated manipulator has fewer actuators than it has degrees of freedom. Complexity of underactuated systems managed by unified analysis. It has implications for fault-tolerant control, and many practical manipulators underactuated. Examples include manipulators with flexible joints and/or flexible links; space/underwater robots; manipulators that operate with some actuators that turned off because of failure or because of need to conserve energy; manipulators that grasp objects loosely, and manipulators that grasp objects with internal degrees of freedom (e.g., plungers, rollers).

  16. Cooperation in Construction:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Peter; Storgaard, Kresten

    2016-01-01

    . The management logic of the main contractor is interpreted as based on a sociology-inspired understanding focusing on norms and social values rather than on contractual (law) and functional (engineering) logic, which had hitherto been prevalent in Danish construction management.......The study presents a building project executed by a major Danish construction company, where cooperation and its staging were essential for achieving high productivity and competitiveness. The form of this cooperation is the main theme for the article. The contractor actively changed...... the companies in the case can be understood as possessing a social capital which is enforced and united by initiatives of the main contractor. The social capital was built up and maintained through the actual constitution of cooperation already in the initial phase of bidding before the building process...

  17. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  18. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  19. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... quartile and by 6.0 and 2.4 years, respectively, in the highest income quartile. Life expectancy increased by 5.2 years among women in the lowest income quartile, 2.4 years due to premature deaths and 2.8 years due to late deaths. The gain in life expectancy among women in the highest income quartile of 5...... and mortality from 1986 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in life expectancy, life disparity and the threshold age that separates 'premature' and 'late' deaths. Mortality compression was quantified and compared between income quartiles. RESULTS: Since 1986, male life expectancy increased by 4.2 years...

  20. GENDER DEMOGRAPHIC DISPARITIES IN BACAU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ancuta Stangaciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender demographic disparities existing in Bacau County were determined by means of some demographic indicators such as: population, natural growth, live births, marriages, divorces, indicators which have been broken down by gender. The assessment of the disparities between men and women from the point of view of the demographic phenomena emphasize the fact that on the level of Bacau County there is a surplus of female population, as during the whole period subjected to the analysis, the positive and respectively the negative natural growth for the male population were lower and higher respectively than the one registered in the case of the female population. The birth rate, marriage rate and divorce rate phenomena also changed significantly after 1990 ; thus, the average age of marriage increased, and the gender difference also had a certain growth, which caused a shift in the fertility intensity from the age group 20-24 to the very next one - the 25-29 age group.

  1. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  2. European Union of the Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to the idea of the necessity of changing EU’s political approach in order to face to the new inside and global challenges. In order to support this idea, the analysis uses four representative indicators: educational attainment level, hospital beds at 100000 inhabitants, employment rate and unemployment rate. The initial analysis was focused on EU’s regions and pointed out great disparities. A distinct part of the analysis covers Romanian regions. The analysis is realized on two levels: macroregions and NUTS 2 regions. Romania is not an exception from the paper’s approach. The main conclusion of the analysis is that EU arrived into critical point and has to change its political and economic approach in order to reduce and to eliminate the regional disparities and to increase its credibility as global actor.

  3. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  4. Explaining Racial Disparities in Infant Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to quantify how socioeconomic, health care, demographic, and geographic effects explain racial disparities in low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) rates in Brazil. Methods. We employed a sample of 8949 infants born between 1995 and 2009 in 15 cities and 7 provinces in Brazil. We focused on disparities in LBW (disparities. Results. The model explained 45% to 94% of LBW and 64% to 94% of PTB disparities between the African ancestry groups and European ancestry. Differences in prenatal care use and geographic location were the most important contributors, followed by socioeconomic differences. The model explained the majority of the disparities for mixed African ancestry and part of the disparity for African ancestry alone. Conclusions. Public policies to improve children’s health should target prenatal care and geographic location differences to reduce health disparities between infants of African and European ancestries in Brazil. PMID:26313046

  5. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  6. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  7. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  8. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities and Health: Impacts and Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997–98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society. PMID:22156290

  10. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  11. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  12. Acculturation, nutrition, and health disparities in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Latinos have become the largest minority group in the United States and will represent 25% of the US population by 2050. Latinos experience a disproportionate burden of poverty and poor health outcomes. We critically examined the evidence for a link between acculturation and health disparities in Latinos with a focus on type 2 diabetes (T2D) and nutrition-related risk factors and illustrated how acculturation principles can help design a culturally appropriate T2D self-management intervention in Latinos. Evidence presented in this article was drawn from 1) systematic reviews identified through PubMed searches, 2) backward searches that were based on articles cited, 3) experts in the field, and 4) the author's personal files. The preponderance of the evidence supported an association of acculturation with poor dietary quality and obesity. These associations appeared to be modified by several socioeconomic and demographic factors and were not always linear. The association between acculturation and T2D is unclear. Longitudinal studies and more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to better understand if and how acculturation affects health-disparity outcomes in Latinos. Tailoring interventions to the acculturation level of individuals is likely to help reduce health disparities in Latinos.

  13. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  14. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  15. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments. PMID:28380078

  16. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Tampuu

    Full Text Available Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  17. Multiagent cooperation and competition with deep reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampuu, Ardi; Matiisen, Tambet; Kodelja, Dorian; Kuzovkin, Ilya; Korjus, Kristjan; Aru, Juhan; Aru, Jaan; Vicente, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cooperation and competition can appear when multiple adaptive agents share a biological, social, or technological niche. In the present work we study how cooperation and competition emerge between autonomous agents that learn by reinforcement while using only their raw visual input as the state representation. In particular, we extend the Deep Q-Learning framework to multiagent environments to investigate the interaction between two learning agents in the well-known video game Pong. By manipulating the classical rewarding scheme of Pong we show how competitive and collaborative behaviors emerge. We also describe the progression from competitive to collaborative behavior when the incentive to cooperate is increased. Finally we show how learning by playing against another adaptive agent, instead of against a hard-wired algorithm, results in more robust strategies. The present work shows that Deep Q-Networks can become a useful tool for studying decentralized learning of multiagent systems coping with high-dimensional environments.

  18. Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Luc E. Cartron; Patricia L. Kennedy; Rob Yaksich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    The Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) is intermediate in size between the Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and the Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus), northern North America's other two accipiters. The two sexes are almost alike in plumage, but as in both of the other species, the female is noticeably larger. According to Wheeler and Clark (1995), a...

  19. Innovation, Translation, and Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    The 9th Wound Healing and Tissue Repair and Regeneration Annual Meeting of Chinese Tissue Repair Society was hold in Wuhan, China. This meeting was focused on the innovation, translation application, and cooperation in wound care both in China and other countries. More than 400 delegates took part in this meeting and communicated successfully. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Combat or Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    The best intentioned efforts of adults are often sabotaged by coercive climates of bullying among peers and conflict with adults. The solution is to create cultures where youth cooperate with authority and treat one another with respect. In this article, the authors stress the task of the staff to create a condition in which students see more…

  1. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  2. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  3. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  4. Designs for Cooperative Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Robin

    Educators are moving toward models of instruction that contain a myriad of interaction patterns among teachers and students. This shift from didactic teaching models to intensely involving designs is difficult for teachers, but is made easier if seen as a gradual change. This book provides an overview of 12 cooperative interaction designs for the…

  5. Non-Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe non-cooperative game models and discuss game theoretic solution concepts. Some applications are also noted. Conventional theory focuses on the question ‘how will rational players play?’, and has the Nash equilibrium at its core. We discuss this concept and its interpretations, as well as

  6. Robust Dynamic Cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauso, D.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    Classical cooperative game theory is no longer a suitable tool for those situations where the values of coalitions are not known with certainty. Recent works address situations where the values of coalitions are modelled by random variables. In this work we still consider the values of coalitions as

  7. Does intuition cause cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); S. Bouwmeester (Samantha)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRecently, researchers claimed that people are intuitively inclined to cooperate with reflection causing them to behave selfishly. Empirical support for this claim came from experiments using a 4-player public goods game with a marginal return of 0.5 showing that people contributed more

  8. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. Cooperation; epigenetics; evolution; levels of selection ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or ...

  9. Can war foster cooperation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bauer, Michal; Blattman, C.; Chytilová, Julie; Henrich, J.; Miguel, E.; Mitts, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-274 ISSN 0895-3309 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : war * conflict * cooperation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 5.727, year: 2016

  10. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  11. Ion manipulation method and device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Gordon A.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.

    2017-11-07

    An ion manipulation method and device is disclosed. The device includes a pair of substantially parallel surfaces. An array of inner electrodes is contained within, and extends substantially along the length of, each parallel surface. The device includes a first outer array of electrodes and a second outer array of electrodes. Each outer array of electrodes is positioned on either side of the inner electrodes, and is contained within and extends substantially along the length of each parallel surface. A DC voltage is applied to the first and second outer array of electrodes. A RF voltage, with a superimposed electric field, is applied to the inner electrodes by applying the DC voltages to each electrode. Ions either move between the parallel surfaces within an ion confinement area or along paths in the direction of the electric field, or can be trapped in the ion confinement area.

  12. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  13. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  14. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  15. Virus manipulation of cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, R; Costa, H; Parkhouse, R M E

    2012-07-01

    Viruses depend on host cell resources for replication and access to those resources may be limited to a particular phase of the cell cycle. Thus manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment. For example, viruses capable of infecting nondividing cells induce S phase in order to activate the host DNA replication machinery and provide the nucleotide triphosphates necessary for viral DNA replication (Flemington in J Virol 75:4475-4481, 2001; Sullivan and Pipas in Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66:179-202, 2002). Viruses have developed several strategies to subvert the cell cycle by association with cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase complexes and molecules that regulate their activity. Viruses tend to act on cellular proteins involved in a network of interactions in a way that minimal protein-protein interactions lead to a major effect. The complex and interactive nature of intracellular signaling pathways controlling cell division affords many opportunities for virus manipulation strategies. Taking the maxim "Set a thief to catch a thief" as a counter strategy, however, provides us with the very same virus evasion strategies as "ready-made tools" for the development of novel antivirus therapeutics. The most obvious are attenuated virus vaccines with critical evasion genes deleted. Similarly, vaccines against viruses causing cancer are now being successfully developed. Finally, as viruses have been playing chess with our cell biology and immune responses for millions of years, the study of their evasion strategies will also undoubtedly reveal new control mechanisms and their corresponding cellular intracellular signaling pathways.

  16. A links manipulator simulation program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    A computer program to simulate the performance of the Heysham II rail-following manipulator has been developed. The program is being used to develop and test the rail-following control algorithms which will be used to control movements of the manipulator when it is operating below the gas baffle dome. The simulation includes the dynamic responses of the manipulator joint drives, excluding friction, backlash and compliance. It also includes full details of the manipulator's geometry. A method is given whereby the actual manipulator dynamics can be written into the program once these have been established by measurement. The program is written in FORTRAN and runs on a Perkin-Elmer 3220 mini-computer. The simulation program responds to velocity demands on the individual joints. These will normally come from the control program, in which they will be manually controlled by a joystick. A sigma 5664 colour graphics generator is programmed to display the current position of the manipulator. (UK)

  17. Collision Detection for Underwater ROV Manipulator Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivčev, Satja; Rossi, Matija; Coleman, Joseph; Omerdić, Edin; Dooly, Gerard; Toal, Daniel

    2018-04-06

    Work-class ROVs equipped with robotic manipulators are extensively used for subsea intervention operations. Manipulators are teleoperated by human pilots relying on visual feedback from the worksite. Operating in a remote environment, with limited pilot perception and poor visibility, manipulator collisions which may cause significant damage are likely to happen. This paper presents a real-time collision detection algorithm for marine robotic manipulation. The proposed collision detection mechanism is developed, integrated into a commercial ROV manipulator control system, and successfully evaluated in simulations and experimental setup using a real industry standard underwater manipulator. The presented collision sensing solution has a potential to be a useful pilot assisting tool that can reduce the task load, operational time, and costs of subsea inspection, repair, and maintenance operations.

  18. The intersection of disability and healthcare disparities: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework for understanding healthcare disparities experienced by individuals with disabilities. While health disparities are the result of factors deeply rooted in culture, life style, socioeconomic status, and accessibility of resources, healthcare disparities are a subset of health disparities that reflect differences in access to and quality of healthcare and can be viewed as the inability of the healthcare system to adequately address the needs of specific population groups. This article uses a narrative method to identify and critique the main conceptual frameworks that have been used in analyzing disparities in healthcare access and quality, and evaluating those frameworks in the context of healthcare for individuals with disabilities. Specific models that are examined include the Aday and Anderson Model, the Grossman Utility Model, the Institute of Medicine (IOM)'s models of Access to Healthcare Services and Healthcare Disparities, and the Cultural Competency model. While existing frameworks advance understandings of disparities in healthcare access and quality, they fall short when applied to individuals with disabilities. Specific deficits include a lack of attention to cultural and contextual factors (Aday and Andersen framework), unrealistic assumptions regarding equal access to resources (Grossman's utility model), lack of recognition or inclusion of concepts of structural accessibility (IOM model of Healthcare Disparities) and exclusive emphasis on supply side of the healthcare equation to improve healthcare disparities (Cultural Competency model). In response to identified gaps in the literature and short-comings of current conceptualizations, an integrated model of disability and healthcare disparities is put forth. We analyzed models of access to care and disparities in healthcare to be able to have an integrated and cohesive conceptual framework that could potentially address issues related to access to

  19. Master-slave-manipulator 'EMSM I'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The apparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weight compensation. (orig.) [de

  20. Seismic qualification of existing safety class manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-shu; Moran, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    There are two bridge type electromechanical manipulators within a nuclear fuel handling facility which were constructed over twenty-five years ago. At that time, there were only minimal seismic considerations. These manipulators together with the facility are being reactivated. Detailed analyses have shown that the manipulators will satisfy the requirements of ANSI/AISC N690-1984 when they are subjected to loadings including the site specific design basis earthquake. 4 refs

  1. Master-slave-manipulator EMSM I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.W.; Salaske, M.

    1976-01-01

    A master-slave manipulator with electric force transmission and reflection was developed for the first time in the German Federal Republic. The aparatus belongs to the class of 200 N carrying capacity. It is intended mainly for nuclear purposes and especially for use in large hot cells and also for medium and heavy manipulator vehicles. The most obvious innovations compared with previously known foreign electric master-slave manipulators are two additional possibilities of movement and the electric dead weightcompensation. (orig.) [de

  2. Health Disparities in Veterans: A Map of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Karli; Low, Allison; Everson, Teresa; Gordon, Christine D; Veazie, Stephanie; Lozier, Crystal C; Freeman, Michele; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Mendelson, Aaron; Friesen, Mark; Paynter, Robin; Friesen, Caroline; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Saha, Somnath; Quiñones, Ana; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-01

    Goals for improving the quality of care for all Veterans and eliminating health disparities are outlined in the Veterans Health Administration Blueprint for Excellence, but the degree to which disparities in utilization, health outcomes, and quality of care affect Veterans is not well understood. To characterize the research on health care disparities in the Veterans Health Administration by means of a map of the evidence. We conducted a systematic search for research studies published from 2006 to February 2016 in MEDLINE and other data sources. We included studies of Veteran populations that examined disparities in 3 outcome categories: utilization, quality of health care, and patient health. We abstracted data on study design, setting, population, clinical area, outcomes, mediators, and presence of disparity for each outcome category. We grouped the data by population characteristics including race, disability status, mental illness, demographics (age, era of service, rural location, and distance from care), sex identity, socioeconomic status, and homelessness, and created maps illustrating the evidence. We reviewed 4249 citations and abstracted data from 351 studies which met inclusion criteria. Studies examining disparities by race/ethnicity comprised by far the vast majority of the literature, followed by studies examining disparities by sex, and mental health condition. Very few studies examined disparities related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity or homelessness. Disparities findings vary widely by population and outcome. Our evidence maps provide a "lay of the land" and identify important gaps in knowledge about health disparities experienced by different Veteran populations.

  3. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Heat Transfer Manipulation via Switchable Wettability Surfaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research seeks to manipulate heat transfer during flow condensation in low-gravity environments by employing switchable wettability surfaces....

  5. Nano-manipulation of single DNA molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai; Lv Junhong; Wang Guohua; Wang Ying; Li Minqian; Zhang Yi; Li Bin; Li Haikuo; An Hongjie

    2004-01-01

    Nano-manipulation of single atoms and molecules is a critical technique in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This review paper will focus on the recent development of the manipulation of single DNA molecules based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). Precise manipulation has been realized including varied manipulating modes such as 'cutting', 'pushing', 'folding', 'kneading', 'picking up', 'dipping', etc. The cutting accuracy is dominated by the size of the AFM tip, which is usually 10 nm or less. Single DNA fragments can be cut and picked up and then amplified by single molecule PCR. Thus positioning isolation and sequencing can be performed. (authors)

  6. Cooperation and cheating in microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the cooperative and competitive dynamics within and between species is a central challenge in evolutionary biology. Microbial model systems represent a unique opportunity to experimentally test fundamental theories regarding the evolution of cooperative behaviors. In this talk I will describe our experiments probing cooperation in microbes. In particular, I will compare the cooperative growth of yeast in sucrose and the cooperative inactivation of antibiotics by bacteria. In both cases we find that cheater strains---which don't contribute to the public welfare---are able to take advantage of the cooperator strains. However, this ability of cheaters to out-compete cooperators occurs only when cheaters are present at low frequency, thus leading to steady-state coexistence. These microbial experiments provide fresh insight into the evolutionary origin of cooperation.

  7. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brezillon, P.; Cases, E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule

    1995-01-01

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  8. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  9. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1989-03-01

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed [fr

  10. Chiropractic manipulation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoline Michael R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains the most common deforming orthopedic condition in children. Increasingly, both adults and children are seeking complementary and alternative therapy, including chiropractic treatment, for a wide variety of health concerns. The scientific evidence supporting the use chiropractic intervention is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot study and explore issues of safety, patient recruitment and compliance, treatment standardization, sham treatment refinement, inter-professional cooperation, quality assurance, and outcome measure selection. Methods Six patients participated in this 6-month study, 5 of whom were female. One female was braced. The mean age of these patients was 14 years, and the mean Cobb angle was 22.2 degrees. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial with two independent and blinded observers. Three patients were treated by standard medical care (observation or brace treatment, two were treated with standard medical care plus chiropractic manipulation, and one was treated with standard medical care plus sham manipulation. The primary outcome measure was Cobb, and the psychosocial measure was Scoliosis Quality of Life Index. Results Orthopedic surgeons and chiropractors were easily recruited and worked cooperatively throughout the trial. Patient recruitment and compliance was good. Chiropractic treatments were safely employed, and research protocols were successful. Conclusion Overall, our pilot study showed the viability for a larger randomized trial. This pilot confirms the strength of existing protocols with amendments for use in a full randomized controlled trial. Trial registration This trial has been assigned an international standard randomized controlled trial number by Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. The number is ISRCTN41221647.

  11. Cooperative arbitration under Spanish law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Martí Miravalls

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the cooperative arbitration as an alternative means of conflict resolution. The research could be divided into two blocks: the first controversial issues related to the figure of the cooperative arbitration are analyzed. In the second block the current legal regime of the cooperative arbitration, which is basically develops regional.

  12. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  13. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  14. Forestry Cooperatives: Organization and Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Donald M.; Scoville, Orlin J.

    1982-01-01

    This study describes organizational structure, functions, and facilities of forestry cooperatives in the United States. It evaluates their economic performance and explores current problem areas and potentials for future development. Cooperative organization provides woodland owners professional forestry assistance, in terms of forest management, marketing, and educational activities. Some cooperatives consistently provide these services at less than prevailing rates and obtain higher than av...

  15. Cooperative competition for future mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held, providing the possibility for teams to develop and compare their cooperative driving solutions in a competitive setting. The challenge was organized to further accelerate developments in the area of cooperative driving. Nine

  16. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  17. Cooperative functions: meeting members' needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark G. Rickenbach

    2006-01-01

    Cooperatives are effective when they meet the needs of the members. In past and current offerings by cooperatives as a whole and forestry cooperatives in particular, four functional categories cover the typical services a forest landowner might gain access to through joining (Cobia 1989). The four categories - marketing, supply, service, and social - are defined and...

  18. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  19. Decomposing Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Chelsea R.; Affuso, Olivia; Sen, Bisakha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Racial disparities in obesity exist at the individual and community levels. Retail food environment has been hypothesized to be associated with racial disparities in obesity prevalence. This study aimed to quantify how much food environment measures explain racial disparities in obesity at the county level. Methods Data from 2009 to 2010 on 3,135 U.S. counties were extracted from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Environment Atlas and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and analyzed in 2013. Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition was used to quantify the portion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high and low proportion of African American residents is explained by food environment measures (e.g., proximity to grocery stores, per capita fast food restaurants). Counties were considered to have a high African American population if the percentage of African American residents was >13.1%, which represents the 2010 U.S. Census national estimate of percentage African American citizens. Results There were 665 counties (21%) classified as a high African American county. The total gap in mean adult obesity prevalence between high and low African American counties was found to be 3.35 percentage points (32.98% vs 29.63%). Retail food environment measures explained 13.81% of the gap in mean age-adjusted adult obesity prevalence. Conclusions Retail food environment explains a proportion of the gap in adult obesity prevalence observed between counties with a high proportion of African American residents and counties with a low proportion of African American residents. PMID:26507301

  20. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  1. Influences for Gender Disparity in Academic Neuroradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M; Khurshid, K; Sanelli, P C; Jalal, S; Chahal, T; Norbash, A; Nicolaou, S; Castillo, M; Khosa, F

    2018-01-01

    There has been extensive interest in promoting gender equality within radiology, a predominately male field. In this study, our aim was to quantify gender representation in neuroradiology faculty rankings and determine any related factors that may contribute to any such disparity. We evaluated the academic and administrative faculty members of neuroradiology divisions for all on-line listed programs in the US and Canada. After excluding programs that did not fulfill our selection criteria, we generated a short list of 85 US and 8 Canadian programs. We found 465 faculty members who met the inclusion criteria for our study. We used Elsevier's SCOPUS for gathering the data pertaining to the publications, H-index, citations, and tenure of the productivity of each faculty member. Gender disparity was insignificant when analyzing academic ranks. There are more men working in neuroimaging relative to women (χ 2 = 0.46; P = .79). However, gender disparity was highly significant for leadership positions in neuroradiology (χ 2 = 6.76; P = .009). The median H-index was higher among male faculty members (17.5) versus female faculty members (9). Female faculty members have odds of 0.84 compared with male faculty members of having a higher H-index, adjusting for publications, citations, academic ranks, leadership ranks, and interaction between gender and publications and gender and citations (9). Neuroradiology faculty members follow the same male predominance seen in many other specialties of medicine. In this study, issues such as mentoring, role models, opportunities to engage in leadership/research activities, funding opportunities, and mindfulness regarding research productivity are explored. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Kinematics and Control of Robot Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Bradley Evan

    This dissertation focuses on the kinematics and control of robot manipulators. The contribution to kinematics is a fundamental theorem on the design of manipulators with six revolute joints. The theorem states, roughly speaking, that manipulators which have six revolute joints and are modeled after the human arm are optimal and essentially unique. In developing the mathematical framework to prove this theorem, we define precisely the notions of length of a manipulator, well-connected-workspace, and work-volume. We contribute to control a set of analysis techniques for the design of variable structure (sliding mode) controllers for manipulators. The organization of the dissertation is the following. After introductory remarks in chapter one, the group of proper rigid motions, G, is introduced in chapter two. The tangent bundle of G is introduced and it is shown that the velocity of a rigid body can be represented by an element in the Lie algebra of G (commonly called a twist). Further, rigid motions which are exponentials of twists are used to describe four commonly occurring subproblems in robot kinematics. In chapter three, the exponentials of twists are used to write the forward kinematic map of robot manipulators and the subproblems of chapter two are used to solve the Stanford manipulator and an elbow manipulator. Chapter four focuses on manipulator singularities. Twist coordinates are used to find critical points of the forward kinematic map. The contribution to kinematics is contained in chapter five where a mathematical framework for studying the relationship between the design of 6R manipulators and their performance is developed. Chapter seven contains the contribution to control. The work of A. F. Filippov on differential equations with discontinuous right-hand-side and the work of F. H. Clarke on generalized gradients are combined to obtain a calculus for analyzing nonsmooth gradient systems. The techniques developed are applied to design a simple

  3. Manipulator-deployed laser decontamination system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littwin, Rene; Hurtado, Antonio; Lippmann, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    Project aim is the development of a manipulator-deployed system using laser technology to ablate radioactive concrete surfaces. Manipulator technology competences of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and competences of TU Dresden (TUD) using laser technology for the ablation of surfaces were successfully combined. The report presents the results that were accomplished at TU Dresden. In the first part, the state of development in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Germany and Europe is presented and technologies commonly used are being identified and compared. So requirements have been derived from this data base to be fulfilled by the laser decontamination technology and the carrier system. Using the results of the research project LASABA II (FKZ: 02S8356, completed in 2008) for optimized laser ablation of concrete surfaces, the technology has been further developed in order to use it as a fully remote controlled device in combination with a manipulator as carrier system. Therefore, the laser ablation unit was equipped with a sensor system developed within this project. Together with the manipulator the latter serves as a basis for the system to be used under industrial conditions. The performance of the laser decontamination system was increased by adapting it to an enhanced diode laser with 10 kW laser power recently put into operation at TU Dresden. The performance of the single components was analysed and verified in several experiments. This includes tests with obstacles of different shapes and sizes occurring in real nuclear power plants like metal bolts, screws and edges. The experiments show that small metal parts are ablated by the laser decontamination system, while bigger parts, which would otherwise damage the system, are detected by the sensors. Thereby, the system is able to avoid these big metal parts. In cooperation with E.ON Kernkraft, concrete samples from the nuclear power plant in Wuergassen were used to show that the developed

  4. Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Brian M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Fleisher, Linda; Green, Bernard Lee

    2014-03-01

    During a panel presentation at the American Association for Cancer Research Cancer Health Disparities Conference titled 'Opportunities and challenges of using technology to address health disparities', the latest scientific advances in the application and utilization of mobile technology and/or mobile-health (mHealth) interventions to address cancer health disparities were discussed. The session included: an examination of overall population trends in the uptake of technology and the potential of addressing health disparities through such media; an exploration of the conceptual issues and challenges in the construction of mHealth interventions to address disparate and underserved populations; and a presentation of pilot study findings on the acceptability and feasibility of using mHealth interventions to address prostate cancer disparities among African-American men.

  5. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B

    2017-08-14

    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  6. The development areas - between cohesion and disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena LUPCHIAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current development regions are composed by counties with very different development levels, and the urban centres they include are also characterised by different polarisation abilities. Great differences persist among the Romanian development regions, created in order to mitigate the development discrepancies existing in Romania. The comparative analysis of socio-economic development, attractiveness and quality of life benchmarks, from the beginning of these territorial constructions to the current time, seeks to outline the extent to which they have led to a rebalancing or, on the contrary, to greater disparities, not only within the development areas themselves, but also at national level

  7. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  8. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  9. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  10. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  11. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the role of the three Scandinavian central banks in the establishment of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in 1930, and in the international lender of last resort operation towards Austria in 1931. I argue that small central banks were reluctant supporters...... in the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  12. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  13. Enresa International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Beceiro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (ENRESA) was set up in 1984 with the mandate to undertake responsibility for radioactive waste management in Spain. From the very beginning, ENRESA was fully aware of the fact that international cooperation plays a very important role in the development of national programmes. Aspects such as the setting up of international databases, the development and validation of models or site characterization technique such enormous efforts and amounts of resources that they could hardly be undertaken individually. Furthermore, joint participation in research, development and demonstration projects reinforces the level of confidence, not only in the decision-making process but also in the technologies, techniques and practices used. ENRESA's participation in the international contexts is largely defined, on the one hand, by the needs arising from its technical programme, as reflected in the General Radioactive Waste Plan and in the Research and Development Plan, and on the other by the need to support spanish governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental institutions in their participation in inter-governmental forums. The formula for cooperation varies according to needs, this cooperation generally being accomplished by means of bilateral agreements with other institutions having similar competence or by participating in the programmes of inter-governmental organizations. In particular, ENRESA has reached cooperation agreements with most of the agencies with similar responsibilities in other countries and participates very actively in the programmes of the European Union, the Nuclear energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (Author)

  14. Predicting Human Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investiga...

  15. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  16. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  17. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Shigeoki; Kita, Nobuyuki; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo; Hara, Isao; Matsui, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  18. Understanding Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Youth Mental Health Services: Do Disparities Vary by Problem Type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, Omar G.; Lau, Anna S.; Yeh, May; McCabe, Kristen M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined racial/ethnic disparities in mental health service use based on problem type (internalizing/externalizing). A diverse sample of youth in contact with public sectors of care and their families provided reports of youth's symptoms and functional impairment during an initial interview. Specialty and school-based mental health…

  19. MEMS 6 degrees of freedom parallel micro manipulator for TEM sample manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; de Jong, B.R.; Soemers, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Up till now MEMS actuators acted either only in-plane or only out-of plane restricting to 3 DOF manipulation. A design for a millimeter-sized manipulator with 6 degrees of freedom to manipulate a micron-sized substrate at nanometer resolution over strokes of 10 microns with a position stability

  20. Genetic manipulation system in propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2002-01-01

    Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid as well as in probiotic and cheese industries. Shuttle vectors were developed in propionibacteria using replicons from endogenous plasmids in Propionibacterium and Escherichia coli and an appropriate selection marker. The efficient transformation was achieved using the shuttle vector prepared from Propionibacterium freudenreichii to overcome the high restriction modification system in propionibacteria. Expression vectors with native promoters for use in propionibacteria were also developed. Using this system, cholesterol oxidase, which is used as a diagnostic enzyme, was produced in P. freudenreichii. Genes involved in 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and vitamin B12 biosynthesis in propionibacteria were isolated. ALA in propionibacteria could be synthesized via both the C4 pathway (condensation of glycine and succinyl CoA) and the C5 pathway (from glutamate). The hemA gene encoding ALA synthase from Rhodobacter spheroides, was overexpressed and ALA accumulated in P. freudenreichii. Thus, the genetic manipulation systems in propionibacteria will facilitate genetic studies of probiotics and the vitamin B12 biosynthetic pathway.

  1. Light Manipulation in Organic Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qing-Dong; Li, Yan-Qing; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2016-07-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) hold great promise for next-generation photovoltaics in renewable energy because of the potential to realize low-cost mass production via large-area roll-to-roll printing technologies on flexible substrates. To achieve high-efficiency OPVs, one key issue is to overcome the insufficient photon absorption in organic photoactive layers, since their low carrier mobility limits the film thickness for minimized charge recombination loss. To solve the inherent trade-off between photon absorption and charge transport in OPVs, the optical manipulation of light with novel micro/nano-structures has become an increasingly popular strategy to boost the light harvesting efficiency. In this Review, we make an attempt to capture the recent advances in this area. A survey of light trapping schemes implemented to various functional components and interfaces in OPVs is given and discussed from the viewpoint of plasmonic and photonic resonances, addressing the external antireflection coatings, substrate geometry-induced trapping, the role of electrode design in optical enhancement, as well as optically modifying charge extraction and photoactive layers.

  2. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  3. Manipulating duckweed through genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vunsh, R; Heinig, U; Malitsky, S; Aharoni, A; Avidov, A; Lerner, A; Edelman, M

    2015-01-01

    Significant inter- and intraspecific genetic variation exists in duckweed, thus the potential for genome plasticity and manipulation is high. Polyploidy is recognised as a major mechanism of adaptation and speciation in plants. We produced several genome-duplicated lines of Landoltia punctata (Spirodela oligorrhiza) from both whole plants and regenerating explants using a colchicine-based cocktail. These lines stably maintained an enlarged frond and root morphology. DNA ploidy levels determined by florescence-activated cell sorting indicated genome duplication. Line A4 was analysed after 75 biomass doublings. Frond area, fresh and dry weights, rhizoid number and length were significantly increased versus wild type, while the growth rate was unchanged. This resulted in accumulation of biomass 17-20% faster in the A4 plants. We sought to determine if specific differences in gene products are found in the genome duplicated lines. Non-targeted ultra performance LC-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry was employed to compare some of the lines and the wild type to seek identification of up-regulated metabolites. We putatively identified differential metabolites in Line A65 as caffeoyl hexoses. The combination of directed genome duplication and metabolic profiling might offer a path for producing stable gene expression, leading to altered production of secondary metabolites. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Hierarchical control of aerial manipulation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Somasundar; Bezzaoucha, Souad; Guzman, Serket Quintanar; Dentler, Jan; Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Voos, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical Control of the Aerial Manipulator is treated here. The modelling aspect of the highly coupled Aerial Vehicle which includes Quadrotor and manipulator is discussed. The control design to perform tasks in operational space is addressed along with stability discussion. The simulation studies are successfully performed to validate the design methodology.

  5. Even Middle Graders Can Learn with Manipulatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Linda

    1987-01-01

    Math manipulatives let students see the components of an abstract problem, help build a concrete language for talking about math concepts, and encourage students to gain confidence in their ability to figure things out. Many suggestions for using manipulatives in math instruction are offered. (MT)

  6. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  7. Manipulation performance in interactive virtual environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkhoven, P.J.; Groen, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied manipulation performance in virtual environments using two types of controllers: virtual hand control and 3D mouse-cursor control. These manipulation methods were tested under monoscopic and stereoscopic viewing conditions. Participants were asked to discriminate, grasp, pitch, roll

  8. Manipulation or Mobilisation for Neck Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Miller, Jordan; D'Sylva, Jonathan; Burnie, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Manipulation and mobilisation are often used, either alone or combined with other treatment approaches, to treat neck pain. Objectives To assess if manipulation or mobilisation improves pain, function/disability, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and global perceived effect in adults

  9. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  10. Outcome manipulation in corporate prediction markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for applying prediction markets to corporate decision-making. The analysis is motivated by the recent surge of interest in markets as information aggregation devices and their potential use within firms. We characterize the amount of outcome manipulation that results...... in equilibrium and the impact of this manipulation on market prices...

  11. Tools for Manipulation and Characterisation of Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Bøggild, Peter

    grippers, which were then successfully used for pick-and-place manipulation of silicon nanowires. For increased gripping force and control over the manipulation process, microfabricated grippers with integrated force-feedback were also demonstrated. Environmental electron beam deposition (EEBD...... components that are some 10000 times smaller....

  12. How Getting Noticed Helps Getting On: Successful Attention Capture Doubles Children’s Cooperative Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola eYuill

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative social interaction is a complex skill that involves maintaining shared attention and continually negotiating a common frame of reference. Privileged in human evolution, cooperation provides support for the development of social-cognitive skills. We hypothesise that providing audio support for capturing playmates’ attention will increase cooperative play in groups of young children. Attention capture was manipulated via an audio-augmented toy to boost children’s attention bids. Study 1 (48 6- to 11-year-olds showed that the augmented toy yielded significantly more cooperative play in triads compared to the same toy without augmentation. In Study 2 (33 7- to 9-year-olds the augmented toy supported greater success of attention bids which were associated with longer cooperative play, associated in turn with better group narratives. The results show how cooperation requires moment-by-moment coordination of attention and how we can manipulate environments to reveal and support mechanisms of social interaction. Our findings have implications for understanding the role of joint attention in the development of cooperative action and shared understanding.

  13. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Epidemiology, Analysis, and Library Services (DEALS) Disparities Analytics CDC Disability and Health, Health Care Data & Statistics Healthy People 2020 HHS National Partnership for Action (NPA) AHRQ ...

  14. Global stereo matching algorithm based on disparity range estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei

    2017-09-01

    The global stereo matching algorithms are of high accuracy for the estimation of disparity map, but the time-consuming in the optimization process still faces a curse, especially for the image pairs with high resolution and large baseline setting. To improve the computational efficiency of the global algorithms, a disparity range estimation scheme for the global stereo matching is proposed to estimate the disparity map of rectified stereo images in this paper. The projective geometry in a parallel binocular stereo vision is investigated to reveal a relationship between two disparities at each pixel in the rectified stereo images with different baselines, which can be used to quickly obtain a predicted disparity map in a long baseline setting estimated by that in the small one. Then, the drastically reduced disparity ranges at each pixel under a long baseline setting can be determined by the predicted disparity map. Furthermore, the disparity range estimation scheme is introduced into the graph cuts with expansion moves to estimate the precise disparity map, which can greatly save the cost of computing without loss of accuracy in the stereo matching, especially for the dense global stereo matching, compared to the traditional algorithm. Experimental results with the Middlebury stereo datasets are presented to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  15. "You Don't Have to Like Me, but You Have to Respect Me": The Impacts of Assertiveness, Cooperativeness, and Group Satisfaction in Collaborative Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz-Berndt, Megan M.; Blight, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cooperativeness, assertiveness, group satisfaction, leader grade, and leadership negotiation in a collaborative assignment conducted in a small group. Researchers manipulated the assignment of team members who reported on measures of group satisfaction and original scales of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Respondents…

  16. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and Characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Haiyin

    2012-01-01

    Many optical design technical books are available for many years which mainly deal with image optics design based on geometric optics and using sequential raytracing technique. Some books slightly touched laser beam manipulation optics design. On the other hand many books on laser diodes have been published that extensively deal with laser diode physics with little touching on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. There are some internet resources dealing with laser diode beams. However, these internet resources have not covered enough materials with enough details on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations. A technical book concentrated on laser diode beam manipulations and characterizations can fit in to the open and provide useful information to laser diode users. Laser Diode Beam Basics, Manipulations and  Characterizations is concentrated on the very practical side of the subject, it only discusses the basic physics and mathematics that are necessary for the readers in order...

  17. Maximum allowable load on wheeled mobile manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibnejad Korayem, M.; Ghariblu, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper develops a computational technique for finding the maximum allowable load of mobile manipulator during a given trajectory. The maximum allowable loads which can be achieved by a mobile manipulator during a given trajectory are limited by the number of factors; probably the dynamic properties of mobile base and mounted manipulator, their actuator limitations and additional constraints applied to resolving the redundancy are the most important factors. To resolve extra D.O.F introduced by the base mobility, additional constraint functions are proposed directly in the task space of mobile manipulator. Finally, in two numerical examples involving a two-link planar manipulator mounted on a differentially driven mobile base, application of the method to determining maximum allowable load is verified. The simulation results demonstrates the maximum allowable load on a desired trajectory has not a unique value and directly depends on the additional constraint functions which applies to resolve the motion redundancy

  18. Disparities in obesity among rural and urban residents in a health disparate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jennie L; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2014-10-08

    The burden of obesity and obesity-related conditions is not borne equally and disparities in prevalence are well documented for low-income, minority and rural adults in the United States. The current literature on rural versus urban disparities is largely derived from national surveillance data which may not reflect regional nuances. There is little practical research that supports the reality of local service providers such as county health departments that may serve both urban and rural residents in a given area. Conducted through a community-academic partnership, the primary aim of this study is to quantify the current levels of obesity (BMI), fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and physical activity (PA) in a predominately rural health disparate region. Secondary aims are to determine if a gradient exists within the region in which rural residents have poorer outcomes on these indicators compared to urban residents. Conducted as part of a larger ongoing community-based participatory research (CBPR) initiative, data were gathered through a random digit dial telephone survey using previously validated measures (n = 784). Linear, logistic and quantile regression models are used to determine if residency (i.e. rural, urban) predicts outcomes of FV intake, PA and BMI. The majority (72%) of respondents were overweight (BMI = 29 ± 6 kg/m2), with 29% being obese. Only 9% of residents met recommendations for FV intake and 38% met recommendations for PA. Statistically significant gradients between urban and rural and race exist at the upper end of the BMI distribution. In other words, the severity of obesity is worse among black compared to white and for urban residents compared to rural residents. These results will be used by the community-academic partnership to guide the development of culturally relevant and sustainable interventions to increase PA, increase FV intake and reduce obesity within this health disparate region. In particular, local stakeholders may wish to

  19. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  20. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  1. Cooperation, Fast and Slow: Meta-Analytic Evidence for a Theory of Social Heuristics and Self-Interested Deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G

    2016-09-01

    Does cooperating require the inhibition of selfish urges? Or does "rational" self-interest constrain cooperative impulses? I investigated the role of intuition and deliberation in cooperation by meta-analyzing 67 studies in which cognitive-processing manipulations were applied to economic cooperation games (total N = 17,647; no indication of publication bias using Egger's test, Begg's test, or p-curve). My meta-analysis was guided by the social heuristics hypothesis, which proposes that intuition favors behavior that typically maximizes payoffs, whereas deliberation favors behavior that maximizes one's payoff in the current situation. Therefore, this theory predicts that deliberation will undermine pure cooperation (i.e., cooperation in settings where there are few future consequences for one's actions, such that cooperating is not in one's self-interest) but not strategic cooperation (i.e., cooperation in settings where cooperating can maximize one's payoff). As predicted, the meta-analysis revealed 17.3% more pure cooperation when intuition was promoted over deliberation, but no significant difference in strategic cooperation between more intuitive and more deliberative conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Virtual Manipulative Materials in Secondary Mathematics: A Theoretical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukasa, Immacukate K.; Stanley, Darren; Tuchtie, Martin

    2009-01-01

    With the increased use of computer manipulatives in teaching there is need for theoretical discussions on the role of manipulatives. This paper reviews theoretical rationales for using manipulatives and illustrates how earlier distinctions of manipulative materials are broadened to include new forms of materials such as virtual manipulatives.…

  3. Pressure to cooperate: is positive reward interdependence really needed in cooperative learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Céline; Gilles, Ingrid; Dutrévis, Marion; Butera, Fabrizio

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Despite extensive research on cooperative learning, the debate regarding whether or not its effectiveness depends on positive reward interdependence has not yet found clear evidence. AIMS. We tested the hypothesis that positive reward interdependence, as compared to reward independence, enhances cooperative learning only if learners work on a 'routine task'; if the learners work on a 'true group task', positive reward interdependence induces the same level of learning as reward independence. SAMPLE. The study involved 62 psychology students during regular workshops. METHOD. Students worked on two psychology texts in cooperative dyads for three sessions. The type of task was manipulated through resource interdependence: students worked on either identical (routine task) or complementary (true group task) information. Students expected to be assessed with a Multiple Choice Test (MCT) on the two texts. The MCT assessment type was introduced according to two reward interdependence conditions, either individual (reward independence) or common (positive reward interdependence). A follow-up individual test took place 4 weeks after the third session of dyadic work to examine individual learning. RESULTS. The predicted interaction between the two types of interdependence was significant, indicating that students learned more with positive reward interdependence than with reward independence when they worked on identical information (routine task), whereas students who worked on complementary information (group task) learned the same with or without reward interdependence. CONCLUSIONS. This experiment sheds light on the conditions under which positive reward interdependence enhances cooperative learning, and suggests that creating a real group task allows to avoid the need for positive reward interdependence. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. How Do Reliability and Timing Influence Cue-Combinations for Shading and Stereo-Disparity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Lovell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cue-conflict studies have been used with considerable success to examine the mechanisms underlying the integration of different sensory cues. Our recent studies have used these methods to examine the combination of stereo-disparity and shading cues in realistically rendered stimuli. The stimuli featured circular convexities with cyclopean shading and a stereo-cue based upon a densely dotted surface texture—other cues (shape outline and surface texture gradient were controlled for. In our first experiment observers made depth discriminations while disparity noise was manipulated; we were able to demonstrate that for most observers cues are combined optimally—ie, PSEs and response variances shifted towards the more reliable channel. In a follow-on study we have examined how these cue-combinations are affected by presentation timing—with forwards and backwards masking. For most observers the adage that shading provides a quick and dirty mechanism for making depth judgements seems to be supported. Observers can make reliable depth judgements based upon shading when the difference in depth is relatively fine. However, for fine discriminations more time is required, and by this time the more accurate information from the stereo-channel has become available and is used.

  5. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  7. Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education | Deepika ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of gender disparity is one which has been publicly reverberating through society for decades. This paper “Gender Disparity and Its Impact on Higher Education” reviews a diverse literature on gender and higher education. Gender inequality is more pronounced in some aspects of the educational systems than in ...

  8. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P.; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system. PMID:22438737

  9. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  10. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  11. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  12. Hydraulic Robotic Surgical Tool Changing Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique to perform "scarless" abdominal operations. Robotic technology has been exploited to improve NOTES and circumvent its limitations. Lack of a multitasking platform is a major limitation. Manual tool exchange can be time consuming and may lead to complications such as bleeding. Previous multifunctional manipulator designs use electric motors. These designs are bulky, slow, and expensive. This paper presents design, prototyping, and testing of a hydraulic robotic tool changing manipulator. The manipulator is small, fast, low-cost, and capable of carrying four different types of laparoscopic instruments.

  13. Managing collaboration in the nanoManipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudson, Thomas C.; Helser, Aren T.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2004-01-01

    We designed, developed, deployed, and evaluated the Collaborative nanoManipulator (CnM), a distributed, collaborative virtual environment system supporting remote scientific collaboration between users of the nanoManipulator interface to atomic force microscopes. This paper describes the entire...... collaboration system, but focuses on the shared nanoManipulator (nM) application. To be readily accepted by users, the shared nM application had to have the same high level of interactivity as the single-user system and include all the functions of the single-user system. In addition the application had...

  14. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests

  15. Development of the heavy manipulator vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, C.; Paustian, P.; Kruger, W.

    1993-01-01

    After the severe reactor accident of Tschernobyl in 1986 MaK System started to develop a Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System under contract from German nuclear technology assistance company ''KHG'' (Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH). The system comprises a remote controlled manipulator vehicle, a mobile mission control stand as well as a transport/service unit. In order to fulfill the high demands of this complex system a couple of new developments had to be started. The paper describes some of these developments and gives an overview about the main features of the Heavy Manipulator Vehicle System (HMV). (author)

  16. Husserl and Heidegger: exploring the disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Henry, Tracy; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Introduced as an alternative to empirical science, phenomenology offers nursing an insightful means for understanding nursing phenomena specifically in relation to lived experiences. However, not all phenomenologies were created equal, a point which has left many a nursing researcher not only confused. Furthermore, this confusion might result in the choosing of a philosophical framework that is neither cognizant with the research question nor the epistemological lens through which the researcher operates. Drawing on common nursing examples to illustrate concepts, the authors closely examine and debate the disparities between Husserl's transcendental phenomenology and Heidegger's hermeneutic approach to phenomenology. The aim of the article is to demystify the dense language used and present the fundamental beliefs of each philosopher in a format that is accessible to novice phenomenologists.

  17. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  18. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  19. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  20. Health Disparities and Cancer: Racial Disparities in Cancer Mortality in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Eileen B.; Meltzer, Jeremy P.; Bethea, Traci N.

    2015-01-01

    Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S.) have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates and mortality trends for Blacks and Whites. The complex relationship between socioeconomic status and race and its contribution to racial cancer disparities is discussed. Based on current trends and the potential and limitations of the patient protection and affordable care act with its mandate to reduce health care inequities, future trends, and challenges in cancer mortality disparities in the U.S. are explored. PMID:25932459

  1. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  2. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  3. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological 'design' space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused morphometric studies. The unique structural and

  4. Why should we investigate the morphological disparity of plant clades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyston, Jack W.; Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disparity refers to the morphological variation in a sample of taxa, and is distinct from diversity or taxonomic richness. Diversity and disparity are fundamentally decoupled; many groups attain high levels of disparity early in their evolution, while diversity is still comparatively low. Diversity may subsequently increase even in the face of static or declining disparity by increasingly fine sub-division of morphological ‘design’ space (morphospace). Many animal clades reached high levels of disparity early in their evolution, but there have been few comparable studies of plant clades, despite their profound ecological and evolutionary importance. This study offers a prospective and some preliminary macroevolutionary analyses. Methods Classical morphometric methods are most suitable when there is reasonable conservation of form, but lose traction where morphological differences become greater (e.g. in comparisons across higher taxa). Discrete character matrices offer one means to compare a greater diversity of forms. This study explores morphospaces derived from eight discrete data sets for major plant clades, and discusses their macroevolutionary implications. Key Results Most of the plant clades in this study show initial, high levels of disparity that approach or attain the maximum levels reached subsequently. These plant clades are characterized by an initial phase of evolution during which most regions of their empirical morphospaces are colonized. Angiosperms, palms, pines and ferns show remarkably little variation in disparity through time. Conifers furnish the most marked exception, appearing at relatively low disparity in the latest Carboniferous, before expanding incrementally with the radiation of successive, tightly clustered constituent sub-clades. Conclusions Many cladistic data sets can be repurposed for investigating the morphological disparity of plant clades through time, and offer insights that are complementary to more focused

  5. Defining racial and ethnic disparities in THA and TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgit, Kaan; Nelson, Charles L

    2011-07-01

    For minority populations in the United States, especially African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans, healthcare disparities are a serious problem. The literature documents racial and ethnic utilization disparities with regard to THA and TKA. We therefore (1) defined utilization disparities for total joint arthroplasty in racial and ethnic minorities, (2) delineated patient and provider factors contributing to the lower total joint arthroplasty utilization, and (3) discussed potential interventions and future research that may increase total joint arthroplasty utilization by racial and ethnic minorities. We searched the MEDLINE database and identified 67 articles, 21 of which we excluded. By searching Google and Google Scholar and reference lists of the included articles, we identified 40 articles for this review. Utilization disparities were defined by documented lower utilization of THA or TKA in specific racial or ethnic groups. Lower utilization of THA and TKA among some racial and ethnic minority groups (African Americans, Hispanics) is not explained by decreased disease prevalence or disability. At least some utilization disparities are independent of income, geographic location, education, and insurance status. Causal factors related to racial and ethnic disparities may be related in part to patient factors such as health literacy, trust, and preferences. Provider unconscious or conscious biases or beliefs also play a role in at least some healthcare disparities. Racial and ethnic THA and TKA utilization disparities exist. These disparities are not explained by lower disease prevalence. The existing data suggest patient education, improved health literacy regarding THA and TKA, and a patient-provider relationship leading to improved trust would be beneficial. Research providing a better understanding of the root causes of these disparities is needed.

  6. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  7. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  8. AVNG as a Test Case for Cooperative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J

    2010-05-21

    Designing a measurement system that might be used in a nuclear facility is a challenging, if not daunting, proposition. The situation is made more complicated when the system needs to be designed to satisfy the disparate requirements of a monitoring and a host party - a relationship that could prove to be adversarial. The cooperative design of the elements of the AVNG (Attribute Verification with Neutrons and Gamma Rays) system served as a crucible that exercised the possible pitfalls in the design and implementation of a measurement system that could be used in a host party nuclear facility that satisfied the constraints of operation for both the host and monitoring parties. Some of the issues that needed to be addressed in the joint design were certification requirements of the host party and the authentication requirements of the monitoring party. In this paper the nature of the problem of cooperative design will be introduced. The details of cooperative design revolve around the idiosyncratic nature of the adversarial relationship between the parties involved in a possible measurement regime, particularly if measurements on items that may contain sensitive information are being pursued. The possibility of an adversarial interaction is more likely if an information barrier is required for the measurement system. The origin of the antagonistic elements of the host party and hosted party relationship will be considered. In addition, some of the conclusions will be presented that make cooperative design (and development) proceed more efficiently. Finally, some lessons learned will be presented as a result of this expedition into cooperative design.

  9. Tension Stiffened and Tendon Actuated Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R. (Inventor); Dorsey, John T. (Inventor); Ganoe, George G. (Inventor); King, Bruce D. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas C. (Inventor); Mercer, Charles D. (Inventor); Corbin, Cole K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A tension stiffened and tendon actuated manipulator is provided performing robotic-like movements when acquiring a payload. The manipulator design can be adapted for use in-space, lunar or other planetary installations as it is readily configurable for acquiring and precisely manipulating a payload in both a zero-g environment and in an environment with a gravity field. The manipulator includes a plurality of link arms, a hinge connecting adjacent link arms together to allow the adjacent link arms to rotate relative to each other and a cable actuation and tensioning system provided between adjacent link arms. The cable actuation and tensioning system includes a spreader arm and a plurality of driven and non-driven elements attached to the link arms and the spreader arm. At least one cable is routed around the driven and non-driven elements for actuating the hinge.

  10. The modelling of industrial robot manipulator vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcham, L.J.; Rao, B.K.N.; Noroozi, S.; Penson, R.P. [Southampton Inst. (United Kingdom). Systems Engineering Research Centre

    1996-11-01

    The work reported in this paper addresses the modelling of robot manipulator vibration, with the specific aim of producing a model suitable to be employed within an active compensation controller. An overview of existing work on the modelling of robot dynamics, both mathematically and empirically, is reported. A model of the dynamics of an industrial manipulator, inclusive of vibration, derived using Lagrangian mechanics is presented and further developed through the application of experimental modal analysis, by which the position dependent modal parameters of an industrial robot manipulator are determined. The model results are compared with experimental vibration data taken from the end-effector of a PUMA562C industrial manipulator using laser interferometry. Control of an end-effector located, active compensator for vibration suppression, based upon the derived model is discussed and recommendations which form the basis of further investigations, currently being undertaken, are presented.

  11. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert J.; Morse, William D.; Shirey, David L.; Cdebaca, DanielL M.; Hoffman, John P. Jr.; Lucy, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS

  12. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the United States—including lost wages and reduced productivity—are more than $100 billion. About Spinal Manipulation ... one or both legs, and bowel or bladder problems, may be an extremely rare complication of spinal ...

  13. ARC Code TI: Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Geometry Manipulation Protocol (GMP) is a library which serializes datatypes between XML and ANSI C data structures to support CFD applications. This library...

  14. Reconfigurable mobile manipulation for accident response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,ROBERT J.; MORSE,WILLIAM D.; SHIREY,DAVID L.; CDEBACA,DANIEL M.; HOFFMAN JR.,JOHN P.; LUCY,WILLIAM E.

    2000-06-06

    The need for a telerobotic vehicle with hazard sensing and integral manipulation capabilities has been identified for use in transportation accidents where nuclear weapons are involved. The Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) platform has been developed to provide remote dexterous manipulation and hazard sensing for the Accident Response Group (ARG) at Sandia National Laboratories. The ARMMS' mobility platform is a military HMMWV [High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle] that is teleoperated over RF or Fiber Optic communication channels. ARMMS is equipped with two high strength Schilling Titan II manipulators and a suite of hazardous gas and radiation sensors. Recently, a modular telerobotic control architecture call SMART (Sandia Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) has been applied to ARMMS. SMART enables input devices and many system behaviors to be rapidly configured in the field for specific mission needs. This paper summarizes current SMART developments applied to ARMMS.

  15. Manipulating the Media for Operational Deception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heckman, Scot

    2000-01-01

    The military must manipulate the media in order to deceive the enemy. Since the media is an intelligence source for the enemy commander, information conveyed through the media must be consistent with the overall deception cover plan...

  16. ADVERTISING AS MEAN OF MANIPULATION OF PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia PAVEL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a number of issues involved in defining manipulation, because both in the current language as in the specialty literature, the manipulation notion is used with multiple significations, often contradictory ones, and that it’s not firmly delimited by other notions from the same sphere, like persuasion or propaganda. The aim of the article will be, in the end, removing ambiguity that surrounds this concept and offering a better understanding of its very real effects on human lives. We advance and sustain the hypothesis that manipulation is an illegitimate process, justified by the structure of the human conscience and by the mechanisms of the social life. In addition, the paper provides a concrete example of manipulation of public through advertising contracts offered by Roşia Montană Gold Corporation. Finally conclusions were outlined.

  17. Autonomous Task Primitives for Complex Manipulation Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this research effort is to enable robots to autonomously perform the complex manipulation tasks that are necessary to maintain a spacecraft. Robots, like...

  18. Colloidal Mineral Liquid Crystals. Formation & Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink op Reinink, A.B.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The central topic of this thesis is the formation, manipulation and characterization of colloidal mineral liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are liquids containing ordered anisometric particles. A range of liquid crystalline phases exists, from solely orientationally ordered nematic phases to

  19. Manipulating galectin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Feng, C.; Nita-Lazar, M.; Gonzalez-Montalban, N.; Wang, J.; Mancini, J.; Ravindran, C.; Ahmed, H.; Vasta, G.R.

    , autoimmunity and cancer, thus making them potential molecular targets for innovative drug discovery. Here, we provide a review of the current methods available for the manipulation of gene expression in the zebrafish, with a focus on gene knockdown [morpholino...

  20. Materials Centered Science and Manipulative Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of experience with two physical science units adapted for use by the visually impaired on the manipulative skills of 14 visually impaired low income students from 9 to 19 years of age. (DB)

  1. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  2. Developmental Characteristics of Disparate Bimanual Movement Skills in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisch, Julian; Butler, Jenny; Izadi, Hooshang; Birtles, Deirdre; Green, Dido

    2018-01-01

    Mastery of many tasks in daily life requires role differentiated bimanual hand use with high spatiotemporal cooperation and minimal interference. The authors investigated developmental changes in the performance of a disparate bimanual movement task requiring sequenced movements. Age groups were attributed to changes in CNS structures critical for bimanual control such as the corpus callosum (CC) and the prefrontal cortex; young children (5-6 years old), older children (7-9 years old), and adolescents (10-16 years old). Results show qualitative changes in spatiotemporal sequencing between the young and older children which typically marks a phase of distinct reduction of growth and myelination of the CC. Results show qualitative changes in spatiotemporal sequencing between the young and older children, which coincides with distinct changes in the growth rate and myelination of the CC. The results further support the hypothesis that CC maturation plays an important role in the development of bimanual skills.

  3. Regional cooperation in transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    As Floridas urbanized areas grow and merge, : neighboring jurisdictions experience interrelated : problems and opportunities, and regional : cooperation becomes an imperative. In the : transportation sector, Floridas metropolitan : planning org...

  4. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  5. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  6. On the Dynamics of Rigid Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, H.; Nuseirat, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper , the dynamics of rigid robot manipulators are investigated using Selective Modal Analysis (SMA). The method allows the determination of quantitative measures of the degree of the participation of the state variables in the system modes.Using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of appropriate matrices, we get useful information about the controllability and the observability of the manipulator. Numerical examples to illustrate the developed methods are presented. (authors) . 20 refs.,3 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Billing and coding for osteopathic manipulative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Jorgensen, Douglas J

    2009-08-01

    Some osteopathic physicians are not properly reimbursed by insurance companies after providing osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to their patients. Common problems associated with lack of reimbursements include insurers bundling OMT with the standard evaluation and management service and confusing OMT with chiropractic manipulative treatment or physical therapy services. The authors suggest methods of appeal for denied reimbursement claims that will also prevent future payment denials.

  8. Mental Models and Deliberate Manipulation of Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koester, Thomas; Jakobsen, Jeanette; Brøsted, Jesper Ejdorf

    2015-01-01

    compromise patient safety and/or the integrity of the system. The pilot study in this paper set out to explore mental models and deliberate manipulation of data in a Danish telemedicine setting of home monitoring among pregnant women. Results show, that patients construct mental models of the telemedicine...... system, and that the patient can utilize such mental models in attempts to manipulate their data input to get a desired output from the telemedicine system....

  9. Counterweight system for master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaker, L.W.; Jelatis, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A counterweight system is described for use in a remote control master-slave manipulator. The manipulator consists of a rotatable horizontal support adapted to extend through the wall and two longitudinally extensible arms, a master and a slave, pivotally connected one to each end of the support. Within the support there is a means of translating linear motion to rotary motion for transfer through the barrier wall and retranslating to linear motion. (U.K.)

  10. Sports Tournament Predictions Using Direct Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillemot , Romain; Perin , Charles

    2016-01-01

    An advanced interface for sports tournament predictions uses direct manipulation to allow users to make nonlinear predictions. Unlike previous interface designs, the interface helps users focus on their prediction tasks by enabling them to first choose a winner and then fill out the rest of the bracket. In real-world tests of the proposed interface (for the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament and 2015/2016 UEFA Champions League), the authors validated the use of direct manipulation as an alternati...

  11. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  12. Efficient Kinematic Computations For 7-DOF Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Efficient algorithms for forward kinematic mappings of seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) robotic manipulator having revolute joints developed on basis of representation of redundant DOF in terms of parameter called "arm angle." Continuing effort to exploit redundancy in manipulator according to concept of basic and additional tasks. Concept also discussed in "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556) and "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801).

  13. The influence of stress hormones and aggression on cooperative behaviour in subordinate meerkats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzer, Ben; Goncalves, Ines Braga; Spence-Jones, Helen C; Bennett, Nigel C; Heistermann, Michael; Ganswindt, Andre; Dubuc, Constance; Gaynor, David; Manser, Marta B; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2017-09-27

    In cooperative breeders, aggression from dominant breeders directed at subordinates may raise subordinate stress hormone (glucocorticoid) concentrations. This may benefit dominants by suppressing subordinate reproduction but it is uncertain whether aggression from dominants can elevate subordinate cooperative behaviour, or how resulting changes in subordinate glucocorticoid concentrations affect their cooperative behaviour. We show here that the effects of manipulating glucocorticoid concentrations in wild meerkats ( Suricata suricatta ) on cooperative behaviour varied between cooperative activities as well as between the sexes. Subordinates of both sexes treated with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone) exhibited significantly more pup protection behaviour (babysitting) compared to those treated with glucocorticoids (cortisol) or controls. Females treated with mifepristone had a higher probability of exhibiting pup food provisioning (pup-feeding) compared to those treated with cortisol. In males, there were no treatment effects on the probability of pup-feeding, but those treated with cortisol gave a higher proportion of the food they found to pups than those treated with mifepristone. Using 19 years of behavioural data, we also show that dominant females did not increase the frequency with which they directed aggression at subordinates at times when the need for assistance was highest. Our results suggest that it is unlikely that dominant females manipulate the cooperative behaviour of subordinates through the effects of aggression on their glucocorticoid levels and that the function of aggression directed at subordinates is probably to reduce the probability they will breed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Passivity-based control of robotic manipulators for safe cooperation with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchettin, Andrea Maria; Lacevic, Bakir; Rocco, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the control of articulated robots in unstructured environments. The proposed control ensures several properties. First, the controller guarantees the achievement of a goal position without getting stuck in local minima. Then, the controller makes the closed-loop system passive, which renders the approach attractive for applications where the robot needs to safely interact with humans. Finally, the control law is explicitly shaped by the safety measure - the danger field. The proposed control law has been implemented and validated in a realistic experimental scenario, demonstrating the effectiveness in driving the robot to a given configuration in a cluttered environment, without any offline planning phase. Furthermore, the passivity of the system enables the robot to easily accommodate external forces on the tool, when a physical contact between the robot and the environment is established.

  15. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This

  16. Control of two Wheeled Welding Mobile Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ngo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A three-linked manipulator mounted on a two-wheeled mobile platform is used to weld a long curved welding path. A welding torch mounted at the end of a manipulator of the welding mobile manipulator (WMM must be controlled for tracking a welding path with constant velocity and constant welding angle of torch. In this paper, a decentralized control method is applied to control the WMM considered as two separate subsystems such as a mobile platform and a manipulator. Two decentralized motion controllers are designed to control two subsystems of WMM, respectively. Firstly, based on a tracking error vector of the manipulator and a feedback motion of the mobile platform, a kinematic controller is designed for manipulator. Secondly, based on an another tracking error vector of the mobile platform and a feedback angular velocities of revolution joints of three-link, a sliding mode controller is designed for the mobile platform. These controllers are obtained based on the Lyapunov's function and its stability condition to ensure for the tracking error vectors to be asymptotically stable. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Advanced manipulator system for large hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, J.; Moreau, C.; Brossard, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Large hot cells can be approached as extrapolated from smaller ones as wide, higher or longer in size with the same concept of using mechanical master slave manipulators and high density windows. This concept leads to a large number of working places and corresponding equipments, with a number of penetrations through the biological protection. When the large cell does not need a permanent operation of number of work places, as in particular to serve PIE machines and maintain the facility, use of servo manipulators with a large supporting unit and extensive use of television appears optimal. The advance on MA 23 and supports will be described including the extra facilities related to manipulators introduction and maintenance. The possibility to combine a powered manipulator and MA 23 (single or pair) on the same boom crane system will be described. An advance control system to bring the minimal dead time to control support movement, associated to the master slave arm operation is under development. The general television system includes over view cameras, associated with the limited number of windows, and manipulators camera. A special new system will be described which brings an automatic control of manipulator cameras and saves operator load and dead time. Full scale tests with MA 23 and support will be discussed. (author)

  18. On-demand Droplet Manipulation via Triboelectrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Vahabi, Hamed; Cackovic, Matthew; Jiang, Rui; Kota, Arun

    2017-11-01

    Controlled manipulation of liquid droplets has attracted tremendous interest across different scientific fields over the past two decades. To date, a variety of external stimuli-mediated methods such as magnetic field, electric field, and light have been developed for manipulating droplets on surfaces. However, these methods usually have drawbacks such as complex fabrication of manipulation platform, low droplet motility, expensive actuation system and lack of precise control. In this work, we demonstrate the controlled manipulation of liquid droplet with both high (e.g., water) and low (e.g., n-hexadecane) dielectric strengths on a smooth, slippery surface via triboelectric effect. Our highly simple, facile and portable methodology enables on-demand, precise manipulation of droplets using solely the electrostatic attraction or repulsion force, which is exerted on the droplet by a simple charged actuator (e.g., Teflon film). We envision that our triboelectric effect enabled droplet manipulation methodology will open a new avenue for droplet based lab-on-a-chip systems, energy harvesting devices and biomedical applications.

  19. Cooperation--not confrontation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-06

    A brief summary is provided of several presentations at the Fifth Congress of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), held 28 June to 1 July 1985 in Budapest. Former West German Chancellor Willy Brandt opened the meeting by reminding delegates that world peace is a fundamental human right, and that preserving it is the responsibility of all nations, not just the superpowers. The co-presidents of IPPNW, Dr. Eugene Chazov and Dr. Bernard Lown, outlined the dangers of nuclear warfare today and the role their organization is playing in alerting people to the realities of nuclear destruction and in encouraging dialogue between East and West. Dr. Halfdan Mahler, director-general of the World Health Organization, called for international cooperation in solving world health problems.

  20. Racial disparities in the type of postmastectomy reconstruction chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offodile, Anaeze C; Tsai, Thomas C; Wenger, Julia B; Guo, Lifei

    2015-05-01

    Racial disparities remain for women undergoing immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) after mastectomy. Understanding patterns of racial disparities in IBR utilization may present opportunities to tailor policies aimed at optimizing care across racial groups. The aim of this study was to determine if racial disparities exist for types of IBR chosen. A national, retrospective cohort study used the 2005-2011 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Multivariable logistic regression models were created to detect the odds by race for receiving each subtype of IBR after mastectomy-prosthetic, pedicled-transfer autologous tissue, or free-transfer autologous tissue. Secondary outcome was trends in IBR rates over time. There were 44,597 women identified in the data set who underwent mastectomy. Thirty-seven percent of women (N = 16, 642) were noted to undergo IBR after mastectomy. Prosthetic reconstruction (84.4%, n = 37, 640) was the most common form of IBR compared with pedicled-autologous reconstruction (15.4%, n = 6868) and free transfer autologous reconstruction (4.9%, n = 2185), P Racial disparities persisted from 2005-2011; as minority patients were less likely to undergo IBR than whites (P disparities in access to high-quality care and underlying cultures. Strategies aimed at reducing racial disparities in IBR should be tailored to specific patterns of disparities among Asian, black, and Hispanic women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Persisting Racial Disparities in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Utilization and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Ramachandran, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The purpose was to study whether racial disparities in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) utilization and outcomes have declined over time. We used the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2011. We used chi-squared test to compare characteristics, Cochran-Armitage test to compare utilization rates, and Cochran-Armitage test and logistic regression to compare time-trends in outcomes by race. From 1998 to 2011, 176,141 Whites and 7694 Blacks underwent TSA. Compared to Whites, Blacks who underwent TSA were younger (69.1 vs. 64.2 years; p racial disparities increased from 1998 to 2011 (p disparities did not change over time (p = 0.31). These disparities in utilization were borderline significant in adjusted analyses. There were no racial differences in proportion discharged to inpatient medical facility in 1998-2000, 15.2 vs. 15.0 % (p = 0.95), and in 2009-2011, 12.3 vs. 11.1 % (p = 0.37), respectively. We found increasing racial disparities in TSA utilization. Some disparities in outcomes exist as well. Patients, surgeons, and policy-makes should be aware of these findings and take action to reduce racial disparities.

  2. The Perception of Cooperativeness Without Any Visual or Auditory Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Seon; Burger, Franziska; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    Perceiving social information such as the cooperativeness of another person is an important part of human interaction. But can people perceive the cooperativeness of others even without any visual or auditory information? In a novel experimental setup, we connected two people with a rope and made them accomplish a point-collecting task together while they could not see or hear each other. We observed a consistently emerging turn-taking behavior in the interactions and installed a confederate in a subsequent experiment who either minimized or maximized this behavior. Participants experienced this only through the haptic force-feedback of the rope and made evaluations about the confederate after each interaction. We found that perception of cooperativeness was significantly affected only by the manipulation of this turn-taking behavior. Gender- and size-related judgments also significantly differed. Our results suggest that people can perceive social information such as the cooperativeness of other people even in situations where possibilities for communication are minimal.

  3. Marketing Cooperatives and Financial Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Veerman, C.P.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between the financial structure of marketing cooperatives and the requirement of the domination of control by the members of the cooperative is analysed with an emphasis on incomplete contracts and system complementarities. It is argued that the disappearance of shortage markets in

  4. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  5. Interinstitutional Cooperation Among Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, J. Patrick

    1973-01-01

    Educational institutions deciding whether to carry on a cooperative venture with another educational institution (to reduce costs) must consider the tax consequences. This article discusses the tax considerations involved in such cooperative arrangements for the various organizational forms: principal-agent, co-ownership, partnership or joint…

  6. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Making Cooperative Learning Groups Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, James; De Jong, Cherie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of cooperative-learning groups with middle school students. Describes cooperative-learning techniques, including group roles, peer evaluation, and observation and monitoring. Considers grouping options, including group size and configuration, dyads, the think-pair-share lecture, student teams achievement divisions, jigsaw groups,…

  8. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  9. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  10. UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AS A MEANS FOR REGIONAL INTEGRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia DONCHENKO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Programs of international cooperation in higher education claim to promote peace and intercultural understanding, contribute to development of efficient human resources as well as research and innovation. For centuries, universities were centers of progress that ensure community’s development. Processes of globalization, internationalization, rapid development of information technology transform the mission of university, challenging modern universities to join forces to meet growing needs of knowledge society. The European Higher Education Area is continuously working to reduce mismatch of skills between the workforce and labor market. International cooperation in education has fundamental potential for reducing economic disparity. Ukrainian government views higher education as a means of growth and development and considers international activity pivotal in responding to global and regional change and achieving world quality standards of education. The aim of this paper is to explore potential of international cooperation in higher education in globalized world by examining selected international projects and their outcomes.

  11. Kinematic Analysis Of Tricept Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Amin Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel manipulators consist of fixed and moving platforms connected to each other with some actuated links. They have some significant advantages over their serial counterparts. While, they suffer from relatively small workspaces, complex kinematics relations and highly singular points within their workspaces. In this paper, forward kinematics of Tricept parallel manipulator is solved analytically and its workspace optimization is performed. This parallel manipulator has a complex degree of freedom, therefore leads to dimensional in-homogeneous Jacobian matrices. Thus, we divide some entries of the Jacobian by units of length, thereby producing a new Jacobian that is dimensionally homogeneous. Moreover, its workspace is parameterized using some design parameters. Then, using GA method, the workspace is optimized subjects to some geometric constraints. Finally, dexterity of the design is evaluated. Keywords- Kinematic, Workspace, Singularity, TriceptABSTRAK - Manipulator selari terdiri daripada platform tetap dan bergerak yang bersambung antara satu sama lain dengan beberapa pautan bergerak. Manipulator selari mempunyai beberapa kebaikan tertentu dibandingkan dengan yang bersamaan dengannya. Walaupun ia mempunyai ruang kerja yang sempit, hubungan kinematik kompleks dan titik tunggal tinggi dalam linkungan ruang kerjanya. Dalam kajian ini, kinematik ke hadapan manipulator selari Tricept diselesaikan secara analisa dan pengoptimuman ruang kerja dijalankan. Manipulator selari ini mempunyai darjah kebebasan yang kompleks, yang menyebabkan ia mendorong kepada kehomogenan dimensi matriks Jacobian. Catatan Jacobian dibahagikan kepada unit panjang, dimana ia menghasilkan Jacobian baru yang homogen dimensinya. Tambahan, ruang kerjanya diparameterkan dengan menggunakan beberapa parameter reka bentuk. Kemudian, dengan kaedah GA, ruang kerja mengoptimakan subjek kepada beberapa kekangan geometrik. Akhirnya, kecakatan reka bentuk dinilaikan

  12. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters-individuals who profit without cooperating themselves-have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making

  13. Strategies for targeting health care disparities among Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Manju

    2010-01-01

    Hispanics are the largest minority group in United States and at a great risk for poor health outcomes linked to poor access to health care. Their large geographic distribution makes it critical that the underlying factors resulting in health care disparities among documented and undocumented Hispanics be addressed at local, state, and national levels. Health care systems should establish community partnership for effective strategies to address these disparities. This article presents factors identified in the literature that contribute to health care disparities among Hispanics and provides strategies for improving access to health care for health promotion.

  14. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    , the ability of H. somnus and M. dispar to act as primary pathogens under these conditions were minimal and inconsistent. However, a transient rise in body temperature, a marked granulocytosis and increased levels of interleukin-8 in peripheral blood after inoculation with H. somnus indicated a clear systemic...... investigated by recording clinical data, cytokine expression of peripheral blood cells and pathology. Twelve calves were included in the study: Three animals were exposed to H. somnus only, and two to M. dispar only, whereas five were challenged to M. dispar followed by exposure to H. somnus 11-14 days later...

  15. Nuclear energy and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Keiichi

    1981-01-01

    There is no need to emphasize that nuclear energy cannot be developed without international cooperation at either the industrial or the academic level. In the meanwhile, there have been some marked political, economic and social changes in recent years which are posing constraints to the international cooperation in nuclear energy. The problems and constraints impeding nuclear power programs cannot be overcome by only one nation; international cooperation with common efforts to solve the problems is essential. Nuclear energy is different from fossil energy resources in that it is highly technology-intensive while others are resource-intensive. International cooperation in technology has an entirely different importance in the field of nuclear energy. Educational institutions will play a role in a new era of the international cooperation. (Mori, K.)

  16. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  17. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  18. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    of innovativeness increase the likelihood of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on selecting partners within the European Union. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  19. Japanese efforts in international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, M.; Uchida, T.; Yoshikawa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Science and Technology Agency of the Japanese Governmentreviews the present status of cooperative activities. The International Atomic Energy Meetings are discussed, as well as the INTOR workshop, atomic and molecular data activities, and progress in international cooperation. Other functions of the International Energy Agency include the promotion of cooperation programs which involve transfer or joint utilization of hardware contributed by the participating organizations. Meetings and ducting magnets for fusion power, RandD on plasma-wall interactions in the TEXTOR, and RandD on radiation damage in fusion materials. A section on Japanese-U.S. cooperation is highlighted, and includes the personnel exchange program, the Japanese research project using Doublet-III, joint research for plasma physics, and promotion of joint planning. Cooperation with the USSR and other countries is discussed

  20. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2012-01-01

    Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition) change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  1. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  2. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  3. Mental Health Disparities Among Canadian Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Jaimie F; Watson, Ryan J; Peter, Tracey; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of mental health problems among transgender youth in Canada and made comparisons with population-based studies. This study also compared gender identity subgroups and age subgroups (14-18 and 19-25). A nonprobability sample of 923 transgender youth from Canada completed an online survey. Participants were recruited through community organizations, health care settings, social media, and researchers' networks. Mental health measures were drawn from the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Transgender youth had a higher risk of reporting psychological distress, self-harm, major depressive episodes, and suicide. For example, 65% of transgender 14- to 18-year olds seriously considered suicide in the past year compared with 13% in the British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey, and only a quarter of participants reported their mental health was good or excellent. Transgender boys/men and nonbinary youth were most likely to report self-harm and overall mental health remained stable across age subgroups. Although a notable minority of transgender youth did not report negative health outcomes, this study shows the mental health disparities faced by transgender youth in Canada are considerable. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional Disparities in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBOLYA KURKÓ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abolishment of the communist regime, the establishment of a democratic legal and institutional system brought important changes in the development of the regional economy of Romania. The old – from an economic point of view – differentiating factors have lost some of their importance, mainly the level of industrialization, which, in the past, was used to measure economic development. In addition, other factors came forward, that correlate more with the economic capacity, but, nowadays, their positive effect can only be increased by the combination of several other factors: foreign investments, as an indicator of regional attractiveness, regional GDP, the level of personal income, and the appreciation of human resources. Today, in the interest of enhancing the competitiveness of the regions a special role is reserved for entrepreneurial activity, the strength of the SME sector, the role of foreign working capital in the local economy, but also the territorial concentration of R&D centers. The study focuses on some aspects of disparities regarding the regional economic structure.

  5. Disparities in the management of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer Y; Chen, Ling; Gumer, Arielle R; Tergas, Ana I; Hou, June Y; Burke, William M; Ananth, Cande V; Hershman, Dawn L; Wright, Jason D

    2017-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is common among young women. Treatment can consist of either surgery with salpingectomy or salpingostomy or medical management with methotrexate. In addition to acute complications, treatment of ectopic pregnancy can result in long-term sequelae that include decreased fertility. Little is known about the patterns of care and predictors of treatment in women with ectopic pregnancy. Similarly, data on outcomes for various treatments are limited. We examined the patterns of care and outcomes for women with ectopic pregnancy. Specifically, we examined predictors of medical (vs surgical) management of ectopic pregnancy and tubal conservation (salpingostomy vs salpingectomy) among women who underwent surgery. The Perspective database was used to identify women with a diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy treated from 2006-2015. Perspective is an all-payer database that collects data on patients at hospitals from throughout the United States. Women were classified as having undergone medical treatment, if they received methotrexate, and surgical treatment, if treatment consisted of salpingostomy or salpingectomy. Multivariable models were developed to examine predictors of medical treatment and of tubal conserving salpingostomy among women who were treated surgically. Among the 62,588 women, 49,090 women (78.4%) were treated surgically, and 13,498 women (21.6%) received methotrexate. Use of methotrexate increased from 14.5% in 2006 to 27.3% by 2015 (Pectopic pregnancy. There are significant race- and insurance-related disparities associated with treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic disparities between EU states and regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion CIUREA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available EU has 27 Member States representing a community and a market of 493million citizens, which creates further economic and social disparities between thestates and their 271 regions. In a region in four, the GDP (gross domestic product percapita is 75% below the average for the EU-27. Based on the concepts of solidarity andcohesion, regional policy of the European Union favors reducing structural disparitiesbetween EU regions, the balanced development of the community and promoting aneffective equality of opportunity between people. Over the past 50 years, Europeancooperation has helped build highways, sewage plants, bridges, laboratories forbiotechnology. She helped to revive urban areas and neglected activities, throughcountless projects in the poorest regions of the Union.. Two key values: solidarity andcohesion, underlying these projects and the regional policy of the European Union. Theeconomic, social and territorial cohesion will always be at the heart of Europe Strategy2020, a key mechanism for achieving the priorities for a smart growth, sustainable andinclusive in the Member States and regions.

  7. CORRECTIONS FOR RACIAL DISPARITIES IN LAW ENFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Christopher L.; Sloan, Frank A.; Eldred, Lindsey M.

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical analysis has documented racial disparities at the beginning and end stages of a criminal case. However, our understanding about the perpetuation of — and even corrections for — differential outcomes as the process unfolds remains less than complete. This Article provides a comprehensive examination of criminal dispositions using all DWI cases in North Carolina during the period 2001–2011, focusing on several major decision points in the process. Starting with pretrial hearings and culminating in sentencing results, we track differences in outcomes by race and gender. Before sentencing, significant gaps emerge in the severity of pretrial release conditions that disadvantage black and Hispanic defendants. Yet when prosecutors decide whether to pursue charges, we observe an initial correction mechanism: Hispanic men are almost two-thirds more likely to have those charges dropped relative to white men. Although few cases survive after the plea bargaining stage, a second correction mechanism arises: Hispanic men are substantially less likely to receive harsher sentences and are sent to jail for significantly less time relative to white men. The first mechanism is based in part on prosecutors’ reviewing the strength of the evidence but much more on declining to invest scarce resources in the pursuit of defendants who fail to appear for trial. The second mechanism seems to follow more directly from judicial discretion to reverse decisions made by law enforcement. We discuss possible explanations for these novel empirical results and review methods for more precisely identifying causal mechanisms in criminal justice. PMID:28066033

  8. Development of a maintenance manipulator for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, C.

    1986-01-01

    The maintenance manipulator is a device permanently connected to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel and is located in close proximity to the tokamak. It is used for the inspection and maintenance of in-vessel components whilst the machine remains under vacuum. The total system comprises a vacuum vessel ante-chamber that houses the manipulator, an articulated boom and carriage that transports and positions a dexterous end-effector, and end-effector that supports maintenance tooling, and an inspection system. Because of the maintenance manipulator's operating environment, there are many challenging engineering features, i.e., temperatures up to 150 0 C, changing magnetic fields in space and time that act on the manipulator whilst it is at rest, neutron neutron fluxes of up to 10/sup 11/cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/, and, last but not least, UHV conditions. This paper describes the development of the vacuum system, the maintenance manipulator, and inspective devices. It includes the methods employed to overcome the engineering difficulties and the application of information gained from other advanced technology programs, such as space and nuclear fission

  9. Dynamic whole-body robotic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yeuhi; Stephens, Benjamin; Murphy, Michael P.; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2013-05-01

    The creation of dynamic manipulation behaviors for high degree of freedom, mobile robots will allow them to accomplish increasingly difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating how the coordinated use of the body, legs, and integrated manipulator, on a mobile robot, can improve the strength, velocity, and workspace when handling heavy objects. We envision that such a capability would aid in a search and rescue scenario when clearing obstacles from a path or searching a rubble pile quickly. Manipulating heavy objects is especially challenging because the dynamic forces are high and a legged system must coordinate all its degrees of freedom to accomplish tasks while maintaining balance. To accomplish these types of manipulation tasks, we use trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. We apply the Covariance Matrix Adaptation (CMA) algorithm to solve for trajectories that optimize task performance while also obeying important constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate desired feed-forward body forces and foot step locations, which enable tracking on the robot. Some hardware results for cinderblock throwing are demonstrated on the BigDog quadruped platform augmented with a human-arm-like manipulator. The results are analogous to how a human athlete maximizes distance in the discus event by performing a precise sequence of choreographed steps.

  10. The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in The Role of Data in Health Care Disparities in Medicaid Managed Care, published in Volume 2, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  11. Health Disparities between Rural and Urban Women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjaden, Kim

    2015-10-01

    With much discussion about health disparities in Minnesota in recent years, there has been growing awareness about the inequities between rich and poor and between majority and minority groups. Attention also needs to be paid to the disparities between women who live in rural areas and those who live in urban parts of the state. Rural women are poorer, older and less likely to have adequate health insurance than their urban counterparts, which can compromise their health status. They also fare worse on a number of health indicators and face barriers to adequate health care that can exacerbate disparities. This article describes the root causes of health disparities between women living in rural and urban parts of the state and explores strategies to mitigate them that include increasing the rural physician workforce, improving access to primary and specialty care through telehealth services, and expanding health insurance options.

  12. Teaching About Health Care Disparities in the Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Leonor; Irby, David M.; Harleman, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    Clinical teachers often observe interactions that may contribute to health care disparities, yet may hesitate to teach about them. A pedagogical model could help faculty structure teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting, but to our knowledge, none have been adapted for this purpose. In this paper, we adapt an established model, Time-Effective Strategies for Teaching (TEST), to the teaching of health care disparities. We use several case scenarios to illustrate the core components of the model: diagnose the learner, teach rapidly to the learner’s need, and provide feedback. The TEST model is straightforward, easy to use, and enables the incorporation of teaching about health care disparities into routine clinical teaching. PMID:20352501

  13. Explaining Ethnic Disparities in Patient Safety: A Qualitative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suurmond, Jeanine; Uiters, Ellen; de Bruijne, Martine C.; Stronks, Karien; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored characteristics of in-hospital care and treatment of immigrant patients to better understand the processes underlying ethnic disparities in patient safety. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with care providers regarding patient safety events involving immigrant

  14. Prostate Cancer Disparities throughout the Cancer Control Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Dalton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates that 238,590 U.S. men will develop PCa and 29,720 men will die from the disease in 2013. PCa exhibits the most profound racial disparities of all cancers with African American men having a 70% higher incidence rate and more than two times higher mortality rate than Caucasian men. Published research on PCa disparities focuses on singular outcomes such as incidence, mortality or quality of life. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive summary of the racial disparities found at each stage of the PCa Care Continuum which includes prevention, detection, treatments, and outcomes and survival. It focuses primarily on disparities among Caucasian (white and African American men.

  15. Genetic investigation into ethnic disparity in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2013-01-01

    (insulin resistance, obesity) with widely varying symptoms among the affected. Studies have shown a clear pattern of disparity in clinical manifestations of its component phenotypes across ethnic populations. Recent genetic association studies suggested differential genetic background that could contribute...

  16. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... orientation among others. Social determinants of health like poverty, unequal access to health care, lack of education, ... Determinants of Health website . Popular Links African Americans Overview of health disparities found in black communities Hispanics ...

  17. Entamoeba dispar strains: analysis of polymorphism in Tunisian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayed, Soumaya Ben; Bouratbine, Aida

    2013-01-01

    The ability to detect intra-species polymorphism in Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar is an important tool for studying geographic distribution and transmission mechanisms. E. dispar and E. histolytica share the same mechanism for transmission among human hosts, and so after differentiation between these species. We studied the intra-species variation and distribution of E. dispar strains obtained from cyst passers, specifically from African students and Tunisian food handlers. We analyzed the polymorphic region of the chitinase protein gene in 13 individuals infected with E. dispar, of which 9 were from Tunisia and 4 from other African countries. We identified 7 different chitinase patterns in Tunisians while the 4 isolates from other countries each had a distinct pattern. Two of the patterns we found have been reported in studies from Mexico and India, possibly indicating worldwide spread of certain strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dialogues on cancer survivorship: a new model of international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Kevin; Mattioli, Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    The authors describe the rationale and background of the present supplement to Cancer intended to stimulate a dialogue among researchers from Europe and North America regarding important issues faced by cancer survivors. Through jointly written articles addressing various aspects of cancer survivorship, each manuscript reports on the similarities, disparities, and problems viewed from the point of view of each author's respective continent. The supplement is meant to create a springboard for increased collaboration and aid in the development of a shared care model to improve the quality of cancer care, both during and after the completion of primary treatment. We hope that this effort may represent a new model of international cooperation, which is fruitful not only for the field of scientific research but also for identifying and sharing new approaches to the care and management of cancer survivorship issues, ultimately bringing improvements to quality of life of the growing population of cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  19. Advisory and autonomous cooperative driving systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the traffic efficiency of an advisory cooperative driving system, Advisory Acceleration Control is examined and compared to the efficiency of an autonomous cooperative driving system, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. The algorithms and implementation thereof are explained. The

  20. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic

  1. 7 CFR 1000.18 - Cooperative association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.18 Cooperative association. Cooperative association means any cooperative marketing...

  2. On stiffening cables of a long reach manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Santiago, P.

    1996-01-01

    A long reach manipulator will be used for waste remediation in large underground storage tanks. The manipulator's slenderness makes it flexible and difficult to control. A low-cost and effective method to enhance the manipulator's stiffness is proposed in this research by using suspension cables. These cables can also be used to accurately measure the position of the manipulator's wrist

  3. Design of multivariable controllers for robot manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents a simple method for the design of linear multivariable controllers for multi-link robot manipulators. The control scheme consists of multivariable feedforward and feedback controllers. The feedforward controller is the minimal inverse of the linearized model of robot dynamics and contains only proportional-double-derivative (PD2) terms. This controller ensures that the manipulator joint angles track any reference trajectories. The feedback controller is of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type and achieves pole placement. This controller reduces any initial tracking error to zero as desired and also ensures that robust steady-state tracking of step-plus-exponential trajectories is achieved by the joint angles. The two controllers are independent of each other and are designed separately based on the linearized robot model and then integrated in the overall control scheme. The proposed scheme is simple and can be implemented for real-time control of robot manipulators.

  4. New Approaches to Manipulation of Microbiological Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamantsev, Alexander; Mashirov, Alexey; Dilmieva, Elvina; Zakharov, Dmitry; Zhikharev, Alexey; Koledov, Victor; Shavrov, Vladimir; Irzhak, Artemy; Shelyakov, Alexander; Albertiti, Franca

    The new concept of nanotweezers based on bimetallic composite Ti50Ni25Cu25/Pt with shape memory effect have recently demonstrated the ability to manipulate real nanoobjects, such as CNTs, graphene layers, etc., when heated to 40-60 °C by laser radiation. We demonstrate possibility of manipulation of microbiological objects - fibers from the body of Culex pipiens in vacuum chamber of FIB device. Composite microactuator controlled by magnetic field at constant temperature was produced using rapidly quenched ferromagnetic shape memory Heusler alloy Ni53Mn24Ga23. The experiments on control of this microactuator by applying magnetic field of 8 T prove the possibility of manipulation of living objects.

  5. Coordinated Control Of Mobile Robotic Manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1995-01-01

    Computationally efficient scheme developed for on-line coordinated control of both manipulation and mobility of robots that include manipulator arms mounted on mobile bases. Applicable to variety of mobile robotic manipulators, including robots that move along tracks (typically, painting and welding robots), robots mounted on gantries and capable of moving in all three dimensions, wheeled robots, and compound robots (consisting of robots mounted on other robots). Theoretical basis discussed in several prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, including "Increasing the Dexterity of Redundant Robots" (NPO-17801), "Redundant Robot Can Avoid Obstacles" (NPO-17852), "Configuration-Control Scheme Copes With Singularities" (NPO-18556), "More Uses for Configuration Control of Robots" (NPO-18607/NPO-18608).

  6. A digital joint controller for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.J.; Palmer, D.E.B.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear Electric's hydraulic heavy duty manipulators are used at a number of Magnox Power Stations for a wide variety of tasks. In recent years there has been a trend towards the use of manipulators for tasks requiring increasing precision of tip positioning. In order to meet this requirement, a digital controller has been designed to replace the analogue controller board used in almost all manipulator control systems. The new controller allows the programming of a wide range of closed loop control algorithms. Position and drive signal data may be passed to and from the controller by digital means, allowing direct connection to a graphical display system and/or a computer executing a guidance algorithm. The hardware and software design are outlined and performance in the laboratory and the field is reported. (author)

  7. Complexity in Climate Change Manipulation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreyling, Juergen; Beier, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now, precipi......Climate change goes beyond gradual changes in mean conditions. It involves increased variability in climatic drivers and increased frequency and intensity of extreme events. Climate manipulation experiments are one major tool to explore the ecological impacts of climate change. Until now......, precipitation experiments have dealt with temporal variability or extreme events, such as drought, resulting in a multitude of approaches and scenarios with limited comparability among studies. Temperature manipulations have mainly been focused only on warming, resulting in better comparability among studies...

  8. Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J W [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Couteau, E [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Umek, P [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Hernadi, K [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marcoux, P [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Lukic, B [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Miko, Cs [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Milas, M [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gaal, R [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Forro, L [Institute of Physics of Complex Matter IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2003-09-01

    This paper reviews recent results in the field of carbon nanotube (CNT) research obtained at our institute at EPFL. We show in particular that CNTs can be synthesized by the catalytic vapour deposition (CVD) technique with high efficiency and purity. Furthermore, we present recent examples of advances in the large-scale production of CNTs as well as in the chemical and mechanical manipulation of CNTs. The chemical manipulation involves covalent and non-covalent sidewall functionalization of single-wall CNTs and preparation of inorganic coatings on CVD-grown nanotubes for the realization of fibres and CNT-reinforced composites. Mechanical manipulation aims at the application of CNTs as tips for scanning probe microscopy.

  9. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Manipulating cyanobacteria: Spirulina for potential CELSS diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, Mahasin G.; Smith, Woodrow; Mbuthia, Peter; Joseph, Beverly

    1989-01-01

    Spirulina sp. as a bioregenerative photosynthetic and an edible alga for spacecraft crew in a CELSS, was characterized for the biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The partitioning of the assimalitory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental growth conditions. Experiments with Spirulina have shown that under stress conditions (i.e., high light 160 uE/sq m/s, temperature 38 C, nitrogen or phosphate limitation; 0.1 M sodium chloride) carbohydrates increased at the expense of proteins. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total of the algal could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  11. Topics in Semantics-based Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernt

    Programming is at least as much about manipulating existing code as it is about writing new code. Existing code is modified, for example to make inefficient code run faster, or to accommodate for new features when reusing code; existing code is analyzed, for example to verify certain program...... properties, or to use the analysis information for code modifications. Semanticsbased program manipulation addresses methods for program modifications and program analyses that are formally defined and therefore can be verified with respect to the programming-language semantics. This dissertation comprises...... four articles in the field of semantics-based techniques for program manipulation: three articles are about partial evaluation, a method for program specialization; the fourth article treats an approach to automatic cost analysis. Partial evaluation optimizes programs by specializing them with respect...

  12. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Disparities in Haryana: Extents and Spatial Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and describes the extent of gender disparities in Haryana, particularly in respect of sex ratio, literacy and participation in economic activities. Significant gender disparities were evidenced by sex ratio, literacy rate and women participation rate. The paper found that districts having lower gender gap in literacy were able to increase sex ratio more than the districts having higher gender gap in literacy. This is also corroborated by negative correlation coefficient bet...

  14. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity-specific markers of prostate...cancer Primary Aim #3: Identify methylation Quantitative Trait Loci In the U.S., there are pronounced racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence...vary by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity-specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  15. Disseminating Health Disparities Education Through Tele-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaSonya Knowles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years of research demonstrate that there are wide disparities in health throughout America. Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist when specific population subgroups are compared. Health Disparities in America: Working Toward Social Justice is a course instructed every fall by Dr. Lovell Jones, director of The Center for Research on Minority Health (CRMH at UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The CRMH has created a course that examines the social and societal factors that are fundamental in creating disparities in health. Students from 10 different academic programs and institutions participate in this course. The course is unique in the aspect that various, diverse speakers whom are experts in their field of study instruct each class. This health disparities course is conducted at one of three different academic institutions in the Houston area and broadcast via satellite to various academic institutions by means of teleeducation. Tele-education is defined as a mode of instruction utilizing different forms of media such as video, audio technology tools and computers. Video and audio technologies involve the transmission of interface between learners and instructors, either interactive or non-interactive. Tele-education technologies have an important role to play in addressing the dissemination of health disparities education. The purpose of this program is to determine the feasibility of tele-education as a mode of instruction to introduce the multi-disciplinary components of health disparities. Our findings suggest that tele-education is a useful tool in imparting health disparities education.

  16. Cooperative and asynchronous stereo vision for dynamic vision sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, E.; Belbachir, A. N.; Gelautz, M.

    2014-05-01

    Dynamic vision sensors (DVSs) encode visual input as a stream of events generated upon relative light intensity changes in the scene. These sensors have the advantage of allowing simultaneously high temporal resolution (better than 10 µs) and wide dynamic range (>120 dB) at sparse data representation, which is not possible with clocked vision sensors. In this paper, we focus on the task of stereo reconstruction. The spatiotemporal and asynchronous aspects of data provided by the sensor impose a different stereo reconstruction approach from the one applied for synchronous frame-based cameras. We propose to model the event-driven stereo matching by a cooperative network (Marr and Poggio 1976 Science 194 283-7). The history of the recent activity in the scene is stored in the network, which serves as spatiotemporal context used in disparity calculation for each incoming event. The network constantly evolves in time, as events are generated. In our work, not only the spatiotemporal aspect of the data is preserved but also the matching is performed asynchronously. The results of the experiments prove that the proposed approach is well adapted for DVS data and can be successfully used for disparity calculation.

  17. The Ethics/ Skills Interface in Image Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Webber

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Image manipulation using computer technology has become a basic skill required in various graphics dependent industries such as advertising, and the print and electronic media, and for specialist use in institutions for in-house and on-line publishing and the creation of Web pages. The 'seamless' alteration of photographs and other visual images made possible by computer technology has allowed misrepresentation with intent to deceive, and difficulty in establishing copyright of original images. The dilemma in teaching techniques of image manipulation is to create a basis for ethical practice HCI in this paper refers to the ethics/skills interface in the education and work of multimedia practitioners.

  18. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...... higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems...

  19. Parameter identification for a robotic manipulator arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, D. W.; Gibson, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The development is described of a nonlinear dynamic model for large oscillations of a robotic manipulator arm about a single joint. Optimization routines are formulated and implemented for the identification of electrical and physical parameters from dynamic data taken from an industrial robot arm. Special attention is given to the role of sensitivity in the formulation of robust models of this motion. The importance of actuator effects in the reduction of sensitivity is established and used to develop an electromechanical model of the manipulator system.

  20. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection at Torness Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is achieved, via penetrations above and below the core area and boilers and through eight circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. A manipulator is described which can access the area above the reactor core via any of these eight peripheral penetrations. The design and fabrication of the manipulator has led to innovation with a number of possible solutions being tendered. In reactor deployment of the successful design is expected in early 1997. (UK)

  1. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  2. Sports Tournament Predictions Using Direct Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemot, Romain; Perin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    An advanced interface for sports tournament predictions uses direct manipulation to allow users to make nonlinear predictions. Unlike previous interface designs, the interface helps users focus on their prediction tasks by enabling them to first choose a winner and then fill out the rest of the bracket. In real-world tests of the proposed interface (for the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament and 2015/2016 UEFA Champions League), the authors validated the use of direct manipulation as an alternative to widgets. Using visitor interaction logs, they were able to determine the strategies people use to perform predictions and identify potential areas of improvement for further prediction interfaces.

  3. Single-photon manipulation in Nanophotonic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Lindskov

    be realized on a chip with embedded quantum dots. This allows for on-chip generation and manipulation of single photons. The router consists of an on-chip interferometer where the phase difference between the arms of the interferometer is controlled electrically. The response time of the device......Quantum dots in photonic nanostructures has long been known to be a very powerful and versatile solid-state platform for conducting quantum optics experiments. The present PhD thesis describes experimental demonstrations of single-photon generation and subsequent manipulation all realized...

  4. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  5. Controlling disease and creating disparities: a fundamental cause perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Jo C; Link, Bruce G

    2005-10-01

    The United States and other developed countries experienced enormous improvements in population health during the 20th century. In the context of this dramatic positive change, health disparities by race and socioeconomic status emerged for several potent killers. Any explanation for current health disparities must take these changing patterns into account. Any explanation that ignores large improvements in population health and fails to account for the emergence of disparities for specific diseases is an inadequate explanation of current disparities. We argue that genetic explanations and some prominent social causation explanations are incompatible with these facts. We propose that the theory of "fundamental causes" can account for both vast improvements in population health and the creation of large socioeconomic and racial disparities in mortality for specific causes of death over time. Specifically, we argue that it is our enormously expanded capacity to control disease and death in combination with existing social and economic inequalities that create health disparities by race and socioeconomic status: When we develop the ability to control disease and death, the benefits of this new-found ability are distributed according to resources of knowledge, money, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections. We present data on changing mortality patterns by race and socioeconomic status for two types of diseases: those for which our capacity to prevent death has increased significantly and those for which we remain largely unable to prevent death. Time trends in mortality patterns are consistent with the fundamental cause explanation.

  6. Epidemiology, Policy, and Racial/Ethnic Minority Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha; Kaufman, Jay S.; Giles, Wayne; Mays, Vickie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologists have long contributed to policy efforts to address health disparities. Three examples illustrate how epidemiologists have addressed health disparities in the U.S. and abroad through a “social determinants of health” lens. Methods To identify examples of how epidemiologic research has been applied to reduce health disparities, we queried epidemiologists engaged in disparities research in the U.S., Canada, and New Zealand, and drew upon the scientific literature. Results Resulting examples covered a wide range of topic areas. Three areas selected for their contributions to policy were: 1) epidemiology's role in definition and measurement, 2) the study of housing and asthma, and 3) the study of food policy strategies to reduce health disparities. While epidemiologic research has done much to define and quantify health inequalities, it has generally been less successful at producing evidence that would identify targets for health equity intervention. Epidemiologists have a role to play in measurement and basic surveillance, etiologic research, intervention research, and evaluation research. However, our training and funding sources generally place greatest emphasis on surveillance and etiologic research. Conclusions: The complexity of health disparities requires better training for epidemiologists to effectively work in multidisciplinary teams. Together we can evaluate contextual and multilevel contributions to disease and study intervention programs in order to gain better insights into evidenced-based health equity strategies. PMID:22626003

  7. Environment and cooperation: cooperative values as an assumption of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to establishing an understanding of the meaning of environment, the work clarifies that the environmental damage resulting value gives the minimization of the man dedicated to nature. In this regard, bearing in mind the environmental crisis confrontation served humanity, the future is viewed with doubt. It also offers, the alternative cooperative established by the Declaration of Rio and cooperative values is presented as a precondition for sustainability.Received: 06.06.10Accepted: 25.06.10

  8. Cooperatively enhanced dipole forces from artificial atoms in trapped nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Bradac, Carlo; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool to manipulate small particles, from micrometre-size beads in liquid environments to single atoms in vacuum. The trapping mechanism relies on the interaction between a dipole and the electric field of laser light. In atom trapping, the dominant contribution to the associated force typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength, whereas for mesoscopic particles it is given by the polarizability of the bulk material. Here, we show that for nanoscale diamond crystals containing a large number of artificial atoms, nitrogen-vacancy colour centres, the contributions from both the nanodiamond and the colour centres to the optical trapping strength can be simultaneously observed in a noisy liquid environment. For wavelengths around the zero-phonon line transition of the colour centres, we observe a 10% increase of overall trapping strength. The magnitude of this effect suggests that due to the large density of centres, cooperative effects between the artificial atoms contribute to the observed modification of the trapping strength. Our approach may enable the study of cooperativity in nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation.

  9. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasaku, K; Negoro, M; Himeno, R

    2001-12-22

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had masterslave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  10. Remote Manipulation of Guidewire using a Virtual Reality Device

    OpenAIRE

    Fukasaku, K.; Negoro, M.; Himeno, R.

    2001-01-01

    A trial of remote manipulation for micro guidewire is reported. The system had master-slave style. When an operator manipulated the virtual torque device at the master side, a machine at the distant slave side reproduced the manipulation. At the same time, the operator could feel the force feedback from the manipulation at the slave. We could experimentally realize this remote manipulating system using a virtual reality device.

  11. Evaluation of Remote Collaborative Manipulation for Scientific Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fleury, Cédric; Duval, Thierry; Gouranton, Valérie; Steed, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In the context of scientific data analysis, we propose to compare a remote collaborative manipulation technique with a single user manipulation technique. The manipulation task consists in positioning a clipping plane in order to perform cross-sections of scientific data which show several points of interest located inside this data. For the remote collaborative manipulation, we have chosen to use the 3-hand manipulation technique proposed by Aguerreche et al. which is...

  12. Academic musculoskeletal radiology: influences for gender disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Sadia R; Khurshid, Kiran; Jalal, Sabeena; Bancroft, Laura; Munk, Peter L; Nicolaou, Savvas; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-03-01

    Research productivity is one of the few quintessential gauges that North American academic radiology departments implement to determine career progression. The rationale of this study is to quantify the relationship of gender, research productivity, and academic advancements in the musculoskeletal (MSK) radiology to account for emerging trends in workforce diversity. Radiology residency programs enlisted in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database (FREIDA), Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS) and International Skeletal Society (ISS) were searched for academic faculty to generate the database for gender and academic profiles of MSK radiologists. Bibliometric data was collected using Elsevier's SCOPUS archives, and analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Among 274 MSK radiologists in North America, 190 (69.34%) were men and 84 (30.66%) were women, indicating a statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.34; p value = 0.042). The available number of female assistant professors (n = 50) was more than half of the male assistant professors (n = 88), this ratio however, plummeted at higher academic ranks, with only one-fourth of women (n = 11) professors compared to men (n = 45). The male MSK radiologist had 1.31 times the odds of having a higher h-index, keeping all other variables constant. The trend of gender disparity exists in MSK radiology with significant underrepresentation of women in top tiers of academic hierarchy. Even with comparable h-indices, at the lower academic ranks, a lesser number of women are promoted relative to their male colleagues. Further studies are needed to investigate the degree of influence research productivity has, in determining academic advancement of MSK radiologists.

  13. Racial Disparities in HIV Care Extend to Common Comorbidities: Implications for Implementation of Interventions to Reduce Disparities in HIV Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelly K; Bokhour, Barbara; McInnes, D Keith; Yakovchenko, Vera; Okwara, Leonore; Midboe, Amanda M; Skolnik, Avy; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Asch, Steven M; Gifford, Allen L; Ohl, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have described racial disparities in the quality of care for persons with HIV infection, but it is unknown if these disparities extend to common comorbid conditions. To inform implementation of interventions to reduce disparities in HIV care, we examined racial variation in a set of quality measures for common comorbid conditions among Veterans in care for HIV in the United States. The cohort included 23,974 Veterans in care for HIV in 2013 (53.4% black; 46.6% white). Measures extracted from electronic health record and administrative data were receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV viral control (serum RNA racial disparities in HIV care should comprehensively address and monitor processes and outcomes of care for key comorbidities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  15. International Cooperation in Physics - Opportunities and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, James P.

    2000-03-01

    The rapid advances in high speed digital communications are making new scientific achievements feasible. This presents a new opportunity for all scientists, especially those in developing countries, to participate in world-class science at a reasonable cost. ``Virtual Laboratories" or ``Collaboratories" provide promising mechanisms to bridge geographical boundaries and infrastructure disparities. While science and technology are recognized as engines of economic development, they are also keys to addressing societal problems and fostering peace. Following the historical precedent of CERN founded after World War II, an initiative organized by UNESCO to create a world-class research institute in the Middle East is underway. A synchrotron light-source is being offered by Germany as the key experimental facility. This project called ``Synchrotron Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East" or ``SESAME" offers a special opportunity for basic and applied science in the Arab nations of the Middle East to take a giant leap forward. I will review the current status of this initiative and indicate the opportunities and challenges for countries of the Middle East. An emerging mega-science project in Astronomy is the ``Southern Africa Large Telescope" or ``SALT" which, when completed, will be the Southern Hemisphere's largest single telescope. University partners in the US are pledging support for SALT’s construction and operation. SALT promises to become a focal point of world-class basic science in Sub-Saharan Africa. The primary obstacles to international cooperation involving scientists in developing countries stem from scarce financial resources needed to allow potential collaborators to meet and explore where the win-win opportunities reside. Follow up support is a second major obstacle.

  16. Data science for assessing possible tax income manipulation: The case of Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy; Mir, Tariq A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores a real-world fundamental theme under a data science perspective. It specifically discusses whether fraud or manipulation can be observed in and from municipality income tax size distributions, through their aggregation from citizen fiscal reports. The study case pertains to official data obtained from the Italian Ministry of Economics and Finance over the period 2007-2011. All Italian (20) regions are considered. The considered data science approach concretizes in the adoption of the Benford first digit law as quantitative tool. Marked disparities are found, - for several regions, leading to unexpected "conclusions". The most eye browsing regions are not the expected ones according to classical imagination about Italy financial shadow matters.

  17. Interdisciplinary Cooperation in the Exploration of appropriate sites for the Radioactive Waste Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Slavkovský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the interdisciplinary cooperation in the processes of exploration of appropriate sites for radioactive waste deposits. This work is based on trends in the environmental laws for radioactive wastes. For the exploration, a knowledge about the geological structures, properties of rocks and safety manipulation with radioactive wastes are necessary. The interdisciplinary cooperation is needed with geophysics to define the particularly hazardous areas of an earthquake shaking. In this article, a method of the seismic analysis by Ricker impuls and Gabor´s function are presented.

  18. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice......Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...

  19. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  20. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.